Table of Contents Parsons’ functionalist theory
Rational choice/exchange theory
Pragmatist/symbolic interactionist theory
Critical theory of the Frankfurt School and Habermas
Contemporary sociological theory covers the theoretical orientations that have been influential in shaping up the society since the mid-twentieth century. Contemporary theories are majorly based on the ideas of the classical age theorists.
Some of the theoretical orientations that have heavily influenced contemporary theories include; “phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology, sociology of emotions, symbolic interaction, social exchange and rational choice theories, conflict and critical theory, functionalism and neo-functionalism, structuration theory, systems theory, sociobiology, selected sociology of culture perspectives, and major themes from postmodern orientations” (Shilling and Mellor 12).
Below we shall briefly look into some of the prominent contemporary sociological theories put forward to try to explain the shape of the society.
Parsons’ functionalist theory The functionalist theory, formulated by Talcott Parsons, sought to create a “grand theory” as he referred to it, which is able to provide explanations to all the social behaviors all through history. Functionalism observes the society as being made up of parts that are interconnected to each other all contributing to the function of the complete social system.
Parsons’ functionalist theory is put together upon two main emphases, which are 1) application of the systematic approach to the objective society and 2) by using the resemblance between the organism and the community.
Conflict theory The conflict theory, founded by Karl Marx, is based on social science perspectives that put emphasis on the inequality within a group based on the material, social, and political dynamics within it. These dynamics are in most cases an evaluation of the wide ranging socio-political systems within a society, and which otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism.
The significance of conflict theory is felt due to the theory’s ability to attract interest towards power disparities, for instance class conflicts, as well as in general contrasting traditionally popular frameworks. Conflict theory mostly sets out to draw attention to the ideological facets contained in traditional thought.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflict theory and the functionalist theory both acknowledge that there are classes in the society and that the rich have power over the poor individuals. However, the two theories differ in that while functionalists see the society wholly uniting for a common goal and focuses on things that are good for the equilibrium of the society (functions) and things that undermines the equilibrium (dysfunctions); conflict theory doesn’t see the society as one thing and focuses on the bitter class conflicts between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
Rational choice/exchange theory The rational choice theory has a very basic explanation of social theory, terming it as a postulation of multifaceted social phenomena which can be clarified by understanding the basic individual actions of which they are composed.
This perception commonly referred to as methodological individualism, attests that “individual human action is the elementary unit that makes up social and that explaining of social institutions and social change is necessitated by a demonstration of how they arise as the result of the action and interaction of individuals” (May and Powell 49).
The significance of rational choice/exchange theory holds that, an individual’s actions are mostly compelled by one’s own desires and goals which lead an individual to always act contained by particular prearranged limitations as well as on the foundation of information acquired by them regarding the circumstances in which their actions take place.
Pragmatist/symbolic interactionist theory This social theory tries to give meaning to whether an individual can merely make up their own truth and try to make sense of it, and if an individual’s own personal view can be relied upon just as any other person’s view. The pragmatist/symbolic interactionist theory holds that each individual has a right to hold their own opinion based on their personal thoughts based on information they have with them, and at the same time speak out what they think.
Nevertheless, truth cannot be said to be many but rather there is only one truth, perceiving this truth is now left up to an individual. This theory is more or less similar to the rational choice theory which also attests to an individual making their own choices based on information they have (Shilling and Mellor 102).
Critical theory of the Frankfurt School and Habermas Whilst other theories are focused on social science or individuals, the Critical theory put forward by Habermas and the Frankfurt School holds that the society has to be critically examined. This theory provides a critical analysis of the society and its culture deriving ideas from social disciplines.
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary sociological theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory attests that basing on a conceptual foundation of public sphere, it becomes the basis of the ideals of democratic political views, and as the basis of the moral and epistemic norms that nurture and uphold democratic ways.
Postmodern theory Postmodern theory or postmodernism generally refers to “the more solid beliefs and approaches to knowledge that are espoused by individuals and groups” (Rigney 39). This theory cannot be said to be a dominant reference point in philosophical or epistemological models.
Applications put forward by postmodernism tend to be or rather are supposed to be more premeditated than those brought out by other theories. Postmodern theory generally moves away from modernism and the perspectives held by modernists.
Postmodern theory is a philosophical proposal that reality is eventually unattainable by “human examination, that knowledge is a social creation, that truth claims are political power plays, and that the meaning of words is to be determined by readers not authors.
In brief, Postmodern theory sees reality as what individuals or social groups make it to be” (Shilling and Mellor 146). However, this theory is “distinguished by the problem of objective truth and inherent suspicion towards global cultural narrative or meta-narrative. It involves the belief that many, if not all, apparent realities are only social constructs, as they are subject to change inherent to time and place” (Rigney 103).
Dramaturgical theory Dramaturgy, first coined by Erving Goffman, is a sociological perspective that stems from symbolic interactionism and focuses on the significance of social roles. The examination of human interaction through the dramaturgy perspective permits particularly apparent perception of the nature of interaction within societies.
Societies formulate their own set of scripts and customs, which are best highlighted by showing how they relate to the per formative characteristics intrinsic in the roles within it. Even the inevitability of improvization in some settings is done within a determined structure, not unlike improvization as staged by performers.
The theatre, unlike other genres of art, has a “real-time” quality to it; occurrences open up in series within an exacting outline of prearranged behaviors, as they do in an organization (Rigney167).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary sociological theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a way dramaturgical theory can be compared to symbolic interactionism, looking at a sociological perspective that works to draw meaning through interaction. The two theories can be seen as efforts to explain social functions through intimate circumstances, for instance conversation, and both can be seen as having some resemblance to semiotics, as both rely greatly on symbols, characterized by both denotations and external signs to enable understanding.
Feminist theories Feminist theory is a subfield of feminism extending into sociological or philosophical discourse. Its focus is to give an understanding of the nature of gender inequality. It looks into female’s social responsibilities and lived experiences, and feminist politics in a number of fields, for instance “anthropology, sociology, economics, education and philosophy.”
Feminist theory gives much attention to the examining gender inequalities and the encouragement of gender equality and also critiques social relations.
Feminist theory uses the conflict theory to explicate the placing of women in the society. Feminist conflict theory argues that women have ever since been subjugated so that men can gain from positions of power, possessions and status.
The theory argues that the conflict over the scarce natural resources is the reason why men relegated women to domestic affairs. Thus, women would rather not entrust men with power because of their innate nature and therefore continue to struggle for it.
Works Cited May, Tim and Powell Jason. Situating Social Theory. Oxford: Open University Press, 2008. Print.
Rigney, Daniel. The metaphorical society. Lanham, MD: Rowman
The Criticism of “New Media” Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Shallow, Divisive and Unreliable
Embracing the New
Introduction There is a disturbing trend when it comes to impact of the rapid development of new technology. The result is “new media” the likes of which the world has never seen and has prompted journalists, thinkers, political leaders, and the elderly to be overly concerned that in the near future the science and art of journalism will be lost.
This is based on the assumption that “new media” is shallow, divisive, and unreliable. However, based on the history of journalism in this country, it is better to learn to love the “new media rather than to go against it. Critics should reconsider their stance because it something that is “free” does not necessarily means that it has no value.
The challenge to traditional journalism ideals in this country was brought about by the rapid development of information technology. It used to be that the Internet was good for increasing interconnectedness. Communication was the obvious blessing that was the by-product of the Internet. But when bloggers, website developers, freelance writers, and other non-traditional media competitors began to proliferate in cyberspace they began to change the rules of the game.
In the past the providers of content are reporters, writers, editors, and publishers. It was a hierarchical world where everyone is expected to know their place and do their work based on their designated jobs. The reporters were expected to aggressive always prowling the streets, public places, the suburbs, and even rural areas to gather news information.
The information is passed on the supply chain until it reaches the editor and when the go signal is given to publish the information is printed on paper. All the while the publisher’s practiced eye takes everything in and acted as a watchdog for the whole process. People who bought the newspapers are aware where the news is coming from and if they need to react to the news then they know where to go and what to do. The same thing cannot be said of “new media” because many are unsure how information is processed and published.
Shallow, Divisive and Unreliable Critics of the “new media” argued that “the shift toward a more market-minded, profit-driven journalism was both irreversible and destructive” (Fallows, p.1). The best example of this new phenomenon is Nick Denton, the CEO of Gawker Media.
The company specializes in the creation of websites that delivers information for free to everyone that has an Internet access. Since readers and subscribers need not pay for anything to access content this made defenders of traditional media to exclaim that it is shallow, divisive and unreliable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The argument is based on the idea that since everyone can contribute then there is no check and balances in place to determine if the accuracy and reliability of the content has passed a certain standard. This view was summarized in the following statement: “we are no longer a national audience receiving news from a handful of trusted gatekeepers; we’re now a million or more clusters of consumers, harvesting information from like-minded providers” (Fallows, p.1).
There seems to be an unspoken rule that the consumers of news information are not supposed to be able to provide the news. These things are left to professionals.
If the unfair accusation that bloggers and freelance writers are not as dedicated and not as proficient as writers from The New York Times and The Washington Post is not insulting enough there is the added charge that the information released from websites and blogs have very little value.
This conclusion is derived form the understanding that the core of the content seems to focus on gossip and topics that belongs to the lifestyle and entertainment page of a national daily.
Embracing the New It has to be clarified tha the criticism against “new media” is not entirely based on unbiased and objective reporting. Consider for instance that Nick Denton is not an uneducated person who happened to be computer illiterate. The credentials of Nick Denton is comparable to any respected reporter of a major newspaper publication. It does not automatically mean that if a person blogs or writes for a website, his or her ability is not at par with other writers.
A major bone of contention is the use of unethical practices such as giving money to sources. There are also those who oppose that owners of these websites are not unaware of the unspoken rules of journalism they also bend the rules. At the same time they are happy to print shallow material. There is an obsession about sex and scandals that involve a person in a compromising position. Critics said that the only purpose is to make money.
Those who disagree with critics point to historical records and these are newspapers and magazines published in the so-called golden age of American journalism. In so doing people would be surprised to discover that what has been done by “new media” is already old news for traditional reporters and publishers.
We will write a custom Essay on The Criticism of “New Media” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It does not take great effort to substantiate the claim that even in the old days reporters pay their sources. In the past reporters are more than willing to pay for information or an exclusive interview.
In addition, the old guards of traditional journalism cannot claim to be better than the writers of “new media” because even in the past, publishers are aware that gossip and sex scandal sell more newspapers than an article about the national budget.
This is the reason why critics should have an open mind regarding the new. It can even be said that digital media has gone through the same process as print media. It is not immune to excess and abuse but there is a way to make it better. There are many who are saying that “new media” is the savior of journalism and by embracing comes the possibility of reviving what was old and dead.
This has prompted some thinkers to conclude that “new media” has proven its worth in the past especially when it comes to global events and issues that are beyond the reach of local news and citing an example they wrote: “A major event in world history was covered more quickly, with more nuance, involving a greater range of voices and critical perspectives, than would have been conceivable even a few years ago” (Fallows, p.1). It is time to embrace the new and respect the old.
Conclusion The criticism levelled against “new media” is based on the assumption that if something is free the it is not as valuable as something that has to be purchased with a price. It is also based on the secondary assumption that providers of information coming from websites and blogs are incompetent people.
And finally there are those who said that providers of “new media” use unethical practices to obtain information. However, an overview of the history of journalism in this country reveals that reporters in the past used the same tactics. It can also be argued that “free” does not mean that it has no value.
Work Cited Fallows, James. “Learning to Love the (Shallow, Divisive, Unreliable) New Media.” The Atlantic Monthly Group. Apr. 2011. 07 May 2011.
The Implications and the Effects of Confusion Essay college essay help
Introduction Confusion is the lack of clarity or rather a state of bewilderment or puzzlement. Sometimes, we find ourselves in a constant state of shock from the moment we wake up to the time we retire to bed at the day’s end. Any undertaking that we engage in requires a thought process.
The uninterrupted completion of a given chronology of thoughts brings about understanding of the issue at hand. Terms, such as train of thought, have been coined to explain the thought process.
A breakage in the thinking process results in confusion. This may happen in an operating theater, in an examination room, in a football match, when reciting a poem or doing other day-to-day activities.
Confusion is not limited only to the thought process. When we fail to observe any defined rules or obligations, we end up into a state of confusion. For instance, the never-ending traffic snarl-up evident in urban cities presents an intriguing picture in this context.
One or two drivers may flaunt traffic rules resulting in mayhem on the roads experienced by everyone travelling. Think of what would happen if the police downed their guns and refused to enforce the law. The society would descend into anarchy without doubt. Evidently, confusion threatens to plague every aspect of existence.
Experiences Drawing from the experience of the prisoners in the Plato’s allegory of the cave, we see how consciously ignorance gives way to confusion. We even subconsciously build comfort in the ignorance. The truth instills fear in us and wish to avoid it at all cost, often preferring the accustomed ignorance.
On the other hand, even the unpalatable truth quenches ignorance, and the more we partake of it, the more we want. Knowledge is the magic wand to expel confusion. We are in a state of confusion for lack of knowledge. We must stay the course of knowledge to ward off confusion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In schools, in many occasions, we have encountered difficulties in comprehending course content say in algebra, philosophy and many other disciplines. We are often in a state of confusion, either by skipping a step while solving an algebraic equitation, or unable to decipher the meaning of grammatically complex essays or texts in philosophy.
What we lack is clarity in understanding. There are many steps we have to go through to solve a problem and twist of sentences, which appear to get complicated as we read them, thus they confuse us. There are students who are able to deduce solutions faster than others.
They struggle before they free their minds from confusion. The only way to gain clarity in these situations is to practice more algebraic equations, and read the essays or text several times. The more we repeat these processes, the more we sharpen cognitive abilities of our minds.
It is human to be confused. From Plato’s allegory of the cave, we see how the prisoners who have never seen outside of the cave are intolerant to the returnee who has ascended from the cave. The returnee’s inability to measure shadows as his eyes acclimatize to the dark interior of the cave is taken as a weakness borne of having ascended from the cave.
The cave dwellers threaten death to anyone who tries to lure them from the cave. Most people do not admit that they are confused because it will be seen as a sign of weakness. It is by the fact that we are unaware that we are challenged to find the missing pieces.
As humans, we need to accept the confusion and try to free ourselves from the ignorance. This will only happen if we embrace the truth, accept enlightenment and develop a hunger for knowledge.
It is through the confusion that we get to learn the hidden uncertainties and the unknown. We are able to dig deep to get an understanding of problems. Most scientific discoveries have been made from an act of confusion.
We will write a custom Essay on The Implications and the Effects of Confusion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, wondering why an apple falls right back to the ground when it is thrown in the air triggers desire for understanding the mystery. Why does it not remain floating in the air?
People go to school to learn for the same reason; otherwise, we all will be living in a world full of uncertainties and unexplored mystery. There are two options, which lead to an acceptable solution. Accountants calculate using both the options and get the one with a positive impact to an organization.
Conclusion Considerations are made on the long-term implications and the effect on profitability. Governments have set budgets and funds allocated to different projects, but even so, they do set aside other funds in the reserves in case an emergency arises.
This allows to alter and change plans in the event if the main plan fails. When faced with a disastrous situation, the reserves kept for such circumstances will be fundamental effecting change.
Confusion aids humans to have forethought. Thus, they are able to plan and learn from past events. Ultimately, we may submit to the thesis that confusion threatens to plague every aspect of our existence.
Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Culture and Traditions of Igbo
Introduction ‘Things Fall Apart’, is story written by Chinua Achebe in 1958. It talks of the social and cultural aspects of pre-colonial Africa and the effects of western civilizations (Ogbaa xv). The author criticizes imperialism and British colonization.
It is a tragic story where the protagonist is Okonkwo. It talks of a man named Okonkwo, who was a wrestler and an influential leader in an African village called Umofia, inhabited by the Igbo ethnic group. He initially amasses fame, and honor in Umofia through victorious wrestling but finally comes to a tragic downfall.
Okonkwo was polygamous with three wives and several children. The novel emphasize on the encounters of the pre-colonial Africa and the effect of British colonialism during the 19th century (Bloom 51). This paper shall discuss culture and tradition as a social issue involved in the Chinua Achebe’s Things fall Apart.
Culture and Traditions of Igbo The author emphasize on cultural and social aspects on the brink of change thorough different characters, creating tension on if to embrace change or to remain for status quo. Okonkwo disregard the new system religiously and politically, may be because he would lose his social status.
The Igbo however, have been oppressed by these traditions and therefore find refuge in the new system, where once outcasts, are now be recognized. There exists a dilemma on the new dawn that scares them since it could interfere with their social life such as farming and trade.
Okonkwo is a rich and respectable African warrior in Umofia. However his late father, Unoka was a lazy man, a coward, disreputable and died with several debts since he concentrated on taking palm-wine, leaving his family to go hungry.
Unoka became the laughingstock of Umofia being referred to as Agbala to mean, ‘womanly weaknesses’ Unlike him, Okonkwo is resentful to his father and evades being like him by becoming ‘manly’ as a clansman, a wealthy farmer, and a respectable warrior not to mention him being a controlling family man. This parent-child relationship affects him to become violent, over-ambitious and disrespectful, associating masculinity with aggression and acts irrationally (Bloom 141).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okonkwo‘s son, Nwoye is lazy and it disturbs Okonkwo that his son might take after his grandfather, Unoka. This indicates that the villagers believed in passing inheritable aspects to future generations. Moreover, they engage in adoption, for instance the village adopts a young boy called Ikemefuna whom Okonkwo takes guardianship as a surrogate son, for peace offering from the village, Mbaino to maintain peace after the boy’s father murdered an Umofian woman.
He has to live with the boy until further instructions are given to elders from the oracle. The two becomes so close to each other, as the boy regard Okonkwo as a father and Nwoye becomes friends with the boy. Ikemefuna coexist happily with the family for three years, becoming part of them.
In another instance, Okonkwo’s kinsmen particularly, Uchendu his uncle, welcomes him and his family in his maternal village called Mbanta after they are sent into exile. He seeks refuge in his motherland as Uchendu states that;
It is true that a child belongs to his father. But when the father beats his child, it seeks sympathy in its mother’s hut. A man belongs to his fatherland when things are good and life is sweet. But when there is sorrow and bitterness, he finds refuge in his motherland. Your mother is there to protect you. She is buried there. And that is why we say that mother is supreme (Achebe 134).
The quote not only emphasizes the position of women in the village but also the importance of having good family relationships. He is built his huts and given yam seed to plant in his motherland although he is still depressed, blaming chief his spirit for disappointing his greatness in the village.
After exile, he had gone back to Umofia after organizing a farewell ceremony to thank his kinsmen for the stay. This emphasizes on the significance of maintaining close family bonds to the Igbo (Bloom 39).
Wife beating and carrying out sacrifices are other practices in the village. Okonkwo proves volatile and easily provoked as he beats his youngest wife called Ojiugo during an important period referred to as Week of Peace, accusing her of neglect of the family.
We will write a custom Essay on Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This interrupts with the peace meant to prevail the whole week but Okonkwo has to sacrifice to pay up for his sins and to show repentance. Okonkwo also shoots Ekwefi, his second wife due to a small issue of wrapping food with Okonkwo’s banana leaves during Feast of the New Yam.
From this practice, the reader is enlightened of the significance of ceremonies and farming in Umofia. It is clear that the Igbo practice farming and trade as depicted where Okonkwo receives cowries from selling yams from Oberika who promise to sell them until he would go back to Umofia.
Clansmen preside over public trials in Umofia, where nine clansmen have met to signify the ancestor’s spirits. The nine clansmen also referred to as Egwugwu, signify the nine Umofian clans. Okonkwo is separated from the rest of the clansmen to settle a domestic case where Mgbafo, a woman has suffered assaults from his husband, taken back to her motherland, but the husband needed her to go back. The Egwugwu, advices the man to offer palm wine to his in-laws to appease the wife to return home. This case is too trivial to be presented to the Egwugwu as some elders perceive it (Heiser 26).
The villagers believe in unnatural phenomenon, which have to be prevented through human sacrifice to appease the gods. When locusts invade the village, the elder informs Okonkwo the Oracle’s guideline, which require killing of Ikemefuna to avenge for Umofian woman murdered in the previous year in Mbaino.
He is warned of killing Ikemefuna as it would despise the earth goddess who could show his vengeance to the village. Okonkwo kills Ikemefuna irrespective of being warned by a village elder, Ogbuefu Ezeudu. Following this event, he lie to the boy that he is to be returned to his home village as the entire family mourns his departure. However, the boy is excited to reunite with his family but he is unfortunately attacked by Okonkwo’s clansmen.
On seeking help from Okonkwo, he kills the boy to showoff his might to the clansmen irrespective of the Oracle’s caution. Consequently, things start to fall apart. This emphasize on the need to adhere to elders and more so, the religious directives. As Okonkwo becomes greatly saddened, he loses his appetite and spends sleepless nights and decides to visit Obierika who is disappointed with Okonkwo’s act.
He is however consoled and is able to find sleep. Bad omens follow consequently, as his daughter becomes ill. As a result, the use of herbal medicine among the Igbo is manifested as Okonkwo prepares some for his daughter, and she recovers after taking the medicine.
The Igbo are religious as seen through various rituals. Besides, there are priestess e.g. Chielo, who advice the second wife of Okonkwo, Ekwefi that Agbala required the sight of Ezinma, which makes Okonkwo to argue. Chielo present Ezinma to the nine clans and moves inside the cave of the Oracle.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ekwefi has been following in secret despite being warned by Chielo and stands beside the entrance to be surprised by appearance of Okonkwo as they wait together. The following morning Ekwefi is offered Ezinma by Chielo and they sleeps together.
Moreover, the Igbo conduct funeral ceremonies where clansmen take the lead. When the elder, Ogbuefu Ezeudu dies his death is announced using ekwe. This depresses Okonkwo more since he failed to adhere to the elder’s advice.
During his funeral ceremony, Okonkwo’s gun fatefully shoots at teenage boy, who is Ogbuefu Ezeudu’s son unexpectedly. Since causing death of a village elder is a despicable act for the earth goddess, he is taken hostage in exile for a period of 7 years for atonement. Moreover, his properties are burnt in order to cleanse. Additionally, Enoch, a Christian convert reveals Egwugwu on an occasion meant to adore earth god. This act is so despicable and is compared to putting to death ancestral spirits (Whittaker
Discrimination in School Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help
What do you see as the key issues in this case study?
The main issues include: racial prejudice, disrespect for authority, superiority complexes, and lack of child discipline. This class of ten to eleven year olds has a lot of complications within the classroom. The white children are biased towards their black classmate, and their actions clearly illustrate this.
These students also have superiority complexes. They think that they are better than other students as seen through their abusive language and selectivity during the group interactions. Their reluctance to clean the classroom was also a reflection of this. These children do not respect authority because they challenged their teacher on everything that he told them to do.
They took too long to form groups, and when asked to create them in certain ways, they argued about it with their teacher. They used very inappropriate language to talk to the teacher and disobeyed him concerning the issue of cleaning up.
Most of them also dismissed his teaching methods by saying that they were pointless; clearly, respect for authority is lacking. Lastly, the children lack indiscipline as seen through their language, their mannerisms and their lack of participation (SFU np.).
Based on the data in this case, describe the behaviour of the students in this class
The children’s behaviour displays racial discrimination owing to their treatment of the new coloured student in class. They ignore him throughout the session, and when asked to look for group mates, none of them want Roland to be part of their team. They also move their desks away from Roland’s. This shows there is a high degree of intolerance among the students.
At one point, the children are required to clean up after themselves. They quickly respond that this is something they never do at home, so it was degrading for them to do it in school. This implies that they think they are better than the janitor or other people who clean up.
Such behaviour is symptomatic of superiority complexes held by the participants in this case study. Another scenario that reflects such tendencies was their high level of selectivity during group selections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of them kept giving reasons why they thought they were better than others, or why it was inappropriate for them to join a certain group. They also reflected these tendencies when they used derogatory, hurtful and inappropriate words towards one another. These children felt that it was quite normal to call others ‘morons’, or other equally discourteous words.
The students illustrated disrespect for authority by failing to cooperate when they were called upon to do so by their educator. They did not seem to acknowledge his position when they defied instructions, and when they took too long to respond. The group members did not care about what their teacher said because they resisted any effort on his part to question their behaviour.
Lastly, these children’s actions also demonstrate a high degree of indiscipline since they cannot think about cleaning up. None of them engages in the classroom activities.
They do not care about the effect of their foul language on other people. They are reluctant to get near a black child. These are all indications of children who lack discipline. It looks like few adults have taught them to think about the consequences of their actions, so anything goes in this classroom.
What are the likely causes of such behaviour? Why do you think it persists in spite of the teacher’s attempts to change them?
Racially biased behaviour can be caused by a myriad of factors. First, these children probably have not been taught anything about cultural sensitivity or racial acceptance. Their behaviour is a reflection of the values and principles that they have learnt from societal structures.
The media, literature and the education system are partly to blame for this. Most of these outlets make it seem like being white is normal, and being coloured is unusual. As a result, children may end up assuming that they are rightful citizens of the country, and that people from other races are invading their space, or intruding on their resources.
In many western societies, adults tend to value individual rather than collective responsibility for actions. Therefore, historical matters are rarely taken seriously by members of the white race. In a study carried out by Lewis-Charp (281), it was found that most white participants dismissed the historical experiences of people of colour.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Discrimination in School specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They affirmed that everyone was responsible for his or her fate, and even blamed black people for their negative social positions. By spreading such values, it is possible for white children to become insensitive to the plight of coloured peers.
If the children in this case study empathised with members of other races, then they would have treated Roland in a respectful manner. Parental failures may also have led to the lack of respect for authority. Their caregivers probably had not taught the children about the importance of respecting older people. They may have let things spiral out of control by failing to punish their children for wrong behaviour.
This behaviour could also have been copied from their parents or other adults that they interact with in their daily experiences. Some parents may blatantly act racist in front of their children, and this may send the message that acting that way is acceptable.
Alternatively, some parents may shun opportunities to talk about race with their children. They may sweep matters under the carpet in the hope that avoiding these confrontations will prevent their children from hurting other people (Polite and Saenger 277).
Essentially, such children may rely on other less accurate sources for information on racial matters. Their parents may also be using disrespectful language towards one another, and their children may have picked up the habit from them.
The curriculum and the general school system are also partly to blame for this. Many students know very little about other racial groups simply because formal school programs do not provide forums to discuss and learn about racial issues. The school system does not allow teachers and students to know about class privilege and skin colour.
What should teachers do when students present racial, ethnic, religious or other prejudices? What makes you think your suggestions will work?
Teachers need to confront these prejudices directly. They need to find out the root cause of racist behaviour and then challenge the assumptions that cause them. They could talk about the notions of fairness and equality, and how this contradicts the treatment of others discriminatively (Lewis-Charp 284).
They can work together with school administrators in order to introduce multicultural curricula in their classrooms. They need to address their own biases as these may rub off on the students. They need to refrain from indirectly referring to white people in literature as ‘us’ and coloured people as ‘them’.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Discrimination in School by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Teachers should also ensure that they identify and teach students about coloured people who have succeeded in various capacities so as to challenge those negative stereotypes.
These suggestions can work because they first get to the root of the problem, are integrative, and allow teachers to serve as role models to their students. Furthermore, they are based on sound principles of multicultural democracy.
Works Cited Lewis-Charp, Heather. “Breaking the silence: white students’ perspectives on race in multiracial schools.” Phi Delta Kappan (2003): 279-285. Print.
Agriculture Development in Economic Development Essay best college essay help
Introduction Agriculture refers to the art of cultivating crops and rearing animals, with the aim of sustaining life. Sustaining life is both direct as in food crops and domestic animals and indirectly as in the case of trees, wild animals and other forms of life that aid in man’s wellbeing.
Chayanov (1996) says that, the rural areas are dominated by peasant economic practices. The mode of production for this practice is characterized by:
1st, Production is basically for household use. The size of the household is what determines how much is produced. After household consumption, the little that remains is then used for commercial purposes as savings or investment.
2nd, a majority of household income is derived from agriculture. This is therefore the major source of income for the households.
3rd, because the households depend almost solely on agriculture, they are adamant to change and tend to be conservative in order to protect their survival.
Peasant household are more concerned with their families’ satisfaction rather than maximization of profit.
Agricultural Policy In the world today, agriculture remains to be the most practiced economic activity in the rural areas, especially in the developing countries that are not as industrialized as the developed countries.
There is need therefore, for agricultural policies to be well articulated so that agricultural output from these areas is high enough to counter theimport deficit of these countries, as a measure of economic development.
Todaro and Smith (2009) say that economic development is the role of both the policy makers (government) and the communities. Economic development is largely a process of policy intervention, and therefore the government has a big role to play in formulating and implementing these policies
The governmentis responsible for macro objectives such as commodity price regulation, provision of goods and services like farm inputs, vaccinations, implementation of monetary and fiscal policies, regulation of financial institutions like the banks ’interest rates, trade and tax policies, infrastructure and security.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Failure of Policy Neo classical writers have consistently argued that agricultural policy has failed to improve the livelihoods of the farmers in the developing world. This is manifested in a number of cases and for a number of reasons:
Failure to tax all land that produces rent is one of the reasons for poor development in developing world. Due to ineffective measures to regulate taxation, many property owners are able to escape the tax hook, some bribe their way out.
Revenue raised from the few taxed is small, this forces the government to increase tax rates upon the few and this raises the cost of production or doing business driving away investors.
Despite the increase in productivity in most parts of the world due to industrialization, the working class has remained poor and their living conditions deteriorated by the day.
This they attribute to the division of labour, where the workers that perform the basic, manual jobs that demand a lot of strength are the least paid, while those that perform the lightest and sophisticated jobs are the highest paid, The widening markets, alienating the producer further from his product and rapid the urbanization, that leave the poor in the rural areas depreciating more increasing the dependency of the working poor.
Another failure of policy is the breach of justice. The rich are favoured in the legal systems than the poor. This is because of rampant corruption in the legal system in the developing world where money can buy one freedom. This inhibits development and widens the gaps of inequality between the haves and have-nots.
Another failure is unemployment and underemployment. This means that resources are underutilized, or not utilized at all. The private sector in these countries is exploitative in nature and this is facilitated by the large work force available due to a big, unemployed and unskilled population.
We will write a custom Essay on Agriculture Development in Economic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government is ineffective in driving high-cost projects, and when it does, it prefers to import labour from the industrialized countries (brain drain).
Economic Development Mansell and wehn (1998) state that this process encompasses economic growth and an overall attainment of a standard of living that is comparable to that of developed countries.
Ranis, Stewart, and Ramirez (2000) say that ideally, economic growth should be paralleled with economic development. Income from the sales should improve expenditure which leads to a growth in human development.
Dependency theories(these state that 3rd world countries are created out of their dependency on the developed countries; they are thus the creation of the developed countries.) argue that in developing countries, there can be economic growth, without economic development, especially in cases where these countries provide raw materials to the developed ones.
This happens mostly in situations where the producers are not in direct control of their products, but rather go through a chain of cartels for the products to get to the final buyers. The trickle-effect hardly reaches the producers.
The Role of Markets in Rural Development Agricultural marketing involves a number of activities that take place in moving the product from the producer to the consumer. These include production, harvesting, transport, storage, distribution, advertising andsale. Marketing is customer-oriented and has to provide all the involved parties with some profit.
For a marketing system to function well, it needs a private sector that is strong enough and backed up by the government in terms of effective policies and legislations and support services like market infrastructure andagricultural extension services to offer advice to farmers to boost their production, training of all parties involved in the marketing system.
The agricultural system in developing countries, is however faced with the problem hostility towards the private sector; one of the key components in the marketing system and the role of middle men in the process. This is because the middlemen tend to control the products, increasing prices at their own regards and determining who gets what. Some extort “gifts” form the buyers and sellers for their services.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agriculture Development in Economic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The markets, if well run, have the potential of tremendously improving the lives of the people in rural areas and generally leading to a development of the rural areas.
Advisory Services Some governments in developing countries provide advisory services for the farmers in the rural areas.These services play a big role in enhancing the ability of the rural poor, enabling them to benefit from the agricultural markets.
It also helps them adapt to factors that impact on the marketing systems, enabling them to manipulate these factors for their own benefits, for instance which crops to plant in dry areas, cost effective farming processes
Market Infrastructure In order to minimize losses after harvest and health risks, efficient market infrastructure is required. These include storage facilities, roads and other forms of transport, and upgraded farm equipment.
These if well provided for by the government, will increase profits from trade of farm produce that can be used to improve the standards of living of the people in rural areas.
Market Structures Markets play a great role in rural development, income generation and food security. Planners, knowing this, should therefore, develop markets that fulfill a community’s social and economic needs. This will guide them in choosing a site that coincides with these demands.
More attention needs to be paid on how the market will be managed and operated such that a market does not become un-operational. These act as assembly and gathering areas for producers to meet with trades to exhibit their products for sale.
These are usually occasional, like daily, weekly. These markets need to be regulated, hygiene measures, rules of tax collection and security need to be enforced.
With these measures in place, more trade is encouraged in the community, farmers make more profits to improve their lives, and the government gets more revenue from taxes that are used to develop the community.
Market Information This has positive benefits for both the sellers andconsumers. Information on pricesand location for certain commodities helps the negotiation process between the buyer and seller and ensures that all products are accessed. Most governments have tried but failed to provide these services to the markets.
When they succeed, the information is insufficient and not up-to-date to allow trades to make informed decisions.
Marketing Training Farmers mostly in the developing economies are unable to identify solutions to their many problems such as poor prices and high cost of production.They need to learn new skills that can help them counter these problems.
Some governments, NGOs and companies, as social corporate responsibilities or a way of promoting their products, offer free or at nominal fee training services to the target groups like farmers of a particular crop. This training equips them with necessary skills that help them improve their yields, increasing their incomes and generally their standards of living
Marketing Cooperatives Markets in the rural areas encourage people to come together and form cooperatives. This is because their economic strength is weak, consideringthat rural agriculture is largely peasant.
Through cooperatives, they are able to raise their purchasing power through loans and savings, workers integrate and improve their bargaining power for better working conditions, they are able to put up social structures for their welfare like communal schools, health centers, cattle dips and many more. This goes a long way in improving and developing the rural areas.
Use and Re-Use through Markets In the rural areas, just like in the urban world, there is waste of materials thatan individual has no use for, or does not know its use even if it is not waste. It is through markets that people get to see a diversity of goods, and learn how various materials can be put to alternative use.
What was no longer useful is put to use and this reduces waste and encourages recycling, saving the environment from dumping and depletion due to over use. Natural resources are key to the development process, when they are well preserved and carefully used; a community is bound to develop.
Conducive Environments Agricultural marketing should be conducted in aconduciveenvironment of policy, legal, institutions and infrastructure. Inappropriate law can distort the market operations and or increase the cost of doing business. Poor support services like the extension services, poor roads and corruption can ground market operations.
Market operations can therefore necessitate the formulation of appropriate policies among institutions within which the market operates. These will aid in improving the rural conditions, putting it in way for development.
Emerging Trends in Agriculture With the many problems facing agricultural practices today, it is inevitable that the policy makers, support agencies and the people have to adjust and make some changes to the practice. The concept of agribusiness is a growing trend in developing countries.
The work of the farmer is not only to produce, but also to sell. Supermarkets now are becoming among the biggest sellers of horticulture and day products. They are stacked with vegetables, flower and fruits for easy access for the consumer.
Having discovered the negative impact of the middle men, many companies and NGOs now support direct transaction with the farmers.
The cane industry for instance encourages farmers to personally deliver their sugar cane to the factories and to open direct accounts with them. The tea industry does the same, where farmers deal directly with the tea agencies.
Another emerging trend is that of contract farming. This is more so in places where farmers own large tracks of land, but their financial status cannot allow them to fully utilize the land.
Therefore,instead of leaving the land bare, a company or people who are more capable can lease the land from the owner for a period of time for a fee and put the land in use. This has increased output from agriculture.
Conclusion While we have tried to analyze the case of rural development and its inclination to agriculture as its main vehicle to development, we have to agree that there are wide disparities between these rural areas. What may be termed as rural in the USA may be urban in sub-Saharan Africa.
Besides, the plight of people in these two regions can be quite varied.The developing countries are characterized by governments that are insufficient, unwilling or too corrupt to offer effective guidance and support for rural agriculture.
We cannot therefore have universal market principles, to some extent not even national ones. The areas and conditions are too diversified for this, each addressing unique social-political and economic aspects.
Reference List Chayanov, A.V., 1966. The Theory of Peasant Economy. Homewood. IL: Irwin.
Mansell, R., and Wehn, U., 1998. Knowledge Societies: Information Technology for Sustainable Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ranis, G., Stewart, F., and Ramirez, A., 2000. Economic Growth and Human Development.World Development, 28(2), 197-219.
Todaro, M. P., and Smith, S. C., 2009. Economic Development. Pearson: Harlow.
The Biggest Threat to U.S. “ICS Systems in relation to NBC” Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Over the years, the US government has taken significant measures through formulation of policies and laws, advancements in technology and security systems to protect the country and its citizens from terrorist attacks. One such step that was taken by the US government is the creation of the Department of Homeland Security to prevent terrorist attacks and other criminal activities.
However, terrorist acts committed throughout the world present unique challenges, problems as well as hazards to states, security forces and emergency responders. Past terrorist incidences in the US have shown that there could be dynamics which limit US security forces from protecting the country more effectively.
Acts of terrorism threaten successful utilization of the industrial control systems in controlling major terrorism activities. The proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons as well as missiles as a way of terrorism attack remains among the key security issues in the US (Bevelacqua
The effects of the introduction of the National Minimum Wage on employment Essay college application essay help
Numerous research studies have been conducted on the effects of increasing the minimum wage for low paid workers. These findings are part of an ongoing debate amongst economists on the rationale of increasing the minimum wage and the likely effects on a country’s economy.
Amidst the debate, there seems to be a general consensus that increasing the minimum wage for low wage earners does not have any effect on employment rates. However, this rule seems only applicable selectively, since there are indications of job losses within the British home care sector after the introduction of the National Minimum Wage.
This paper evaluates the theoretical assumptions regarding the effects of the introduction of the National Minimum Wage within the British home care sector.
According to Metcalf (2004, pp. 84-86), the National Minimum Wage was introduced in 1999 with the aim of protecting about 1.8 million workers from exploitation by employees. Metcalf (2004, pp 84-86) further asserts that concerted efforts have been made since then to progressively increase wages paid to employees per hour.
Initially, the minimum wage increased at the same rate as the Average Earnings Index in the late 1990s. However, at the turn of the 21st century, the rate at which the National Minimum Wage grew started accelerating.
By the end of 2004, the National Minimum Wage had doubled the Average Earnings Index (Metcalf, 2004, pp 84-86). In this case, employers were required to pay their employees a minimum of £ 4.85 per hour. A rise in payments rates had a significant direct impact on the earning at “the bottom of the pay distribution” (Metcalf, 2004, pp 84-86).
This however, did not have any impact on the average employment rates. However, minimum shocks were felt across the British homecare sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Borjas (2010) focuses on labor economics especially with regard to the demand and supply of labor, and how it is affected by an increase in minimum wage. In his book, Borjas (2010) agrees with Metcalf (2004) and argues that there might be signs of increased unemployment as a result of an increase in minimum wage.
However, this creates a false impression since on average there is no indication of rise in unemployment resulting from an increase in minimum wages. For instance, Borjas (2010, pp 126) argues that teenage employees did not lose jobs in a majority of states such as California when the minimum wages were introduced.
However, Borjas (2010, pp 127) further compares the increase in minimum wages between several States and notes that States such as New Jersey increased the minimum wages beyond the minimum rate required by the federal government. As a result, unemployment increased slightly in States such as Pennsylvania. However, this did not have any effects on the over-all unemployment rates.
Borjas (2010) and Metcalf (2004) focus on different markets but draw similar conclusions. In their works, the two authors stipulate that there are minor negative shocks in terms of job losses in given industries that lie within certain geographical and economic regions.
However, such job loses do not have any significant effects on the average rate of employment due to a combination of factors. Borjas (2010, pp 118) cites the demand and supply of labor economics as one of the factors which mitigates the expected loss of jobs as a result of increase in minimum wage.
Additionally, Metcalf (2004, pp 84-86) adds that the implications of increasing the minimum wage are offset by a reduction in working hours, incomplete compliance with the National Minimum Wage requirements , enhanced employee productivity through training as well as reduced profitability from firms.
Metcalf (2004, pp 84-86) asserts that the increase in the minimum wages has significant effects on reduction of employment opportunities within Britain’s homecare care sector.
We will write a custom Essay on The effects of the introduction of the National Minimum Wage on employment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such findings are also enumerated by Machin and Wilson (2004). According to Card and Krueger (1995, pp 1, 5) any increase in minimum wages has an immediate and direct impact on the average employment levels for low wage earners. This is because if wages are increased, unskilled laborers will be priced out of the job market.
This is necessitated by the fact that those employees whose skills only qualify for wages below the required minimum wage become unemployable. As such, they either become unemployed or are completely ousted from the labor market (Card and Krueger, 1995, pp 6). Such machinations are explained through the demand supply of labor model, as described in the diagram below.
Source: Card and Krueger, 1995, pp 6
The effects of the National Minimum Wage are also analyzed using the difference-in-difference model. The difference-in-difference model uses a cross sectional comparative approach.
The effects of introducing a variable are analyzed by evaluating the conditions before and after the introduction of the said variable. Notable effects are then recorded (Card and Krueger, 1995, pp 12).
Card and Krueger‘s (1995) asserts that some employees lose their jobs as a result of an increase in minimum wages. These findings seem to concur with Machin and Wilson (2004) findings on studies conducted within Britain’s home care sector.
Machin and Wilson (2004, pp 102) begin by asserting that, generally, the increase in the rate of minimum wages earned by minimum wage earners has significant positive effects to the economy, the employer as well as the employees.
Surveys conducted on the level of employment rates before and after the introduction of the National Minimum Wage did not indicate any negative effects on the employment levels. On the contrary, data studied indicate that on average employment rates had shown an upward trend in before the introduction.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The effects of the introduction of the National Minimum Wage on employment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, the upward trend in employment levels continued during the post introduction era. Further upward adjustments to the minimum wage did not show any downward shift in employment rates.
Furthermore, wages earned by a significant number of minimum wage earners, in a majority of the sectors within the British employment industry increased. As a result of the notable positive effects, the minimum wage was revised upwards several times (Machin and Wilson, 2004, pp 102).
While this had major economic benefits, the rise in minimum wages had negative effects on some sectors which are susceptible the dangers of altering minimum wages (Machin and Wilson, 2004, pp 102).
This implies that employees who were previously employed in sectors vulnerable to adjustments of the minimum wage lost jobs immediately the National Minimum Wage was introduced. Such sectors include the British homecare sector. The sector was chosen for this study for a number of reasons.
To begin with, the sector pays some of the lowest wages in Britain. The sector also employs a sizeable number of employees, thus data studied would have provided valid results. Additionally, the sector has a majority of nonunionizeable employees (Draca, Machin, Van Reenen, 2006, pp 10).
According to Machin, Manning and Rahman (2003, pp 154) the introduction of the National Minimum Wage had a series of effects which culminated in loss of jobs within the British homecare sector. National Minimum Wage led an immediate increase in the wages earned by a majority of homecare employees.
Using the difference-in-difference model, Machin and Wilson, (2004, pp 102, 103) compared the amount of wages earned before and after the introduction of National Minimum Wage and found major differences. During the pre introduction period (Machin and Wilson, 2004, pp 102) found out that the average employee within the British homecare sector earned below £ 4 per hour.
However, studies conducted post introduction period indicate that the minimum wage for employees within this sector were kept at £ 4.85 per hour. This implies that the wage distribution was readjusted downwards. Consequently, homecare employers had to face increased wage bills.
This had positive effect since it effectively reduced wage inequality. However, such effects were significantly diluted since homecare owners had to readjust to accommodate reduced profits.
As found out by Machin, Manning and Rahman (2003, pp 155) and Machin and Wilson (2004, pp 104) the National Minimum Wage had a direct impact on the number of hours per employee. Employers, to curtail the increase wage bill, had to develop ways to maximize profits.
As such, labor utilization was reevaluated so as to increase productivity. One such method was to award the minimum wage per hour, but reduce the amount of hours worked. This indicates that during pre introduction period, employees worked for longer hours while during post introduction period, employees worked shorter hours.
Machin and Wilson (2004, pp 104, 105) further postulates that the increase in wages and the subsequent reduction in the number of hours worked had a direct impact on the levels of employment. Before the National Minimum Wage was introduced, any individual was employable within the British homecare sector.
However, post introduction survey indicates that only those employees with skills that warranted the minimum wage requirement qualified for jobs. As such, there was a slight increase in the levels of unemployment during the post introduction period.
Machin and Wilson (2004) uses the difference-in-difference model which utilizes the cross sectional methods of study. This implies that the study was limited to a specific time. As such, the long term effects of the introduction of the National Minimum Wage cannot be ascertained.
This necessitates a longitudinal study, which would study the whether the introduction of National Minimum Wage has any long term effects on unemployment. Additionally, Machin and Wilson (2004) survey focused on the British homecare sector, implying that the results are only applicable to this sector. As such, further studies need to be conducted in other sectors to validate these findings.
The introduction of the National Minimum Wage had a number of interrelated effects. The national minimum wage resulted to an immediate rise in wages earned by low wage earners. This lead to an immediate reduction in hours worked for every employee.
In general, this did not have any significant impact on employment. This is because the demand of labor is influenced by a number of factors.
However, there are some sectors which are vulnerable to adjustment in minimum wages. This includes the homecare sector, which recorded slight increase in unemployment rates. However, further studies needs to be conducted to validate whether such effects are long term or short term.
Reference List Borjas, G., 2010. Labor economics. London: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Ethnographic Reaction Paper Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The Cheyenne people The Cheyenne people refer to the American Indians whose ancestral land lies on the western side of the Mississippi river. Economically they are pastoralists, hunters and gatherers. Socially, they live in villages while the community has clans, which separate the families.
Politically, they have tribal councils, which ensure peace within the community. The next discussion summarizes the social, cultural, economic and political structures of the Cheyenne Indians, expounding on the impact of European exploration on their lifestyle.
The Cheyenne Indians migrated to new places depending on their needs. For instance, economic affairs like trade and hunting, invasion of their land by the whites, and their nomadic lifestyle also propelled them to change their homesteads frequently (Hoebel 4).
According to the anthropological data, the Cheyenne Indians had different identification or names, which depended on the people they encountered. Some of the names used to refer to them include, Chaa, Shahiyena and Shahiela amongst others (Hoebel 2).
