In every organisation, there must be conflict. Therefore, we must accept conflict as a part of an organisation. Aspects of conflict reflect such notions of antagonism and undesirability. However, we must acknowledge that not all conflicts are dysfunctional.
Depending on how an organisation manages its conflict, there are constructive aspects of conflict that can introduce new solution to a problem, define power relationships within groups, bring non-rational emotional dimensions into the open, and provide a room for the release of catharsis by identifying long-established conflict.
If an organisation engages in destructive conflict, then the results can lead to a loss of the main objectives in the pursuit of sub-group interests, induce people to be defensive, and may results into disintegration of the organisation (Thomson, 2002).
According to Condliffe, “conflict has three vital components, which include interests, emotions and values. Conflict processes go through stages of perception, realisation, avoidance, flashpoint, intervention, strategy and evaluation” (Condliffe, 2002). Conflict models serve people with simple ways of thinking what conflicts are and their root causes.
We must acknowledge the fact that conflict models cannot offer all the solutions to conflicts. Instead, they provide us with better ways of understanding conflicts. We shall use the Deutsch model in an attempt to understand the conflict among John (employee and a subordinate to Bob at the Bank), Bob (the Human Resource Manager), the female Student (a potential recruit), and Melanie Roberts, the Bank CEO.
Deutsch looks at conflict in terms of underlying overt or manifest features. This way of looking at conflict is open and express. Deutsch model represents safe expression of hidden aspects of conflicts. Manifest conflict may reveal some aspects of conflict in interactions such as a power struggle, gender issue, and authority, among others.
Therefore, Deutsch model is useful because it will help us think clearly about separating underlying issues and overt disputing behaviour in conflict assessment. In order to understand conflicts, we must distinguish between these two elements. Unless we address these two aspects of conflicts, outcomes will not offer the long-term solution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deutsch focuses on conflicting interests and incompatible behaviour as separate aspects of conflict. Interest motivates us. For instance, Bob, the Human Resource Manager gets motivation and desire of fulfilling is sexual desires by making proposition to a student. This is the reason he wanted the student to accompany him for late night drinks.
On the other hand, we also see incompatible behaviour. Incompatible behaviour reflects actions of one party in a conflict that intend to counter the other party. Deutsch looks at these two dimensions of conflict and develops four scenarios as follows.
Deutsch model has four positions of conflict that include incompatible behaviour (involve conflict and false conflict) and compatible behaviour (latent conflict and non-conflict). In a position of conflict, there are both incompatible behaviour and conflicting interests.
Conflict situation occurs in this case because there are both incompatible behaviour and conflicting interests. The situation has brought people who share common and incompatible interests, and compatible or incompatible behaviours.
It is likely that John, Bob, student and Melanie Roberts share these aspects. For instance, Bob has incompatible behaviour and conflict of interest with regard to the bank’s policy and John’s belief in ethics. Bob’s proposition to a student has created conflict that affects his job, his subordinates, the CEO and the bank.
Deutsch model will enable us understand various positions people take in a context of conflict. In order to understand the situation as narrated by John, we must find the underlying issues causing conflicting situation or origin of conflicts through its players and their roles. Conflict among these key players occurs has a result of personality and interactional processes.
At the same time, conflict among these individuals may also result from convergence of different aspects resulting into a complex situation. According to Tillett and French, “main sources of conflict may include abrasive personalities, lack of or poor interpersonal skills, irritation between people, difference in interactional styles, and inequality or inequity in relationships, belief and ideological differences” (Tillett and French, 2006).
We will write a custom Case Study on Conflict models or theoretical approaches specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Players in the conflict, their roles and perspectives on the conflict Emotions have consumed John due to Bob’s action with the student. This has resulted in conflict between the two workmates. We must note that John is experiencing emotions that prevent him from discussing the issue with any person. This emotional approach to conflict resolution may prevent John from approaching this issue logically. Just like Bob, John also has interests in his work.
Same interests may not result into conflict. However, personal interests between John and Bob create tension between the two. Whereas Bob looks into self, John main concern is getting his boss’s objectives implemented.
Interactional styles of Bob and John differ. Professional interactional styles require that individuals conduct themselves professionally. John maintains a professional interaction with students. This helps him stay away from trouble. On the other hand, Bob has poor interactional style with people. He buys drinks and makes proposition to a potential recruit. This behaviour creates tension between John, student, and the CEO.
Beliefs and values differ from people to people. John believes in doing the work and implementing the company’s objectives. Likewise, John’s values and beliefs do not allow him to interact inappropriately with potential hires. Differences in beliefs and values between John and Bob create interpersonal conflict. John does not approve of Bob’s actions and behaviour with the female student.
Power makes Bob engages in coercive behaviour. Bob uses his power to keep a female student waiting till late. He also makes the student believe that she is a potential recruit in the scheduled interview. However, Bob, as the HR Manager abuses his powers and creates conflict among his colleagues, student, senior management, and the bank. We may also note poor interactional style in Bob. Ethically, Bob should not make a proposition to potential recruits (Rubin and Kim, 1997).
The female student creates a major conflict resulting into lawsuit. This is most likely to scandalous the bank and damage its reputation. Subsequently, the entire team under Bob is at risk of losing jobs, reassigned and reputational damages.
The major issue of gender inequality also comes into scrutiny. Bob is using his position to ask for sexual favours from potential female recruits. The female student has ideological differences with Bob. She refuses those advances in exchange for an interview position. This is the main source of conflict in this case.
Melanie Roberts must make a firm decision regarding Bob’s behaviour. As the CEO of the bank, she must lead and use her powers to take action against Bob and his team. Based on the recommendations, the ultimate decision lies with the CEO of the bank, Melanie Roberts (Miner, 2005).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflict models or theoretical approaches by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Major issues in the conflict and any special issues There are difference in values and beliefs in this case. Factors such as upbringing and experience shape people’s values and beliefs. These factors differ considerably among people. Managers have beliefs and values that are most vital to them. Beliefs and values have deep roots in people and are not easy to change.
In order to avoid conflict, we must recognise and respect such values. In this case, Bob, John and female student have different values and beliefs. Bob believes that he will use his power as the manager to make a proposition to female hires. On the other hand, John shows concern for such behaviour in his boss. He believed that Bob would do the right thing. The student influences the scenario and decides to sue Bob and his team. Differences in values and belief are the main source of conflict in this case.
There is also a difference in interests. This conflict results from a difference in personal interest. This is not even on competition of an economic nature i.e. it adds no value to the bank. The differences between Bob and John have effects that are perceptual, emotional, and behavioural. Bob creates a perception that exacerbates his personal interest in a potential female hire.
Thus, the emotional relations to the other team members suffer and create a negative relation. The subsequent behavioural outcome is not pleasing to all parties in conflict. The major parties in this conflict feel that they are going to lose. This is particularly so in the case of Bob’s team members, and the bank. It is only the female student who sees some advantage by complaining about Bob’s behaviour. Sexual, power relations and gender issues are at the centre of this case.
Most appropriate Strategies for effective management of the conflict In conflict resolution, no single approach is effective. However, people who approach satiations of conflict with positive moods are likely to handle conflict in a better way. This is because individuals in conflict are optimistic and have hope for a better resolution of conflict.
These same individuals should be forgiving of others and should use creativity in seeking a solution. Positive approach to conflict resolution triggers accurate perception of arguments that both parties may present. This also reduces defensive barriers and parties are likely to listen attentively.
Collaborative approach is the best in resolving conflict of interpersonal relations. In fact, most managers use it as their default approach, unless there is another reason to adopt a different approach in resolving conflict. It is quite natural to think of collaborating with someone with a different point of view regarding a conflict.
Conversely, it is unlikely that individuals will use a collaborative approach when people are challenging their behaviour, complaining about their lack of sensitivity, or accusing them of using their position and powers to make a proposition. Most people will avoid, accommodate, or fight back in their attempts to resolve the conflict.
Collaborative approach is hard to implement, but it works in people-issue resolutions. Kipnis and Schmidt established that most managers preferred using a collaborative approach but would abandon it, and revert to directive approach when things were not going their way (Whetten and Kim, 2011).
When using a collaborative approach, managers must realise that resolving conflict using a collaborative approach is taxing and complicated process. However, we shall use collaborative strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict among the parties in this case.
Implementation of strategies First, all parties must focus on what they share in common in fostering a climate of collaboration i.e. they must establish main goals. Focusing on shared goals improve relations among the parties in conflict, and sensitise the parties about the merits of resolving their differences in order to avoid jeopardizing their mutual goals. They must establish common goals to provide context for their discussions. This is particularly useful among Bob, John, the female student and Melanie Roberts (Moore, 1986).
Second, the parties must separate people from the problem. Once, the parties have established common interest among them, and the need to resolving conflict, it is useful to focus their attention on a real issue at hand. This is solving a problem. John should not use avoidance as an approach to solving relation problem between him and Bob.
Interpersonal conflicts are likely to result in mutual satisfaction if the parties remove people from their disagreement by suppressing their personal desires for revenge or one-upmanship. Parties must not look at each other as rival, but rather as the advocate of a point of view. John should focus on seeing unreasonable position rather than unreasonable person (Bush and Folger, 2005).
Third, the parties must focus on interests, and not positions. Positions create demands or assertions, whereas interests constitute the reasons behind the demands. It is easy to create agreement on interests because interests are broad and multifaceted. The parties must redefine and broaden the problem to make it tractable.
Therefore, varieties of issues must be examined to enable parties understand each other’s point of view and put their own forward. For instance, Melanie Roberts may ask the female student that, Help me understand why you advocate your position.
Fourth, the parties must create options for mutual gains. Parties must generate unusual and creative solutions to the conflict. All parties must focus on brainstorming alternatives and mutually agreeable solutions.
Consequently, interpersonal dynamics naturally shift from a competitive to a collaborative approach. Several options will create several chances of finding a common ground for all. For instance, the mediator may tell the parties that “we understand each other’s underlying concerns and objectives, let us now brainstorm ways of satisfying all our needs”.
Fifth, the parties must use objective criteria in evaluating alternatives. Even collaborative process has some elements of incompatible behaviour and interests. Therefore, the parties should use this opportunity to determine what is fair for them.
However, the parties must remain cautious on how they must judge fairness. For instance, the female student may shift her position from getting what she wants to making sense through fostering open, reasonable attitude. This approach encourages parties to drop their initial adamant positions. Parties must ask what is a fair way to evaluating the merits of the arguments.
Sixth, parties must define success in terms of real gains, and not imagine their losses. For instance, Bob may accept demotion instead of losing his job, and the rest of the team gets transfers to other areas. Bob’s first interpretation must focus on his gain rather than his loss. Satisfaction with an outcome varies depending on standards we set to judge them.
Mediators must recognise that a collaborative approach facilitates resolution by evaluating the value of proposed solutions against reasonable standards. Therefore, the parties’ perspective must reflect an outcome that constitutes a meaningful improvement over the current situations.
Reference List Bush, A. B. and Folger, J. P., 2005. The Promise of Mediation: The Transformative Approach to Conflict. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Condliffe, P., 2002. Conflict management: a practical guide. Sydney: Nexis Butterworths.
Miner, J. B., 2005. Organizational behavior I: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Moore, C., 1986. The mediation process: practical strategies for resolving conflict. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rubin, Z. P. and Kim, S., 1997. Social conflict: escalation, stalemate and settlement. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Thomson, R., 2002. Managing People. 3rd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tillett, G. and French, B., 2006. Resolving conflict: a practical approach. 3rd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Whetten, D. A. and Kim, S. C., 2011. Developing management skills. 8th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Organizational Development paper Essay essay help: essay help
Organizational development (OD) as a technique helps to effect change in a company to improve its effectiveness. It contributes to a change process, and establishes long-term activities, including operation of self-managed or autonomous teams as well as problem solving opportunities (Anderson, 2011, p.2).
OD applies to scientific knowledge on behavioral development that embraces a number of concepts, including work design, leadership skills, team building and international design. The system is a flexible scheme that entails implementation of changes. Furthermore, it should adapt quickly to changes and, when the new data is introduced or experienced, it should be ready to process it (Cummings and Worley, 2008, p. 50).
Indeed, it involves a long range of efforts that will improve problem-solving strategies, as well as its ability to face various challenges within an organization (Cummings and Worley, 2008, p. 2). Organizational development considers change a process that involves a set of such activities as planning, diagnosing, assessing, and implementing (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 477).
The organizational development process assures the establishment of favorable relationship within a work environment and outside it and provides groups with the possibility to initiate and manage change. Further, organizational development is considered a set of core values, such as respect and commitment, genuineness and cooperation, self-awareness and improvement, democracy and feeling of justice. The process is made up of the four main activities.
These are introducing, analyzing, planning, and implementing (Anderson, 2011, p. 42). The process involves an action research scheme which allows to define the problem and analyze the reasons for introducing changes. Further, it is purposeful to plan an intervention, evaluate and implement it.
The next step will involve collecting information to assess the intervention and define whether progress has been reached or whether further interventions are needed. Furthermore, it begins when a leader envisions relevant approaches and strives to enhance organizational performance (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 473).
Organization development relies on open systems methods and schemes so as to get a better idea of organization’s goals. Therefore, a shift occurred to one department of an organization cannot be supported without introducing shifts to other departments (Cummings and Worley, 2008, p. 50).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organization development stems basically from three psychological theories for an organization to understand and motivate its employees. They include need theory, job analysis model, and expectancy theory that provide a deep insight into personal differences among the team members, as well as different kinds of organizational aspects that influence behavior (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 478).
Need theory as a strategy considers motivation as a means to meet people’s needs and concerns. Need theory is strongly associated with organizational development because it is based Maslow’s theory introducing a hierarchy of needs (Jex, Britt, 2008, p. 480). It starts from the bottom with physical needs, as the basic concerns, and followed up by needs of self-esteem and actualization (McLean, 2005, p.32). Job characteristic model analyzes the way the personnel work.
It also demonstrates how an employed environment influences employees’ motivation with regard to three psychological states (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 483). Expectancy theory focuses on motivation with regard to decisions that members make concerning the effort they will take to perform organizational tasks.
It suggests that choices about work effort are premised on particular beliefs or values that members uphold. The model is used to introduce effective techniques for an organization to enhance employee incentives, which is also possible through introducing reward systems (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 486).
The factors that introduce organizational change and development include performance challenges, competition, organizational challenges, and technological advances. Many change strategies are more effective in reducing restraining forces and, therefore, will allow the driving conditions to provide change and decrease resistance (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 497).
Participative management entails involving members directly in realizing the need for shifts, developing corresponding changes, and putting those into practice. It is also imperative to analyze the need for change and make significant external stakeholders believe that these changes are urgent (Anderson, 2011, p. 100).
A vision will present future perspectives allowing an organization to communicate effective ideas to their employees and provide a healthy work environment. Course of action strategy needs to be developed as well to implement change. This will act as the algorithm for an organization offering directions to present an appropriate final state while defining challenges (Jex and Britt, 2008, p. 499).
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Development paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leaders should be able to provide sufficient internal support and create a solid platform for introducing changes. In such a way, they can reduce resistance for employees to take an active part in the process of organizational change. By ensuring full commitment to an organization, leaders will play a crucial role in increasing organizational performance (Anderson, 2011, p. 150).
However, lack of effective leadership skills heightens the challenges for public institutions. In this respect, organization should be provided with sufficient resources to manage change effectively. At this point, introducing planned organizational change can foster a rational distribution of resources within an organization. In addition, the public provides a stronger force for altering their interest in products (Jex, Britt, 2008, p. 501).
In conclusion, in order to effect organization change, there is the need to resort to such stages as change identification, implementation planning, implementation, evaluation of the results, and seeking feedback. It is also important for a leader to understand the potential of the organization with regard to employees’ experience and motivation.
References Anderson, L. D. (2011). Organization Development: The Process of Leading Organizational Change. California: SAGE.
Cummings, G. T.,
Marketing Report: BlackBerry Report essay help site:edu
Executive Summary The BlackBerry series of phones are made by the Research in Motion (RIM). The BlackBerry phones target the business and professional people as their features made it possible for the owners to carry out a good number of office function through the devices. The BlackBerry phones have a strong presence in the market, and therefore, they are widely popularly.
Though RIM has been locked in court over infringing a number of patents, its technology is still away ahead of its rivals, and therefore, it still enjoys market popularity. RIM carried out aggressive marketing on behalf of the BlackBerry phones.
The pricing of the BlackBerry phones are dependent on the level of technology of a particular BlackBerry phone. In order for RIM to continue enjoying its popularity in the market, it will have to continuously adjust its phone prices in proportion to the value and technology level of the phones. RIM also needs to be at the top of the game in relation to the issues touching phone technology.
Introduction There have been many innovative solutions for wireless communications that have been evolving in the recent years. Mobile phones have been considered one of the sectors that have witnessed numerous inventions where state of the art technologies are under constant implementations in the handsets that are manufactured by popular mobile phones manufactures.
This paper provides an environmental scan for Research in Motion (RIM) which is the company under which the BlackBerry portfolio falls and its associated services. The paper will define the market structure of BlackBerry and a detailed analysis of the marketing mix or programs and macro-environment trends as well as their effect on the competitive analysis of the product and their demand and market segmentation.
Project Scope This project is mainly theoretical and will seek to evaluate the marketing program of BlackBerry. The report examines BlackBerry’s macro and competitive environment, its marketing program elements which it employs and the recommendations which can enhance its popularity. An analysis of the marketing environment of Blackberry based on the five porter’s forces is also included together with the SWOT analysis. The life cycle of the product is also given.
A critical response to the Introduction Analysis of Product Brand and Macro-environment Trends
BlackBerry is one of the mobile phones that have created a phenomenal brand in the mobile phone market. BlackBerry phones are well-known for their sleek look, design and style with other features. With BlackBerry, an individual can access email, data-transfer services and web serving.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In basic terms, BlackBerry handsets are just camera phones with the various functions that are required and are used by people of business class. Traditionally, it was launched and meant for the high class and the rich people but from its transformation and quality, some phones of BlackBerry brand are available for people of average class (Sweeny, 2009).
This has provided tough competition to its business competitors and other established players in the market. Players like Nokia, Sony Erickson and Motorola have developed better quality devices, but they have not reached or matched the feat of BlackBerry.
There are various types of BlackBerry phone models that have been introduced into the market. BlackBerry 7130G and BlackBerry pearl 8100 are the best and the most selling BlackBerry models in the international mobile phones’ market. The introduction of camera phones has been in high demand in the United Kingdom market.
BlackBerry was considered as a business phone and its introduction into the global market in 1999 confirmed this expectation because it built a strong presence in the mobile phone industry within the short period of time.
The success of BlackBerry was attributed to three main features: Technology looks and innovativeness and a lot of attention have been placed to strengthen these factors which have led to the launch of revolutionary mobile phone devices that attract the rich and the high-class segment of the population (Dictionary, 2012, p. 1).
Macro-environment Trends (Pestel Analysis)
Economic Environment: there has been varied opinion as to whether the UK has emerged from the economic recession but the fact that the world stock markets have improved and that the earnings of many companies have improved are indications that the economy is growing. This will be reflected in the markets share and the sales of BlackBerry phones (Scribd, 2011, p. 6).
Social Environment: this includes the greening of technology, security threats and education level of the workforce. The pressure to create eco-friendly products has been both a legal and social issue, and it is likely to heighten due to consumer awareness on environmental pressures.
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Report: BlackBerry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lobby groups have stressed the role of electronic companies to clean up their acts due to the toxic nature of their components. On security threats, viruses and others malicious files and spy ware have a lot of social impact. Cyber criminals have taken advantage of the lee way that has been created by technological developments of BlackBerry.
Consequently, regarding the education of the workforce, UK has higher transition of students from elementary and secondary education into tertiary and higher education. This has the net effect of creating a more educated workforce and also because smart phone customers are the educated class, the market of the product is likely to increase (Sweeny, 2009, p. 4).
Technological Environment: Among the technological factors to be analyzed are mobile convergence, mobile payment technologies, the internet on the go and the diminishing of non-smart phones. Mobile phones are slowly growing as gadgets of electronic needs, and they are replacing newspapers and television since people are able to access information anytime.
Non-smart phones are slowly and naturally getting out of market; they will be phased out completely by the mass introduction of smart phones. The internet on the norm is becoming a norm in BlackBerry, and it is projected to increase in the near years. It is projected that the number of mobile phones that will be used to access the internet will exceed the PCs.
There have been also a lot of debates regarding the destination and the trend taken by mobile phones money payment, others have projected that it will grow steadily while others are skeptical. The convenience of using mobile phones to purchasing goods, paying bills and purchasing of digital items represents the new age of mobile convenience (Bikowski, Bryant, Crossin, Dillon, Giles, Lawson, McConville, 2009, p. 9).
Environmental Aspect: Environmental aspect has a lot of impact on the mobile phone industry because manufacturers have to comply with various environmental standards. RIM has in several cases ensured that their manufacturing is fair and eco friendly because any environmental mishap can destroy the image of the company in the global market.
Legal Issues: The operations of the company are secure, and it is very difficult to monitor or regulate, and this has made various regulatory bodies to contemplate banning its operations, which will impact on its business operations. Rim is also experiencing legal battles with various companies like Visto, and Motorola and these have had implications on the operations of the company.
RIM has also been locked in court battle with Minerva industries, which has accused it of infringing on its patent; MSTG has also filed a case of the same nature. All these have impacted on the performance of the company since settling legal issues is expensive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Report: BlackBerry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Political Climate: The political environment in the UK has made the Smartphone industry to flourish, and BlackBerry is a beneficiary of this favorable political environment, and it is estimated that smart phones will overtake the feature phones by 2015.
The main challenge is the situation where some countries have raised concerns about the security features of BlackBerry, which emerges from the fact that it has become very hard for government authorities to monitor operations of BlackBerry phone users. There is also the political concern where UK with other EU countries has imposed strong regulations regarding the hygiene and the safety standards for various manufacturers who have negatively impacted on the operations of RIM (Scribd, 2012, p. 1).
Perceptual map is a demonstration of attributes that influence the consumer decision making which are later considered as focal points when designing the product or in the making of advertising decisions. Perceptual map indicates the strength of the firm’s brand and the features of the mobile phone that make it score and gain preference in the mind of consumers. The perceptual market map of BlackBerry phone (Mohr, Sengupta,
The Different Types of Research Methods Comparison Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison between the different types of research methods used
How observation and diary research may be more effective
Introduction Qualitative research is the method in which researchers find out about how man behaves and the reasons behind those behaviors. Qualitative research usually involves a smaller sample of individuals. However, the sample is usually focused. Collection of data (primary research) for a qualitative study may be done through various methods including carrying out in-depth interviews, carrying out focus groups or through observations (Mason, 2002).
The primary research conducted involved conducting two in-depth interviews and a focus group that were conducted online through Facebook. The main aim was to find out people’s views on the packaging of chocolate ‘Twix’ and its effect on health. This paper focuses on comparing the different types of research used and it will show how observation and diary research would be more effective.
Comparison between the different types of research methods used Both in-depth interviews and focus groups are used in qualitative study but both have differences and are applicable in different situations. An in-depth interview involves the asking of open-ended questions by the researcher. The questions aim at retrieving rich information. The interviewer gets the opportunity to explore the interviewee’s perceptions and attitudes.
Focus groups, on the other hand, involve an interviewer asking a group of people some questions about the subject of discussion. The interviewer also seeks to get their opinions, attitudes and perception about the particular object of discussion. In the current research, the people’s perceptions about the packaging and effects of chocolate on their health were recorded.
The advantage of using in-depth interviews is that the interviewer may record the conversation, which would be used later to complement the notes taken (Mason, 2002). It is also advantageous in that the interviewer (while taking notes) gets to record both verbal and non-verbal responses from respondents.
In the current research, in-depth interviews were conducted online (Facebook), therefore, it had the advantage of being quite cheap. However, there are difficulties experienced in in-depth interviews. Firstly, it requires a skilled interviewer. Secondly, the lack of a structure may make the study biased since it might be susceptible to interviewer interpretation. The data is also difficult to analyze (Kvale, 1996).
Focus groups are advantageous in that more information is retrieved from a group situation than from interviews, which involve individuals (Nachmais and Frankfort, 2008). Groups also give a voice to certain individuals who would feel shy to disclose information while alone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The disadvantage is that it could be subject to observer dependency. Another disadvantage was that conducting focus groups through Facebook was less effective in that it was difficult to judge the reactions since it was not a face to face conversation. The setting of the focus group also matters since the people’s responses may vary with the setting.
How observation and diary research may be more effective Observation and diary research involves the participants recording their consumption of a product after they have consumed it. They also record about how they have used it. In the current research, it would have been appropriate and more effective because the participants would have recorded the fine details of their consumption. The fine details would put the researcher in a better position to assess and analyze the data.
The advantage of this type of study is that the participants would not require relying on memory when answering questions since they would be recording the events immediately they have taken place. This also means that the information would be more accurate and less biased. This method would also have been more effective since it would have saved on time since the participants would have recorded the information already and the researcher would only require collecting them.
Conclusion In-depth interviews and focus groups are methods used in collecting data during qualitative research. These methods have advantages and shortcoming and are both applicable in different situations. Different kinds of information, in terms of quality and quantity, are collected using the different methods. However, the use of observation and diary research is more effective in getting more accurate information from the participants.
References Kvale, S 1996, Interviews: An introduction to Qualitative research interviewing, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Mason, J 2002, Qualitative researching, Sage, London.
Rivers for Life Essay writing essay help
Human needs have for a long time demanded a lot from nature. The natural water systems have particularly been abused and neglected leading to rapid deterioration and death of various rivers and lakes around the world.
Over time, traditional methods of restoration were created but these methods were ignorant of the needs of the river itself and were just developed either to aid the river ecosystem or to ensure more water downstream. In recent years however, scientist and engineers have come together to develop new river management paradigm whose main focus is to ensure that a river has enough water to remain healthy.
Using this new management paradigm, it is possible to reclaim and restore rivers better as the drive is not to restore rivers according to human perceptions but according to the natural needs of the river.
Research in river management has shown that in certain conditions, the new river management scenario is an improvement over traditional methods. In certain situations, this new river management paradigm is capable of offering more advantages than traditional methods that usually appear shortsighted.
One of the most common source of electric power is hydroelectricity. In the past few years, virtually all countries have erected a hydroelectric power station in one or more rivers.
For example, South Africa constructed the Kariba Dam on Ibwe River which has had adverse impacts on the animal habitats and nearby population. The people of Tonga population had to be relocated in order to pave way for the construction of Kariba reservoir. River Zambezi over years has also been replicated for major worldwide construction of dams.
During the course of generating power, a dam is usually created or the river direction altered in order to meet the human needs. This deviation of the river flow and direction may lead to severe disturbances downstream. Traditional methods call for flat-line minimum flows of rivers such that the river does not dry up downstream.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the new paradigm argues that there has to be a full range of flow conditions to ensure that a river is healthy. This argument thus puts forward that at any river through which a hydroelectric power is intended to be set up or has been already been set up, the new management paradigm can be utilized to serve various purposes.
First, it can be used in finding the location to situate the power facility such that the natural flow conditions are not adversely affected. It can also be used to calculate the safe amount of water that can be retained and released to ensure a healthy river flow.
The second scenario is those rivers such as the Amazon and the River basins of northwestern United whose flood plains are used for agriculture. Throughout the ages, people have depended on the natural flow of the rivers to find fertile areas to carry out agriculture. Flood plains offer a very fertile place for planting a variety of foods such as rice.
However, over the past several years, many flood plains have been deteriorating or experiencing erratic flows due to unstable river flows resulting from human interferences. In this instance, the new river management paradigm offers a distinct advantage in flow restoration over traditional methods.
According to Postel and Ritcher (63), even though factors such as interaction between species, food supply and water quality are important in all river management practices, the natural flow regime reign supreme as it heavily impacts all the above issues. In order to ensure that the flood plains have sufficient water, scientist should endeavor to restore rivers to their natural conditions and as such, restore floods.
Rivers in which Dams have been built and water is being taken by pumps for irrigation can restore floods at certain times of the year to mimic the natural flow of the river. The dams can release a certain amount of water as per the scientists’ instructions mimicking natural conditions thus creating floods downstream in a regulated manner.
Finally, the new river regime can be used to restore the natural ecosystem of a river. The new river regime was to ensure that 60-100% of the average flow of a river needed to be protected and in order to provide an excellent habitat for the aquatic life only 30-50% of the river’s flow could be needed.
We will write a custom Essay on Rivers for Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can be used to nurture the natural wildlife and vegetation within the river ecosystem through restoring natural flows. Disruptions in river flows have lead to the disappearance of fish and other wildlife in the river ecosystem due to unfriendly levels of water in the river as well as pollution. Some fish migrate to better water sources while other face extinction due to the stress posed by poor flows in the river.
Using the new river paradigm such as learning by doing, it is possible to solve two problems inherent in traditional river management practices; the need to restore a river to its optimum health and lack of certainty on how much restoration is enough. Through adaptive management, scientist can study the progress made by various restoration methods and judge whether the river has reached its optimum health to provide water sufficient enough to nurture fish and other wildlife in its ecosystem.
To sum up, traditional methods of river restoration usually call for a flat-line mini mum flow to keep the river flowing. However, it was discovered that the natural flow of a river has a lot of impact on the food supply, interaction between species and water quality. In order to meet various demands, the new river paradigm is a far better choice than traditional methods.
In areas where a new hydroelectric power station is to be created, these new methods can help in finding a suitable location that will not only ensure that the natural flow is not adversely affected but also the main river course is not altered.
Restoration of the river ecological system is also possible through the use of the new river management paradigm as well as fostering agriculture in flood plains. Man has for a long time taken from rivers without giving back. Through the new river management practices, it is possible to restore rivers to their natural states ensuring that these rivers remain healthy for further years.
Works Cited Postel, Sandra and Brian Ritcher. Rivers for life: Managing water for people and nature. London: Island Press, 2003.
Fairmont Resorts in Mayakoba, Riviera Maya Resort Report custom essay help
Introduction Business organizations strive to excel in their respective areas of operations through ensuring proper customer satisfaction. To achieve this, the organization needs to be unique through identifying the competitors in the same industry, examining what they offer to the customers, and noting down the key weaknesses in their products in relation to the current needs of the customers.
A competitive advantage is developed from the distinctive capabilities of these organizations (Kotelnikov, N.d). The kind of loyalty that customers develop of a particular product/service and the associated brand should be of great consideration to the management of such organizations since this ensures its sustainable development.
The outcome (success or failure) of an organization is greatly affected by the quality of product/services that it offers (Abdullah
Macroeconomic Analysis Using an Article Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
GDP verses Income and Economic growth
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
Introduction Macroeconomics is a variable topic centred on the economy and factors that influence its overall development. Governments and businesses apply the concept of microeconomics to articulate general growth and development of their economy an how to implement policies that would generate maximum returns to support their overall development.
It tracks the behavioural pattern of companies and individuals with their ability to make decisions over the market alterations. The interactions of the traders and consumers in a certain setting and the entities that influence their behaviour towards decision-making are analyzed.
Manufactures and most companies to determine their functionality in profit production and alterations that can be applied to generate maximum returns apply the concepts. Governments need to predict financial and economic sustainability of its nation’s population and the measures to be implemented to elevate living standards.
Macroeconomics in a given setting can be derived from several entities that affect its overall growth. Through analyzing critical issues in overall development like unemployment; inflation; aggregate demand and supply; GDP verses income, the overall growth and influences on macroeconomics may be determined.
GDP verses Income and Economic growth GDP is used to refer to the quantity of the goods and services that is produced in an economy by a country. The prize that a commodity or service is worth in the market is accumulated is summed up to the value of government expenditure and overall consumer expenses and is measured against the income value1. The value acquired by the government after deducting all of its expenses from the imports is articulated to be its GDP.
The higher the rate of consumption by the consumer, the higher the rate of GDP improves. Income of the population leads to a positive shift in the GDP value because more consumers will be in a position to acquire more goods and services permitting the government to import more products.
The government relies on the ability to generate more finance to support its economy and be in a position to generate better services to its population. GDP is quantified in terms of the prices put on goods and services produced which is then articulated to real GDP. This factor may determine the inflation rate as the country strives to put at a level the amount of goods produced with its overall financial stability. Nominal GDP in turn, indicate the various fluctuations in the prizes of a commodity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Higher service prices in the market will influence the government towards minting more money to control the export/import prizes at a manageable level leading to the rise in inflation. The higher inflation rate normally affects slow or no economic growth prompting measure to be taken to regulate the overall government earnings.
Economic growth leads to an increase in the income level of workers making a positive impact on the overall lining standards of the population. The ability to accumulate enough capital to undertake a business task increases the overall returns in a transaction. Economic growth is articulated to better technology and skills applied by the government during production that promotes high quality goods and the overall increase in export prizes.
In the articles, “Jobs, Not the Deficit, Should be Our Most Immediate Concern!” Thoma indicates that the overall sustenance in an economy is affected by the positive advancements in the technology2. With individuals sharing various arguments about the attributed that affect development, groups believe that idea generation is quickly spread through various social forums.
Various individuals in the economy share different opinions on wealth creation. The people who earn more income and affect the employment patterns mainly drive the economy. The inability by the majority to afford certain pleasures of the economy leads to a negative impact on the overall economy.
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply The accumulation of the necessity by individuals to desire the services offered and goods produced is termed as AD. The total amount of purchases the consumer accesses in their desire to achieve satisfaction without considering the costs incurred would be categorized as the AD.
Mostly, consumers acquire goods or some services because they are necessities and a lack in one of the entities would mean a harsh lifestyle that would inhibit individual development. AD is also affected by the income level because there are individuals who determine the overall prize of a commodity due to their desire to spend more for these entities.
AD is attributed to the desire for individuals to acquire GDP and it indicates that a low market prize value would significantly boost overall purchases as the demand increases.
We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomic Analysis Using an Article specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In applying this principle, a country is able to determine it overall GDP and economic growth as it predicts the patterns involved in the overall market and he consumer’s willingness to respond to certain market changes3. AS can be useful to determine the impacts of the elevated levels of demand on the real output and the noticed inflation levels. The below diagram indicates the effects of increasing AD on production rate and the prices of the commodity.
The overall demand by consumers towards certain products and services will influence the behavioural patterns of suppliers to make available these desired commodities. Taxes imposed by the authorities and patterns of employment affecting overall consumer expenditure affect the AD and AS process.
As the article indicates, the major decline in the economic condition is because of reduced expenditure among the less fortunate in the economy. Most people predict that the economy would be further affected by the reduced employment rates. The development of inflation rates boost reluctance by the government to reduce their expenditure, as they desire to deliver more goods to the market improving AS.
The desire possessed by certain individuals in the consumption of these goods boosts the AD/AS relationship with the wealthy dominating the transaction. The ability of individuals to purchase the delivered goods is solely dependent on the employment rate, which determines wealth. AD/AS curve is affected greatly when the market participation of the majority is inhibited.
Unemployment The unemployment figure is articulated to the population in the productive setting who are required to be participating in work related activity but have limited access to the entity. Unemployment is mostly affected by the economic development an individual qualification. Mostly, the economy presents harsh conditions that negatively influence hiring of individuals because of increased inflation rates that lead to scarcity of commodity acquisition.
Unemployment rate reduces when the real GDP elevates, the outputs are adverse therefore prompting increase in labour force to sustain the development. During a recession however, the unemployment rate increases with most companies seeking to adjust to the economic degradation and maintain their profits. The government during this period is said o increase this trend by encouraging inflation.
Inflation This entity is affected by the increase in price level as the GDP destabilizing factors are used to acquire the prize of a commodity. The article states that with increased recession, the government finds a solution to support its economy by injecting more funds into the economy to support its economy.
Most inflation rates normally lead to a mass population getting unemployed because the prices of the commodities are hiked and the production rate normally dropped.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomic Analysis Using an Article by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government that is in control of the policy implementation exerts its dominance in the economy to adjust positively the factors that limit its development by favouring inflation that would sustain the economical challenges affecting financial expansion. The CPI of a particular market is another entity that seeks to measure inflation as it predicts the behavioural patterns of individuals to utilize the commodity under various economical factors.
Conclusion The economy is normally affected largely by the GDP. The government uses the GDP figures to predict future change in consumption patterns and overall economic growth. The ability of consumers to utilize the resources available for their satisfaction and complete the supply and demand chain supports the macroeconomic theory.
The activities to purchase and utilize the provided resources and the market activities tell the macroeconomics of the setting. In an economy, the government policies and the availability of technological knowledge help to bolster the development that provides opportunity to the unemployed.
The government shares the responsibility to support the economy by reducing inflation rates and improving the CPI by implementing policies that promote consumer appreciation o the fluctuating prices. Macroeconomics relies on the input by the policy makers and the overall market participants in improving the GDP.
Bibliography Anne Garnett, Hubbard, Glen, and Phil Lewis. Essentials of Economics. Australia. Pearson Education Press, 2009.
Cencini, Alvaro. Macroeconomic Foundations of Macroeconomics. New York: Routledge Press, 2005
Thoma, Mark. Jobs, Not the Deficit, Should be Our Most Immediate Concern. Economist’s View. January 2012.
Footnotes 1 Cencini, Alvaro. Macroeconomic Foundations of Macroeconomics. New York: Routledge Press, 2005.
2 Thoma, Mark. Jobs, Not the Deficit, Should be Our Most Immediate Concern. Economist’s View. 2011.
3Hubbard, Glen, Anne Garnett, and Phil Lewis. Essentials of Economics. Australia. Pearson Education Press, 2009.
Advanced Consumer Behavior: consumer decision-making process Report online essay help
Abstract The hospitality industry is one of the most dynamic and competitive industries. As such, hoteliers and other industry players are to offer products and services true to the consumer tastes. However, to achieve this effectively, they need techniques and tools that can model accurately such important process as a consumer’s choice making process.
With the available consumer’s choice making process models, these hospitality industry companies try to determine consumer behaviour and, as such, redefine their product mix based on the derived predictions. This study is intended to evaluate two models among various consumer decision process (CDP) ones to determine if they effectively represent consumer decision making process, especially within the hospitality industry.
The findings from the study illustrate that the models are rather general and, therefore, lack for the elements that are meant to define accurately consumer decision-making process, especially within the hospitality industry. The factors that make the consumer decision making process complex to model include postmodernism, fragmented experience, and market, and globalization. An attempt was made within this writing to expound on these factors in relation to the hospitality industry.
It can be concluded that these factors have resulted in the unpredictable consumer behaviour within the hospitality industry. Therefore, the general conclusion arrived at after the study had revealed the inadequacy inherent in the two models on consumer decision process (CDP).
A general recommendation involves the modification of existing frameworks to accommodate other factors that have been initially overlooked and yet remain pertinent to the consumer decision making process. Such models would be able to accurately represent the consumer decision process, especially within the hospitality industry.
Introduction Understanding market dynamics has become the main focus for many industries today. The tourism and hospitality industry remains one of the most lucrative for any economy. As such, market dynamics cognizant of this field reconsiders important and collectively work toward understanding how best to balance different aspects to maximize profits.
There are tools and techniques available to enable a thorough analysis of the market dynamics. The consumer decision making process (CDP) model is one of such techniques that have gained popularity lately to help sales and marketing departments to critically study and underpin the company’s profitability to suitably identified parameters unique to that company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, consumer decision making process models can be used to align company’s products and services to anticipated consumer preference (Antonides and Van Raaij 1999). This is intended to capture a market niche and gain competitive advantage. This study has been initiated with the intention to analyze two models among the several consumer decision making process (CDP) ones.
In this critical analysis, the researcher intends to identify typical areas of inadequacy when these models are used to model consumer behavior in the hospitality industry (Blythe 1997). The study will culminate in a review of a number of associated theories based on postmodernism and globalization and their impact on hospitality services consumer behaviour.
A study of consumer behavior highlights the way individuals make decisions. These decisions cover how they spend their available resources. The consumer behavior field encompasses many factors. Accordingly, consumer behavior includes the activities by individuals or groups to decide on, purchase, and consume products, and services intended to satisfy their needs and desires.
An authorized description of consumer behavior is a process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires. Behavior relates either to the individual, or in the context of a group, or an organization.
“Consumer behavior focuses on using and disposing products and a related study of the purchase process” (Blythe 1997, p.67). “Product use receives elaborate attention from the marketer” (Blythe 1997, p.67). This is because this use influences the product’s market position and how this can be used to encourage increased consumption.
Conventional consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry
Currently, the hospitality industry offers products and services that are both tangible and intangible (Kotler, Bowen and Maken 2006). Such services are categorized as travel and tourism, lodging assembly, restaurant, and managed services, as well as event management and recreation. Focus on consumer behaviour in such a setting determins how the consumer seeks to make a choice to purchase something, experiences, and evaluates the services.
This process encompasses six steps that cover an emerging need, an active consideration by the consumer, product or service research, short-listing, purchasing the product or service, and post purchase. An understanding of consumer behaviour based on these CDP models will enable hoteliers to define their product mix and determine their communication and sales strategy. A riotous consumption is common to the hospitality industry.
We will write a custom Report on Advanced Consumer Behavior: consumer decision-making process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This phenomenon is largely unpredictable and, therefore, may not be effectively modeled although it promotes consumers to crave a perceived level of pleasure prior to the consumption. Inevitably market dynamics identify branding as an important factor influencing modern consumer behaviour.
According to Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006), brand preference is a vital consideration during consumer decision making process. At this point, it is imperative to note that consumer behavior is attributed to a number of influential factors. Primary among them, there are the characteristics of the consumer, the consumer’s environment, and the genetic composition of the consumer.
Postmodernism consumerism in the hospitality industry
The trend focuses on product introduction and development, advertising, and consumer behaviour (Ritzer 1999). The changing socio-cultural and psychological needs have resulted in new options for experiencing a self expression in consumption resulting in a new means of consumption.
The increased awareness and riotous consumption trends have spurred luxurious consumption, especially in the hospitality industry, typically seen in the hotels, cruise ships, and airlines. However, postmodernism has brought to the fore trends that embrace the richness and traditions, styles, products, and services from the past and present.
With this wide range to choose from, today’s consumer behavior remains unpredictable, especially considering that consumers have an eye to try new products and services and may not necessarily maintain loyalty. These trends in postmodernism are largely responsible for the social and technological changes. These changes result in fragmentation of market and experience, paradoxical juxtapositions of opposites, and a hyper-reality of products. It suffices to elaborate on each of these results of changes because of postmodernism.
Fragmentation of market and experience
The hospitality industry is currently realizing the need to categorize individual hospitality products and services because of consumers wanting more variety and personalized products and services. Under this classification, consumers are willing to pay more and repeat the experience if the products or services achieve desired personalized levels of satisfaction.
Toward this end, leading hotels in the industry, like Intercontinental Hotels Group, have successfully implemented the fragmented market and experience concept by introducing different brands to cover luxury and boutique accommodations and holiday inn and other related brands to fit consumer budget requirements. These hotels are also known to offer extended stay accommodation targeting at a particular niche of consumers.
Paradoxical juxtapositions of opposites
Some hospitality-oriented industries have facilities that have attracted impulse consumption secondary to their establishment. For example, hotels adorning theme parks have attracted a large number of consumers interested in the theme park but rarely using the other facilities of the hotel such as accommodation. Such hotels have encountered increased spending on maintenance of such parks as experience secondary to their primary reason of operation that is hospitality.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advanced Consumer Behavior: consumer decision-making process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hyper-reality of products and services
Currently, consumers are looking for fragmented experience and moments of excitement. This is especially true for consumers within the hospitality industry. In addressing this impulse, consumption trends simulations that are hyper-real have substituted the use of value commodities. This is aimed at achieving a world of simulation in which an illusion of experience substitutes a real experience.
At the advent of globalization, many other socio economical aspects have sprang up either directly or indirectly related to the globalization process. One such phenomenon is consumerism that defines the aspect of a particulate society systematically, adopting ever increasing desires to purchase goods and services even in greater numbers.
Consumer decision process (CDP) models
Gilbert suggests a model for consumer decision-making (Taewon and Ik-Whan 2002). This model depicts two levels or phases that have factors that affect the consumer. The first phase of influence lies in the proximity to the person and is related to the psychological influences, like perception and learning.
The subsequent phase of influences involves those that were developed during the socialization process. These may include reference groups and family influences. All the CDP models that have been used for various fields and tourism as well offer some insight into the consumer purchase process that covers the purchase and after purchase decision steps.
Consumer decision process theories presume that the consumer’s decision process follows various steps to accomplish a purchase. Generally, studying consumer organizations can improve their marketing strategy once they understand issues such as the following:
Marketer’s adaptations aimed at improving their market campaigns and strategies.
Consumer motivations and decision strategies that vary based on consumer interests and level of importance.
Limitations in consumer knowledge that always affect their processing abilities and influence their decisions and outcomes.
The psychological perception of the consumer and the effect on his or her environment.
The consumer behaviour where they shop.
The consumer’s psychology during their choice between different brands of products.
Generally, consumer behaviour studies focus on how individuals will make their choice to spend their effort, time, and money on consumption-related items. Baudrillard (1998), postulated one of the earliest CDP models. This model highlights the significance of information in a consumer’s purchase decision process.
The model also focuses on the consumer mind-set although it fails to model the repeat purchase behaviour. The Nicosia 1976 model is another CDP model that highlights the organization’s attempt to converse with the consumer. This model also covers the consumer’s intentions to act in a certain way.
The model is subdivided into four parts each of which is named as a field. The organization process of communicating to the consumer falls under field one. Field two covers an evaluation process carried out by consumers. The purchase by the consumer can be included under field three. Finally, field four comprises the post-purchase feedback process. Perhaps, one of the most commonly quoted CDP model is the Howard-Sheth model depicting buyers’ behaviour formulated in 1969.
This model highlights the significance of inputs in the consumer purchase process highlighting the ways the consumer affects these inputs, prior to the final purchase or reject decision. Generally, all CDP models focus on the consumer and company sides with each contributing to the building of the decision process model.
The generic steps will highlight an emerging need, active consideration, researching, short-listing, purchase, and post-purchase. Since the decision process is fundamental to understanding how consumers behave, the various CDP models are based on a systematic theory and evaluations to determine the consumer’s behaviour. Researchers continue to point out the inadequacy related to these models when they are applied against consumer behaviour patterns.
As such, this study is intended to measure the inadequacy of two CDP models particulate to the hospitality industry. The Smith’s simple model depicting the buying process and the Teare’s CDP model for hospitality services have been chosen as case study models for this assignment.
The intended aim is to evaluate the suitability of these models in understanding the current consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry. It is imperative to note at this point that all other CDP models have their basis on the simple CDP model. As such, the study suffices to cover the Smith’s simple model of the buying process considered as the basic one.
Aim and objectives Aim
The aim of this study is to exhaustively evaluate the Smith’s simple model of the buying process and Teare’s model for hospitality services in light to the hospitality industry.
The main objectives of this study are:
To carry out an empirical evaluation of the Smith’s simple model of the buying process and the Teare’s model for hospitality services.
To justify the use of the two chosen models as suited to the hospitality industry
To review existing literature covering other factors like globalization, postmodernism, and branding affecting consumer behaviour and their decision making process.
Methodology Research philosophy
This research proceeds quantitatively with a relevant data specific to the hospitality industry, collected and evaluated against the two models to determine their credibility. A thorough review was used to identify and establish a theoretical framework, and data was collected to be tested to verify the study’s hypothesis. The CDP models create an objectively derived map showing all factors affecting purchase decisions. CDP models typically divide the decision making process into sequential steps.
This study assumes an approach that collects data basing on two areas. These areas include relevant consumerism theories and practical hospitality strategies.
A secondary research was considered viable and focused on an evaluation of all the relevant theories and academically related materials including textbooks, journals, and reports. Other sources considered in this research were universe of discourse (UoD) databases and tertiary literature sources including Elsevier and Emerald. Financial and time constraints disqualify the scientists from conducting a primary research.
Finding and analysis It will be necessary at this point to evaluate the two models selected for this case study. The process involves the analysis of the Smith’s simple model of the buying process and the Teare’s model for hospitality services.
Smith’s Simple Model of the Buying Process
The Smith’s simple model for the buying process consists of six definite steps. In postulating this model, Smith indicates that a routinized response behaviour (RRB) spends less time and effort prior to product or service purchase. Such a scenario where there is an impulse of buying while loyalty guests processes cannot be suitably applied to this model.
This model will be applied to modern hotel setup that also includes other additional package services, like scuba diving, casinos, and nature trails. The Smith’s simple buying process model progresses through a number of steps each of which is analyzed here below.
According to Smith and Taylor (2004), the problem recognition by a consumer is a stage where a need is recognized. Perhaps this need is based on the context associated with the target product apart from a self or personal need.
The context associated with a target product is a part of the postmodernism nature of consumer behaviour. In order to remain competitive, the hotel industry endevours to personalize and customize their packages.
This is intended to cater for hyper-consumption trends exhibited by consumers today. This trend is particulate to the hospitality industry. As such, the Smith’s simple model of the buying process cannot adequately model the problem recognition stage within the hospitality industry.
This is the second stage within the Smith’s simple model of the buying process. This stage encompasses information search by the consumer. According to Smith and Taylor (2004), such information can be retrieved from advertisements, magazine editorials, visiting stores, and from friends.
Postmodern consumers have been known to invest more time at this stage (Taewon and Ik-Whan 2002). It is true that information search in the consumer’s purchase decision process is important because of the diversification and globalization effects, especially in the hospitality industry.
Since the current hospitality trend is hinged on diversified personalized packages, many consumers in the industry can enjoy an all inclusive consumption albeit any information research. The Internet has brought with it technology that further delinks this stage from the process. Presently, travel blog sites and searches are the most popular for acquiring destination information (Pan, MacLaurin and Crotts 2007).
This is the process carried out by the consumer to access services or products’ features, guarantees, and performance based on the information searched. The hospitality industry is laden with intangible products in form of services. These are complicated to evaluate.
Typically, as a consumer books a stay in at a hotel that offers casino services, the consumer purchases more than a bed in the guest room. However, the service here cannot be determined and evaluated prior to the purchase. Since hospitality industry is fragmented in market and experience, the Smith’s simple model of the buying process fails to consider customer’s perceptions although these beliefs, attitudes, and intentions are fundamental to the decision making process.
This is the stage at which a consumer chooses a particular product or service. Crotts, Abraham and Mansfield (1999) assert that there are three other types of decisions typical to consumer hospitality service.
As such, in addition, the financial allocation, location patronage, brand, and style decisions are considered by the consumer in the hospitality industry. Accordingly, the decision may not be as simple as it has been presented in the Smith’s simple model of the buying process. There are also other sub-decisions involved based on the method of payment, the time, and place (Foxall 1992).
This is the activity of purchasing the product or service by the consumer. According to Smith and Taylor (2004), there are exceptions likely to appear during this stage that include an out of stock situation. Williams (2002) suggests a number of factors that cause a purchase delay by a consumer.
These could be a lack of time, emotional response, or even insufficient resources. As seen, the Smith’s simple model of the buying process is inadequate in modeling such a scenario.
A consumer enters the post purchase stage after a purchase. This is related to the satisfaction or dissatisfaction derived from the purchase. This process is related to the information search stage where the consumer evaluates if the purchased product or service meets the expectations according to the advertisement or information initially gained.
A satisfied consumer becomes a repeat customer, and as such, the Smith simple model for a buying process turns to be a cycle. It is important to note at this point that postmodern nature of consumers allows them to remain disloyal even if they experience high satisfaction from a service or a product.
This study also focuses on analyzing the Teare’s model of consumer decision process for hospitality. While considering the psychological and physiological rules in hospitality service delivery, Teare postulated a three stage model highlighting pre-purchase, purchase, and post purchase behaviour.
Teare’s model for hospitality services
The researcher mapped this model to evaluate the consumer behaviour in the airline product consumption a research initially carried out by the International Travel Research Institute (INTRAWAR).
This stage illustrates how branding affects the pre-purchase stage. Branding also results in increased product knowledge, consumption preference structure, and research extension.
According to Kotler, Bowen and Makens (2006), consumers gain confidence on acquisition of product or service information even when that information is not intended to help them at that time to make a decision, they can use these information to evaluate the alternatives available.
However, typical to the airline product consumption, perceived risks like delayed flights and accidents also affect consumer decisions. Whereas the Teare CDP model emphasizes the importance of branding, other influences are not considered in this model.
Such influencing factors as fragmented market and experience, postmodernism consumerism, and globalized development are not adequately considered within the Teare model making, it iss inadequate in modeling postmodern consumer behaviour.
As such, the pre-purchase stage of the Teare model of the consumer decision process for hospitality is inadequate and must be more elaborate to model consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry.
According to Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006), there are five consumer-oriented dimensions during the purchase of the hospitality products and services. These include assurance, empathy, tangibility, responsiveness, and reliability.
Looking at the Teare model and based on the hospitality industry with particular reference to the results of the INTRAWAR research, this stage is clear, though, limited when applied to the hospitality industry. Typically, consumers attach value to the in-flight service as much as the type of aircraft (Hodel 1991).
The Teare model relates the consumer’s ultimate evaluation to increased product knowledge. However, this basis is theoretical derived from the belief that increased product knowledge can reduce post-consumption insecurity. Nevertheless, according to Bettencourt and Gwinner (1996), guest satisfaction, an important index in consumption evaluation in the hospitality industry, is not defined in the model.
This points out its inadequacy to model consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry. As such, consumers carry out an assessment of various factors consisting of all the consumption process based on their expectations after the purchase process. This means of a total evaluation of the consumer decision process does not rely only on product knowledge. This understanding shows that the post-consumption stage is inadequate to model consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry.
Conclusion It is necessary to understand at this point that consumer behaviour, especially in the hospitality industry, may not be a process that can be accurately modeled. From this study, it can be inferred that the two models on which the research was focused have been found to be inadequate in a number of stages within each model. The Smith’s simple model of the buying process is vague at each of the four stages of the model.
This is the unpredictable consumer behaviour. The hospitality industry, while trying to satisfy this need, is attempting to customize and personalize the services to encourage consumption and, perhaps, attain loyalty.
However, a review of the literature is indicative that consumer satisfaction may not always translate to product or service loyalty as each of the CDP models indicates. As such, the models are considered vague and not all-encompassing while other factors are cited in the review showing that the consumer decisions are influenced by other environmental factors that may be external to the models.
One typical situation highlighted that makes the models vague would relate to a lack of service or product in stock. The model seems obscured from such a scenario and, therefore, is inadequate in representing consumer behaviour, especially in hospitality industry. Other factors affecting behaviour have been also cited and include globalization and postmodernism.
These have made consumer behaviour even more unpredictable as the consumer out of diversity has a growing concern for newer experience. Therefore, the assumption that the consumer decision process will be sequential may not be the case. As such and based on this assumption, the Smith’s simple model of the buying process is inadequate and vague in accurately modeling the consumer behaviour, especially in the hospitality industry.
For the Teare model of consumer decision process for hospitality, an emphasis on branding may not be sufficient in representing and evaluating consumer behaviour. There are other factors apart from branding that influence the decision making process. As such, the study reveals that the other factors besides branding can determine the consumer decision-making process.
Such factors have been identified as fragmented market and experience, postmodernism consumerism, and globalization. Thus, determining consumer behavior, it becomes a complex process, especially within the hospitality industry.
Characteristic of this industry is competitiveness. As such, the industry can only be profitable if consideration is put to satisfy the unique consumer trends through fragmented experience and market that caters for customized and personalized consumption packages. However, the consideration will include other factors supplementary to the actual decision making process.
In this light, the CDP models remain vague and inadequate to model the consumer decision making process in the hospitality industry particularly because of the intricate nature of the industry and the many factors that directly or otherwise define the satisfaction index. A study of other consumer decision process models reveals inadequacies in their representation of the consumer purchase process.
Therefore, it can be concluded that the CDP models are vague and not all encompassing as far as modeling the consumer purchase process is concerned and, especially as it relates to the hospitality industry.
Recommendation The empirical evaluation of the Smith’s simple model of the buying process and the Teare model for hospitality services has generally highlights that both models are inadequate or vague in modeling consumer behaviour in the hospitality industry (Baudrillard 1998). Although, in general, the consumer decision making process follows the steps highlighted by both models, a number of important factors that are fundamental as input in the consumer’s decision making process have been omitted.
It is imperative to note that failure to consider and include these factors results in an inadequate representation or model vague, and, therefore, cannot accurately represent the actual consumer decision making process within the hospitality industry.
Therefore, in order to effectively evaluate and model contemporary consumer decision making process in the hospitality industry, other factors like postmodernism consumerism, fragmented experience, and market, and globalization must be incorporated into the models. Including these factors will result in a model that can accurately represent the consumer decision making process within the hospitality industry.
Reference List Antonides, G
Fashion as the Avatar of an Avant-garde Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Art and fashion share many significant characteristics in the way they function in society. Both have also changed with increasingly dramatic speed over the centuries. In art, the movement known as the Avant-garde set out to continually redefine itself; in fact, to redefine art. However, this continual discarding of what was done already has had a tendency to be self-destructive of the movement itself.
In fashion, because of its continual pattern of rejection of the past and re-creation of itself, the mood and positive goals of the Avant-Garde may be able to retain and regain a foothold.
In the discussion that follows, the links between fashion and art will be explored, the potential for fashion to represent the Avant-Garde will be addressed, and the specific case of Viktor and Rolf will be examined as a possible avatar of the Avant-Garde in fashion.
Fashion, art, and the Avant-garde: how are they related? Fashion defined
Fashion seems to be a universal feature of human societies. No matter how near nakedness a human may be, there appears to exist an urge to decorate, and, over time, for the character of this decoration to change. At its most basic level, this impetus to add to our bodies, and in ways that evolve, is the root of couture and fashion.
As Entwhistle puts it, “Conventions of dress transform flesh into something recognizable and meaningful to a culture and are also the means by which bodies are made “ decent,” appropriate and acceptable within specific contexts.
Dress does not merely serve to protect our modesty and does not simply reflect a natural body or, for that matter, a given identity; it embellishes the body, the materials commonly used adding a whole array of meanings to the body that would otherwise not be there.”
Even the most apparently simple societies demonstrate this tendency to adorn, modify, and embellish bodies, hair, skin, and even the odor of the body, and this is the essential core of fashion and style. The evidence suggests that even the human race’s Neanderthal cousins modified their appearance in various ways that are instantly recognizable even to modern eyes.
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Art also seems to be a universal feature of human societies. We see modification of the environment in ways that cannot be attributed to the actual tasks of physical survival as far back as we can define our species as truly human. In fact the making of art is almost a marker archeologically for identifying an ancient site as belonging to people who shared our modern penchant for symbol and expression.
The current date for the oldest known art is now 20,000 years B.C.E., and could be pushed back even further . This suggests that the tendency to modify the environment in ways that are not totally functional in a materialistic sense (considering that the artists of 20 millennia ago may indeed have believed that these rock or cave paintings ensured their good treatment by the forces of nature) is deep-seated.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, in an effort to cover all cultures, all times, and all political perspectives, requires that any definition of art meet the criteria of applying to:
“entities (artifacts or performances) intentionally endowed by their makers with a significant degree of aesthetic interest, often surpassing that of most everyday objects… in virtually every known human culture…sometimes…[with] non-aesthetic — ceremonial or religious or propagandistic — functions… new genres and art-forms develop, standards of taste evolve, understandings of aesthetic properties and aesthetic experience change.” (Italics added for emphasis)
The criteria go on to require that a definition of art acknowledge that,
“there are institutions in some but not all cultures which involve a focus on artifacts and performances having a high degree of aesthetic interest and lacking any practical, ceremonial, or religious use…[and] such institutions sometimes classify entities apparently lacking aesthetic interest with entities having a high degree of aesthetic interest.
This last is a clear attempt to account for the sometimes inexplicable choices that museum curators make. Clearly, the definition of art has evolved drastically over time.
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What has changed is the increasing velocity with which these two aspects of human life have changed, and how the process of change, itself, has acquired value in and of itself.
Whereas in cave paintings, we may not be able to distinguish one millennium from another, never mind one year from another, ever since the Renaissance, and especially since the advent of Impressionism, the speed with which art styles and approaches have changed has accelerated. Furthermore, since perhaps the Enlightenment, the old, the ‘ancien’, the former, the past, have all become terms of opprobrium in art. To some degree, this was a democratizing reaction to the elitist exclusivity of the Academie.
The Avant-Garde is one of the most recent and most dramatic expressions of this trend. Starting in the last decades of the 19th century, many artists intentionally set out to discard the past and all that went with it.
From the nonsense of Tristan Tzara, and Dadaism , to the most current and conceptual pieces , the aims and techniques of ‘traditional’ Western art have been tossed out. The increasingly global and devastating wars that occurred in the same period must have been motivating factors in the rejection, as in Dadaism , of all meaning in art.
Ward points out that such art was connected neither to market forces or the old academic system. It was ‘DIY’. She also points out that the women associated with the early manifestations of the Avant-garde regarded their experiments with clothing as either art, or costumes, a reflection of the decreasing separation between fashion and art .
The Avant-garde, however, continues to reject the past, even its own past. This has the destructive effect of the mother devouring her young, or perhaps vice versa.
Is Fashion Art?
To assert that fashion is (or can become) the last bastion of the Avant-garde requires the redefinition of fashion as a form of art. Fashion, as noted earlier, shares with art its character of an essentially perennial indulgence. It can be said of both art and fashion that neither is necessary for physical survival of the species or the individual. And yet, in all cultures, there is some form of both art and fashion, no matter how simple, or accessible in technology, so it seems reasonable to infer that they are both somehow necessary for humans.
Fashion refers to and borrows from art regularly. This pattern of appropriation and quotation stretches from Worth’s portrait-influenced styles from the 1800’s, inspired by his visits to museums, to the Mondrian-inspired color block mini-dresses of St. Laurent in the 1960s. More recently, we have seen the use of Byzantine motifs by Giovanni Versace .
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fashion as the Avatar of an Avant-garde by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the art world has moved away from the artisanal, and therefore relatively menial, role it occupied until well after the Renaissance, as evidenced by the frequent absence of signatures on earlier works of art.
In this movement away from that role, art has, for the most part, excluded fashion as a ‘craft’ or trade, until very recently. Couture, after all is defined in plebeian terms as the business of making clothes.
Both fashion and art are status symbols, accessible only to those who have the wealth and the imprimatur of social acceptability (style, class, savvy) to indulge in them. Any doubt as to whether this long-time prejudice has been dissipated should be set aside.
As evidence, note the tone with which Wal-Mart heirs’ creating a pret-a-porter, instant museum, full of the best art, has been received by the art world and the public at large. Crystal Bridges Museum is in the American state of Arkansas, a state better known for the folk tune Arkansas Traveler than its high culture.