Depending on the area of settlement, all the names had meanings. Initially, they migrated from their ancestral land for trading purposes. La Salle, a French explorer, was one of the men they relied on to initiate trading activities in their community.
However, because of lack of tools used in shaving animal fur, they had to seek assistance from the European manufacturers. In addition to depending on the game meat, they also survived on wild rice from the nearby river, as well as fruits from the nearby forests.
They constructed their houses using earth and barks of tree. On the other hand, some external forces like war with other communities or tribes like Ojibwa, Ute, Comanche, Kiowa and Chippewa encouraged them to, not only form military groups, but also acquire horses and guns for defense purposes (Hoebel 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Luckily, when the United States intervened on the territorial issue, it divided the Cheyenne Indians into two groups the Southern and Northern depending on their location.
The Cheyenne Indians had so many cultural ceremonies like the renewal of the arrow, which takes four days to complete. The Cheyenne Indians had medicine men and chief priests who presided over most of the community rituals (Hoebel 20).
The renewal of the sacred arrow promoted unity among the people, sanctified them and preached to the people to respect the norms of the community for their prosperity. Furthermore, it was to emphasize the unique powers and the superiority of the chief priests and the prophets in the community.
Secondly, the sun dance is a symbol of purity or new world. The ritual takes about eight days. Each day has distinct ritual that people should perform. Some of the hallmarks in the ceremony include the multiplier, the erect horns and the sacred mountain.
The third ceremony is the animal dance, which ensures the success of the hunting exercise, as well as victory during wars. The ceremony takes about four days. However, unlike the arrow renewal ceremony, women have a role to play during the ritual process.
Socially, a family was a prominent structure in the culture. The conduct of girls and women was the centre of the family. Adolescent girls and boys did not associate to ensure purity among girls. Suitors could only approach girls but not seduce them.
Therefore, there were strict rules and regulations concerning marriages and dowry was a mandatory practice. There was a division of families depending on their social status. Property ownership, the character of both the female and male people in the family and the ability to raid other communities are some of the features, which categorized a composite family as either rich or poor.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnographic Reaction Paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was Kinship in the family and the family traditions and norms, which the family had to abide by strictly. The men were the heads of the families and women had to be submissive. Women who deviated from the normal traditions had to face punishment through whipping or excommunication.
There was a division of the families into Kindred, camps or bands depending on the number of people/primary or families present. Each division lays out rules on, which the members have to abide by. The kindred and camps form military personnel whose main role is to protect the community against external invasion.
Some of the military structures included Elk, fox, shield and bowstring. The military groups had a different number of warriors with a certain role to play within the society. In addition, there was a tribal council, which presided over all the social, economic and political activities of the community.
The council of chiefs solved both internal and external conflicts. They also ensured that peace prevailed in the community. The chiefs had certain virtues like generosity, solidarity and wise among others, which qualified them as leaders.
Furthermore, the Cheyenne Indians had public laws, which assisted in solving the internal and externals conflicts. The laws ensured there was unity in the community by solving the internal problems. Most of the cases involved murder cases, marital problems, conflicts over property and behavioral.
The law and justice structure allowed for reforming of the existing laws, enforcement of the society’s law and the use of military personnel and passing justice. There was a distinction on the roles of women and men and rarely misunderstandings ensued between the parties.
Women were subsistence farmers who provided vegetables and other forms of grains while men were hunters and gatherers. The need for hunting ground always raised animosity between Cheyenne Indians and their neighbors. Consequently, the community instilled military tactics and bravery among its men to promote victory.
Although they had inferior weapons compared to their enemies, the Cheyenne soldiers always showed bravery because of the reward that lie ahead on any victorious battle out victorious.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnographic Reaction Paper by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As earlier mentioned, the Cheyenne Indians had religious and ritual practices. They had religious men like the medicine men who presided over both traditional practices and prayers. All the cultural and religious practices were not only sacred but also practiced in sacred places like on certain mountains.
The social and cultural practices spelled out the personality of both men and women. In the mid to late nineteenth century, the Americans explorers, traders and missionary invaded the Cheyenne Indians homestead, which led to changes in their lifestyle (Hoebel 119).
The presence of whites and the mining of gold led to the outbreak of diseases like cholera. After the war, the Cheyenne Indians signed a treaty in 1851 with the whites. However, two years later, a war ensued and there was signing of the second treaty in 1861 fort wise treaty (Hardorff 20).
The treaties interfered with the social, economic and politics structures of the natives because they had to live under the rule of the Americans. Besides farming and education, they also had to adopt Christianity abandoning their culture. Their dressing styles and languages changed due to the invasion of the Americans.
Personally, reading about the Cheyenne Indians has enlightened me on their traditional practices, lifestyle and political structures. Besides being the natives of the Western side of the Mississippi river, they are also among the important people in the American history.
First, I have learned about the reasons for their migration from the ancestral lands and they include search for new hunting grounds, adventure and after external invasion from other communities. Economically, they relied on game meat, wild fruits, vegetables and wild rice for food. Second, the family is the most influential social structure among the Cheyenne Indians and each family member had a unique role to play.
Some of the cultural practices were also religious rites. The political structure includes the tribal council, law and justice and the military group. However, the invasion of the whites did not only interfere with their social, economic and political settings but also forced them to acquire new economic practices like blacksmith.
Christianity took over their traditional rituals and religion. In the contemporary society, the Cheyenne Indians call themselves the morning star people and economically they have large depots of coal used for generation of electricity. Finally, through archaeology, the history of the Cheyenne Indians is clear to the contemporary world (Haviland et al. 10) as it is the case in the above discussion.
Historically, the Cheyenne Indians are among the natives of the United States of America. Besides their nomadic lifestyle, the invasion of the whites into their homeland did not only disrupt their cultural heritage but also changed their economic, political and social features. However, in the contemporary society globalization has utterly interfered with their culture.
Works Cited Hardorff, Richard. Cheyenne memories of the Custer fight. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. Print.
Haviland, William, Harald, Prins, and Walrath, Dana. The Essence of Anthropology. United State: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2009. Print.
Hoebel, Adamson. The Cheyennes: Indians of the Great Plains (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology. United States: Wadsworth Company, 1978. Print.
Capital Asset Pricing Model Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Models of asset pricing are ways of mapping from theoretical circumstances of this world into prices of the financial assets such as bonds and stocks. Prices are considered as endogenous to be precise, the world’s circumstances cause them and not vice versa as of asset pricing models.
There are a number of these models which include Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) and Consumption-based models (Lucas) (Beggs, 2011).
CAPM of William Sharpe and John Lintner in 1964 and 1965 respectively marked the beginning of the theories of asset pricing and as a result of this William Sharpe received the Nobel Prize in 1990.
There were no models of asset pricing before their penetration built from the first principles on the nature of investment opportunities and tastes and with logical testable forecasts on return and risk.
For five decades or so, CAPM has been widely used and it is still being used in predicting firm’s cost of capital as well as in assessing portfolio performance (Fama and French, 2003). Thus this paper will discuss CAPM in detail.
Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM was derived from the Capital Market Theory where an individual asset is valued instead of a whole portfolio. Risk of that asset is considered the only independent variable that influences the return of a portfolio.
The CAPM function explains the relationship between the risk of an investment and the expected return of the same. CAPM accounts for the sensitivity of the assets to the non-diversifiable risk, occasionally represented by beta (β) and the market’s expected return and theoretical expected return of the risk-free asset (Sharpe, 1999).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Building on earlier research of the Harry Markowitz with reference to Modern Portfolio Theory and diversification, Jack Treynor, William Sharpe, John Lintner and Jan Mossin individually introduced CAPM while Markowitz, Sharpe and Merton Miller together won Nobel Prize for their contribution in the discipline of the financial-economics (Money-zine.com, 2006).
CAPM formula The model prices a portfolio or individual security; for single assets, security market line (SML) as well as its connection to the beta (systematic risk) or expected return indicate the way the market should price individual assets relative to the risk of their security class.
SML allows investors to determine risk-reward’s ratio of any asset relative to the risk-reward of the general market. Thus, the risk-reward ratio of the individual asset equates to the risk-reward ratio in the marketplace when anticipated rate of return of any asset is deflated (Money-zine.com, 2006). Therefore, CAPM formula is as shown below.
E (Ri) = Rf β (E (Rm) – Rf)
Where, E (Ri) is anticipated return from the security
Rf is risk-free interest rate for instance interest from treasury bonds
Βi is sensitivity of anticipated surplus security returns to anticipated surplus market returns
We will write a custom Essay on Capital Asset Pricing Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More E (Rm) is anticipated market return
E (Rm) – Rf is the market premium
E (Ri) – Rf is the risk premium
The anticipated market return is normally determined by using historical returns to calculate Geometric Average such as S
The mental, physical and psychological impacts on advertising in children Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The act of advertising to children involves the employment of aspects that positively or negatively affect children. The practice has not always been regulated by legislation but over the last couple of years, and after much research on the topic, many nations now regulate the practice of advertising to children with numerous laws.
In this research, we are going to attempt to widen the scope on the impacts that advertisement has had on children and how to protect as well as educate them. The hypothesis developed for this paper states that advertisements aimed at children do not only affect the short term choices but also affect their future livelihoods in the dietary and nutritional choices they make..
The major cause for concern for various organizations has mainly centered on the marketing of consumer goods that mainly involve foods and toys. The 57th World Health Assembly that was held in the year 2004 was instrumental in endorsing regulations in the Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health (DPAS).
The major aim of this resolution was to try and curb what was termed as obesity and other chronic diseases that arise from unhealthy eating habits and that are caused by the propagation of those foods in the minds of the end consumers who consist of children.
The World Health Organization gave governments in conjunction with consumer groups the right to ensure that any messages that are deemed negative and contrary to the recommended dietary practices and proven physical activity should be done away with in favor of those that are positive.
In the same year, there was a report by Hawkes (2006) that asserted that there were stringent regulations aimed at curbing certain forms of advertisement food products to children. Although the actions of the relevant government arms, lobby groups and even regulators have been lauded by many authors, there appear to be gaps that if not addressed could reverse the gains that have already been made.
Key among them is the fact that rules and regulations brought forth have been centered mostly on countries considered to be high-income, leaving the low income countries without any meaningful regulations. There was also a glaring omission of all other forms of advertising since the regulations were focused on television advertisements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review According to a study done by the Institute of Medicine (2006) (IOM), by analyzing 123 published empirical studies, there was a general consensus that advertisements of food during programs intended for children has negative consequences to their eating habits and directly relates to the high cases of obesity.
This conclusion stems from other researches that have been done proving that children under the age of 12 do not comprehend the differences between programs and advertisements.
This follows the ban that had been instituted by Sweden and that is considered by the United Kingdom to the same effect. The supporting fact here is that children consider all advertisement to be accurate and do not have the capability to understand the motive of the advertiser.
There has been other literature that suggests that the advertisements that target children have a direct impact on their health. Harris (2008) states that there exists a clear disparity in the contributions by the departments of public health’s funding and the amount of funding that companies channel into the marketing of non-nutritious products.
The assertion is that people develop brand loyalties at very tender ages which develop sub-consciously into adult life ultimately propelling the consumption of unhealthy foods and also the developments of unhealthy practices.
Additionally, there is a focus on the traditional methods of advertising to children during the process of regulation.
However, this trend has been termed as narrow minded as children nowadays have access to the internet, social networks, games and other digital devices where they are most susceptible to falling prey to such advertisements as compared to other media (Montgomery
Functions of Planning and Leading Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Executive Summary Management is a concept that is dependent on a host of things most of which are core to the success of the approach that is taken to ensure its success. Two of these elements are planning and leading as functions of management.
Their importance in managing large workforces is the centre of interest for many theorists since it is acceptably considered that when they are properly balanced and utilized, management of personnel and productivity are returns that can be clearly anticipated; this is the central aim that this paper seeks to discuss.
Introduction There are many capacities that Management functions that accords managers when it comes to managing large workforces. It is a concept that is at the centre of human resource management which is critically becoming central to the corporate management in these current modern times when it comes to corporate leadership and investment (Bergman, Stagg
Virgin Blue and their using the CHRM model Report college admission essay help
Introduction Strategy in airline industry is based on two merits: one, the escalating worldwide concern for safety; and two, the increasing consumer demand for a variety of services. In such an environment, the HRM strategies are needed to drive promotional plans of airlines in order to be attractive in the aviation market.
Thus, HRM can be defined as an array of steps that converts strategies into action (Appelbaum
Euthyphro Problem Expository Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Solution to Euthyphro problem
Introduction The Euthyphro problem is a dilemma that seeks to delineate the relationship between God and piety. The dilemma is about whether something is inherently pious or dependent on God’s perception. According to Hardwig, Socrates inquires from Euthyphro whether something is pious because of God’s love or God loves it because it is pious (263).
If something is pious because God loves it, it means that piety is in the mind of God. To argue that something is pious because God loves it is absurd and ambiguous, for morality and ethics could be quite arbitrary depending on God’s perception. God could have perceived vices such as murder, rape, lies, and theft as virtues.
On the contrary, if God loves something because it is pious, it means that piety emanates from a different source other than God. To argue that God loves something because it is pious contradicts theists’ belief that, God is the foundation of morality and ethics. The Euthyphro dilemma can either lead people to believe that God’s perception of piety is arbitrary or that God is not the foundation of morality and ethics. Given that the Euthyphro problem is a dilemma, how is it best solved?
Solution to Euthyphro problem According to the Cartesian solution, God is supreme and all arbitrary in that no power can limit his will. It means that God’s will is truly supreme and beyond human comprehension. Given God’s supreme will, he differentiates what is right and wrong without any limitations and restrictions in terms of ethics and morality.
Hardwig argues that, God has no boundaries for his supreme will transcends goodness and badness, and thus has the capacity to define piousness in nature (364). Since God is omnipotent, he possesses nature together with all inherent attributes and limitations. God’s attribute of the supreme will enables him to differentiate what is good and bad, for his nature reflects piousness.
Thus, God’s supreme will can either command or commend what is pious, hence resolving both problems in the dilemma. However, Cartesian solution is inadequate because it assumes that piety is an attribute of God and ethics.
Contemporary nominalists deny the existence of moral and ethical attributes in God. They claim that supposed dilemma of Euthyphro is non-existence and thus deserve no solution. Contemporary nominalists argue that Euthyphro problem need a default solution because God is sovereign, as nature does not exist. If nature does not exist, then it is meaningless to compare God with nature for the sovereignty is dominant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hardwig, nominalists assert that perception of God as having divine attributes such as goodness is extremely subjective and limiting in understanding of God’s nature (266). An attribute of goodness is so broad for anyone to classify it as one of the attributes of God. Thus, nominalists argue that God is factually and truthfully able; however, goodness is not a distinct attribute of God, but rather his nature.
Thomas Aquinas gave a Thomistic solution, for he asserts that God and goodness are one. Thomistic solution to Euthyphro problem is that piety is God and God is piety, thus an attribute of goodness is an inherent attribute of God. The Thomistic solution confirms that God is the source and foundation of morality and ethics. According to Hardwig, God has a nature reflected by his goodness; God is good and goodness is in God (267).
In this view, Aquinas resolved both dilemmas of Euthyphro problem by asserting that goodness is an attribute of God and nature. It, therefore, means that, goodness is an inherent property of nature; hence, God loves nature because of its piety. Moreover, because God and nature are one, his sovereign power makes nature good. Thus, God is good and goodness is in God as reflected in nature.
The assertion that God is good, and goodness that is in nature is God, brings out the problem of superiority between God and nature. However, such assertion proves that God is eternally powerful and unlimited because he has no boundaries. According to Augustinian solution, Euthyphro problem requires differentiation of nature and sovereignty attribute of God.
Augustinian solution involves modification of Thomistic solution, which states that, God’s nature is identical to nature as he has diverse attributes that are not identical. Hardwig asserts that, God is composite in that multiplicity and unity of his attributes determine his sovereignty over nature (267). Thus, entities of goodness that constitutes ethics and morals are subject to his power. Hence, Augustinian solution affirms that God can make something pious because he has power over nature.
Conclusion Euthyphro problem has haunted atheists and theists because its resolution has formed the basis of worship and ethics. While atheists argue that ethics is independent of God as something is inherently good, theists argue that piety is an inherent attribute of both God and nature.
The two arguments has perpetuated Euthyphro problem and has created a complex dilemma that seems eternal. However, Cartesian, nominalists, Thomistic, and Augustinian solutions have attempted to delineate and resolve the problem. In view of these solutions, it is evident that piety is an attribute of both nature and God, and God is sovereign.
We will write a custom Essay on Euthyphro Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Hardwig, John. “Socrates’ Conception of Piety: Teaching the Euthyphro.” Teaching Philosophy 30.3 (2007): 259-268.
Sons and Lovers: A Psychoanalytic Reading Essay college essay help: college essay help
The ancient Greek play Oedipus the King, written by the playwright Sophocles, premiered over 12 centuries ago, yet the grisly tale of the character Oedipus permeates modern culture, thanks largely to the influence of Sigmund Freud, the godfather of psychoanalytic theory.
Locked into a fatalistic trajectory prophesied by the all-powerful oracle so central to Greek tragedy, hapless Oedipus inadvertently murders his father Laius, marries his mother, Jocasta, and then sires two children by her, Antigone and Ismene, who become his half-sisters as well as his daughters.
In The Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud posited that Oedipus the King retained its power over the centuries on account of “the peculiar nature of the material by which the conflict is revealed”1. Sigmund Freud concluded that the fate of the play’s protagonist Oedipus maintained its resonance with modern audiences because “there must be a voice within us which is prepared to acknowledge the compelling power of fate”2.
Much of Sigmund Freud’s theory rests on the assumption that unconscious drives and impulses govern the bulk of human activity; thus Greek fatalism fits neatly into the Freudian model. Sigmund Freud understood that there was “actually a motive in the story of King Oedipus which explains the verdict of this inner voice.
His fate moves us only because it might have been our own, because the oracle laid upon us before our birth the very curse which rested upon him. It may be that we were all destined to direct our first sexual impulses toward our mothers, and our first impulses of hatred and violence toward our fathers”3.
Sigmund Freud understood the compelling nature of the story of Oedipus across the millennia to rest on the truth that it revealed about the “primitive wish of our childhood”4. In the mind of the famous neurologist, in Oedipus the King, Sophocles successfully brings “the guilt of Oedipus to light by his investigation, [and]… forces us to become aware of our own inner selves, in which the same impulses are still extant, even though they are suppressed”5.
The novel Sons and Lovers by D.H. Lawrence analyzes the three strongest female relationships in the protagonist Paul Morel’s life: his girlfriend Miriam, his lover Clara and his mother Gertrude. Contemporary critics and readers alike typically view the relationship between Paul and Gertrude Morel as the quintessential representation of the Oedipus complex in the modern fiction canon.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Numerous critics claim that the novel succinctly and purposefully elucidated the theory that dominated the 20th century. Kenneth Roxworth argues that “there is ample evidence that Western European civilization is specifically the culture of the Oedipus Complex”6. This essay offers a psychoanalytic reading of the novel Sons and Lovers and addresses the psychological needs of Paul and Gertrude Morel – both conscious and unconscious – and examines how the dynamics of their relationship mirror Sigmund Freud’s theory.
Critic Anthony Burgess conjures Sigmund Freud when he suggests that “Lawrence was the first literary artist to emphasize the huge importance of sex as a means of human fulfillment [and] what makes Lawrence…an essentially modern, if not modernist, novelist is his awareness of the sexual impulse as an aspect of nature”7.
Sigmund Freud argued that both Sophocles and D.H. Lawrence understood the desire to murder one’s father and copulate with one’s mother as an aspect of the human psyche; yet each writer treated the awareness of that desire and the consequences of its realization “with feelings of aversion, so the content…must include terror and self-chastisement”8.
Thus Sophocles and D.H. Lawrence differed from each other only by their location in time. The dynamic that exists between Paul Morel and his mother Gertrude in Sons in Lovers adheres to Sigmund Freud’s theory in that both characters seem unconscious of the unhealthy pull they have toward each other; their inability to live independently of each other arrests them in an infantile, needy relationship that neither can move on from.
Thus they unconsciously thwart each others’ ability to relate normally to other people. Gertrude Morel reveals a detrimental and irrational hatred for Miriam. “She’s not like an ordinary woman, who can leave me my share in him. She wants to absorb him…She exults–she exults as she carries him off from me…She wants to absorb him. She wants to draw him out and absorb him till there is nothing left of him, even for himself. He will never be a man on his own feet — she will suck him up…”9.
Similarly, Paul cannot spend time with other women without worrying about Gertrude. “Why did his mother sit at home and suffer?… And why did he hate Miriam, and feel so cruel towards her, at the thought of his mother. If Miriam caused his mother suffering, then he hated her — and he easily hated her”10.
Paul admits to Gertrude that when he is with Miriam, he thinks only of her. “No, mother — I really DON’T love her. I talk to her, but I want to come home to you”11. In Sigmund Freud’s words, “repression in the emotional life of humanity…is manifested in the differing treatment of the same material…we learn of its existence – as we discover the relevant facts in a neurosis – only through the inhibitory effects which proceed from it”12.
We will write a custom Essay on Sons and Lovers: A Psychoanalytic Reading specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Sons and Lovers, Paul Morel struggles to emotionally commit to a woman other than Gertrude, and inevitably fails. In Sigmund Freud’s reading, Paul Morel’s desire to sexually posses his mother Gertrude is not the problem per se; rather, it is the rejection and suppression of this impulse within him that renders him emotionally impotent.
Paul Morel therefore becomes the embodiment of the male stricken by the Oedipus complex, emotionally and psychologically constrained by the “complex emotional content, rooted in parental love and hate as a child’s dynamics of wishes and anxieties, that brings about in an adult’s life concerns and inhibitions inaccessible to consciousness, but that play an important part in determining…intentions, actions and judgments”13.
The unconscious desire of the mother looking to live vicariously through her offspring is also echoed when Gertrude expresses ownership over Paul’s artistic success. “There was so much to come out of him. Life for her was rich with promise. She was to see herself fulfilled…All his work was hers”14. In a Freudian reading of the relationship between Paul Morel and his mother Gertrude therefore, both characters essentially become prisoners of their own unconscious drives and impulses, which they continually reject, deny and repress.
Critics also extend the Oedipus complex to D.H. Lawrence himself and the sexual relationship that existed between Lawrence and his wife Frieda. Anthony Burgess observes that the marriage lived in the same confused emotional and sexual landscape that D.H. Lawrence created in Sons and Lovers. “Lawrence had nothing of the paternal in him, and he was savage at Frieda’s mourning for the children from whom her elopement had cut her off.
She, in turn, mocked Lawrence when, in exile, he was working on Sons and Lovers, writing a skit called Paul Morel, or His Mother’s Darling”15.
Many critics claim that this relationship was the inspiration for the central conflict of the novel. Anthony Burgess asserts that in Sons and Lovers, “the near-incest [the novel] depicts is unfulfilled and hence, unlike the classical Oedipus coupling, sterile…Lawrence himself was sterile and later impotent: the marital relationship was …essentially a tempestuous duet, a hostile symbiosis that produced nothing except a kind of grand opera without music”16.
The complexity of the author’s sexuality lends itself to the Freudian interpretation of his creative expression, particularly in the case of Sons and Lovers.
Sons and Lovers by D.H. Lawrence depicts a relationship between the protagonist Paul Morel and his mother Gertrude that embodies the Oedipus complex popularized by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sons and Lovers: A Psychoanalytic Reading by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The novel lends itself well to the Freudian dynamic of repression, guilt, aversion and emotional paralysis which result when unconscious drives are not acknowledged, accepted and assimilated into the larger whole of the adult’s self concept. In the words of Anthony Burgess, Sons and Lovers “is the more profound in presenting the pains of sexual initiation, not the assured loves of the mature, with the chains of maternal possession rattling on every page”17.
The novel ably demonstrates the arrested quality of life that suppressed desire engenders in human beings. Similar to the ancient play that Sigmund Freud derived the theory from, Paul and Gertrude cannot escape each other and their seemingly intertwined fates.
Reference List Burgess, A, ‘Sons and Lovers’, Atlantic, October 1992, pp. 116-117, retrieved Literature Resource Center database.
Erwin, E, The Freud Encyclopedia: Theory, Therapy and Culture, Taylor
Kudler Fine Foods Market Research Research Paper essay help
It is of great importance to undertake market research for every organization. Kudler Fine Foods is not an exception in undertaking market research; they have taken this initiative to help in its growth. To start with, the importance of market research is lays emphasis on ensuring that there is minimal risk and the owners get value for their money for the business they are undertaking.
The risk comes when the consumers are dissatisfied with the products that the organization is offering in the market. A market research strategy provides a benchmark on the way the organization progresses. It is through measuring of the progress that the organization gets to know of its performance in the market.
The best way to ensure that consumers’ needs are met is ensuring that there is existence of communication between the consumers and the producers in this case Kudler Fine Foods. Establishing a communication that is aimed at finding out the satisfaction of the consumers’ shows the organization is caring about their consumers.
Market research is important to Kudler Fine Food’s because it help them to venture in different areas as well as in the several fields. Opening of the various branches was as a result of market research. The same can be said of their products as they resulted from research carried on the most desirable products to their consumers (Armstrong and Kotler 2009).
Market research for Kudler Fine Foods is also important to them in determining the available gaps in the market that they can venture into and benefit from. Through knowledge of the existing gaps, the organization well get to learn the best strategies to venture in these fields that have gaps in existence.
Carrying out market research would be of importance to Kudler Fine Food’s when it comes to the uncertainties that exist in the market due to the market variables. Without the knowledge gained from marketing research marketing programs that the organization uses may fail. It is therefore the knowledge gained from marketing research that a proper decision is arrived at as well as enhancement of the decision reached by the managers.
Among the ways that an organization may be able to maintain it competitiveness in the market is its ability to have a link between the environment and the consumers. Such information can be got from carrying out a market research.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kudler Fine Food’s would benefit from such information especially when it comes to development of their marketing strategy since they get to learn the best way to link up the main two variables in the market and come up with the best combination that would bring around success(Armstrong and Kotler 2009).
However, though the organization has taken much initiative in marketing research Kudler Fine Foods can even benefit more from other areas of marketing research. The four Ps of marketing should be greatly emphasized when the market research is carried out. The way of promotion should be extensive and be attractive to many people.
When it comes to production of the products there is need to have preservations on their products if incase they are meant to be transported to great distances or in case they are been produced to areas with unfriendly weather conditions.
Importance of competitive intelligence is undeniably required in each and every organization. Kudler Fine Foods are also not of exception as they have also been a notable beneficially of competitive intelligence. Competitive intelligence entails the organization always been ahead of the other competitors in the market so as to be able to maintain their market.
An organization does this by ensuring that they have knowledge of what the competing organizations strategize on gaining control of the market. Competitive intelligence therefore entails collecting information about other competitors, integrating the collected information within the structure of the organization, analyzing the information obtained and finally coming up with a decision that is in the best interest of the organization.
Also notable about competitive intelligence is the fact that it is considerate of how an organization uses the assets it has on its disposal and how it leverages it. Leveraging the assets is usually done after accessing the competitors’ way of leveraging their assets so as to have the most desirable way of leveraging the assets (Kerin et al, 2009).
The importance of competitive intelligence to Kudler Fine Foods is undeniable when it comes to marketing strategy. Firstly, the organization uses the freshest ingredients to make their dishes and products. The culture of organizations using the freshest ingredient in the market has been endorsed by many organizations as it is a consumer desire to have freshly made delicacies. Such knowledge to Kudler Fine Foods is important as it gives them a competitive edge in the market against other organizations which have not started the exercise.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Kudler Fine Foods Market Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kudler Fine Food also needs the information on competitive intelligence to get to learn about the competitors’ weakness. Knowledge of the competitors’ weakness will enable the organization to strategize of how they can use on the weakness of their competitors to their own benefit.
It is through learning the competitors’ weakness that Kudler Fine Food’s learns on the vulnerability of their competitors (Kerin et al, 2009). Competitive intelligence also brings about the strengths that Kudler Fine Food’s has and what makes them unique from other. It is through knowledge of such that the organization gets to keep in check of their performance through ensuring that the organization remains competitive through improving on their strengths.
Maintaining the organization strengths or even better improving it allows the organization to perform even better and to grow competitively.
Knowledge gained from competitive intelligence is also of great importance is getting to know what are the risky things an organization would get involved itself into. Kudler Fine Food’s would greatly benefit from information got from competitive intelligence regarding risks as they will ensure that their market strategy does not expose themselves to risk that would be detrimental to them.
Importance of both market research and competitive intelligence is one which is undeniable. The fact that there are many organizations in the market jus6t shows the importance of having the two been carried out. The information got from carrying out a market research is of importance to every organization is it tries to get the competitive edge that would lead to more growth as well as control of a bigger market.
Especially when it comes to what the consumer needs it is of utmost importance to know that since it is knowledge of such information that would lead to consumer satisfaction and subsequently the increase in the sales. Competitive intelligence on the other hand is also equally important.
Knowledge on what the competitors’ strategy is important as it allows an organization develops even better strategies that would lead to the organization success. The two are therefore some of the most important things an organization needs to do to be successful in their area of expertise.
References Armstrong, G and Kotler, P(2009 ). Marketing. An Introduction. New York: Prentice Hall.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kudler Fine Foods Market Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kerin, R. A, Hartley S, Rudelius W. ( 2009). Marketing Management. New York: McGraw-Hil.
Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee Report essay help: essay help
Introduction The main reason for the economic analysis of the above article, is to promote the economic capability of monetary policy and if the proposed topic is economically and financially beneficial to the economic growth.
The monetary policy is mainly concerned with the tools taken to regulate the supply of the money, the cost, and the accessibility of credit in the market1. Meanwhile, it deals with distribution of credit between the uses and users of borrowing rates of interest.
The economic analysis of the article will give the strength and the weakness of the monetary policy in the domestic capital and the foreign exchange markets. The analysis will compare the effect of the monetary policy and other economies on the impact on the domestic market.
Different monetary tools used to measure the amount of money in circulation will be formulated, to establish which tools are best to use an indicator of economic growth.
According to the article, the unfavorable indicators and the exogenous factors have constantly put upward pressure on the domestic inflation; therefore, posing challenges to the monetary policy going upward. In conclusion, the economic analysis will formulate data in the article and analysis them critically to obtain the best monetary instrument to be implemented in the economy.
The Monetary Policy Concepts and the Theories Monetary Tools Transmission Method
It refers to the process by which changes in money supply affect the aggregate demand of the economy, an increase in real balances generate portfolio disequilibrium in the economy. These Cause the increase of the interest rate and decline of the aggregate demand; therefore, the people borrow money and hold more than they need.
It causes portfolio investors to try to reduce money holding by buying other assets; thus, changing the prices of the different asset in the economy. The portfolio can help in analyzing the effect of the different asset due to the change in the demand supply in the economy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Meanwhile, changes of the interest rate affect the aggregate demand in the economy if portfolio imbalances do not lead to significant change in level of interest or if the spending does not respond to change in the rate, then the link between money supply and output will not exist.
Therefore, the monetary policy will expand when portfolio balances lead to a change in interest rate or change in government expenditures so as the output can change2. In summary, aggregate demand, portfolio adjustments lead to a change in asset pricing, interest rate spending adjustment to change in interest rate, output change in aggregate demand.
The Crowding Out Effect The monetary policy and fiscal policy cause the crowding out effect on the economy; the concept is used to analyze the economic situations in the money market. The crowding out effect occurs when interest rate are adjusted leading to impact on the aggregate demand.
The impact affects expansionary fiscal increasing government expenditure and resulting in the rising of income. The economic analysis shows that the rise of interest rate in the economy reduces the level of investment spending and increasing the government spending those crowds out private investment expenditure.
This occurs when expansionary fiscal policy cause rate of the interest rate rise consequently, reducing the private spending. When fiscal policy increases the demand, firms change the level of output by hiring more workers however, this happens in the full employment economy, crowding out occurs through a different mechanism:
The increase in demand will lead to an increase in the price level causing the aggregate demand to move upward along aggregate demand. The raise of the prices reduces real balances in the money stock supply that lead to the enhancement in aggregate demand. The reduction of money supply change the market curve to the left, raising the interest rate until the initial increase in aggregate demand is fully crowded out.
The importance of the monetary policy in the crowding out effect is that it can accommodate fiscal expansionary by increasing or expanding money supply. The raise in the money supply prevents the interest rate from enhancing thus, improving monetary budget deficit in the economy that cause adverse effect on the investment since the interest rate does not change.
We will write a custom Report on Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The J-curve phenomena The phenomena are observed when the currency depreciates the value of net export. The theory will help in economic analysis of the above article data to show the effect of the depreciation on the monetary policy. The values of currency keep on changing according to the situation in the money market, it happens under the system of the flexible exchange rate where market force collect any balance deficit in the balance of trade.
The short run elastic of demand of import and export may be small, that means not particularly responsible to the relative forces as compared with the case of economic analysis in the end that is ascertain to be more responsive. The difference between short run and long elastic of the import and export leads to J curve that is a short run worsening in the balance of payment brought about by depreciation.
The policy implication is that flexible exchange rate will not be to eliminate trade deficit in the short run; therefore, the monetary policy and fiscal policy should work together to eliminate the deficit.
The Economic Analysis
The economic analysis will focus on the “Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee” article; the analysis will use the concepts and theories discussed in establishing the weakness and the strength of the monetary policy compared with other determinant of macroeconomic.
The investment is the macroeconomic determinants that affect the monetary policy analysis in the market. The article demonstrated that the level of capital accumulation had dropped in the month of august due to the increase of interest rate. From the table below, the portfolio holders reduced the money in holding by purchasing asset in the month of July where buying of the asset was high3.
The low purchase was due to high level of the interest and decrease of the money supply consequently, people purchased more assets in the month of July due to low level of interest rate and increase of money supply in the economy. The next equation will help in analyzing different determinants affected by the change of rate of interest in the economy.
Aggregate demand = Y C I(r) G——–1
Not sure if you can write a paper on Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Y represents National income (decreased)
C represents the level of consumption (decreased)
I(r) represent the level of investment that decreased due to increase of the rate of interest
G represents the level of Government spending (increased)
Determinant/months First section (July) Second section(august) consumption 5.2 3.8 investment 18.9 24.6 Government expenditure 2.7 4.0 Source: Article: 2011-09-22: Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee
The decline of consumption in the second section was due to reduction of the manufacturing output and mining in the second section of the year4. The individual opt to release the money in the holding in order to invest in the different projects in the economy due to the low level of interest rate of 5.5% and it is constant to all sections.
Therefore, the individuals have less money to consume in the second section. The increase of the capital accumulation in the economy led to increase in the government spending as shown above in the table above.
The graph below shows clearly that the second section has higher economic growth than the first section but this is not the case because according to the above article the economic growth of the second section has poor economic growth. Only the above macroeconomic indicators do not determine the economic growth of the economy because the economic analysis in the article used other indicator to establish the GDP of the economy.
Other indicators of the macroeconomic that affect the effectiveness of monetary in the economic growth include depreciation of the rand currency against other currencies in the exchange rate market. Meanwhile, the raise of price result into inflation in the economy and affect the monetary policy analysis in the economy5. The deficit problem is solved by implication of the monetary tools in the exchange rate market as demonstrated by j curve phenomena.
Determinants/months July August Depreciation of rand against US dollar 15.6 18.6 Rand against Euro 11.0 12.7 Source: Article: 2011-09-22: Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee
The depreciation of the rand poses a potential advantage on the way inflation risk is treated to avoid problems with monetary policy due to much money in circulation. However, the measure of this risk will depend on the scope and persistence of the depreciation trend in the economy. From the table the rand currency was poor in the second section than in the first section these caused the output gap to widen up to 3% in the second section6.
Conclusion The monetary policy is concerned at the potential impact of the current global economic crisis on domestic economic forecast and should be ready to act appropriately when need arise.
The economic analysis on the monetary policy point out the strength and the weakness of the corresponding determinant of the macroeconomic analysis, the GDP growth occurs when increase of the investment asset and increase in the output change in the national income7. Meanwhile, the economic analysis establishes the relationship between the monetary policy and the other macroeconomic indicators in the economy.
Bibliography Gali, Jordi. Monetary policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: an Introduction to the Keynesian Framework. New York: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Greer, Robert. The Handbook of Inflation Hedging Investments: Enhance Performance and Project your Portfolio from Inflation Risk. New York: McGraw Inc, 2005.
Hetzel, Robert. The Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Marcus, Gill. “Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee,” September 22, 2011, 1.
Mishkin, Frederics. Monetary Policy Strategy. London: The MIT Press, 2007.
Footnotes 1 Frederics, Mishkin, Monetary Policy Strategy (United Kingdom: The MIT Press, 2007), 5-16.
2 Robert, Hetze, The Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 8-15
3 Gill Marcus, “Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee,” september22, 2011,1
4 Gill Marcus, “Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee,” September 22, 2011.
5, Jordi Gali, Monetary policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: an Introduction to the Keynesian Framework, (New York: Princeton University Press, 2008), 4-8.
6 Gill Marcus, “Statement of the Monetary Policy Committee,” september22, 2011,1
7 Robert Greer, The Handbook of Inflation Hedging Investments: Enhance Performance and Project your Portfolio from Inflation Risk. New York: McGraw Inc, 2005, 5.
Christianity in Sudan Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Abstract Christianity in Sudan can be traced back to the 5th century even before the colonialists and Muslims stepped into Africa. Christianity was the official religion of the three Nubian kingdoms along Nile River: Makouria, Nobatia, and Alwa kingdom. Ever since the Muslim Arabs occupied North Africa and particularly northern Sudan, Christians have never had peace.
Christianity is a tolerant religion unlike Islam. This paper explores the social, political, economic, and technological challenges facing Christians in Sudan. The suffering of the Christians in Sudan has been increased by the Muslim dominated Sudanese government.
Introduction Christians in Sudan today face numerous challenges. The basis of these problems traces its roots to a long history. The origin of Christianity predates both the colonial and Islamic era. This goes back to the 5th century when there were Christian kingdoms in northern Sudan with churches built in every village1.
Archeological evidence of this era is available in the Sudanese National Museum. By 580 A.D. Christianity was an official religion of the three Nubian kingdoms along Nile River: Makouria, Nobatia, and Alwa kingdom. This remained the way it is till 638 A.D. when Egypt was conquered by Arab Muslims. The Arabs occupied most parts of Egypt and forced the Christians to sign a non aggressive treaty with them, placing the border around Aswan2.
Nevertheless, Christians who were dominantly Nubians started experiencing conflicts around the border with Muslim Arabs. Sporadically religious differences became a factor in the sprained relationship between Muslims and Christians. These problems became part and parcel of the lives of Christians. Since then these problems have persisted up to date. Sudanese government is dominated by Muslims who are trying everything possible to Islamize the whole country3.
This act of coercion also occurred during the earlier spread of Christianity. Kingdoms that embraced Christianity forced their subjects to accept their new faith since it was considered as a faith of the state. Islamization of the early Kingdoms by the Muslim Kings was a major set-back to Christian faith. During that era, the King was the only person who could mobilize the people to resist invasion by the foreigners. The King’s failure to help these kingdoms led to their total collapse4.
Social, political, economic and technological challenges facing Christians in Sudan During the era of government of National Salvation Revolution, scores of non-Muslims were converted to Islam. Muslims were also convinced to cross over to Christianity. The converted Muslims lived in fear of being attacked by their former Muslim brothers. Muslims rarely tolerate the existence of non-Muslims in their society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, majority of Christians who lived in the north suffered denunciation and extermination. While Muslims-Arabs who lived in Christians dominated areas, particularly in the south, were looked upon with suspicion. Converted Christians were regarded as Judas/ betrayers. At the same time they were suspected by the Muslim Arabs as spies5.
Whether Sudan remained as one state or separated as it is now, the conflict between Muslims and Christians can not be solved easily. This problem has become more complex at the moment6. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the Khartoum government and the SPLA recognizes the diversity of the Sudanese people. The Christians in this case are considered as legitimated members of the society. However, Christians still face numerous challenges including socio-economic, political and technological problems7.
On matters political, before the split of Sudan the position of the Presidency was a monopoly of the Muslims. The best position which the non-muslim members, especially Christians would get was the deputy position8. Former deputy to President Omar Al Bashir, Mr. Al Zubeir Mohamed Salih had a Christian deputy by the name Gorge Kongor. Zubeir passed away when President Bashir was outside the country for official duty9.
The constitution gave Kongor the power to ascent to the throne for a temporary basis until the president was back in the country but he was denied that position even though it was only for a short time. This confirmed non-Christians’ perception that the position of Presidency was only preserved for Muslims.
Osman Mohamed Taha was appointed the vice President while George Kongor was retained in the third hierarchy. All the way through the history of Sudan, Christians from the south have always deputized Muslim-Arab presidents. The most recent case was that of Salva Kir deputizing Omar Al Bashir. The Southern Sudan tended to maintain a Muslim head of state to counter the dominant Muslim heads10.
In matters economics, a study carried out in Sudan revealed that Christian churches were doing badly as compared to Muslim Mosques and other secular sectors in Sudan. This has resulted to worsening state of some of these churches socio-economically. Despite of their vision and mission, churches in the whole of Sudan have not been successful economically. This has adversely affected the Christians since they are not been given economic back up in life. The only remedy left for the church is to focus on its own economy11.
In social matters, most of the Christians in Sudan are marginalized especially those in the south and western parts of Sudan. Christian faithful are susceptible to social mobility. Their places of worship are made of shabby materials which is a complete contrast to the earlier Nubian Kingdoms who worshiped in temples. Most church buildings in Sudan are very poor and some are makeshift structures12.
We will write a custom Essay on Christianity in Sudan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Christians in Sudan have minimal access to technology. Technological gadgets available to them are backward and outdated. Advanced technologies in the neighboring countries such as Kenya and Uganda have been used to facilitate worship and evangelism. Technological gadgets used in these countries include Radio, computers, mobile phones, TVs, among others. However, these technologies are mere fairy tales to majority of the Christians in Sudan13.
The topmost challenge facing Christianity and other religions in Sudan and the rest of the world is secularism. The modern day lifestyles are characterized by ungodly existence even among religious faithful.
This is one of the reasons why the Muslim dominant government of Khartoum has been pushing for Islamic state where the daily activities of the citizens are governed by religious doctrines. Christians in Sudan, though aspiring for secular state, are expressing caution on the way this type of state should operate. Christians are urged to balance personal freedom and abuse of values of human life14.
Christians in Sudan also face oppression and intimidation from the Muslim majority. Many of these atrocities were committed during the era of Government of National Salvation Revolution (G.N.S.R.). The incumbent is a member of the Islamic party branded as National Congress Party.
The party is believed to have been designed and structured by Muslims. During the era of Government of National Salvation Revolution Christian properties were confiscated. This included the forcible take over of the Catholic club by the state in Khartoum. There is still a widespread outcry by Christians in the north regarding the abusive approach used by the government machinery towards them15.
Government of National Salvation Revolution also used guerilla tactics such as promoting interdenominational conflicts to achieve their objectives. When the Christians in Sudan were voicing their concern to stop the war in south Sudan, the government had infiltrated the churches and was using their own members to fight them.
While most of the Christians were advocating for peace in south Sudan, those who had been compromised by the state were holding different opinion. Churches which complied with the state directives were converted into national churches. These include the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sudan (ECSS) and the Reformed Episcopal Church (REC)16.
The Government of National Salvation Revolution was accused of intentionally interfering with the affairs of the Sudanese churches. Many church leaders pleaded with the incumbent to help stop these acts of injustice against the church but in vain. On the other hand, the attention of the president was drawn to the actions of Islamic group known as Ansar. The abuse and oppression of Christianity are exemplified in the burning of the Bible copies in Khartoum on February 8th 199917.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christianity in Sudan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Christians in Sudan are also infringed of their legal rights. Religious freedom in Sudan is monopolized by the ruling party and the Government of National Salvation Revolution.
Even though the Comprehensive Peace Pact addressed the issue of religious freedom, its implementation has remained unsuccessful. Religious pundits stated that religious freedom in Sudan is disjointed and complex. Religious freedom is entrenched in the constitution, but since the Judiciary is dominated by the Muslims justice has become an illusion to the Christians in Sudan18.
Conclusion Christianity in Sudan traces its roots back to the 5th century. Christianity existed in the northern Africa even before the coming of the colonialists and the Islamic religion.
Increased dominance of the north by the Muslim Arabs has caused a great deal of suffering to the Christians. Contrary to Islam, Christianity is known to be very tolerant to other religions. The problems Christians face in Sudan have been increased by the Muslim dominated government in Khartoum. Christians undergo all forms of oppressions and human right violations in Sudan.
Bibliography Brenner, Louis. 2000. Histories of religion in Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa 30, no.2 (JUNE):143-167.
John, Kongi. 2011. Responding to Islamization, Marginalization, Victimization and Intimidation. Web.
Ogbukalu, Uke. 2005. African Christianity: An African Story. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Church History, University of Pretoria
Yusuf F. Hassan. 2002. Religion and Conflict in Sudan. Nairobi: Pauline publications, Faith in Sudan series.
Footnotes 1 Brenner, Louis.” Histories of religion in Africa”. Journal of Religion in Africa 30, no.2 (2000):143-167.
2 Ogbukalu, Uke. African Christianity: An African Story. Pretoria, South Africa (Department of Church History, University of Pretoria, 2005).
3 Louis, 144.
4 John, Kongi. “Responding to Islamization, Marginalization, Victimization and Intimidation”.
5 Ibid, 4.
6 Ibid 5.
7 Yusuf F. Hassan, Religion and Conflict in Sudan (Nairobi: Pauline publications, Faith in Sudan series, 2002).
8 Ibid, 4.
10 John, Kongi. “Responding to Islamization, Marginalization, Victimization and Intimidation”.
11 Yusuf F. Hassan, Religion and Conflict in Sudan (Nairobi: Pauline publications, Faith in Sudan series, 2002).
12 John, Kongi. “Responding to Islamization, Marginalization, Victimization and Intimidation”.
13 Yusuf F. Hassan, Religion and Conflict in Sudan (Nairobi: Pauline publications, Faith in Sudan series, 2002).
14 Brenner, Louis.” Histories of religion in Africa”. Journal of Religion in Africa 30, no.2 (2000):143-167.
15 John, Kongi. “Responding to Islamization, Marginalization, Victimization and Intimidation”.
16 Ibid, 6.
17 Yusuf F. Hassan, Religion and Conflict in Sudan (Nairobi: Pauline publications, Faith in Sudan series, 2002).
18 Ogbukalu, Uke. African Christianity: An African Story. Pretoria, South Africa ( Department of Church History, University of Pretoria, 2005)
Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) Research Paper essay help online
Alfred Adler differed with Fred Jung’s intra-psychic theory and adopted the inter-psychic theory to explain human behavior. In his conception of personality, he chose to use the term “individual psychology” to refer to his studies on the uniqueness of individual persons.
In collaboration with Harry Stack Sullivan, their studies maintained that a particular individual was indivisible and studies on individuals must be done as a whole and not in isolation. He identified social interests as a person’s greatest motivation and concluded that a person’s primary problems are often social in nature.
Hence, the leading concept in his individual psychology theory is the effects of society and human culture in defining a person’s behavior. He identifies natural needs similar to those of animals, like the need to reproduce and impulses that maintain life, as societal needs that motivate individual behavior.
In his theory, social interest is identified as the need for individuals to adapt to their social environment as it is expressed subjectively in an individual’s consciousness, hence, the need to be part of society by having something in common with the rest of the society.
Sometimes, individuals reject their natural instincts so that they can fit into the set standards of the society or align themselves towards societal dictates. In his literature, he explained that the actions of all living things are motivated by goals because individuals cannot feel, act or think if they do not perceive the possibility of the fulfillment of a specific goal. Therefore, goals drive human beings to act in a specific manner.
Adler defined the term ‘Goal of Superiority’ as the ultimate fictional finalism that motivates all individuals, and he says that it is known to give rationality and unity to the individual’s personality. Adler further explains that psyche has as its most important intention, the purpose of superiority.
This involves the desire to be efficient and proficient in anything that a person strives to do. Adler frequently expressed superiority using the term ‘perfection’ which originally meant ‘to be whole’ or ‘to be completed’ in Latin. According to Adler, life motivated by the need for superiority in one’s society, where an individual’s desires to move from below others to above others in order to gain a sense of superiority over others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adler explained that feelings of inferiority are not out of the ordinary, but are the basis on which individuals improve their lives and are also the motivation for all types of human accomplishments. He identified the source of these feelings of inferiority as the experiences that individuals have in their interaction with the environment as infants.
When practicing general medicine, Adler came across many patients who complained of specific body organs’ inferiority and he later expanded the concept of organ inferiority to incorporate actual or imagined inferiority feelings. Adler realized that an individual’s inferiority was mainly due to his or her cultural assignments and not his or her biological nature as he had earlier identified in his earlier writings, where he had referred to the compensation of an individual’s inferiorities as being as a result of his or her masculine protest.
He specifically evidenced this in his research on the inferiority of women. He thus prove that people feels inferior due to the cultural interpretation they make of a specific organ as their culture may lay an overvalued importance of such an organ.
Constellation of the good/bad mother archetype in the treatment of early disturbances Giera-Krapp’s, (1989), article puts forward a hypothesis that the transformation of the negative mother complex is usually affected in the treatment of conditions that are presumed to be as a result of pre-verbal disturbances. This is when the patient is accompanied into the sphere of death and also working through the collection of the good or bad mother as well as the counter transference or transference where he or she projects the same to the psychiatrist.
In relation to this journal article, Adler had expressed the fact that an individual’s inferiority was mainly due to his or her cultural assignments and in this case, is the good or bad experience he or she had with his or her mother during the process of upbringing.
According to Alder, these patients were still projecting the experiences they passed through at their mother’s hands to the society. The societal needs of these particular individuals are dictated by the experiences he or she had as an infant and the perception of society or in this case the individual’s immediate peers in his or her adolescent circles.
The individuals may be seen as rebellious to their parents and to the society in general though this is a projection of their need to change their circumstances to what they think is more appropriate for them and which will make them better suited to fit into the society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author who is a psychiatrist gives a detailed report on 22 patients who were diagnosed with pre-verbal disturbances. Among these, five were male and the other seventeen were females. Ten of these patients were seen as out-patients while the other twelve were seen as in-patients.
They were diagnosed as being paranoid psychoses cases that had hallucinatory phenomenon for seven patients, narcissistic cases for seven other patients, borderline syndrome cases for another 6 patients, and lastly, acute psychoses for the remaining two patients. The paper is a report compiled over a period of eight years and each of the patients was treated for a period ranging from six months to three years. Each patient had sessions ranging from once a week to four times a week (Giera-Krapp, 1989).
The body and archetypal rebirth in adolescence This journal article is a summary of a series of fascinating dreams of a specific boy who has just entered puberty and who has been deeply entangled by the Oedipus, Electra complex. The author, Denise Lyard, explains the specific importance of an individual’s body in her analysis of adolescence.
The dreams mentioned in this journal article had previously been presented as a long series in 1987 to the Children’s Section of Analytical Psychology and the ones selected for this article are meant for theoretical considerations. The author explains that puberty and specifically adolescence is comparable to the first year of a person’s life in the number of natural changes that take place in the individual’s body (Lyard, 1989).
Adler explained that inferiority feelings are not out of the ordinary, but are the basis on which individuals improve their lives and in relation to this journal article, these adolescents express the need to improve his status in society from that of a child to that of an adult. Adler also identified these feelings of inferiority as the motivation for all types of human accomplishment. He identified the source of these feelings of inferiority as the experiences that individuals have in their interaction with the environment as infants.
Lyard explains that at birth, an individual is in an amoral state of mind. The second time is when the individual gets to adolescence or puberty, and this is through a series of archetypal processes that are set in motion by the biological effects on sexuality and maturity thereof. As she explains, this gives an individual the opportunity to separate himself or herself from his or her mother’s body at least on a symbolic level.
Adolescent states of mind found in patients of different ages seen in analysis. In this article, Astor, (1989), illustrates his thesis that, ‘adolescence is as much a state of mind as a description of a particular age group’. He does this by presenting analytical material gathered from four patients with ages ranging from fifteen years to forty years. Each of the clinical examples given is followed by an explanation where each of the main characteristics of adolescence are identified and emphasized.
In writing this article, Astor follows the analytical traditional way of thinking in reference to the term adolescence as a state of mind, as a reference point to not only a specific social structure like the adolescent world, but also to a social structure in the individual’s mind, and in that sense he explains that the term is both meta-psychological and technical (Astor, 1988). This is in line with Adler’s principle that an individual has to be studied as a whole since an individual is indivisible.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Adler explained that contrary to popular opinion, social interest doesn’t emerge automatically or find constructive expression, but rather, it must have to be natured and cultivated. According to Astor, the social forces of relation are so strong that at times, human beings suppress their instincts in order to conform to societal needs.
This is especially evidenced in the case of adolescents where individual actions are as a result of the in-group that is their peers and their immediate society. His idea in the journal article is the main characterization that leads us into identifying the adolescent states of mind, is mainly the prevailing sense of fluidity which often accompanies the young individual’s experimentation with his or her identity, which he says is mostly managed within the adolescents immediate social group.
He identifies the differing states of mind in a given individual and focuses on the projection and splitting processes, which prevents their contact with one another. He first identifies a case where in a session with a teenage boy, the boy expresses emotions of confusion, unreality and rage because he was excluded from his parents’ marriage and was raised in an environment where hypocrisy is not distinguishable from the truth, and he describes the session as a bitter attack on the analyst.
According to Alder, individuals often come up with their own interpretations of the events that take place in the world. Since the person is not able to completely conjure out these world events he or she often structures or constructs his or her own idea of reality. Adler describes this as fictional finalism and he says that it is neither good nor bad since its goals may vary in usefulness to a person’s life.
References Astor, J. (1988). Adolescent states of mind found in patients of different ages seen in analysis. Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 14 (A). Pp. 67-80.
Giera-Krapp, M. (1989). Constellation of the good/bad mother archetype in the treatment of early disturbances. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 34. Pp291-292
Lyard, D. (1989). The body and archetypal rebirth in adolescence. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 34: Pp. 292-293.
Honey’s History and Trade Expository Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Honey has is considered a sweet food that comes from bees using nectar drawn from flowers with sweet aroma. The genus apis or honey bees collect sweet aroma nectars from flowers to make honey through a process referred to as regurgitation. The food is stored in honey combs and consumed during periods of food scarcity.
The sweetness of honey comes from monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Most people prefer to use honey over sugar because of its properties in baking and sweet flavour. An analysis on the history of honey consumption reveals that its history has not only being long and mixed, honey has been used in the production of a variety of foods in the world over.
This essay seeks to examine various aspects of honey such as history and origins, religious and cultural significance and main manufacturing processes and examples of food products. Furthermore, the essay explores composition, and nutritional and medical benefits of honey.
History and Origins
The history and origin of honey comes from ancient times and is long and varied. In most ancient communities, the function of honey went beyond food. Its application in ancient times included in talisman and as food sweetener. In fact, honey collection is one of the most ancient activities that span to around ten thousand years ago.
The cave paintings in Valencia and ancient Egypt demonstrate that honey was widely used in most ancient cultures. In ancient Egypt, honey has been used in the production of sweetened biscuits, food flavours and traditional dishes. In China, a congregation of historians posit that its history cannot be traced.
In Mesoamerica, honey was cultivated and used for a variety of purposes. In Maya culture, bees are not only sacred, but stingless bees are used for culinary purposes. However, most cultures believed that honey played a key role in human health. This confirms its wide application as an ointment for rashes and soothing of sore throats.
Religious and Cultural Significance
A number of world religions use honey for a variety of purposes. “Honey is one of the five elixirs of immorality in Hinduism religion” (Snowdon and Cliver, 1996). It is poured over deities in most Hindu ritual and is considered a potential source of blessings in most religions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Jewish religion, Honey is not only a symbol of New Year; it is also a sign of blessings from God. According to Snowdon and Cliver (1996), “at the traditional meal for that New year’s holiday, apple slices are dipped in honey and eaten to bring a sweet new year and some Rosh Hashanah greetings show honey and an apple, symbolizing the feast.” Buddhism on the other hand makes use of honey in Madhu Purnima.
This is one of the most important festivals in the Buddha’s calendar and is widely celebrated in India and Bangladesh. In Christianity, John the Baptist is depicted to have lived on honey and wild fruits for a long period of time. In Islam, al-Nahl refers to the Honey Bee and is dedicated to entire Surah.
Main Production Areas and World Trade
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) report indicate that production and trade in honey is not only increasing in the world, but is also becoming significant source of income to most regions. Competition and increasing demand for natural foods have precipitated focus for the production and trade of natural sources of food.
Despite the fact that honey is cultivated worldwide, some regions of the world have higher levels of honey production. United States, China and Turkey top the list of major honey producers. Other nations on this list include Ukraine and Mexico. Mexico alone produces an approximately ten percent of the global honey output. In France, Honey is used in most gourmet products and is produced in large quantities. Honey cultivated and produced from the French Island of Corsica is highly certified because of the high production standards.
Main manufacturing processes and examples of food products
Manufacturing process of honey begins with uncapping which involves the removal of thin wax layers that protects the honey cells. The wax caps are intricately cut off to expose the honey cells.
According to Subramanian, Hebbar and Rastogi (2007), “honey frame processing proceeds, after a manual 2 frame model to motorized units extracting more than 12 deep supers at a time and commonly 24 to 72 frame radial extractors are used for commercial enterprises.”
The whole process must be executed at temperatures below thirty degrees Celsius to avoid over-heating the honey. The honey is extracted and cleaned or purified to remove impurities. Despite the fact that different companies employ different approaches in honey extraction, the aim of the whole process is to avoid interfering with its original composition.
We will write a custom Essay on Honey’s History and Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Honey is used in a number of food products. Honey forms the dominant ingredient in the production of honey wine. In addition to the above, it is used a sweeteners in food such as tea and milk. However, most of the honey are served and consumed raw.
Composition, major and minor components (per 100gms)
Being a mixture of sugar and other compounds, a large percentage of honey’s composition is carbohydrates. Fructose and glucose are the major ingredients of carbohydrates and take 38.5 and 31.0 percent respectively. It contains very small amounts of vitamins and minerals. In 100g of honey, carbohydrates take 82.4g with sugars and dietary fibre having 82.12g and 0.2g respectively. Minor components of honey include protein and water that takes up 0.3g and 17.10g respectively.
According to Gheldof, Wang and Engeseth (2002),
A nutritional analysis of honey illustrates that honey contains, Fructose: 38.2%, Sucrose: 1.3%, Maltose: 7.1%, Higher sugars: 1.5%, Ash: 0.2%, Glucose: 31.3%, other/undetermined: 3.2% and Water: 17.2%.
Nutritional and Medical benefits
Historically, Honey is a rich source of nutrients and is highly regarded because of its medicinal value. In ancient societies, honey was used in the treatment of open wounds, sore throats, and skin rashes. Today, honey is proven to possess antiseptic and antibacterial properties that are widely used in modern medicine.
This confirms the reason behind its application in wound treatment. The enzyme glucose oxidase that is present in the honey is the primary ingredient in hydrogen peroxide formation. In addition to the above, it is used as a substitute for topical antibiotics in the treatment of diabetic ulcers.
Conclusion From the analysis of the various aspects of honey, it is discerned that honey not only provides a rich source of nutrients, but also form an important ingredient in the manufacture of most antiseptics and antibiotics. The analysis of origins and components of honey provide an interesting topic that calls for deeper examination.
References Gheldof, N, Wang X, and Engeseth, N. 2002. “Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources”. J Agric Food Chem 50 (21): 5870–7.
Snowdon, J.A. Cliver, D.O. 1996. “Microorganism in honey”. Int J Food Microbiol 31(1–3): 1–26
Not sure if you can write a paper on Honey’s History and Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Subramanian, R. Hebbar, H. and Rastogi, N. K. 2007. “Processing of Honey: A Review”. International Journal of Food Properties 10: 127.
Cultural differences Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction It is a moral and social responsibility of organizations and business enterprises to embrace cultural diversity within their organizational workforce (Özbilgin, 2009). The reliance on a diverse organizational workforce normally serves to be a sign of the diversity of the community that the business organization undertakes its operations. Ignoring cultural diversity can impose significant effects on the business performance of an organization, and can additionally impose huge costs regarding the damaged business reputation.
Cultural diversity can generally be described as valuing every organizational member as an individual. With this respect, managing diversity is core to the effective management of people within an organization, and it is usually relevant to the all the business processes and functions (Marlene, 2000).
The significant challenge when managing diversity is to establish an organizational culture that meets the values of every organizational member, which is needed to foster employee productivity.
Research studies report that most organizations are faced with difficulties during workforce recruitment, as a result, business enterprises and organizations that do not emphasize on managing diversity are gradually risking in the increasing competition for available talent across diverse cultures.
In the present business environment that is competitive, it is imperative that business enterprises explore all the potential sources that can be used to create a competitive advantage (Kwiatkowski, 2005). The implication of this is that employers must have an in depth understanding of the aspect of diversity and its relationship with business performance, this offers a framework through which business enterprises can compete productively.
This paper explores the cultural diversity issues that face the TMT companies in Europe, reasons why people may not appreciate the cultural point of view of others and how appreciating cultural diversity affects people’s ability to communicate effectively in the context of a multinational corporation.
The paper also offers suggestions regarding the steps that the company can take and policies that can be put in order to ensure that its global expansion strategy is successful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reasons why people may not appreciate the cultural viewpoint of others
The most significant challenge posed by cultural diversity in an organization is miscommunication; this is because of the differences in the interpretations of the messages associated with cross-cultural communication. This implies that it is difficult to manage and motivate individuals in an organizational environment that is culturally diverse (Human, 2005).
The second reason why individuals may not appreciate cultural viewpoint of others is because of cultural bias from the organizational members themselves. This entails cases of discrimination from fellow organizational members. This happens through avenues like racism. Through a high level of prejudice and biases, some people discriminate against other people who possess different characteristics. Cultural discrimination happens when the majority group confronts the representatives of minority group (Goldsmith
Social Issues; Crime and Poverty in Camden Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction Over the past, the issue of racial discrimination and crime has been prevalent in the United Sates. This has threatened the social security and peaceful coexistence of the people in the community. High level of crime in the society affects many activities. It also leads to misery and suffering among the members of the society. Ethnicity is another social ill, which is common in the United States. This study aims at analyzing the crime and ethnicity at Camden area in the United States.
Describe a Particular Population Segment Camden is one of the cities in the United States that has been adversely affected by crime and its connection to racism. It is one of the most dangerous cities in the United States. Camden is located near river Delaware. According to the recent statistics the city has a population of about 77, 374. This represented a fall in the overall level based on the previous statistics. For instance, this represented a 3.2 percent fall from 2000. Camden is one of cities in the United States with the high level of crime.
Crime and ethnicity are some of the major issues facing this place. There are various forms of crime including murder, burglary, and rape among others. As a result, this region has encouraged many people to migrate. For instance, the population decreased by about 3.3 percent between 2000 and 2010. This could be attributed to the increased level of crime in the region.
Another main issue facing Camden region is the issue of ethnicity. The place has increased cases of ethnicity. This has significantly affected the coexistence among the people in the region. For instance, discrimination in the workplace has negatively affected the productivity of the workers.
Discussion There are several factors that have contributed to these social issues in the United States. These factors have facilitated the prevalence of the vice, the fact that has led to serious problems in the society.
In some cases, most criminal activities in the United States are characterized by racism. Racism has resulted to a number of crimes, which has threatened security and peaceful co-existence among the people. There are a number of opposing issues concerning racism and disparity, which has led to complication of the discussion of the issue of racism in the Criminal Justice System.
For instance, there are economic differences among the people that have led to crime in the United States. It is possible to have people from different races on low-income group and on the high-income groups. Most criminal activities lead to crime in the society. The larger the differences between the poor and the rich, the high are the chances of crime. We also have differences in terms of biological heredity, psychological and others that may influence ones tendency to engage in crimes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main factors that have contributed to crime at Camden region is poverty. Camden region is adversely affected by high level of poverty. A large numbers of people are living below the poverty line. According to the City-Data.com (2009), the residents who were living below the poverty line by 2009 were 35.9 %.
At Camden, the residents with income below 50 % of the poverty level were 17.5 % (City-Data.com 2009). Poverty is closely related to crime. In most cases, areas with high poverty levels tend to report relatively higher cases of crime (Arrigo and Williams, 2006). However, the highest proportion of this number is composed of the black or African American at Camden.
According to the recent statistics, the crime rates are very high at Camden. For instance, there has been recorded to be a very high rate of youth crime. For instance, the rate of the youth crime increased by 18 % in the year 2010 (Camden Community Safety Partnership, 2010). This was relatively higher compared to the statistics recorded in the previous year. Similarly, knife crimes increased by 13 % (Camden Community Safety Partnership 2010).
More than thirty knife related offences were recorded between September 2009 and January 2010. According to the Camden Community Safety Partnership statistics (2010), gun crimes increased by 77 % in 2010. In 2006, 1,693 and 4,787 cases of violent and property crimes respectively in Camden were recorded. This clearly reveals the prevalence of crime in the region.
Racial differences have also led to crime in the United States. This can be explained through the discrimination that the vice has cultivated among the people. From previous statistics, results showed that the rate of arrests for the African Americans were higher than those of the other Americans (Anonymous, 2011).
Crime could, therefore, be explained in terms of the differences among the people from different races. This can be explained in terms of series cause effect. For instance, discrimination may lead to poverty among the blacks, which may then lead to crime.
There are several historical incidences, which can clearly illustrate the issue of racism in America. One of this was the racism against African Americans through slavery. During this period, African Americans were enslaved and were treated like property (Randall, 1998). This led to undermining and persistent racism against Africans.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Issues; Crime and Poverty in Camden specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another incident in the history, which can be used to demonstrate racism in America, took place after the Mexican- American War in 1948 (Greenhaus and Parasuraman, 1990). During the period, Zoot Suit Riots can clearly demonstrate the racism against Latinos. The Latin Americans were usually composed of people from different ethnic and racial, backgrounds. This made them more prone to racism.
At Camden region, the cases of racism are also prevalent. Recently, there was a case in one of organizations in Camden city where one of the leaders was heard claiming that the blacks must leave (Anonymous, 2011). This issue has significantly affected the coexistence among the people at Camden region.
Camden city is composed of people from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. This increases the chances of the prevalence of racism. The main races are the white, African American and Asians. According to the recent statistics, the white composed of 96.08 of the total population (Area connect, 2000).
Recently, the issue of racism has raised major concerns in the study of the criminal justice. In America, there are a significant difference between the number of the black Americans and the white Americans arrested and prosecuted for various crimes. This has raised concerns on the criminal justice practices.
There are a number of areas that differ in terms of races that may lead to differences in the criminal justice. One of these differences is the level of unemployment. Through racial discrimination, there is a significant difference in the level of unemployment in different racial groups. When the level of unemployment is high, the level of poverty is also high and, therefore, there are high chances of committing crimes. For instance, an employed person may engage in stealing due to lack of livelihood.
Race may also lead to differences in political orientation. This leads to differences in the views among the people from different races. In some cases, some members from a certain group may feel that they are not properly represented. In such a situation, differing views may lead people to engage in criminal activities.
This discussion reveals that criminology and racism are connected in the Camden region. Some of the criminal activities in America are rooted in the issues related to race. As already noted, statistics have revealed that certain groups of people in America are more likely to commit a crime than the others.
It is, therefore, necessary to study in terms of race differences. People from a certain race may have varying social psychological differences. This can significantly influence the conduct of individuals. For instance, there are some tendencies that are common in a particular racial group and not prevalent in others.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Issues; Crime and Poverty in Camden by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aspects and implications of Crime and Racism in Camden This study raises a number of ethical aspects. The analysis of crime will entail a systematic way of analyzing of the patterns as well as the trends in crime. One of the ethical issues surrounding the crime analysis is the access control. The study on crime is sensitive bearing in mind that it will involve crime victims as one of the subjects.
Therefore, ethical issues will be critically observed in this case. The subjects will be free to participate in the study at their own consent. Every person involved must have the freedom to choose whether to participate or not. Therefore, there should not be any penalty for not participating in the process.
For instance, it would be wrong to have a situation where the prisoners will be asked to participate in order to access certain services (Arrigo and Williams, 2006: 124). In other words, people should be free to choose any course of action without any intimidation.
Another ethical issue in this case is on integrity violations. It is usually easy to corrupt data on crime. It is advisable to guard the data collected to make sure it does not land on the hands of the people who are not allowed to access it. This will prevent misuse of the data collected. Privacy is also important in this case. The names of the participants must, therefore, be kept confidential. They can only be disclosed at their own consent.
The case of racism has critical implication on the profession. For instance, some leaders in one organisation at Camden were heard saying that the blacks must leave the office (Anonymous, 2011). Racism can affect the performance of employees in an organisation. Professional must refrain from practicing racism in their activities. This will ensure social satisfaction and effective coexistence among the people.
Challenges Faced In an Attempt to Solve the Social Issues at Camden There are two main challenges that are faced in an effort to solve the problem of crime and racism at Camden region. One of the main challenges is poverty. For instance, 35.9 % of the residents are living below the poverty line (City-Data, 2009). Therefore, poverty is one of the major obstacles in an effort to reduce the prevalence of these issues in the society. For instance, people are indulging in criminal activities like burglary due to poverty.
Therefore, the continued prevalence of poverty in the region makes it difficult to eliminate crime in the region. Another problem faced in an attempt to solve the special issues is the legal framework. For instance, there is a need to have a legal specification that specifies strict measures against the individuals found guilty for practicing these vices. It becomes difficult to control these vices effectively without appropriate legal directions.
A research project proposal to investigate the prevalence of crime at Camden region Problem statement
Camden region is one of the most dangerous regions in the United States. It has been severally ranked among the top leading cities in terms of crime. This research seeks to investigate the prevalence of the crime in this region.
This study will involve some prisoners, security officers and the statistics department of the United States. The crime victims will help to provide the necessary information on crime. The security officers will also provide important information on the prevalence of crime. The static’s’ department will also provide necessary statistics of the Camden area. This study will take approximately two months. To collect the data, this project will require five people to administer the structured questionnaires.
Statistical analysis method
In this study, statistical analysis will play a pivotal role in drawing the final decisions. We are going to use the t-test in making the conclusions. In this case, there will be hypothesis about the study. One of the variables in this case will be poverty. The null hypothesis (H0) that poverty does not lead to crime will be tested against the alternative hypothesis (Ha) that poverty leads to crime.
This hypothesis will either be accepted or rejected depending on the results of the test. The data collected will therefore be necessary in testing the hypothesis. In this case, t-test will be useful in determining the major causes of crime as well as its prevalence in Camden region.
Subjects of the study
Since this study touches critical issues on crime, it will involve the security officers and other personnel concerned with security matters. It will also involve some of the government officials who will provide necessary statistics on crime activities in the region. Prisoners will also be useful in providing necessary details that will help in understanding the issue of crime in the region. For instance, it helps in revealing the reasons why they were involved in crime.
In the present evaluation, some of the subjects are going to be crime victims. The issue of security is therefore very critical in this case. The researchers will need to protect the participants from any form of victimization. For instance, the researcher may retrieve information like involvement in abusive activities. In such a situation, the interviewer must ensure the security of the participants (Taubes, 1993: 1109). However, they may use safe ways to help the participants.
Significance of the Study
This study will be of great significance to the policy makers in the region and other agencies involved in security matters. The findings of the study will be of great importance to the policy makers, as they will use this information in making policy decisions. For instance, in case the statistical tests reveals that poverty is a significant cause of crime in the region, them they may set policies which will reduce the poverty levels which will consequently reduce the rates of crime.
The study will also reveal other significant relationships of crime with other aspects, which will be necessary in finding the solution to the rising cases of crime at Camden. The data collected will also be useful to the security officers. For instance, the data on the distribution of criminal activities in the region will be necessary in making decisions on the areas to which they need to deploy more soldiers to maintain security. They will also use such information in determining the areas that requires intensive patrol depending on the nature of crimes.
Reference List Anonymous. (2011). Race and Ethnicity – Race in U.S. Legal History, Native Americans, Black Americans and Crime, Policing and Minorities. Web.
Area connect. (2010). Camden Crime Statistics and Crime Data. Web.
Area connect. (2000) Camden City, New Jersey Statistics and Demographics (US Census 2000). Web.
Arrigo, B. and Williams, C. (2006). Philosophy, Crime, and Criminology. U.S.A.: University of Illinois Press.
Camden Community Safety Partnership (2010). Monthly Performance Report – January 2010. Web.
Citi-Data.com. (2009). Camden, New Jersey (NJ) Poverty Rate Data – Information about poor and low-income residents. Web.
Greenhaus, J. and Parasuraman, S. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Azcademy of Management Journal. 1990, Vol. 1, pp. 64-86.
Randall, K. (1998). Race, Crime, and the Law. New York: Vintage Books.
Taubes, G. (1993). Misconduct (Views from the trenches). Vol. 261:1108–11.
Problems in Elderly Population in Modern World Report (Assessment) college essay help online: college essay help online
The elderly population among different communities faces numerous challenges to cope with the fast changing lifestyle; they find themselves not rhyming with current generation life approach. With the differences they suffer from Discrimination and Social Exclusion; when living with an environment where one faces discrimination and social exclusion, there are high chances of getting stresses and depressed of the situation.
Getting old is inevitable; right after ones birth the process of growing old starts the World Health Organization within its programs has World Health Organization Ageing and Life Course Programme nicknamed “Active Aging” with the aim of developing mechanisms to assist elderly remain independent and active in the move to ensure they are integrated within the community in their old age life.
WHO is concerned on how longer people live as well as the quality of the lives they will live at old age. WHO demographic report of 1999 suggested that by 2025, the population of people above the age of 60 years is likely to increase by approximately 694 million (223% growth elderly population).
One common character that has been realized among the elderly is depression as they do not seem to be going okay with the requirements of modern life; they find themselves somewhat misplaced and not integrated in the system fully.
In simple terms, depression is a mental disorder where by one is not in the right mine to make sound decisions; it is not actually not a disease by itself but just a condition that would lead to diseases. When someone is depressed, he cannot reason well thus he cannot meet the expectations of life and further increases the discrimination and social exclusion.
Stressed people are more likely to suffer from diabetes especially in the old age: the state and equilibrium of insulin in a human being has an effect on how the person old age is likely to be.
There are two types of diabetes, one that the body is not able to produce its own insulin it is called diabetes type 1 (it is said to be insulin dependent). The second one is type two is characterized by insulin deficiency and resistance. It is the most common form of diabetes, in case someone is suffering from either than has stress, then the condition is life threatening.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human beings are by nature social beings, they interact with each other at every stage of their development. When a person is stresses, he is more likely to withdraw himself from the people and his social life is affected. The internal surroundings that are, the family, friends and parental training can influence the attitude of an individual. The external factors are social interactions, educational institutions and church or other social groups.
The main contributor of discrimination and social exclusion is current generation lifestyle that seems to have been dominated by selfishness, individualism, and use of technology. The old people on the other hand seem to be willing to have social lives where they stay in extended family setting which younger generations seem to repel.
The number of old verses the young in modern community is another challenge, the old are reducing in number as they succumb to age and old age diseases. With the difference in ages, old people fail to get people they can socialize with; this leads to them feeling discriminated and social excluded.
Gendered Globalization and Social Change Report (Assessment) online essay help
Table of Contents Environmental Forces that Promote Social Change
Increase in Population
Education and Social Change
Environmental Forces that Promote Social Change Social systems are comprised of values, ideas, beliefs, knowledge, discoveries and exchanges. It is said that these elements are being transformed by the changes brought about by the environment. The environmental forces play a major role in ensuring that we change for us to be able to survive in the universe.
Scientific theories on creation also suggest that human body functions were transformed to enable man to survive (Behrens
Discrimination, Social Exclusion and Violence among the LGBT Community Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Research indicates that there has been an increasing number of social exclusion and discrimination instances amongst the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender groups (LGBT).
In most cases this has resulted to violence (Meyer, 2008). Social exclusion can be defined as the process by which a group of people is discriminated against due to their sexual orientation, race and/or religion. The discrimination is evident in public places, the legal system or in places of residence.
Social exclusion is experienced in all areas of life, from political and cultural to economical and it penetrates all areas of the social realm (Meyer, 2008). Social exclusion in particular seems to fulfill the concept of inequality in that it focuses on the inequalities between different groups. The differences in most instances are used as avenues of denying access to various services such as political offices, healthcare at times and access to education in terms of scholarships and education bursaries.
LGBT community faces discrimination and most notably marginalization in many forms. The worst of the discrimination is violence or the gay killings that are found in many cities. Despite the constant murders, the law enforcers in many instances do not investigate these cases seriously due to public views on the same.
In comparison to other killings with violence, few public outbursts result from gay killings. John and Elizabeth (2006) note that few people are willing to fully cooperate with the law enforcers after disclosing the identity of the murdered person or the location of crime, most of which are regarded as usual joints where gay men hook up with their partners (John
Environmental and Cultural Interchange Essay essay help: essay help
The territory of the United States of America has been shaped and cultivated for hundreds of years. So, people could have their homes and live independently and without oppression on their own land.
As such, it is possible to distinguish several prominent events or factors that influenced the migration, cultural interchange, and geographic development or expansion of the United States. Each of those factors contributed to migration of people from other continents and within the North American continent leading to settlement of new territories and their development.
The first event to be mentioned that contributed greatly to the settlement of the Californian coast is the California Gold Rush that took place in the middle of the nineteenth century. The gold was first found by “James Marshall… at Sutter’s sawmill” in 1948 right before the beginning of the Mexican War (1846-1848) that prevented this territory from becoming one of the states (Fradin, 2008, p. 31).
As the California Gold Rush was not the first discovery of gold deposits, Mormons were told to have already accumulated some gold. Another contribution of these people was that they have opened new routes for new miners that wanted to answer to the call of the gold deposits. As such, the people that were mostly coming to California in 1849 and were called 49ers followed Mormons’ routes in order to reach the California gold fields.
When people want easy money, they are ready to believe in their chances to win. The same happened with the information about the gold in that region which influenced the migration to California from all over the world including people that took their families and went to California expecting to find gold and get rich there without having necessary skills or knowledge about gold deposits or conditions of living in that region.
In this respect, thousands of people set off for California without having sufficient fortune for living in case they do not find any gold. At the same time, migrants were ready for any type of obstacles because they were sure about finding gold as they heard some stories about friends of their friends that have found gold in that region.
As California Gold Rush is only one of the gold rush phenomena that took place on the territory of the current United States of America, every new rush contributed to the settlement of a definite region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More San Francisco became the capital of California with constantly growing population (Fradin, 2008, p. 32) while the California Gold Rush transformed the U.S. economy in terms of enrichment as “at least $400 million in gold was found in California between 1848 and 1857” (Fradin, 2008, p. 36). Moreover, many miners stayed in this land even when the rush was over because the farming and ranching opportunities were still great.
The next significant environmental factor that contributed greatly to the development of the United States is the Dust Bowl that took place on the territory of five American states including Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico during 1930s when the Great Depression was the main devastating factor that made people search for alternative ways of making money and improving their financial conditions.
The thing is that the Dust Bowl was the phenomenon that was caused by the farming activity of the people that populated that area. As such, people that wanted richer harvests and started the farming activity in the prairies got those harvests though this led to no natural coverage on the land which was blown off by the seasonal winds.
As the high grass was removed from the land so that it could serve the farming purposes, the soil was not protected against the winds. People that came to the prairies with their families to settle there had to move to other areas due to the thick dust that was lifted up into the air and would not go down. In this respect, people came to other regions though came to know about the natural consequences of their activity which enabled them to develop the farming in other areas and in another way than they used to do that before.
One of the first responses to the phenomenon of Dust Bowl by the US government was the soil conservation measures as the soil had to be restored due to its location. As the Great Plains are located on the territory of those five states as Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, it was clear that people started migration to other states that were located to North from the Dust Bowl. The economic impact was huge as the soil was blown away making it impossible to farm.
Farming was one of the leading factors that influenced many civilizations in the way that made them learn new ways of making their harvests richer and protecting those against floods and droughts. Mesopotamian civilization is considered the first civilization that occurred in chronology of other civilizations that rose in other territories.
Mesopotamia was the territory between rivers of Euphrates and Tigris and their farming activity depended greatly on the waters of these two rivers. At the same time, this environmental factor contributed greatly to the development of the Mesopotamian civilization in terms of farming activity and the methods cultivated by people to make their harvests richer.
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental and Cultural Interchange specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As reported in the study by Duiker and Spielvogel (2010), “in such circumstances, farming could be accomplished only with human intervention in the form of irrigation and drainage ditches” (p. 8). In other words, the fact that Mesopotamians adapted this way of intervention into the irrigation can be considered as the evidence of development of the culture due to such environmental factor as floods.
Though farming can be considered one of the major activities of people that became settled population of a certain area, the ancient world was full of invasions that were another way of cultural interchange along with trading and natural migration. As such, Ancient Egypt was one of the countries that was influenced by the culture of Mesopotamia – it is better to distinguish Assyrians in this scope of civilizations that settled the valley of two great rivers – when the Assyrian ruler invaded Egypt.
As a rule, ancient rulers had a natural reason to expand the territories of their civilizations that were often related to scarce land in relation to the population growth and necessity of providing food to all people. In this respect, delta of Nil was one of the alternative variants for settling with its rich soils. Moreover, Mesopotamians were familiar with the methods of interventions into the irrigation and drainage ditches.
Though there is no evidence that Egyptians copied from Mesopotamians, it is possible to talk about common features in the cultures of these both kingdoms. At the same time, there are many differences that let us assume that a third part intruded and shared knowledge and influenced both Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures.
References Duiker, W. J.,
Political Realignments in The 1890th Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Forces that Led America to the Path of Empire
The Start of War between America and Spain
American Empire at the End of Roosevelt
Forces that Led America to the Path of Empire America in its early years experienced civil wars. After the war Americans embarked on serious issues to develop their country’s economy (Horace, 2004). The urge to develop the nation brought about agrarian revolution where food from the farms was produced in large quantities.
They also produced industrial goods in large volumes. The large volumes of goods from the industries and agriculture created the need for greater market. In addition to that the industries needed a lot of raw materials for their industries to produce more goods. There was also the need to spread Christianity and civilization to other parts of the world. These reasons made America to create interest in controlling other countries to maximize their opportunities (Divine, Breen,
The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the article Value of Philosophy
Introduction Russell landed in philosophy from mathematical backgrounds. Starting with mathematics was not by his choice. Every Cambridge student had to start up the first part of his or her degree with mathematics or classics. Later in his career life, he emerged as a subtle logician, historian and social critic who stood for what he believed philosophy offered without prejudices subjected to sacrificing his logical decisions.
For instance, he, at some time, found himself in trouble following his criticism on the American roles in Vietnam War. However, he could not back down his criticisms since according to him, this was the truth, truth emanates from reason and the reason is from the mind. One, in turn, should subject his/her mind to prejudices. His academic works on philosophy have been tremendously influential to areas such linguistic, epistemology, computer science among others.
Summary of the article Value of Philosophy Consistent with the aim of philosophy, Russell believes that definite answers to some fundamental inquiries are not indispensable but rather the interrogatives asked in the process of introspection of what may turn out as truth of the knowledge being sort are. The philosophical questions expand the mind and hence knowledge (Russell Para.4).
He considers it as dogmatic to say yes or no to answers given to some fundamental questions. To him this undermines the capability of mind. In his evaluation of the value of philosophy, he does not give definite values of philosophy. Rather, he proactively involves the reader in the process of searching values of philosophy through a set of queries.
People inclined to the ideas of “practical men” may perhaps see philosophy as valueless. It is rather a set of “useless trifling, hair splitting distinctions and controversies on matters concerning which knowledge are possible” (Russell Para. 1). Russell criticizes this view by asserting that it emanates from misconceptions of the goods philosophy seeks to achieve.
It, therefore, stands essential to first free our minds from all sorts of prejudices and misconception before exploring the values of philosophy. Such a prerequisite is necessary since unveiling the truth encompasses subjecting any previously held “knowledge” and biasness to doubt, so that through reason all that is susceptible to doubt may be eliminated and remain with only that is beyond any reasonable doubt (Russell Para.8).
It is only to such people who believe that mind, similar the body, also need food that finds philosophy significant (Russell Para.3). Philosophy acts at the food for the mind, which gives it the capacity to function at its full potential tantamount to how body receives energy to carry on its obligations from the food we eat.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Philosophy aims at inculcating knowledge. However, it seeks to arrive at the knowledge through introspection of beliefs, convictions and prejudices to determine their value to support the claimed knowledge and assertion of uncertainties. An important value of philosophy is its intention to evaluate the components of whole and their associative with the whole (Russell Para. 5). Such an association is crucial in the determination of the existence of the world and all it is “believed” to house. This is a philosophical concept of “realism”.
Russell challenges the opinion by some philosophers that “philosophy could establish the truth of certain answers to such fundamental questions” (Russell Para.6). Such philosophers postulate how possible it is for one to prove how some religious beliefs are true. As part of value of philosophy, consequently, people claim that philosophy has the capacity to proof the truthfulness of such knowledge (Russell Para. 6).
Perhaps another critical value of philosophy is its inability no to subdivide the world into distinctive categories such “friends and foes” (Russell Para.10). Its object is to attempt and explain why such categorizations exist. Through reason, philosophy assimilates the mind and the universe (Russell Para.11).
He comments, “The mind which has become accustomed to the freedom and impartiality of philosophic contemplation will preserve something of the same freedom and impartiality in the world of action and emotion” (Russell Para.14). In this context, philosophic contemplation leads to (though held with uncertainties) freedom of mind and thought.
Critique Somewhat important aspect of philosophy that is intriguing is the argument that deals with seeking knowledge through holding uncertainties perspectives of all beliefs on things that may arguably claim to exist by so referred “practical man”. In his article, Russell outlines some of the bodies of knowledge such as psychology among others, which he says are currently nowhere in the philosophical body of knowledge (Russell Para. 3).
He argues, “As soon as definite knowledge concerning any subject becomes possible, this subject ceases to be called philosophy, and becomes a separate science” (Russell Para.3). This takes us to the accusations of philosophy he voices in paragraph one; that “philosophy is anything better than innocent but useless trifling, hair-splitting distinctions, and controversies on matters concerning the impossible knowledge” (Russell Para.1).
People also argue that one of the ways that would ensure one acquires a greater value of philosophy is holding any belief with suspicion and through a set of questions which primarily do not necessarily have to have definite answers, unveil the truth behind the belief. The concern here is to know what the various scholastic philosophical works such as René Descartes’ proof of the existence of God meant.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Are they not supposed to provide mechanisms that ensure that people belief in God (who others have proved to exist)? Again, does his evaluation of the values of philosophy serve to inculcate a way of thinking inclined to his lines of view? Is he not prejudicing people’s minds by attempting to make them think the way he does concerning values of philosophy?
Work Cited Russell, Bernard. The Value of Philosophy, 2010. Web. .
International Financial Management – Rainbow Company Report college essay help
Introduction In contemporary business environment multinationals are establishing their manufacturing plants in countries with cheap factors of production and whose international and local markets are booming; India and China are among the most favored countries by multinationals. Current campaigns to conservation the environment have grown renewable energy industry in different parts of the world.
Rainbow Power Company is an Australian multinational that manufactures and sells renewable energy products; the company wishes to establish whether it should follow other multinational strategy of establishing production lines in either China or India (Charles, 2011). This paper discusses the opportunities and threats that Rainbow Company could face after establishing production line in either India or China; at the end of the report, the report will give recommendations to the company on the best country of the two to establish a production line.
The nature of the renewable/sustainable energy technology market India and china have the potential of using renewable energy sources as they have solar, wind, water, and geothermal energy potentials. India and China have sunshine throughout the year a factor that favor a production of solar panels; India has the capacity of producing 250KWH per month with only Rs. 5 Lacs.
China has over 400 photovoltaic (PV) which in 2007 was able to produce 1700 MWs of solar panels where 99% of them were exported. The main manufacturers of solar panels that the Rainbow would have to compete with include GCL-Poly Energy Holdings Limited, Yunnan Semi-conductor Parts Plant, and Guofei Green Energy Source.
India is considered as the “wind Superpower:, the country has a potential of developing 45000MW from its 13 main states. Such a potential is the opportunity that Rainbow Company should utilize on and come up with gadgets to tap the potential. India has potential of producing hydro-energy with only 20% of the country’s potential having been utilized; this shows that if Rainbow was to venture in the market, there are some blue oceans that it can take advantage (Gevorg, 2011).
China on the other hand has wind potential that in 2010 wind energy accounted for 41.8 gig watts (GW) of the national electricity production; the government has plans to have the production and use of wind energy increased to 100 gig watts (GWs) by 2015. With the prospects that the government has, Rainbow Company has the opportunity of selling its products to the fast growing demand of the renewable energy products. The chart below shows the tread of use of wind energy in china:
Wind power in the PRC 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Capacity (MW) 1,260 2,599 5,912 12,170 25,100 41,800 Production (GW·h) 1,927 3,675 5,425 12,425 25,000 India produces high fiber wastes from sugarcane, food grains, vegetables and fruits among other agricultural products; the wastes can be fermented to produce biogas that can be used as another source of energy. The main companies that Rainbow will have to compete with in India include Suzlon Energy, Moser Baer, Tata Power / Tata BP Solar, and Orient Green Power (Ranjini, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Chart 2
Ten of the largest hydroelectric producers as at 2009 Country Annual hydroelectric production (TWh) Installed capacity (GW) Capacity factor % of total capacity China 652.05 196.79 0.37 22.25 Canada 369.5 88.974 0.59 61.12 Brazil 363.8 69.080 0.56 85.56 United States 250.6 79.511 0.42 5.74 Russia 167.0 45.000 0.42 17.64 Norway 140.5 27.528 0.49 98.25 India 115.6 33.600 0.43 15.80 Venezuela 85.96 14.622 0.67 69.20 Japan 69.2 27.229 0.37 7.21 Sweden 65.5 16.209 0.46 44.34 Currently China produces 197 GW of hydropower generating capacity; this only caters for the country’s power usage of 23%; with such a statistic, the country has potential of using more of the energy thus if rainbow was to establish its business in the country there are high chances that it will benefit from the increased demand of electricity (Gevorg, 2011).
The country situation and risks in India and China According to Ease of Doing Business Index is an index created by the World Bank in 2011, for 183 countries India was ranked 134, 133, and 132 in the years 2008, 2009, and 2010 while China was ranked 79, 89, and 86 for the years 2008, 2009, and 2010; the index considered different parameters that are likely to affect business and new establishments.
China and India have highly modern developed infrastructures; these are both of transport and those of communication. The systems are advanced so well that asses to the countries from any corner of the world is highly enhanced, the airports, the sea port, and internal transport are well managed and assessable. The communication network within and without is of high-tech.
This is an asset to the business since it reduces the cost of doing business, on the other hand the international market are enhanced at all lengths. The sectors have seen the private and public participation, this boosts the efficiency of the systems and thus one can trade with approximate assumptions. There is what the government refers to as private public partnership that is aimed at maintaining the infrastructures.
Chinese and Indian governments are offering incentives to those companies that are making products to increase the use of renewable energy. Indian policy on encouraging the use of renewable policy has been for long been influenced positively by world trade organization requirement. There are direct incentives that Rainbow is likely to get from the two countries governments. Some of the incentives are direct for example taxes and those to facilitate trade.
The taxes that have been reduced include, corporation taxes, value added taxes as well as customs. An example to portray the above incentive is the Corporation tax of 15% that is subsidized from the general rate of 30% when an investment is done in the Special Economic Zones at the southern part of the country. For instance getting a visa and business permit to China is one of the simplest ways. No restrictions and thus trade is highly advantaged. This will be of great assistance in tapping world carpet business (Barney, 2007).
Indian and Chinese financial sectors are well developed with the privatized and government participation in the sector. The banks are stable enough to sustain the growing economy. On the other hand, although this may not have a direct impact on our business there is the emergence of micro finance institutions in the country, the institutions are giving a lot of support to the small scale trader evident in the country.
We will write a custom Report on International Financial Management – Rainbow Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thinking of the economy from that angle, it means that the manufacturing businesses will eventually benefit. Insurance companies are also a backbone of investment sector of an economy. The insurance companies are stable enough and can handle big losses without going under. At the same time, there are reinvestment insurance companies that help in maintaining stability even further. The banking sector has enabled firms to get loans at favorable rates.
The insurance and the banking sectors will thus have a direct and indirect effect. From a direct point it means we stand to benefit the efficiency of this institutions and from an indirect point is that as the other sectors get empowered the benefit trickle down to my business. China was among the few world countries who were able to record an increased economic growth; the exchange rates in the countries remained relatively stable than the case was for India.