It may, as critics have conceded, made innovative use of space and be a showcase for much good American art. The attitude towards the patroness, her acquisition techniques, and the choices her ‘insta-pour’ art collection includes, is one of dubious suspicion. The motif of new wealth trying to buy its way into either fashion or art circles is thus alive and well .
Fashion and art also share the characteristic that their most prominent and influential critics and arbiters are seldom themselves practitioners. Examples of these potentates in the fashion world include Anna Wintour, of Vogue, and Clement Greenberg, in the art world. Such critics have the literal power to make or break the career of a designer or an artist, based on little more than their verbal adeptness at articulating the mood of a body of work2.
However, in spite of this slender basis for judgment, the compliments or caviling of such critics’ (often very subjective in their choice of favorites) can shape the directions that artists and designers take in their future work.
Artists, not surprisingly, object to the tyranny of being forced to spend time and attention on achieving critical acclaim. However, there is little way to avoid this at the moment. Purchasers of cutting edge art often depend on the opinion and pronouncements of noted critics to validate what can be astonishingly expensive price tags.
Furthermore, these major expenditures purchase items that often have no apparent value. They often have little or no decorative value either, and in fact, many high end art purchases spend more time in art galleries than they ever do in anyone’s home. Thus, the art critic really is in control of the artist’s financial success, at least in the short term. Personal taste and pique can therefore acquire an outsized significance.3
Similarly, in the world of high fashion, prospective clothing or accessory purchasers are faced with a price tag that could easily underwrite the purchase of a boat or a second-hand car, for something that may actually look quite ugly. The item may be so difficult to clean and maintain that wearing it is impractical.
The positive pronouncements of critics can reassure them that this or that item is a good investment, although the lifespan of a fashion piece is measured in months rather than decades, for the most part. For couture customers, wearing an outfit older than a few months requires enormous confidence (or the excuse of early dementia).
Thus, for both fashion and art, seeking after profit, or at least financial survival (although the practitioners resent and may try to ignore it), is a central and troublesome issue. This notion sometimes clashes with the image of the unfettered creative genius, motivated only by the pressure of great ideas, which both fields cherish for themselves.
Another aspect shared by the fashion and art industries is their tendency to compare and critique what has gone before. There is an ongoing dialogue between the current and the past.
Art, at least since the Renaissance,4 tends to abandon as inadequate what has gone before, as not effective, expressive, realistic, or abstract enough. In fashion, each year; each season, in fact, constitutes a critique of the aesthetics of the body; the human physique is distorted, adorned, and utilized to show off sewing and cutting techniques, in new ways each time the lights come up on a runway.
Fashion also qualifies as art based solely on its physical properties. In the simplest of terms, the clothing article itself is a form of soft sculpture that requires the human form for completion of the work.
There is a parallel in the plastic arts, where avant-garde sculpture can be constructed of clothing, such as Claes Oldenburg’s 1969 constructions that included stockings . The all-encompassing term under which fashion can be included, ‘garments’, can take form in a variety of media limited not only to textiles, but including garbage bags, neoprene, and flattened aluminum cans.
As further evidence of the permeable barrier between fashion and art, no less august an institution than the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City now possesses an entire costume department, as do a number of other major world-class museums. They mount exhibits of fashion items as thoroughly and lovingly curated as the most ancient artifacts or the most treasured examples of the fine arts, for example, featuring Schiaparelli and Prada . Other major museums globally now accord the same care to living fashion designers .
Fashion and art also occupy a space analogous in several ways to that space which Michel Foucault describes as a heterotopia. Although not directly parallel, there are interesting similarities. Fashion and art, indeed, seem to be “absolutely different from all the sites that they reflect and speak about”
For example, art is real, and reflects reality, even if it is aggressively conceptual and reflects only the materials of which it is made, even at the artist’s insistence, as was the wish and intent of, for example, Sol LeWitt . And yet the discourse around art inevitably refers to things that may never have been intended to imply.
Fashion, as well, deals with tangible items, but the purpose of the item, i.e., to clothe a body (create a garment), is often, if not almost always, subverted by the actual construction of the piece. It may not even be wearable as a garment outdoors, or without trained assistance, or by the vast majority of human bodies.
Both fashion and art, then, are to some degree at odds with themselves, creations that inspire ideas and discussion and have impacts beyond the gallery, the atelier, or the catwalk, although they do not actually do what they are explicitly created to do.
Thus, fashion can be considered an actual art form, but it has generally been denied this status given that it operates for the most part, in its creation, sale, and use, outside of art institutions, although parallel to it. This very exclusion, however, is what makes possible, in part, the opportunity for a revival of the Avant-garde in the world of fashion. This is because of the nature of the Avant-garde, a nature to be discussed in the next section
What is, or was, the Avant-garde?
In trying to nominate fashion as the avatar of the Avant-garde, it is necessary first to identify what distinguished the Avant-garde from any movements that came previously. It is also necessary to evaluate its aims. After all, it could be asserted that the Avant-garde deserves to fade from the world entirely.
The term ‘avant-garde’ literally means ‘advance guard’, or those who patrol and scout ahead of the rest. The phrase carries with it a notion of deliberately moving beyond the main body of the crowd into the unknown, the untried, and the potentially dangerous. The art to which it was first applied was meant to shock, to undermine, to carve a new, perhaps better, alternative path for both art and society.
In the years leading up to the First World War and beyond, especially, there appeared a strong element of political critique, and even an anti-war warning in the practice of all the arts.
The world was seemingly headed heedlessly for disaster, and the tools of statecraft, governance, class structure, education, military strategy, diplomacy and everything else that people had depended on for centuries, were failing to prevent it.
The message of the Avant-garde was that all the old conventions were therefore useless and deserved to be left behind. The aim was nothing less than the transformation of art, and, by the way, society . Although many participants seem to have been themselves members of an intellectual elite, the need for increasing the dignity of common folk and items (typeface, for example) was emphasized in Avant-garde works .
However, the participants in the Avant-garde were using a new means of transforming society, less bloody than that which was applied in the 18th century to overthrow, for example, monarchy in France, and subsequently in most of Europe. Thus, art in the hands of the Avant-garde was hoped to be able to push or pull people in a new, hopefully positive direction without violence, except to the traditional values the movement hoped to supersede.
The elitism that designated the Academy as the only validator of art’s 5 quality was a major target of the Avant-garde . A similar elitism that separated the fine artist from the craftsman or the amateur was another of these many targets of the Avant-garde.
The do-it-yourself performances, the ready-made artwork, and the use of such ‘craft’ items as printing typeface fonts and interior design elements, that cropped up in the Avant-garde, for example, could usher in a flattening of the hierarchical distance between the average citizen and the fine artist.
At the same time, the commoditization of art was also a target of the Avant-garde. This is a persistent problem of this movement. It happened with the movement of Cubism, which seemed so drastic at first, but which relatively soon thereafter became the fodder of hotel lobby art.
As soon as a piece of work, a style, an approach, or an individual artist, no matter how ‘out there’, becomes accepted, even a little bit, it is no longer ‘out there’.
If the public, that public whose taste is suspect, and generally described as common, begins to actually like and appreciate something, it loses its credibility as revolutionary. If other artists begin to adopt whatever has been cutting edge, there is a tendency for the new to be diluted and its abrasive impact blunted and dulled.
The absolute nadir of ignominy for an innovator of the Avant-garde is when a radical idea, image, or technique is adopted by what some would call low-brow practitioners, or used in popular, profitable venues. As evidence of the perennial nature of this discussion, no less a practitioner and promoter of the Avant-garde, and a founder of Surrealism, Salvador Dali, was castigated by that other prominent Avant-gardiste, Andre Breton, for his “commercialism” . To cite one contemporary example, Piet Mondrian might be appalled to find that his rigidly abstract, cerebral, anti-realist color blocks are now used freely (with his name, no less) in commercial doors and windows for suburban tract homes . This is far from a revolutionary usage, although it is, indeed, admirably democratic.
The Avant-garde’s place in today’s world
As can be seen from the above, the original impulses for the Avant-garde were to promote revolutionary transformation. Today, although there are plenty of people who are seeking transformation of their own society6, in the Western, developed world, there is a tendency for our tolerance of differing opinions and lifestyles to mute the effect of even the most radical creative gestures.
Has the impulse, the potency, and even the purpose, of the Avant-garde therefore disappeared? According to Gilles Lipovetsky, people in “modern democratic societies are always prepared for change; consistency has become old hat.” The “systems of dominant ideas” of the past no longer hold sway, having been “swallowed up by frivolity.”7 As Lipovetsky put it, people are, however, despite their urge to change the world, “no longer inclined to die in great numbers for their ideas…”8
The reasons for this mixture of apparent apathy, and willingness to embrace change may have arisen from 200 years, and more, of the laissez-faire approach of classical liberalism, the resulting separation of government and religion, or even the rise of feminism and other civil rights struggles.
As noted earlier with respect to art and fashion, the pattern of acceleration of change is occurring throughout society. Certainly, society today is primed for instant gratification and novelty; anything ‘so last month’ is as good as gone from the public mind. Change is as expected and desired now as sameness once was. In such an environment, how can a work of art generate any sort of impact if it obsolesces in a few days?
In spite of the Avant-garde’s having, in a sense, come up against a seemingly insoluble self-destructive paradox9, does the Avant-garde still have validity? There still exist today, nonetheless, the same sorts of yearnings that impelled the original Avant-garde.
As expressed by the very contemporary Michel Foucault, “What strikes me is the fact that in our society, art has become something which is related only to objects and not to individuals, or to life.
That art is something which is specialized or which is done by experts who are artists. But couldn’t everyone’s life become a work of art? Why should the lamp or the house be an art object, but not our life?” This is clearly a nearly identical dissatisfaction with art as an elite activity, in which everyone cannot or does not participate, as that expressed by the Avant-garde.
Fashion’s qualifications to be the proponent of the Avant-garde
Given that art has essentially burned itself out in the effort to abandon each innovation almost as soon as it becomes public, and has faced and accepted its inability to quickly change the world through shock and disgust, could fashion take up the charge? Fashion is uniquely fitted to express the Avant-garde because it always has been a carrier of message and content, it has no problems being sold in a large, free market, and it has been kinder to its antecedents.
Fashion re-creates itself each season. It attempts to, or purports to, capture what Karl Lagerfeld termed “the mood of the moment” . This essential feature of the fashion world is entirely consistent with the Avant-garde’s insistence on constantly presenting something new. Of course this is what generates a following among a novelty-hungry public with discretionary income to spend.
Furthermore, fashion has been attempting to follow the same path of liberation from dependence on a small elite group that art has taken over the last several centuries. Up until the moment when there developed a true market for art, artists were dependent on patrons, whether these came from the aristocracy or from the merchant princes.
Peter Burger, quoted by Schulte-Sasse, identifies a historic shift caused by this severing of art’s almost feudal relationship to patrons, to be supplanted by, “anonymous, structural dependence on the market and its principles of profit maximization.” Art became, in some respects, actually more elite.
By ignoring the commissioners who had determined who got visibility and who did not, the artists became their own arbiters. This created a sort of self-referential bubble that left out anyone who was not actually making art. This elevation of the artist is perceptible in the painting by Courbet titled Bonjour Monsieur Courbet (1854).
Only the artist is actually portrayed as a real person, obeying the laws of gravity with solidity and weight. The patron is more or less floating without impinging on the sunlight or the soil . Clement Greenberg actually suggested that, in an era of a diminishing “cultured elite”, artists deliberately pushed their own art well beyond the capacities of the public to appreciate it – specifically to make it inaccessible to that same public – at least the “uneducated” public.
The importance of the role of such critics (who may, with notable exceptions, neither make nor, perhaps, probably able to afford the art they critique) has not abated, at least not in their own minds. Consider the statement by Greenberg that, “without experience enough to tell good abstract art from bad, no one deserves to be heard on the subject”.
His audience, he maintains just a few lines earlier, was too “lazy-minded” to tell the difference between calendar art and a Rubens.10 A parallel example of this sort of unfortunate professional scorn for the great mass of the fashion public is found in the stylist who resigned over the use of normal-sized models.11
Additionally, fashion has been approaching ever closer to the role of political and social commentator. This role, embraced fully by the Avant-garde, has been popular for the subsequent decades of artists. Even in the relatively constrained environment of modern China, the capacity of art to comment politically is growing, as exemplified by the art of Xiuwen.12
Burger, as quoted by Schulte-Sasse, identifies this secular13 moment of readiness of the artist to make commentary, and of the audience to absorb and respond to this commentary as, “the individual and psychological preconditions for the construction of an ideal society.”
The third phase of the development of art is, according to Burger, as quoted in Schulte-Sasses, that it acknowledged and recognized its apparent inability to change the world. This is because the “critical content” of any work of art is “undermined” by the “mode of reception”. Burger suggests that this is due to art being separated from daily life, except for a privileged few.14
Fashion, happily, suffers less from this dilemma, since everyone wears something every day, something which either echoes, copies or contradicts the prevailing style. Additionally, everyone is always sending a message with their personal adornment, even in a nudist colony. The notion of fashion containing meaning –just as the art of the Avant-garde was intended to do – is an easy one for everyone, from anthropologists to school principals trying to prohibit gang colors, to job candidates attempting to dress for success, to affirm.
Additionally, fashion has never suffered the same degree of conflict over the entire capitalist system. In fact, it has benefitted immensely from the very liberal and democratic system that some proponents of the Avant-garde were hoping to eliminate .15
Fashion is already in a cycle of new forms replacing the old. It has less of the conflict over this process than art has had. This allows it to generate innovation with great efficiency.
Thus, fashion has the potential to carry the aims of the Avant-garde forward. Already, there has been a massive decentralization of the creative spark of fashion, via the internet. Young people generate ideas and share them widely without the slightest need for a ‘house’ of fashion or a show. There is an existing formal structure for the dissemination and diffusion of products and messages well in place and a ready audience for them as well.
Case Study – Viktor
Tourism in Japan Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Tourism
Tourism in Japan
Tourist attractions in Japan
Tsunami in Japan
How Tsunami affected Tourism demand in Japan
List of References
Tourism Tourism involves movement of people for leisure, business or recreational facilities within or outside their country but away from the areas they usually reside. Tourism is a recognized leisure activity in the whole world. It is important as it boosts the economy of a country (Alison 2005, p.9). Visitors pay for goods and services provided to them during their stay.
International tourism earns a country foreign income as tourists travel inside the country from other countries. Tourism creates job opportunities for people who work in tourist industries. For instance, there are people who work in service industries such as cruise ships and airlines in provision of transportation services.
Others work in hotels where they provide tourists with food and accommodation. Finally, people working in casinos, music venues and theatres provide entertainment and recreational facilities to tourists. The tourism sector is very important in the growth and development of a country (Elliot 1997, p. 20).
Tourism in Japan According to Berger (2010, p. 3), tourism plays a major role in the economy of Japan as a country and the society in general. Japan benefits from both domestic and international tourists.
For instance, schoolchildren like paying visits to Tokyo tower while those in high schools like visiting Hokkaido or Okinawa. Japan has modified flights that carry passengers within the country in order to be efficient and faster in covering short distances. In addition to domestic tourism, Japan attracts tourists from all over the world (Guichard-Anguis 2009, p.103).
Tourist attractions in Japan Many things attract tourists in Japan. The attractions range from cultural and historical treasures, beautiful mountains, forests, and the seacoast. Japans’ famous castles, shrines, temples and hot springs are tourist attraction centers. Visitors get comfortable accommodation in Japan.
The unique style of Japanese accommodation in addition to their hotels and mansions designed in the western style attract visitors. An example is Ryokan used to refer to Japan’s restaurants and Minshuku, which refers to bed and breakfast (Nishiyama 1996, p.52).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hunsman and Jackson (2003, p. 430), the transportation system in Japan is well developed with the Japanese bullet train (Shinkansen) joining the major cities. Air transport provides a means of travelling to and from the country. The means of transport within the country are planes, trains and buses.
Crossing from one island to another is through the use of water transport modes such as ferries. Rental cars and taxis are available for visitors to travel from one place to another. Finally, one of the greatest attractions in Japan is their cuisine. Japan has a variety of dishes. They also offer foodstuffs from all over the world. These and other factors attract tourists to Japan.
Tsunami Tsunami is a Japanese term that means “harbor wave”. A tsunami is caused by earthquakes occurring in water bodies, sub-marine rockslides, volcanic eruptions or even meteorites and asteroids falling into water bodies from the atmosphere. The main cause of a tsunami is underwater earthquake.
However, not all earthquakes are strong enough to cause a tsunami. In order to cause a tsunami, the earthquake should have a magnitude above 6.75. Most tsunamis take place in the Pacific Ocean. Tsunamis occur after displacement of large volumes of water. According to Bryant (2008, p.15), when earthquakes occur in water bodies, the floor of the sea moves up quickly.
Displaced water has to find its way out, which results in long waves that run across the sea in all directions. The water can flow over long distances causing floods in such areas. Tsunamis cause great damage to properties as well as loss of human life. It is advisable to run towards high ground levels or inland places whenever people see signs or suspect that a tsunami is about to occur (Pinedo 2004, p.27).
Tsunami in Japan A 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Japan on 11 March 2011. The tsunami covered a distance of about 23 feet from the coast of the country in the northern part of the country causing thousands of deaths and destruction of properties. Large waves destroyed buildings in large cities, washed away homes, vehicles and people while causing huge damages.
This was the largest earthquake in the history of Japan covering around 230 miles on the north side of Tokyo, Japan’s capital city. Other countries like Australia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan and other areas were given a warning by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre to be careful (Nanto 2011, p. 11).
We will write a custom Assessment on Tourism in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Johnson (2011, p.10) argues that statistics showed that the 2011 tsunami left 15,839 people dead, 5893 injured while 3,647 people went missing. Extensive and severe structural damages occurred as a result of the tsunami. Roads and railways were destroyed, dams collapsed and many places were burned. Naoto Kan, the current prime minister in Japan reported that the incident was the toughest and most challenging in the country after the Second World War, which took place sixty five years ago.
The areas on the north eastern side suffered from shortage of water and electricity after the tsunami. It is estimated that the effects of the earthquake alone resulted in a total loss of over $30 billion. According to the World Bank, the tsunami was the most expensive natural disaster ever in the world whose estimated economic cost was $235 billion.
How Tsunami affected Tourism demand in Japan The tsunami greatly affected the tourism industry in Japan and other countries in the world. The number of people travelling in and outside the country went down. The economy of Japan went down because its main source of income is from the tourism sector. The incidence affected tourism, trade and other financial activities in Japan.
Many people who were to travel from their own countries to Japan canceled their plans to visit the country. For instance, the U.S. government warned its citizens to avoid travelling to Japan unless it was unavoidable. The issue of cancelling and changing destinations reduced the number of tourists who would have traveled to the country. This in turn means that Japan is going to lose a lot of foreign exchange earnings and therefore the economy is pulled down (Prothero 2011, p.60).
According to Prothero (2011, p.62), the number of Japanese travelling outside their country also went down. This is because the effects of the tsunami were felt by the whole nation, an aspect that created a sense of responsibility towards their country. For practical and cultural reasons, most of them chose to remain within their country for some time.
This reduced tourism around the world temporarily. For instance, most of the tourists in the United States of America come from Japan. About 20% of the total number of tourists visiting Hawaii comes from Japan. Based on the fact that the tsunami greatly reduced the number of Japanese visiting Hawaii, it is estimated that Hawaii will lose in average two billion dollars in the year 2011. Hawaii Convention and Visitors Bureau (HVCB) argue that the number of Japanese visitors has increased at a high rate since 2010.
Being a developed country, Japan has many engineering and automobile industries. Many Indians travelled into the country for business purposes. Just before the incident, Japan had introduced multiple entry visas for those Indians who had visas from the United States of America.
These and other tourism promotions were mainly designed by Japan in order to gain from business activities with Indians who came in to buy goods in large quantities. Many Indians now feared visiting the country and business operations went down. New Zealand and other trading partners suffered from the tsunami (Hudman
Australian Organizations’ Adoption of Sustainability Reporting Essay essay help
In sustainability development, sustainable reporting is defined as the methodology of assessing, revealing and being responsible to external and internal stakeholders for the performance of the company. This performance is aimed in achieving the target of sustainable development. On that aspect, there are different requirements necessary for global sustainability.
These include the committed by individuals in their various businesses supported by other crucial players such as the government, communities and markets among others. Therefore, sustainability reporting when viewed from the perspective of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) lays emphasis on enterprise reporting as a way of enhancing sustainability.
On that account, this essay aims at tackling the key issues that pertains to various organizations that have adopted sustainability reporting in Australia in this 21st century (BosBrouwers 2010, p. 424). Alternatively, the paper evaluates the different reasons held by various writers in trying to demystify reasons for adopting sustainability reporting.
Furthermore, the discussion delves into the approaches taken by various organizations in Australia in planning and implementing sustainability reporting. On that line, the essay has selected tow not-for-profit organizations within Australia that have embraced this technique of sustainable development in enriching both its stakeholders and the community at large.
These two organizations include the Australian Council of Social Service (ACSS) and Australian Reward Investment Alliance (ARIA) which both play critical roles in conservation of environments and taking part in philanthropic activities within the community.
Additionally, the discussion also dwells on comparison and contrasts between the aforementioned companies in terms their respective approaches of sustainability reporting (ProcessMAP Corporation 2011, p.2).
This comparison and contrast stresses on the issues of collecting data and disseminating report information to their individual recipients. Furthermore, sustainability reporting can takes various steps such as Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the Natural Step or even the triple bottom line in ensuring effective reporting of its information.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In sustainability reporting, different writers have different versions of adopting sustainability reporting. For example, according to Barnett White, adoption of sustainability reporting will facilitate price performance of commodities meant to last long. Additionally, the author adds, such reporting assists in the better assessment that deals with organizations and their time.
Similarly, White stresses that the essence of sustainability reporting will work as an operational strategy for a majority of companies. Alternatively, Peter Newton maintains that adopting sustainability reporting deters the government through its public officers do not extend harm to various sectors of the society (Ryder System, Inc. 2012).
These include the social, economic and environmental sectors of a state, region or country it is mandated to rule even after vacating office. Furthermore, Newton says, it permits a holistic perspective of the realization of management issues and incorporation of sustainable development. On the other hand, according to Goodman and Michelson, adopting sustainability reporting assists an organization in establishing its repute and risk management.
Furthermore, the writers continue, reporting on sustainability assists a company in attaining, restoring and repairing its legitimacy. On that aspect, the reporting affects the public admiration of the organization in terms of its management techniques, decisions and its major stakeholders in business.
There are different approaches that organizations apply in planning and implementing sustainability reporting. For instance, certain companies take to reducing waste in order to save costs. Similarly, other organizations adopt a legal compliance approach whereby it guards against legal expenses and fines incase environmental destruction is prevented.
Another suitable approach is evaluation of general sustainability frameworks and identifying the quality approach that suits your company. On that account, it is imperative to deal only with the frameworks that work best for your organization. For example, an organization can either use triple bottom line, the Global Reporting Initiative or the Natural Step.
In addition, the organization can decide to assess both its opportunities and threats and refining its purpose for better sustainability. Therefore, it is critical to link sustainability to the entire strategy of planning and implementation to assist in setting up of priorities (Davidson
Culture in Human Behavior Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Definition of Culture and Human Behavior
Culture in Human Behavior and Daily Life
Introduction Culture plays an important role in everyone, in every society, and in every nation. A person’s behavior influences his place in society. Culture and behavior go together, as the latter is an element or a compound within the cultural concept. Any person belongs with a particular culture, thus, culture is universal.
Cultures are human-made concepts. They are abstract though they consist of material aspects. Their increasing complexities arise from the growing participation of the entities in meta-contingencies (Glenn, 2004).
It is possible that people can alter some elements of their culture, but unless there is a deep understanding of how cultures form and evolve, it would be difficult for one to know what can or should be changed in a culture. The act of changing a culture can only be minimal because of the complexities of the study complexity
Culture, serving as a categorical idea of people, is a school of thought that has anthropologists all over the word dedicated to studying its many intricacies.
What we do in our everyday lives are a result of the culture we grew up with and the environment we interact in. We usually are not fully aware of our actions and behaviors, thus they are humanly natural to us. Upon observation by different researchers and scholars, the culture people belong to is the reason behind people’s attitudes towards a certain event or happening.
Definition of Culture and Human Behavior Sociologists define culture as the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that, together, form a people’s way of life (Macionis, 2001/2002). It includes what we think, how we act, and what we own. Culture is considered a link to the past and a guide to the future, since it is the product of human influences throughout history and a field studied and forecasted upon by those studying humans.
Culture shapes what we do and forms our personalities. The world includes different and varied cultures. There are ethnic groups in the Brazilian rainforest who consider aggression as natural in human beings. The Semai people of Malaysia, however, live in peace and cooperation. People in the United States praise achievements, individuality, and hard work, people in Japan stress group-orientation, and tradition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human behavior pertains to the actions, ideas, feelings and sentiments that have a symbolic form. A symbol is a thing, an action, a sound, a color whose meaning is determined by those who use it (White, 1947). Humans give symbols meanings, thus creating their particular culture.
Human behavior is a central aspect of culture because of this. Behavior defines culture and culture, in turn defines behavior. There are different approaches to the study of culture. We categorized culture based on race, ethics, religion, or social groups. As people adapt to their changing environment, so does their culture.
Two factors are necessary for culture to emerge. These are the learning potentials and sociality of humans (Glenn, 2004). Glenn states that culture begins with the transmission of behavioral content, learned by one during his lifetime.
The idea that one’s behavior comes before the formulation of one’s culture is already confusing in itself. Take into account one is an aspect of the other and vice versa. Glenn calls this a “superorganismic phenomenon.” Culture is based on people’s behaviors, among other aspects. Human behavior is also loosely based on their cultures.
Hence, people then create their own culture. Subsequently, their culture creates them. People, however, cannot singularly create or change their culture because it is a group concept and requires all if not most members of a culture to adhere to it.
Culture in Human Behavior and Daily Life Peter Richerson and Robert Boyd’s dual-inheritance theory states that culture has become a major factor in human evolution for its relatively fast adaptation to changing environment by imitation (Irons, 2009). According to them, culture is learned through imitation of anyone from high-status individuals to the most common practices to the human primal instinct of surviving, creating our behaviors in the process.
The act of kissing, for example, differs throughout different cultures. For Western societies, kissing in public is acceptable. For the Chinese, kissing is only done in private. Showing affection in public for Americans can mean kissing the other person on the lips. The French kiss each other on both cheeks, while in New Zealand’s Maoris, they rub their noses together (Macionis, 2001/2002).
We will write a custom Essay on Culture in Human Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another example of behavior creating culture and vice versa is the culture of competition. Children in most societies learn to compete with other children at an early age. They compete in intelligence in school; they compete in physical appearance when they enter beauty pageants or when mothers praise them by belittling other children. Children go on to grow up with the behavior to compete and be better than the next person. The culture of competition grows and prevails as a result.
Society accepts this because our culture, our society, our media and our laws allow these behaviors to surface. Acceptance of behavior then creates a culture that tests time. Only when people accept the opposite of the established that culture may shift.
Transmission of culture is also a key to understanding human behavior (Smith, Kalish, Griffiths,
Bidding Document: Madrid’s bid to Host the 2020 Summer Olympics Games Report college admissions essay help
Introduction Research demonstrate that major international events, or simply mega-events, are commonly associated with the accrual of economic opportunities, infrastructural development, tourism development, and identity and image building for host countries or cities (Andranovick et al, 2001).
Indeed, there is growing recognition these events have incredible reach and global marketing potential (Swart
Equal Rights for Women Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help
Women equality is something that has not been fully recognized around the world, and it might never be achieved, especially in terms of household responsibilities. It is a good idea to push for women equality especially in regards to human rights such as the right to own property, right to life and right to be treated with human dignity, along with equal opportunities (Lindsey 267).
However, household responsibilities are traditionally and socially defined which have become norms and beliefs in the society; therefore, changing these responsibilities means upsetting the whole society. This paper analyzes why women should not work but stay at home to fulfill their responsibilities.
Women were given the responsibility to give birth to children and nurture them to adulthood; however, both the father and the mother should carry out the responsibility of nurturing. It is obvious that women have more responsibilities when compared to men. During the early stages of child development, a child is more dependent on his/her mother than on the father in terms of feeding, cleaning and general wellbeing of the child (Piper 185).
Women who have jobs are always away from home, therefore, they are not able to fulfill this responsibility, and children who miss the motherly care especially those who are not well breast-fed, stand high chances of suffering from poor health. In addition, as the children grow up, they need someone who will be there for them emotionally to always guide them; and if all parents leave for work every day children are likely to stray with some drug addicts and gangsters.
This responsibility can be taken over by the father in the absence of the mother, but fathers do not do it well, therefore, the mother should remain at home to take care of children as the father works; no one would love to have spoilt children and millions in the banks.
Another responsibility is that of cleaning, and doing lots of things about the house. Women and girls have always been homemakers (Piper 203); the way they arrange and clean cannot be compared to that of men. This means that women should remain at home to make and keep it clean; they cannot work and at the same time maintain their home; they either will neglect this responsibility or give poor performance at work.
When marries the wife has a responsibility of taking care of her husband; she has to make sure that he wears clean clothes and eats well (Piper 278). Women do not have enough time to do this because of the work responsibilities, and according to research, 70% of women who have well established careers are either divorcees or they never got married (Yozo 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It happens because they are not capable of fulfilling their responsibility in regards to their husbands and work at the same time. Therefore, to save marriage breakups, and help women enjoy their marriage life, women should remain at home to fulfill their responsibilities in regards to their husbands as their husband works hard to take care of them.
Working is a good thing for women, but looking at the wellbeing of homes and the society, it is healthier for them to remain at home to take care of children, keep the home clean and warm, and fulfill their responsibilities to their husbands. As women remain at home, the society should appreciate the role and responsibility of women to make them proud of their contribution to the society.
Works Cited Lindsey, Timothy. Indonesia, Law and Society. Jakarta: Federation Press, 2008. Print.
Piper, John and Grudem Wayne. Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 1991. Print.
Yozo, Yokota. A Nation’s Accountability and Responsibility: The Case of Comfort Women in Japan. Human Rights Dialogue, 8.2 (2007), pp. 14-16. Print.
How Maglev Trains Work Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Working Principle of Maglev Trains
Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS)
Levitation of the train
Propulsion of the Train
Stopping a Maglev Train
Introduction The desire to develop an efficient means of mass transit and the congestion in airports are pointed the main reason behind the birth of Maglev trains. Maglev (magnetic levitation) has been described as the brightest form of mass transit.
Despite the fact that this new form of mass transit commenced operations between Birmingham airport and the main railway in 1984, research on Maglev trains began as early as 1934 by Herman Kemper of Germany in 1934. This new development in mass transport generated interest in a number of countries such as Japan, the United States and china.
The levitation and propulsion of Maglev trains are based on the principles of electromagnetism. The advantage of the car over all forms of transport is that it has no contact with the rail, thus moves without friction. This enables Maglev trains to attain very high speeds of almost 500 kilometres per hour.
Furthermore, the cars have no engines or any moving parts, despite the fact that they need a lot of electricity to create the desired powerful electromagnets on the tracks. According to Hillebrand (2008), “the basic principle applied in maglev trains is that of the magnetic poles, where like poles repel while unlike poles attract.”
Working Principle of Maglev Trains These trains are called Maglev trains because of the fundamental concepts under which they work. These cars are fitted with huge magnets that move above their tracks, reducing the impact of friction and enabling the cars to attain much higher speeds than conventional trains.