The type of FDI to further minimize risks The demand for reliable energy source in China has made the country’s government to develop some incentives to FDI to minimize their risk in doing business in the country. Some of the policies that the government has enacted include investment deductions, zero rating of photocell products and offering taxation holidays to foreign companies in the economy.
The government of India on the other hand is sensitive on its needs to energy and seems to engage in transactions that involve the development of renewable energy sources; the government has joint ventures with renewable energy producers in the efforts of reducing risks associated with the business and encourage them produce further. In the Indian budget, the government allocates some funds for the use by renewable solar energy products manufacturers in the efforts of supporting their moves and availing funds at an affordable competitive rate (Zachary and Katrin, 2008).
Recommendation Considering the opportunities, threats, risks, and strengths of doing business in either China or India, it is highly recommended that Rainbow should establish an operating firm in China. Today in the world there has a large focus on trading with China.
China is slowly portraying itself as the world economic driver; this means that each and every country, individuals and the companies are considering China as the trade partner, a thing that has boost in the economy of the country; companies in the economy not only depend with the local market for their business but has high access to international customers.
The fact that each country is willing to trade with it has set the country in the pace, now heading to be a political neutral country. As nations get more confident in the country, the more they will be willing to trade with China and thus the market stands to gain. This stands to have a positive effect on the business since we will not be depending on local market alone but the entire world (Easson, 2004)
China has come up as a bargaining market where traders interact as an open market. As the world come to fetch for varieties, we will be one of those variety providers. An example is the African countries that have diverted there trading to China and killing the predominant markets of the west. This has been as a partnership kind of trading where you will find contractors in Africa from china. The way the contracts are made is in such a way that there is a long relationship created.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Financial Management – Rainbow Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The growth rate of the economy of China has always, for the last three decades, remained on a positive note. There have even been some rates recorded as high as 12%. This is an element to show the strength of the economy as well as it gives us the hope of continuity in the market.
This growth has enabled China to be seen as the emerging world economy. The rate of growth is another indicator of a stable political environment that encourages local and international investors to invest. With such a rate of economic growth it leads to the easy options of diversity of the business.
When an economy is growing one major demand that will be there is demand for energy; this Rainbow will have ready market for its products. When comparing the ease of doing business between China and India, China is rated far better than India thus Rainbow can establish the business in the country easier (Reuvid and Li, 2005).
Conclusion When multinationals are considering the country to develop a manufacturing plant they consider the business atmosphere in the country. When comparing China and India, it is advisable for Rainbow Power Company to venture in the Chinese market as the business environment is more favorable than in India.
Other than normal business environment, Chinese government has projects to promote the use of renewable energy thus companies in the industry are benefiting government incentives and support. The fast economic growth rate of China is another opportunity that Rainbow can tap from the Chinese market; China fast industrializing thus demand for energy keeps increasing. Growth in international trade also favors China than India, with the growth in international trade, Rainbow will benefit from local and international markets.
References Barney, J. B. ,2007. Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Charles, W.L., 2011. International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Easson, A.J. (2004) Tax incentives for foreign direct investment. Boston, Kluwer Law International.
Gevorg, S.,2011. Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India. Geneva: World Bank Publications.
Ranjini, M., 2007. Doing Business in India For Dummies. New York: For Dummies.
Reuvid, J. and Li, Y., 2005. Doing business with China. London: GMB Publishing Ltd.
Zachary, A. and Katrina D. , 2008. Renewable and alternative energy resources: a reference handbook. New Jersey: ABC-CLIO.
How the DTC Major Supports Your Career Goals Essay college essay help online
The study of a degree course in Digital technology and culture is significant to a student with career aspiration in multimedia business. This helps in creativity and critical thinking, which is very significant to employers to improve the quality of output in order to meet the consumers demand as well as expectations. The great influence has been due to the emerging trends because of improved technologies that are different from the past, with the understanding that the future largely depends on the past.
There is a great passion in multimedia where it will be upon a student to synthesize information to present to people via technology and use past occurrences among various cultures to explain solutions to problems that they might encounter. Digital technology and culture ensures that the knowledge people have in art is updated depending on the modern technology and everyone for communication to be effective understands the language used.
Culture has been the way a particular group of people live in their communities, where there are believes and values which they share in their day-to-day life. Different tribes have different cultures that largely depend on their affiliations such as the learning institution, religious gatherings, and even place of work. The emergence of technology makes most people to discard their own culture and drown themselves into the cyber culture, which the whole world accepts.
There are problems that people would experience if they ignore the original culture and embrace the culture that results from modern improved technology. Initially there was a reason why people developed a code of conduct and their daily activities seemed to run smoothly. This is because with good behavior they would live together in harmony, love and accept one another. When people segregate themselves, they suffer confusion and encounter difficulty in relating with those who still uphold the culture.
The digital technology on the other hand has its own etiquette and as much as it takes less time to master, those who are not interested in it sometimes find it offensive. People find themselves in a position where both digital technology and culture are at loggerheads and it is upon them to merge the two and make both ways of life compatible and even complimentary.
Multimedia is a very important field that goes into depths of culture through its research to unravel documentaries of news. The researchers interact with members of communities to gather all the relevant information, while on the other hand Multimedia uses digital technology in collection of information, its storage, processing, and transmission to the people. The awareness creation receives transmission through the same platform and it is set to reach many people in different locations.
There are professional photographs, which have featured in magazines on how to take videos as well as edit them. The writing skills that have slowly developed through experience enable one to write brief articles and report on the findings. Previous work in a local media house and after the degree will enable one to look forward to establish himself or herself as a freelancer and take the stories, edit them and present them to various media houses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the future, one would look forward to starting a speech training school, which would equip the young people with various skills of technology and how to use them to pick up from their own respective cultures and make both worlds compatible.
Non-Citizens Should Be Allowed To Vote Essay college essay help: college essay help
Democracy dictates that the authority or the power of the government should be approved by the people or citizens of any particular country. This means that the country’s power is in the hands of its citizens.
The common way in which people exercise their power is by choosing a legislative body that will be responsible for creating governing laws (Hayduk and Renshon, 82).
This notion has been based, especially in USA, by the phrase “no taxation without representation”. This means that any citizen who is being taxed should participate in choosing a representative. Almost everybody agrees with the principle of democracy, but there has been a debate on who actually are the citizens.
Initially, the people who were eligible to vote were few. This was due to the restrictions set on who qualified to vote. Some were disqualified on the basis of their wealth, race, sex and even age.
However, over the years, the rules have become less and less strict allowing more people to vote than earlier before. For example, in 1893, New Zealand was the first country to allow women to vote; USA followed suite 27 years later.
The legal age of voting was also reduced from 21 to 18 in 1971 and all races were allowed to vote in USA in 1965. USA has a population of about 300 million people and 225 million have reached the age of voting.
Out of the 225 million, 19.5 million are not allowed to vote because they are non citizens of the country (Hayduk and Renshon, 83). This issue is the reason of debate; Ron Hayduk says that non citizens should be allowed to vote while Stanley Renshon says they should not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hayduk starts by reminding his readers that non citizens are allowed to vote by law and for along time, they have been voting in the American soil. However, his strongest point is the very core of democracy.
He talks of the social contract; this is where the government’s authority is determined or directed by the people. It makes sense to think that the citizens should have a hand in the formulation of the rules they follow. Also, it means that the representative elected can be held responsible for the decision they make on behalf of their people.
Non citizens in USA pay taxes like everybody else; in fact, they pay more than the benefits they receive. They are also found in almost all sections of the economy, such as education, entrepreneurship, banking and transport.
Some of them have even served in the military where a number of them have lost their lives defending the USA. Other than that, they have introduced culture and social diversity in the country (Hayduk and Renshon, 86).
It is quite unreasonable to ask such a person not to participate in formulating the laws that he follows. One might wonder why some Americans are against the non citizens voting. To answer this, Hayduk says that the Americans fear the reforms the foreigners might bring to their country.
Stanley Renshon disagrees with Hayduk and says that non citizens should not vote. He first says that the people who support the voting of non citizens only do so to gain popularity or to feel accepted.
Some of the politicians have been supporting the voting of non citizens as a tactic of gaining popular votes during election. Renshon opposes this motion primarily because the non citizens do not often have enough knowledge about USA or what it means to be an American.
We will write a custom Essay on Non-Citizens Should Be Allowed To Vote specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He argues that most of them do not know the history of the US and also how the country is run. It would be wrong to let a person who knows very little of USA to be let to have a hand on how America should be run.
Therefore, he says that; in order for a non citizen to be allowed to vote, he must undergo a naturalization process (Hayduk and Renshon, 93). This is where a person would be taken through lessons of the American history and on the governance of the USA government. Also, the immigrant must be taught how to read and write English. Without the naturalization process, Renshon does not think a non citizen should vote.
Renshon and Hayduk have both argued well and have clearly defended their opinions. Even though Renshon has a point on the legality of the non citizens voting, Hayduk provides an even stronger reason on why they should be allowed to vote.
Renshon’s argument capitalizes on the fact that the non citizens do not know the American way of life and governance. First of all, not many Americans really know about the history of America.
Also, knowing the history does not necessarily make one a patriot or ‘American’. It takes a lot for one to be passionate about his country and act accordingly.
There is no better way of showing your loyalty to your country than serving it. All of the non citizens as mentioned earlier serve in various sectors found in America. Furthermore, there is no better way of learning the ‘American way’ than experiencing it first hand.
USA accommodates immigrants from all over the world and even more than any other country. That is one of the reasons why it is a great country.
What is even greater is its democracy. Democracy is the definition of USA and going against this principle will mean going against the founding belief of this country. Therefore, the democratic right of voting should extend to all, even the non citizens.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Non-Citizens Should Be Allowed To Vote by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Work Cited Hayduk, Ron and Stanley Renshon. Allowing Noncitizens To Vote:Expanding Democracy or Undermining Citizenship? New York: Borough of Manhattan, 2009. Print.
Panera Bread Company Report essay help online
Executive Summary Problem Statement
After Au Bon Plain Corporation was sold off, Panera Bread Company found it easy to fund the expansion of its company-owned bakery-cafés and franchise-operated bakery-cafés across the United States in order to be one of the leaders in the quick-service restaurant industry.
Analysis Panera Bread Company has endeavored to scrupulously formulate and apply appropriate strategy in order to achieve the objective of being one of the leading quick-service restaurants in the country.
The company has over the years specialized in the provision of freshly baked breads, soups, salads, custom roasted coffees, among other café beverages. The following briefly explain these strategies:
Divesting Au Bon Pain as a subsidiary of Panera Bread Company with an aim of reserving more resources and focus them on the achievement of the objective.
Providing a premium specialty bakery and café experience to its customers by specializing on freshly baked breads, soups, salads, custom roasted coffees among others.
The right choice of target market, urban workers and suburban dwellers, which is appropriate given its core business activity.
The three-pronged expansion approach: company-owned bakery-cafés, franchised bakery-cafés, and bakery-café supply chain facilities.
The right choice of site location and signature café design that gives the entire dining experience.
Alternative courses of action Panera Bread should pursue cost leadership strategy by implementing target costing pattern of reducing production cost and pricing appropriately. Secondly, it should fully adopt bakery-cafés supply chain without limiting it to the production of fresh sourdough.
Recommendations The company should maintain its competitive advantage with regard to proper and seasonally revised menu, signature café design and ambience. Moreover, it should expand its niche market and include other potential customers other than urban workers and suburban dwellers. Joint ventures or mergers are also important especially with fast-service restaurants.
Implementation The implementation of these strategies lies with middle-level managers and departmental heads owing to the nature of the strategies. Panera Bread has a rather solid financial base and the allocation of finances to the strategic business units should be based be based on Igor Ansoff’s model.
Summary Panera Bread Company specializes in the running of bakery-cafés and it positions itself by providing quality and freshly baked breads and other bakery products to its customers across the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The products and services rendered by the company are tailor-made for urban workers and suburban dwellers who require quick-restaurant services. Given the high quality products and services that the company provides, Panera Bread was rated among the best 121 competitors in the quick-service restaurant industry by Sandleman
Analysis of Ravel’s Music Piece: Bolero Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Incidentally just like the minimalist composers of today, Ravel developed the Bolero piece in a controlled form of monotony but contained within its self the capacity to sedate and capture an audience, the Bolero piece is simple, combined with the fact that it is an extraordinarily original piece of music done in the key of C major, carefully brushing into a minor key it produces a beautiful atmosphere, this piece is repeated over and over again, lacking elements of ornaments and is persistent to a constant drone of a side drum. (Gofrredo.H etal, 2011)
When Ravel performed the piece in Paris on 22nd of November 1928, the piece was an absolute success that amazed even Ravel himself, despite its success Ravel was very interested in how his audience perceived the piece, a prominent lady who was present in the audience during the performance, remarked that Ravel was mad to come up with such composition, when Ravel heard of her comments he smiled satisfactorily and said that the lady had understood the piece!.
If any musical piece is taken, depleted of its basic concepts like harmony, melody and rhythm what is left is an abstract nature of music with elements like the tone, color and timbre, the most abstract of the them all is color, composers paid keen interest to color in their music, In this regard Ravel was a master, his creation of color in orchestra composition was exemplary and evident in all his work.
How ever Ravel was not locked into a particular cocoon of composing style, also to mention there were factors that influenced his compositions for instance the movement of the Impressionist, though he created a style unique to himself and again very rich in color including Bolero (Rebecca.R, 2011, 1).
Bolero was written as an experiment which surprisingly attached a lot of fame to Ravel, it was a composition with a flavor that was of Spanish ballet; Ravel was able to produce complete orchestra commposition gradually building its volume and tone.
Ravel himself described it as an orchestra piece that had no music in it. This composition made it evident that with only a variation in the color of composition, in a few minutes of repeating themes can result to an absolute master piece.
Bolero’s depth of structure is found on its collaboration of a number of rules on development. This resulted to an effect of an overall growth of harmony, dynamics and complexity of timbre elements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In particular the unusual expositions of the minor and major themes, the themes contained a foundational process of timbral complexity development, while at the same time there is an even exposure of the under laying harmony development.
During the performance Ravel plays in an increasing pace, developing dynamics and also restraining how harmony develops which he could apply in vice versa, (Carlos.H, 2011, 1)The outcome is a sensation that of richness in sound contents while all other musical elements are evolving together with a of evolution that is always fluctuating.
Analysis of Bolero Instrument interaction and duplication
Bolero contains some duplication of instruments that result to a form of loudness coupled with some form of parallel movement which is hard for the audience to tell apart perceiving as if only the high-pitched instrument is playing, with an indescribable feel to it due to the fact that one instrument is transposed resulting to a feeling of a pulse, this is due to the progression of the two instruments and their effect on each other.
Ravel was also able to use dynamics and timbre to a duplicate instrument, this produced different nature of timbre from the other instrument. Even when listening casually to Bolero a there is a feeling of crescendo that progresses all aspects of harmonically to the finale.
The intended effect of this kind of duplication was to develop dynamics, timbre and harmony, at this time (1928) the aim to achieve dynamics was somewhat obvious but timbre here was a thing that was somewhat revolutionary, his harmony was in traditional classical in nature. (Blair.F, 2011) Different harmonic elements in Bolero are used to accompany themes that are in both Major and minor.
The texture of Timbre Ravel describes Bolero as an essay of instrumentation that contains no music, Ravel achieved complex timbre by duplication of simpler timbres combined together, by superimposing many simpler timbers with harmony that was related and also by varying dynamics that were related and duplicated with superimposed simpler timbers.
Comparison of Bolero and baroque
The baroque period refers to the period in which the Roman Catholic church was opposed to the Reformation protestant church, the reformation church concept of music composition was that arts should be a vessel to communicate themes that were religious and more importantly at this time emotional involvement was put into perspective (Academon, 2011, 1), the Roman catholic was opposed to this while the aristo class perceived baroque music as means of showing power and control hence building baroque buildings at the gateways of courts, reception rooms and staircases that were of a grand nature.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Analysis of Ravel’s Music Piece: Bolero specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Baroque composer strived to show the human impact on music which was portrayed directly by human voice when doing solo voice, baroques refused to adhere to the complex nature of polyphony which is found in the later period of renaissance, baroque developed deep application of harmony as the underlining foundation for the polyphonic (Academon, 2011, 1), this had great effect on tone rather than modality, it is where the concept of chords but not notes were responsible for creating an effect of closure, it came to be known as tonality.
(Rebecca.R, 2011, 1) The musical formulations of the baroque period began to evolve and contrapuntal element was regained. The progression of chords was governed by tonality that was not completely developed until the second stage of the baroque period where modes had been reduced to minors and majors, in the second stage of the baroque period saw great and complete development of chordal progression, tonal quality, dissonance, and the formal structure.
Baroque music was characterized by excessive details of music which are to some extend vivid in Ravel’s Bolero as far as harmony color and duplication are concerened however Ravel’s way of composing was largely unique (Pascal.R, 32, 1)
Comparison of Bolero with Classical
Music in the classical period was highly disciplined in style and its structure, while else contemporary music was developed to allow musician to explore more and be free to work away from the rules of classical period (Blair.F, 2011, 1).
Classical concept was to achieve clarity and make portions of compositions containing melodic elements brief, also the style and how presentation was done was very important. (Blair.F 2011, 3)
Bolero is a contemporary piece that does not follow the rules of the classical period that were highly strict and complex while we can see that Ravel’s Bolero was just a simple piece with a lot of repetition.
Classical music had tendencies of being gallant, comfortable to listen to, classical style was bent on achieving graceful and balanced melodic movements. (Carlos.H, 2011, 1)
Comparison of Bolero with Romantic period
The Romantic period did see a lot expansion of formal rules to fit in new experiments, romantic period is a combination of previous ways of how music was composed, the romantic period does note denote writing songs for love (About.com, 2011, 1), though emotional compositions were prevalent at this stage, romantic period was less stringent and gave composers a lot of room to explore their skill in fact the romantic period is known for bending the rules of the previous’ period (classical) structure the romantic period explored the application of ensembles that were large, emotions that were extreme and a nature of orchestration that was wild.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Ravel’s Music Piece: Bolero by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More (Rebecca.R, 2011, 1) We see that Ravel’s Bolero was a very unique piece an also adventurous, by trying out something that was supposedly thought to be monotonous, for instance the way Bolero used reputation and was able to capture his audience in an unthinkable magnitude.
Bolero’s composition has traces of elements roughly dating to all the past periods of the music eras though the contemporary form is more evident as far as freedom of play with limited options in his pieces, alluding to the we he uses repetition (About.com, 2011, 1).
Works Cited About.com. Romantic period- Music from 1820 to 1900. About.com, 2011. Web.
Academon. Comparison of Renaissance Vs Baroque Art. Academon, 2011. Web.
Blair.F. Difference between classical and contemporary Music. Ehow, 2011. Web.
Carlos.H. Baroque Music. Essayinfo. Web.
Gofredo.H etal. The model of Ravel’s Bolero. Milan: Laboratoria di Inforamica Musicale, 2011.
Pascal.R. Bolero. New York: Roult, 2011.
Rebecca.R. classical Music. New York: Suit101. Web.
Corporate Team Building Strategies Essay best essay help: best essay help
Increased global competition, changing work realities, mergers and acquisitions and decline in middle management besides benefits of teams in leveraging organizational strengths and offsetting new challenges has resulted to the rise in prominence of teams in organizations (Gordon, 2002).
However, while use of teams is ever becoming more common, the success of teams in any organization is not guaranteed. Recent literature on the effectiveness of teams has resulted to myriad of strategies that firms may adopt in ensuring that teams are successful (Mealia et al, 2005).
While some of the strategies have proven to be effective in enhancing the success of teams, others have been wrought with challenges that have rendered teams less effective.
One current strategy that is effective in corporate team building is deciding on the type of team design to adopt in an organization. The choice of team designs range from self-directed teams, problem-solving teams, cross-functional teams and virtual teams (Bass, 2007).
Use of different team designs is influenced by literature on behavioral science, which suggests that successful team building is dependent on various desirable characteristics which can be built in the work environment (Mealia et al, 2005).
The mix of factors depends on the type of team, organizations characteristics, nature of power relations, number of team members, and the type of organization among other factors. The type of design that firms adopt impact on the effectiveness of the teams and thus team building must take into consideration these factors.
Problem-solving teams are important in solving various problems that organizations face. Problem solving teams often consist of a few individuals who are crucial in decision making in various spheres of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effectiveness of problem-solving teams stems from the opportunity for sharing ideas, and offering suggestions thus resulting to better output of solutions. Problem-solving teams may use such strategies as quality circles.
Self-management team strategy on the other hand is a team building strategy that involves teams that perform related and interdependent tasks. Self-management teams often take the responsibilities that were being handled by supervisors.
The advantage of self-management team building strategy includes reduced middle level management and supervisors and consequently enhancing savings by the organization. The disadvantage attributed to this team strategy includes lack of involvement of some of the team members in work-related processes and decisions (Bass, 2007).
The evident failures of self-managed teams have contributed to growth of fully self-managed teams. These teams plan for work, assign roles to each member, select members and besides evaluating how each person in the team performs (Bass, 2007).
This model has been mores successful in improving productivity and quality in manufacturing companies.
Despite the success of self-managed teams, various studies have indicated that self-managed teams are not effective during downsizing and may also not be effective in certain cultures that have strong respect for hierarchical authority and high tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty as evidenced in the failure of self-managed teams in Mexico (Bass 2007).
Another team building strategy is use of cross-functional design in team building. Cross-functional teams aim at enhancing the firm’s ability to meet clients changing needs by ensuring that all clients’ issues are handled within one team instead of being handled by different departments.
We will write a custom Essay on Corporate Team Building Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such teams may be composed of persons within the same work positions but from diverse work areas (Bass 2007).
The advantage of such teams is evident speed in actualization of projects. Major challenges include building trust amongst the team members especially early in the formation of the team and difficulties in working in diverse and complex settings from their normal areas of specialization (Bass 2007).
Virtual teams is also another strategy in team building, which uses virtual world of technology to bring together dispersed members in order to achieve various goals (Gordon, 2002).
Virtual teams are marked by limited social contact, absence of verbal and non-verbal cues, and constraints of space and time. This results to less interaction, less social rapport, and are marked by decreased group satisfaction compared to face-to-face teams (Bass 2007).
However, it has the advantage of allowing people who may not have ordinarily worked together to come together and work together.
References Bass, J. (2007). Team Building: Strategies for improving team performance. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.
Gordon, J. (2002). Team building. Journal of American Academy of Business, 2(1), 185-189.
Mealiea, L., Laird, N., Baltazar, R.,
International relations: China and India Essay essay help
Introduction China and India are two countries in Asia separated by the Himalayan Mountain. Both countries are growing rapidly in terms of economy. They are becoming both locally and internationally important in the economy of the world and are affecting globalization to the greatest extent.
Both countries, China and India, have experienced this growth because of good political leadership, security and investment in industrialization. The citizens of these two countries are engaged in intensive business throughout the world and this is why they are in a good position to control the world economy. China and India relate even in the military sector.
The current partnership between Asian countries India and China has a great impact on the world economy. These are the largest emerging economies that will set the pace of the global economy. This essay will discuss the impact of India and China power at the international trade system. The strategy and the impacts that both countries have at the local and international levels will be examined.
India India is in the process of gaining great power at the international market. This is because of its diversity in ethics and a strong economic system. The growth of India was for the first time noted when New Delhi signed a nuclear pact with President George W. Bush in July 2005. India is now growing rapidly in the global balance of power. This is a sign that it will be able to control some sectors in the global economy (Foreign Affairs, 2011, p. 1).
China China is third largest country after Russia and Canada and it has the highest population of 1.3 billion. It has a strong military force with nuclear weapons. Economically it is the fourth largest trading country in the world.
It has registered a rapid growth since 1978. In 1997 it rose to the tenth position in the world on terms of economic development. This growth is a clear indication that it can shoot to the top position (Dellios, 2005, p. 1).
China has a great planning system that strategizes to give the nation strength to exploit many opportunities in the global market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The leadership in China considers foreign nations as important and encourages carrying out of business with other countries.
China is currently growing at a slightly higher rate of 1% more than India which is growing at a rate of 9% per annum (Taipei Times, 2011, p. 1), this is an outstanding growth rate: “As in the new 21st century finally dawned, it was China, rather than the pacific that was catching the attention; the future was pointing to China, a global power shift” (Scott, n.d., p. 101).
This was after a partnership with USA. The economic planning in China has been impressive and a critical turning point in the world’s economy (Scott, n.d., p. 101); the 21st Century is said to belong to the Chinese.
India China Economy There has been an increased trade between India and China in the recent years which was not well established some years back.
Today both countries are beneficiaries of this trade: “In 2004, India’s total trade to China crossed US $13.6 billion, with Indian exports to China touching $ 7677.43 million and imports from china at US $ 5926.67 million” (Stanley, n.d., p. 1).
These relationships between these two countries were made in 1950: “India was the second country to establish diplomatic relations with China among the non socialist countries” (Stanley, n.d., p. 1). India and China agreed to work together for the benefit of the two countries (Stanley, n.d., p. 1).
Currently the effect that these two countries have on the global market cannot be denied
The global business revolution that has been unfolding in India and China over the past 15 years is currently also having, and will continue to have a major impact on the economies of the US, the EU, and other parts of Western Europe, Africa, Latin America and South Asia over the next two to five decades; albeit in varying degrees. (Peters, n.d., p. 1)
We will write a custom Essay on International relations: China and India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the decline in exports and major losses of Chinese caused by lower exports to the US and bank losses, China’s economy has not been threatened by these factors. The government has strategized to invest in key areas of education, health and infrastructure.
China’s economic status is mostly dependent on productivity rather than on exports. Thus the greatest effects of their economy are within and cannot fall because of other countries. It is even seen that it is other countries that depend on China compared to their dependence on other countries (Peters, n.d., p. 2).
However, China has a very high population. Many people earn less than two US dollars per day. From research it is estimated that about 25% graduates in one year do not get employed because of lack of jobs. This has been as a result of decreased demand for exports.
Accumulation of many jobless people in the society including the educated ones is a threat to security in the country. There is a need for the country to have policies to address this issue. Majority of those in rural areas also live in poverty (Peters, n.d., p. 3).
Though both China and India are experiencing growth in their economy, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening day after day.
There is urgent need to address the problem by introducing rules and regulations to govern the people so as to have resources, jobs and wealth distributed equally among the citizens. This is because as long as a country grows economically, it is the social and political stability that fuels it (Peters, n.d., p. 4).
The second threat to the economy of China is education. China has greatest education system but the system fails to train on skills.
This decreases their efficiency in exportation. While India has a good education system, it has a very huge number of illiterate people. In both countries there is also a significant difference in the number of educated males and females.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International relations: China and India by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most females have been left out of education and are illiterate. Another major problem is the brain drain, whereby the most learned scientists leaves the country to work in US (Peters, n.d., p. 6).
Sustainable development can only be achieved by investing in higher education. This will enhance productivity which in turn will bring a higher demand of labor. Failure to do this will stop them from having great international power that has been brought by their rapid economic growth.
Conclusion China and India have flourished economically in the 21st Century. Most of the growth has come as a result of industrialization and political stability in the countries. The two countries have strategized and acquired markets in many foreign countries and this has led them to earn a lot of foreign exchange.
By their partnership they are able to have a greater influence on the global market. However, the two countries are under some threats in social political sectors. To have a sustainable development the two countries must work to bridge the gap between the rich and poor and also invest in education without discriminating between genders.
References Dellios, A. (2005) International Relations. Web.
Foreign Affairs. (2011) Foreign Affairs. Web.
Peters, B. Adjustments to the Global Economic Crisis by India and China. Web.
Scott, F. The 21st Century as whose century? Web.
Stanley, T. Economy Watch. Web.
Taipei Times. (2011) International Relations. Web.
Critique of a study on staffing issues in small hospitality business Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Hospitality industries found in college towns across the United States live under constant threat of cost of labor, subnormal profits, stiff competition, escalating prices of food, and economic meltdown.
Not so many people have labored themselves to study the problems that hospitality businesses that are found in college towns especially restaurant go through despite the fact that massive resources have been spent in studies pertaining to hospitality businesses.
This study’s objectives were to answer questions touching on the extent to which shortage of labor affected restaurants found in college towns. If employee turnover was an issue to such enterprises, to what extent did it impact such businesses?
Finally, the study sought to establish other challenges that proprietors of small restaurant in college towns endured or succumbed to. Because of not so elaborate literature in this area of study researchers and stakeholders have been forced to contend with very harsh realities associated with coming up with amicable solutions to such scenarios.
The main objective of the study was to ventilate the possible problems that proprietors of restaurants in college towns face while trying to address the aforementioned challenges.
Literature Review The major problem that hospitality industry faced was the difficulty associated with retention of employees coupled with high rate of employee turnover.
They had difficulty attracting, retaining and motivating their employees (Baron, 2008). Reasons that were attributed to high rate of employee turnover included the odd working hours, instability because of its seasonal nature, low remuneration, and the law status of jobs that hospitality businesses offer (Wildes, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Findings from contemporary hospitality studies emphasized the nobility of environmental studies. This depicted restaurants as barring employee retention (Dermody, 2002).
Studies also suggested that the working conditions and the employ fulfillment are very critical to employees so much so that payment was a distant third. A stable workforce translates into employee satisfaction, their motivation. This lifts their self-esteem. It was therefore imperative that proprietors of such business enterprises come up with employee training programme, nurture employee empowerment and their autonomy.
Such employees become consistent in their service delivery. Leadership skills, it was reported, could be positively used to tame high rate of employee turnover.
This put leadership at the helm of effective management of any business enterprise (Erkutlu and Chafra, 2006). Owners of restaurants failed to move to tame the high rate of employee turnover because of fear of incurring losses related to high wages and salaries (Enz, 2004).
This showed lack of leadership skills in such proprietors. Restaurants owners had a perception that their casual staff would not work for them in a protracted period. This was coupled with their monetary worries.
Basically, the inability of restaurant owners to treat their employees well is evident in the way the employees left such organizations (Taylor et al 2001). This impacted negatively on the quality of services offered and their market share.
An organization will try to put up a culture or their philosophy. However, this proves futile when there is a very high rate of employee turn over (Deery and Shaw, 1999). Many employees constantly sought for alternative jobs when they had a feeling that they were not given positions of responsibility.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critique of a study on staffing issues in small hospitality business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, when this issue is amicably addressed, it can lead to competitive advantage (Hinkin and Tracey, 2000). Proprietors of restaurants that are grappling with high rate of employee turnover should think about coming up with practical strategies that would curb the problem and strengthen the business market share.
This can be done inform of undertaking on-site training (Barrows, 2000). Satisfied customers mean a successful restaurant. The input of the staff here is very pivotal (Pratten, 2003).
The effectiveness of an organization is heavily impacted on by human resource outcomes (Koys, 2001). Cost-benefit analysis of training program, that many researchers recommend employees to undergo, asserts that managers should get money meant for training from reluctant owners of such restaurants (Clement and Josiam, 1995).
Moreover, it is cumbersome coming up with quantitative value of such costs (Simon and Hinkin, 2001). The literature basically addressed hospitality industry as a whole. It did not address hospitality industries that are found in college town. This formed the basis for doing this research.
Methodology The research was qualitative because it tries to address why there is high rate of employee turnover and not how. The study that was conducted in November 2008 had 41 participants from hospitality industries in southern U.S.A. Small independently owned restaurants within six mile radius were preferred.
This was the exclusion criterion. Letters were sent to 39 enterprises highlighting the study objective. Proprietors were invited to participate in the study. Letters were used to ask for participants’ consent.
This ensured that none participated unwillingly which can be unethical. Data collection tools used face-to-face or telephone interview. 29 letters were dispatched to the owners where as 7 of them were left with the duty managers.
3 letters were put in the business mailbox. An additional restaurant was recruited into the study because of its small size, its popularity with the local people, and its proximity from the research university.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critique of a study on staffing issues in small hospitality business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Telephone interviews were conducted with the 41 respondents at the time of their choice. However, day times were preferred as long as they never coincided with thanksgiving and Christmas.
After 34 owners had initially shown interest in participating only 21 did participate. This marked 51.2% response rate. Four interviews were conducted on face-to-face basis and 16 over the phone. Phones were convenient to many respondents. The 51.2% response rate proved the validity and reliability of the research.
The data was analyzed by first summarizing participating business characteristics. This involved tabulating age of operation and the number of businesses that fall in that category.
Findings of the research show that many restaurants found in college towns struggle to survive in the long term. The study also suggested that these businesses survive despite operating in very competitive set-up.
This is attributed to their successful strategy. The respondents said high rate of employ turnover in their business is because of desire by people to have long work hours.
Nature of environment in the location impacted on the industry because many of the students would live after graduating or will generally look for work elsewhere. High turnover was also attributed to employee unrealistic expectations. Some employees opt to move on because they are not capable of coping with work pressure. This is coupled with their inability to act professionally.
Conclusions, impacts, and areas which future research should focus on Contemporary hospitality literature has turned deaf year to restaurants in college towns hence initiation of this study. Most businesses struggle to retain their employees and change their attitude towards work.
Most of the respondents in this study had no problem of picking their workers. They reckoned that their staff had issues with discipline and commitment. It is absurd that after going through all these problems, none of them has thought about coming up with strategies to curb high employee turnover.
The owners of these businesses should come up with ways with which to retain their employees because there may be employees who are actually looking for long-term employment.
Staffing issues has been singled out as a serious problem that restaurants in college towns grapple with. Areas that future research can delve into include identifications of initiatives these restaurants can use to minimize employ retention menace, customer dimension between restaurants that have integrated aspects of employee retention, and challenges proprietors face in relation to the current economic situation.
Reference List Barron, P., 2008. Education and talent management: implications for the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20 (7), 730–742.
Barrows, C.W., 2000. An exploratory study of food and beverage training in private clubs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12 (3), 190–197.
Clements, C.J., Josiam, B.M., 1995. Training: quantifying the financial benefits. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 7 (1), 10–15.
Deery, M.A., Shaw, R.N., 1999. An investigation of the relationship between employee turnover and organizational culture. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 23 (4), 387–400.
Dermody, M.B., 2002. Recruitment and retention practices in independent and chain restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 3 (1), 107–117.
Enz, C.A., 2004. Issues of concern for restaurant owners and managers. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, 45 (4), 315–332.
Erkutlu, H.V., Chafra, J., 2006. Relationship between leadership power bases and job stress of subordinates: example from boutique hotels. Management Research News, 29 (5), 285–297.
Hinkin, T.R., Tracey, J.B., 2000. The cost of turnover: putting a price on the learning curve. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41, 14–21
Koys, D.J., 2001. The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviour, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: a unit-level, longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology 54, 101–114.
Pratten, J.D., 2003. The importance of waiting staff in restaurant service. British Food Journal 105 (11), 826–834.
Simons, T., Hinkin, T., 2001. The effect of employee turnover in hotel profits: a test across multiple hotels. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42, 65–69.
Wildes, V.J., 2007. Attracting and retaining food servers: how internal service quality moderates occupational stigma. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26, 4–19.
History of U.S. Film Essay a level english language essay help
Probably the most dramatic event in 20th century’s U.S. history was America’s entry into WW2. In its turn, this entry has been triggered by Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Therefore, it does not come as particular surprise why researching this event represents not only historical but also political, military and philosophical interest – after all, due to what happened on that date, America had lost a part of its ‘innocence’, as nation.1
This also explains why, throughout the course of 20th century, there has been a number of movies and documentaries produced, in which the attack on Pearl Harbor accounts for the main theme.
In this paper, we will compare and contrast how earlier mentioned historical event is being portrayed in Richard Fleischer and Akira Kurosawa’s 1970 movie “Tora! Tora! Tora!”, in Michael Bay’s 2001 movie “Pearl Harbor”, and in British 1998 documentary “Great Mysteries And Myths Of The Twentieth Century: The Mystery of Pearl Harbor”, narrated by Robert Powell.
What sets “Tora! Tora! Tora!” apart from “Pearl Harbor” is that movie’s initial titles claim the full historical authenticity of depicted events: “All of the events and characters depicted are true to historical fact” (00.24.00).
And, the watching of this movie largely supports the validity of such a claim, as directors had made a point in representing Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor as having been dialectically predetermined by the particulars of geopolitical situation in the world at that time.2
According to the movie, in 1941, the Japanese only had two options of how to deal with an acute shortage of natural resources, experienced by their country due to America’s trade embargo – they had either to pull out of China or to declare war on U.S., in desperate attempt to ensure the continuous existence of Japan as an Empire. There is a memorable scene in the movie, which depicts Japanese high-ranking politicians in the midst of deciding of how to deal with the situation: “America is against the war we are waging in China…
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Now we are threatened with an embargo on raw materials we need… Either we improve relations with the U.S. and withdraw from China, or find another source of raw materials in Indo-China” (00.08.17). Reluctantly, Japanese politicians had chosen in favor of second option- hence, sealing their country’s eventual demise.
Such directors’ treatment of a theme of what prompted Japanese to declare war on America is being indeed consistent with the notion of historical authenticity. After all, most historians do agree with suggestion that Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was rather rationale-driven then irrationally malicious, which implies that the blame for the outbreak of Pacific War cannot be solely placed on Japan. 3
In “Pearl Harbor”, on another hand, Bay strived to represent the motivation behind Japan’s attack as such that has been fueled by Japanese people’s irrational hatred of President Roosevelt.
In the scene, where Japanese high-ranking naval officers discuss what should account for the best way to proceed with the attack, officer Oyama states: “Franklin Roosevelt. Born into great wealth. Fifteen years ago, he was stricken with polio. Now he cannot walk… Americans do not wish to know how weak their President is” (00.40.02).
The President Roosevelt himself, however, is being shown as some sort of a Saint, whose main priority in life has been providing free military and financial assistance to those who fought evil Nazis, at the expense of American taxpayers: “Churchill and Stalin are asking me what I’m asking you – how long is America going to pretend the world is not at war?..
What they (British and Soviets) really need are tanks, planes, bullets, bombs and men to fight” (00.33.11).
It is needless to mention, of course, that such movie’s interpretation of the role President Roosevelt played in creating objective preconditions for U.S. to be eventually plunged into WW2, quite contrary to what he initially promised to American voters, can be best referred to as historically inaccurate.
We will write a custom Essay on History of U.S. Film specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The real motivation behind Roosevelt’s warmongering was his realization of a simple fact that, unless American economy receives a powerful boost, as the result of a country having entered the WW2, it would only be the matter of short time before the sheer counter-productiveness of his essentially Socialist ‘New Deal’ policy becomes clear to Americans.4
The watching of “Great Mysteries and Myths of the Twentieth Century: The Mystery of Pearl Harbor” confirms the validity of our earlier suggestion that it would be quite inappropriate to idealize Roosevelt.
After all, as it appears from this documentary, President’s wife Eleanor never ceased exerting a strong political influence upon her husband, without even trying to keep its affiliation with American Communist Party in secret.
Therefore, there is nothing particularly odd about the fact that many historians used to refer to Eleanor Roosevelt as the most influential Communist spy that this country has ever known. This would also explain why Stalin used to treat Roosevelt as nothing less of his lowly puppet. 5
In 1940, American Naval Intelligence had deciphered Japanese diplomatic code (so-called code ‘Purple’), which meant that the content of all secret communications between Japan’s government and Japanese embassies around the world was becoming instantly known to Americans.
Initially, Roosevelt was included in the list of those governmental officials who had the access to this deciphered information. However, in 1941, General George Marshall (Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army) had banned Roosevelt from the list.
This was the reason why, after the end of WW2, Marshall was held accountable for Pacific Fleet’s unpreparedness, in the wake of Japanese attack. After all, it was due to his earlier mentioned order that, prior to December 7, 1941, Roosevelt was not fully aware of what was going on in the Pacific.
Nevertheless, there is another interesting scene in “Tora! Tora! Tora!”, which implies that Marshall’s decision, in this respect, might not have been quite as irrational as it is now being commonly assumed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of U.S. Film by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In that scene, Colonel Bratton reveals what prompted Marshall to decide in favor of withholding the most sensitive intelligence information from the President:
“The order stands. The President is off the ultra list… Security found a copy of an intercept in a wastebasket at the White House. Truth is, the brass don’t trust some men close to the President” (00.30.27). Apparently, just as it was pointed out in British documentary, there were a number of objective reasons for many socially prominent Americans at the time to distrust Roosevelt.
Given the fact that Bay’s “Pearl Harbor” is essentially a love-flick, spiced with action, it is quite explainable why it explores the controversy, surrounding the events that preceded Japanese attack, in perceptionaly feminine manner.
According to the movie, prior to December 7, 1941, the commanding staff of Pacific Fleet consisted of intellectually rigid morons, incapable of recognizing the signs of an impending attack. Nevertheless, among them, there was one nerdish-looking but very bright Captain Thurman, who was able to predict that Japanese would strike Pearl Harbor on December 7.
And, the reason why he was able to do it is that, unlike the rest of ‘male-chauvinistic’ officers, he knew how to remain in touch with his ‘feelings’: “(Thurman) We guess, it’s like playing chess in the dark…(Spruance) So, sir, you would have us mobilize the entire fleet, at the cost of millions of dollars, based on this spine-tingling feeling of yours? (Thurman) No, sir, my job is to interpret… making difficult decisions, is yours” (01.09.36).
And, of course, according to the movie, President Roosevelt was trying to do his best to prevent the Japanese attack by riding around in wheel-chair, by coming up with vague moralistic statements as to the overall evilness of Japanese and Germans, and by expressing his full support to British cause in the war.
And yet, as it was shown in British documentary, it was due to Roosevelt’s unwavering belief in Churchill’s ‘good nature’, that close to two thousands of American soldiers had lost their lives on December 7, 1941. According to the documentary, in 1939, British Intelligence had successfully cracked Japanese JN-25 naval code.
Therefore, even as early as in November of 1941, Churchill was fully aware of the precise date and place where Japanese were going to strike America: “Churchill knew about JN-25 just about everything. Yet, British were not sharing their knowledge of this code with Americans” (00.15.54).
As today’s historians are being well aware of, it is namely on the condition that all the phases of Japanese operation against Pearl Harbor would be kept in complete secrecy from Americans right to the very end, that Admiral Yamamoto agreed to lead the attack.
Therefore, had Yamamoto’s JN-25 deciphered orders to the Imperial Fleet from November 25 and December 2 been disclosed to Americans by Churchill, this would have allowed Pacific Fleet to whether ambush Japanese carriers, or to force them to turn back, because then, the Japanese would have been deprived of the element of surprise.
However, under no circumstances Churchill wanted to allow this to happen, because this would have delayed or even prevented America’s entry into WW2.
If this was to be the case, Churchill would have no option but to sign peace treaty with Germans, which in its turn, might have resulted in British Prime Minister being charged with ‘committing crimes against humanity’, on account of his exploits in Africa, during the course of Boer War, or on account of his other less then honorable doings.
In other words, in 1941, Churchill deliberately allowed the Japanese to attack America, as it has gotten him an ally in the war against Germany. After all, Brits have always been known for their talent in fighting their own wars with foreign-born men.
Just as it used to be the case with Indians, Malayans, Canadians, Australians, South-Africans, etc., in the eyes of Churchill, Americans were nothing but expendable ‘cannon meat’ – pure and simple.
Therefore, for anyone with even slight knowledge of history of WW2, Roosevelt’s enthusiasm in trying to plunge U.S. into the war on the side of Britain and on the side of Soviet ‘workers’ paradise’ (as seen in ‘Pearl Harbor’ movie) appears to be yet additional proof as to his naivety and consequentially his professional incompetence, to say the least.
Nevertheless, given the fact that during the time of his Presidency, rather than being accused of ‘naivety’, Roosevelt used to be getting accused of ‘scheming’, the idea that, just as it was the case with Churchill, Roosevelt knew the exact date and location where Japanese attack was going to take place, does not appear utterly improbable.
There is a scene in “Tora! Tora! Tora!” movie, where Lieutenant General Walter Short gets to read out the newly received telegram from The White House: “Japanese future action unpredictable. But hostile action possible at any moment.
If hostilities cannot be avoided the United States desires that Japan commit the first overt act” (00.56.19). The reason why Roosevelt’s administration ‘desired’ for Japanese to commit first overt act is simple – had Japan struck first, this would automatically untie President’s hands in his intention to set America on the path of war with Germany – in full accordance with Churchill’s ‘desire’.
In this respect, an unmistakable parallel could be drawn between how in 1941, Roosevelt succeed in gaining America the status of ‘aggression’s victim’ and how in 1939, Stalin succeeded in gaining USSR the status of a ‘neutral country’, even though him and Hitler had both attacked Poland, almost at the same time.
Stalin simply waited for a week, before attacking Poland from the East – this allowed him to present USSR as ‘liberator’; whereas, Hitler’s Germany will forever be branded as ‘aggressor’.6 Apparently, on the arena of international politics, there can be no ‘wrongdoers’ and ‘good-doers’, but only winners and losers. As popular saying goes – victors write the history.
Because “Tora! Tora! Tora!” and “Pearl Harbor” belong to the genre of action-movie, on one hand, and “Great Mysteries and Myths of the Twentieth Century: The Mystery of Pearl Harbor” belong to the genre of documentary, on another; it would prove conceptually fallacious comparing and contrasting all three films’ semantic contents.
After all, British documentary is essentially a narration, supplemented by episodes from WW2 newsreels. Nevertheless, the provided earlier analysis of how Bay and Fleischer/Kurosawa went about depicting Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 leaves very little doubt that, comparing to “Pearl Harbor”, “Tora! Tora! Tora!” is being much more historically accurate.
Partially, this can be explained by the fact that, by the time Fleischer and Kurosawa were filming “Tora! Tora! Tora!”, the hawks of political correctness were not in position of censoring Hollywood movies on enclosure of controversial themes and motifs.
At the same time, when compared with “Tora! Tora! Tora!”, Bay’s “Pearl Harbor” appears much more cinematically appealing, which comes as the result of its semantic simplicity, its emotional ‘sappiness’ and its richness in special effects.
In addition, when compared to what it is the case with “Tora! Tora! Tora!”, “Pearl Harbor” features much better performance, on the part of actors. Nevertheless, when compared to “Pearl Harbor” and ““Tora! Tora! Tora!”, the apparent advantage of Powell’s documentary is that its watching stimulates analytical working of viewers’ brain cells.
And, it is namely the people endowed with analytical mindset, who are being in position to lend qualitative views onto the actual significance of historical events.
Bibliography: Great Mysteries and Myths of the Twentieth Century: The Mystery of Pearl Harbor. Narrated by Robert Powell. 1998; Thames International.
Masaru, Ikei. “Examples of Mismanagement in U.S. Policy toward Japan before World War II” in Pearl Harbor Reexamined: Prologue to the Pacific War, ed. Hilary Conroy
Prepaid Wireless Industry Research Paper college essay help near me
Technology has totally revolutionalized the manner in which we carry our day-to-day activities. The communication industry seems to be one of the greatest beneficiaries of the advanced technology since there are so many changes that have taken place.
Life has become easier and simpler with the technological advancements. The prepaid wireless industry is one of the industries that has emerged as a result of advancement in technology. This industry is highly competitive and this has seen many companies come up and stiff competition that is characteristic of this industry and has ensured that customers benefit greatly due to the high quality services being offered.
The focus of this discussion will be on some of the key players in this dynamic and highly competitive industry. The companies in focus are epay worldwide.com. Emida.net and eurekarevenue.com. This discussion will also look at some of the advantages that each of these services has and which of the companies is stronger.
Epay. Com is an international company whose main business is the distribution of payments solutions electronically. These services are instrumental in helping providers of various services reap maximally from the sales of their services as well as products.
With more than half a million selling points in various countries of the world like Spain, Ireland, Italy, India and Germany, epay.com has continued to deliver highly innovative and specific tailored services as far as making of payment by electronic means in concerned (Epay 3).
The advantage of the prepaid services provided by epay.com is that customers are able to access an array of gift cards which are branded. With this concept of prepaid, retailers are able to come up with categories and destinations that are fully supported by experts from epay. Retailers also have the advantage of being able to distribute their services throughout the network.
Emida.net on the other hand is a company that operates globally whose main services include the making prepayments globally as well as value transfer market. This company operates in more than 30 counties in the whole American region and part of the African and Caribbean region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The retail points supported by Emida.com are estimated to be about 46,000 with annual payment of the dollar being estimated to stand at $1.4 billion with estimates of transaction transacted by the company being estimated to stand at 180 million.
Some of the advantages that emida.com has included allowing international as well as domestic distribution of various products which are prepaid in nature and services that involve payments. Retailers, ISOs, service providers and carriers using emida.net also have the advantage of getting robust revenues.
Currently, emida.net is said to be leading as far as proving prepaid services is concerned. One issue that distinguishes emida.net from other companies is the fact Eureka has partnered with most of the well established carriers throughout the world and this has enabled eureka to a great extent to create a reliable network which has proven helpful to clients throughout the world.
This company also caters for long distance prepaid services and this has brought about convenience and customers are able to get value and the revenue goes up.
Any retailer or service provider who has subscribed with emida will also be in a position to offer all their customers, cost effective, convenient and safe options that they can implement to ensure that their financial needs are well managed.
Under the financial services provided by emida, your clients will comfortably be able to purchase stored value cards as well as prepaid debit and also foot their bills. Through these services, it will also be possible for them to make transfers of money to family and friends in convenient hassle free manner.
The kind of services that you will receive from Emida will ensure that the portfolio of your products is well built (Emida 2). It is common knowledge especially in the world today that payment of bills especially if they are hefty can prove to be very risky.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Prepaid Wireless Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides the risk, the hassle involves is nothing to write home about. Having paid full recognition to the challenges that consumers experience in payment of bills Emida has come up with a way of making it easy for clients to foot their bills which is not only easier but also more reliable and convenient.
The payment solution provided by Emida ensures that you gain access to numerous billers from telecommunication to providers of utilities, insurance among others.
With this pay bill solution, all one needs to do is to make payments at a local shop and this helps eliminate the risk factor as well as one is saved the hassle of making the payments and also one is able to save time that would have been wasted in making queues.
For those customers who have subscribed to AT
Joint Venture of Business in Finland Report (Assessment) online essay help: online essay help
Finland sits in the European Union that it joined in 1995 and is continually attracting the international market (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12). Geographically, Finland has a 900 miles border between it and Russia.
In addition to its location, it is strategically placed in the growing market that is contributed greatly by its proximity to Russia, Scandinavia and the Baltic States, which have a market size of close to 80 million consumers (“Doing Business” 2005, p. 12).
As compared to other countries, there is a misplaced conception that Finland is a member of the large Scandinavian region but in contrary; Finland has its own specific monetary mark with the Finnish mark in it.
To be the highly coveted market in the European region it has the most developed industrial economy and it places it as the leading competitor in the telecom market (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12).
Economic factors The economic factors that affect investment of a business in a region could be inflation rate, exchange rates, monetary supply policies and licensing policies that affect investment of companies in the region (Pajunen 2006, p. 1). The affected investors will look at the performance of other related companies in the region and determine if they will be able to establish themselves in the market.
In relation to this, Finland has the highest mixed market. The reason as to why it has been a perfect target for business venture is as a result of the country having currently attracted the largest size of international market (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).
The international market currently makes a third of the country’s GDP where companies from European region makes 60% of the total investment in the land (Pajunen 2006, p. 1). The other important aspect about Finland is the fact their trade policies are controlled by the European Union, thus they are not continuously fluctuating and this helps in increasing market reliability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financial statistics show that Finland has a lowest inflation rate that is at 1.2% as at 2010. There is also the lowest rate of unemployment that was also reported to be at around 8.1% according to the 2010 reports on the economic performance of the country.
The other important aspect is the fact the country currently has a labor force of close to 3 million workers making it a suitable place for investing since there is a readily available labor (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).
The country is capable of spending within its means since it has a revenue income of close to 66.6 billion dollars and it spends close to 65.3 billion dollars making it the best country since they can be able to budget for their expenses (Rouvinen 2001, p. 350).
The surplus in their revenue makes it have a stable rate of taxation. It has the lowest lending rates and the exchange rates of the currency are stable due to the low rate of inflation (Pajunen 2006, p. 1).
Legal factors When looking at the legal factors that affect trade investment in Finland, they vary depending on the type of investment that the organization intends to venture in (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1). Most of the legal factors are set out by Finland as a country and supported by the European Union, which it is a signatory.
Some of the regulations are import tariffs. These are the taxes that are levied on goods at the point of entry to Finland (“Legal Environment” 2011, p. 1).
The revenue paid on the goods depends on the original value of goods that are being imported. In most cases the importation tax rates range from 0-17% which is considered rather a considerable amount that most companies and investors can work with in the field of importation.
We will write a custom Assessment on Joint Venture of Business in Finland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other factor is the trade barriers. Trade barriers are meant to control trade relationship between Finland and other European countries and other non-European countries (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1). Finland is reported to have introduced a different turnover tax with the value added tax by June of 1994 (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).
The review of the taxation criteria has seen most of goods and other commodities that were not previously subjected to taxation are nowadays being taxed at a lower tax rate. The country has the basic VAT rate at a very considerable rate of 22% which was reviewed from the old turnover (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).
They have special taxes placed for food stuffs that are taxed at 17%. In a different case, there are other special taxes for goods that are meant for entertainment, medicines, books, performances and sporting events, museums and other institutions that are taxed at a fairly low rate of 8%making the cost of living to be fairly low and considerate (Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011, p. 1).
Another legal requirement is the importation requirements and documentations. The country has put up regulations that require some goods to be accompanied by special documents to make sure that their quality and safety can be authenticated (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1).
These mostly apply on consumable goods and other goods that have a direct consumption by the consumers.
Other legal dispensations are a temporally entry that allows a free entry of some goods but only for a short duration (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1).
The other regulation is including special labeling and marking of goods for some products (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, p. 1). The labeling shows the manufacturer and the chemical composition of some of the products; hence, in case of any further explanation they can be contacted.
Hofstede Framework for Cultural Issues in Finland A number of theorists argue that culture is a civilization or the refinement of the mind and it results from factors such as refinement, education, art and the literature that is available for the society (Ailon 2008, p. 885).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joint Venture of Business in Finland by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Hofstede, he refers to culture as mind software; meaning that it is based on the mind and it dictates the way a group of people behave or conceptualize the world (Hofstede 2005, p. 214).
Culture is adopted but one is not born with it hence, it is not in the genes of the individuals. As stated earlier, culture is shared by people who have a similar social contact or rather are living in the same region (Ailon 2008, p. 885). Also, culture can be adopted according to their social class that individuals belong to.
According to Hofstede, it is important to distinguish culture from human nature and individual’s personality (Hofstede 2005, p. 214). While venturing into the Finnish market, it is important to understand that culture can manifest itself in different ways that includes values, rituals, heroes and symbols (Hofstede 2005, p. 214).
When venturing into a particular country, it is important to understand all cultural symbols that are used by the natives as well as understand their meaning (Higgs n.d, p.1). Understanding culture will help in coming up with less offensive symbols.
There are some words that are used by Finland natives that have a cultural history into them hence; carrying out such a research is important to the success of a newly venturing company into the country (Hofstede 2005, p. 214). In the case of heroes, the investing company should be sensitive to associate with the type of heroes that are recognized by the society that is targeted by the company (Higgs n.d, p.1).
Rituals are other components of culture; the companies that are coming into Finland should have done research to establish etiquettes and organizational cultures that are in line with the culture of the natives (Ailon 2008, p. 885).
What and/or if the Government Has Done to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) The Finnish government has put in great effort in encouraging foreign direct investment. To attain this, the government has removed regulatory limitations that depend on the acquisition (US commercial Service 2005, p. 12).
There are no controls on the mergers and this has been the rules to make sure that the European market is highly infiltrated (Rouvinen 2001, p. 1). The other effort that the country has made is to ensure that there is proportional competition from privately owned corporations and the government owned organizations (US commercial Service 2005, p. 22).
However, there are regulations that require all foreign owners of companies venturing into the Finnish market to provide to the government for processing of taxes (Rouvinen 2001, p. 1).
In conclusion, the Finnish government has created the best conditions for starting business ventures. The economic stability acts as the barometer to tell how the country is ready for foreign investments.
References Ailon G 2008, ‘Mirror, mirror on the wall: Culture’s Consequences in a value test of its own design’, The Academy of Management Review , vol. 33, no 4, pp. 885-904.
Higgs, M n.d, Overcoming the problems of cultural differences to establish success for international management teams. Web.
Hofstede, G 2005, Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Legal Environment Factors Affecting Business 2011. Web.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1960, ‘regulatory reform in finland: Enhancing market openness through regulatory reform’, vol 2, pp. 34- 45.
Pajunen, A 2006, Tuloerot Suomessa vuosina 1966-2003. Web.
Rouvinen, P 2001, ‘Finland on top of the Competitiveness Game? The Finnish economic and society 4/2001’, ETLA and EVA , pp. 345-356.
US commercial Service 2005, ‘Doing Business In Finland: A Country Commercial for US companies’, pp. 2-30.
Reform-women’s Rights and Slavery Cause and Effect Essay college essay help online
A reform is a social movement aimed at making gradual changes in the society. Slavery began as a form of punishing criminals in the society and recovering debts. The two main reforms that Americans struggled for were racial justice and gender equality.
The movement began in 1830s in the countryside and towns of the north. The people involved came from rich and religious families. They believed that slavery was because of injustice and unfair treatment of human beings.
The colonizers felt that the movement was threatening their business and status in the society and began to ridicule and attack the families of the abolitionists. Nevertheless, the abolitionists did not loose hope. For example, William Lloyd Garrison, a Massachusetts printer and editor, struggled to liberate slavery by publishing the first issue of The Liberator, which formed the foundation of women right in New England.
He also formed the New England anti-slavery society to strengthen the movement. This movement was formed later in America in which unified west, New York and New England.
Later 1830 and 40s, the movement became stronger and began to gain support from many people. Unfortunately, the movement collapsed due to individual differences. Then later, women coming from prominent families began their movement on antislavery and equality of women.
Writers supported the abolitionist women by producing children books, hymns, and stories that encouraged the younger generation to prepare to fight for their rights and freedom. The women in the abolitionist group started to spread the need for women to speak publicly about their rights.
Sarah and Grimke became the first women lecturers. They began to write and speak on women rights to condemn the message from the General Association of Massachusetts about forbidding women from speaking in public. In 1870s, women were excluded in the right to vote during the amendments of the constitution. They continued to struggle but it took 50 years to be included in the amendments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change in the attitude of slavery, led to its decline in 1800s. The slaves began to seek for education, jobs and establish churches since were forbidden from interacting with the white people. This helped them improve their living standards and awareness of their capabilities. Samuel Cornish and John Russworn became editors. They started the first black newspaper, Freedom Journal in 1827.
The slaves began to cause threat, the country representatives decided to return some of the slaves to their homeland. Most of the slaves felt that United States was their new home. They became encouraged to put more efforts that resulted to many succeeding. They improved their status in the society and many white people began appreciating them as people with rights.
Today slavery is illegal in all countries except in Africa, Asia, and South America. The incidences are punishable by law hence it is in secret. Today women have acquired personal freedom and can involve themselves in any kind of job in the society.
Women deserved to gain equal rights since they suffered a lot in the hands of the colonizers. Women worked in the fields alongside men but did not rest as men since they performed all the household chores and weaving before going to bed.
Those who worked as house slaves had to stand through out when their masters are in the house, are starved, and forbidden from visiting their husbands. Pregnant women beatings increasing the chances of loosing their babies and when they gave birth, their children sold as slaves.
Conclusion Social activists play the role of identifying and enforcing reforms. Slavery began to benefit the white people in farming, to punish the criminals in the society and to recover debts but it ended up going against the human rights. Law without mercy should punish anybody involved in this business today.
Academic Achievement among International Students and Associated Issues Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Introduction In the last six decades, the number of International students has been steadily increasing across many parts of the world. In the United Kingdom, this increase has particularly been awesome (Beckhridnar and Vickers, 2007 p4).
Academic achievement among the international students can be described as both successful and less successful in a number of parameters. While there exists success stories that can be reported home with a number of factors determine this, it is also true that these associated factors have also functioned to impede or delay the success portended.
Adjustment to foreign culture by international students is always a challenging experience, more so given that they have to deal with different cultural settings, education systems, and language differences.
In most cases, international students have to deal with various groups of people including the co-national, multinational and local friends.
This kind of interaction is always beneficial to the foreign students, more so in relation to learning host culture; however, they experience a slight resistance, if any, to that culture, but the most important aspect is the provision of a fertile ground for ‘cultural shift’. It has also been observed that when the international students interact with their local friends, their cultural adaptability important (Brislin, 1990).
This paper seeks to address the academic achievement among the international students within the confluence of a number of issues in colleges and universities.
These include economic conditions, the extent of the students’ success, and the effect of peer programs on International students in terms of their adjustment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the paper seeks to illuminate on impact of multicultural interaction on international Students, focusing both on the positive and the negative.
Further, it seeks within this to give specific attention to the issue of friendship formation as a key factor in determining the extent of international student’s interaction within their social ties and what these mean in enhancing adjustment, academic performance and psycho-social well being. Additionally the paper zeroes down on the expectations that Universities have of the International students.
Impact of Peer Program on International Student Adjustment and Performance It has been repeatedly asserted that international students usually experience adjustment issues and problems when getting into foreign institutions of higher learning particularly the United States.
Broadly speaking, these problems are many, ranging from language issues, different educational system, and individual personal issues for instance experience of homesickness, as well as the physical distance from those they are familiar with (Gonzalez, 2004). Other problems are tailored around culture shock associated with unfamiliar and new social norms (Abe et al, 1998, p1).
In fact, studies have indicated that social norms and social interaction are the major problems experienced by such students (Kaczmarek et al, 1994). A number of studies have suggested that social interaction and the adjustment of international students are closely related to the social interaction and their adjustment.
Other studies have particularly suggested that Asian students particularly experience more of these problems than any students coming from other parts of the world, more so in relation to acquisition of second language (Andrade, 2009).
This is particularly in line with them trying to make friends and their adjustment to campus life (Ward, Bochner
Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream” Speech Analysis Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
“I Have a Dream” is the most famous speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is also considered as the best and greatest speech that was proclaimed in the history of the United States. It gathered more than 200,000 Americans of all races at the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963.
The speech is an excellent example of persuasive rhetoric filled with many expressive means and stylistic devices, such as metaphors, repetitions, allusions, epithets and persuasive constructions. The speech has become a symbol of a new era of freedom and symbol of the American civil rights movement.
“I Have a Dream” is a representation of the “America Dream” about a free and equal society. As Leff
What can the U.S. president do to help or hinder the economy and thus the well-being? Term Paper essay help online free
Macroeconomics concerns the understanding of economic factors that result to fluctuations of national income in the short-run and in the long run. There the field involves an aggregation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), price indices and unemployment levels in the country.
Since macroeconomics has the national income as its basis, the government plays a key role in providing an enabling or disabling environment for other sectors of the economy.
The president who appoints a qualified and loyal team to help run it leads government. They include treasury and departmental heads of various government institutions. The government affects business cycles that alter the national income in two ways, by fiscal policy and monetary policy.
The president of the United States plays an important role in formulating the government’s strategy of fiscal policy, which is the main source of government revenue and impacts directly to the aggregate demand in the economy. The government uses fiscal policy to direct spending in a certain sector of the economy.
For example, reducing taxes charged on certain products will theoretically result to an increased consumption of the product, all other factors remaining constant. While the tax policy affects the level of demand, government may also alter the focus on spending in the economy and how resources are allocated.
In order to reduce the unemployment rates in the economy, the president may direct his government to take actions that lead to a reduction on capital expenditures in favor of labor-intensive investments. This achievable using tax rebates for economic sectors and corporations employ a large number of workers in the economy such as the Detroit motor industry.
The U.S. government spends money it collects from the economy by financing several national and regional sectors such as public education, healthcare, infrastructure development and security. The amount of spending for a given in the specific sector of the economy depends on the directive of the president as the leader of government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Massive spending on infrastructure inspires innovation in the private sectors as introduces costs of doing business and increases the competitiveness of the given sector. On the other hand, an increased military spending at the expense of other development sectors of the economy drains aggregate demand in the economy and leads to a stagnation of most industry that may even cause a recession on the overall economy.
Other than taxes, the state will obtain funds from deficit financing and this impact on the available money in the economy that is left to finance other development and trade of the private sector.
When deficit financing is through borrowing from bonds and treasury-bills then it serves as a withdrawal of funds from other uses in the economy to finance government spending.
When the withdrawal is excess, it leads to a decreased supply of money in the economy and therefore the price equilibrium of the cost of credit shifts upwards. It becomes increasingly expensive to obtain credit that forms the lifeline of business transactions.
The president leads the government intention of providing a robust environment for the private sector to thrive and as a result increase the national income. Monetary policy of the government determines the rate of money supply in the economy.
The president will seek to increase the supply of money in the economy is in a recession to prompt businesses to expand and thus reduce the levels of unemployment. The money supply in the economy may be increased by lowering interest rates. This mandate is given to the federal reserve bank that works in close relationship with the state headed by the president.
The role of the state in defending and/or infringing Native Indian Civil Rights in United States Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
States Defense of Native Indian Rights
State Infringing on Native Indian Rights
Introduction Native Indians have had a turbulent past with the United States in general and the states within which they reside in particular. Their history is marred by significant events such as Indian wars and failed attempts by the federal government to dismantle tribal governments and assimilate Indians (Wunder 2000, p.13).
These events have culminated to the realization that limited self-determination in Indian Country is the best solution. American Indians have therefore emerged as a unique group of Americans who have some limited form of self-determination in Indian Country.
Even though American Indian countries are largely unconstrained by the US Constitution, the State government exerts significant influence on the lives of American Indians.
As such, the State government has the power to influence the civil rights of the tribal communities. This paper will set out to critically evaluate the role of the state in defending ad infringing Native Indian Civil Rights in the United States.
The paper will demonstrate that the State has to a large extent played a positive role in defending the Civil Rights of the Native Indians.
States Defense of Native Indian Rights The State allows the Native tribes to exist within their boundaries with some amount of autonomy. Riley (2007a, p.1050) notes that Native Indians have their own “nations” within the borders of the US and this “nations” are free to maintain policies, procedures and rules that are inconsistent with those of a liberal democracy.
This means that Native Indians are largely unconstrained by the US constitution and the tribes can set up policies that they deem most appropriate for the natives (Johnson 1999, p.45).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This policy by the Federal government to allow the Natives to set up their own rules helps the natives to preserve their indigenous values. Riley (2007a, p.1051) asserts that tribal sovereignty assists in the preservation of differentness “even when tribal laws are seemingly inappropriate to American civil rights norms”. The State therefore promotes the rights of Native Indians by allowing tribal governments to exist.
The Federal and State government has championed religious freedom as a fundamental right to the American Indians. This has been through the 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA) which states that religious freedom is an inherent right of all people and further recognizes that religious practices form the basis of Indian identity and value systems.
Michaelsen (1994, p.42) asserts that this congressional act was based on the resolve of the US government to protect and preserve American Indians’ right and freedom to believe and exercise their traditional religions.
Before AIRFA, American Indians had had their religious freedoms abused to a great extent. Sacred sites had been destroyed by governmental action such as the flooding of the Cherokee burial grounds following the completion of the Tellico Dam.
Sacred grounds had also been desecrated, and access to these sited denied or greatly limited to the American Indians. AIRFA presented a way through which State government could redress American Indian religious concerns (Michaelsen 1994, p.42).
AIRFA contains many affirmations which call upon federal agencies to reform their practices so as to respect Indian religious freedoms.
The educational system of a society is fundamental to the development and ultimate advancement of the entire community. Through the first quarter of the 20th century, the federal government embarked on a mission to assimilate American Indians into mainstream society through educational programs that sought to reorient students (Reyhner
WIT by Margaret Edson Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Interpretation of the play’s ending
Introduction Wit is a play that was written by Margaret Edson. The play’s main character, Vivian, who is an academician, is diagnosed with ovarian cancer. She tries to hide behind her intellectual cover but shades it off at the end to face the reality as presented in life through her medical complication.
This paper seeks to discuss a personal interpretation of the ending of this play. This paper will with this respect review the play and critically examines how it ends. An interpretation of the ending of the play is given with the impact that is felt as a result of the play is brought light.
Wit: review The play as written by Margaret portrays Vivian as its main character. Vivian enters the scene as a patient who is dressed in a hospital gown. As a patient, Vivian is not presented in good health condition as she has lost her hair to her sickness and has similarly lost her weight.
When she was earlier diagnosed with the disease, Vivian responded with some level of lack of emotions portraying her professionalism as an academician.
She is introduced as a professor in poetry who holds on to ideas of her former professor, Donne. Owing to her academic background, Vivian receives the news with neutrality as though it was one of the elements in her professional works.
Her doctors in the hospital, one of whom is her former student also expresses their academic obsession by recommending an experimental treatment for Vivian and consequently treats Vivian as a tool for experiment.
Owing again to her academic professionalism, Vivian consents to be used for experimental research and in addition chooses to go for the treatment without enlisting support from any relative or friend in terms of company and care.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The intellectual characteristic of Vivian is so intense that upon receipt of the actual status of her sickness, she was not concerned about how, or whether or not she will be cured, but she rather meditated on undertaking a personal step to read about ovarian cancer, giving the disease the level of consideration that she had been giving to subjects in her academic career (Edson 1-9).
In the process of her treatment, Vivian expresses herself as a strong woman through her personal claims. She exposes her pride and gives the assertion that she does not shy away from any sort of problem that faces her. In the process, a theme of death is introduced into the scene through a feature of Vivian’s former professor and mentor.
Two characters, Susie and Jason, are then introduced to Vivian as her medical attendants. Suzie exhibit humane characteristics while Jason is majorly concerned with the experimental treatment that is being offered to Vivian.
In the process of her treatment, Vivian is subjected to high dosage of drugs which induces significant negative impacts on her. She however holds on to her escapist feature and declares that she is adjusting to suffering and still refuses to admit to her real situation.
She on the contrary perceives her situation as an academic article’s worth. One of her doctors, Jason is also portrayed to poses Vivian’s inhumane approach to her sickness as he attends to her (Park 1).
As the play approaches its end, the medical condition of Vivian deteriorates due to the drugs that are being used on her. Besides, the doctors don’t want her to die and keeps on resuscitating her.
Susie, following her empathy towards the patient, is however opposed to this treatment and prefers that Vivian be allowed to die. After holding on to her intellect as a cover to her fears, the patient finally faces the reality and becomes scared.
We will write a custom Essay on WIT by Margaret Edson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She realizes that contrary to intellect, only “human kindness and empathy” (Park 1), traits that she can only receive from Susie, are able to help her out of her fears (Park 1). After Susie’s efforts that Vivian be allowed to die, Vivian admits that “life requires more than intellect and wit” (Park 1), she comes to sense and admits to “letting go of Donne, language, and intellect” (Park 1) as though she now recognizes them as vanity (Park 1).
Interpretation of the play’s ending As the play approaches its end, the author relays one of her theme of isolation. Isolation refers to the aspect of being apart from others. It can also in broader terms be used to explain restraint from association. Larsen and Lubkin defined social isolation as “the objective state of deprivation of social contact and content” (Larsen and Lubkin 88).
Though only admitted by Vivian at the end of the play, the theme of isolation and more specifically social isolation is witnessed through out the play. It is as dominant in the entire book just as much as it dominates the end of the book. Vivian is portrayed to be in self denial of the circumstances around her life.
She is for example faced with sickness which she fails to recognize as an issue in her life, but on the contrary perceive it to be a case that requires academic research like the topics that she deals with in her career. She also fails to enlist support form either her family members, if she had any, or even her friends who could include her colleagues at work.
This also represents a level of isolation from people who could help her. She also generally isolates herself from nature by refusing to admit her own state and condition, and resorting to her intellect as a cover to the reality around her life.
She however comes to at last realize that social aspects such as kindness and empathy are necessities of life. This admission is a reflection of Vivian’s life which had been isolated from such social aspects.
My interpretation is therefore that isolation, regardless of its degree or the elements that an individual isolates him or herself from, is a dangerous thing in life, especially socially. This follows the bitter lesson that Vivian is made to learn in the play.
Conclusion The play, Wit, is based on an academic professor who is diagnosed with ovarian cancer. The professor who is so much absorbed in her career and literacy ideologies fails to notice her infection at its earlier stage. She also has a poor social background with no caring friends and relatives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on WIT by Margaret Edson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her experience in life as she approaches her death leads her to the realization that social relations are important to people’s lives especially when they are compromised and need human care. The impact of the movie at a personal level is its influence towards more social interactions that can yield necessary support in times of need.
Works Cited Edson, Margaret. Wit. New York, NY: Nick Hern Books, 2002. Print
Larsen, Patrick and Lubkin Ian. Chronic illness: impact and intervention. Sudbury, MA: Jones
How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers Essay essay help free
Introduction The Emirates Airline is one of the major airlines within the Middle East; it is known to be one of the top ten best carriers and the seventh biggest airlines worldwide.
Setting up lucrative business organization and making it stabilize within the airline industry proves very risky. However, the people working for Emirates Airlines counters the risks involved by setting up appropriate strategies through the use of Five Forces for the purposes of analyzing business environment.
Generalization of learning associations to other things is done within Emirates Airlines through the use of Porters Five Forces Strategies used to analyze the market environment.
The company ensures that their employees undergo frequent training programs within various departments to ensure continuity of excellent service provision within various business circles (Nicholas, 2009).
Learning strategies are important to marketers since they are enabled to form appropriate pictures on the kind of market and industry they are operating.
This ensures that marketers apply appropriate principles and strategies for the purposes of protecting the business from outside threats owing to high competition.
Implementation of appropriate strategies makes it easier for marketers to develop Emirates Airline as one of the market leaders. Studies done on the marketing strategies of competitive businesses prove vital since competition could be realized from other businesses not related to the airline industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The presence of close substitutes makes it easier for customers to switch alternatives owing to differences in prices, resulting into what is known as high elasticity of demand.
Several factors determine the company’s ability to attract customers, these include; the cost switching tastes, perceived level of product differentiation and relative prices (Nicholas, 2009).
Description and explanation of an airline example related to Emirates Airlines One of the examples related to Emirates Airlines is Northwest Airlines which is one of the domestic airlines with the ability to serve large market segmentation across nations.
Its ability to provide excellent domestic services has been made possible through close operations with other commuter airlines. There is a link provided between NWA and other airlines which provides easy connection channels for jet services within the country of operation.
The overall merger makes NWA have superior technical and operational services just like Emirates Airlines hence boasting of established common operation and maintenance points (QuickMBA, 2011).
Such strategies have been utilized by the marketing department ensuring that NWA competes favourably with major airlines owing to their up-graded and up-dated services.
The marketing department has further resorted to integrating their flights and operations. Connections between air link carriers and Northwest have been shown with clarity as online rather than interline transfers, whereby less time and lower cost on fares are involved to facilitate connections.
We will write a custom Essay on How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These strategies have made NWA just like Emirates to obtain better competitive advantage hence commanding good part of the consumer base (QuickMBA, 2011).
The prime role of NWA is assisting customers in obtaining the best services that are safe and profitable to the company. The operations are reinforced through application of modern computerized systems helps in supporting necessary working systems, providing customers with efficient customer care services.
The various customer needs are easily met through installation of computerized technology system which provides customers with variety of choices on the kind of services and products they require (QuickMBA, 2011).
Is there a difference between classical and instrumental conditions? Identify each and explain the concept within Emirates Airlines As one of the several rapidly growing airlines, Emirates Airlines operates brand new fleets of long-range. Their classical conditions operate hand in hand with instrumental conditions.
The designs of their aircrafts appear unique for classical service purposes. They use wide body aircrafts within which they offer finest services and accommodations.
Emirates operate the largest passenger jets which includes giant Airbus A380 aircrafts for the convenience of consumers. They offer superior in-flight services and limousine services on the ground.
In-flight services comprises entertainment, private suites within first-class and operate large spas with ability to accommodate families. They ensure that travellers are granted quality experience on long flights both in business and economy classes (Nicholas, 2009).
Description of things which customers and marketers could learn by observing other behaviours Emirates Airlines have put a lot of faith in their employees and goes extra-mile to safeguard their jobs by giving them handsome pay. This enables employees give extra contributions towards ensuring that the company operates within the best realms in the market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to generalize learning associations to other things within emirates airlines, and why this is important to marketers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company organizes for several training programs for their employees which ensure that they continue in good shape. Emirates Airlines operates in business circles whereby financial reports are made independently, the company serves ten destinations continuously within India, dozens of cities in some Far-East and Middle East countries.
Their services extend to Africa, more than twenty cities both in Europe and Asia. This shows how dynamic their marketing strategies are since there is non of the European Airlines covering such wide market outside Europe, the same with American Airlines (Nicholas, 2009).
Conclusion Consumers respond either positively or negatively depending on the kind of services offered by various airlines. They crave for convenient and professionally managed airlines which are concerned with comfort and safety of passengers. The focus should be in-flight services, seat designs, availability of luggage area, sanitary requirements and also entertainment systems.
References Nicholas, K., 2009. Emirates Sets the New Standard for Airlines. Web.
QuickMBA, 2011. Global Strategic Management. Available at http://www.quickmba.com/
Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ecotourism and Voluntourism
Ethical and sustainable considerations
Strategy and Recommendations
Introduction Conservation is the process of human beings utilization of natural sources in order to produce the maximum sustainable benefit to current generation at the same time upholding its responsibility to achieve and ensure that the same resources are reserved for future generations.
Conservation therefore entails maintenance, preservation, restoration and sustainable utilisation of natural surroundings (Hupages.com).
Ecotourism and Voluntourism Ecotourism and voluntourism are types of tourism that have recently emerged; ecotourism is a form of tourism that entails travel to serene and uncontaminated natural regions that preserve the surroundings and develops the welfare of the local community (Hubpages.com).
Ecotourism involves travelling to natural region where there is slightest impact on the surroundings resulting from tourism activities. As such ecotourism creates environmental consciousness and supply direct financial support to the local community, helps maintain individual rights and demographic travels and respects the local people’s culture.
Ecotourism aims to preserve the cultural and natural diversity of biological areas by protecting the local ecosystem and it is actually intended to encourage sustainable employment of the neighbouring biodiversity through supplying employment to local people (Hubpages.com).
On the other hand, voluntourism is type of travel where the traveller gets actively involved in various charitable activities in combination to their vacation activities.
This means that the vacation/trip must be well planned in advance and reservation made so as to accommodate all the extra activities that the tourist will be involved in apart from the vocation itself.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, both ecotourism and voluntourism creates a win-win state for both the people and the environment; the local people and the environment benefit from the natural resource organization, not simply biological resource preservation but also tourist destination attraction, sustainable monetary growth and poverty mitigation.
The optimal economic models present extra holistic method to growth that is contrary to typical neoliberal viewpoint; the voluntourists identify themselves with the community where minority groups of people live.
Ecosystems are viewed as nation’s natural resources from which financial or economic reimbursement can be produced. Cooperation and partnership are important amongst stakeholders in producing shared non-financial and financial benefits for everyone, supported by preservation of the ecosystem as sustainable source of income.
Nevertheless, the derived benefits must be allocated to the local people and awareness programs conducted to inform and promote cooperation amongst the stakeholders.
In the present scenario, WARF rely on assistance and donations from its collaborators and the local people to provide the man power needed in taking care of endangered flora and fauna and managing educational programmes in communities.
Additionally, they rely on students as volunteers to research on the animal diseases and their behaviour in order to empower conservation efforts. These volunteers are engaged by travel bureaus or through the internet to generate steady revenue for WARF future programmes and other required resources (West, Ford and Ibrahim 527).
In conclusion educational, non-financial and financial benefits plus the need to improve the local community are the main reasons that motivate ecotourists and voluntourists.
We will write a custom Report on Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ethical and sustainable considerations Ethics is the theoretical study of acceptable value of an individual conduct, policies and directives that should preside over and which constitute moral beliefs.
Sustainability on the other hand is the process of developing the worth of a person while at the same time strengthening the capability of supporting ecology.
The stakeholders such as WARF, ecotourists, voluntourists and the local communities are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve conservation of the natural habitat and the wild animals.
This creates sustainable benefits that are both non-financial and financial for all participants involved in carrying out of the educational programme together with the ecotourism functions.
WARF in Thai produces sustainable income flow from the ecotourists and voluntourists who charge a fee to toil willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at the place of protection by the environment reserves.
WARF provides habitat and care for rescued animals before sending them back to the wild. Thus, the wildlife preservation is important because the endurance of the saved animals rely on the environmental state of the natural surroundings from which the wild animals were freed.
For this to be possible combined effort of stakeholders is necessary whose contribution produces shared non-financial and/ financial benefits.
Upholding high-quality association amongst stakeholders is the right approach of managing these ecosystems and this close association is preserved through mutual activities such as (GRP) Gibbon Rehabilitation Project and Volunteer Network Program (West et al 527).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecotourism and Voluntourism Strategies and Recommendations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The GRP was established in 1990 at Bang Pae Waterfall, Phuket and Tambon Pa Klok with the mandate to save adult gibbons; this scheme is a tourist attraction in Phuket since the local people used to poach the gibbons from the Island of Phuket in order for tourists to be photographed with them for fee and were abandoned at maturity as they stopped being attractive (West et al 527).
Abandoned gibbons are saved by the GRP as one component of rehabilitation and shifted far from human inhabitant; the project overall objective is to stop the poaching of the young gibbons all together (West et al 527).
To do this the volunteer Network Program relies on donations and support from the participant; the human resources are provided by the local community such the students who carry out research on the animal diseases and their behaviour.
These volunteers comprised mainly of students later on become donors and this gives them a chance to be in contact with the animals. In Cambodia, the conservation project entails endangered species protection and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable income flows, particularly ecotourism (West et al 527).
The Cambodian populace is high and subsist in intense poverty; the last decade saw raised restrictions of prohibited logging, forest fires and poaching (West et al 527).
The stakeholders build a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms responsible for building up alternative employment of the local community.
While the stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation.
In this arrangement the University of Victoria is accountable for scientific contribution, plans and execution while the Jetwing Eco Holidays is liable for controlling ecotourism functions and making it easy to market the general project and Community Based Ecotourism (West et al 527).
The government hold on to specific features of the area conservation, community growth and execution; the government has the responsibility to conserve the forest but it is financially incapable of doing so, this lead to holding up of the project for months, at this particular time ICEBV was taken in to build up a financial way out.
The financing was generated through a mixture of income from ecosystem services, grants and equity investment. Project performance started in August 2008 and ends in 2043 to produce revenue for the investors, these income flows are situated on land owned by ICEBV mostly on the perimeter of the forest.
The ICEBV is progressing to expand and research extra income flows from fee ecology services, together with fee generated from biodiversity and watershed services balance.
Jetwings Eco Holidays, Wildlife Alliance and ICEBV formed an accord by which incomes are shared amongst them and absorbed towards the suitable part of the plan.
To develop ecotourism assets in the growing markets it is important for ICEBV to make sure that public and private projects for investments are complete. ICEBV has provided financial structuring of the activities and the firm has productively supplied private finances for the opening out of two lodges.
Formation of a complete project team is a critical step in building up booming ecotourism assets, based on this ICEBV propped up its team by pulling together a globally renowned medium to small sized hotel workers, an architecture group that determined ecological plan of visitor lodgings and internal administration to make sure that the scheme yardsticks were achieved in a well-timed manner.
By conducting careful due diligence and research on the area which ecotourism plans were going to be developed and by identifying the market to concentrate on which will supply income, the firm was capable of moulding its procedure to the project in general.
Through all these ICEBV is functioning to develop the financial, social capital and ecological of the local society and the project collaborators (West et al 528-529).
Ecotourism is not enough in succeeding to preserve the environment as it is extremely a consumer-centred action and the ecological preservation is a way to advance economic development.
Though ecotourism is designed for small teams, still a reserved increase in populace, though short-term, places additional weight on the local surroundings and demands the expansion of extra amenities and infrastructure.
The building of sanitation facilities, water treatment facilities and accommodations come with utilization of non-renewable power and constrained local resources. The translation of usual land to tourist infrastructure is meant to be a method of deforestation as well; this is apart from ecology deprivation where the infrastructure, general population pressure leaves pollution and garbage behind.
Though ecotourists assert to be educationally refined and environmentally apprehensive, they seldom understand the biological cost of their vacation and how their daily activities constraints the surrounding environment. Therefore, ecotourism actions are issue in ecological impact since they upset fauna and flora ecosystems (West et al 531).
In conclusion, natural resource administration can be used as expert instrument necessary for the expansion of ecotourism; there are numerous places all over the globe where the quantities of natural sources are plentiful but with human being intrusion and habitation these sources are diminishing.
Because of lack of proper knowledge on the use of specific resources, these resources are ruined and the species become wiped out. Therefore, plans and appropriate management action can be initiated with the intention of preserving such resources.
Strategy and Recommendations In Thai, the stakeholders are concerned with the environmental conservation and generation of revenue from the preservation activities which involve caring for the natural habitation and the wild animals.
This creates sustainable benefits (non-financial and financial benefits) for all participants and also the educational programme together with the ecotourism which benefits the locals.
WARF in Thai is therefore able to produce sustainable cash flow from the ecotourists or voluntourists who pay a fee to work willingly with the local community and take care of the wild animals at their place of protection in the environment reserves and WARF provides houses and care for saved animals.
While in Cambodia, the preservation project entails species defence and poverty alleviation through the growth of sustainable cash flows, particularly ecotourism.
The stakeholders have built a sustainable defence arrangement for the Cardamoms with creation of alternative employment for the local community. The stakeholders such as NGOs that have local information are accountable for strategies preservation, community growth, and project implementation (West et al 530).
On the other hand, Kerala, India sunrise industry has developed and trades in local ornamental fisheries; the government has actively promoted the trade in local ornamentals and is advising local people to work extra so as to earn income from the booming export of tropical fishes.
This mind-set by the government is extremely disappointing and negatively affects the ecosystem of the area. In addition, there is poor comprehension of legal issues of possession and harvest in this section of the globe, as the fisheries for the local ornamentals are wide open, plus deceiving restrictions and quotas and no rules or regulation that governs harvesting of local ornamental fisheries and the government has not made any effort to stop this.
Sufficient time and inclination for supervising and doing research has not been available, which unfavourably impact the planning and functioning of preservation and administration strategy for the local ornamentals.
The stakeholders (local people) dwell in forest and have relied on natural resources together with fish, as source of revenue. To conserve the environment, captive breeding is a key instrument for the preservation of endemic and endangered fish, nonetheless, small-scale and captive breeding aquaculture may operate as an option to wild set or fishing which is conditional to providing sufficient inducements in form of income to relocate and not increase the wild gathering.
Implementation of rearing technologies and captive breeding will lead to a negative impact on the local community who depend on fisheries, since this will raise supply and reduce prices.
Recommendations Preservation of rare species in developing nations is a costly mission and opportunity cost of ex situ and situ preservation strategies may possibly be high; this makes its economical therefore to have cost-effective strategies like ecotourism areas and protected places which can be promoted to preserve holistic resource administration strategies in order to benefit the communities and natural resources.
Management traditions that are in place needs to support the business and fishery in to a sustainable venture; this will require fishery administration strategy control, ecosystem based administration, technical measures and indirect economical tools that can be utilized with required adjustment to suit regional necessities.
Rules and regulation that govern harvesting of these resources can be achieved by issuing licences but entry rights may be the best strategy that can succeed in the current scenario.
The procedure of giving export licenses and gathering permits ought to be centralized and the amount of orders given out must be severely synchronized by the concerned government organization.
The facts on population volume and biological allocation of rare and widespread natural resources must be reinforced by taking for granted widespread micro regional research.
The familiarity with area of allocation and information on micro-regional traits of the inhabitants of economically sensitive fishes will contribute to preservation efforts of rare species and other aquatic reserves.
Techniques must therefore be industrialised for captive breeding and brood-stock growth of fishes that are of financial importance and which have to be benchmarked with the case for Thai and Cambodian.
Finally, examination on the persistent nature of unusual species in the usual habitats must be approved with a view of finding out what numbers of the species can attain natural breeding populace and how their feeding habit relates with the indigenous species. This requires the performance of committee created under the government of India to monitor and control the rare species preservation to be more effective.
Works Cited Hubpages.com. “Ecotourism or Voluntourism”, 2011. Web.
West, D. Ford, J. and Ibrahim, E. “Strategic Marketing: Creating Competitive Advantage”, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Effects of Increasing Interest Rate
Consequences of Not Increasing the Rates
An increase in interest rate is one of the approaches used by governments to control the level of inflation. Countries like Britain have a target inflation rate of 2%, but currently the rate stands at 4%. This explains why the British pound is the strongest currency.
Raising and lowering interest rates influences many sectors of the economy. This is because the Bank of England is the central bank, and thus distributes money to other financial institutions.
As illustrated in the flow chart, the rate offered by the Bank of England influences the rates in other fields such as borrowing and money markets. It is just like in an ordinary market place where the retailer sets the price according to the prices offered by the wholesaler.
For instance, if a fisherman increases the prices of his fish, then the fish monger will also increase the price at which he sells to the consumers and vice versa.
Effects of Increasing Interest Rate When the Bank of England increases its lending rates the financial institutions must reflect this increment by adjusting the rates at which they issue loans.
Pettinger points out that this action causes people to hesitate from applying for loans because they know they will pay a lot of money accumulated as a result of high interest rate (1).
However, the money that is kept in the banks accumulates commendable interest and hence people choose to withhold the money they have kept in the banks. In such a case, the financial institutions would have to increase the repayment period.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatively, having low interest rates induces people to take loans because they are certain that they will repay in due time. The increase in rates also affects companies in the housing sector because the increase in rates leads to a decline in the number of people who apply for mortgages: the opposite causes more people to apply for mortgages.
This is because people consider the rate of accumulated interests and the repayment period. Mortgage companies adjust their rates because the swell in interest rates causes the price of building materials to increase, and thus if they ignore the changes in the market there will be no profits.
The people who had taken loans prior to increment of interest rates feel the pinch because they will pay more money than they expected. In such a case, it is the creditors that benefit because they will get more returns.
An increase in interest rates is also an influential factor in foreign exchange because it causes the value of the local currency to increase against those of foreign nations.
Mueller argues that this attracts foreign investors because they know the returns they will earn from doing business in UK will be much more when they convert the money into their respective currencies. An increase in foreign investment causes more money to be circulated in the economy. Besides that, it causes the costs of international products to decline.
Additionally, increased foreign investment causes people to minimize their expenses due to the sudden increase in the price of products and services. This swelling is caused by an increase in importation duties, and thus when the products are brought to the market their costs are inclusive of the levies that were charged on them.
This is necessary because if the merchants do not extend these charges to the consumers they probably would not make any returns. However, this increase on import duties is advantageous to local industries because they discourage people from importing goods that are available locally.
We will write a custom Assessment on Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stock market is also affected by the increase in interest rates because it causes the cost of shares to go up. This means that a few pounds can buy many items, and thus people will spend more. Similarly, an increase on interest rates encourages people to import more products because they spend less money because the value of sterling pound is much higher than other currencies.
High interest rates cause the national debt to swell, and thus the government of Britain would have to increase the rates of taxation. This is because when the national debt swells more money is used to offset the national loan, and hence the government has to look for alternatives of generating revenue so that it does not cut back on its expenditure.
Furthermore, the increment of interests causes unemployment to reduce and the employees get a better pay. This rise in the number of employed persons generates a lot of revenue for the government because those people will be taxed.
The payments issued to pensioners would have to be increased, but this is done after evaluating the rate of inflation. The employees who earn constant salaries suffer the most because the money that is used to sustain them becomes useless, and thus they have to negotiate for a salary increase, which can cost them their jobs.
Sometimes, it is not the central government that causes the interest rate to hike. This implies that there are other forces behind the rise in interest rates. For instance, when the people are in great need of loans – this raises the demand and hence the interest rates go up because the number of people who need the funds outnumbers the available funds.
Consequences of Not Increasing the Rates The Bank of England keeps an eye on the economy, and raising the interests is used to prevent inflation, which can lead to civil unrest. This happens in cases where the public is certain that the inflation has been engineered by cartels.
This is because when employers find out that they are making losses they sack their employees, causing the level of unemployment to increase. When interest rates are low it can cause inflation and people may purchase the commodities that are mostly affected in bulk, and thus result in shortage of those products. This can result in a bigger crisis especially if the commodities are basic items like food stuffs.
The changes in interest rates puzzle potential investors because they are not sure whether they will gain from the seeds that they will sow at that time. This forces them to pull back their resources until they are guaranteed about the safety of their investment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Monetary Policy: Increasing of Interest Rate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The people who benefit from increment of interest rates are the people who are focused on short term investments. This is because they will benefit from the high returns that would be obtained from their businesses.
For instance, in stock market the prices of shares may increase, but it is only for a short period. This suggests that if the prices drop it will take many years for the same increment to be realized.