The trains’ powerful attached magnets are used to create a high density of magnetic field at the bottom. The tracks have electromagnetic magnetic field that repels this magnetic density on the bottom, thereby propelling the car forward. The magnets are U-shaped and fitted with individual coils to which an alternating current is applied in order to create repulsion between magnets.
The gap between the train and the trucks is about 2 and 3 cm for Indatruck models, or 1 cm for Transrapid International model. Meissner effect is used to create bearings without the train coming into contact with the trucks. Thus, the train can climb steep hills or even ice-covered trucks without losing speed considerably.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hillebrand (2008) argues that these trains tend to quite pricey compared to conventional trains. Other developments introduced another set of coils in which alternating current passes to create electromagnets. Two sets of coils achieved the function of checking the lateral movement, while the other levitated the car. This is done by placing guidance magnets on the left side so that the train moves forward and does not hit the sides.
Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) This is one of the most efficient forms of Maglev cars. In this type of Maglev technology, the train levitates above the steel rail while electromagnets that are strategically attached t the train are placed below.
According to Hillebrand (2008), “the system is typically arranged on a series of C-shaped arms, with the upper portion of the arm attached to the vehicle, and the lower inside edge containing the magnets and the rail is situated between the upper and lower edges.
To create large magnetic fields, superconductors are used to produce stronger magnetic fields. Research in this filed has indicated that stronger magnetic fields are produced by rare earth magnets, other than iron and ferrite. Neodymium-iron-boron is used to create the desired high magnetic field.
Levitation of the train The suspension or levitation of EDS is as a result of the magnetic fields that bombard the car as it passes through the superconducting magnets.
According to Oxlade (2006), “the electromagnets underneath are attracted to the track, made of a ferromagnetic substance (i.e., a regular magnet made of something similar to iron), and just enough energy is put into the electromagnets to keep the vehicle hovering around the track.” Once the car is levitated from the track, a complex system of feedback is used to maintain the train at an appropriate distance from the track. The figure below illustrates how levitation is achieved in EDS
Oxlade (2006, p. 17).
We will write a custom Report on How Maglev Trains Work specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Propulsion of the Train The propulsion if the train takes place after it is levitated by the repulsion of magnetic forces. The truck has several coils which use alternating current to change polarity at a high frequency. The change of polarity by the coils makes them propel forward.
Vertical magnetic forces that provide levitation make the car to balance in suspension and is stabilized by the horizontal magnetic forces so that the car is centred and does not drift to any side. Gibilisco (2006) points out that “the frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train and the offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward.”
Higher levitation speeds were achieved in the Japanese models by positioning upper and lower coils, such that they created field currents of figure of eight. This arrangement is called Halbach array whose main purpose is concentration of magnetic field above the car. While the lower coils produced repulsive forces for levitating the train, the lower coils provided the “push-pull effect” together with linear motors in the tracks which propel the car forward at higher.
Stopping a Maglev Train The pulling up of the train along the railway track involves a linear synchronous motor (LSM), which makes use of electromagnetic currents in the car to head. This enables the car to be continually and continuously drawn further along its track. The process of stopping a Maglev car involves reducing the frequency of the electromagnetic fields pulling the vehicle. This is because these cars are propelled by the power of the magnetic fields that are directly proportional to the frequency of the of the electromagnetic fields pulling the vehicle.
Inductrack models The train has other features that make it to be safe, given that some can reach high speeds of 581 km/h. Electric power is used to accelerate the train until full levitation is reached. The reason to use the superconductors, besides the high magnetic field potential, is that they can retain this field for some time even after power failure.
Power can fail, and modern maglev trains have auxiliary wheels that help them decelerate until they stop. Computers are used to monitor levitation distance to ensure the speeds and movements are safe so that in case of any anomaly, the train is automatically halted and corrective actions are taken. Some models have batteries for electricity back up in case power supply is interrupted.
Conclusion There is very small between the models of producing motion in the maglev trains, although depending on the arrangement of electromagnetic coils and force that is used to provide first acceleration, top speeds attainable can vary. For example, maglev trains that are based on Electrodynamics Suspension (EDS) use rubber wheels for the first 100 km/h after which coils are activated and move by levitation propulsion after which they can reach top speeds of 522 km/h.
References Gibilisco, S. 2006. Alternative energy demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Maglev Trains Work by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hillebrand, J. 2008. The Magnetic Levitation Train: A Technology Ahead of Its Time? Hamburg: GRIN Verlag.
Oxlade, C. 2006. Trains. New York: Black Rabbit Books.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Facebook in Modern Society Report essay help online
Introduction Facebook is one of the most important current forms of Information Technology. Facebook is a social network that was invented in 2004 by a Harvard student called Mark Zuckerberg. The membership expanded to other colleges such as Boston, Ivy League, Stanford University, and many others before extending to the rest of people across the world.
Before using the site, it is mandatory for the users to register by creating their personal profiles and adding other users as friends. Through the network, members are able to exchange messages and update themselves on the current issues that occur around the world. Furthermore, this site enables the users to form groups of similar interests.
According to Mary et al. (2010), it is estimated that by July 2011, approximately 800 million people had been using Facebook. This technology has also raised many concerns ranging from social, cultural, ethical, and legal issues pertaining to its use. Therefore, it is important to analyze how Facebook has affected the lives of people in terms of social, cultural, ethical issues being neglected and the legal implications that this kind of media has brought.
Factors motivating use of Facebook According to Ashwini (2011), Facebook as a social network site has gained enormous amount of popularity as people use the avenue to link and connect with one another (243).
He argues that the use of Facebook is motivated by two factors namely the need to belong to a certain group and the need of self-presentation. The need to belong is motivated by cultural and demographic factors such as people, especially the youth who want to be recognized and belong somewhere. On the other hand, the need for self-presentation is contributed by factors such as shyness, self-esteem and self worth.
Social impacts Invention of Facebook has impact on the social lives and activities of many people around the globe. The availability and accessibility of Facebook on the mobile phones have aggravated the effect as almost every person can access the internet and be able to chat and interact with his/her friends on the site.
This has allowed people to continuously keep in touch with their acquaintances and relatives in different locations, bridging the social gap of interaction. For instance, many people send messages and share their stories and new events on Facebook, hence, promoting close interactions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The site has also acted as a unifying factor for people with common interests/or beliefs. This has been achieved through the possibility of making or forming up groups on Facebook and networking among the group. Furthermore, the site has also assisted to a greater extent in re-uniting family members, friends and relatives.
A good example of how Facebook has helped in re-uniting people was the case of Watson John with his daughter who was lost for 20 years (Gardner, 2010, p. 4). Upon updating his profile, John Watson was able to link with his daughter making the two reconnect. This, therefore, shows how Facebook has helped to promote unity and friendship among people across the globe.
Criticism use of Facebook Even though Facebook has positive impacts, it has also been accused of being the center of problems that continue to befall to people, as it is the center of relationships’ breakup and other antisocial behaviors. Facebook as a tool of connection has resulted in antisocial behaviors as people are not able to communicate directly with each other.
This makes people stay on their computers most of the time making them unable to engage in direct conversation. This contributes to antisocial behaviors (Stahl, 2011, p. 254). Furthermore, Facebook has also contributed to break up of many relationships especially through falsehoods and rumors, hence, increasing the rate of infidelities and divorce among families.
Crime has also been perpetrated through Facebook as people dupe others on different issues such as employment opportunities and asking money for the same. Those people who have not been cautious have lost huge sums of money for jobs and business deals that do not exist.
Facebook as a tool of hiring According to Mary et al. 2010), Facebook is the fastest growing international social network and many employees are using this network to hire their employees (14).
For instance, approximate 22% of employees look or check the Facebook profiles of their prospective employees to see whether they drink too much, use drugs, trash former employees, or tell the trade secrets on their profiles (Mary et al., 2010). This, therefore, raises the question of ethics. It is actually ethical for employees to check the profiles of the prospective candidates for them to determine if they can bank or trust them in their own companies.
We will write a custom Report on Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Facebook in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Mary et al. (2010), employees should not use Facebook during their hiring process because this is invasion of privacy; current laws do not allow this, and the information posted on the personal profiles of potential candidates may not be accurate (13). Furthermore, using Facebook for hiring may discriminate, lead to wrongful firing cases of good employees, and in the long-run lead to financial loses and damage of the company reputation.
For instance, the privacy act of 1988 stipulates the manner and the way personal information is collected. The principle states that no personal information should be collected by a collector for the purpose of including it in a record or in any generally available publication except for circumstances where such information serves lawful purposes that relates to the activity or function of the collector.
Therefore, in this sense, information available on Facebook is not directly or necessary related to the purpose of recruiting an employee (Mary, Charlie, and Jitendra, and Bharat, 2010, p.15). In this case an employee has the reservation to argue that such information his/her personal activity and profile hence does not relate or is outside the work environment.
Another law requires that when information of an individual is collected on Facebook, the individual ought to be aware of the purpose that information is being collected for (Mary, Charlie, Jitendra, and Bharat, 2010, p. 14).
Therefore, intruding somebody’s information and using the same for your own purposes surmount to violations of law which is taken as breach of the law. Therefore, employers who retrieved information through Facebook for hiring process ought to seek permission from the owner of the information otherwise they would be contravening the laws on privacy.
Ethical issues on Facebook Another ethical issues arising from the use of Facebook is the impersonation of other people in order to gain access to other members or group profile information.
For instance, the information on Facebook is not supposed to be used for commercial purposes; but in order to access such information many people or even employees conceal their identity and pretend to be members of such groups just to gain an opportunity to view the information of other people (Gil-Or, 2010, p. 20).
Information technology has created this ethical issue. Furthermore, the age limit for a person to access and register on Facebook is 13 years. Currently many parents who are supposed to ensure that their children under the age are not able to register on the Facebook flout this requirement.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Facebook in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead, many children gain accessibility and open their accounts without abiding by the legal requirements. It becomes an ethical issue when the guardians or parents who are supposed to control and guide their children assist them to open accounts on the internet. Such actions contravene the law and it is unethical practice.
Cultural impacts Facebook has also cut across the cultural forms of communication. It is easy to operate and open; many people have joined it and made friends across the globe. The invention of Facebook in 2004 marked a big turning point in the world of information technology and multimedia.
The old forms of communication were broken; the age factor is outdated. Both old and the young people over 13 years are able to interact and share the information with each other. For instance, at the age of 102, Bean Ivy from Bradford joined Facebook in 2008 making her the oldest person on Facebook. This actually was a peculiar thing, which showed that Facebook is a modern form of communication which is able to accommodate every person.
Effects of use of Facebook Facebook has also violated work ethics. Most employees spend a lot of their time chatting and sending messages to their friends instead of doing their work. This has caused many of them failing to meet their targets and execute their duties as required. This is an unethical issue which has seen many employers ban employees from accessing/using it during their working hours.
This technology has also heightened the level at which youth especially students influence their fellow students. Most of the students in college have fallen culprits and turned into alcoholism as a result of peer group influence through Facebook (Ridout, Campbell, and Ellis, 2012, p.20).
Furthermore, many countries across the world, such as China, Pakistan, and Syria have banned or restricted the use of or access to Facebook because of its impacts on people’s social life (Elefant, 2011, p. 42). Facebook also has a risk of transmitting information and content that may trigger conflicts. Some of the countries banned it because it allowed contents perceived to be anti-Islamic, that contained information discriminating against other religions.
Political impacts In the recent past and even current, Facebook as one form of social media has gained much approval and use in the political sphere (Wicke, 2011, p. 1132). Many politicians and even civil groups use Facebook in spreading their ideologies and policies to their followers. For instance, during 2008 presidential elections in the USA, president Obama used Facebook as one of his avenues to communicate and sale his policies to the audience. It actually assisted him to some level in taking over the leadership of USA as the president.
Not withstanding, the revolutions that marred most of the North African countries such as Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt were made by Facebook. Activists in Egypt used Facebook to update their supporters to continue with their demonstration at the Tahrir square in Cairo, which saw them emerge the victor when the president Hussein Mubarak was ousted from the government (Richard, Emily, Anna, and Jessica, 2009, p. 102).
Facebook as a social media is prone to be abused because of the freedom it gives the person using it. This brings about the question of ethics.
For instance, a person may decide to conceal his/her identity and use vulgar languages, post pornographic material and even insult other people in network or in a group and go court free (Amanda, Emmanuel, Tara, and Alice, 2010, p. 406). The language and the tone of the users of Facebook should be moderate and acceptable.
The network is not able to hold such people liable owing to the larger coverage of the users. Therefore, this is an issue that needs to be looked at in order to ensure that this social media is not used to destroy and spread abusive speech across the globe. Abusive events and comments are not supposed to be tagged on somebody’s profile as they contravene ethics (Andrew, Nicole, Cliff Lampe, and Yvette, 2011, p. 2322)
Conclusion In conclusion, there is no doubt that indeed Facebook as a social media has gone far in creating networks that have turned out to be effective and of greater help to people across the globe. The media has helped people keep in touch and reduce the costs of travelling. It has also provided a spectrum where people have been able to connect with new friends and able to socialize with people from different cultural background hence promoting diversity.
Furthermore, the internet has seen many people get jobs or loved ones reconnect after a very long period of staying apart. Notwithstanding, this social media has a number of flaws, which need to be looked into in order to make it even more better and useful channel of connecting people across the world.
Some of the challenges it faces is consuming a lot of people time thus making them less productive in their work and hindering people to interact directly. The media can also be used in a wrong manner whereby groups of people can use it to create rifts among people among other issues. Facebook as a current form of Information Technology and multimedia has proved its value and might be regarded as one of the greatest achievements in the 21st century.
List of References Amanda, N., Emmanuel, Y., Tara, G., and Alice, C., 2010. All about me: Disclosure in online social networking profiles: The case of Facebook. Computers inhuman Behavior, 26(3), pp. 406-418
Andrew, D., Nicole B., Cliff Lampe, D., and Yvette W., 2011. Facebook as a toolkit: A uses and gratification approach to /unbundling future use, Computers in human behaviour, 27(6), pp 2322-2329
Ashwini Nadkarni, Stefan G. Hoffmann, 2011. Why do people use Facebook?, personality and individual differences, 52(3), pp. 243-249.
Elefant, C., 2011. The “power” of social media: legal issues
Theorist of Choice Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
In an effort to explain sociology based on how relevant it is in daily life, many sociologists today find the term sociological imagination coined by C. Wright Mills inevitable in their discussions. Through his work under a similar name, Wright Mills stands out as the most appealing sociological theorist to me.
Therefore, as pointed out by Mills, sociological imagination gives me a deep insight of the nature of sociology. It goes further to shed light on how it directly connects with the lives of individuals in the contemporary society. However, one might want to know what sociological imagination entails.
Sociological imagination through Mills’ own words is the capacity to shift from one perspective to another. In other words, it is “the capacity to range from the most impersonal and remote transformations to the intimate features of the human self, and to see the relations between the two of them” (Mills, 1959, p. 3).
The ability to connect between the two, according to Mills, is the driving force behind sociological imagination. The key to this theory is the reality of the existence of public issues, as well as private troubles. Public issues originate from the society. They go down to individuals who take them as being a result of their personal failures rather than seeing them for what they ought to be.
On the other hand, private troubles arise because of a personal character. For instance, in a society where jobs are hard to get, circumstances may force a person to accept that he is not working simply because he is lazy. This, however, may turn out to be a public issue when many people cannot find anywhere to work, hence forced to stay idle.
Wright Mills, through sociological imagination theory, gives an emphasis that sociology mostly focuses on the manner in which social institutions and forces shape the individual behaviors of people in the society. It shows how the affected people respond to the influence. By being able to see the bigger picture, and derive connections between public issues and private troubles, a person is more enlightened and aware of the happenings in his society.
According to Brewer (2005, p.134), people will always be interested if their personal problems can be addressed merely by solving other external factors. It is pertinent to note that, when addressing issues in the society, it is indispensable to do so with the inspiration from Mills’ sociological imagination to see the issue in totality. By so doing, one stands a better chance to address it comprehensively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is only through the ability to see the larger picture, as put forth by Mills, that people can derive sociological solutions and explanations. Other theorists under the inspiration of Mills came up with explanations on how some things happen in the society (Vissing, 2011, Para.3).
For instance, Mills’ work formed a basis for theorists such as Emile Durkheim who came up with a theory to explain suicide in societies. The sociological imagination theory has, therefore, proven concrete since other scholars in the discipline view it as the only elaborate theory that brings forth reliable sociological explanations.
In conclusion, a sociological theory should aim at giving details on sociological problems. By providing an avenue for one to relate issues in his/her private lives with the happenings in the society, Mills’ theory ensures that the real causes of problems in the society are analyzed. It provides accurate solutions to avoid future occurrence of such problems.
Reference List Brewer, J. (2005). “The Public and the Private in C. Wright Mills Life and Work”. Sociology, 39(4), 661-677.
Mills, W. (1959). The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vissing, Y. (2011). Introduction to Sociology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Web.
Kudler Fine Foods Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Businesses in the hospitality industry are some of the most sensitive to operate. Kudler Fine Foods is one such business which engages in business in a highly volatile area. Selling of food is indeed volatile because one has to be very specific to the tastes and preferences of the clients.
Taking into consideration that most foods are perishable, a food vendor has to run an extra mile to ensure that the products are always fresh so as not to tamper with the natural taste of the food. To effectively run a food store such as Kudler Fine Foods, it is imperative that alliances are created with the internal and external stakeholders to ensure that the interest of serving the best products is upheld. Two among the many strategies which can be used are organizational communication and work motivation.
Organizational communication is very significant in the hospitality industry. The management should ensure that organizational communication is effective and carried out among all the members of Kudler Fine Foods. Organizational communication is especially significant because it is the best way to garner information about the employees and customers.
With effective organizational communication in place, it is possible to solve most of the conflicts, both internal and external, before they blow up. Listening and solving internal worries among employees is very important as it is a show of appreciation. This show of concern for one another creates unity in an organization and thus fostering alliance within the organization.
Effective organizational communication makes it possible for the frontline employees to present the minor and even major complains and concerns from the customers. The frontline employees mostly interact with the customers on a daily basis and thus such employees are best suited to make recommendations on what the customers need and prefer.
The best way to create an alliance with the customers is ensure that their needs and preferences are taken care of. Organizational communication makes it possible for information to flow through the supply chain of an organization.
Effective organizational communication will ensure that information is easily and quickly channeled to the relevant authorities for timely consideration. Communication will therefore move information across the board for consideration and this will ensure that all parties are heard and therefore happy hence fostering of strong alliances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Work motivation is very significant as it rejuvenates the employees. Motivated employees work independently and always have the interest of the organization they are working for in their hearts. Work motivation can be carried out in various ways but whichever method is chosen, the method has to make the employees feel appreciated and valued.
Work motivation is a way of the management appreciating the employees for what they are doing and naturally the employees will reciprocate by offering their best services and offering information that they are convinced will help the organization to move ahead. Kudler Fine Foods being a business in the hospitality industry will hugely benefit by ensuring that work motivation for its employees is in place.
In this case, the motivated employees will serve the clients warmly and open heartedly. A warm service offered to the customers will foster friendship between the store and its customers. Work motivation will also foster friendship between the management and the employees. Work motivation will therefore foster alliance across the board.
Social theories in Movie Gran Torino Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Youths of today encounter enormous challenges on their way to adulthood. In order to assist youths, education should discuss the social challenges that youths face. Youth should learn to incorporate social spaces within their environment. Education must address issues that will assist youths to reflect and involve their social involvements, environment, and relate them to learning contents in order to see the relevancy in education.
The movie, Gran Torino reflects a city in the middle of reducing auto-industrial activities. Youths have come to the city suburbs, leaving their aging parents behind. Asia and Latin America immigrants have come to occupy the vacant neighbourhoods. They purchase vacant homes.
In the process, the new settlers face those who remained behind. Neighbourhoods have divisions leading to struggle for power and control among the Black gangs, Hmong and Mexicans. Old immigrants of various origins have established commercial entities such barbershops, constructions firms, among others.
Immigrants, Whites, Blacks and other races protect their territories using several ways, including gangs, gated estates and taxation barriers. There are inter and intra ethnic forces as ways of defining, excluding and subjugating territories. The movie reflects violence between Hmong and Mexican youths. This tension exists in the Hmong community and gang feuds on families as the movie highlights the relations between the local authorities and immigrant communities (Eliot, 2001).
Local police have involved community in an attempt to control the gangs. They detain unregistered immigrants. This has created a major rift between unregistered youths and the local police. Walt Kowalski acts according to the law, and then cheats the gangs into killing him where the gang faces the justice system. Therefore, this study shows the relations between social theories of youth crime and sharing responsibility of police and community as a tool of influencing gang activities.
Youth crime Social strain theory of Robert Merton looks at crime problem in terms of anomie. Emile Durkheim studied society through its components so as to find out how the structures of a society relate to each other i.e. how the structures of the society work. A stable society operates smoothly, and social arrangements are functional.
There is cooperation, cohesion and consensus. Conversely, a society whose social structures threaten its social order has dysfunctional arrangements. This is what happens in the Gran Torino where a class-oriented society has conflicts. Merton looks at social structures in a society that gives out same goals to all its members but with no equal means to achieve these goals. Society experiences what culture advocates for and what structures allow.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Culture encourages success while structures prevent it. These result into a breakdown of norms because they no longer guide behaviour effectively. The term anomie describes a breakdown of normative systems of a society.
Merton argues that when a system of cultural values encourages certain common values of success in a given population while its social structures restricts or eliminates access to approved means of getting these values of success, then antisocial behaviour ensues on a considerable scale. Therefore, the social structure is the root of the crime. Sociologists sometimes call it structural explanation, while contemporary criminologists refer to it as strain theory (Adler and Laufer 2008).
Strain theory argues that people are law abiding but when under pressure will resort to crime. The disparity between goals and means creates that pressure. People strive for goals and aspirations that they believe in so as to achieve the desired end. A stable society must integrate goals and means for individuals to reach the goals that are important for them. Disparity creates frustration that leads to strain.
The theory looks at the criminogenic, or crime-producing nature of the interaction between socialisation processes and social structure. If a society tells people that hard work will pay off in terms of material success, but finds no means of achieving success, then frustrated people will turn to crime as an alternative of achieving their goals (Sarnecki, 2001).
Black gangs, Hmong, and Mexicans have no means of achieving material success. At the same time, there is ethnic tension among the multiracial living in Hmong community. There is also wide disparity of income among the joblessness gangs and established earlier immigrants. This has created tension and conflicts to struggle for power, and control of the community along racial lines.
Societies always experience periods of prosperity. This prosperity results into chaotic social order within a society. This normally occurs where ideals of a society do not work alongside its prosperity. For instance, the Black gangs could have originated in the movie, Gran Torino due to social exclusion and treatment as second-class citizens. Neither the law nor socioeconomic system provided gangs with equal opportunities.
Therefore, the Black gang originated out of the need to protect their territories and themselves. Social scientists attack the criminal justice system for violation of the concepts and principles of due process, under which a person cannot be denied of life, freedom or property without lawful procedures.
We will write a custom Essay on Social theories in Movie Gran Torino specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Likewise, people should have equal protection, under which no one can be denied the safeguards of the law. Under such social climate, labelling theorists began to explore how and why certain acts were criminal or deviant behaviour while others were not. Further, they also seek to know why and how society defined certain individuals as criminals or deviants.
According to labelling theorists, criminal is not inherent in people doing wrong acts. It is the criminal justice system and the community who confer criminal status upon people. For instance, Gran Torino, the local police detain youths who do not undergo registration and documentation processes.
This is equal to labelling these youths as criminals or deviants. Consequently, this has created a major division and conflict between unregistered youths and the local police. These theorists argue that tendencies of criminals themselves are not particularly significant. However, social reactions to them are significant. Deviancy and their controls focus on social definition under which reactions of others to an individual’s behaviour are the influencing factors on subsequent behaviour, and on individuals’ view of themselves (Burke, 2009).
A sociologist, Howard Becker notes that we should not look at deviance as the qualities of the crimes individuals commit. It is the results of the application by society’s rules and sanctions to an offender. Deviant persons become people whom a label has worked successfully on to change their view of themselves. Therefore, deviancy behaviour becomes behaviour that people label on others.
In Hmong community, social interactions create deviance among the gangs of youths. Labelling theory states that people’s reactions and the following effects of such reactions create deviance. The Hmong community and the local police know the unregistered youths and consider them as deviant.
The local police work with the community in order to detain them. This is because the community and police label them deviants, gangs, jobless or thieves. The act of detention separates them from the mainstream social life. The process of detention makes these youths outsiders, and they begin to associate with other outsiders like themselves.
As majority continue to refer to these people as deviants and respond to them in that manner, deviants will react to the responses by continuing to involve in criminal behaviour society expect from them. This also makes deviants’ self-images to change. In this regard, it is the label that a society attaches to an individual that perpetuates criminal behaviour. Any reference to an individual as a criminal leads to criminal consequences as a result of their actions (Muncie, 2004). This is what happens in Gran Torino.
Since 1960s, there has been a growing concept of community and police relation programmes. The idea took social control theory through image management to implement community policing programmes. The concept involves improving the relationship between the police and community whereby police visit community centres such as schools, markets and local gatherings, and engage in dialogue with the community (Dominique and Ihekwoaba, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social theories in Movie Gran Torino by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The proponents of community policing argue that the relation will destroy the existing social distance that the professional police crime policing had created between themselves and the ordinary citizens. The professional approach to fighting crime viewed the relations has a form of surrendering some powers and professional status to the community.
This is because professional police viewed assistance, support and guidance from the public as losing powers. This approach achieved low results. It served merely to increase the purpose of public relations with the aim of selling the police rather than change its operations.
The team policing focused on decentralising the police so that they could work as coordinated and self-sufficient neighbourhood units. This idea aimed at improving the community-police relations by assigning police officers to a given neighbourhood for a given period of time. This idea collapsed due to lack of planning and commitment (Waller, 2006).
In 1980s, there was the concept of community policing, and now it dominates almost every policing structure in the world. The Broken Windows theory of Wilson and Kelling looks at community policing through image management. The two argue that image management is not only an essential part of crime prevention, but is also necessary for the communities.
If a community presents an image that is in a state of disrepair, disorder, and is crime-infested, then soon it will be a crime zone. This is the scenario at the setting of Gran Torino, Gran Torino occurs in a city experiencing collapsing of auto-industry. Therefore, the image of the area is deteriorating, joblessness is setting in, and gangs are rising to protect themselves and earn a living through violence.
Walt uses the concept of community policing to mentor youths and remove the labelling of gangs. He guides a youth (Tao) with tools, and job search into a construction, thus eliminates joblessness, disentangles and assimilate Tao to mainstream society. Walt maintains community image through attending to unattended behaviour of youths.
The community and the police should steadily work together to address crime signals, such as untended property and untended behaviour that give a message that there are elements of disorder in the neighbourhood. Wilson and Kelling further argue that this method may not be that effective, but reduces the fear of crime among the community. Foot patrols by the police also improve their image, and the patrols indeed resulted into safer neighbourhoods.
The chief differences between modern, professional policing and community policing are that the philosophy of community policing encourages the scrutiny of the police by the public, promotes accountability of the police to the public, gives customized police service, and share responsibility of solving crime with the public.
Conclusion The three theories of labelling, strain and social control explain the youth violence in Hmong community. Each theory attempts to explain causes and formation of such gangs. Factors such as poverty, race, power, control, association and community image contribute to gang violence in society.
Community should mentor or attend to a deviant behaviour just like Walt does. This approach helps the community and police to fight crime by engaging youths in productive activities. Youths cannot adequately cope with the pressure of the modern world. Therefore, they need assistances through the provision of life enhancing skills of self-reliance. Walt creates an opportunity to incorporate gangs into a society thereby breaking the cycle gang subculture. He also lures his killers into the justice system.
Scholars in the field of community policing believe that involving the community in policing ensure that the police effectively meet the needs of the community. The police departments have already admitted that they cannot solve the crimes on their own and need the help of the community.
This occurs if the community engages in the fighting crime. The concept makes citizens realise that the police are in the community in order to assist them, and withholding information or non-cooperation is self-defeating and illogical. The postmodern policing focuses on the image of crime rather than crime itself.
Bibliography Adler, M. and Laufer, G., 2008. Sociology: Criminology. Ontario: McGraw-Hill.
Burke, R. H., 2009. An Introduction to Criminological Theory. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.
Dominique, W. and Ihekwoaba, D. O., 2009. Community Policing:International Patterns and Comparative Perspectives-Advances in Police Theor y and Practice Series. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor
The Core Features of Globalization and Their Impact on State Sovereignty Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Globalization encompasses one of the modest endeavors of multinational organizations of 1990s that proactively needed to increase their profitability. With the prominent fruits of going globally: an endeavor that finds subtle breeding grounds in the world bank policies, several arguments have been advanced by scholars in virtually every social discipline among them literature, economics, sociology and political science among others; all putting their cases against or in favor of globalization.
Mann (1997) lays down a model for arguing out the impacts of globalization to the sovereignty of the states. The model distinguishes “local, national, international, transitional and global interaction networks” (p.472). This is done with the chief objective of conducting an analysis of four eminent threats that globalization is apparently argued to foster- “global capitalism, environmental danger, identity politics and post nuclear geopolitics” (Mann 1997, p.472).
These threats among others affect the sovereignty of various nations differently. Core to the heart of the globalization debate is the anti-globalization community mixed reactions about its significance in eroding the sovereignty of states. The behavior of corporations, globalization process and the ideas of capacity of globalization to foster uncontrolled growth of capitalistic global community encompasses some of the major arguments the opponents of globalization deem as central to their case against it.
Responding to these critics, Bhagwati (2002) proclaims, “globalization enemies see it as the world wide extension of capitalism, with multinational corporations as its far-ranging B-52s” (p.2). With these lines of thought, the paper presents the features of globalization and their capacity to influence the sovereignty of nations from a doubled wedged dimension- from anti-globalization proponents and globalization proponents’ perspectives of view.
Core features of globalization and their impacts on state sovereignty A more conspicuous attribute of globalization is its capacity to foster universality. The term universality as a core feature of globalization attracts many perceptions before the eyes of scholars. However in its basic sense it implies being part and parcel of an open world in terms of free flow of ideas, transfer of technologies and information to the wider space without limitations. The idea is to produce a global unified society.
With the unification of the global society, globalization produces the benefit of providing mechanisms for trade liberalization. With liberalization, protectionist measures are lifted permitting hiked free flow of trade. The immediate repercussion is the enhancement of competition: a key feature of capitalistic economic systems.
From the anti-globalization line of view, “…globalization is essentially the capitalistic exploitation of the weak nations” (Bhagwati 2002, p.4). While monopolies (big multinational corporations), settle in the weaker nations, in terms of political power to make vital global policies, and in terms of resource endowment, they widely tend to have some sort of immunity against questioning their operational policies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is perhaps widely justified by the fact that, global organization operates under common policies, which are universal to all its establishments across the globe. While this polices may be justified in the nations where the organization incepted its operation, they may not be applicable and inconsistent with other nations policies.
While powerful nations may have their right to place impediments or even sanctions for such companies seeking to establish themselves within their territories until they are compliant with the laws of the land, weak nations have little bargaining power for the same. As James (1999) posits, “in the second half of the twentieth century there had been large developments, which have acted to prejudice the sovereignty of the state” (458).