Smart Options When interests go up people do not have to lead cheap lives, but should instead be smart. This means that one should weigh the options that are available and settle on the most flexible option.
For instance, if keeping money in the bank generates an interest that is less than the rate of inflation, it would be wise to withdraw the funds and put it into other constructive use. It is advisable to get a mortgage on a fixed rate because that way one will be cautioned from the future changes in the market.
When purchasing items, people should give the first priority to the items that are needed most. Investments should be made on durable items such as land and houses because their value can hardly decrease.
Works Cited Bank of England. How Monetary Policy Works. Web.
Mueller, Jim. How Interest Rates Affect the Stock Market. 2006. Web.
Pettinger, T. Interest Rates Explained. 2007. Web.
Analysing a community development Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Community development is necessary in every community. It is the process through which change is achieved. Old and obsolete activities and practices are abandoned and other upgraded and better practices are adopted. It is because of community development that communities improve and grow in various sectors.
Community development entails the joining of various forces to help in promoting the well-being of a community. It should be effectively planned out to avoid failure and wastage of resources. This paper will give a practical view of community development with regard to helping the youths in Clunes with the intention of attaining community development.
Discussion The word community may have different definitions but, the definition that a community is a group of two or more people with a common goal/interest befits the definition of Clune’s community. Clune’s community is situated in Clune’s village and is within the local government area of Lismore.
Clunes is named after an early engineer in the dairying industry going by the name Robert Mortimer Clunes. The median age of Clune’s community is 36 with aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander as the people believed to reside in this village.
The highest population comprises of those aged between 40-59 years and they account for 28.8% of the total population, those aged between 0-14 years are 24.8% of the total population, those between 15 and 24 years make up of 10.7%, those aged 25-39 years make up 21.8% of the entire population while those with more than 60 years are 13.85% of the total population (Shantz, 2004).
Clune is situated on a hilly but attractive countryside where macadamia and coffee are widely grown due to the enabling factor of volcanic soils found in the nearby Mount Warning. The figure below shows a view of Clunes during the mid afternoon and it is no doubt that the region is indeed attractive (Your information guide to Clunes, 2008).
The various fine but ancient Australian churches in Clunes have led to the nicknaming of the village as the “Holy City”. There are a wide variety of ideal local services within the region that include a petrol station, general store and an antiques shop. The area witnesses a large population due to its numerous and attractive North Coast federation houses (Shantz, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lismore is the regional centre of Northern Rivers in New South Wales and has got a population of around 43,386 people. People in surrounding areas come into Lismore to utilize the wide range of services and facilities in the area.
Lismore has however managed to experience steady and balanced population growth over the years regardless of the variation during the 1996-2001 census years. The census results showed a reduction in population growth and this was attributed to escalated growth of coastal shires within its vicinity (Shantz, 2004).
The 2001 increase in cost of housing in the coastal shires was associated with an increase in population growth rate and since then, the population growth rate in Lismore has continued to be high (Shantz, 2004).
According to the ABS 2001 census, the regional population of Lismore was approximately 262,216 and has progressively increased over the years since according to ABS 2006 census; the population had increased by 6.6% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007a).
Lismore population is predominantly a young population with average of 35.9 years as indicated by Shantz, 2004. Lismore has continued to experience high unemployment rates coupled with low-income levels as the main socio-economic pressures for this locality (Shantz, 2004).
The Northern Rivers are associated with unemployment rates that are above the state’s recommended rates where Lismore has the highest unemployment rates of 12.9% compared with other regions in the Northern Rivers.
There are various communities within Lismore and the Clunes community is one of them. Clunes is a village located along the Lismore to Bangalow road, and is approximately 20km northeast of Lismore. Youth activities and centres are of very great need to the villagers because 15-18 year aged young people are evidently seen idling about around the shopping centres.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysing a community development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This idling is not healthy because it predisposes this young generation to fighting, graffiti and substance abuse, which are a deemed as a great menace to the peace, tranquillity and development of the community (Shantz, 2004).
The youths are an integral part of any general population and therefore, they should be adequately assisted to keep them away and safe from unacceptable behaviour such as engagement in theft/robbery, murder and such related heinous activities that disrupt the peace and tranquillity in any community.
In Clunes community, it is perceived that they require a strategy that will help to confine the youths within the area and subsequently help them to be economically independent individuals. In addition, a correct approach is required to ensure that the youths are busy and away from idle mind, which as is commonly believed to be the devil’s workshop.
Therefore, there is the need to ensure that the youth in Clunes community are assisted so that they engage in constructive activities that would support the economic development in the region and strengthen the peace and relations between the people.
It is important that I carry out a needs assessment from the Clunes community to confirm the existence of the problem perceived to prevail in the region hence, avoid wastage of resources. This also helps to address the relevant problems with regard to community needs but in order to achieve this; a bottom-up approach where the community is actively involved should be adopted.
The needs assessment will entail the use of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions. Key informants will be selected to provide the required relevant information. The community members, represented by the key informants, will be the channel through which the problem will be identified.
In assessing the problem, I will look at the causes, magnitude and population affected by the problem. This assessment will also help to come up with the most applicable strategies that can be used to address the problem.
The youth, referring to those aged between the ages 15 and 18 years old, in Clunes needs to be indulged in economic generating activities so that they get busy and become economically independent to avoid harmful behaviours such as theft. The fact that graffiti is evident among the youths is an indicator that they are talented in far as art and painting is concerned thus can be helped to nurture this kind of talent.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysing a community development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This way, they will enjoy doing what they love best and it will not be perceived as though one is imposing an activity on them. In addition, it will be important to include a counsellor or a person to guide so that they can embrace the correct morals and avoid harmful demeanour such as substance abuse.
Despite the fact that graffiti is deemed as vandalism, it can be used to help these youths both socially and economically. It is a talent being used in the wrong way but if properly nurtured, can be of great benefit in the community and among the youth members with regard to community development.
A youth centre can be established and these idle youths brought together to work on their talents. Nurturing the graffiti talent however cannot be done without some form of planning on how to implement the planned intervention and bring about community development. Helping these youths nurture their talent will require the participation of various departments so as to ensure cost-effectiveness and efficiency of services offered.
Sensitizing the youth to realize that their idleness is a menace to the community is very important. This can be done by holding meetings with the selected youths or holding group sessions with them. Subsequently, it is important to come up with the right intervention strategies by seeking their opinions since they better understand how their needs.
Funds are a very integral component of the entire development process. It will be very essential for me to develop a proposal that will help to lobby for funds and related resources from donors and sponsors.
The causes related to idling of the youths are varied therefore, it is important to handle each individual in a special way. Some of the youths could be from very low-income families thus have stopped going to school and the shopping centre seems to be the only place where they can seek solace and vent out their problems.
Others might be in the streets due to other reasons but, all this boils down to treating this group in a special way if positive results are to be obtained. The funds and resources obtained would help to come up with a centre that would help the youths to nurture their talents.
They would work in close association with a counsellor or social worker who would help them to deal with personal problems in the most dignified manner. This would to enable the youths to develop and embrace amicable ways of dealing with problems rather than turn to alcohol and drugs as an alternative.
The development process would entail purchasing materials and equipment that would be used by the youth to nurture their talent within the centre. In the case of drawing and painting, an arts instructor would be hired and he/she would help these young people to develop their drawing and painting abilities.
The youth would then learn how to make good use of their talents to produce idyllic products. These products would then be used to bring about economic empowerment to the youth once they had been sold. The process would kick off as an informal gathering and later develop into a formal organization with a name like, ‘Clunes Youth Centre’ once the building had been set up.
The centre upon construction would consist of various divisions all aimed at ensuring optimal functioning of the centre. Divisions that would be included are such as the social worker division, counsellor section, customer relations coordinator division, administrative division, as well as the office of the director/manager.
The centre would provide the youth with something to do and help them to become productive people in the community. They would gain necessary skills to help them change lifestyle with regard to demeanour and attitude.
This transformation process in the name of community development might seem to be a simple task, but in reality the entire process is very difficult and challenging. This is because, Clunes is a unique community with its structures and systems in place hence, the idle young people have a certain perception with regard to their community and practice.
It would therefore be difficult for anyone to penetrate and change the demeanour and attitudes of these youths. I would have a hard time trying to get my way through and actually get to interview them, engage them in focus group discussions or make them to fill in questionnaires. Getting acceptance from these youths therefore would be a very difficult task.
The challenge of facing rejection can be counteracted by first getting in touch with the people who really matter in the community like the head of Clunes as an administrative unit, prominent people in the community and church leaders.
The use of highly held persons in the community would help me as the developer to gain the confidence of the youths hence, it would be easier to convince them to accept and take part in the project at hand. These key persons would help to organize for meetings and come up with a plan that would incorporate relevant and effective activities.
Bureaucracy and political interest are another factor that would impede development. Political figures in the community would seek to gain recognition in such a project yet they have not made any contribution in as far as the project is concerned.
It is necessary that all the stakeholders fully understand that the project in not meant to fulfil personal political interest or whatever interest of whatever nature that a person may be having. Therefore, as a way of counteracting this, I would ask the stakeholders to come up with rules against which projects events and behaviour would be evaluated.
Transition to change has never been easy and therefore, I would not expect this to be any easier. The youth might have gotten used to their behaviours in the streets such that change would be a very difficult process to them.
Out there in the streets, they are free to do whatever they feel like since no one is looking after them but in the centre, they have to follow laid down rules and regulations and this would be such a great challenge. The youth centre would be synonymous to be a rehabilitation centre for starters and it would not be a surprise if the youths kept on going back to the streets because they had gotten used to that environment.
This challenge can be addressed by adequate sensitization and creation of awareness among the youth (15-18 years). Change does not happen overnight. Instead, it is a gradual process that requires patience and step and step training and discipline.
That is why; these youths would be treated with patience to allow them time to realize that being in the streets was incomparable to being in the youth centre. In addition, there was need to handle them delicately because a slight maltreatment would mean going back to the streets.
Conclusion Community development has always been the backbone of any development in a country. It can be a very successful process if carried out effectively and efficiently however, it can be a total failure if ineffectively and inefficiently carried out. As a community development officer, it is important to clearly understand a problem before embarking on any intervention strategy.
This helps to avoid addressing the wrong problem, and wastage of resources. In addition, the community should be fully involved with regard to community development because no other person is better informed about what the community than the community members themselves. It is very important therefore to ensure that the process of community development is carried out effectively and efficiently through effective planning.
References Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007a. 2006 CensusQuickStats. Canberra: Australian Government.
Shantz, T., 2004. Community Profile: Lismore Local Government Area. Web.
Your Information Guide to Clunes, 2008. Available at http://www.nnsw.com.au/clunes/ .
Internal Business Processes Perspective Wal-Mart Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
To improve the response time to customer request and speed up times transactions. The company is adapting to internet shopping and has set up a separate subsidiary to handle the internet purchases. This is in addition to the company policy of having more than one register open at a counter so that payments by customers are handled faster.
Reduced transaction time is targeted at increasing the efficiency of the company business operations as indicated in its vision of achieving excellent operational efficiency. The company will rely on the customers’ value for efficient service that will drive them to the Wal-Mart store rather than individual online supply stores.
The company has to ensure that its inventory management and shipment of goods purchased online are synced and backed up to provide a robust system that builds customer’s trust. To this end, the company is includes an order tracking feature and a gift return option ([email protected], 2000).
To enhance its internal control department to be able to control the company’s growth imperative so that they company suffers less from problem associated with its big size. The company can measure its success in controlling the company growth through an audit on its return on investment.
Investments that make business sense and increase Wal-Mart’s overall aim of operational efficiency impact positively on the internal business processes of the company. These investments are impact on the organizational aspect of the business eliminating losses of time or equipment.
For example, technological investments leverage on the overall business strategy of being just in time, like the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags to track inventory from suppliers to consumers that eliminated any blockages along the supply-chain management system.
The placement of RFID tags on inventory also reduces the tendency of employees to steal from the company because the technology improves and speeds up tracking (Malhotra, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Abolish all excesses, through reduction, recycling and reuse of all supplies that moves into the company’s stores, by 2025. To achieve this objective Wal-Mart intends to reduce the level of packaging within its store supply chain by five per cent by 2013.
The company is developing sustainable packaging solutions in conjunction with its suppliers. In addition, the company has implemented a strategy that persuades customers to buy reusable bags for shopping.
The objective has targets customer satisfaction in a green conscious environment and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of the companies operation, which reduces costs in the long term that would otherwise be attributed to waste management. Reusable bags will assist the company to cut its plastic bag excesses by a third by 2013.
The company is incorporating various environmental sustainability efforts such as making dog beds out of tattered plastic bottles. The company runs fifteen supply trucks on biofuel out of the grease collected from its chicken roasters.
In addition, the company seeks to test four new types of fuel-efficient trucks. Other notable actions include the installation of solar power system on its Mexico store and adoption of a new sustainable design of its stores that incorporate recycled chimneys and use of soya beans instead of plastics to create floors (Environmental Leader, 2009).
The objective on reducing waste adds to the financial objective of cutting expenses because it saves on costs on the excess purchases. Recycling also lowers costs for purchase of new material and saves the company of legal requirements on sustainability.
Increasing the company’s presence on the internet and making the online shopping system robust builds customer satisfaction and results to word of mouth advertising that is a boon to the profitability of the company as it increases overall purchases.
We will write a custom Essay on Internal Business Processes Perspective Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Environmental Leader. (2009). Wal-Mart Wants to Eliminate All Packaging Waste by 2025. Web.
Malhotra, Y. (2005). Integrating knowledge management technologies in organizational business processes: getting real time enterprises to deliver real business performance. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(1), 7-28.
Objective Measure Target Action To improve the response time to customer request and speed up times transactions. The company will rely on the customers’ value for efficient service that will drive them to the Wal-Mart store rather than individual online supply stores. The company is adapting to internet shopping and has set up a separate subsidiary to handle the internet purchases. This is in addition to the company policy of having more than one register open at a counter so that payments by customers are handled faster. Increasing the efficiency of the company business operations as indicated in its vision of achieving excellent operational efficiency. The company has to ensure that its inventory management and shipment of goods purchased online are synced and backed up to provide a robust system that builds customer’s trust. Inclusion of an order tracking feature and a gift return option.
To enhance its internal control department to be able to control the company’s growth imperative so that they company suffers less from problem associated with its big size. The company can measure its success in controlling the company growth through an audit on its return on investment. Investments that make business sense and increase Wal-Mart’s overall aim of operational efficiency impact positively on the internal business processes of the company. These investments are impact on the organizational aspect of the business eliminating losses of time or equipment. Use of technological investments that leverage on the overall business strategy of being just in time, like the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags to track inventory from suppliers to consumers that eliminated any blockages along the supply-chain management system. The placement of RFID tags on inventory also reduces the tendency of employees to steal from the company because the technology improves and speeds up tracking. Abolish all excesses, through reduction, recycling and reuse of all supplies that moves into the company’s stores, by 2025. Leader, 2009). To achieve this objective Wal-Mart intends to reduce the level of packaging within its store supply chain by five per cent by 2013. The company is developing sustainable packaging solutions in conjunction with its suppliers. In addition, the company has implemented a strategy that persuades customers to buy reusable bags for shopping. The objective has targets customer satisfaction in a green conscious environment and aims at increasing the overall efficiency of the companies operation, which reduces costs in the long term that would otherwise be attributed to waste management. Reusable bags will assist the company to cut its plastic bag excesses by a third by 2013. The company is incorporating various environmental sustainability efforts such as making dog beds out of tattered plastic bottles. The company runs fifteen supply trucks on biofuel out of the grease collected from its chicken roasters. In addition, the company seeks to test four new types of fuel-efficient trucks. The installation of solar power system on its Mexico store and adoption of a new sustainable design of its stores that incorporate recycled chimneys and use of soya beans instead of plastics to create floors. Relationships to other objectives The objective on reducing waste adds to the financial objective of cutting expenses because it saves on costs on the excess purchases. Recycling also lowers costs for purchase of new material and saves the company of legal requirements on sustainability. Increasing the company’s presence on the internet and making the online shopping system robust builds customer satisfaction and results to word of mouth advertising that is a boon to the profitability of the company as it increases overall purchases.
Three Levels of Products Theory Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Core product level
Actual product level
Introduction An economist in the 1960s by the name Philip Kotler developed a theory of evaluating the efficiency and benefits of products referred to as the three levels of product theory. This theory simply evaluates the benefits of any product or offer from general to specific and unique qualities of a specific product.
Kotler’s main objective in developing this theory was to improve the way producers marketed their products this was to be achieved by expounding and clarifying the meaning of marketing. Before Kotler’s work, marketing was viewed as barely the physical process that resulted to the transfer of goods and services from producers to consumers (Answers 1997, pp1). His expounded definition of marketing included the satisfying aspect that the goods contain and all actions that marketers engage in.
He also recognized a more complex process that involves the emotions of both the marketers and the consumers. This is in accordance with what I quoted earlier i.e. the theory looks at something from general to specific facts. He defined marketing as “a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others” (Five Products Level, 2005. pp1).
According to Kotler, products have no value it’s their benefits that makes them valuable. For instance, a desktop computer or a bed has no value but the value is in the services, entertainment and comfort, they offer (MMC learning, 2009, pp1). Kotler’s theory can also be used by consumers when choosing between two offers as in the case of this essay.
His theory will help compare two offers an IKEA TROMSÖ Loft bed frames with desk top and a Monash Sport (Caulfield) Gym Membership (plus Group Fitness membership). Kotler’s theory is discussed in details below
Kotler’s theory His theory suggests that any product should be view from three levels i.e. the core product level, the actual product level, and the augmented level (Learn marketing 2010, pp 1-3).
Core product level This level represents actual direct benefits of any product in other words it represents the services offered rather than the product itself. It is an intangible part of any product but it’s the main reason why people buy things. As we had seen earlier this is also what gives products their value considering our two offers they all have different value and they serve very different purposes but their core product aspect is what enables us to prefer one to the other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is evident that everyone always wants to sleep in a nice and comfortable place and a good bed helps a lot in achieving this. A desktop can also be of much help to a college student due to the fact that it can be a reliable source of information this would help him a lot in conducting his research and doing assignments. It is also a source of entertainment and storage for old memories i.e. in photos and video clips. These in other words are the core benefits of a desktop and a bed.
On the other hand a Monash gym membership can also be of much benefit especially to one’s health and good physical appearance. Every college student desires for good looks hence this may convince them to choose the membership instead of the bed and the desktop. The good looks and good health are the core benefits of the membership. In my opinion to a college student this is not fun compared to the entertainment and comfort offered by a desktop and a bed respectively.
This is due to the fact that entertainment to them is more valuable compared to physical exercises done in the gym. One may argue out that a student who is good in sports may prefer the membership but unfortunately if one is a game player it is most likely that he is offered free membership to the gym. This means that it is most probable that he would go for the desktop and the bed.
Actual product level This is the tangible part of a product e.g. a bed, the gym or a computer. Ones needs are the one that make him buy some products. However, buying does not satisfy his needs it’s the services that the products offer that satisfies ones needs (MMC learning 2009, pp 3) as discussed above.
This level does not impact a lot on ones decision in choosing between two things but the one that provides the services. In a nutshell, the actual product provides the service that is required by individuals and the service is the one that is valued. Therefore, if there is no actual product definitely there will be no service.
Augmented level This level takes us back to the intangible part of a product. Its main focus is on the psychological satisfaction that a product offers. The assurance and the trust that one develops concerning the reliability of a product is what makes this level equally important to the other level.
It is at this level is the level that one tends to consider the little unique benefits of an offer by asking questions like ‘why this instead of that?’ ‘What does this have that the other does not have? It is in this level that one considers the brand name or the organization involved.
We will write a custom Essay on Three Levels of Products Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If one was to choose between two offers that we were considering, then his decision may be greatly be affected by the little unique qualities of the individual offers. For instance, it’s not just a bed that is being offered but an IKEA TROMSÖ loft bed. The loft aspect is what may make choose this instead of the gym membership.
In simple terms, everyone in Monash has got and sleeps in a bed but the loft aspect of it changes everything i.e. not everyone sleeps on a loft bed. The specifications and additional features of the desktop may also impact a lot in ones decision e.g. if it comes with free preinstalled software and games. The brand and model can also have an effect.
The gym membership also is affected by this by the fact that it is not membership of any gym but its Monash sports gym membership. If one was to choose between a loft bed plus a desktop and membership in a small privately owned gym then he would not think twice he would definitely go for the first one.
The added offer of group fitness membership in the gym as just meant to convince one that this is a better offer. This is in real psychological game and choosing it from the other offer is the winning point.
Conclusion In conclusion, Kotler’s three level product theory considered all aspect of a product starting from its main purpose to the simple advantages that it has others of the same or different kind.
References Answers. (2011). Marketing: Marketing American Heritage Dictionary- Marketing (pp 1). Web.
Five Products Level. (2005). Description (pp1). Web.
Kotler et al. (2004). Products, Goods, services and experiences Chapter 11: (p. 384-3910). Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Three Levels of Products Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Learn marketing. (2010). Three Levels of a Product/Augmented Product Concept. (Pp1-3). Web.
MMC learning. (2009). Product. (pp 1). Web.
Business Ethics Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction As described by Harless (2004), human behavior is often thought of as erratic, unpredictable and as a result prone to sudden inexplicable changes that at times defy conventional thought (Harless, 143-147). Despite such behavioral nuances people still continue to conform to societal rules and conventions in what can be described as “norms of behavior” dictated by an individual’s inherent ethical and moral standards which ascribe to a behavioral standpoint of harmonious interaction with other members of a community.
As noted by Leach and Oakland (2010), these ethical and moral standards dictate how individual members of society perceive what can be considered adverse or positive aspects of certain behaviors and methods of decision making and as such are utilized as a means of determining how they should proceed with a particular action (Leach and Oakland, 197 – 201).
The culmination of such methods of decision making are what are known as ethical theories which help individuals come to terms with all aspects of a problem and how best to proceed with what can be considered an ethical compromise to resolving them. It is based on this that this paper will explore the concepts of “The Golden Rule” and virtue ethics in order to resolve the ethical case study that was given for consideration.
Ethical Issue The ethical issue in this particular case is whether or not Alice should report the apparent mistake in Mark’s nutritional report to the company or whether she should tell Mark that she looked through the report despite it being marked confidential and explain to him the mistake she saw.
As noted by Jing-Ping (2011) ethical decisions are often made based on either conformity to a generally preconceived societal notion (i.e. crimes are bad hence the fact you should report a crime in progress) or based on inherent ethical or moral code (i.e. treat people as you want to be treated) (Jing-Ping, 21 – 31). In this particular case it can be seen that Alice has to decide whether to report the case or admit to Mark that she looked through the files, in either instance such as decision will definitely impact her friendship with Mark in some way.
Case Study Facts The following is a brief outline of the various facts in the case presented which should shed some light in what ethical course action should be followed. First and foremost it must be noted that Mark and Alice have been best friends for quite some time and they even graduated from the same university.
This establishes the fact that they have a close personal relationship which should be taken into account when Alice will make a decision regarding whether to inform the company or not. It was also noted that in the case study Mark has a family to take care of and was barely making enough to support them as is, a fact well known by Alice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, the scenario in the case example clearly states that Mark is a good worker and has actually performed exceptionally well during his 3 years at the company. If Mark were to be fired from his job due to the error in the report not only would this have marred his 3 exceptional years working for the company but NC would lose a great worker.
What must be understood is that NC actually little tolerance for mistakes and as such should the mistake be discovered it would more than likely result in Mark being fired. Underpinning all of this is the fact that Alice violated Mark’s trust by looking at the sealed files, yet if she didn’t the mistake wouldn’t have been found out until it was too late.
Analysis Utilizing the Golden Rule As stated by James Want (1999), the Golden Rule can be summarized into two distinct principles: that a person should treat others in the way that they themselves would like to be treated and a person should not treat others in a way that they themselves would not like to be treated (James Wang, 415). Basically the Golden rule is a concept with reciprocal action as its basis wherein people treat others in a positive manner due to the assumption that they themselves will also be treated similarly.
When utilizing this particular theory as means of analyzing the ethicality of a particular set of actions it is always the case that an individual takes into account how they would like to be treated should they be placed in a similar situation where they will feel the ramifications of a particular decision. In this particular there are two viewpoints to take into consideration: the viewpoint of Alice putting herself in Mark’s situation or in her placing herself in the situation of the company.
Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of Mark
From this viewpoint if Alice were to report the mistake to the company it would most likely result in Mark getting fired. It must be pointed out though that the Golden Rule only leads an individual towards making the best decision only if they fulfill the requirement of being highly ethical. Furthermore, it also makes the assumption that those who are affected by decisions are also highly ethical individuals.
While it must also be taken into consideration that Mark has a family to support, has performed admirably over the past several years and that he is Alice’s best friend the fact remains that under the Gold Rule of decision a highly ethical person wouldn’t ask nor expect a friend to lie for them thus if Mark and Alice are highly ethical individuals Alice would report Mark and Mark would accept the consequences of his actions if he was a loyal employee of the company.
Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of the Company
It must be noted though that from the perspective of the company Alice has a responsibility in ensuring the best interests of the company are followed through. If through inaction Alice allowed the actions of Mark to continue then this would result in possibly adverse consequences for the company in the future.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Business Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking the Golden Rule into consideration, if the roles were reversed Alice herself would want her employees to ensure the continued survival of the company by making sure that problems are prevented from occurring rather than knowingly allowing them to happen. As such if Alice didn’t report Mark to the company she would be complicit in allowing the company to experience a moment of failure.
It is based on these two perspectives that is likely that under the “Golden Rule” Alice would report Mark to the company.
Analysis using Virtue Ethics Under the concept of virtue ethics decisions are made based on an individual’s inherent character or virtues wherein personal integrity and moral character are taken into consideration before making a decision. What must be understood is that from the perspective of a virtue ethicist the decision to tell a lie or not actually depends on how that decision reflects upon an individual’s moral behavior or inherent character.
When looking at the situation of Alice and Mark what must be taken into consideration is how would telling the company reflect on Alice’s moral character when she could still tell Mark about the mistake and have him fix it? In the case provided it was not stated that the mistake could not be corrected, the only thing standing in between the mistake being corrected is Alice admitting to Mark that she looked through the report marked “confidential”.
In this situation there are two possible outcomes: Alice would tell Mark that she looked through the documents, which would call her moral integrity into question since she should not have looked at them, or Alice would not tell Mark and report him to the company despite there being the opportunity to still correct the mistake.
Based on the fact that the virtue ethics perspective considers primarily the actor’s character, motivations, and intentions it can be seen that the best course of action would be to tell Mark about the mistake and have him correct it.
When Alice looked through the documents she was not driven by any malicious intentions or self-serving motivations, she was just curious, if she were to report Mark to the company despite there being an alternative means of resolving the problem this would call into questions her own moral character. Thus, taking the virtue ethics perspective into consideration, Alice would tell Mark about the problem and have him fix it.
Recommendation Based on my analysis of the “Golden Rule” Alice should report Mark to the company however based on virtue ethics Alice should give Mark a chance to correct the mistake in the report. If Alice were to merely report Mark without giving him a chance to fix the mistake this would violate the principles of virtue ethics since she would knowingly cause an action (Mark getting fired) despite there being an alternative (having Mark fix the mistake).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, if Alice were to inform Mark about the mistake yet he still doesn’t fix it under the “Golden Rule” Alice has the ethical responsibility to the company to report Mark for his mistake.
Works Cited Halwani, Raja. “Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.” Hypatia 18.3 (2003): 161. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Harless, William. “Who’s Afraid of A Brave New World? An argument for the genetic manipulation of human behavior.” Boulevard 20.1 (2004): 143-150.
Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
James Wang, Qingjie. “The Golden Rule and Interpersonal Care–From A Confucian Perspective.” Philosophy East
Art Therapy With Women Who Have Suffered Domestic Violence Report college admission essay help
With the current rise of domestic violence cases around the world, it is very important to undertake a program for providing therapy to women who have suffered the ordeal. As much as there are many probable proposals for the same, the use of art therapy is much effective. This is because art therapy does not involve verbal intervention as many women find it difficult to express their feelings and experiences on domestic violence in verbal form.
A good therapy proposal should be based on its ability to get the women to relieve away their secret pains and mental trauma. Art therapy includes a more indigenous perspective of practice rather than the modern psychological approach. Art therapy is very significant in the healing process of any type of abuse especially on women who have been faced with domestic violence.
One of the most significant benefits of art therapy is the fact the patients get to understand and interpret their own situations which puts them in a better position to creatively participate in own healing process and in a culturally accepted manner. Art therapy also allows room for creativity pursuits which keeps the participants in an active state.
This helps drive away the experience and trauma associated with it. Through art therapies, participants are able to share their experiences with each other and this gives them the hope of living positively. Besides sharing of abuse experiences, community members are able to meet and share knowledge and skills with the possibility of engaging in community building through art practice. Art therapy is a safe way of relieving oneself from depression and other symptoms of mental disturbances.
A good proposal for art therapy on women faced with domestic violence should have all services consolidate into the following:
A comfortable and safe accommodation for those who flee their homes due to domestic violence,
Constant support and advice for the victims
Established services such as sporting activities and amenities, materials for other socio-cultural practices.
Besides the three core provisions, a well established art therapy program should have national recognition through employment of professionals at all levels. Since such programs have a great number of volunteers, providing professional services to them would be an ideal conduit towards the success of the program. Financial resources need to be well developed since these programs get most financial help through fund raising and charities. A good management and/or leader are equally important in these programs.
Amongst the services which should be provided in an ideal art therapy center should include;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Counseling services by professional psychologists to provide clear understanding of the victim’s situations
Recreational activities where the actual art therapy comes in. this should not only involve sporting activities but also other activities such as weaving, gardening, bead and clay making and other recreational activities especially those that interest women most since most victims of domestic violence are women even though some men may fall as victims as well.
Occasional shows to present and celebrate the arts that the participants have made. This may as well involve giving presents, if necessary and affordable.
The main aim of art therapy on women faced with domestic violence is not only to help them in the healing process, but also to empower them through practice as well as providing them with safe and caring environments to work out their experiences.
Marketing Mix: Surf Excel and Unilever Research Paper college essay help online
Introduction Marketing is a combination of strategies and methods used by companies to identify, build and maintain gratifying relationships with customers therefore, benefiting both the customer and the marketer (Amity Institute of Higher Education, 2011). For a successful marketing strategy, a marketer needs to combine, in a balancing manner, the right elements and processes. This is dependent on the nature of the products, services or ideas that the company wants to market.
It also comprises the decisions the management make in the implementation of the positioning strategy and in line with the achievement of the company’s overall objectives. Moreover, a marketing mix will involve the marketing tools the marketer uses to achieve these goals in the target market according to Armstrong
Performance-Based Pay for Executives Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The contemporary reward system for top management is mostly performance based, also known as pay for performance. The idea behind this reward system is that through the recognition of performance by the executives, their interest merges those of the shareholders of the company hence bridging the principal-agent gap. This reward system is American-based and has attracted a lot of debate from human resource scholars as well as from other relevant stakeholders.
This paper is a research report prepared by business analysts (BA) who have been instructed to conduct research for a client company and write a report regarding McDonald’s (the client) foreign direct investment project in China, which is the largest emerging economy. Based on the fact that the provision of professional HRM consultancy was part of the contract, there were instructions to conduct a research and give recommendation in terms of a report on whether McDonald’s should use performance based pay for executives in the new venture in China.
McDonald’s Corporation is the largest fast food restaurant in the world. The giant chain has continuously expanded internationally for a long period of time opening stores in different countries across the globe. In China, rivalry among competitors is severe and hence this food chain is facing a lot of competition from other established chain stores. In this country, Colonel Sanders and Mao have more popularity than McDonald’s which makes the competition here very severe.
This explains why McDonald’s need to invest in good strategies when opening their venture in China. The company projects that by the year 2013, it will have added more than 700 outlets to the 1300 that are already in existence (Jie, 2008).
Despite the normal challenges, McDonald’s is not lagging behind in its quest for expansion bearing in mind that the chain is opening new restaurants at a high rate. The motive behind McDonald’s venture in China is the desire to maintain its worldwide market position as the biggest fast food chain. The company plans to add its presence in China by ensuring that it operates 1500 to 2000 fast food outlets. It is alleged that half of these new stores will actually be drive-through outlets.
The giant burger chain is also said to be planning on remodeling over 80% of its stores in China by the end of 2012 to be able to offer the latest menu that is more health-conscious. For McDonald’s, China is one of its strong regions as far as growth opportunities are concerned. Majority of its restaurants that have been open for a period of at least one year have recorded a 12.7 % rise as compared to 5.3% in the US. The stores in China are estimated to be around 1100.
This report is predestined on evaluating the effectiveness of performance based pay, also known as pay for performance for executives. It lays its focus on determining whether performance based pay for executives at McDonald’s China project is worth being implemented or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Scope
The report focuses on various views that have been raised by different scholars in regard to the use of performance based pay for employees at different levels. This paper evaluates the pros and the cons of performance based pay. It explains the strategic reward system in details and gives the reasons as to why it should be used for the McDonald’s project in China as a way of motivating the executives for increased performance.
Besides this, the report also examines the extent to which the reward system will not breach local corporate governance laws within China in addition to a detailed explanation of the structure and details of the reward system.
Strategic reward system Strategic reward system has two basic elements; financial rewards and non-financial rewards. The financial rewards consists of pay incentives, base salary and employee benefits. On the other hand, the non-financial rewards include intrinsic rewards that are work-based and other rewards such as recognition, praise and time offs. In the performance-based pay, pay is treated as a variable cost (Towse
Media and the War in Iraq Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Session A: Cultural studies
Session B: The Toronto school
Session C: Critical Theory
Session A: Cultural studies The cultural studies approach to the effects of media and media related aspects suggests that there can be three main hypothesis and explanations. The first of such hypothesis uses capitalism as the basis of segregation of the society into subgroups and alienated groupings.
These groupings are based on social economic ethical and physical characteristics such as race, nationality sexual orientation education as well as political opinion. In every such division there exists a further subdivision between the majority and subordinate groups of individuals (Deakin University (DU). 2009).
The subordinates are therefore assimilated by the majority opinion that is advertised and marketed by the media. The assimilation occurs through constant aggressive and determined media coverage of a series of events. For instance as suggested by the key note address, the media due to the motivation and funding of the majority who were for pro war ideology was able to bring the war to the living room.
Those against the war were left with little option but to sympathize with the sites of suffering pain and agony of the victims (Hall 1996). In effect, they became slowly naturalized to the idea that there had to be a war. The naturalization is achieved through a hegemony process.
This is a process that involves the calculated and planned winning of the consent of the subordinate groups to an ideology of the dominant groups. The ideology of the dominant need not be the actual feasible and beneficial ideology but rather that which appeals to those who matter.
The majority therefore need not be in numbers but in influence. The subordinates are easily swayed by a clever advertisement that sways their loyalty. This therefore means that there is a certain category of persons who are really influenced due to either lack of knowledge or insufficient knowledge. The media was manipulated strategically positioned and stage-managed into a smooth selling narrative with a pro war agenda (Sparks 2006, p89).
Session B: The Toronto school Technology and by extension the media as a whole has a great bearing on the rate and direction of social change (Fitzgerald 2001). Technologies are readily available to for the use and manipulation of society depending on the nature and use of such technology. The direction and bearing of technology as a driver of social change however relies and depends on several factors such as economic social and political values.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The undeniably significant role of the media in directing and guiding opinion and ideas in the Iraq war is evident in the key note address where the war is marketed and sold in the form of a smooth selling acceptable and fluid narrative. The individual approach to the war depends on the various perspectives and opinions that were put to the individual about the war. In essence, the soldiers fought an entirely different war from the war that they are congratulated and remembered for.
The media packaged the war into a justified and inevitable consequence of provocation and a series of unjustified injustices. As White ( 2011 ) puts it “the war you saw depended on where you lived and the different angles, stories and perspectives you were subjected to” the societal determinism approach therefore embraces this aspect of media influence.
The world has transitioned from the media to the mass media eras to get to the multi-media age where the world is no longer divided in geographical regions in as far as media information and connectivity. McLuhan (1969, 53-158) explains of the global village concept as the unification of the world into a “massive, modern day tribal community” held together by the power of instantaneous communication (Sparks 2009, p241).
This has increased the stake that the media has on the general world opinion. It has raised the amount of interest as well as the role that the media plays maintaining order and or disorder. Even further, the presentation of a message greatly influences the actual message. Therefore the message may be common but the manner in which it is presented determines heavily how it will be received and interpreted.
A picture and a cartoon of the same will give different perceptions of the same picture (Cunningham and Flew 1997, p23), the quality and manner of the presentation of the information determines the message that will be conveyed. The severity or otherwise of the actual war and the broadcasted war differed a lot. The media war was more severe and painful to the viewers than the actual war was to the soldiers despite the fact that they were supposed to be of the same idea.
The war as it was broadcasted though various media mechanisms differed greatly in severity and magnitude and therefore there were varying ideas conceptions and opinions of the same war. It was convenient for the 71 % media sources to report a severe and more punitive war in furtherance of their opinion even if it involved infiltration of the actual events and happenings of the war. As Sparks (2009) puts it, the media motivated and cultivated one big group emotion (80).
Session C: Critical Theory The media plays a great and fundamental role in influencing and directing public interest. It is the states responsibility to secure and safeguard public interest. This therefore creates an interdependent relationship between the government and the media.
We will write a custom Report on Media and the War in Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This interdependence creates room for the government to pollute and manipulate the media to suit its convictions whether they are for or against public interest. As it were, matters of public interest are highly scrutinized by the public since they affect a great number of people and therefore stir up great emotion.
The media therefore possesses a great power in the public domain that is often polluted and abused by governments to further self interest. The media therefore develops a mysterious or fictional perspective that is convincing and appealing to the public. In the key note address it was clear that there existed other alternative viable options as against the attack of Iraq.
There was a considerable and available option of international interventions thought the international community (Gordon 1997). Bodies such as the United Nations had the capacity to interpretively and comprehensively investigate the claims of possession weapons of mass destruction. The united nations had commenced a weapons investigation in to the claims but due to the polluted media coverage and reporting the united states by passed these alternatives and went on to launch a defensive war (Fiske 1992, pp. 284–326).
The government however abused their power by giving little regard to this option and proceeding to weaponize and subsequently attack Iraq.
Conclusion The keynote address does not solidly subscribe to one theory or school of thought. It is however best explained in great respects by the Toronto school.
The critical responsibility that is borne by critical journalists and key note presenters maintains a continuous and viable force that drives the mass media movement in a consistent and stable direction. The media has however been corrupted and literally employed to serve specific interests.
The media left the anti war activists to be marginalized and choked by the dominant thought. This therefore means that the pentagon made a strategic and planned media strategies that moved beyond the mere public relations developing the attack of Iraq as a sweet narrative that presented Iraq as the problem and an attack as the only solution.
The plans were highly funded and motivated with media being given hints and leads that compromised actual proper reporting (Schechter 2004). Individual reporter’s rights such as the BBC news reporters were violated and not reported in Bagdad to secure their offices (12). This therefore means that the fancy for a war was up and motivated and there was no turning back. This led to the subsequent attach and death of thousands of citizens and innocent persons.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media and the War in Iraq by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Cunningham, S
Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Abstract Smart Mobile devices have become very popular both in the social and business world. This paper seeks to discuss the effect of these devices among people in the social as well as the business settings. There will be in-depth discussion on the devices’ effects of people’s lives at work, private social life, in government and education.
Introduction Since the industrial revolution, technology has been characterised by stativity, well apart from a few applications like the wheel, the train, the automobile and the airplane. Given the bulk of the equipment used in the above-mentioned inventions, stativity was not much of a choice.
Telecommunication gadgets like the Morse code and the telephone were grounded as well and their sizes and modes of operation did little to enable much movement. Two centuries later, technology experts are of the opinion that mobility displayed by telecommunication gadgets today is likely to get out of hand and possibly impact negatively on human life. Of particular importance to this discussion are the developments characterising the information and communications technology sector.
The last two decades have experienced some of the most effective ICT inventions in human history. The technology boom of the last decade of the 20th century provided the platform for the development of mobile technology that today has changed the ways of communication (Gallagher 2005, et al, p. 67). Technology nowadays is so mobile that business and individuals who fail to adapt to it risk being left behind, literary. Nothing in the 21st century captures the very spirit technological mobility as the mobile phone does.
The smart phone stands out nowadays as the epitome of synchronisation and mobility of technology. While its benefits cannot be overstated, there is genuine concern that the overall, especially adverse effects of this very technology have been grossly overlooked.
Which therefore begs the question; will the ever-increasing number of smart mobile devices (i-Phones etc) impact on the way we conduct our lives (work and private)? The answer to the above question is to the affirmative. The specifics of the answer will therefore form the main content of this discussion.
This paper will address the particular impacts on both work and private lives of human beings of smart mobile devices. It’s important to note that the impacts that will be discussed will touch on both the negative and positive sides of smart mobile devices. Besides, the above, there will also be a discussion on how smart mobile technology impacts education as well as government.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the words; business and work will be used interchangeably but will have similar meaning in the same context. Also, the words; smart phones and smart mobile devices will be used interchangeably.
Before the analysis is carried out however, it’s important to have a brief look on general effects of smart mobile devices, an enhancement of the affirmative answer given above
Smart Mobile Devices Impacts Human life According to Salt (2011, p. 152), the advent of advanced technologies like the smart mobile services has drastically altered human being’s work, life and relationships. However, Salt (2011, p. 152) singles out the mobile phone, social media such as Facebook and Twitter and smart phones as some of the technologies that are increasingly defining how people work and form relationships in the social arena.
The smart phone technology is undoubtedly influencing the formation of protocols and strange social behaviours that all lead to addiction. Through addiction to smart mobile devices, people are fast becoming slaves to the gadgets which dictate them what to do while defining every sphere of their lives.
As evidenced in the figure below, there are currently close to 500 million smartphone users in the world. That number is set to increase by 32.4% to 1.2 billion people by the year 2015. The growth of the smartphone usage by the above margin is likely to net more people to the addition that currently is being experienced. In turn the effects; both negative and positive will trickle down to the populations.
Fig 1.0. Projected growth in Smartphone usage, Source: Gartner and Berg Insight
Impact on work/Business Business communication is nowadays technology oriented (Stockard 2011, p. 153), letters, memos and reports have been replaced by technologies such as NetMeeting and LiveMeeting. Additionally, business communication is increasingly relying on the telephone especially Smartphones such as Blackberry and i-Phone (Stockard 2011, p. 153). Stockard adds that because phones can nowadays send messages as fast as the PC, business communication has become easier and quicker.
We will write a custom Essay on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a long time the business world has relied on the PC for conducting business. The PC still maintains its rightful place in the day-to-day running of organizations and conduction of business. However, the advent of the smart phone is increasingly diminishing the importance of the PC in business transactions.
This is because the smart mobile gadgets like smart phones and tablets have what the PC doesn’t; mobility and portability. The above features coupled with the presence of integrated PC features in smartphone makes them attractive and addictive to business people. The addiction and effect of these devices on work lives can be capture through a Ring Central online survey that was carried out in the year 2010.
Increased reliance on Smart mobile devices for conducting business In the survey, respondents ranked the smartphone and intimate life both at 40% as the two most important things that they can’t do without in their lives. Additionally, the majority of respondents totaling 79% cited the smart phone as the main business tool for conducting business easily beating the home and office phones (Trade 2010).
This is in contrast a few years ago when laptops were the main gadgets through which business was conducted remotely. The smartphone however easily beats the laptop as the primary preference in conducting remote business especially because it enable people access the physical tools that were only found in the office.
Some business people (34%) admitted to using the smartphone for business more than the computer (Trade 2010).
Levels of addiction of the smartphones, Source: Ringcentral Online survey
People are now increasingly addicted to productivity Many business people and those that are in both formal and informal employment admitted that they are addicted to the smart mobile devices for the sole purpose of improving productivity in their respective work areas. Again, the ability to conduct business from any location came top among the reasons the respondents gave.
To that effect, 40% of respondents ranked smart phones as being significant as intimate relations. Hypothetically, therefore these people cannot easily choose between their social lives and the gadgets they are holding (Trade 2010). This therefore shows a worrying trend where people may rank non-living requirements like gadgets ahead of social and personal development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Researching Into Information Technology and Its Impacts on Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a nutshell, business people as well as those that are working in the formal sector have demonstrated an unmatched passion for smart mobile devices. The fact that it has changed their way of life as shown above underscores the critical role these devices play and the depth of their effect.
Of more importance however is the dynamism that these gadgets have brought to the business world. They have reduced overreliance on the PC and the business phone as the main tools of conducting business. Mobility and speed have now become the norm thanks to these devices.
Impact on Private Life Many academics and political critics have conceded that the smart mobile devices like the BlackBerry can result into negative impact on the balance between work life and family life (Sweeny 2009, p. 190).
Addiction to mobile smart devices has not only affected business/ or work relationships of the users. There is sufficient reason to believe that the addiction has extended to the private or social lives of many people that use them.
Increasingly, people have found themselves in the awkward position where they need to split their time between their social lives and business. This effect will be captured through a presentation of different social scenarios that are aimed at showing the skewed devotion and commitment to family and relationships due to the use of mart mobile devices. In all the scenarios, the use of the gadgets is a deviation from the norm as we know it.
Less family time Nowadays, many people are devoting more time to business than to family. It’s not uncommon for people to conduct business while on a weekend or holiday alone or with family. Smart mobile devices come in handy in when one needs to check on the developments in the business world.
During this time, people split their time between being with family and communication various business issues. People with the smart gadgets find it difficult to keep to themselves without referring to their devices in social functions such as funerals and weddings and children’s outings. Subtly, and without realizing, these actions indicate lack of attention on the family and other social relationships which takes its toll in the long-run (Powell, p. 181).
Less privacy According to Furnell et al (2011, p. 50), the use of smart phones by people with no or little technical knowledge exposes them to the risk of being attacked through the use of their gadgets as security or attack vectors. In fact, most people who use these devices have little or no technical knowledge on measures that mitigate these risks.
Many of the smart mobile devices have been fitted with advanced microchips which make it easier for surveillance of the holder. The log installed in the smart devices can record all the places the holder has been to and sometimes the activities they have been up to.
Additionally, it’s easy for the parent companies and other interested parties to monitor the devices remotely illegally or otherwise. No matter the circumstances under which the surveillance takes place, the privacy of the holders of these devices is compromised. It’s no secret that surveillance information from these devices has led to the collapse of many social relations of the holders.