Globalization is perhaps one of such developments that largely seem to have political elements embedded in it. A paramount approach to sovereignty of states is not pegged on the “activity of the sovereign states but on the identity of those who control its decision making process” (James1999, p.458).
From this line of thought, developing nations have little to offer in terms of technology in the global market. Consequently, for them to adopt the modest technologies on global sale from the developed nations to revamp their industrial systems, they must develop policies that largely serve to foster dominance of the developed world globally.
The argument here is that, poor nations are compelled by circumstances to denounce their sovereignty in terms of making policies by the fact that they need to compete in the international arena; yet they cannot accomplish this with old functioned technologies.
Another core feature of globalization, as argued by its proponent, is that it fosters interconnectedness across political and geographical boundaries. In the disciplines of social sciences, globalization as argued, “gave a rise to the claim that deepening interconnectedness was the fundamentally transforming the nature of human society and was replacing the sovereign state system with a multi-layered, multilateral system of global governance” (Rosenberg 2005, p.2).
This argument somewhat lacks consistency since, with the increased cyberspace interactivity brought about by globalization; interconnectedness as one of its core features, has the capacity to increase people’s awareness about their sovereignty rights across the globe. With high advocating of democratic societies, empowerment of the general mass of citizens has the effect of improvement of the state whether in terms of administration of its policies or their implementation.
We will write a custom Essay on The Core Features of Globalization and Their Impact on State Sovereignty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is so because a state would have to do what is right for every citizen apparently because he/she already conceive what is right for him/her. This is perhaps consistent with argument that “a legitimate state is one, which can plausibly claim to be acceptable to its national constituents, which is their genuine representative” (James 1999, p.458).
Any argument against the repercussions of interconnectedness as a core future of globalization, arguably, relies on the need of inflexible regimes to refrain from embracing democracy as a modest system of administration of public resources.
The fact that some nations, especially the ones lagging behind in terms of technological innovations strive to emulate the developed nations need not give rise to only the notion that the developing nations are compelled to prejudice their sovereign rights to make their own policies.
The idea is to attempt to catch up with the developing nations since with globalization age, no single nation can exist as a single island. Globalization, consequently, has no harm to the sovereign rights of a state, rather by fostering interconnectedness as one of its core values, it resulted to “The western capitalists development in a sudden spatial expansion which immediately demanded the word global” (Rosenberg 2005, p.46).
Therefore, opposed to the argument that globalization impairs the sovereignty of nations, fostering interconnectedness served to give rise to democratic regimes and shuttered down regimes such as absolutism regimes.
This was by enhancing connectivity of single dispersed knowledge entities to come together, as it amplified their voices against the demerits of such systems of governance in terms of their economic, social and political impacts to the subjects.
With the empowerment and opening of democratic space for the subjects, it is perhaps almost impossible for dictatorial leaders to make miss-informed policies. Consequently, dictatorial leaders have all rights reserved for them to accuse globalization of impairing the sovereignty of the states.
Another core feature of globalization is erasure of virtual demarcations among the states globally. In the development of the further arguments embracing the impacts of globalization to the sovereignty of states, it is critical to lay the fundamentals of the constituents of statehood and then evaluate the impact of globalization to these constituents.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Core Features of Globalization and Their Impact on State Sovereignty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thinking of a state, the first concept that comes into perspective is territory. According to James (1999), a territory is “where a state starts, territory being the element on which its other elements exist” (p.459).
Across the globe, in physical terms, the territories comprising the states are well demarcated. Where demarcations attract differences, violence is widely voiced. States have the sovereign rights to protect these demarcations. Fortunately, globalization with its endeavor to remove the virtue demarcations of territorial constituents of the states attracts a war of arguments as opposed to physical war.
Given that the right of expression is one among the sovereign rights of a nation, globalization arguably does not act to erode it nor does it attempt to infer that the entire world should unite physically. All it does is to encourage people to unite in terms of sharing knowledge for the common interest of all the world inhabitants.
A state must have people, who contribute to its development. As James (1999) reckons, “a church like university, church, a company or a club is not human person: it does not think, walk and talk as an individual human being does” (p.459). People, however, speak for the state. It thus inconsistent to stage an argument that globalization impairs sovereignty of a state.
Rather, it empowers people to speak better on behalf of the state through opening the channels of interactions globally and opinion sharing. Consequently, Evans’ (1997) argues, “Globalization is not the only reason for the perception that “state authority has leaked away, upwards, sideways, and downwards” and in some matters “just evaporated” (p.65).
Therefore, the conceptualization of the discussed role of breaking down the social divide more often would attract mixed reaction to the proponents of globalization especially by noting that globalization hikes both velocity and speed of social activities. Additionally, a state has its own government. Even though a state may form all sorts of international alliances, it reserves the right to have its international presence; being one of its sovereign rights declared in its constitution, even in the globalization era.
Globalization does not endeavor to breach this right. Rather, it enhances a states feeling of being present at the international arena. Since globalization does not contribute to erosion of the states sovereign rights of international presence, it intrigues how it may lead to leaking states authority as argued by Evans (1997).
Decentralization is yet another feature of global organizations. As Slaughter (1997) postulates, majority of the people internationally thought that “ the new world order proclaimed by George Bush was the promise of 1945 fulfilled, a world in which the international institutions, led by the united nations guaranteed international peace and security with the active support of the world’s considerable powers” (p.1).
Even with the liberal mind acclaimed by globalization era, the control and monitoring of such a world order at best required centralized arm of authority.
Opposed to the calls of globalization that the campaign against hierarchical systems of administration as Slaughter (1997) reckons, the world order talked of by Bush “requires a centralized rule making authority, a hierarchy of institutions, and universal membership” (p.1).
It is perhaps speculative to think of super power nations giving into demands of globalization and shun from their hierarchical systems of administration simply to give in to the calls of an economic, social or even political scholarly theory of globalization. The determination of nature a state would like to administrate itself is, in fact, solely its sovereign right. The multinational institutions such as the United Nations, in fact, cannot exist globally without the much need aid from the developed world.
When it comes to developing nations, a call to shift to a system of administration that is consistent with globalization ideologies held by multinational organizations is perhaps heeded immediately in fear of various likely political penalties including sanctions. Either the main aim of decentralization, as claimed by globalization approaches, is to bring about a world order that has less of fanfare and more of substance as compared to the medievalist or even liberalistic believes.
Under the global world, states are claimed to be “disaggregating into their separate, functionality distinct parts with courts, regulatory agencies, executives and legislatures networking with counterparts abroad, creating a dense web of relations that constitute a new trans-governmental order” (Slaughter 1997, p.2) rather than ceding from existence.
Who spells the codes to be followed by these global arms of government? The argument that, globalization spreads ideologies held by world’s superpower nations in this context hold some substance.
It is perhaps with the realization of this argument that anti-globalists posits that “multinationals must be necessarily be detrimental, because global integration without globally shared regulations must surely make things too easy for international corporations” (Bhagwati 2002, p.4).
Particular concern is on the capacity of such nations to neglect the idea of erosion of their traditional power to determine how to institute their institutions of governance and yet they want the developing world to do the same to match global trends. Decentralization feature of globalization in a way amounts to erosion of the sovereignty rights of states in the developing world.
Conclusion Sovereignty is a state’s constitutional right that should not be retained even if a state forms multinational alliance or not. Globalization is perhaps one of such an alliance. However, people might not take it this way until they conceptualize the ease with which they can access and share the knowledge through social media.
Even though, the features of globalization are critical in fostering global growth of virtually all nations, the paper has presented a multifold view of impacts of these features in relation to sovereignty of sates. At one hand, it facilitates people’s realization of the way they deserve to be governed and hence compelling the state to execute its sovereign rights to its citizens as spelt by the constitution.
On the other hand, in some extent it tends to alter people’s and state’s sovereign rights of determining how it needs to administrate itself and replace it with governance approaches that take after governance styles characteristic of its origin nations. Even without penalties, developing nations are compelled to make policies that are consistent with globalization calls in an attempt to leap from the benefits accruing from it. This gives some sort of introduction of coercion forces, which are widely inconsistent with sovereign rights of states.
References Bhagwati, J., 2002. Coping With Anti-Globalization: A Trilogy of Discontents. Foreign Affairs, 81(1), pp-2-7.
Evans, P., 1997. The Ellipse of the State? Reflections in the era of globalization. World Politics, 50(1), pp-62-87.
James, A., 1999. The Practice of Sovereign Statehood in Contemporary International Society. Political studies, 58(3), pp-457-473.
Mann, M., 1997. Has Globalization Ended the Rise and Rise of the Nation-State? Review of International Political Economy, 4(3), pp-472-496.
Rosenberg, J., 2005. Globalization Theory: A Post Mortem. International Politics, 42(3), pp-2-7.
Slaughter, A., 1997. The New World Order: The States Strike Back. Foreign Affairs, 76(5), pp-183-197.
Social Emotional Learning and Individual Rights Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Social emotional learning should be offered to students in every school district. Through social emotional learning, the students will be able to uphold the governing principle of individual rights. This paper explores the principle of individual rights and how it relates to social emotional learning. The importance of the introduction of social emotional learning in schools is explored. Moreover, the principle of individual rights and the changes it has undergone throughout the history of the United States is discussed.
Body Social emotional learning enables the students to manage their feelings and be able to relate with others and form constructive relationships. The students are also able to make wise decisions and deal with challenges that they face in their day to day lives.
Through social emotional learning, students are able to acquire the skills necessary for them to function in the world successfully and be able to deal with different tasks in their lives as future citizens. Social emotional learning molds individuals’ character and enables them to be responsible. Moreover, the students become responsible citizens as they learn to be responsible for their actions, take care of their health and relate better with other citizens (Zins 12).
One of the guiding principles of the United States government is individual rights. The principle states that the citizens have rights that should be protected and not violated. The basic rights of every citizen should be protected. These rights include the right to life, the right to liberty, and the right to pursue happiness.
Through social emotional learning, the students will be able to succeed in their studies and contribute to the wellbeing of the society. They will be able to achieve their goals, have meaningful relationships with others and therefore, achieve happiness. They will be able to respect and sympathize with others and therefore not violate their rights.
They will thus be able to uphold the principle of individual rights. The introduction of social emotional learning in schools is an effort to enable the students to understand the concept of individual rights from an early age in order to espouse the principle later on as citizens.
In order to increase the social emotional learning programs available to students, the Academic, Social and Emotional Learning Act of 2011 has been introduced by Judy Biggert, Dale Kildee, and Tim Ryan. Through this Act, the teachers will be able to instill all the necessary skills in their students in order to enable them to become responsible citizens in future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The “Founding Fathers” included the principle of individual rights in the Declaration of independence as one of the guiding principles of the United States government. Among the key Founding Fathers were George Washington, John Adams, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison (Schwartz 68).
All the other rights rest on the rights to life, liberty, and pursuing happiness. The Founding Fathers believed that the sole purpose of the government was to protect these rights. They also believed that an individual’s life does not belong to anyone else but to him/ her alone and therefore, they should have freedom to do whatever they please (Freehling 81).
The implementation of the principle of individual rights enabled citizens to live freely without being submissive to any master. They were free to live their lives as they pleased and pursue their dreams and relate with others freely. The implementation of individual rights enabled the citizens to have access to other rights like freedom of speech and religion, among others.
The principle of individual rights has continued to be upheld through the enactment of several statutes, for instance, Section 1983 of title 42 of the United States Code (Blackmun 1). Moreover, the constitutions of the states have been revived to uphold the principle of human rights (Brennan 535).
However, what the Founding Fathers believed in has changed over time. The United States government has over the years introduced programs and laws that do not protect individual rights. The rights of citizens are being violated and therefore, the government is going against the concept of individual freedom that was introduced by the Founding Fathers.
For instance, the citizens’ right to property is violated through taxation where their money is taken and distributed to others. Moreover, re-distributing of wealth violates the rights of people who have worked hard for it since each individual has a right to what he/she has worked for. The right to the citizen’s body is violated through prohibiting the consumption of particular foods.
The government also violates the right of individuals through welfare programs since the individuals are denied the freedom of using their money as they please. The rights of businessmen to set the prices that they deem suitable for their products have been violated through the enactment of anti-trust laws.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Emotional Learning and Individual Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The right of individuals to choose how to invest in their future has also been violated through Social Security. In addition, business regulations by the government have violated the right of individuals to make their own decisions regarding their property. Therefore, the original vision of the Founding Fathers to have a nation where each citizen’s individual rights are protected has been corrupted.
Therefore, social emotional learning should be incorporated in all schools in order to enable the students to understand how to live with others and embrace the true meaning of individual rights.
The major skills that the students gain include understanding their feelings and those of others, ability to manage anger, mood and impulses, the ability to set and achieve goals, the ability to sympathize with others and the ability to manage relationships and resolve conflicts (Zins 30). With these skills, the students can in future be able to take the country back to the ideals of the Founding Fathers and change the current government programs and laws that contravene the individual rights of the citizens.
Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that the introduction of social emotional learning in schools is a very noble idea as it prepares the students to become responsible citizens in future. The students are able to learn about the principle of individual rights. The relationship between social emotional learning and individual rights has been discussed and the changes that the principle of individual rights has undergone have been highlighted.
Over the years, there has been a deviation by the government from the original ideals of the Founding Fathers regarding individual rights. Therefore, social emotional learning should be introduced in all school districts in order to enable the students to shape the laws and programs of the United States government in future in such a way that the principle of individual rights will be upheld.
Works Cited Blackmun, Harry. “Section 1983 And Federal Protection Of Individual Rights – Will The Statute Remain Alive Or Fade Away?” New York University Law Review 60.1 (1985): 1. Print.
Brennan, William. “The Bill Of Rights and the States: The Revival of State Constitutions as Guardians of Individual Rights.” New York University Law Review 61.4 (1986): 535. Print.
Freehling, William. “The Founding Fathers and slavery.” The American Historical Review 77.1 (1972): 81-93. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Emotional Learning and Individual Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schwartz, Bernard. The Great Rights of Mankind: A History of the American Bill Of Rights. USA: Rowman
Productive and Counterproductive behaviors Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Productive and Counterproductive Conducts
Impact on Job Performance and Overall Organizational Performance
How to address these behaviors
Introduction Organizations strive each day to increase their asset base as well as increase revenue income, which has made it a culture for almost all organizations to measure success in terms of growth that they have achieved in a given period of time. Because of this, organizations have come up with a set of regulations and visions of what they would want to achieve within a specified period of time. This paper seeks to pin point those behaviors that enable achievement of the set visions and those that deter efficiency in the organizations.
Productive and Counterproductive Conducts Productive behaviors are the codes of conduct in an organization which help in propelling the interests of the organization forward, and in most cases they bring about efficiency and smooth running operations in the organization (Griffith, 2006). Behaviors like proper time management, striving to surpass ones targets and assisting other employees in order to ensure timely accomplishment of tasks are considered productive.
On the contrary, counterproductive behaviors deter smooth running of the organization’s day to day activities eventually, preventing the organization from achieving its targets. These behaviors are also costly to the organization, because finances are used on unproductive employees who will rather gossip or even avoid coming to work instead of working hard to fulfill the vision of their organization.
They include not applying due diligence when performing duties, completing assigned duties late consistently, drug addiction and being antisocial at work place (Jex
The analysis of General Motors Company Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
General motors and competitors comparison
Automotive companies Ranked By Sales
Top Automotive Manufacturers
Introduction General Motors is an automotive company based in United States with its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan city. The company is the world’s largest automaker. The company operates in 157 countries worldwide and it employs around 210,000 workers across the globe (Berger, 2001). It manufactures vehicles in 31 different countries across the globe. General motors on star subsidiary provide vehicle safety, security and information services (Lawrence, 2008).
The company was started in 1908, in Michigan as a holding company for Buick. Charles Stewart was General motors co founder whose carriage company was merged in Buick. During the year 1909, the company obtained two companies namely; Reliance truck and rapid vehicle motor companies of Owosso and Pontiac Michigan respectfully. General motors was ranked the best in the world in terms of sales among all motor companies during the second half of twentieth century (Bell, 1965).
However, the company sales declined in the year 2010 when it was ranked second globally. General motors sell its vehicles to motor vehicle dealers as well as to fleet customers (Graeme, 2004). Fleet customers include commercial fleet customers, automotive leasing companies and governments. The major markets of General motors include the United States, china, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Canada and Italy (Alfred, 2004).
The company provides automotive financing services through its subsidiary. General motors financial company purchases automobile finance contracts for new and used vehicles purchased customers primarily from franchised and select independent dealerships. The company operates under United States department of the treasury. General Motors Company is positioned as one of the ‘green’ companies as it tends to reduce environmental pollution.
The company supports the use of renewable energy (Beverly, 2002). Environmentally, the company has laid down strategies as well as proving a reliable website to reach the public. All the waste materials resulting from the company’s production processes is recycled. General Motors Company has worked on alternative technology vehicles and has developed ethanol flexible fuel vehicles in the motor industry.
The company initiated use of turbochargers and v6 engines. It initiated the production of an all-electric automobile. It produced the first car with zero emissions marketed in America in over thirty years. In 2010, General motors company introduced Chevrolet volt, an electric vehicle that uses generators powered by gasoline (Maynard, 2003).
Competitors General motor company competes with other firms in automobile manufacturing, transportation equipment manufacturing, automobile parts manufacturing, financial services, lending and auto lending. This is because of general motors global presence and diversity of products. The biggest threat of general motors company in terms of competition is from foreign companies (Maynard, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Foreign automobile companies such as Toyota, Honda, and Nissan dominate small, medium to a large car market due to their flexibility and cheaper prices. Cars such as the highly successful Toyota prius are a significant challenge for General Motors own Saturn hybrids. Foreign companies account for more than half of the United States automobile market (Alfred 1994).
The automobile firms compete on both pricing and non-pricing issues. The pricing competition reduces profits by increasing price cost margins while non-pricing competition drives up fixed cost and marginal cost. The high rivalry in the automobile industry is due to lack of differentiation opportunities (More, 2009).
All automobile companies produce cars, trucks or SUVs. Significant market share variations, has been witnessed in the recent days, this is another indication of rivalry that is a remarkably strong threat to profits. Below is the analysis of General Motors Company and its competitors in the automobile industry (Alfred, 2004).
General motors and competitors comparison GM PVT1 F TM Industry Market Cap: 32.93B N/A 42.30B 106.27B 18.90B Employees: 210,000 51,6231 164,000 317,716 100.39K Qtrly Rev Growth (yoy): 7.80% N/A 10.60% -4.80% 11.90% Revenue (ttm): 149.17B 41.95B1 134.12B 225.41B 58.80B Gross Margin (ttm): 12.18% N/A 14.83% 11.31% 19.69% EBITDA (ttm): 11.94B N/A 13.42B 15.93B 5.44B Operating Margin (ttm): 3.92% N/A 6.25% 0.65% 5.85% Net Income (ttm): 7.62B -652.00M1 6.79B 2.61B N/A EPS (ttm): 4.57 N/A 1.67 1.66 2.73 P/E (ttm): 4.60 N/A 6.68 40.73 7.31 PEG (5 yr expected): 0.42 N/A 0.79 0.93 0.52 P/S (ttm): 0.22 N/A 0.32 0.47 0.42 Pvt1= Chrysler Group LLC(privately held) F= Ford Motor Co. TM= Toyota Motor Corp. Industry= Auto Manufacturers – Major 1= As of 2010 Automotive companies Ranked By Sales Company Symbol Price Change Market Cap P/E General Motors Company GM 22.05 0.0% 32.93B 4.60 Toyota Motor Corp. TM 65.78 0.0% 106.27B 40.73 Ford Motor Co. F 11.43 0.0% 42.30B 6.68 Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. NSANY.PK 17.32 0.0% 38.32B 10.01 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. HMC 32.34 0.0% 56.48B 19.94 PSA Peugeot Citroen PEUGY.PK 18.26 0.0% 3.92B 2.44 Top Automotive Manufacturers Company Symbol Price Change Market Cap P/E Volkswagen AG VKW.L 109.36 UP 0.26% 50.88B 3.11 Tata Motors, Ltd. TATAMOTOR.NS 201.20 UP 3.74% N/A N/A F-PYME NC5 F.MX 152.83 UP 2.57% 580.77B 91.68 Bajaj Auto Ltd. BAJAJAUT.BO 1,426.30 Down 4.70% 412.72B 11.95 Mahindra
Television as a Domestic Technology Essay custom essay help
If the efforts to revitalize television in the digital era are to materialize, television viewers will ultimately be required to be conversant with the set-top box (a novel consumer technology) which provides unprecedented means of consuming television. There is no doubt that this type of technology entails assimilation of new media technology into the household settings.
More importantly, it also facilitates amplification of an interactive techno-culture among domestic consumers of television. Consequently, interactivity must have a positive effect on the manner in which television consumers use this technology in their daily lives (Petersen and Kim 74).
Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to discuss the manner in which television is used as a domestic technology. This paper will also address the primary position of television in the home and how it is by households.
Ever since the launch of digital television and the introduction of the set-top box as the modern consumer technology to replace the analogue television system, television has been cast into the limelight with respect to adjustments in the manner in which it is currently consumed by households.
It is worthy to note that the interactive television sector (the traditional media production firms as well as new players with novel business ideas) is currently facing stiff competition among the industry players in terms of who among them will develop the best ideas (Christensen 4).
Domestication refers to the manners in which consumers of television endeavor to curve a niche for the technology in their houses and make it meaningful and productive in their daily lives. In other words, the domestication of technology implies a process of adopting technology within the household environment. The concept of moral economy implies that household members have unique ways of using television set as a domestic technology (Christensen 5).
The four distinct ways used by the households are conversion, appropriation, incorporation and objectification. The conversion implies that household members alter the symbolic and functional use of the television (as a domestic technology) into a meaningful production that allows for the moral economy of the family to be integrated into the objective economy of the society at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, appropriation refers to the procurement of the television technology as a domestic commodity that facilitates the integration of the objective meaning in society with the domestic moral economy. Incorporation refers to the process of assimilating the television technology into the daily routines of the household. Nonetheless, incorporation is also the subject of negotiations and conflicts with the television technology.
It also serves as an integral aspect of family members’ continuous work of creating and upholding identity within the household. Finally, objectification deals with the manner in which television (as a domestic technology) should be integrated into the daily routines of the household. In other words, it implies how the new technology should be fitted into the spatial organization of the household (Christensen 6).
It goes without saying that the consumption of television as a domestic technology is a way to describe and position household members in their unique environment into a general social perspective. Nonetheless, when the television set is openly displayed by the household, it creates an impression that can be construed in diverse ways by individuals who visit that home.
For example, the symbolic display of television as a domestic technology may be construed by different visitors as vulgar, snobbish, kitsch and stylish. As a matter of fact, the manner in which the technology (television) is displayed in the house might even cause dispute among members of the household (Christensen 7).
With respect to physically situating the technological object, the set-top box must have a phone line connection. This means that the set-box is reliant on the electrical system of the house in order to deliver an electric socket, telephone line connection as well as a television connection. There are several reasons given to explain why a television set (and not a computer) occupies the living room of the house.
One of the reasons given is that the computer is not only a goal-oriented artifact but also has lengthy cables and thus it is kept away either in the study room or in the bedroom. On the contrary, the television set is conspicuously displayed in the central living room as a symbol of prestige.
In addition, the satellite dish is a conspicuous symbol that informs the outside world that the household possesses that technology. Moreover, the set-top box will soon curve a niche among other television technologies given that it is re-arbitrating the VCR and the satellite decoding receiver while at the same time enhancing transmission and signal quality (Christensen 11).
We will write a custom Essay on Television as a Domestic Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, it (the set-top box) does not clearly offer a comprehensible sign to the outside world of what type of content the household is consuming unless adapted into some sort of symbolic use. Consequently, the household may be compelled to procure a pay per view program or to subscribe to a premium digital services.
As a result, the set-top box (just as the previous television did), turns into the main source of public meetings since it provides television programs that are only available to households in possession of the set-top boxes and valid subscriptions (Livingstone 60).
There is no doubt that the concept of living room (as a technical and cultural hub of the household) has experienced a number of changes. The society is currently witnessing a major development of individually owned digital media. Traditional media are now utilized in new restructuring of time and space.
At the same time, most of the households are currently in possession of several radios, telephones and televisions (Livingstone 62). Initially, majority of households had only one television set in the living room (the main meeting place for household members). However, since the emergence of media production firms such as NTL that sell multi-room viewing services, majority of television channels are now easily accessible from any room in the house.
In fact, a number of teenagers have procured better television sets for use in their personal rooms. This phenomenon has relegated the important role of the television set in the living room. In addition, the consumption of television as a domestic technology has led to the technological empowerment of the teenagers in terms of the transformation in ownership of domestic technologies.
Initially, mass media was communally consumed in the living room by all members of the household. Ever since the inception of television as a domestic technology, youths have gradually moved towards mobile consumption of media (Pemberton 10).
It is worthy to note that, many teenagers have installed computers, audio devises and television sets in their bedrooms as sources of entertainment. As of now, teenagers are using television as a domestic technology to produce a wall of sound in their personal rooms which has ultimately changed generational and gender patterns in the society.
For many parents, the adoption of television technology within the household settings is not a bad thing after all because they are in a better position to monitor their teenagers gathered in their bedrooms. In addition, television is considered a safe medium since it is able to attract a loyal and ardent audience via its memorable usability.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Television as a Domestic Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In others words, interactive television offers an ontological sanctuary for audience who experience problems when they attempt to gain access to relatively unfamiliar sea of information online via the use of the computer and the World Wide Web (WWW). Apart from encouraging the audience to stay tuned to a particular channel, interactive television provides safe transmission of information that has positive impacts on the viewers (Petersen and Kim 103).
Works Cited Christensen, Holmgaard. The Impact of Interactivity on Television Consumption. Dublin: Dublin City University, 2002. Print.
Livingstone, Sonja. “New Media, New Audiences?” New Media and Society 1 (1999): 59-66.
Pemberton, Lyn. The Potential of Interactive Television for Delivering Individualized Language Learning. Brighton: University of Brighton, 2002.
Petersen, Marianne and Kim H. Madsen. “The Usability of Everyday Technology: Emerging and Fading Opportunities.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (2002): 74-105.
Steve Paul Jobs Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In his book Business Ethics: A Case Study Approach, Stephen Henn stated that the most important qualities of a successful business leader include the ability to realize the potential of the employees to its fullest and create the environment for their engagement into the self, social and societal spheres.
However, combining the ethical responsibilities with business targets and reaching a good balance between business ethics and effective performance is one of the greatest challenges faced by most business leaders. Why it is important to use business power responsibly is one of the greatest moral dilemmas of the modern business world.
This paper will discuss the biography of Steve Paul Jobs, well-known as a co-founder and CEO of Apple Inc. for investigating Jobs’ case and the balance between his quest for perfection and total control in their relation to business ethics as effective means for achieving the end results of prosperity of Apple.
Steve Paul Jobs and Steve Wozniak co-founded Apple Computer in 1976. Regardless of the fact that he was one of the co-founders, in 1986 at the age of 30, Steve was fired by the board of directors of Apple. The main reasons leading to Job’s divorce from the company which he has co-founded were his willingness to dictate decisions and manipulate others which were noticed by other executives of Apple (Finkle and Mallin 34).
The conflict of egos and the dispute concerning the power structure of the company forced Jobs out of Apple. Being a co-founder, he preserved a substantial amount of the stock of Apple but remained only an advisor, while Apple went through three different CEOs with its stock price falling to $2 per share. At the same time, Jobs founded a new computer company ironically called the NeXT which produced computers for educational institutions and was aimed at competing with Apple.
It should be noted that five key employees from Apple joined Jobs in this new enterprise. It resulted in a lawsuit against Jobs for stealing the employees which however was rejected by the court. The NeXT Company was not very successful and notwithstanding all Jobs’ efforts, managed to sell only 50, 000 computers in eight years (Finkle and Mallin 34).
In 1986, Jobs bought the majority share of the computer graphics company Pixar from its creator George Lucas. Success came to Pixar after Jobs initiated the cooperation with Disney for distributing an hour long animated film Toy Story which received an Oscar and brought $ 358 million of worldwide theatre revenues (Finkle and Mallin 36).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1996, because of the problems experienced by Apple, Jobs was invited to return to the company. Jobs made the company to flourish with its stock price reaching the maximum of $ 200 per share in 2007. Though Apple was hit by the world crisis, it was still one of a few companies in all over the world able to operate almost without debt.
Jobs’ perfectionism, desire to total control and confidence can be viewed as his strongest assets or his biggest flaws depending upon the chosen perspective. On the one hand, these qualities were among the influential factors which enabled Jobs to lead Apple and Pixar to success. On the other hand, there were claims that Jobs exceeded his power, publicly humiliating some of the employees or impulsively hiring them.
Though most of Jobs’ decisions can be explained with his quest for perfection and the goal to realize the potential of the employees, there is evidence that in certain situations he failed to use his power responsibly. People who did not understand Jobs’ perfectionism described him as a tyrant, control freak and narcissist.
Others acknowledged his charisma but admitted that Jobs can transform from a charismatic leader to a tyrant and narcissist (Finkle and Mallin 34). As opposed to these complaints, Jobs himself admitted that the main reason for which his companies have become so successful is the strategy of hiring the best specialists in the world. With his own tireless work ethic, Jobs demanded his employees to work at their fullest potential.
At the same time, he could hire an employee who had not all the necessary skills and knowledge and create the conditions for developing his/her potential. Even during the times of the world crisis, Apple remained one of a few companies which continued to invest into Research and Development.
Jobs always had positive relationships with the brightest individuals who understood and appreciated his aim of reaching absolute excellence in everything. The situation in which five key employees left Apple to work in the NeXT Company with Jobs clearly demonstrates his ability to persuade people and his success as a leader.
Though the evidence on whether Jobs always used his power responsibly is rather controversial, it can be stated that his charisma and talent of realizing the full potential of his employees were important reasons preconditioning success of Apple, NeXT and Pixar.
We will write a custom Essay on Steve Paul Jobs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analyzing the evidence of other people on Job’s moral behaviors as a business leader, his own assumptions concerning the importance of hiring the best people and realizing their full potential and the achieved results, it can be stated that he managed to achieve a good balance between ethics and effective performance of individual employees and his companies in general.
The tone at the top may have a significant impact upon the employees’ involvement and performance (Henn 100). However, attention to details and demand of absolute excellence in everything were parts of Jobs’ work ethics and could frighten and irritate only low-performing employees, while the brightest employees were fascinated with his talent and respected him as a leader.
At the same time, Jobs realized the importance of spending costs on Research and Development and provided the necessary training opportunities for his employees. Hiring young specialists, Jobs provided them with opportunities to gain necessary knowledge and skills.
Apart from Jobs’ cult of secrecy due to which employees could feel detached from the company’s core values, Jobs created favorable environment for the realization of the potential of his workers. In contrast to the criticism of some of Jobs’ managerial decisions, I consider his strategies as an effective solution of the moral dilemma of reaching a compromise between business ethics and success.
Coupled with his personal charisma, talents of negotiating, convincing others and predicting the desires of the consumers even before they themselves know about them, Jobs’ ability to reach the balance between ethics and high performance of his ventures preconditioned the enormous success of Apple and Pixar.
Acknowledging the success of Apple, it can be stated that the means used by its CEO Steve Paul Jobs were effective for achieving the end results of launching the world-known iMac, iPod and iPhone, receiving high revenues and operating virtually without a debt even during the world financial downturn.
Regardless of the accusations of narcissism, tyranny and ego-mania, Jobs reached a balance between his quest for perfection and attention to detail as elements of his business ethics and high performance of his companies as the end results of his efforts.
Works Cited Finkle, Todd and Michael Mallin. “Steve Jobs and Apple, Inc.” Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies 16.7 (2010): 31-40. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Steve Paul Jobs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Henn, Stephen. Business Ethics: A Case Study Approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
Bipolar Disorder Main Causes Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Bipolar disorder, also known as the bipolar effective disorder has been identified as a psychological disorder that is characterized by episodes of mood swings, hyperactivity among other instabilities of a normal functioning body. Historically, the disorder was referred to as the manic depression disorder.
The disorder is known to start exhibiting its traits at around the age of fifteen, but its full-blown syndrome exhibit themselves either at late adolescence or in early adulthood. Sometimes, those affected with this disorder can express levels of elevated moods where a person can have extra energy for a particular activity.
Those who experience mania or hyper mania in cases where the levels of mood elevation are too high also suffer from periods of depressions that sometimes follow the periods of elevated moods. This instability in emotions make bipolar disorder to have divergent views as far as its recognition is concerned.
It also leads to increased risks among those affected as the situations of mood swings, either to the hyperactivity or to the depressive states, leads to unstable decisions made by an actor. This indicates the severity of this disorder.
Bipolar disorder has been classified into three categories, Bipolar disorder type I, Bipolar disorder type II and the final type of the disorder being the cyclothymia, a type that involves less severe mood swings. Those diagnosed with bipolar disorder type one are said to have suffered at least one major episode of depression.
Due to this requirement for the definition of bipolar type I disorder, it was historically known as the manic depression. Those diagnosed with bipolar type II disorder are those who had never suffered from a full manic episode or depression. However, such persons are said to have experienced periods characterized with high energy levels as well as impulses that cannot be classified as severe as those experienced by type I patients.
Cyclothymia on the other hand is mild in nature as it involves less severe mood swings. Those diagnosed with this disorder are characterized by alternating periods of hypomania and mild depression. Due to their mild nature, bipolar disorder type II cyclothymia can be confused to people suffering from depression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review Due to its severity, the confusion surrounding its identification, its misunderstanding in the society, lack of clear understanding of how it is acquired, its prevalence in the society among many other factors associated with the disease, bipolar disorder is a heavily researched topic. In his attempt to show the causes of this disease, Miklowitz, (2010), asserts that causes of bipolar disorder are genetic in nature.
This school of thought asserts that there are many chromosomal factors that lead to the development of bipolar disorder. However, there are no conclusive studies to link the issue of bipolar disorder to genetic inheritance.
Nevertheless, some genetic factors have been identified as the main causes of the bipolar disorder. Mondimore, (2006), argues that there are little indicators to show that the issue of bipolar disorder is caused by heterogeneous factors. One of such factors, according to Yatham
The effect of family conflict resolution on children’s classroom behavior Research Paper best essay help
The researcher has written about the effects of family conflict resolution techniques on a child’s school performance. A child’s behavior in school is affected by various factors but the conflict resolution techniques play an important role. This article has shown how children have been affected by the parent’s behavior.
These confliction resolutions in the family structure cause more harm to child if not well managed. Authors states that the conflict resolution in the family influences classroom so strongly that the teachers and schools may not be able to overcome it.
Children from conflict ridden perform have aggressive behavior than other children. These children perform worse not because of laziness but due to the interaction of the social and economic rationalities (Brain and Mukherji, 2005).
This qualitative study seeks to establish whether family conflict resolution plays a role in the development of certain behavior in the classroom. The study follows an experimental design, involving the observation and interview of individuals. The research is important to all stakeholders because a child’s inappropriate behavior has a way of proliferating into academic achievement.
The major aim of research is to ensure there is an understanding of effects of home environment and full academic potential is achieved. One of the core things to do is to manage disruptive behavior by practicing skills that minimize misbehavior.
The article has shown that families tend to respond to and influence transformation in child’s behavior. Members of an effective family enjoy a tightly knit social structure in which a solid social associations that directs each other’s interaction. Family sociologists explore how the family as a social institution operates through the interaction of the different members and the manner in which they shape behaviors, feelings, and opportunities in the institution.
Critique of the statistical analysis The aim of this study is to establish whether conflict resolution methods play a role in certain behavior. The behavior will be monitored through observation and oral interviews, and the exercise will be aimed at establishing disparities in behavior levels of participants.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Responses from the participants regarding the simulations of real life situations will be compared. The aim of this comparison will be to establish any disparities in student’s behavior.
The study will also gather data from secondary sources relevant to the topic, and relate it to the results from observation and interviews. Such secondary sources will include literature from previous studies and expert opinions on personality development and human learning. Relating this literature to the findings will be beneficial in deducting informed inferences concerning the role of gender in development of classroom behavior and parents conflict resolution.
Limitations and assumptions The research method selected will involve study of parent’s conflict resolution techniques. This method will be experimental and required the active participation of the selected individuals to enhance accuracy and reliability in the results. Active participation of individuals could be limited by biases.
This would lead to inaccurate results thus rendering the study unreliable. The report addresses the issue of the generalization of the findings. However, with the sample size we cannot draw a general conclusion. The researchers discussed the implications of the study and further research but whether the implications reasonable and complete are, a question unanswered.
Moral ideals instilled in pupils in an educational institution could hamper the effectiveness of the study in such environments. Since students have been imparted with knowledge concerning desirable behavior, they will not expose their bad behavior during the study. Most of the participants would be mature, with the ability to distinguish between reality and simulation(Aron, Aron and Coups, 2011)..
References Aron, A., Aron, E.
A report on the structure and nature of sexual harassment Case Study essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Sexual harassment may be perceived by different individuals differently depending on their circumstances and the other parties involved. This experiment aimed at determining the effect of the status of the harasser on the perception of sexual harassment by the victim.
The experiment was carried out in an academic setting where it involved professors, teaching assistants and students as participants in the study. The circumstances under which sexual harassment occurred as perceived by the victim were particularly analyzed. The study was based on the hypothesis that the perception that sexual harassment had occurred increased as the status of the harasser increased.
Introduction Most organizations have sexual harassment policies that are defined in terms of the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment. It is important to understand if variables other than the behavior of the harasser influence people’s perceptions of sexual harassment. Tata (1993) found that several factors including harasser status affected perceptions of sexual harassment in a work setting.
The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of the status of the harasser on perceptions of sexual harassment in an academic setting. I hypothesized that as the status of the harasser increases, so is the perception that sexual harassment has occurred.
Method The experiments to determine the effect of the status of the harasser on the perceptions of sexual harassment was done in an academic setting involving students, teaching assistants and professors. The age, the number of times the harassment had occurred and the likely reason of sexual harassment were recorded from various participants in the study.
In all the studies, sixty three participants from each of the three categories of participants were studied. The study particularly considered the gender and the race of the participants and the effect the two had on sexual harassment of the victims.
After collecting data using questionnaires and direct interviews from the various participants in the study, the data was then analyzed using well known methods of data analysis. The results were then tabulated the analyses presented in form of graphs that were easy to interpret.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results The frequencies of sexual harassment based on gender indicated that more females encountered sexual harassment compared to their male counterparts. The frequencies of sexual harassment based on race indicated that Hispanics had experienced the most incidents of sexual harassment, followed by Asians, Native Americans then blacks in that order.
Lowest incidences of sexual harassment were recorded among the whites. These results were consistent for all the three categories of participants. Descriptive statistics for all the three categories of the participants in the study indicated the largest deviation among professors, followed by the teaching assistants then lastly the students.
The results were then analyzed and presented using graphs. The first category of graph analyzed the sexually harassed individuals against their status, that is, whether they are students, teaching assistants or professors. The results of the analysis indicated that more proffesors had been sexually harassed, followed by teaching assistants then students.
The second category of graph analyzed the reasons that led to the sexual harassment against the status of the individual participants. The results still indicated that for each of reason leading to sexual harassment, more professors had been victims of sexual harassment, followed by teaching assistants then lastly students.
Discussion From the experiment, the professor category was found to have experienced the most incidences of sexual harassment, followed by teaching assistants, then students. This was mainly due to the age factor. Professors were of a more advanced age, followed by the teaching assistants then finally the students.
Having lived for longer meant they had been through more circumstances that warranted sexual harassment. The fact that the professors have experienced more sexual harassment can also be explained by the change in times. During the earlier days, societies were very conservative and hence the cases of harassment were rare.
The behavior that was portrayed by the people of the yesteryears was not as aggressive as that we see today. The images, actions and the behavior of the generations today tend to be very sexually oriented. Therefore, the older people might misunderstand the actions of some of the younger people as amounting to sexual harassment.
We will write a custom Case Study on A report on the structure and nature of sexual harassment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The same case is true as the age brackets differ. Younger generations, having been exposed to too much sex from a young age may not realize that some actions towards them actually amount to sexual harassment. This is because the line between flirtation and sexual harassment has become thinner.
Considering the gender, more women reported sexual harassment compared to men. This was mainly because; women are more susceptible to sexual harassment than men. In some cases, women may consider accidental contact with men as sexual harassment, a situation that a man would not actually consider as sexual harassment.
Finally, the race of the participants also determined whether they were sexually harassed or not. The issue of race was quite sensitive in the study since some races would feel discriminated, therefore considering sexual harassment in more circumstances than other races. Generally, Hispanics reported more harassment both by members of their own race and by members of the other races.
Hispanics were reportedly the most frequent harassers against all the other races. There was a general perception by members of given races to consider sexual harassment more from members of other races than their own. Hispanics and blacks in America have a culture that is against “snitching”.
This is reporting what another person has done to the authorities even if it was a crime. This culture has caused many cases of violent crime to be unreported to the police and thus, the commission of these crimes continues to proliferate. Experts have drawn a line between commission of violent crimes and rape.
They have promoted the theory that these crimes are about the assertion of power, thus a violent person is very likely to commit a rape. This fact may be the reason why Hispanics report the largest number of sexual harassment cases as they usually go unreported and thus unpunished hence ensuring the repetition of the crimes over and over again and in turn incurring more victims.
Reference Tata, J. (1993). The structure and phenomenon of sexual harassment: Impact of category of sexually harassing behavior, gender and hierarchical level. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
Fluorescent Lights vs. LED Light Technology Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Fluorescent lights and LED (light-emitting diodes) light technology are technologies of producing devices, which act as sources of light. In modern day technology, a number of items make use of these two technologies. However, it is imperative to note that most of the items are of LED technology such as television remote controls, car indicators and digital clocks.
Characteristically, these gadgets are small and reliable. Additionally, LED items have narrow bandwidth possibilities and high switching velocities as compared to fluorescent lights. They are also available in different wavelengths, for example, infrared, visible and ultraviolet (William
The Changing Relationship between the Generations’ Youth Studies Australia Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
In the contemporary world, the media advocates for the generational changes and the effect it has towards the economy; Australia is no exception. Most of the articles in the Australian society analyze the negative implications of generational changes.
However, these arguments don not stay for long as they are ultimately forgotten. This is unlike 30 years ago when generational change had an impact to the media and society.
Michael Pusey, in his article, argues that the current relations between the young and old generation have been characterized by the mirror-opposite appearance than those, which pre-occupied the social media 30 years back. Indeed, the adversity of the generational gap in the current society is the vital issue that Pusey expresses in his article.
According to Pusey (2007), the generational gap has been ignored in the current Australia economy. After the World War II, Australian government shared the resources equally as they were focused majorly on the gap that existed between the generations.
The author argues that for the national income to be distributed equally in the economy, cultural conflicts should be addressed. Indeed, inequalities do exist between the baby boomers and their children and this has necessitated food insecurity among the residents. Therefore, it is critical that the concerned party needs to address the effect of generation change.
Upon putting into consideration the impeccable effects that will be faced in the economy, the government will ensure economic tranquillity. In regard to the current economy reforms of Australia, the author argues that it does not favour the young generation the way it favoured the older generation. In addition, the author argues that in the near future, the young generation will be subjected to unnecessary responsibilities.
As there are large numbers of retirees, the author claims that they will all be depending on the young generation for income support. With the existence of high unemployment rate in the current economy, the youth will be imposed with burden when footing the retirement bill for the older generation (Norton, 2003). As such, it increased the generational gap in the near future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the mirror-opposite appearance in the generational change is evidenced by the income distribution. It is important to note that economic restructuring is long term. This implies that any changes in the income distribution in the economy will not be effected until after a period of 20 years; as illustrated by the Australian economy.
Ideally, the older generation believed that men were the breadwinners in the family and the speculated income distribution for 20 years focused on the Men’s income. In the current economy, the women are also breadwinners in the household and the comparable figures will be misleading leading to generational gap. Consequently, the lifetime income has decreased due to lack of regulation in the labour market by the Australian government.
In the older generation, lifetime income was extremely high unlike in the current society. This has been attributed to the increase in longevity in the current generation (Pusey, 2003). The compressed retirement benefits have been squeezed, and as an individual retires at an age of 55 years, one has 25 years more to budget for this small amount of retirement benefits.
This was not the case in the past as they were able to access a huge amount of retirement benefits. As they had a lifespan of 65 years, they had only 10 years to budget for their retirement benefits. This clearly shows a mirror-opposite appearance in the generational change.
In addition, unlike the past, finance and superannuation have been degenerated. After the government privatised the superannuation industry, there has been an imposition of fees and charges by the financial institutions.
This imposes a burden to families in supporting the new generation in their endeavour. Other factors that have increased the generation gap include deregulation of housing loans, and privatisation of health and education.
The issues leading to the generational gap, as highlighted above, are relevant to the course. The government will impose measures necessary to combat the increase in the generational gap. This will have a positive impact on the international relations, as such, enhancing their economical stability among the new and older generation.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Changing Relationship between the Generations’ Youth Studies Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International relations focus on understanding of the geographical territories regarding the economies, politics, cultural believes among others. In order to meet the international relations’ demands, the government needs to stabilize the internal forces; among them is the generational gap.
In this article, Michael Pusey (2007) argues that, although the reforms put in place in the economic front have produced results, especially by creating wealth to a majority of people on the verge of retirement, the legacy of this wealth could as well be a starting point for what the author call an economic gap.
According to Pusey (2003), Australia has experienced a good boom, which was underpinned by historically low rates of unemployment and a high demand for the countries mineral resources. Indeed, as the author posits that the economic boom hid something bigger. According to Pusey, the talk of economic boom, masked incomes in those real incomes were not increasing.
It would not be possible for the young generation to generate as much income as the one that is retiring at the moment. In economic terms, then this is a big problem as it is the starting point for greater income inequalities among generations.
However on the cultural side it is a very impressive story because people are able to relate with other well in a manner that was not so in the last 30 to 40 years or so. At this time, according to Pusey, there were many prejudices and conservative moral obligations (Pusey, 2007).
However, at the moment about one third of the young generations are staying with their parents whom they see as their most influential people in their lives, even more important to them that their peers. Indeed even the parents claim to enjoy the presence of their children.
In short, the author makes two assumptions. One is that the economic boom was responsible for the widening generation gap. The second assumption was that culture has an important part to play in bringing the generation gap.
According to Pusey (2007), unemployment rates have gone up, that the young people do not get into full employment until the age of 27 or 28. However, his argument does not seem to hold much water and seem to rest on public opinions. The author has not shown explicitly whether the economic conditions, that are responsible for the widening generation gap, did exist.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Changing Relationship between the Generations’ Youth Studies Australia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he has not shown how these conditions were shaped by the economic reform of the last twenty or so years. In his claim that the economic reforms were responsible for increased unemployment, the author fails to explain why unemployment went up and down during the era of economic reforms as it can be deduced from his own data (Norton, 2003).
Michael Pusey believes that economic reform was a direct result of the cold war and that families are the biggest losers because of economic reforms. This is because they are caught in the middle of economic reforms and cultural norms and values that are inherited from the parents.
However, Pusey seems not to offer a balance approach in his blanket condemnation of economic reforms. There is no mention of factors such as advancements in technology or even shifts in consumer preferences, and natural disasters that occurred in the time the author tends to refers to.
On the cultural side, the author shows how family values and norms bridge the gap brought about by economic reforms. Parents are doing what the author call “intergenerational transfers.” The parents are using their money to help children put up a deposit for their homes, and also they are helping the children pay off HECS.
Therefore, culture plays an important part in compensating the destruction brought about by economic reforms. The issues raised by the author are important in understanding the building blocks of a vibrant society.
References Norton, A. (2003). Michael in a Muddle: Michael Pusey’s bungled attack on economic reform. Issue Analysis 34(2): 1-9.
Pusey, M. (2003). The Experience of Middle Australia: The Dark Side of Economic Reform, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press
Pusey, M. (2003), ‘An Australian story: The Troubling Experience of Economic Reform’ Australian Senate Occasional Lecture Series, Parliament House, retrieved from web.
Pusey, M. (2007), ‘The Changing Relationship between the Generations … It Could Even be Good News’, Youth Studies Australia 26(1): 9-17.
Macroeconomics and Reality Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Summary of the Article “Macroeconomics and Reality” is an article written by Christopher Sims and published in the Econometrica journal in 1980. In the article, Sims begins by stating clearly that there is a difference between economic theory and reality. In many cases, what is proposed by theories is not exactly what we see in real-life situations.
He further states that statistical models should be valuable in reconciling the theories to the reality. He however points out that few statistical economic models are utilized within the context of the large macroeconomic models. Sims’ article is thus aimed at explaining this quagmire and offering suggestions on how it can be solved. The aim of this paper is to critically analyze Sims’ article.
One of the issues raised by Sims (1) is the problem related to one-equation-at-a-time specification of a large model. It is true that the demand or supply of any commodity is influenced by an array of factors. Consider for instance the demand for cars in a country. This demand is affected by the price of the car, the price of other models of cars, tastes and preferences of consumers among others.
Thus, a large macroeconomic model will constitute all these variables some of which are endogenously determined while others are exogenously determined. The one-equation-at-a-time specification will however consider the influence of each of the variables on the demand separately thus leading to a set of demand functions.
When this happens, problem arises from the placement of the variables on either side of the equation. Sims states that, “… any variable which appears on the right hand side of one of these equations belongs in principle on the right hand side of all of them,” (3).
Sims (1980) also raises the concept of dynamism of large macroeconomic models. Dynamic models assert that changes in one variable will bring about changes in other variables of the model. Thus, the market will not be in equilibrium.
Sims (3) however states that the concept of dynamic models does not present any problem as long as the condition that markets clear is not violated. After analyzing the conventional processes followed in identification of economic modeling, Sims (4) argued that the restrictions that originate from economic theory which are imposed on structural models are incredible and therefore cannot be taken seriously.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These restrictions are required for the achievement of identification. Sims disagreed with the arbitrary normalizations which take place when an equation is claimed to offer an explanation of the many endogenous variables it contains.
He also criticized the one-equation-at-a-time specification process of macroeconomic models in which restrictions which are suitable for partial equilibrium models are imposed, thus bringing about unattractive systems properties. In situations where equations are dynamic, the identification process is more complex.
Likewise, policy variables are often assumed to be externally determined but in real-life situations they are usually partly endogenous. Sims (5) therefore claimed that only strictly exogenous variables can aid the identification process, and thus many apparently identified models are not in fact identified.
Sims (6) also touched on the issue of expectations. He argued that the behavior of an economic agent relies heavily on the expected future values of variables and these can be affected by any information currently available. For instance, if the price of oil in one country goes up for some reason which only affects that particular country, oil suppliers in the neighboring countries are likely to hike their prices based on the information they have and on the expectations.
Sims therefore argues that any variable that enters into an equation in a large macroeconomic model can influence expectations, and this causes more with identification.
In order to rectify all these problems of large macroeconomic models, Sims (15) suggested that no restrictions should be imposed on the equations. In other words, we should model unrestricted reduced form equations. This would give us equations in which each of the endogenous variables is dependent on lagged values of all the variables present in the system. While this seems to make sense, Sims fails to explain how we should select the list of variables making up the system.
Statistics used in the Article F tests and Chi-square tests
The article by Sims (19) makes use of various statistical techniques. In table 1 of the article, the author presents a couple of statistics. The first statistic is the F statistic. The author argues that the F tests in this table are used to show the corresponding single-equation test statistics.
We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomics and Reality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second statistic is the Chi-square statistics. The author argues that the Ch-square statistics are likelihood ratio test statistics conditioned on the initial observations. Table 1 and 2 show the price controls in the United States and compares them with price controls in Germany over different time periods.
The data presented in the table 1 shows that there is little difference between the time periods under investigation. The main source of difference between the time periods resulted from the commodity price boom of 1973 and 1974. Besides reporting the F-test and Chi-square statistics, Sims (20) also makes reference to significance levels for both the United States and Germany.
Sims (1980) also argues that with reference to the sample split at year 1958, the Chi-square statistic for the United States was significant at 0.0007 (equivalent to significance level of 0.007 percent). This implies that the researcher was 99.9993 confident of the results.
On the other hand, the Chi-square statistic for Germany was significant at 0.003 (equivalent to significance level of 0.3 percent). This implies that the researcher was 99.997 confident of the results. The F-test is normally used to test the equality of two population variances. It is also used to test the joint significance of more than one coefficient, that is, it is used in multiple regression analysis and is equivalent to the t-test in a simple regression analysis.
In a multiple regression analysis, the F-test is used to test if the explanatory variables jointly explain the dependent variable. But in the article by Sims (19), the F-test is used to test the equality or differences in the variances of two populations. Specifically, the populations under study include the United States and Germany.
Sims also argues that the F tests used in his article do not have the normal F distribution because of the presence of lagged dependent variables in his model.
The Chi-square statistic on the other hand is used to test the goodness of fit of data. That is, the Chi-square tests whether the data originated from a population that has a particular distribution (Leedy
Introduction for a new edition of Patti Smith’s Just Kids Essay essay help
From today’s perspective, the ideas promoted by the representatives of ‘flower children’ generation through sixties and seventies, appear rather overly idealistic and naïve.
Nevertheless, there can be little doubt as to the fact that, while advancing these ideas, the affiliates of hippie and punk movements never ceased acting in an intellectually honest manner.
It is not only that they genuinely believed in the beneficence of an idea of humanity’s liberation from religious/capitalist oppression, but they were able to incorporate this idea into the very fabric of their everyday living – they actively practiced their beliefs (Tarr 6).
The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to a new edition of Patti Smith’s memoir Just Kids, in which she provides readers with an insight onto different aspects of her early biography, mainly concerned with author’s pursuance of a romantic relationship with Robert Mapplethorpe.
As it appears from Smith’s memoir, ever since her childhood years, she has grown utterly fascinated with the poetry of Arthur Rimbaud: “I had found solace in Arthur Rimbaud… He possessed an irreverent intelligence that ignited me, and I embraced him as compatriot, kin, and even secret love” (21).
In its turn, this defined the qualitative essence of author biography’s consequential phases, because even though that, formally speaking, Smith’s first encounter with Robert Mapplethorpe was essentially accidental, it nevertheless appears to have been dialectically predetermined.
After all, in Smith’s eyes, Mapplethorpe was nothing short of a walking embodiment of Rimbaud’s values. In fact, even Mapplethorpe’s very appearance used to remind Smith of her favorite French poet: “He (Mapplethorpe) wore a huge Baudelairean bow and an armband identical to the one worn by a very defiant Arthur Rimbaud” (35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In its turn, this explains why, even after having broken up with Mapplethorpe as her boyfriend, Smith never ceased remaining a very close friend with him. Apparently, their relationship was deeply spiritual, which is why it would not be an exaggeration to suggest that it lasted right up until Mapplethorpe’s death in 1989.
Apart from having succeeded in enlightening readers on the nature of her spiritual closeness with Mapplethorpe, reflected by the essence of both individuals’ artistic aspirations, Smith also succeeded in helping younger readers to gain a better understanding of what accounted for the actual realities of her ‘countercultural living’ in New York.
As it appears from the memoir, there used to be a strongly defined spirit of genuineness to the ‘cultural revolution’, which was taking place at the time.
According to Smith, unlike what it is often being the case with today’s artists and musicians, whose activities seem to be motivated by the prospect of a monetary reward alone; at the time of ‘cultural revolution’, the activities of America’s intellectually advanced artists and musicians have been motivated by purely idealistic considerations, on their part: “We imagined ourselves as the Sons of Liberty with a mission to preserve, protect, and project the revolutionary spirit of rock and roll.
We feared that the music which had given us sustenance was in danger of spiritual starvation” (245). Nevertheless, it would be wrong to think that the themes and motifs of Smith’s memoir are being solely concerned with author’s irrational strive to idealize just about all the aspects of ‘cultural revolution’, in which she participated rather passionately.
For example, even though in Just Kids Smith never stops admiring Mapplethorpe’s photographic art, she nevertheless remains perfectly aware of the fact that it was namely her boyfriend’s addiction to drugs, which served him as a foremost artistic inspiration: “Robert’s early work was clearly drawn from his experiences with LSD” (98).
At the same time, however, there is no even a trace of judgmentalism to how Smith elaborates on her and her friends’ drug-related experiences.
We will write a custom Essay on Introduction for a new edition of Patti Smith’s Just Kids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the author, throughout sixties and seventies, the very atmosphere of intellectual liberation, which dominated in New York’s artistic circles of the time, was naturally causing ‘flower children’ to experiment with drugs.
Such Smith’s idea is being explored in regards to a number of socially prominent New Yorkers of the era, such as Sam Shepard, Jim Carroll and Allen Ginsberg, which in Just Kids appear to be the individuals who thought of expansion of their intellectual horizons as such that represented their lives’ foremost priority.
Therefore, it would not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that Smith’s memoir does not only represent a high literary but also philosophical value (Rogers 47).
After all, it is namely intellectually flexible Americans’ endowment with cognitive open-mindedness, which traditionally served as a driving force behind the process of this country remaining on the path of a continuous social, cultural and scientific progress.
Given the fact that this idea is being subtly promoted throughout memoir’s entirety, readers’ exposure to the semantic content of Smith’s memoir should prove utterly beneficial.
By gaining a better understanding of the essence of young Smith’s experiences, anxieties and aspirations, readers are not only being provided with an opportunity to learn about what used to account for the particulars of author’s ‘countercultural’ living, but they are also being prompted to adopt open-mindedness as an integral part of their own lives.
Bibliography Rogers, Jude. “The Boy Looked at Patti.” New Statesman, 139.4990 (2010): 47-48. Print.
Smith, Patty. Just Kids. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2010. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Introduction for a new edition of Patti Smith’s Just Kids by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tarr, Joe. The Words and Music of Patti Smith. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008. Print.
Social Classes and Class Structure Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction According to Karl Marx, analyzing social classes and structures as well as variations in the structures are critical in understanding modern capitalism other social systems or even modes of production.
Marx and Engels argue that the communist in the manifesto ‘…the history of all hitherto existing in the society is the class struggles” (Marx and Engels 35).
Analyzing class distribution and struggles is relevant in establishing knowledge about capitalism. Social classes are divided into two main classes with distinct features one comprises the owners or possessors of property as well as the means of production.
This group performs the role of production. The other factor is concerned producers and controllers of the surpluses in relation to human social labor.
The economic factors in the modern world govern social relationships in capitalism than it did in ancient times. This paper therefore discusses stratification and conflicts that exist in society. It bases on the statements made by Marx in scholarly works.
Relevance of Marx Ideas Divisions in Capitalism
Earlier societies consisted of several sections or clusters that can be perceived to be classes. They were not classes parse but elites not specifically based on economic factors but also incorporated other things such as priesthood, knights or military elite.
In the modern society, other classes of people such as capital owners, petty bourgeoisie and peasants are incorporated in the production process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of Lumpen proletariat existing, they are not primarily in terms of the dynamics of capitalism or its expansion and development.
Bourgeoisie The bourgeoisie controls the means of production such as capital and labor. The capital exploit the workers by misusing their labor meaning that they produce much but are paid less.
They utilize the surplus value created from employment of labor to accumulate and expand their capital. Owning massive resources is not equivalent to possessing capital power and labor; it does not make an individual to be bourgeoisie.
To be a capitalist or member of bourgeoisie class entails the ownership of huge capital, active participation in capital accumulation, using capital to organize production, employ and exploit labor and finally make the capital self regulating by using the surplus value to continue the cycle of capital accumulation (Marx and Engels 48).
Bourgeoisies began in cities of medieval Europe. This was during the development of mercantilism, artisans and manufacturing. The main aim of economic survival for the people was increase wealth through trade and commerce.
The bourgeoisies needed much freedom in marketing activities and economic expansion activities. Capital ownership was achieved by labor employment (industrial capital) while for some it was acquired through trade (merchant capital).
Those who employed workers to create and expand capital succeeded in acquiring capital consequently leading the sector of bourgeoisie.
We will write a custom Essay on Social Classes and Class Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The proletariat The workers only own their labor implying that they earn their living through their ability to work. They do not own any resources in form of capital meaning that they own nothing apart from their hands, bodies and minds/skills.
The Proletariat works hard to sustain their lives and provide basic needs to their relatives and other dependants. They have to seek employment if they are to continue coexisting in the society.
For an employee, working for a capitalist is not peaceful instead; the kind of relation that exists is exploitative in nature because the worker performs many activities with insufficient returns.
The exploitative relationship between the worker and the employer is cumulative meaning that it keeps on repeating itself. The capitalists accumulate wealth by underpaying the worker (Marx and Engels 50).
The workers produce goods and services that belong to the capitalist meaning that workers are also properties of capitalists. They produce goods that create surpluses to the bourgeoisie but they remain in poverty.
Exploitation occurs in every day’s production process, which ends up restricting workers from acquiring wealth and regenerates the best working environments for further exploitation (Marx and Engels 50).
The existing mode of production is arranged in such a way that the property owners continue enjoying better opportunities while workers continue occupying their current positions.
Capitalists accumulate the excesses obtained in the production process by workers. The intersection point between workers and capitalists is the production process. The capitalist who create struggles and intrigues hence causing tension in the society exploits the workers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Classes and Class Structure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alienation of Proletariat Although the workers are the direct producers of goods, they are slaves of the goods they produce. The produced good has more value than the worker does because they are offered maximum security and stored in safe places.
The workers produce goods that they do not consume, they produce for others. The increase in product value decreases the viability of the workers. The worker ends up being treated the same way goods are treated, treated as equals.
Workers are perpetually pushed to the periphery leading to alienation from the process of production. The way workers relate to the whole process of production leaves a lot to be desired because the relationship is unnatural and uncalled for.
The workers never find satisfaction because they satisfy the interests of other individuals (Capitalists). The worker views the whole process of production as forced labor because actually it is inhuman.
The worker ends up being alienated from the self because of the last two forms of alienation. The worker portrays two personalities; one is the feeling of belonging to capitalism because the worker is separated from real consciousness. In the other hand, workers perceive themselves as human beings ((Marx and Engels 54).
The last form of alienation that dissatisfied Marx is alienation from others implying that the worker is separated from other people. Workers cannot relate normally to others because individuals with separated self cannot interact in accordance to societal norms.
They view others as properties of capitalism. It is at this point that Marx noted with finally that only a revolution would salvage humankind from all these troubles.
Social Stratification: Marxist Perspective Marx observed in his statements that capitalism brings about differentiations in society. The rich are at the top while the poor are at the bottom perishing in great poverty. In modern capitalistic societies, classes differentiate people.
According to Marx, the capitalistic culture is a divisive force not an integrating one. The existing social groups are differentiated in property meaning that some benefit more than others do.
The owners of the means of production who enjoy power, prestige and luxurious life occupy the higher positions. Social stratification basing on property is found in all human societies.