Social Networking One of the biggest impacts of smart mobile devices is social networking. Butler (2010, p. 100), quoting Comscore, says that over 30% of smartphone users access social networking sites like facebook and twitter using their phones. It’s now possible for people from different locations to communicate and participate in social events without necessarily meeting physically. The social networking impact can be positive or negative depending on the function it plays.
Impact on Government/ Administration Andersen et al (2011, p. 278) does not entirely see the effects of smart mobile devices as being negative. According to them, mobile communication especially through smart devices positively influences mobile business which in turn reinforces social media. Mobile business and social media therefore reinforce each other in a form of co evolution that has positive consequences (Andersen et al 2011, p. 278).
Through the use of these devices, both commerce and government have been forced to adopt technological changes for better communication and business procedures in the technologically mobile world (Rhomobile 2011, p. 23). On the same note, there is a feeling among many scholars that these gadgets have played and will continue to play a crucial role in social media growth and evolution.
As such they come in hand in the implementation of changes in government and in society especially through participation of citizens in e-democracy. A good example is role smart devices have played in the political crises of North Africa and the Middle East.
Impact on Education Education is one of the fields that have evolved with time. There is a marked difference between ancient and modern universities. Though there has been considerable adaptation of technology in education, the advent of smart mobile devices is likely to have a major impact on education. Smartphones aide students in accessing online textbooks while connecting them with databases and libraries online when doing research (Wright
The Engineering Change on the Shop Floor Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
From the case study, ‘The Engineering Change on the shop floor’, it is apparent that there is no clear change management framework, which is the core source of the problem.
Here, it is important to note that change management is very critical in various aspects of organizational projects aimed at leading, managing, and enabling the workforce to change from one operational process or technology to another (Ott, Parkes,
The Political landscape Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
The Political landscape holds that the American government has made it possible for all its citizens to access both jobs and services. It is believed that everyone enjoys equal opportunities.
The political landscape discusses the key issues that challenge the American government, and what has been done to stop them. The issue of ethnocentrism is discussed. The journal states that times have changed for the American nations, and they have come a long way in battling with discrimination among its people.
America has diversity of culture, since people from all walks of life are seen in this great nation. In the past, the African-Americans were treated as inferior people.
There was a long fight before they were recognized as American citizens and access education. They were also not allowed to ride in the buses the white people took to work. The battle for equality has been a long and tedious one, but it has brought liberation to the African-Americans. However, it is not over, yet, because, in certain institutions, they are still considered second-class citizens.
Women, on the other hand, have also made their mark in the professional industry. In the past, they were considered to be homemakers, but with time they have also been allowed to learn alongside their male counterparts and compete for similar jobs. Women have also been liberated since they have also been empowered by the laws that allow them to access and use family planning. This means that they are allowed to make the choice of whether they can have children or not.
To some level, this is true, but there is no reason why most of the affluent estates are mainly occupied by white people. There is also no explanation why majority of the top jobs are taken by males, yet these jobs should be shared equally between males and females.
In addition to that, if the laws show that all citizens are equal, then what would be the account for the Native Americans being marginalized or located in reserves while the government imposes their laws on them? There is also no explanation why the Mexicans are viewed as drug dealers yet; not all Mexicans are engaged in drugs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More America has also shifted from agricultural to industrial and to post-industrial economic jobs. The older people are also more involved in politics than the young generation. This might be because they had first-hand experience in the First World War and World War II. They, therefore, value their freedom and democracy.
For the younger generations, they are less involved in politics and voting. Education is seen as a tool that is to empower students. They get more information on their American history, and this would serve to make them understand the fight of their forefathers for freedom. This is in an attempt to make the students appreciate their history and more so to make them more patriotic to their nation.
In conclusion, the American nation is rich in culture since it is composed of people from all walks of life. It has also come a long way in trying to incorporate all these people. Much has been done but much is still yet to be done since the nation is still crippled by some degree of racism ethnocentrism. Women have been empowered in writing, but in practice, they are still being viewed as being unworthy to compete for the same opportunities as the men (Connor and Sabato 1-24).
The federal government is one that allows states to develop independently, but they are governed under the same laws and regulations. States are, therefore, allowed to make their economic decisions on their own but at the end of the day they are answerable to the federal law. Business and commerce should be the ruled by state law. This gives the different states the chance to explore their opportunities.
They get the chance to experiment, and this even gives them a competitive edge. The federal government serves to regulate states so that tyranny is not propagated. The national government has the authority to control the revenue. The constitutional government allows states to have authority to punish the member of the states when they commit offences, and this is applicable in cases where someone goes against federal law.
To make laws in all states equal, when members of one states cross the boundary and go into another state, they are supposed to be governed by the laws that govern the host state. States also share laws with other states, judicial proceedings among other things. It also is stated that a fugitive who flees into another state has the right to be deported back to the state where he or she is wanted.
The federal law holds the right to govern the welfare of its members, and if it deems it right, it can take measures to regulate security, commerce and laws of a state. For instance, the federal government decided to build a military station in Hawaii after it decided to increase security.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Political landscape specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was followed by unceasing protest from the state leaders who felt that they were supposed to rule themselves. The Hawaiians also feel that the federal government has also been actively involved in their displacement, and they have been forced to reserved areas and they feel oppressed.
In other instances, the federal law comes into play when there is trading between states or when states trade with countries of other nations. Since most of the times, the laws governing one state are the same laws presiding over another state; the states are allowed to share laws.
However, in certain situations, certain laws may be considered repugnant and they are unworthy of being made uniform. For instance, the Hawaiian law legalizing same-sex marriages was considered unacceptable, and the federal government decided that it would only remain legalized in Hawaii alone.
For most nations, they would want independence from the federal government because sometimes it curtails their freedom. However, as much as it seems like the enemy, it is also involved in offering financial aid and grants to states. It may also regulate the activities of states; partially or fully preempt the states from their debts with the federal fund.
In conclusion, the federal government acts as a body that acts on behalf of the welfare of its people. It ensures that the people under its rule are treated equally under the law, but they are allowed to explore different endeavors, as long as, they are within the federal law. This also ensures that there is an equal opportunity for growth and experimentation (Connor and Sabato 90-110).
Works Cited Connor, Karen, and Larry Sabato. American Government: Roots and Reform. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009.
Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Population, sample size and sampling design
Data collection methods
Validity and reliability
Introduction A research method is a procedure for collecting and analyzing data in a way that combines the research purpose of the study and the economy. Research studies in psychology are carried out in accordance with scientific methods standards. This encompasses both quantitative and qualitative statistical modalities that generate and analyze explanatory hypothesis regarding a psychological phenomena.
There are various methods that are used in qualitative research. Some of these methods include explorative approaches as well as observing the participants and recording the behaviors. In addition, it is possible to use interviews, which can be made to be made to be structured.
Through such qualitative methods, it becomes possible to get data which would otherwise be hard to get if quantitative approaches were taken. Quantitative methods in psychology incorporate use of statistical techniques to analyze data about human behavior.
This paper will be comparing research methods used in two peer-reviewed articles that focus on emotions and motivation. The paper will review an article by Jianzhong on “Homework Emotion Management Reported by High School Students” published in 2005.
The paper will also review an article by Xiang, Bruene, and McBride on “Achievement Goals and Their Roles in Students’ Motivation and Performance in Physical Education Running Programs” published in 2005. Specifically, the paper will compare and contrast the research design, target population, sampling design and sample size, data collection methods, data analysis and ethical considerations.
Research design Kothari (2004) indicates that a research design is a blueprint of a research project that comprises of a research procedure which makes the research study efficient, yielding maximum information while reducing the expenditure of effort, money and time. Different research studies that are commonly used in research include a survey method, a case study and descriptive design.
In both research studies the researchers used a survey method as their research design. A survey method involves interviewing the participants on their feelings, views and experiences in relation to the research objectives and hypothesis. A survey method is appropriate in psychological research since it helps the researcher to collect data on a subject that is not directly observable. Motivation and emotions cannot be observed and hence they can be measured best using a survey research method.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Population, sample size and sampling design A population refers to a group of items or individuals with a common attribute under consideration in a field of enquiry. The target population in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 1,869 students while the target population in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.
Both research studies were done in schools. Jianzhong (2005) combined both purposive sampling and random sampling to select their sample sizes. Purposive sampling was used to select English classes. Purposive sampling is a non random sampling method which helps the researcher to select a sample of people, events or settings who have predetermined characteristics.
The researchers had observed that they were required by all students and hence purposive sampling was appropriate. However, the sample size was still large and hence simple random sampling was used to select a total of 10 English classes; five in grade 10 and five in grade 9.
Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used purposive sampling to select their sample size. In both studies, the researchers used purposive sampling but Jianzhong (2005) also used simple random sampling. The sample size in Jianzhong (2005) research study was 205 students while the sample size in Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) was 461 students.
Data collection methods Primary and secondary data can be used in a research study. Data collection methods used in collecting primary data include mailed questionnaires, structured questionnaires, semi structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, structured interviews, semi structured interviews and observations.
In both studies the researchers used questionnaires to collect their data. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used a close ended questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale in each and every question. In Jianzhong (2005) study, possible responses to the questions were: strongly disagree which was scoring, disagree which was scoring two, ‘agree’ which was scoring three, and strongly agree which was scoring four.
Structured questionnaires are preferred by most researchers since they are economical in terms of cost, and time as compared to other data collection methods. In the two articles the researchers used quantitative data to answer the research questions.
We will write a custom Essay on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Validity and reliability The accuracy of data collected mostly depends on the validity and reliability of the data collection instruments. Validity is the extent to which the results obtained after analyzing the data represent the study’s phenomena. Validity of the data collection instruments is achieved by pre-testing the research instruments in order to identify any ambiguous offensive of awkward questions and make changes where necessary. In both research articles the researchers did not do a pretest.
Reliability measures the degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results. Jianzhong (2005) in his study tested the reliability of his data and found that Alpha reliability coefficients were.81 for extrinsic reasons and 86 for intrinsic reasons. Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not do a reliability test in their study.
Data analysis Quantitative data can be analyzed by three statistical data analysis tools: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and test statistics. Inferential statistics helps the researchers to make conclusions and predictions in relation to the properties of a population using the information from the sample size. Descriptive statistics helps the researcher to obtain information about central tendency, kurtosis, skew and dispersion and of data. Inferential statistics also help the researcher to obtain information of on the relationship between variables.
Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) in their study used both inferential and descriptive statistics to analyze their data. In inferential statistics they used MANOVA test while in descriptive statistics they used mean.
In his study Jianzhong (2005) used both descriptive and inferential statistics. Jianzhong (2005) used descriptive statistics to describe levels of education and his dependent variable (homework emotion management). In his inferential statistics Jianzhong (2005) used Zero-Order Correlations to establish the correlation between his dependent and independent variables. He also used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to analyze variances in homework emotion management which was his dependent variable.
Ethical considerations Minja (2009) described ethics as norms that govern the conduct of a human being and has a greatly impacted human welfare. Research studies should always have ethical consideration in relation to the respondents or organizations.
Researchers should therefore assure the respondents and the names of the respondents should not be disclosed when analyzing the data or when discussing the findings. In his study Jianzhong (2005) shared information on his study with an assistant school principal to seek approval to conduct. In their study Xiang, Bruene, and McBride (2005) did not consider any ethical consideration.
References Jianzhong, X. (2005). Homework emotion management reported by high school students. The School Community Journal, 15(2):21-36.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Research Methods used in Motivation and Emotion Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers.
Minja, D. (2009). Ethical leadership practices. KCA Journal of Business Management, 2(1):1-15.
Xiang, P., Bruene, A.,
Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development Exploratory Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction The concept of growth denotes either physical or mental change in size. Growth, as discussed in this paper, will concern both manifested physical growth and external growth associated with progress in careers, personal relationships, and existing networks with friends and colleagues. Motivation plays a tremendously pivotal role in growth; in essence, many employees and workers that engage in their various endeavors that result in growth in their careers usually require a dose of motivation to achieve growth.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory of Growth The ERG theory of growth states that a person’s most salient aspects have to do with the person’s existence, relatedness and growth. The existence needs concern the person’s concerns for bare survival. These include the need for food, the need for clothing and shelter. As concerns relatedness, the theory states that a person needs to have satisfying relationships with others in his or her social circle in order to have a sense of self and be ready to embrace growth.
Finally, the element of growth in this theory relates to an individual’s need for personal development. The need for personal development occurs in a person’s private and professional setting. Personal development, thus, involves a sense of increased maturity as well as development in a given career that an individual may choose.
Growth and development in employees, as stated earlier, requires motivation that may be co-opted from different sources. According to Peterson et al, characteristics such as hope, optimism and resilience are powerful motivating factors for employees.
In their study, Peterson et al found that when employees and workers gain these characteristics and attitudes (hopefulness, optimism and resilience) towards their work, they become highly motivated and attain higher levels of career growth (2010, p.428). The onus is thus on employers and managers of various organizations to ensure that such characteristics are imparted in their employees.
This impartation can happen through various means to ensure that employees develop a proper and positive attitude towards work and achieve a level of growth in their respective posts and careers. Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth thus aligns with the findings of the study, since to develop the positive characteristics mentioned here requires that these employees’ needs concerning the existence and relatedness are met.
Before an individual becomes hopeful, optimistic and resilient, his or her basic need for food, clothing and security has to be fulfilled first. Additionally, the individual has to feel that he or she has positive relations with members of family, coworkers and friends. After these two needs are met, then, through training and positive reinforcement, the individual can easily become hopeful, optimistic, and resilient. These are the characteristics necessary for individual and professional growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional Goal setting And Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth An individual’s own characteristics also play a crucial part in one’s professional growth. According to Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth and development, an individual’s need for personal development features prominently in his or her growth needs. The most successful professionals in their various fields usually have a high rate and level of personal development.
Baum and Barbara state that, highly successful entrepreneurs usually exhibit a high level of their sense of self and belief in achieving what an ordinary person would deem impossible (2010, p.398). According to their study, successful entrepreneurs are highly goal driven. These entrepreneurs set goals and then take the necessary steps to achieve the set goals.
Similarly, personal and professional development is achieved through setting goals and striving to achieve them at various points in an individual’s life. Personal development goals range from an effort by one individual to lose weight or the set target of another individual to start a business. The common element in personal development goals is that they are set to improve or change the current socioeconomic, bodily, financial or other status of the individual.
Informal Personal behavior and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development An individual’s personal behavior draws entirely from the characteristics that the individual acquires and develops over a period. The environment in which a person grows, as well as the nature of parenting undertaken play a significant role in the development of an individual. For instance, children that are raised with single parents are more likely to engage in crime and other social vices compared to children raised by two parents (the father and mother) (Ricciuti, 2004, p. 196).
Therefore, an individual’s personal informal behavior is a function of both nature and nurture. According to Alderfer’s Theory of growth, when an individual’s needs for existence and relatedness are not met – for instance by neglectful parenting, the individual will lag behind in his or her rate of personal development. The personal behavior of such an individual will also exhibit signs of neglect, and the person may be socially withdrawn, aggressive or acquire other such extreme characteristics.
However, although the nature and nurture are strong factors in an individual’s personal development – and thus his subsequent behaviors, persons who undergo severe trauma, regardless of their upbringing, exhibit signs of unfulfilled existence and relatedness needs.
Such persons require training and goal setting lessons in order to achieve personal growth – and thus exhibit appropriate personal behavior. According to Lerner and Blow, soldiers who engage in battle usually exhibit signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
We will write a custom Essay on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These signs resemble the signs of individuals whose relatedness needs have not been met. Lerner and Blow state that through positive training on the need for setting goals that bring personal development – for instance re-joining a previous career, or engaging in volunteer work – these veterans eventually eliminate PTSD signs (2011, p.40).
Therefore, personal development training is also a decisive factor in creating positive characteristics in individuals. Interestingly, research on biological processes of growth reveals an almost similar pattern. Bhagia et al, in their study of persons suffering from brain injury, discovered that, when the individual was injected with a growth hormone, recovery was quicker and more holistic (2010, p.565).
Therefore, just like personal and professional growth and development, biological growth also benefits from induced, targeted growth stimulation.
Social Policy and Alderfer’s ERG theory of Growth and Development With the understanding of Alderfer’s ERG theory of growth, social development policies enacted in society should ensure all polices aim to fulfill the existence, relational and growth needs of all the members of society. A lack in any of the above needs creates a sense of loss in an individual, and such an individual is likely to engage in behavior that causes harm to the rest of the members of society.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Growth
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory states that, an individual has needs that need to be fulfilled at various levels for the individual to achieve personal and professional development. These needs are physiological needs (food, shelter, security), social needs (friendship and intimacy), self-esteem needs (belonging) and self-actualization.
According to Maslow, when an individual’s physiological needs are not met, the person will not be able to apply himself or herself fully to any task at hand, and the pattern holds as the different needs at different levels are explored. Therefore, an individual can be motivated with the promise of fulfillment of higher needs. For instance, an employee whose pay enables him or her to meet only physiological needs can be motivated with the promise of a higher pay that will enable him or her fulfill his or her social needs.
Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Informal Personal Behavior
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, whenever a given level of needs is not met in an individual, the individual will exhibit this lack in certain antisocial behavior. For instance, a child who is neglected by the parents- thus the safety needs are unmet, will most likely develop a sense of inferiority towards his or her peers. Similarly, an adult whose self-esteem needs are unmet is likely to resort to self-destructive and harmful behavior such as drug abuse in an attempt to fulfill the need of being respected by peers.
Maslow’s Theory of Growth and Professional Goal Setting
In a professional setting, especially in organizations with employees at various stages of their career growth, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory is useful in ensuring that employees remain motivated to perform their tasks and achieve personal and professional growth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth and Motivation theories; Application in Personal Behavior, Professional goal Setting and Social Policy Formulation and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Maslow’s hierarchy of needs growth theory enables individual employees examine areas of his or her personal life that do not align with the theory, and adjust accordingly.
That quarrelsome manager may be suffering from a simple lack of professional appreciation, and may feel that he or she is simply not getting the respect that he/she deserves, and thus their tendency to pick a fight over unnecessary issues may be a manifestation of the need for professional appreciation.
Similarly, the guard who is always unmotivated may be exhibiting signs of a person whose pay does not fulfill both physiological and social needs. Thus, the management of an organization can use the theory to ensure that the workplace becomes a place of wholesome and appropriate rewards for all workers and managers involved (Benson,
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Essay college admissions essay help
Abstract Autism is a serious disorder that has the potential to disrupt the success of people living with it. This report shall set out to explore various aspects regarding this disorder. To this end, an overview of the symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment shall be offered. This shall aim at expanding our understanding regarding this disorder so as to enable us to be better prepared to handle it whenever the need arises.
Introduction Autism has been noted to be among the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder. Kuder (2003) denotes that in the USA, an estimated 2.1% of the population aged between 8 and 17 is affected by autism in its various forms.
Autism is manifested by varied behavior but it is chiefly characterized by inability to communicate, lingual deficits, lack of a sustained attention, low level of activity, temper tantrums, sleep disturbance, aggression inadequate motor control and other non-compliant behavior. These behaviors are detrimental to the social and educational endeavors of the people involved.
Biological and genetic aspects of autism Spectrum Disorders Autism spectrum is a medical term that is used to describe children and adults who experience difficulties in motor coordination, socializing, communicating (verbal and non-verbal) and language acquisition (Tager-Flusberg, Paul and Lord, 2005). The authors describe autism as a neurological disorder that stems from the brain’s inability to carryout some functions normally.
The causes of Autism as well as the reasons why it affects lingual and communication skills are not entirely known though there is a close linkage between Autism and genetics.
Studies indicate that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is inherited between family members. A study conducted by the American Psychiatric Association (2000) indicated that there is a 3-6% chance of getting autism amongst siblings.
However, Korvatska et al (2002) state that the difficulty experienced by scientists in pinpointing the genetic aspects of autism emanates from the lack of extended family histories. In most cases, autistic individual become more detached socially that they rarely marry or have children. As such, finding a family that has detailed genetic information regarding autism is difficult.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On a brighter note, twins have been used to explore the genetics behind autism (Beaudet, 2007). One study indicated an 82% likelihood of an autistic identical twin having the same disorder. This is in contrast to the 10% likelihood indicated by results from fraternal twins. More sophisticated studies have in the recent past concluded that 90% of autism related behavioral phenotypes are as a result of inherited genes (Happé
Giving Advice about Treatment Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Patients, who need psychotherapy care needs to be handled with a significant amount of care. This is because such patients are delicate and that the way they are handled may deteriorate their condition. Choosing the right kind of psychotherapy is part of handling such patient.
This is because psychotherapy does not function in isolation and is dependent on other factors. These factors include the type of the relationship established, as well as the technique applied. While these two variables are useful, there are basic fundamental principles which facilitate the success of psychotherapy.
Moreover, generalized clinical solutions may not necessarily work for individual patients. As such it is vital to provide evidence based healthcare, which facilitates individualized treatment programs for the patient. In this case where the patient feels the need to make the right choice, there are certain basis issues that need to be put into perspective. This will enable the client identify the most suitable form of psychotherapy plan
There has been numerous research studies conducted on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Within these research studies, the researchers have focused on numerous variables that can alter the findings.
Despite the varied opinions of these researchers, they have all arrived at one conclusion: that psychotherapy works and that there is no any significant variation in psychotherapy outcomes, whether it is accompanied by medication or not (Butcher, Mineka and Hooley, 2010).
This implies that the patient should take psychotherapy which is not accompanied by any form of medication. This is due to the realization that medication does not alter the efficacy of psychotherapy.
Moreover, medication for such clinical conditions may have side effects, thus the need to avoid it at all cost. Research studies also reveal that a majority of patients who need psychotherapy have multiple problems which need complex solutions (Butcher et al., 2010). In this regard, it is not wise for patient in this case to exclusively choose any type of psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because such approaches to psychotherapy are limited and are only suited to treat certain types of psychological issues. General psychotherapy is aimed at evaluating, analyzing identifying related conditions. For the patient to receive comprehensive diagnosis it would be wise to avoid any special type of psychotherapy.
It is important to recognize that each patient has special needs and that each of the clinical condition is unique in every patient (Butcher et al., 2010). As such patients seeking psychotherapy treatment needs to understand that their needs are uniquely personal and that general remedies may not necessarily be effective for that particular condition.
In this case the biggest question for his patient is how to access evidence based patient care; evidence based healthcare requires that the clinician maintain contact with the patient for long duration, as the clinicians studies the development of that patients condition. The need for evidence based care is to allow the clinician to have sufficient time to diagnose and categorize the patient as either complex or worse.
Furthermore, the clinician, using the evidence based method will be able to categorize the particular patient condition as either mild moderate or complex. The psychotherapy patient will benefit from this type of healthcare since the clinician will be able to develop tailor made psychotherapy.
Furthermore, the clinician will be able to assess the efficacy of the treatment plan for and make adjustments according to emerging needs, should there be any. Such individualized treatment plan will also enable the patient to gain a deeper understating of the condition, and as such the patient becomes actively involved in the treatment process.
Despite the findings that the outcomes of psychotherapy are not varied by the presence of other types of medication, it is imperative to state that psychotherapy does not work in isolation of other variables (Butcher et al., 2010). This implies that there are other factors that influence the efficacy of psychotherapy.
Generally psychotherapy revolves around the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist. There are a number of factors that determine this relationship. These include the warmth and comfort generated during the process of psychotherapy. This implies that the effectiveness of tailor-made psychotherapeutic plan for the patient in this case is highly dependent on the type of relationship that evolves between the patient and the psychotherapist.
We will write a custom Report on Giving Advice about Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is difficult to predict the nature of relationship that there might evolve between the patient and the clinician while at the stage in which the clinician is being chosen. However, it is still possible to track the development of the patient clinician relationship by evaluating the patients comment about the clinician.
If the patients voices dissatisfaction, any form of disapproval of the clinician or any method of treatment prescribed, it thus becomes necessary to withdraw the patient from that particular psychotherapist. Such kind of disapproval is an indication of the fact that the patient has lost faith in the clinician and since research suggests that such factors affect that the outcomes of psychotherapy, then it will be wise to seek an alternative.
Suffice to say that the patient clinician relationship plays a very significant part in determining the nature of the outcomes. Thus, it is vital to keep alternating clinicians until the right kind of patient clinician relationship is established. Furthermore, developing this type of relationship is part of tailor-made psychotherapy plan.
The purpose of seeking psychotherapy is to facilitate therapeutic changes in the patients. As explained earlier, the relationship between the patient and the psychotherapist plays a significant role in facilitating therapy. Furthermore, techniques of therapy such as cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic therapist have been found to be ineffective.
This is not to mean that the role of technique in facilitating therapy should be downplayed. To some extent these techniques also motivates successful therapy. The question however is not on which of the two; relationship and techniques, is more effective than the other.
This implies that for this case, it is vital to identify the basic principles which facilitate successful therapy. For instance if it is found out that the psychotherapist is too involved (in the relationship) instead of acting the patient will be withdrawn as this type of relationship is unhealthy.
Choosing a psychotherapist is not just a mater of locating one who will be able to handle the patient in question. It is imperative to note the while choosing a psychotherapist for the patient in this particular case, it is vital to consider a number of fundamental issues. These issues are vital since they facilitate individualized and patient based care. This will be to the advantage of the patient since the treatment plan will be focused on the patient. As such the efficacy of psychotherapy will be achieved.
Reference Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., and Hooley, J. M. (2010). Abnormal psychology (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn
The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Social Networking Sites
Privacy in Social Media at Workplace
Ethical considerations while using social media
Social media and computer security
Introduction Social media plays an important role at work places. Importantly, it is increasingly gaining popularity among different users as compared to other media like radio and television (Patel, 2010, p.60). By making use of computer networks in communication, social media plays an important role in helping organizations to communicate with their new employees (Sims, 2010, p.157).
In addition, it provides an interactive platform, whereby, individuals can converse uninterrupted. Unfortunately, this has resulted into misuse of the media, for instance, some users can express their ill motives or influence the public, or post information that they could not convey in a real life encounter.
Privacy of the employees at a given workplace should be given priority when using social media. Primarily, ethical codes of conduct should be observed in communication through the social media. Here, individuals should understand the feelings and emotions of the recipients of the information.
There is also a need to ensure security of the information contained in these media, since some of the information is essential for smooth running of the organization. The access to such information by unauthorized parties such as competitors of an organization would be very detrimental to the realization of the objectives of the company.
The Social Networking Sites These are websites used for social interaction in the cyberspace. They include Facebook, MySpace, Opera, Yahoo, Twitter, Livejournal, Classmates, Myblog, and Linkedln among others (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011). Facebook has had a significant subscription recently, with a figure of over 500 million users by 2010 (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32). In most of the sites, a user is required to develop a profile (The Arabian Affiliate, 2011) by signing up in the network. Other individuals then get to know more about this particular user.
Privacy in Social Media at Workplace Individuals have a right to privacy, and there are legal provisions that protect this right. Similarly, employees of an organization have the right to privacy of information. Unless it is necessary, employers need not to get into the private affairs of employees. To some extent, the kind of communication between the employees and the allies should be of little concern to the employers.
However, while using social media at workplaces, the company has the capacity to check into the content of such information. Ordinarily, the company retains the ability to monitor communication through the facilities at workplace (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). Importantly, organizations have private policies enacted to protect their operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because some irresponsible employees could use the social sites to influence the behavior of other employees or leak information to the wrong individuals. Indeed, information concerning an organization’s operational strategies is crucial and thus it should be kept secret (Guerin, 2011, p.260).
Thus, it is apparent that, even though it is necessary to respect the privacy of employees, the information shared in the social media sites at workplaces need to be assessed by the company. Employers are often interested in checking if the employees are doing a good job (Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 2011). However, the retrieved information should be revealed only in the event that it is deemed dangerous to the operations of the organization.
Ethical considerations while using social media Using company resources for individual purposes is considered a good working condition that motivates employees. However, this is acceptable if the employees use the resources responsibly. This can be achieved through ethical consideration by the employees. Firstly, the sender of a piece of information should take precautions to ensure that the information will not hurt the recipient. In addition, employees should respect the privacy of their co-workers and provide identity only under the authority of the organization (Guerin, 2011, p.260). Indeed, a good understanding of the emotions of others enables one to identify a piece of information that is likely to hurt others.
It is also important to consider the diversity among the users of the sites. Different people understand life differently. When providing some information, an individual often believes that, his/her opinion is right and acceptable. However, the sender should acknowledge the fact that other individuals could have different opinions on the same subject.
Similarly, employees should be send proper and meaningful information. Retrieving information from these social sites is expensive; therefore, the information so received should be of some significance to the recipient. Observing the organizational values and codes of conduct will enable the employees to operate smartly towards the realization of the company’s objectives.
The employers often expect that the employees will use their employer time doing the assigned duties. However, studies have shown that a substantial proportion of employees often visit social media sites during employer’s time (Lyncheski, 2010, p.32).
We will write a custom Essay on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social media and computer security Computer security is increasingly becoming an issue of global concern, more so given that cases of new strains of computer viruses continue to threaten computer users in different institutions (Yale University, 2009). By joining the network within an institution or the larger WWW, an individual exposes his computer to attacks that would lead to loss of information stored in the machine (Yale University, 2009).
Given that the stored information is of importance to both the employees and the management of the organization, it is important to protect the information from loss. Indeed, all operating systems are vulnerable to such attacks (Yale University, 2009).
To improve on the security, users should stay informed of the latest developments registered in fighting computer viruses for a given operating system. In addition, software manufacturers often detect and provide alerts on possible attacks. Therefore, users should often consult with the manufacturers to fix the problem.
Security can also be improved using anti-virus (Yale University, 2009). This software checks updates, and prompts the users to fix the latest vulnerability that is discovered. Moreover, the use of a hardware-based firewall can also improve on the security (Yale University, 2009).
Conclusion Social media plays an important role in workplace communication. Therefore, moral values and ethical considerations need to be observed, as they affect the effectiveness of such communication. Ordinarily, any conversation should be conducted in a similar manner it would be communicated in a real life situation.
Moreover, it is desirable that all the users of social media sites should show some sense of maturity, just like in a real life encounter. In this sense, they will avoid conveying information that would hurt the recipients of such information, or any other party that has access to such information.
Moreover, it is important to convey substantial pieces of information; however, the privacy of employees and the company should be respected while using the sites.
Appendix Communication is essential in different settings including workplaces. Social media has had an increasing significance in enhancing effective communication among members of an organization. The management teams of business organizations often want to pass some information to their stakeholders including the customers, suppliers, the employees, and the public.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Social Media within the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effective communication is essential in the supply chain management in a business organization. Similarly, non-profit organizations also have a lot of stuff to communicate to their stakeholders, while employees of such organizations also have a lot to share among themselves.
References Guerin, L. (2011). Smart Policies for Workplace Technologies: Email, Blogs, Cell Phones
Psychology of Gender Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender Identities in the Different Cultures
Gender Attitudes Studies
Introduction Gender issues such as equality between men and women and gender roles evoke strong reactions in the contemporary world. Much like race, ethnic, and class stereotypes, gender stereotypes, exclusion, and discrimination are central to politics in many countries.
In particular, issues of feminist exclusion and discrimination characterized by a relatively low political participation of women remain unresolved and often elicit negative feelings in many societies. Additionally, these issues shape a society’s politics especially the policies of left-wing parties and feminist activist groups. For this reason, gender issues in contemporary societies require a cautious approach when addressing them.
Gender issues, particularly gender equality, roles, relations, and political participation are common stereotypes despite the massive awareness campaigns and legislations on these issues. Ideally, studying gender aims at promoting knowledge about gender exclusion and discrimination as well as encouraging the respect of rights of minorities (Spence, 1993, p. 632).
However, the high sensitivity and politics of gender issues with respect to economic, cultural as well as social inequalities are obstacles to studying gender. In addition, sample participation in gender studies is low; thus, decisive conclusions cannot be made. Future research should focus on understanding the gender roles within social contexts rather than on inequalities.
Major Challenges to Studying Gender
Most scholars studying gender issues focus on gender roles, as opposed to studying the broader gender identity along with its cultural, social, and economic aspects. In particular, social roles of each gender vary across culture; therefore, studies should focus cultural aspects. Stet and Burke study analyses the causes of social oppression against women as well as ways of fighting discrimination (1996, p.210).
In addition, other studies focus on social feminist movements and analyses the causes of feminist political activity as opposed to focusing on the social, cultural and political background of gender disparities. In my view, the ever-increasing interests on gender roles face stiff opposition from cultures, which hamper effective study of gender issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, masculinity and femininity are not only based on sexes but upon cultural and social conditions of an individual. Burke’s study shows that observed differences in social behaviors between women and men result from the cultural and cultural expectations of each gender (1991, p.838).
Traits and temperaments that are normally linked to one sex are, in fact, present in all the sex groups. In addition, far more variability in roles or identities does exist within each gender. Burke’s study concluded that, the “patterns of temperament vary among societies” (1991, p. 841). In most societies, male exhibit active and competitive temperaments while females are more cooperative and expressive.
However, according to Burke and Cast, in some societies the males show cooperative and expressive temperaments while females are more competitive (1997, p. 287). Consequently, their social roles are different compared to other societies. This shows that gender studies should be a function of social and cultural factors. In my view, studying gender should be in the context of the prevailing cultural and social factors in a given society.
Gender Identities in the Different Cultures Gender studies also face a challenge of defining gender identity in social and cultural contexts. The gender identity phenomenon has many aspects. Certain behaviors, attitudes and attributes are exclusive to either male or female. However, the underlying issue is the society’s view of the qualities of being feminine or masculine.
Culturally, physical attributes, traits, and occupational preferences reflect masculine or feminine gender identities. A study by Burke and Cast established that individuals base their personal qualities on culturally defined gender characteristics to “define themselves as feminine or masculine” (1997, p. 278).
Moreover, gender identities tend to be more variable depending on the internalized behaviors that the individual engages. The behaviors then shape their identities and by extension their social roles (Drass, 1986, p. 301). In this regard, studying gender faces the challenge of defining gender identity in the context of a given culture.
In my opinion, studies should use a multidimensional approach as gender roles relate to gender identities, which are both dependent on social and cultural factors. In addition, gender inequality and underrepresentation in any given society influence gender studies. The politics and gender polarization in contemporary societies, in my view, hampers objectivity in gender studies with regard to political participation and representation in leadership.
We will write a custom Essay on Psychology of Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my opinion, future work on gender should focus on how societal institutions including political institutions, religion and economic structures can modify gender identity. Among the greatest challenges of studying gender, is the issue of gender identity in the context of cultural structures.
In this way, socialization can be improved in many social settings. Secondly, gender studies should focus on cross-cultural and sub-cultural differences in order to understand the meaning masculine and feminine roles and identities in the context of that culture. Since such roles or identities are not universal, the studies should provide insights on a society’s division of labor, power structure and responsibilities as well as help to modify the challenges of defining gender identity and roles.
Gender Attitudes Studies Gender attitudes involve common views associated with an individual’s gender and are variable across cultures. In most cultures, masculine attitudes reflect justice while feminine attitudes in most situations tend to be in terms of care. In particular, the gender-role attitudes shape the gender roles and identities (Spence, 1993, p. 625). By extension, the gender-role attitudes influence the reproductive behaviors, family relationships, and the political participation of each gender in any given society.
Accordingly, children develop their gender-role attitudes from their experiences with social structures including the family and society. From these early experiences, the children identify the appropriate masculine and feminine roles within the society (Drass, 1986, p.298). The gender-role attitudes can be traditional, such as men providing for the family and female caring for children, or untraditional, where roles are assigned based on ability or circumstances regardless of gender. Additionally, the untraditional gender roles differ from culture to culture. As a result, gender attitude studies should be done across cultures, in order to draw meaningful conclusions.
Gender attitude studies conducted involving the Caucasian middle class adults alone cannot be conclusive. Firstly, the studies involve adults instead of children or adolescents whose present gender-role attitudes has an impact upon their roles in adulthood. Secondly, in my opinion, the gender-role attitude studies should involve societies with a history of gender inequality and discrimination. In particular, the studies should involve the African-Americans whose attitudes on gender roles has implications on gender participation in public affairs.
Conclusion Gender studies in contemporary societies often face challenges from underlying social and cultural factor. Precisely, the gender roles and gender identity are dependent on cultural and political constructs of a particular society. In addition, these factors determine the political participation of either gender and are variable across cultures. In my opinion, studies should focus on understanding the gender roles and identities and how they are shaped by gender-role attitudes across many cultures.
Reference List Burke, J. (1991). Identity Processes and Social Stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836-849.
Company analysis-Harley-Davidson Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Harley-Davidson Inc. was established during the first ten years of the 20th century in Wisconsin. It is one of the major motorcycle manufacturers that was not hard hit by the Great Depression. It has also survived stiff competition from Japanese motor cycle manufacturing firms due to its high quality and competitive products and services.
The external analysis of the company reveals that Harley-Davidson Inc. is one of the companies that are highly recognized and admired worldwide. One of its notable marketing strategies entails excellent academy for training individuals who desire to learn riding motorcycles.
Issue I: Competition On the basis of internal rivalry, the company inevitably faced competition from firms which manufacture similar products as well as enjoy larger market share and stronger financial bases. For instance, Yamaha Company is one of its close market rivals. Consequently, just like Harley-Davidson, the three other competitors also concentrate on production of heavy weight motorcycles.
These competitors include Honda, Yamaha and Suzuki which are all Japanese companies. In addition, Honda Company which stands out as the major competitor of the company in the United States of America enjoys a larger market share (Grant, 2005).
Causes of stiff competition
It is imperative to note that Harley-Davidson products are highly priced and therefore, it locks out customers who are of low-income levels. Additionally, in some European nations, the company has problems in attaining larger market share. In the markets that are considered big and diverse such as India, Harley-Davidson has failed to venture and exploit the same. Finally, the company has not met the requirements of the production process by analyzing the future of their product’s market segment (Bloomberg business week, 2011).
Impacts of competition
Competition has been heightened by the fact that most of the competitors have larger market segment, diversity and financial capabilities. Following stiff competition the company is likely to experience a fluctuation in its market share if no action is taking to retain and attract new customers. Apparently, los of market share due to increased competition also translates to a decline in the company sales and subsequently a reduction in profitability (David, 2010).
It is highly recommended that the company should penetrate the market by obtaining a larger market share from the existing ones such as UK, U.S and Japan. It can attain this by employing advanced marketing techniques such as online advertising and intensive use of social media. The fact that the company has a well established brand name, it can viably compete with other market rivals. Moreover, due to the fact that there is high level of competition in US market, the company can achieve more as a result of market penetration (Reuters, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issue II: Reduced threats from potential entrants In regards to potential entrants into the market, the company faces minimal threats since most entrants are quite often deterred by high amount of capital investments required in establishing Motorcycle Company. Furthermore, the motorcycle industry has already reached what may be referred to as maturity stage. Therefore, there are only four players in the market segment who are also major competitors.
The small number of players can also be attributed to the fact that optimum profitability may only be enjoyed when manufacturers take advantage of economies of scale.
One of the important elements in the operations of Harley-Davidson is the presence of substitute products or services. The main substitutes of Harley-Davidson products are cars, scooters and sports bikes.
This is because the company concentrates on production of luxurious motorcycles. Hence, it has fewer substitutes. In addition people who want to purchase heavy weight motorcycles produced by Harley-Davidson do not consider buying the existing substitutes. Consequently, lack of substitutes reduces the threat of entry by potential competitors.
Barriers to entry imply that Harley-Davidson operates to nearly oligopolistic competition whereby they the power of suppliers. It has a large number of suppliers and hence if a supplier increases base price, the company has the option of switching to others without necessarily affecting production process.
The only materials that Harley-Davidson seeks from the suppliers are electrical and steel equipments in addition to shipping process (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). The same significantly impact on the financial position of Harley-Davidson (Pahl
Effectiveness of the Group Minds Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction People normally depend on one another starting from the time they are born. When a child is born, he/she has to completely depend on those people around him/her for a number of years. But still, even if people grow up and become mature, they do not progressively become independent from one another but they instead turn out to be interdependent.
In the course of living, people come to make up a large number of relationships which are set up on “give-and-take” basis with those around (the community, family and friends) as well as the culture. Human beings have turned out to get used to this for the reason that they are biologically formed in such a way that they live in groups and also work and grow in groups.
Doris Lessing pointed out in her article “Group Minds” that, a small number of people take joy in being alone and people are in constant search for groups to associate themselves with. In this paper, a critique of Doris Lessing’s article “Group Minds” is going to be carried by considering what other authors say about group mind.
Group Minds Human beings are social creatures and this obviously gives them power to come together in order to set up something that is stronger as well as more adaptive and inspired than any individual human being and that is, the group.
The general concern that Doris Lessing has in her article “Group Mind”, is that human beings have a lot of information available to them but they are not ready to use it to bring improvement in their social structures as well as groups and thus, they live their own lives.
This author is right to a significant level. The moment human beings come to a realization of the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now start examining how to set up group minds which boost just love alone and the well-being of the society in general.
There is a strong believe within the society that human beings are “free individuals” who engage in thinking and speaking for themselves each day. However, this is not true because people’s actions are, in an unconscious way, under the continuous influence of groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whatever relationship that exists between two people, or even more, who have the same views in regard to a particular issue offers a good example of the way groups are easily and unconsciously formed among people. Human beings would like to think of themselves as individuals, but the question is, are they actually aware of their group minds?
Doris Lessing points out that, as on one hand human beings living in the free world present claims that they have the freedom to live as well as hold beliefs the way they wish, on the other hand, they are negligent in being aware of the way the opinions they have develop from the influences of other people (Lessing 333).
Having such social groups as the family and work groups among other social groups as being a quite significant part of the “American lifestyle”, Lessing points out that it is quite normal for human beings to stay in groups and gather together in groups.
This author presents an argument that a very small number of people are willing to live in absolute isolation and they are of course, in constant search for groups to identify themselves with. Lessing goes ahead to point out that, whereas each and every person has experiences of “group pressures”, people rarely depict themselves as “someone who lives and thinks similarly of those in groups” (Lessing 333).
According to Lessing, the moment a person joins a group, in most cases this person changes his or her way of thinking in order to go in line with the group and “there is nothing harder than trying to maintain your own opinions while being a group member” (Lessing 334). This author draws a conclusion that “the reason why an individual never challenges the opinions and affirmations of a group is because they are developed by the entire group mind, and challenging these might cause the entire group to collapse.
Human beings brand themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. Even in the conditions under which people are aware that they are wrong and should not certainly go in line with the group they, in most cases, go on following through with the group mind.
Lessing pointed out that “it is almost impossible to stand firm on your beliefs while taking part in a group….some of our shameful memories are how often we might have said black was white just because other people were saying it” (Lessing 334). A most important example is given by another researcher, Stanley Milgram, who set out to carry out the determination of the level to which “traditional individuals” would have obedience for the evidently morally wrong order of an “authority figure”.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Effectiveness of the Group Minds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Milgram carried out tests about the way particular individuals would give a response to imposing pain on to another individual for the reason that they were told to do so by another figure. He set up an experiment in which a person was required to engage in the studying of words that were paired in a list.
Another person was given instructions to ask the learner concerning the words in the list. Every moment the learner was not able to remember the paired words in the list, he was exposed to the electric shock as a way of punishing him. The strength of the electric shock was even increased every time this individual missed the “pairing word”.
The individual who had been assigned to inflict the pain (shocks), in a surprising manner, was not in any way very much disturbed at having to give out electrical shocks to the victim up to the time the victim turned out to be clearly uncomfortable, a point at which these individuals inflicting pain over and over again sought after “bailing the experiment” (Milgram 43).
But the “authority figure” in this experiment that was being carried out would give instructions to the one who was questioning the “learner” to go own regardless of what was happening.
Amazing enough, the one who was questioning would generally go on a few more times before they would stubbornly cease sending more electric impulses to the learner. Initially, the theory was that a large number of individuals would cease from carrying out the experiment having the awareness that the individual to whom they were sending the electric shocks was actually being inflicted but this notion was proved not to be true (Milgram, 43).
Those who were involved in the Milgram’s experiment held a belief that the scientist was very much aware of what he was doing and following this, the assumption they had in their mind was that they too, were doing a thing that was as well acceptable, although at the back of their mind, they knew this was not right.
The subjects surrendered the free will to choose that they had for the reason that an authority above them gave them instructions to do so. This is a clear illustration that gives evidence that going in line with an authority figure or a group in not the best choice at all times.
Lessing poses a question that “if we are truly individuals then why do we not stand up for our own morals and values?” (Lessing 334) This just gives out an indication that human beings hold a belief that the authority figures and large groups have all the possible answers and they have to act in a manner that goes in line with the ‘authority figures’ or groups’ wishes.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of the Group Minds by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although human beings can think for themselves, they ensure they conform to the authority’s decision and this is for the sake of the “group mind”. An explanation is given out by Milgram of his results in the experiment that “for many, obedience is a deeply ingrained behavior tendency, indeed a potent impulse overriding training in ethics, sympathy, and moral conduct” (Milgram 44).
A large number of human beings show obedience to the authority figures without much thinking. However, there are situations in which disobeying may be helpful to an individual in regard to achieving safety and maintaining one’s morals and values. Lessing, in her article, gives out a discussion about the dangers that come out from being obedient and these are also illustrated by another author, Shirley Jackson, in the short story “The Lottery”.
In this story, the villagers depict the observation that was made by Doris Lessing that “it is the hardest thing in the world to maintain an individual dissident opinion, as a member of a group” (Lessing 334). The villagers in “The Lottery” as well portray how lack of a vision as a member of a group can be quite harmful. Lessing observed that “the majority will continue to insist and after a period of exasperation the minority will fall in to line” (Lessing 334).
Solomon Asch in his article “Opinions and Social Pressure”, points out that “the assumptions are that people submit uncritically and painlessly to external manipulation by suggestion or prestige, and that any given idea or value can be ‘sold’ or ‘unsold’ without reference to its merits” (Asch 307).
What this author is putting across is that a large number of people do ignore their values as well as their virtues without ceasing to engage in thoughts about whether they actually needed to be ignored. Asch and Lessing “tie together” to give an illustration about the way a group can be very powerful and how considerably a group can have an effect on the mind of an individual within the group.
Human beings give in to the external pressure that comes from the authority figures as well as from the peers. Basing on what Lessing points out, there is actually nothing wrong for an individual belonging to a particular group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society.
In Jackson’s “The Lottery”, the group behavior was actually dangerous to each and every individual that was involved. Other than the clearly seen threat of the “lottery winner” dying after being stoned; this was a tradition of the village. Any individual who had thoughts that could not conform to the group was insulted and regarded to be foolish (Jackson 3). Following the mentality of this group, the direct effect that came out of this was individuals killing the fellow members in the society without any indication of he practice being stopped.