For societies to survive therefore role allocation is indispensable. Society attaches unequal rewards to social positions because people differ in ability and positions differ in terms of importance. Unfortunately, the important positions benefit the elite (Marx and Engels 56).
There is a heated debate on whether unequal rewards function to motivate talented individuals. Generally, social stratification basing on capital is a mechanism in which some exploit others.
The elite uses the institutions of the state to advance their interests, in fact Marx termed the state as the committee of dominant class. Those with highest rewards enjoy superior life chances such as access to high education, quality housing and special Medicare.
Those who occupy important positions erect barriers to recruitment of others into comfortable positions. They use capital power to restrict access to their positions by creating unnecessary demands to the position services.
The different rewards exist to propel hostility, suspicion and mistrust. It gives the low class the feeling of exclusion from larger society leading to formation of solidarity, which might cause tensions and more conflicts with threats of revolutions.
Conclusion The statements made by Karl Marx serve to describe how people should liberate themselves. Liberation would be achieved through people’s consciousness.
People will arise up against the existing mode of production because of its social injustices. The mode hands a few the power of investment while the majority survive at the mercy of the owners of the means of production.
The state cannot liberate the masses because the capitalist to enhance self-interests uses it. Exploitation and alienation are the most pressing issues among the workers; they are the same things that disillusioned Marx to an extent of calling for a revolution to guarantee mass happiness.
Work Cited Marx, Karl and Engels, Fredrick. The Communist Manifesto: introduction by Martin Malia, New York: Penguin group, 1998, pg. 35.
Profile of a language group present in the Los Angeles area Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Living areas The Los Angeles Area is inhabited by a very large Korean American community. At this point, it is very difficult to determine the exact number, but according to the results available in 2008, this minority was represented by 1.1 million people (Kim, 27). These people live predominantly in Los Angeles County and Orange County.
There are some places where there is a large proportion of this group; in particular, one has to speak about such neighborhood as Koreatown. They constitute 23 percent of total population which is approximately 28520 people (Kim, 27). Overall, Korean Americans live in Los Angeles, Anaheim, and many neighboring cities.
Reasons for settling in the US and the LA area There are several reasons why these people decided to settle in the United States, and particularly the LA area. First, some of them had to immigrate in order to avoid political prosecution. This reason is particularly important when we speak about North Korean refugees or their descendants.
Secondly, many Korean people chose to settle in the US because this country could provide them with better economic and employment opportunities. It should be noted that Korean population of the Los Angeles area began to increase dramatically after the adoption of Immigration and Nationality Act (Chen, 41).
Many of these immigrants chose this part of the United States because of its rapid economic growth, vast educational opportunities, and mild climate.
The use of the language in the private sector Private education
The Korean language is not often used in the sphere of private education. Certainly, we can mention Wilshire Private School in which students can learn the Korean language, but it is not a part of the curriculum (Wilshire Private School, unpaged). It is located in Los Angeles on 4900 Wilshire Boulevard.
This educational institution can serve the needs of ESL students, and many Korean immigrants want their children to attend this school because in this place they could practice both English and Korean.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religious worship
Currently, the majority of Korean Americans view themselves as Christians (Yoo
Eastman Kodak Analysis Report writing essay help
Introduction George Eastman founded Eastman Kodak Co. in 1892. The company is presently a global purveyor and a developer of digital imaging products and services. Over the years, the company has created a strong customer base with the traditional imaging products for commercial, leisure and scientific purposes.
Among the products that the company deal with include home printers, photographic processing chemicals, digital cameras, scanners and films. They also offer a wide array of services that include wholesale finishing services, digital imaging as well as online photo storage and sharing services. The company also creates calendars, photo books, requested prints and frames that it ships.
The company is generally organized into 3 divisions dealing with separate sets of products and services. These are the Graphic Communication Group (GCG), the Consumer Digital Imaging group (CDG) and the Film, Photofinishing and Entertainment Group (FPEG).
Kodak Co, is traded in the New York stock exchange and reported revenue of $9 billion last year and is believed to has assets to the tune of $9billion in FY08. The story of the company has been one of innovation over the years.
However, there was laxity in embracing the digital revolution and this slackened the growth of the company which has made it struggle for a long time in trying to cover the lost ground. The company has realized that in order to be profitable, it should not solely rely on sales.
Therefore, it has embarked in other ventures including selling of assets like the intellectual property rights and the OLED arm of business which is a potential platform for next-generation flat display technology. This technology has been steadily developed by the company in the last couple of decades (Kodak, 2009).
The company is assuming to establish itself as a maker of user friendly imaging products that are primarily crafted with amateurs in mind. The problem with this strategy is that most of the products end up having lower prices in the market which creates an illusion that they may be of inferior quality than those of the competitors. The way the company markets its products does not emphasize on a single product but rather promotes a range of products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s rise to global acclaim began when George Eastman advanced a dry plate technology that allowed for the amateur pursuit of photography. This led to the issue of about 19,000 patents from 1900 up to 1999. The greatest success was from the development of the Kodachrome which was the first colored film and was used by NASA in the maiden flight to the moon to take photographs and relay them to earth.
However, with such a strong background, the company failed to capitalize on its strengths during the rise of the digital age and this saw it revenues plummet form $15 billion to $ 9.4 billion (Butcher, 2009). There has also been a major operation by the company to cut its work force considerably which has seen around 50,000 job cuts (Dobbin, 2009).
Porter’s five forces Porter’s five forces are usually those factors that prevent the entry of a company into a market or those that prevent an established business from expanding. Kodak is in crisis having lost a large share of its market due to competition and the shift from film photography to digital one (Pham-Gia, 2009). The company unveiled a plan that was aimed at investing a large sum in the expansion into new markets.
This plan of action infuriated investors who were going to loose out on dividends in order to fund this endeavor. Over the last couple of years, the company has experienced a dip in profitability which has increased concerns about the company’s strategy going forward.
The first force that prevents Kodak from expanding into new markets is the threat of competitors. In the digital imaging business, there are other companies that have a large market share including Canon and Sony who are renowned for their electronics’ manufacturing. Other companies like Hewlett Packard and Facebook also compete with Kodak on multiple fronts.
The second force is the threat from new entrants. Whereas the company has been in operation for the last century, new ideas are constantly born and as such there is no guarantee for continued prosperity. As technological advances are made, the needs of consumers change.
Companies that realize the needs fastest are the ones who benefit most. In the last couple of years, for example, Facebook was conceived out of the need for people to communicate by sharing pictures. Thus, when Kodak rolled out its Kodakgallery, the market had already been swayed towards the social networks.
We will write a custom Report on Eastman Kodak Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third force is the presence of substitutes. Since electronic products are now being produced by a large number of companies, there has been an increase in the number of cheap products that have entered the market. Most of these are counterfeited and do not go through the set licensures and hence they are cheaper.
The fourth force according to Porter is the action of suppliers. This includes the suppliers of raw materials and capital. Certain raw materials are very costly and thus they deter the production of a certain product.
There is also the fact that there are patents that work against the company and that is a deterrent as the purchase of these patents may be very expensive. The final bit of this point is that investors might withhold their input if they do not buy into a certain venture the company is looking to undertake.
The final force that may hinder the expansion of the company is the customers. The market is already saturated with a wide array of similar products as those of Kodak. This may mean that the company might take a long time to break even in new markets.
Kodak’s corporate strategy The market strategy adopted by the company is customer focused. Specifically, the company targets people between the ages of 25 and 40 years and those that are active, in relationships and love to take photographs, have basic skills in photography, and those that care about family and friends and are fascinated by the prospect of freezing time and sharing those moments with others online.
The company is positioning itself in a way to fight off the competition by allowing users to take, share and store images on the internet and also engage a keepsafe feature unlike its competitors Canon, Nikon, and Fujifilm.
There is also focus on improving the products that the company offers. However there is a popular notion that although the company uses words like “easy” meant to insinuate that the products have user-friendliness, there are no features to support the claim.
The only thing that the products have is a long battery life like the Kodak Easy Share M1033 digital camera. The Kodak Easy Share 5300 printer is accompanied by a very unfriendly user interface that is cumbersome to use and lacks a networking capability.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Eastman Kodak Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These facts discredit the company’s repeated promotional campaigns that suggest that all its products are user-friendly. However, there is reprieve as the products are created within a very short time frame in order to fend off the competition and can be improved over time as the technology improves and the needs of the customers change. The products that the company develops present different market scenarios (Keegan and Greene, 2005).
For example, the digital camera is the same as that of the competitors. In an attempt to improve the product, the revenue from the original product is reduced and this projects a certain element of cannibalism on the products. On the contrary, the development of the printer has given rise to one that has a high initial cost but reduces the costs of ink needed.
Kodak strives to provide products that demand price differentiation from those of the competitors so as to make profit. Comparing the primary Kodak products like digital cameras and inkjet printers, and its secondary products like Kodak Gallery and digital picture frames with those of its competitors, a trend emerges.
According to the Consumer’s Union of the United States (2009), Kodak cameras retailed between $80 and $160 while those offered by the competitors ranged from $110 to $500. It is possible to deduce that Kodak suffers from a negative price differential.
While lower products attract a large proportion of the price sensitive consumer, it also serves to create an image that the products are of a lesser quality than those of the competitors to the more critical customer whereas in reality, Kodak products hive the same results as those of these competitors if not better.
In a ranking that was done to reflect the top 26 spots point and shoot category of the digital camera, Kodak was found to hold four of these spots only bettered by Canon which had nine. Others like Fujifilm held two and Nikon had none.
Kodak, like its competitors, markets its products through individual websites. There is also placement that is done in major and local retailers in stores and also on the internet. Photo storage products are exclusively offered on the internet.
Kodak has aggressively been involved in promotional activities for its products. In 1988, the famous catch phrase associated with its products was “you press the button we’ll do the rest” (Kodak, 2009). Others included “the Kodak moment”, “share moments, share life” in 2001 and “it’s time to smile!”
The communication today between friends and families is easier. This is because of the numerous channels that have opened up. Among the most significant is the development of the social networks where people share pictures and other images.
Cell phones are also contributors to these increased interactions. The use of these networks has not been used by the company to a meaningful level.
Compared to the number of followers that competitors of Kodak have, it is clear that the company has still not embraced technology and its effects on marketing of products. Charlene Li (2008) presents a scenario that helps to better understand the impact of the social media on a company’s profitability.
Assume that the ideal Kodak consumer spends $200 per year for 20 years in a variety of products totaling $4,000. Also, assume Kodak‘s contribution margin stays at nearly 25% so each customer is worth $1000 to the company. If an integrated digital campaign of the magnitude that Kodak is implementing costs nearly $10 million per year to maintain, the company will need 10,000 of these consumers to break even.
Kodak’s promotional strategy has not been in line with that of its competitors. While the company relies too much on its brand strength, its competitors have engaged the services of celebrities who are worshipped wildly, world-wide.
Nikon engages the services of Ashton Kutcher, a movie star whereas Canon has Maria Sharapova who is a sports icon, to energize their brands. Kodak therefore needs to improve on its initiatives so as to build on its community of fans and in turn stir growth in revenues and image.
SWOT Analysis Kodak will be analyzed according to its perceived strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
The existence of the company since 1892 has led to cultivation of a very strong brand image. The company’s brand name is recognized world wide and this helps to increase sales margins as the company charges premium prices for its products (Pringle and Field, 2008).
A strong brand name always attracts a brand loyalty that helps the customers to perceive a high quality different from that of recent entrants. A strong brand is always associated with strong stock and this ensures trade in the stock market for its products.
Another strength for the company is the intellectual property rights that it has. This gives it the edge over the other products as its portfolio is associated with innovations and thus keeps customers anticipating their products and other companies buying the rights to the developed products.
Over the years, the company has missed some great opportunities that have led to missed profits. This misses were occasioned by the presence of a weak management that did not take enough risks (Al-Ali, 2003).
However in today’s environment, the company has many initiatives that it hopes hold the keys for future technology advancement. The excessive risks taken by the company could lead to decreased profits occasioned by wasted resources on projects that fail to bear any fruits.
The company is in the process of a restructuring that has seen a massive loss of jobs over the past couple of years. If this transition is not managed carefully, then the company is set to loose its footing in the market which could affect its image and in turn revenue.
Another weakness is the fact that the company has shifted its focus from film photography to digital photography. This is unhealthy for the company as there are still many areas in the world where people are still reliant on films for photography especially in third world nations.
Kodak has a number of opportunities mostly stemming from advances in technology. Technology has occasioned the improvement of products and services offered and also introducing new platforms that could increase profitability. This may also assist in building competitive barriers against competitors.
Emerging markets also present an opportunity to increase the business prospects especially in markets that are opening up around the world especially in Africa and Asia.
New products that are built constantly present a great opportunity for expansion of the markets in which Kodak operates. New products can stem from the increased research in new technologies or can be developed out of the realization of a need gap in the consumer behavior.
New markets are also an opportunity for Kodak to capitalize on. While emerging markets insinuate spreading into new frontiers, new markets connote a diversification of the range of the products and services that the company offers.
The biggest threat is posed by the deteriorating economy occasioned by the global economic crisis. This has greatly reduced the consumer purchasing power and in turn is destined to affect the revenue the company rakes.
Intense competition is also a major threat to the profitability of Kodak. The competitors can attract customers and persuade them that their products are superior to those of Kodak. Therefore, the company needs to keep aggressively marketing its products.
The presence of substitute products is also a major threat to the sales recorded by Kodak. The major threat posed by substitutes is that they can affect the company in case of an increase in the prices of products since they are cheaply available.
Competition for Kodak is not only in the imaging companies like Nikon and Canon but also the social networking sites like facebook that give users the same experience as that which Kodak promote involving storing pictures on the web.
Recommendations There are a few recommendations that would be very helpful to the improvement of Kodak’s position in the market.
Availing products to the markets for sale to customers is very vital. Kodak, although avails the products, does not inform the consumers of the locations where the products can be easily accessed. When one visits the company’s website, it is difficult to get a location from where one can purchase a Kodak product. As such, the company should improve on its communication to the customers about the nearest outlets to them that stock their products.
The company should consider revising its prices upwards so as to increase its price differentiation (Kavajecz, 2009). According to the market survey discussed in the preceding segments, it is clear that competitors of Kodak make profits from the sale of their products that are of a similar quality as that of the company.
An increase in price will not necessarily decrease sales and in turn revenues since the competitors charge higher prices for the same quality. In fact, this move would increase the revenues generated by the company.
The market strategy that the company has adopted overwhelms customers as it’s presented as a process. For example, Kodak tells customers to take pictures with their digital cameras, print them with their printers, share them on KodakGalley, create keepsafe and display the pictures on their frames. This process is tedious for the customer.
Thus, the company should focus on promoting one product at a time. The recommendation here is that the company should focus on a primary product like digital cameras and then choose the others as supporting products. This will ultimately increase sales in comparison to the adopted strategy.
As a result of the target market that the company has adopted, there should be focus on the production of more user-friendly products. The company attempts to sell its digital cameras to the novice photographers. As such, the product should integrate an easy to use interface and should have most of the other function automated.
This should not however compromise the quality of the end product. Currently, the company’s products compete well with the others but do not go out of their way to differentiate themselves. The same case applies to their printers.
References Al-Ali, N. (2003). Comprehensive intellectual capital management. New Jersey: John Wiley
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow vs An Indian’s Looking Glass for the White Man Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The short story, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, written by Washington Irving and published first in 1820, is set in the Dutch settlement Greenburgh or Tarry Town as it was known. Specifically, the whole story takes place in a secluded glen, the Sleepy Hollow in the late 1700s. Ichabod Crane and Abraham “Brom Bones” Van Brunt are the two main protagonists battling out for the hand of the 18-year-old daughter of Baltus Van Tassel in the marriage.
The young lady in the endless dog fight between these two men is Katrina Van Tassel who is the only child of the wealthy farmer. The two gentlemen are of different characters as Ichabod, a schoolmaster, is a very superstitious man. On the other hand, Abraham is the town rowdy and is a very cunning man.
Ichabod while from a party from Van Tassel’s home, he is chased by what he believes is a headless ghost. After this event which occurred during one night in autumn, Ichabod disappears without a trace.
However, the manner in which Brom knows the story about Ichabod’s mysterious disappearance, it is clear that he was indeed the headless ghost. He takes an advantage of the fact that his main competitor, Ichabod, is a very superstitious man and scares him away leaving him with the bride, Katrina Van Tassel.
In his book, An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White, William Apes tries to point out various aspects of racism in the society in which he lived in. The topic is actual for all times including the present days. Racism has been one of the main problems facing the modern society nowadays.
In this book, Apes points out that it is hypocritical to hold on to the existence of races at the same time call yourself a Christian for racism is not even recognized in the Bible. This book is set in the 1800s when the white people controlled the Native Americans.
However, Apes, writing to the mostly predominately white Christian audience, insists that they have no right to rule the colored people and even Jesus and His disciples were colored. In his essay, Apes asserts that the whites have committed heinous crimes in the name of Christianity murdering the colored Native Americans to grab their lands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More William Apes believes that it is quite dehumanizing for the whites to deny the colored people their basic human rights such as land ownership. It is not right for any race to have control over the other races as it is a free world and people are supposed to have equal rights.
He points out that it is not right for the whites to treat the Native Americans as lesser beings. However, Apes tries to bridge this gap that has emerged due to the skin color by calling everyone to a common understanding that all are the same; white or colored. He believes that all races should love each other for all are Christians.
Of the two books, William Apes’, “An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White,” stands out as the better of the two. The plot structure of this book is very elaborate and to the point. The plot structure clearly brings out the writer’s main themes, racism and Christianity.
In his plot, Apes clearly points out the crimes committed by the white people against the Native Americans. The whites murdered the Native Americans and grabbed their land in the name of Christianity. Interestingly, the writing was directed to the mainly white dominated congregation.
In his plot, Apes calls on all Christians; white or colored to come together and live harmoniously for they are one and that racism is not recognized in the Bible. Moreover he points out in his book’s plot structure that directly address us in the world today, that no race has the right to dominate over the other.
Even though written long time ago the plot structure of this book still resonates with us today. The plot of this book is simple and direct to the point. It has the plot of a preaching by a pastor directed to a divided congregation.
In the book, William Apes has set the story in the 1800s a period marred by mass murder of Native Americans by the whites in the name of Christianity and in the quest of land. During this period, the whites considered the Native Americans as lesser human beings who had no right to own land in America. William Apes’ point of view is that all are equal bound together by Christianity.
We will write a custom Essay on The Legend of Sleepy Hollow vs An Indian’s Looking Glass for the White Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During such a time when the Native Americans were dehumanized by the whites, he believed that no race should control the other in the name of Christianity or skin color. He believed that racism did not exist in God’s Kingdom. The characters in this book are whites and Native Americans.
The whites are the oppressors while the Native Americans are the oppressed. The whites are the murderers who try to justify their actions by hiding behind the veil of Christianity. On the other hand, the Native Americans are the victims of this dehumanizing act who are considered to be lesser beings.
The sufferings of the Native Americans and the control of their social and political lives by the whites symbolizes the sufferings of not only the colored groups in America but also the world over. It shows how many people the world over have suffered in the hands of their leaders and other tribes. The excuse of whites for committing such atrocities resonates with many given by oppressors today.
The book has strong themes which we can identify with in the world today. The theme of Christianity stands out throughout the book. Apes calls on everybody to stop hypocrisy and embrace one another. He even uses Biblical verses in his book.
Moreover, the theme of racism dominates in the book as William Apes points out various heinous crimes and dehumanizing crimes committed by the whites against the Native Americans. The whites grab the land of the Native Americans’ land and murder them. Moreover, the whites treat the colored people as lesser beings hence they have no right to own land.
Even though he does not recognize races, he also biased in his view but one thing that stands out is that Apes tries to bridge the gap between the races. He calls on all the races to treat each as equals for all are Christians bound together by God’s love. These attributes of the book makes the book the better of the two as it even resonates with our tribulations today.
American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The American Revolution – A Long Way to the Independence
The U. S. Constitution as the Symbol of Its Independence
The Activities of the Tea Party and the New Left
Introduction The U. S history, particularly the period of the American Revolution, has been marked by a number of inconsistencies and misconceptions concerning the origins of political power and reasons why people were involved in mass insurgencies. One way or another, the historical events occurred in the past has formed the present, newly established movements struggling against inequalities and corrupted political regimes.
This fight, however, is based on the political frictions connected with the limitations and changes presented in the U. S. Constitution. Throughout the American history, this document has been the major source of confrontations between the Conservative and Republican Parties that interpreted the clauses with regard to their personal and political interests.
The point is that the oldest legal documents still fails to directly address the current political issues and meet people’s expectations with regard to their rights. In order to stand the biased provisions, liberal and radical confrontations appeared, such as Tea Party that is now followed by the New Left, a radical movement fighting against the corrupt government and protecting the innocence of the unwitting community.
In whole, the American people paving the way to independence have to face challenges in the form of restricted provisions of Constitution, wrong interpretation and understanding of the American Revolution, and false representation of conservative and republican views on democracy.
The American Revolution – A Long Way to the Independence The American Revolution emerged as a result of political, social, and intellectual shifts in the American government and society. This was one of the first attempts of people to oppose the corrupt authoritative structure, establish justice, and promote liberal views.
While comparing previous resistance to the modern attitude to the political regime in the United States, much attention should be paid to the efforts of Tea Party and the New Left to protect social interests and model a new political order based on democracy and liberalism. According to Crain (2010), today the American population “…have come to regard insurgency as a foreign and unpleasant phenomenon” to the extent that one cannot recollect the fact from the American history about cruelty of the American revolutionaries (p.3).
It is often neglected, however, that the Tea Party movement often resorted to unjust and cruel methods and introduced conspiracy theories and violence. As a result, a shadow of biases is now imposed on the current movements protecting the rights of people because of the ambiguity of the U. S Constitution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is more doubtful is the introduction of U.S. constitution whose provisions have still left much ambiguity concerning its rightfulness and justice with regard to people and the democratic regime (Lepore, 2011). Apparently, the misconceptions emerged in the past were also due to the eternal confrontation of the political parties and regimes.
Specifically, there have always been a conflict between Conservatives and Republicans leaving no space for protecting the rights and freedoms of humble people. Lack of ideology and reluctance to follow the generally established norms led to discrepancies and frictions (Hanna, 2010). As a result, the entire U. S. history is a revolutionary path of people established to fight against those inconsistencies.
The U. S. Constitution as the Symbol of Its Independence The USA was declared as a federal constitutional republic. In 1787, the Constitution became the main document of the government (US Constitution, 2011). This constitution is considered to be the oldest one in the modern society. As the document states, “We the People”, it implies “…forming a more perfect Union, establishing Judgment, insuring Domestic Tranquility, providing for the Common Defense, promoting the general Welfare and securing the Blessings of Liberty to the American and their prosperity” (Lepore, 2011, p. 1).
Although some politicians refused to sign it because of the uncertainty of some laws covered in its document, it was still adopted. The document was only the symbol of a federal constitutional republic (Lepore, 2011). As the Constitution was created for every American, it became accessible for reading.
Importantly, everyone could keep this invaluable document of the government in a pocket (Lepore, 2011). Although it became available for many people, the power of this document was not enhanced.
The Constitution of the United States of America is considered to be one of the shortest ones because it contains forty-four hundred words only. However, the document generates serious discussions and is subjected to different interpretations by the Parties. Existence of different variants and amendments to the Constitution prevents the government from establishing a unique set of rules and regulations applied to the contemporary society.
In particular, the original document fails to “…directly address many of today’s significant political issues” (US Constitution, 2011, p. 2). In this respect, the Republicans are more prone to use the corrected variant of the document because they approve the necessity to introduce changes to a constantly developing society.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In contrast, the Conservatives believe that it is more reasonable to apply to the original variant so as to preserve the integrity of regulations. The presented ambivalence significantly hampers the overall social improvement.
Everyone is taught to respect the Constitution from his/her childhood. However, even if you have such a great opportunity to look through the document, it can be differently interpreted due to the existence of general and ambiguous statements.
According to Lepore (2011), “the Constitution was made like a Fiddle, with but few Strings, but so that the ruling Majority could play any tune upon it they please” (p. 2). It is a sort of an instrument used by politicians to achieve their interests.
The contracted version of the legal document presented in public, however, cannot provide solutions to the problem of freedom and equalities protection because it significantly deviates from the existed variant considered by the government. In fact, the availability does not mean the existence of the printed variant of its document, but sufficient understanding of laws, rights, and duties.
More than that, there have been millions of different interpretations of the same law from this document, which leads to insurgencies and resentment among the U.S. population. Many politicians were concerned by this problem and some actions were undertaken to solve it. In 1789 and 1860, only the one state California wanted the Constitution to be taught at schools (Lepore, 2011).
There was a great doubt concerning this issue. Despite the fact that the Constitution proclaimed liberties, the majority of people were far from being free from slavery for a long time. Hence, changes should not be proposed to the document, but to the attitude of the Government to the document itself.
Judging from this, the U.S. Constitution failed to provide equal opportunities for all citizens of the United States irrespective of their race and nationality. In particular, inconsistent information was provided concerning social and political problems at different historical periods.
On the one hand, the alterations included into the legal document seem to be unreasonable because some of them are not congruent with the original and universal statements. On the other hand, the introduction of amendments and corrections is indispensible to meet the challenges of the modern society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Revolution and the Crisis of the Constitution of the USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is an assumption that the Constitution “…is not a document, but a stream of history” (Lepore, 2011, p. 2). The Constitution should always be subjected to changes. It should also correspond to social and political problems of the society.
When new problems arise and the government is not able to provide solutions with regard to the existing norms of the U.S. Constitution, the urgency of this document goes out of date. In this respect, it should be stressed that the Constitution of the United States of America is in crisis now.
The point is that the nation is a complex unity that undergoes different social, cultural, and economical processes. At this point, the Constitution should be developed in accordance to the needs of society (Lepore, 2011). Judging from the rigorous criticism of the documents, the U.S. Constitution should undergo tangible changes for the U.S. people to feel that their rights are protected and respected.
What is more important is that the original document, along with all the amendments, should be available for all people. Each citizen should understand the value of observing the rights and freedoms of every person to eliminate the problems of social, racial, and cultural inequality.
The Activities of the Tea Party and the New Left There are many interpretations of the Constitution that facilitate its understanding for ordinary people. The newly introduced variation impels many Americans to comprehend this document with regard to their personal needs and interests. This idea of easy interpretations is supported by the New Left, the successors of the Tea Party and conservative think-tankers.
The movement seeks to return power to people, overthrow the power of the elite and organize a revolutionary movement (Hannan, 2010). The Constitution is not the privilege of elite, as many politicians state. On the contrary, the Constitution was proclaimed for the whole nation. Everyone has the right to know all his/her rights and duties.
Although the Tea Party and the New Left have a number of differences, there are also many similarities in their politics (Brooks, 2010). The established parallels specifically concern the methods of fighting with the legal inconsistencies through organizing public demonstrations and extreme movements.
It should also be stressed that both parties agree with the statement that all people are virtuous and pure and all problems are caused by “rotten authority structures and corrupt elite” (Brooks, 2010, p. 2). They believe that political regimes contribute to the destruction of our society. In this respect, the best decision of solving these problems is “the spontaneous upraising of participatory democracy” (Brooks, 2010, p. 3).
Is it actual to live according to the Constitution which is considered to be the oldest one? The New Left is keen on introducing the changes to the Constitution.
It also seeks to provide privileges to the middle social class. Additionally, the Party is confident that imprudence, naive radicalism, and self-righteousness can contribute to achieving the established goals and objectives (Brooks, 2010). Despite the fact that many politicians criticize the measures used by the liberal movement, it is the only way to draw attention of masses to this burning issue.
The Constitution of the United States of America, the oldest historic document is the symbol of the independence for many Americans. The U. S. honor and follow it without fully comprehension of its content.
However, community is not aware of the actual role that the document plays in governing the state because political forces are inclined to use different interpretations for achieving their personal goals. Judging from these considerations, the questions about the objectivity and appropriateness of the U.S. constitution provision arises. In order to solve the problems and eliminate contradictions, political upbringing is one of the main aims of the modern society.
It presupposes a full understanding of the Constitution. If the Constitution too difficult for ordinary people to understand, it should be reconsidered. The history shows that many regulations and norms have appeared because of revolutionary movements.
Conclusion Many contradictions are specifically connected with the origins of the U.S. constitution, as well as the further events connected with its provisions. The American Revolution, eternal confrontation between the Republicans and the Conservatives, and the emergence of the Tea Party are among such events proving the necessity to re-evaluate the clauses of the U.S.
Constitution and introduce universal principles that would be applicable to each person. It is impossible to live in modern society with new social and political problems without changing the main document of the government. In spite of the fact that the slavery was abolished long time ago, but the consequences and undercurrent issues remain.
Reference List Brooks, D. (2010). The Wal-Mart Hippies. The New York Times. Web.
Crain, C. (2010). Tea and Antipathy. The New Yorker. Web.
Hannan, D. (2010). The Tea-Party Tradition. National Review Online. Web.
Lepore, J. (2011). A Critic at Large. The Commandments: the Constitutions and its worshippers. The New Yorker. Web.
US Constitution Read Aloud in House of Representatives. (2011). BBC News US and Canada. Web.
Statistics for Economics Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Statistics for Economics
Executive Summary Professor Steve H. Hanke is the author of the Monetary Misjudgments and Malfeasance, a Cato Journal, Vol.31, No. 3 (2011): pp. 473-484. According to Hanke, the United States policy has been characterized by monetary misjudgments and malfeasance. In spite of the fact that there were clear signs of the impeding economic crisis, the Federal Reserve officials and their counterparts in Europe were unable to alleviate the economic crisis that took place in 2008-09.
To make the matters even worse, their corrective measures turned the crisis into a panic. According to Professor Hanke, the Fed officials were mainly responsible for creating the demand bubbles (especially the market-specific ones) that disrupted the relative markets prices. In addition, both the Fed officials and their counterparts in Europe compelled commercial banks to raise their capital-asset ratios as a safety measure.
For example, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) increased the capital-asset ratio from 4% to 7% based on the bank’s risk-weighted assets. It further imposed an extra 2% surcharge in addition to the 7% requirement for largest commercial banks. The justification for this move was that commercial banks would be safer and stronger if they were heavily capitalized.
On the contrary, this move distorted the money supply metrics and weakened economic growth. The money balances of commercial banks were effectively been wiped out. According to Professor Hanke, commercial banks were forced to shrink their asset bases in order to comply with the new regulation. As a result, the deposit liabilities of commercial banks’ declined significantly thereby wiping out money balances.
Statistics for Economics The Federal Reserve is mainly responsible for creating market-specific demand bubbles in the US for a long time. Prior to the Lehman Brothers’ demise in 2008, the Federal Reserve not only generated aggregate demand bubble but also initiated a number of market-oriented bubbles. The Fed was in a good position to alleviate market-specific bubbles (witnessed in the commodity, equity and housing markets) by monitoring price volatility in the markets (such as adjustments in the aggregate consumer price index).
Nonetheless, the Federal Reserves officials have persistently refused to take any blame for generating market-specific bubbles that led to the economic crisis in 2008. As a matter of fact, the Federal Reserve officials have proposed that commercial banks must raise their capital-asset ratios in order to stabilize their operations and prevent a similar crisis from recurring (Hanke 473).