To avoid this practice, it could only require a single individual in the society standing up and protesting, regardless of whether this is a decision of the group or of an individual. By one person in the society boldly giving out his or her opinion, this will serve to change the way people in the group look at things or situations. Since human beings are conscience and aware of themselves, they have the power and ability to positively utilize the group mind in order for them to be able to renew the human condition.
Conclusion People in the society depend on each other and they find themselves unconsciously forming groups with which they identify themselves. Human beings label themselves as individuals, but they fall short of understanding the way groups exercise their influence over them. It becomes hard for individuals belonging to particular groups to come up with individual decisions that may go against the group and therefore they end up doing what they might be aware that it is not right.
According to Doris Lessing there is actually nothing wrong for an individual to identify him or herself with a certain group. The problem comes in only when individuals do not understand the “social principles” which serve to control groups as well as control individuals. It is quite clear that groups are an integral part of the society. Once people get to find out the exact level to which groups control their lives; they can now commence on looking for ways to set up group minds which boost love alone and the well-being of the society in general.
Works Cited Asch, Solomon E. “Opinions and Social Pressure.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005. 306 – 312.
Jackson, Shirley. “The Lottery”. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 1 – 9.
Lessing, Doris. “Group Minds.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Eds. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Pearson Longman, 2000. 333 – 335.
Milgram, Stanley. “The Perils of Disobedience.” Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 2000. 41 – 47.
The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help: online essay help
The Affect of Group Minds on Behaviours The effect of group minds on behaviors implies the general influence group minds have on individuals’ thinking and opinions. The term “group minds” refers to joint intellect with regards to a conception in sociology and philosophy. This term in science fiction is widely explained as shared awareness.
In the book ‘‘group minds’’ by Doris Lessing, she brings out the fact that many people all over the world live in groups. Some of these are social and work groups not forgetting the family and the very minute percentage of the population that is contented by living in solitude. Such people are viewed in a negative way as to be either bizarre or egocentric. Lessing (12) portrays the ideology that people opt not to live alone for a lengthy period of time rather, they tend to look for groups to belong.
A hazardous fact is not belonging to a group but rather the lack of understanding of the social laws that rule groups and those that govern people individually. Group minds tend to think alike or in a better term, people in a group are ‘like-minded’ nevertheless, the challenging aspect of it is having a clear individual mind as an affiliate of a particular group.
Doris Lessing expounds on group minds by caring out an experiment where an individual is separated from a group and he /she is not given clear instructions on the task ahead which entails the comparison of different lengths of wood that have a slight difference from each other yet the group of people are collectively asked to perform the same task.
In the outcome, the majority group will stubbornly confirm that the lengths are equal while on the other hand, the minority, that is the individual who performed the task alone, will state that the pieces of wood differ in length. However, the group will continue persisting that right is wrong and after a period of enragement and even frustration, the minority will change their stand and join the majority thus most people give in to the major opinion hence the term “obey the atmosphere”.
The affect of group minds is usually strong and many agree that the most challenging thing is to differ with one’s group in opinion. A large number agree that they often side with the majority just because it is simply, the majority, even in situations where it is wrong.
A group mind is one major underlying hypothesis that goes unnoticed in a group and members of a group not only submit to the group but they also hardly notice that they have a collective mind and never have a difference in opinion and to them, other people not belonging to their group seem insignificant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Members of this group are so resistant to change that no debate about their postulations can be held. Only 10 percent of the total population of the world can be called natural leaders since they have independent minds and do make their own decisions by themselves without influence from majority groups. In individual thinking, a person differs and rings out that one factor that is often overlooked by a group of people and this issue of overlooking by the group is brought about by the group thinking that they are right.
According to Lessing (56), when you analyse the way a stance towards a particular book is viewed by everyone, people say the same thing whether positive or negative until there is a drift in opinion: this may be an element of some wider social drift. She gave an example of a women’s movement where a publishing house governed by women re-assess the work of women writers who have been disregarded by the community due to the ‘group thinking’ of the masses.
In some cases, a shift of the general opinion occurs due to a person standing out against the general opinion and other people join him hence creating a new ideology that subsequently becomes general. When a well respected person of the society says that something is good yet someone who isn’t known in the society thinks it is not, it is difficult to differ and better yet, it is more difficult to differ when quite a lot of people say the opposite.
The external pressure that people undergo and succumb to often comes in form of groups such as patriotism, loyalty groups, beliefs and needs. However the hardest pressure that is difficult to control is the internal one which stresses that you follow the majority. An experiment popularly known as Milgrma is used to illustrate the group thinking phenomenon whereby, people who are randomly chosen were put in one room and an opaque screen divides the room.
In the second part of the room a number of volunteers are put in and they are wired to a machine that is used to run electric shock up to a point of killing a person similar to an electric chair. That machine gives them indications on how they are to react to the electric shocks either with a grunt then groan and screams and finally with a plea to cease the experiment.
Those people who were randomly chosen and put in the first room actually thought that people in the second half of the room were connected to the electrocuting machine. They were instructed to administer shock gradually increasing and hence ignore the grunts from the other side.
Out of this sixty-two percent of them continued administering shock up to 450 volts level and at the voltage of 285 the guinea pig had already become silent after giving an excruciating scream. Those that administered the shocks had a firm belief that they had given the painful shocks at their best and they experienced a great deal of pressure though they kept on increasing the volts of electricity.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the experiment many of them found it incredulous that they had the capability of such actions and some of them said that they were only following the instructions given to them. This experiment very openly and clearly shows how majority of people follow orders issued to them regardless of their degree and nature even if atrocious in order to obey the authority above them. Such an example is the German Nazis who did not question the orders given unto them.
‘Group mind’ is an element of the general human behavior. Doris Lessing points out that by a person joining a group in the name of finding people like themselves, the chances of that group changing the views and opinions of that person are usually high. She also warns that if a person does not think for himself/herself, that person is a part of a group and may end up never having the opportunity to be a standalone individual with his/her own views (Behrens and Rosen 96).
Solomon Asch, the author of “Opinions and social pressure”, carried out several experiments to demonstrate the effect of group minds in human beings. In one of the experiments, college students were asked to give their views regarding various issues and at a later date they were asked the same question but this time around they were first given the views of the authorities and majority of their peer groups on the same issues.
In the outcome, many of the students changed their views towards the direction of the opinions of the majority. This proves the extent to which group minds has affected the society as a whole. The fact that a particular group has the majority rule tends to shift views even in the event of there being no argument for other views.
People should strongly criticize the power of social pressure since an affect of group minds causes uncritical submission to members of a group. According to Asch (105), the capability of rising above group thinking and the phenomenon of group minds through independent thinking is a factor open to human beings.
In another experiment a group of about eight to nine students were put in a room for a “psychological experiment”in visual acuteness. The experiment was about giving the comparison between lengths of lines where two white cards are marked by a black line. One card had a single black line while the other had three which had varying lengths.
The students were to make a choice on which vertical line had the same length as the one that was on the first card. Initially their answers were to be given in the order in which they were seated and they gave the same matching line and in the second round they gave a common answer. However, in the third round one person differed from the rest in his answer and he looked surprised by the disagreement and on the fourth trial he still disagreed while his colleagues are unanimous on their decision.
What was duly noted was that the more he disagreed in the other trials, the more he got worried and hesitant and one occasion he paused before giving his answer and spoke in a low tone of voice or he grinned in an embarrassed manner. The experimenter had given instructions to the other members of the group to give wrong answers unanimously and the dissenter had no idea about this.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effect of Group Minds on Behaviours by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dissenter who was also the minority had actually given the correct answer but he was opposed by a majority group that was giving the incorrect answer in unanimity. Out of 123 people put to this test, a large number of them followed the majority group due to group pressure that resulted from group minds. The minority shifted their answers to the majority which was out rightly misleading them in 36.8 percent of the varieties.
Although the individuals differed at some point, a quarter was independent and hardly agreed with the majority but at some other point some students affirmed with the majority in almost all the occasions.
This experiment conclusively shows that those students who followed the majority could not free themselves as the ordeal went on and on while the independent did not end up following the majority as the trials continued. Those that followed the majority did so because their suspicions failed to free them at the moment of making a concrete choice.
In addition, an experiment was carried out and it gave the conclusion that when an individual is subjected with only one person giving a contradictory answer to his, that individual is only influenced slightly. But as the trials continue and the opposition is increased to two people, he starts experiencing pressure and doubt on his answer.
In a case where the minority number keeps on decreasing where the members shift their answers and join the majority. So long as the minority subject has a person siding with his answer, he has invariable independence but immediately that person defects, the chances of the dissenter following the majority in the next trial increases sharply.
Philip Zimbardo in his book, “The Stanford Prison Experiment,” studied the psychological effects of a person as a prisoner or as a prison guard. He carried out the Stanford Prison study where his subjects were 24 college students who were allocated duties to be either “prisoners” or “guards” in a model of a prison situated in the Stanford Psychology Building at the cellar.
In this experiment, the volunteers knew they were participating in a study but they did not have a clue when it would begin. When they were arrested at random and taken to the prison they were in a placid state of distress. The “prisoners” underwent humiliation where they were undressed, shaved and searched and just like in an actual prison they wore uniforms, ID numbers and given an escort to the cells by the guards.
It was difficult for the prisoners to show any individual personalities due to the changes they had undergone which had brought isolation to them. The psychologists in this experiment did not issue any instructions to the guards on how to treat the prisoners all they were to do was to maintain order in the replica prison. The volunteer prisoners portrayed signs of shock and uneasiness and they ridiculed the guards as they tried to reclaim their individualism (Zimbardo 123).
The guards formulated a tactic to fight back so as to maintain order and discipline to the disobedient prisoners who had rebelled. The prisoners who had started the rebellion were stripped and put in a solitary confinement by the guards while those that had no involvement in the riots were given the privilege of laying in their bed, bathing and food while their colleagues lacked those three things.
But after sometime even those prisoners that obeyed were also subjected to punishment to a point where visiting the toilet was an advantage to that particular prisoner.
At this point the prisoners thought themselves to be actual criminals and both themselves and the guards took to their roles and acted way beyond their jurisdiction of what was expected and thought of them hence leading to psychological suffering.
Many prisoners had been emotionally disturbed and five of them were removed from the study earlier on when it was concluded that a third of the guards portrayed vicious trends.
After the experiment, the volunteers, that is, both the guards and prisoners were assembled into the same room for assessment so as to put across their feelings to each other and evaluations were drawn to the Milgram experiment. Due to the distress the participants underwent, the study ended within 6 days as opposed to the planned two weeks.
The aim of this experiment was to test the philosophy that personality characters of prisoners and guards were swiftly the key to understanding offensive prison circumstances. The experiment was terminated by Zimbardo when Christina Maslach who was conducting interviews opposed the horrendous conditions of the prison. Out of more than fifty people who had seen the prison, he noted that only one of them had raised the issue of its ethics and that one person was Christina Maslach.
In the excerpt from Ian MeEwan’s novel, ‘Atonement’, he states the German Luftwaffe had raided soldiers who were retreating and those on the beaches without the Royal Air Force(RAF) responding to this hence, they followed orders and followed the majority. This shows the affect of group mind in the military.
Atonement is a British film that revolves around romance, suspense and war and it is generally described as “redemptive and astounding”. In the film, Turner tried to maintain order on the movement that was before him a thing that he almost succeeded. A short man who worked with Royal Air Force (RAF) was cornered by the crowd and received a beating from some members of the crowd. The man was a minority while the crowd had the majority rule.
The crowd laughed at the man as he was kicked and no one questioned them. A sense of individual responsibility eroded the crowd as they circled around the short man as the members of the crowd got reckless and irresponsible. Turner took the assumption that he could not do anything to help the man because if he did so, he would be risking getting lynched by the mob. The factual threat that had occurred to Turner was the ‘righteous state of mind’ of the mob.
As a man decided to whip the short man, Mace tricked the crowd to thinking that he was going to drown the man an idea that the crowd was so excited about. In this, the minority which was comprised of Nettle ,Turner ,Mace and the wounded man ended up winning through their wise thinking whereby, instead of trying to stop the crowd they coerced it since the multitude had “group minds” (MeEwan 89).
Conclusion Group minds on behaviors greatly affect human behavior and regardless of human beings having sufficient information about themselves, they do not use it to develop their lives. This aspect greatly influences the actions of a group whereby whatever the group has decided as a whole cannot be questioned and each and every member of the group does not have the power to think individually.
It is therefore appropriate and correct to state that group minds negatively impacts the lives of those belonging to a particular group. On the contrary, individual thinking enhances progression in people’s lives and it defeats the illusion behind democracy where people have the capacity to assess situations before following a group and its views.
Works Cited Asch, Solomon. Opinions and social pressure. Prentice Hall Inc., 1955. Print.
Behrens, Laurence and Rosen, Leonard. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. New York: Longman Pub Group, 1996. Print.
Lessing, Doris. Group minds. Toronto: Knopf Canada, 2001. Print.
MeEwan, Ian. Atonement. New York: Nan A. Talese, 2002. Print.
Zimbardo, Philip. Stanford prison experiment: A simulation study of the psychology of imprisonment. Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc., 1972. Print.
Steps Involved in Decision Making Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Steps in Decision Making
Introduction Decisions constitute a major part of our everyday lives. The way we make these choices determined the very quality of our lives and whether we succeed or fail in our endeavors. These decisions are not only at a personal level but extend even to the realm of business where simple decisions impact on the lives of many and the course of an economy.
Yet all decisions follow a similar pattern and learning to use the right model is the key towards an effective decision making habit. Take for example my decision to pursue a major in human development and a minor in Special Education from this university. This decision was highly influenced by cost, sacrifice and practicality in a world of unlimited choices and limited resources.
Steps in Decision Making There are many factors which influences an individual’s choice of both the university and university program. For me, the process was influenced greatly by circumstance and passion. The end of high school education brings a need to apply for college depending on performance and financial capability to pay for the cost of one’s choice.
My choice of disciplines was due to passion and demonstrated skills in the subject matter which constitutes the field of human development. Like many other students, an Ivy League university would have been the better choice but the cost of tuition in such institutions is way beyond the reach of many. So the process involved identifying the opportunity, evaluating the pros and cons of joining a particular program in a particular university and choosing the most practical option.
Bateman and Snell (2002) identify the following as the steps of making good decisions. Identifying what the problem is. The person faced with a decision must have the will to solve the problem and have the opportunity or resources to do so. First, one must brainstorm or identify possible solutions to the diagnosed problem.
Then evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of generated alternatives to choose one with higher probability of maximizing one’s welfare. This must be followed by making the decision of which alternative to adopt. Best to make a decision which has the greatest potential to better one’s circumstances. However, sacrifice is sometimes needed depending on circumstance and the available alternatives. The chosen alternative must then be implemented. Once a choice is made it should be enforced with total commitment. Finally, one must look back and evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen alternative. It is clear that the decision to enroll in this university was the right one and the knowledge of this decision making stages would not have altered it.
Bateman and Snell emphasize the need to make decisions based on the consideration of cost. The cost of implementing any decision with the corporate world is one of the major tenets which managers have used to make corporate decisions (Bateman and Snell, 2011). These decisions have far reaching consequences since the cost of any project might determine the level of innovation, quality and even productivity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This in turn reflects greatly not only on the conduct of the managers but also on the company and might determine future profitability or lack of it in the future.
Bateman and Snell (2011) have one major theme behind all their decision models and that is the need to deliver results by creating collaboration and better leadership within organizations. My decision to forego one of the major Ivy League universities was based on consideration of cost and here lies the similarity between the influence of cost advocated by Bateman and Snell and my university choice.
Conclusion This paper makes it clear the effect choices have on us and others. The way we make these choices becomes important if only to gain the ability to make good ones and refrain from making classical mistakes which lead us to misery. Needless to say that knowledge gained here will aid in making decisions which will shape our future for a long time to come.
“Fight Club” by Fincher David Essay best college essay help
The film Fight Club, which is based on the novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk, presents an evaluation of modern consumerist culture and social values. To a great extent, this movie urges people to regard goods as necessities rather than those things that define an individual or indicate his/her status in the society.
One of the major characters, Tyler Durden acts as a conveyer of the authors’ views on contemporary culture. It is possible to say that this person advocates the values of a hunter-gather society which tends to be simpler and more egalitarian, at least from economic point of view.
There are several examples that illustrate this argument. First, we can refer to the conversation between Tyler and the narrator. Tyler expresses the idea that modern people view themselves primarily as “consumers” whose sole purpose is acquisition of property. He even accuses the narrator of being too focused on material values overlooking the fact that the protagonist lost virtually all his possessions.
More importantly, he emphasizes the point that the majority of these goods are not essential for the survival of a person. More likely, they are used to underline high prestige of an individual. Such worldview is unacceptable for him. His ideas bear close resemblance to a hunter-gather society.
Its members acquire goods such as food or clothing only to feed their families or sustain themselves. In such social and economic environment the main purpose of labor is survival or subsistence but not profit or prestige. People, who live in such communities, do not derive pleasure from mere possession of property or goods.
This lack of highly sophisticated needs or desires greatly appeals to Tyler and, in part, to the narrator. Additionally, acquisition of property can be the underlying cause of inequality in the society. This is another reason why Tyler cannot accept consumerism. Hunter-gatherer community becomes his ideal mostly because it is more egalitarian. However, he overlooks the drawbacks of such social system.
Another example, which shows Tyler’s rejection of consumer culture, is the destruction of other peoples property. For instance, the members of Project Mayhem burn computers, smash vehicles, and even bomb the office of some unidentified company or corporation. This sabotage originates from their rejection of consumerism. In this way they attempt to demonstrate that property is not critical for the survival of a human being.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The people are guided by Tyler’s philosophy which relies on the premise that acquisition of property cannot be the only driver of human behavior. Again, we can say that this ideology stems from hunter-gather society. Finally, the members of Project Mayhem bomb the buildings of credit card companies in effort to erase debt records.
These bombings can be explained by their desire to recreate primitive or hunter-gather society in modern America. Nonetheless, the main characters of this film, especially Tyler, forget that other people may disagree with their views on contemporary culture or their willingness to transform the world through violence.
Fight Club is a rich social commentary on various social, economic, and political issues. This movie is aimed at showing the shortcomings of contemporary capitalism and consumerism.
Yet, its characters fail to find solutions to the problems of society; instead they try to return to primitive culture with its simplicity and alleged egalitarianism. Tyler does not care to explain the reasons why modern world moves toward consumer culture and this is the main limitation of his worldview.
Works Cited Fincher David (dir). Fight Club. 20th Century Fox. DVD.
Evaluating performance through motivation Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
Employees are a significant asset to the organization; therefore, it is crucial to motivate employees and resolve conflicts wisely within an organization to achieve remarkable performance. Different organizations apply motivation theories differently to stimulate the interest of employees.
It is essential to understand the theories of motivation first, before determining their application in different organizations. Abraham Maslow explains that employee motivation comes through a hierarchy of needs. The highest point of motivation for employees is the point where management meets the self-actualization needs of employees (Cofer,
Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process Report online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Continuous improvement process review
Review communication to stakeholders
Future planning for Fast Forward
Introduction Continuous improvement process entails all effective changes undertaken in an organization to ensure that the organization maintains a sustained growth and value for customer. It involves instituting measures, techniques and performance indices that are used to assess, evaluate and take appropriate actions to sustain the life of an organisation. Fast Forward’s continuous improvement policy serves as a frame of reference in delivering courier services to its clients (Bartol et al. 17-35).
Continuous improvement process review Following a decline in Fast Forward’s performance including loss of Build With Us, a key corporate client, due to dissatisfaction with service delivery, a review of the following service segments is essential to revitalize Fast Forward’s business: Customer feedback, service monitoring system, staff mentorship and coaching programs, firm’s communication system and channels, performance review and operation’s structure.
Customer feedback: A mechanism should be put in place to collect, evaluate and respond to customer feedback. This will involve designing and distributing questionnaires to the firm’s service points to be filled by its customers about their complaints and complements.
A customer service feedback task team should be formed to ensure that customer’s feedback is handled appropriately including making follow-ups to enhance development of a strong relationship between business and clients (Bartol, et al. 17-35).
Service delivery monitoring system: The departure of Build With Us is attributed to the current manual system of monitoring and recording of mail deliveries which is slow and inefficient. Owing to this, an elaborate IT system should be instituted to enhance fast recording and information tracking to ensure customer retention and high business efficiency.
Staff mentorship and coaching: Mentoring is providing guidance and support to help a mentee, to find a direction of doing something on his own while coaching is giving directives and guidelines for someone to follow to enhance his/ her potential. Mentoring and coaching differ in the sense that mentoring is long term and often leads to a relationship as the mentee looks at a mentor as a role model to emulate while coaching is short term and does not require the coach to necessarily be a role model (Rummler’s and Brache’s 10).
The firm will assume a rigorous mentorship and coaching program in which professional mentors and coaches will be sourced from within and outside to facilitate staff motivation and growth. Such mentors and coaches will be expected to have good communication skills of message precision, time consciousness, proactivity and mindful of employees’ efforts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Communication systems and channels: A good and effective communication system will be instituted to ensure effective flow of information in the firm’s hierarchy through meetings, noticeboards, office telephones, firm’s intranet and e-mail system. There will be effective weekly meetings and trainings at all departmental levels and monthly meetings involving management.
Performance review: To ensure high performance, targets will be set for all employees and key performance indicators put in place to measure their productivity. Following this, there will be monthly and annual employees’ performance appraisal.
To ensure effective monitoring of the company’s operations, the operations department will be structured into task teams each assigned a specific task to ensure high service delivery and customer retention. Such teams will hold regular meetings to report on the progress of their assignments (Samson and Daft 7-21).
Review communication to stakeholders Following the above described reviews, a communication will be made to the firm’s employees, shareholders, customers and top management including directors through suitable channels as described: Internal stakeholders will be communicated to through office-mails, intranet uploads and noticeboards.
External stakeholders such as customers and shareholders will receive communication through global e-mail system where appropriate, newspaper notices and annual stakeholders’ meetings among others.
Future planning for Fast Forward The future plans of Fast Forward will entail measures to expand business territories, and to maintain a growth in asset portfolio and profit margins.
The following progressive improvements are essential in meeting the future of the firm: Firstly, I will ensure a sustained growth in human resource with respect to growth in business; secondly, I will ensure integration of ideas of all employees in business planning including customer feedback in making business decisions, thirdly, I will invest in IT systems to meet business expansion and modern communication challenges.
We will write a custom Report on Fast Forward’s Continuous Improvement Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, I will invest in staff motivation and mentorship to motivate employees to work for the common goal and philosophy of the company.
Conclusion From a general perspective, the decline in business performance of Fast Forward is due to laxity in implementation of its continuous improvement processes and policies. The above described reviews should help revitalize the company’s performance. Staff motivation is of essence in ensuring effective implementation of these reviews as this will change them from being reactive to proactive.
Works Cited Bartol, Kathryn e tal. Management:A Pacific Rim Focus. 5th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.
Rummler’s G.A and A.P. Brache’s. Improving performance 2nd edition :How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass publishers, 1995. Print.
Samson, Danny and Richard Daft. Fundamentals of management. 2nd ed. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2005. Print.
The Australian Ecomony Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Abstract Australia is a steadily growing economy that can attribute its success to the economic policies that have been applied. This report evaluates the macroeconomic setting in economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade. The investigations will discuss the performance after adoption.
Issues surrounding the macroeconomic policies will be discussed. Two major policies have been adopted and have been successful. The monetary and fiscal policies are most effective when applied within a short period. They have been implemented in creation of more water resources, expansion of the port, communication infrastructure, transport network and education. The policies have seen reduced rates in taxation, privatized the governmental enterprises and changed the structure of the enterprises.
The main challenge is that the electorate and the legislature have sometimes used the policies for their own interests. Another challenge is that employment is sometimes unsustainable. To overcome the challenges, reports on the implementation of the policies need to be documented and availed for analysis. This will also allow for transparency. There is also need to form independent groups to be in charge of the fiscal policy and monetary policy.
Introduction The Australian government has been keen to attain economic growth, reduce the levels of inflation create sustainable employment and create opportunities for future, in terms of market. Due to the dynamics of the market, Australia has adopted policies that control the economic prospects in a changing market. This is a report on the macroeconomic policy settings for economic growth, unemployment, inflation and trade currently being applied in Australia.
The current macroeconomic setting in Australia The economy of Australia receives greater revenue from mining and agriculture than from other services. In line with Travel Document Systems (2011, p. 1), government has benefited from exporting raw materials as well as manufacturing them.
Manufacturing therefore, is causing gradual economic growth and creating more trade opportunities while creating more employment. Redding
The US Constitution Essay essay help: essay help
The book by O’Connor and Sabato (2011) is valuable, and deserves special attention. Its second chapter examined the US Constitution. The US Constitution is the product of many years American political, economical, religious, and social experience. Following O’Connor and Sabato’s book (2011), one may see that this document cannot be changed in an easy way.
From colonies to the United States, the country had passed a long challengeable way. Only the best juridical practices stroke roots on the abundant US land. The ideas that resulted in the creation of this legal document addressed the problems and demands of a changing nation (O’Connor and Sabato 30). Thus, the US Constitution has gathered those laws and legal norms that reflected the country’s historical experience.
The authors’ book (2011) describes key events that led to American independence. These events are connected with the swift development of the thirteen colonies, intense foreign policy, and the Civil War. However, the book presented Boston Massacre of 1770 as one of the most notable events that led to the independence. The incident that happened in Boston (the encounter of the American citizens, disappointed with unfair tax policy with the British authorities) resulted in the removal of the British military from the town.
Six years later, on July 4, 1776, the Americans declared independence: the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress (O’Connor and Sabato 33). Since that time, the US Constitution became the supreme law that cannot be broken with impunity by each American citizen.
The adoption of the Constitution was accompanied with participation of numerous notable individuals: George Washington (in 1789, he became the first US President), John Adams, James Madison, and others. The book (2011) says that such notable figure as Benjamin Franklin signed the most essential US document of all times. He is believed to be the founding father of the US Constitution (O’Connor
Intellectual Property Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction This paper discusses the inception of intellectual property (IP) and its associated features. The concept of Intellectual property emerged after the foundation of the “World Intellectual Property Organization” (WIPO) in 1967. There is increase use of this term by diverse groups seeking to safeguard their intellectual knowledge and cultural heritage.
This paper also examines the recent “Wai 262 claim before the Waitangi tribunal” in order to identify the issues at stake (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). Furthermore, it presents the advantages and shortcomings of using Intellectual property model in protecting local people’s traditions and knowledge. Additionally, it presents the possible alternatives to the language of intellectual property. These discussions focus on New Zealand and the citizen’s relation with Maori people due to their cultural distinctiveness.
The Wai 262 claim before the Emergence of Waitangi Tribunal The Waitangi Tribunal recorded the claims on 262 occasions. This gave rise to the name Wai 262 claim. The preliminary recording took place on 9 October 1991 and the petitioners included six people. This is in addition to the iwi who were complaining against the New Zealand Crown (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
The claim was referred to as the living things claim because of the underlying issues. Furthermore, it had extensive coverage of additional issues regarding civilizing and intellectual property. The claimants recognized the existence of the New Zealand decrees and the government rules but questioned the place of Maori people’s customs, distinctiveness, and customary knowledge within the setting (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Furthermore, the claimants wanted to know the entities that would manage Maori cultural art and the unique surrounding that created Maori identity. The claim was also concerned with questioning the place of Maori cultural importance in New Zealand, especially the responsibility of the natives towards guarding their culture (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Further, claimants wanted to know the responsibility of the natives in caring for the valuable cultural materials that determined their identity, including artwork, historic sites, vegetation, and animals.
Issues at Stake in the Wai 262 Claim The petitioners argued that certain legislations enacted by the government contravened the Waitangi Treaty. This diminished chances for Maori to implement their political right basing on indigenous knowledge and environment. Further, it also limits their rights regarding traditional knowledge and intellectual property (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 66).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They argued that foreign powers affected the Maori through legal guidelines, which were contrary to the Waitangi Treaty provisions. These issues were evident in the decision-making process that influenced commercialization, management, and conservation of diverse ecological resources.
Issues entailing the integration of the Maori people in the determination of cultural rights in the application of the original environmental endowments were evident (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). Further, the Maori required opportunities to conserve, improve, and transmit the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) basing on environmental materials (WIPO 2011, pg. 8).
There was an issue concerning the right to ecological sustainability that was possible through sustainable use of customary resources. The Maori also needed to participate and achieve benefits basing on contributing opinions on the application, improvement, and trade of indigenous environmental endowments (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
There were also concerns about the associations that existed between Maori and the Crown. Furthermore, the significance of improving the relations in the presence of emerging regulations was at stake. Discrimination basing on racial relations also existed between the Crown and Maori because of the native’s cultural identity (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
This necessitated the search for ways of resolving historical conflicts that emerged because of the way that the New Zealanders handled the Maori. This resulted in relationships that awarded governance rights to the Crown over Maori cultural pieces while the natives held their power (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
The Maori also noted that enacted decrees marginalized them against exercising full management rights over their primary resources. There was also an ongoing unlawful exploitation of Maori intellectual property and related resources.
Intellectual Property The emergence of Intellectual Property (IP) coincided with the founding of WIPO in 1967. IP concept gained escalated application over the recent years in protecting people from losing their original creations. According to the “New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development”, IP means a nonspecific term for the variety of property privileges that safeguard knowledge (MED 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Intellectual Property specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More WIPO argues that IP entails original creations that emerge from people’s minds including “inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs”, which are used in trade (WIPO 2011). Furthermore, IP differs in two classes, including industrialized property together with copyright.
The industrial property includes “patents, trademarks, and industrial designs” (WIPO 2011). Copyright property includes literary, creative materials and drawings. The cultural expressions that fall under fictional and creative works include novels, poems, plays, films, musical works, and artistic works that entail drawings, paintings, photographs, monuments, among others.
Intellectual property rights (IPRs) include the privileges that people who invent or create new things enjoy because of the protection they receive. These rights offer control over diverse processes that may be used by other entities (MED 2008). However, such privileges last for a short period.
The privileges and rights are defended by the idea that creators and inventors of ought to profit from their activities. Further, the owners of such property receive incentives for generating ideas or property that would have not taken off (MED 2008). The benefits that emerge because of inventions compensate for the costs incurred by societies.
Intellectual property is linked to the affairs of the indigenous people. This is because of their cultural, knowledge and environmental resource endowments, which generate specific intellectual property characteristics. WIPO differentiates these aspects of IP regarding indigenous people according to traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) and TK (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
These are differentiated according to their relations with IP among native communities. It is noteworthy that indigenous people have diverse TCEs that are protected as their IP. These TCEs includes productions that contain characteristic essentials of the cultural inventions developed and preserved by indigenous communities (WIPO 2007, pg. 8).
The cultural expressions occur in diverse forms, including verbal, musical, and activities, among others. The inventive heritage of indigenous people has substantial social, belief, and cultural functions. Furthermore, they are also exploitable for commercial functions.
Native people also have diverse knowledge systems collectively named TK. These include knowledge regarding customary methodological know-how, conventional environmental resources, scientific or health understanding (WIPO 2007, pg. 6). These knowledge systems can also be linked with TCEs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Intellectual Property by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because some conventional pieces that symbolize TK can also refer to inventive expressions. This uniqueness makes different groups of indigenous people argue that TK and TCEs are indivisible (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
Furthermore, IP advocates require rule-makers to recognize the inseparability of TK and TCEs basing on their significance to different aspects of indigenous peoples livelihoods and cultural identity. The economic importance of indigenous people awareness and TCEs cause their exploitation by third parties. In some scenarios, these exploitations occur unlawfully, thereby necessitating their protection as IP.
IP in Relation to Indigenous Peoples using the Waitangi 262 Claim Maori who is indigenous people of the New Zealand advanced the Wai 262 claim. It contained concerns regarding IP of their green resources, including living things. Furthermore, it also concerned seeking responsibility for the management of Maori TK that entails arts, sculpture, history, verbal expressions, music, and traditional healing systems and surroundings management.
Collectively, these were named taonga because their continuation and improvement signified continued Maori uniqueness and well-being. According to Waitangi Tribunal (2011), Maori IP included their TK and aspects of culture that signified their identity. The continued undermining of Maori by the New Zealand Crown necessitated their claim actions that were necessary for safeguarding and maintaining their IP.
The inappropriateness of the IPRs that protected Maori conventional knowledge and cultural wealth marginalised the natives from their indigenous property. Furthermore, the idea that IP offers owners privileges to determine the use of their materials and Maori was not available in this provision (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
They had complications in gaining IPRs that would facilitate their interest in preserving or economically exploiting their conventional knowledge. This is because the existing rights had inconsistencies with the native’s property (WIPO 2007, pg. 7).
The native’s interest included preserving their property against third-party exploitations while rights limited the period and provisions for public disclosure (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67). The requirements that include originality and recognition of certain individuals or companies as inventors limit Maori’s protection since it culminates in marginalization.
The claimants noted that the rights are unfavorable to indigenous people’s traditional information, cultural materials, and green endowments. This means that third parties can obtain rights regarding certain inventions. This means they can apply them commercialisation processes (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Furthermore, certain rights eventually result into successful trade activities, but the claimants recognised that they might not benefit because of inadequate sharing. The claim called for the patenting of diverse fauna and petitioning unlawful registering of brands using Maori pictures or writings. Intellectual property is a form of legislation and the New Zealand’s enactments together with other global requirements affected Maori rights (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Advantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture
The recognition that indigenous people’s customary and cultural wealth is significant for their livelihoods and identity necessitates protection of these aspects (WIPO 2007, pg. 13). This is because the protection avoids their erosion and ensures that indigenous people continuously enjoy their endowments (Waitangi Tribunal 2011).
Furthermore, it enables owners of inventions to benefit economically and preserve native’s cultural materials and ideas. The monetary benefits occur when owners apply their inventions in generating commercial outcomes or through sharing gains (WIPO 2007, pg. 8). Cultural resources and ecological materials generate financial development through enterprises creations, skills development, and tourism expansion.
Safeguarding IP also facilitates continuity of cultural wealth and environmental endowments. This leads to escalated information access and safety. Further, IP protection ensures that future generations appreciate aspects of their preserved culture (Zogfaros, 2010, pg. 69). It enables native people to utilize their knowledge systems in encouraging sustainable exploitation of their cultural expressions and ecological endowments.
Disadvantages of using the Language of IP for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge and Culture
Using intellectual property for the conservation gives rise to inconsistencies regarding ownership and exploitation tactics for such endowments. Additionally, it does not offer genuine solutions to the predicaments faced by indigenous people in protecting their wealth (Zogfaros 2010, pg. 67).
Further, the related concepts also affect the preservation and improvement of cultural and environmental materials among some native groups. It rarely facilitates maintenance of indigenous people’s valuable materials under conflicting legislation and customary awareness systems.
Furthermore, inadequacy of distributing benefits poses disadvantages to inventors of original materials or indigenous groups. The idea of collectively referring to aspects of native and ecological materials as intellectual property interferes with their safety. This is evident in the holistic nature of this group. Evidently, within such collections, certain beneficial aspect is not preserved (Waitangi Tribunal 2011). The ineffectiveness of enforcing legislation is disadvantageous to minor individuals or indigenous groups.
Incorrectness of IP Joining diverse aspects of culture that are related and referring to them as intellectual property is erroneous. Instead, single cultural and ecological aspects ought to be labeled as distinct issues. Lumping “trademark, copyright, and patent” laws and referring to them as IP also displays incorrectness (Stallman 2011). This is because these laws emerged disjointedly, advanced differently, possess diverse provisions, and are concerned with separate public policy matters.
The use of intellectual property generates different meaning in separate situations (Stallman 2011). This is because specialists in these knowledge areas understand the varied dynamics.
The use of intellectual property also lies about key issues regarding inventions. Furthermore, the concept instills distorted thinking’s among people making them focus on harmony other than specific guidelines (Stallman 2011). IP also causes issues generated according to understanding of different laws to disappear. This is because people tend to disregard issues that are fundamental to different laws.
Alternatives of IP The notable alternative to Intellectual property is evident when indigenous people initiate new property models and reject the current provisions and designs (Stallman 2011). The efficiency likely to arise from this tactic is evident in diminishing bio-colonization by civilized societies.
The inconsistencies regarding intellectual property, culture and related aspects make it difficult for indigenous people to preserve their resources (Zogfaros 2010, p67). The alternative to this situation would entail endorsing parallel worldviews that facilitate continuation, improvement, and transfer of these knowledge systems to emerging generations.
Furthermore, achieving political independence can also free indigenous people from disguised protection through intellectual property (Stallman 2011). The exploitative intellectual property should embrace processes that enable them to protect native people from abuse.
Conclusion In summary, intellectual property is use in protecting inventive people from third parties interested in exploiting their creations. The concept also protects indigenous community’s cultural identity through preserving their values, customary expressions, and ecological endowments. Maori marginalization by New Zealand Crown in the control of environmental resources, customary knowledge, and cultural expressions contributed to claims.
The Wai 262 claim focused on resolving these issues basing on the IP legislation that New Zealand had enacted. Application of IP in the preservation of the traditional understanding and cultural aspects exude different advantages and shortcomings. Furthermore, intellectual property is an incorrect term because it lumps diverse society’s innovations and refers to them as IP. This presents challenges in the protecting communities’ traditional understanding and cultural identity materials.
List of References MED 2008, What is Intellectual Property. Web.
Stallman, R. 2011, Did you say ‘intellectual property”? It is a seductive mirage. Web.
Waitangi Tribunal 2011, Time to Move beyond Grievance in Treaty Relationship Tribunal Says, Web.
WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions/Folklore, Web.
WIPO 2007, Intellectual Property and TK. Web.
WIPO 2011, What is Intellectual Property. Web.
Zogfaros, D. 2010, Intellectual property, and traditional cultural expression, Cheltenham:Edward Elgar Publishing.
Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free
Executive summary Having a strong, cohesive organizational culture is perhaps the most important strategy that an organization can implement to cope with the current aggressive competition, declining economy and ever increasing internal challenges. This report shall set out to elaborate different concepts used to define, explain and justify organizational culture.
To this end, an overview of what culture entails shall be provided and benefits that an organization can accrue from adopting a strong culture outlined. Different theories and principles shall be used to recommend the best course of action that can be taken by BSG to address its behavioral and cultural issues.
Introduction In today’s business environment, members of any given organization are expected to behave in a manner that enables them to achieve the set organizational goals and objectives. To ensure this is done, rules, regulations and guidelines are designed and implemented to act as a framework through which activities and operations can be carried out.
As a result of these frameworks, organizations develop practices, attitudes and norms that define how organizational practices are carried out. These practices, attitudes and norms form the organizational culture. Wilderom et al (2004), state that organizational cultures play a pivotal role in unifying and motivating employees to perform better, and commit to the organization. As such, it can be argued that by having a strong organizational culture, business entities can perform better and more efficiently.
Purpose of the report In all organizations, there are internal and external factors that influence the ability of the organizations to perform efficiently. They include but are not limited to: leadership, management and motivational factors among others.
Regardless of the category, organizational culture seems to play an integral role in the determination of how members of an organization carry out their duties and responsibilities. In response to these undertones, this report shall set out to define and elaborate various concepts of organizational culture. In addition, the benefits of having an organizational culture shall be discussed and justifications for these benefits provided.
Scope of the report De Long (1997) argues that organizations have different organizational cultures. Some may adopt a competitive culture, while others may choose a collaborative culture. It is therefore important to understand the culture that an organization has. This understanding can only be achieved by examining the values, practices and beliefs that are held by the members of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this report, the cultural and behavioral characteristics of BSG Pty Ltd shall be analyzed. This shall be done by deducing these characteristics from the scenario given and identifying the cultural and behavioral issues that affect the organization’s success.
Background of the report Over the past few years, the profitability of BSG Pty Ltd has been significantly declining against the expected projections mainly due to aggressive competition and economic hardships that characterize the market. In addition, results from a recently conducted cultural/employee attitude survey indicated that BSG Pty Ltd employees lack cohesion, motivation, commitment.
More importantly, employees at BSG Pty Ltd seems to have significantly low levels of job satisfaction, team work, trust (among themselves and the management), and expectations for future advancements (promotions and rewards).
On the same note, there was a 30% increase in pilfering of company resources as evidenced from the analysis of company data. The 15% increase in last year’s staff turnover is also an issue that needs to be addressed. In light of these issues, the C. E. O of BSG Pty Ltd strongly suggested that there is need for change if the company is to survive the current unforgiving market and economical trends.
This he attributed to the fact that the current culture adopted by the company was the root cause of the poor performance exhibited by the company. As such, this report has been necessitated by the need to identify, analyze and solve the cultural and behavioral issues that affect BSG Pty Ltd.
Sources and methods used in this report Evidently, BSG Pty Ltd has numerous cultural and behavioral inadequacies as has been identified in the currently gathered information. We shall use this evidence as the basis of the report.
Relevant academic sources and concepts shall be used to analyze these issues and recommend viable solutions for the same. Literature related to theories, principles and models used to address the aforementioned cultural and behavioral issues shall be applied as necessary.
We will write a custom Report on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational culture: A Literature Review De Long (1997) defines culture as the values, norms and practices that are followed by members of a given organization. According to the author, values refer to the beliefs held by an organization in regard to the worthiness of what it does and has. Practices in this context are associated to the routines (formal and non-formal) that organizational members follow to accomplish their tasks.
According to the author, norms are the shared belief that organizational members’ have regarding proper working behavior (De Long, 1997). From this definition, it can be argued that organizational culture is rooted in how people act, their expectations to each other and how they interpret the actions of others in an organizational setting.
On the same note, organizational culture has been defined as particular practices carried out by organizations that evolved over time (Kostova, 1999; Wilderom, 2004).
These practices reveal the competence and shared knowledge in an organization. In this context, organizational culture can be described as the shared perception that members have in regard to the correct or wrong organizational work practices. Such practices may differ from one organization to another.
From the definitions stated above, it is evident that values play a significant role in defining culture. This is further accentuated by Hibbard (1998) who defines culture as a set of beliefs and values that are strongly shared by members of a given organization. Despite the logic behind Hibbard’s (1998) definition, research conducted by other scholars presents a strong case against this criterion.
Wilderom et al (2004) argue that the greatest disparities between organizations are strongly based on practices than they are on values. The authors reaffirm this fact by stating that the cultural difference exhibited by different organization is deeply rooted in the organizational work practices that are adopted by the personnel.
These authors contend that values are constituents of practices. As such, using values as the basis of defining organizational culture creates a problem when it comes to measuring culture in an organizational context.
Cohesive culture: A Brief Overview Cohesion broadly refers to collaboration and unity. Using the definition of culture proposed earlier, a cohesive culture can best be described as the work practices that promote unity and inter-departmental collaboration. They include but are not limited to knowledge sharing, trustworthiness, team work, effective communication and commitment among others (Luca, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Organizational Culture; A Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a cohesive culture refers to harmony experienced in an organization as a result of clearly defined practices and values that are shared by an organization’s personnel. The authors argue that an organization that adopts a cohesive culture is bound to succeed. This means that a cohesive culture leads to success and it is not always the other way around.
Benefits of a strong, cohesive organizational culture Bolman and Deal (2008) state that a strong culture is pivotal towards the promotion of team work in an organizational setting. When the members of an organization share the same values and practices, they are better placed to work together as a team. This is in contrary to a situation whereby employees compete against each other for recognition and personal gratification.
In addition, Palmer (2008) contends that team work is guaranteed by the presence of a vision. An organization envisioning harmony gives its employees a glimpse of what to expect from the organization and they judge the organization by the principles that govern it (Cartwright
Trends and Issues in Nursing Expository Essay a level english language essay help
The nursing role is shifting from good cooperation with other medical professionals to managed care. This is because the most valued education and training are those that focus more on clinical experience in nonhospital settings.
The training, other qualifications, and advancement statistics indicate that the higher levels in nursing education emphasize on furnishing the nurses in areas that are somewhat outside the actual therapy (USDL, 2011). These include areas on psychology, nutrition, and management. Indeed, other qualifications involve personal attributes that promote interaction between a nurse and the patients. On the other hand, it is easier for a nurse who has nursing experience than one with technical savvy.
It is a fact that the demand for nurses is more than the supply and this trend is expected to continue. Job outlook statistics indicate that the employment of nurses is glowing such that employers are unable to retain nurses. Technological advances are playing a big role in expanding the role of nurses.
The more the nurses learn on the emerging needs, the more the opportunities to work in other related fields. Moreover, the scarcity of qualified nurses will continue as the aging workforce leave the profession and the failure for the education facilities to be sensitive about the nursing education (USDL, 2011).
A new fact learned from the nursing statistics is that the nursing professionals earn lower wages than any other medical profession in the United States. Looking at the earning statistics, the nurse wages is almost half that of the physicians. This might affect not only individual nursing professions, but the entire health care.
Now that the nursing fraternity is becoming the center of the whole healthcare system, individual nurses will have to work more. Under the same pattern of pay, individuals like me might consider shifting from employment to working independently.
Nursing education Nursing education is facing new trends that affect both the curriculum taught, the nursing professions, and the delivery of the nursing services. These trends emerge as the healthcare climate evolves as a result of political and policy consequences, fueled by factors like the economy and new policies being set by sensitive legislature.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rapid technological growth is triggering an evolution of the information systems in healthcare industry which brings about the need to expand technology training in nursing education. In the current information age, nurses must be prepared during their education to face the needs that emerge with the increasing use of technologies within healthcare facilities.
In addition, nursing education is required to prepare nurses for the complexities involved with population-based care. Allen (2011) observes how older people with specific medical problems are causing a new shift in health care delivery focus on population-based care and away from the conventional pattern of individualized care.
As the trend towards population-based care becomes more apparent, nursing education is required to provide nurses with interdisciplinary knowledge. Managed care involves more than just working cooperatively with other medical professionals.
Furthermore, a new trend emerges as the continued shortage of nurses, impact deeply on the quality of healthcare in acute and long-term settings. Hence, nursing education is tasked with the creation of awareness about this shortage, work to prepare quality individuals into the profession, and change the lingering discernments about the role of nurses.
Nevertheless, nursing research field has continually failed to provide valuable data on the provision of quality care (Judd et al., 2010). It is the role of nursing education to inspire nurses to carry out relevant research in order to improve health care outcomes. The positive change in the nursing research paradigm should be reinforced by nursing educators through continuous support of the research initiatives.
References Allen, J., E. (2011). Nursing Home Administration. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Judd, D., M., Sitzman, K.