Aggregate demand bubble occurs when the Fed’s negligence permits aggregate demand to rise too fast. In other words, an aggregate demand is created when nominal final sales to buyers in the United States surpass nominal growth rate (consistent with modest inflation) by a large amount.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the two-decade reign of Bernanke and Greenspan at the Fed, the nominal final sales rose at a 5.2% annual trend rate. This pattern reflected an inflation rate of 2.2% and real sales of 3%. Nonetheless, the annual trend rate has revealed a number of deviations. The first one started soon after Alan Greenspan was appointed the chairman of the Federal Reserve.
Following the stock market crash in October 1987, the Federal Reserve released more money into the market thereby creating an aggregate demand bubble. As a result, the nominal finals sales rose by 7.5% (above the trend rate) in the following year (Hanke 474).
It is worthy to note that the Federal Reserve was mainly responsible for initiating the 2008-09 aggregate demand bubble that led to the economic crisis. This led to the Federal Reserve’s preferred inflation targets-energy prices, absent food prices and consumer price index- increasing at modest rates.
For instance, the inflation rate grew by 12.5% between 2003 and 2008 period. Although the Federal Reserve’s inflation rate did not indicate any problems, unexpected changes in key relative prices were in the making.
For example, there was a surge in the housing prices (which increased by 45% between 2003 and 2006). In addition, share prices increased steadily by 66% in 2003 and reached its peak in 2008 (Hanke 475).
The most remarkable price increments were apparent in the commodity market. According to the Commodity Research Bureau’s index, prices of commodities grew by 91.8% between 2003 (first quarter) and 2008 (second quarter).
This remarkable increase was mainly attributed to a weak dollar (which declined by 30.4% during the same period) as well as the ensuing liquidity cycles. A number of financial markets experts believe that the surge in the commodity prices was as a result of the decline in the value of the greenback.
We will write a custom Essay on Statistics for Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the devaluation in the value of dollar precipitated a surge in commodity prices between 2002 and 2008. In addition, the prices for crude oil grew by 51% while the price for rice rose by 55.4% (Hanke 476).
The comparative rise in the housing prices was an obvious sign that prices were deviating from the fundamental laws. For example, during the first decade of the 21st century, the demand for housing in the United States was approximately 1.4 million units per annum.
This figure includes acquisitions of newly constructed houses as well as the refurbishment of over 290, 000 units per annum that were destroyed by floods and fire. Throughout the bubble years (2002-2006), housing buyers were about two million per annum.
This number increased given that an extra 490,000 units of were being created every year. In reality, the prices for the new housing units should have been declining during this period. On the contrary, this was not the case as the prices grew by 45%. The Federal Reserves officials failed to spot the imminent housing bubble and take counteractive measures (Hanke 477).
Following this incident, both the Federal Reserve and banking institutions engaged in the blame game as to who was responsible for the 2008-09 economic crises. The Federal Reserve officials claimed that banking institutions were undercapitalized and hence too hazardous and risky. Consequently, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) issued new Basel III capital guidelines.
These new rules were expected to raise the capital requirements of banks from the current level of 4% to 7% on the basis of their risk-weighted assets. In addition, the Bank for International Settlements imposed an extra 2.5% on top of the 7% obligation for banking institutions that were perceived as too huge to fail.
However, these new requirements are not even enough for some financial regulators. For example, the Swiss National Bank plans to enforce a mega-high 19% capital requirement on both Credit Suisse and UBS. In the US, Federal Reserve officials have also advocated for a higher capital-asset ratios for large banks (Hanke 479).
The Federal Reserves and other financial regulators have successfully imposed high capital requirements on commercial banks. Since the inception of 2008-09 financial crises, US banks have been compelled to raise their capital-asset ratios in expectation of Basel III.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Statistics for Economics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Federal Reserve has applauded this move arguing that a higher capital-asset ratio will make the commercial banks safer and stronger. However, some experts believe this is not a wise decision. They argue that commercial banks can raise their capital-asset ratios by either issuing new bank equity or by reducing their assets.
If the commercial banks reduce their assets, the deposit liabilities will shrink and money balances will be wiped out. In other words, the Federal Reserve’s drive to raise the capital-assets ratios of commercial banks in order to make them stronger has had a negative impact on money balances.
This move has dented the liquidity and asset prices of commercial banks (Hanke 480). Commercial banks can also raise their capital-asset ratio by issuing new equity. However, this method also destroys money balances.
For instance, when shareholders procure newly issued bank equity, they use bank deposits to acquire new shares. As a result, this phenomenon reduces commercial banks’ deposit liabilities as well as their money balances (Hanke 481).
The decision by the Federal Reserve to force commercial banks to raise their capital-asset ratios during the 2008-09 financial crises was undoubtedly a great mistake. For example, the Bank for International Settlements (based in Switzerland) issued new Basel III capital guidelines. These new rules were intended to raise the capital-asset ratios of banks from 4% to 7% on the basis of their risk-weighted assets.
In addition, the Bank for International Settlements imposed an extra 2.5% on top of the 7% obligation for banking institutions that were perceived as too huge to fail. Commercial banks were thus forced to raise their capital base by either issuing new shares or reducing their asset base in order to comply with the new directives. Although this move probably made commercial banks stronger for a short period, it distorted money supply metrics and compromised economic growth.
Works Cited Hanke H. Steve. Monetary Misjudgments and Malfeasance. Cato Journal 31.3 (2011): 473-484.
Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Brief Introduction
The Wing Luke Museum
The Burke museum
The Cambodian Cultural Museum
Brief Introduction A museum is a building that accommodates various artifacts, scientific objects, and history of a certain group of people. The artistic and cultural values of these people may be also presented in different ways depending on policies of a museum. Anything significant concerning a certain ethnic group is available in a museum.
However, there are two main types of museums such as art museum, and history museum. This depends on what a certain museum want to present concerning a certain group of people (Aguirre and Turner 119). This paper will focus on three exhibition museums presenting the culture of some ethnic groups. Several issue such, as how the groups are presented in the museums would be discussed and many more.
The Wing Luke Museum Wing Luke Museum is in Seattle. Seattle is found in Washington’s Chinatown-international District. This museum specializes in issues of culture, art, and history of Asian, pacific Americans. People find this museum as memorable, because it is the only one, which presents the information concerning the pan-Asian pacific American.
The life experiences of this ethnic group are clearly explained in the museum. Asian, pacific Americans are among the most dominant racial groups in United States of America (Chinese Historical Society 83). The name of the museum is in honor of one member of Seattle city council. This person was the first Asian American to be an official in one of the public offices in the Pacific Northwest.
At the beginning, this museum only focused on Asian folk art but later expanded its coverage to various aspects of the entire Asian, pacific Americans community. Other crucial programs are presented in the museum such as addressing civil rights, and humanity justice issues. These programs are meant to promote understanding of various cultures and tolerance.
Wing Luke history is one representation of the Asian pacific Americans. He is described as a person, who portrayed the importance of adhering to civil rights (Miller 102). He advocated for urban renewal, and the need for honoring historic events.
Through other presentations, the Asian pacific Americans are portrayed as people with exceptional hearts of survival, as they succeed through many struggles in United States. They are represented as people with high hopes, compassion, and have knowledge of handling various types of conflicts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stories concerning this ethnic group is told through written posters that are hanged everywhere in the museum. Every topic is presented in different posters for people, who are interested to read (Museum Education Roundtable 35). The photos, for clear understanding among the visitors, accompany most of the information presented.
Video presentations are also provided to tell the story clearly for those visitors, who would prefer such methods. For instance, food is part of any group’s culture. To make visitors understand more about the cultural foods of this ethnic group, the exhibition concerning this is structured in four main areas.
The first area is from the source to the table, where the history is clearly shown about the Asian, pacific American contributions to the food industry. The second area, exhibited is the family, which portrays that food is their central gathering point for the entire ethnic group. The third area is the politics, where issues like labor, nutrition and perseverance are narrated in a deep manner.
The final area is for culture, which demonstrates heritage aspects, adaptations, and originality. Historic and family photographs accompany the exhibitions. To demonstrate their originality in agricultural activities farming tools and main industrial, farming equipments are portrayed.
Moreover, most of the cultural aspects of this group are narrated and demonstrated in the museum. Beginning with the history and legacy of wing Luke, one get to know the history of Asian, pacific Americans. The collections and exhibits concerning these people are displayed.
Their cultural histories and stories that are accompanied with the relevant photos are made available for visitors to see. The most enjoyed part is the youth space and child friendly room that is provided to make such visitors feel comfortable, and have a chance to discuss issues in question (Aguirre and Turner 114). In the third floor, there is a display of original furniture such as tables and several rooms.
There is no clear explanation provided for the main purpose of these rooms. Visitors are left wondering what could be the purpose of the rooms. The Gary Locke library is one of the most fascinating parts left for visitors. This serves as a resource for students, historians, and any other person who may be interested in learning Asian American experience in United States.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interactive nature of the museum is attractive. The youths are made active through stories, photos, and artifacts. The youth are also provided with interactive activities, through which they can share culture and family histories. However, there are parts of the Asian pacific Americans history that are not told in the museum.
Before this ethnic group settled in America, several troubling experiences occurred. The process of settling in their current position was not easy. Some of the resistant that were experienced by the early immigrants included the ban of Chinese immigration, riots in 1907 against immigrants (Aguirre and Turner 96).
Early immigrants experienced harsh treatments such as denial to receive full veteran benefits. Only a small percentage that was accorded united states citizenship, and burial benefits. The Asian Americans were oppressed, hence could not enjoy the full benefits.
During the Second World War, the immigrants assisted the Americans in the war, but they could not be given the full veteran benefits. They were also supposed to receive the disability pension like other Americans, but they were not given. The debate concerning these immigrants to receive the full benefit has been there, although it has not been successfully passed (Miller 62).
This is the dark story of the group, which is not displayed to the public. The generations of the group, which may visit the museum may not feel comfortable to see how their first generation were oppressed. It is sure that these people were discriminated and killed during that period, but it would not be advisable for any visitor to be reminded of the sad story.
The full history is available in the museum, but such sensitive parts are preserved in private rooms, where the accessibility is preserved for some people. These are not the stories that every visitor would like to hear. Displaying the dark side of these people, may lead to a negative effect to the museum and to the visitors. It is the nature of every human being, not to display his or her weaknesses to everyone.
The use of technology is applied in the museum, although it is not commonly used. Innovations of more advanced technology are still being invented. Wing Luke museum; apply technology in their videos when telling the stories of Asian pacific American (Miller 113).
When visitors are, listening to the video to obtain some information, the stories he or she is listening to are controlled. The video may contain every detail about the history of Asian, pacific Americans, but what visitors listen to is controlled. It is easier to skip some parts, in a way that visitors may not realize.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Exhibitions in Wing Luke, Burke and Cambodian Cultural Museums by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although these visitors may have read every detail from books, it is advisable for a museum to avoid presenting hurting stories to the visitors. Instead of going around the museum reading posters and analyzing the pictures accompanying the posters, visitors prefer listening to a video. It adds much joy to their comforts, especially when they are enjoying the cultural Asian foods.
In most museums, visitors do not pay attention to many posters, placed on the walls. It is tiresome, and most visitors consider it as wastage of time. Apart from obtaining information for learning purposes, most of the visitors go to museums for leisure.
The idea of reading the posters adds stress to their appropriate times. It is evident that, majority just look at the posters without any interest (Miller 95). The museum management may be thinking that, such posters are crucial to the visitors, but they are not.
Most of the visitors came to the museum to see to reality of what they have learnt or heard. Video explanations of tour guides, and practical participation to some events like cooking and eating work well in museums. Only the children who get interested to read the wall posters and the displays, but after a while, they also get bored.
The Burke museum The burke museum is recognized by people as a museum of natural history and culture. This museum originated from the natural history club, which existed in the early 1880s. This old club was known as the young naturalist’s society.
The young naturalists’ society worked together with the Washington territorial university, specializing in natural science. The main theme was to assist the societies understand the natural history and displaying natural objects for their referral, and for the public to come and see. With time, the main players in Burke museum continued expanding and adding more materials for exhibition.
Burke museum represents both long term and unique exhibits (Schacht 109). Their exhibition depends on certain periods per year. The main exhibits that are found in the museum include conservation photography, recent natural events that happen, and ancient and modern cultural arts.
Although the museum has represented the culture of various ethnic groups, this part will mainly focus on Native American ethnic group. It is one of the many ethnic groups represented by Burke museum.
The Burke museum has tried to explain the culture of Native Americans in various ways. For instance, most of the factors of Native American are explained through various exhibitions, events, research, and collections.
The various exhibits that are used to explain the culture of Native Americans are current, upcoming, online, past, and traveling exhibits. One of the historic exhibits that are used by Burke museum is Carnival. The Ainu group is the native people of the region referred to as Hokkaido in Japan.
Their region of the occupants is mainly the northern islands. Their ancestors are believed to have occupied that area for more than 16000 years (Karl 103).
The Burke museum has represented this ethnic group as active traders, who conducted commerce with neighboring countries. The museum has portrayed their trading business, through displaying their trade objects they were using.
The Ainu ethnic group has a strong believe in spirits. Among the people of Ainu, it is evident that anything that is in the environment surrounding humanity is composed of spirit. They refer to such spirits as kamuy, and are expected to bring blessings to their people, as well as the whole community.
The Burke museum has managed to portray the religious point of view of this group through the provision of photos demonstrating their spirits. For instance, these spirits called kamuy are relied on to take care of everything that is used by human beings such as animals, plants, and water.
The cultural story of this ethnic group is narrated on how they perform rituals and ceremonies, as a way of giving thanks to gods for protecting them (Miller 78). The daily practices of this ethnic group as portrayed in the Burke museum were hunting, fishing, farming and foraging.
During the events that are held in the Burke museum, the main Ainu ceremonies are presented. One of their outstanding ceremonies is known as the “lomante”, which is a ceremony of the dead. The key issues during this ceremony are to honor and send animal gods to the big world of gods (McBrewster 98).
Many people attend a ceremony from the society. Another major theme of conducting such ceremonies is to bring the people of Ainu together, as a way of strengthening their community bonds. There is an immensely popular bear carving, which attracts every visitor, who comes in Burke museum.
Ainu artist known as Matsui Umetaro in early 1920s prepared the bear carving. He was a famous artist among the Ainu people.
The religious believes of the Ainu people is also emphasized through the exhibition of a sacred ikupasuy, a prayer stick, which was used when praying the god of the mountain. The sacred stick is believed to have been used during the first salmon ceremony. The Ainu people have a belief of using their beautiful art on clothes and platters, as away of showing honor and respecting their gods (Karl 106).
It is hard to define a spiritual aspect in any of their clothes and platters. Their tradition requires that their designs to remain original, without making any changes, as this would annoy their gods. Several designs of their robes are portrayed in the museum, with their uniqueness of symmetrical aspects.
The historical culture of the Ainu people is also elaborated through the history and picture of Sakhalin Ainu man. The picture is explained to be obtained in early 1900s. This man is used in the culture of the Ainu people, to demonstrate the mixed blood of Ainu and Russian group. His pictures show an expensive robe, and the belt, which is a sign of prosperity.
The picture of man is used in the museum, to show the interaction of two groups. Through their greatest economic activity of trading with their neighbors, they managed to interact, and some becoming a one group through intermarriages. The most emphasized interaction is that of the Ainu, and Russian (Karl 109).
A strong social contact proved to exist for many centuries between the two groups. The enormous Haida canoe displayed in the Burke museum demonstrates the long distance trading of the Ainu people. This acts as an evident of long distance trading.
Moreover, by events, exhibits, education, research, and collections the Burke museum has narrated much concerning the Ainu people. Just as in any other museum, it is not appealing to display the darker part of the group. The Ainu people are presented as a humble ethnic group.
At the beginning, they interacted well with the Japanese through intermarriage. The Japanese and Russian were significantly expanding groups that intended to finish the pure blood of the Ainu people. Their utmost theme was to grab the land of the Ainu people (Karl 120).
In history, the Ainu people were given the worst part of the country to settle by the Japanese. Much discrimination existed in Japan against this ethnic group. It reached a point when nobody would confess he or she belongs to Ainu group, due to fear of discrimination. In addition, the Ainu group is considered part of Japanese.
However, Burke museum would not agree to display this part of discrimination to the public. Although, it is a fact in their history, some visitors may not feel comfortable reading or seeing exhibits of such issues.
The Ainu people have a terrible history of being forced from their ancestral lands by the Japanese. They were referred to as commoners, with their festivals and hunting activities restricted. The Ainu people went through many frustrations in the hands of Japanese, something that cannot be displayed in the public.
Such darker parts may end up causing uneasiness among visitors, or the museum to lose their honored visitors. It is the responsibility of every museum to safeguard its reputation. The worst part of their history is that they were forbidden from using their native language. The piece of land that they were given was the worst part, and were not allowed to use other names apart from the Japanese ones.
Through the researches done, it is evident that the Ainu people face discrimination even today by the Japanese. The Ainu children, who happen to enroll in Japanese schools are exceedingly discriminated and bullied. It is said that, they are referred to as “Inu”, which is a Japanese name for dog (McBrewster 99).
Burke museum has tried as much as possible to make use of the advanced technology, when telling stories. Incase of most sensitive issues, they cannot be revealed in the story to the visitors. Through online exhibits, the story is made available through You Tube for the public to listen.
Most of the sensitive parts are skipped when making the video. Incase the story is told through the wall posters, the same thing, applies of skipping the most sensitive parts of the history. Visitors listen and watch videos within the museum.
Those videos do not reveal such areas to the visitors. The Burke museum has incorporated so many ways of passing the information to the visitors, hence making them satisfied. The use of tour guides, videos, and unique exhibits such as carnaval have made the visit to Burke museum as compelling event to visitor (McBrewster 104).
Visitors do not like reading the posters to get the real idea on something; they prefer something interactive to keep them alert. It seems to bore for people to keep on reading the posters on the wall.
The Cambodian Cultural Museum This museum became operational first in 2001. The picture of the founder is placed at the entrance of the museum. He is said to have put extra efforts in gathering photographs, and other documents to assist in testifying the act of violence of the Khmer. This led to the name ‘killing Fields Memorial”.
The museum is meant to show significant honor to riches, and the enduring culture of the Cambodian people (Miller 103). This ethnic group is represented in this museum as a precise, determined and persevering group. There was a change of the location of the museum in 2004, when it moved to its current location at south of Seattle.
It is evident that most Americans and Cambodian Americans are not aware of the great violence that Cambodian people faced. Therefore, the museum creates an opportunity to create awareness to the public concerning how Cambodian people suffered.
These killings happened in 1970s, when the group was under the leadership of Pol Pot. In the museum and other historical sites, Pol Pot is described as ruthless leader and a brutal communist. This Cambodian leader was ruling through Rouge party.
The main theme of the leader and his fellow officials during this period was to do ethnic cleansing. The key targets were the people, who were adopting the western way of life. Pol Pot wanted to deal with those people directly, and if possible do away with them completely.
This systematic program of cleansing the western influenced individuals resulted to torture and deaths of more than two million people (Miller 86). The story of this ethnic group is full of sorrows, as so many people were brutally killed, while some managed to escape to the neighboring countries. A relatively large number of the Cambodian people immigrated to the United States.
The main purpose of the Cambodian cultural museum is to ensure that all those people, who were tortured by Pol Pot, receive the appropriate honor. Several lessons that were learned from this hurting episode are meant to serve, as a challenge to the most ignorant people.
The story of the Cambodian people is explained in the museum through various ways such as exhibits of various types and galleries. Family festival is one of the most fascinating ceremonies, which are held on Saturdays from 10am to 6pm. The beauty and wonders of Cambodia is presented in this festival, as a way of complementing other exhibitions.
The key activities that are featured in family festivals include traditional music, dance performances, and various gallery activities (Aguirre and Turner 118). The Gordon Getty Concert is another famous ceremony held in the Cambodian culture museum. It is mostly held in the evening, meant for visitors to understand the classical Cambodian music and dance.
The famous artists who are featured in this concert are Ho Chan and Charya Cheam Burt. The use of music and dance among the Cambodian people has served as a link between natural and spiritual ways of life. The Cambodian people currently exist as symbols of cultural flexibility and renewal.
The use of conferences is another way of narrating the history of Cambodian people in the museum. Leading scholars of Cambodian art, as well as the cultural specialist usually conduct these conferences. Their key theme is to present and discuss pertinent issues such as the history of the Cambodia people, their religious affiliation, and their modern way of life.
They also discuss in a wider way, the Cambodian bronze sculpture prepared by the University of California. The history presented in the museum educates the Americans and other visitors on the culture and art of the Cambodian people.
Most of People have managed to act as a witness for the millions of Cambodian people who perished in the violence (Jerrelene 149). Apart from the violence part of history, culture and their attractive arts are also presented in the museum.
The unfolding of the Cambodian people history through exhibitions, lectures, and performances has ensured excellent preservation of the art and heritage of this ethnic group. The clear testimonies, presented in the museum concerning the massive killings of the members of this group are an admirable way of preventing future genocide (Jerrelene 160).
The museum managed to reveal this dark part of the Cambodian history to create access of information to students, scholars, and journalists, in efforts of trying to warn the public on such incidences in future. The museum could not afford to hide this discouraging history, as they also expected support from humanitarian projects, to assist the oppressed Cambodian community.
Although the museum revealed the history of killings to the public, it was not possible to mention all individuals who facilitated the killings apart from Pol Pot. The public knew of the ruthless leader although, there were also other officials who contributed to the genocide. This is part of the story that could not be portrayed in the public.
The Cambodian cultural museum has equipped its library on the third floor. This is where visitors, who want to research more, can get the information. The Cambodian cultural museum has also placed most of their history in Wing Luke Asian Museum for easier accessibility.
The museum makes use of technology in telling the stories in the most appealing way. Through online, the museum uses the public radio documentary. The people who showed interest in the history of the Cambodian people were requested to call during the summer seasons.
Most of people from the community called in, listened to stories, and managed to share their own point of views (Books LLC 203). The people who called left approximately 200 messages to be shared among other visitors. They are wide use of videos in demonstrating and narrating the culture and history of Cambodian people.
The videos are set in a way that not every detail of the story is revealed, but only the main positive issues. The use of public radio documentary opens an opportunity for those people, who are willing to contribute in supporting the group.
The use of videos, guides, and events such as artist shows that are conducted regularly make the visit to the museum more intriguing. Most of people do not prefer the use of displays only, as they make the visit boring. An interactive way of narrating a story is better that a one-way method (Miller 112).
It was evident that, most of the visitors do not pay attention to most of the displays presented in the museum. Once they enter a museum, they look for a place, where there is someone, who can take them through the place. Incase there is an event going on, visitors end up becoming more interested in such places.
Other areas of the museum that are most fascinating to the visitors are hotels and gift shops. Reading the wall posters has never been appealing to the visitors in any museum. The Cambodian cultural museum has tried to incorporate all possible ways of telling the history and culture of their people. This is to ensure that their visitors are not bored during their visit.
Works Cited Aguirre, Adalberto and Jonathan Turner. American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and consequences of Discrimination. New York: McGraw-Hill , 2010.
Books LLC. Cambodian cultural museum in the United States: Old stone House Museum. New York: General Books LLC, 2010.
Chinese Historical Society. Chinese America: History and Perspectives 2000. Beijing: Chinese Historical Society, 2000.
Jerrelene, Williamson. The cultural heritage of Cambodian people. New York: Arcadia Publishing, 2010.
Karl, Samson. Frommers Seattle 2011. New York: John Wiley
The Definition of Budgeting, Its Types and Methods Essay essay help free
Table of Contents A budget cycle
Types of budgeting
Types of funds
Government Methods of Financing
Strategy and management of budgeting
Types of Taxes
A budget cycle A budget cycle can be defined as a duration in which a budget will last. In other words, it is a time taken to exhaust the budgeted resources of a budget. A budget cycle can also refer to the time span between one budget and the next one.
Budget cycles normally differ from person to person and organization to organization. This depends on a number of reasons such as resources, policies, and business lifespan among other reasons.
Types of budgeting Budgets normally differ in a number of ways. For instance, personal budgets are different from business budgets. Therefore, the first type of budgeting is a personal budget, which presents a plan on how the funds of the individual will be used within a certain period (Stringfellow 1).
Business budgeting is diversified to plan for specific funds that are allocated to different sectors of the business (Stringfellow 1). In that case, there are sales budgets, revenue budgets, production budgets, expenditure budgets, and cash budgets. Another type is a government budget, it is a budget according to which government plans the resources of the nation.
Types of funds Businesses have different sources of getting their funds. First, they can get funds from the profits generated by the business. In this case, the source of funding will be the business itself.
Second, they can get funds from reserves which are also known as the shareholders equity. Reserves entail the money invested into the company in the form of shares by external parties (shareholders) to the businesses.
Government Methods of Financing The government has different ways of financing its budget. The most common ones include trust funds in which the government disposes some of its current assets that are not in use hence creating a trust fund for them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another method of financing the government is providing the user fees paid by legal entities and individuals to get the authority of running specific services. Taxes are paid to the government, and donations from aid bodies present another way through which governments get finances.
Strategy and management of budgeting The process of budgeting is of a great concern, as well as other business processes. taking into consideration this fact, it has to be strategically planned and managed in order to achieve its objectives. The strategy put in place should be able to ensure that the budget balances properly and that there is no deficit or surplus.
This is because a budget forms a critical point during decision making for the business enterprise. One of the strategies put in place is the forecasting, whereby the business enterprises prepare forecast budgets prior to the actual budgets. The other strategy entails making sure that the budget is followed up to the last dot.
Types of Taxes There are different types of taxes that are paid by individuals and businesses to the government. It is due to the fact that they are imposed on different items such as goods, payrolls, property, and income. Under the income category, there are income taxes, corporate taxes, and capital gains taxes.
As for the property, there are property taxes, expatriation taxes, inheritance taxes, net worth taxes and transfer taxes. Based on goods and services there are value added tax (V.A.T), tariffs, excises, and sales taxes. Other types of taxes include license fees and poll taxes. The list of taxes is endless, since almost everything is under taxation.
Works Cited Stringfellow, Angela. What are the Different Types of Budgeting? 1999. Web.
Revolution in Tunisia Essay online essay help: online essay help
“Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali was born on 3 September 1936 in Hammam-Sousse, Tunisia” (Pierre para 1). In his teenage, Ben Ali got into the anti-French independence Neo-Destour movement. This made him be expelled from the schools that were under the management of the French. Ben Ali involvement with the Neo-Destour movement earned him a scholarship at a military school in France after Tunisia got independence in 1956 (Pierre para 2).
On returning to Tunisia, he joined the military security in 1964-1974, where he was the head of Tunisian military security. Ben Ali then quickly rose to the ranks and became the general in the year 1979, then the Tunisian ambassador to Poland in 1980 and the Head of national security.
He then became the minister of interior in 1986. In 1987, Ben Ali was then appointed prime minister by the president. His appointment in October 1987 later led to the ousting of president Habib Bourguiba in November 1987 after a successful coup d’ etat. Ben Ali then assumed the position of the presidency (Pierre para 2).
During Ben Ali’s twenty three year rule (1987 -2011), he first claimed to ease up on stern political measures concerning opposition movements, particularly the Mouvement des Démocrates Sociaux (MDS; Social Democratic Movement) and the MTI. His interest in multiparty system led to the signing of the national pact with opposition leaders in 1988.
Human rights activists, Islamic, and opposition leaders increased protests over the years since Ben Ali took power as president over his oppressive leadership. He manipulated and controlled the politics through his Constitutional Democratic Rally party. The key positions in the state and local government were held by the CDR party.
Ben Ali put into place changes in the constitution to ensure his presidency could be extended without limit through his party which held most of the parliamentary seats. He also allowed a few political parties and imposed strict rules and regulations to minimize opposition to his rule. His political party constantly held majority of the seats in the lower parliament during his political tenure; the ruling party had constantly won elections with a great majority over the five terms.
Hizb An-Nahdah, (Renaissance Party), an Islamist opposition which rose in the 1990’s led by Rashid Ghannouchi was banned and branded a terrorist organization. The Islamist opposition was believed to be a terrorist organization which was pushing for the establishment of an Islamist state according to the United States State Department in 2003. Ben Ali pushed the passing of the anti-terrorism law in 2003, leading to arbitrary arrests and cases of torture (Pollock para 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Repression was a major crisis faced in the country. Ben Ali often controlled the news and information in and out of the country. Journalists and human rights activists were constantly the target of police brutality and were subjected to surveillance by intelligence services.
Foreign journalists were often accompanied by an official from the Tunisian Agency for External Communication – this was done to control news and information flowing out of the country through any means including the internet. Despite the repressions, Ben Ali was still influential to the international organization due to his zero tolerance towards terrorism (Bembo para 7).
The first lady self proclaimed herself as the Arab’s most successful female politician. She frequently headed charitable foundations and promoted women rights. Ben Ali’s entire extended family – the Trabelsis, dubbed “the Mafia” and his associates indulged in lavish lifestyles at the expense of many ordinary Tunisians.
The Trabelsis openly engaged in corruption that led the North African country’s economy down to its knees. Ben Ali’s wife was known to be a shopaholic with frequent visits to western countries with private jets. Investors in Tunisia feared the long arm of the first family- they often took they want, most business deals did not go through without the involvement of the first family in the country.
Bribes were also collected for those who operated businesses in Tunisia. The Trabelsis owned extensive wealth including an airline, hotels, two radio stations, food distributions and more which are both locally and foreign owned. The Trabelsi’s was cited as the nexus of Tunisian corruption.
The Arab idiom – “The straw that broke the camel’s back” which means a pile of small things which causes failure. In Ben Ali’s fall, his involvement in corruption openly, nepotism and the flagrant abuse power and the system led him to his demise. Ben Ali had become a dictator to the Tunisians.
His extended family’s brutality and economic crimes had gradually angered Tunisians over the years. Saad Djebbar an Arab political analyst said that “Ben Ali was so arrogant that he undermined his own power base, alienating supporters in the party and the business community” (Zisenwine para 3).
We will write a custom Essay on Revolution in Tunisia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conditions in Tunisia led to ousting of Ben Ali – the high levels of unemployment, poverty, corruption and repression provoked Tunisians to detach themselves from Ben Ali’s oppressive leadership. During his presidency, he continually increased his internal security apparatus to neutralize any plausible threat. Intelligence was gathered through phone – tapping and the belligerent were threatened, beaten and assassinated.
Tunisia’s revolution might have been started by Mohammed Bouazizi who was aged 26 on 17th December 2010; he was selling produce illegally to provide for his family. When he was shut down for lacking a permit and he protested through self-immolation. This made Mohammed a martyr hence inspiring public protests against the government. Cases of Self – immolation and other forms of suicide become rampant over the months stirring more public protests.
As the government tried to crack down on the protestors by arresting and killing them, the crowds only grew more rapidly. Reports by the Tunisian government confirmed that at least 21 people were killed during the protests. Although the demonstrations were peaceful at that time, the police used excessive force to try to quell the protests.
Soon the trade union movement joined in the protests; this stirred the repressive response of the police resulting to more killings due to the union’s involvement. The union eventually embarked on a general strike which paralyzed Tunisia’s economic activities (Pierre para 4).
Media played a great role in the revolution of Tunisia and other North African countries. The ousting of Ben Ali was facilitated by the media through unearthing the real conditions in Tunisia. Most Tunisians were not conversant with the popular websites like Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, Google, CNN and Aljazeera before.
The internet’s gain in popularity all over the world created a platform for the Tunisians to express their views and grievances. The advancement in mobile phone technology propelled the easy access and flow of information. The use of camera phones and the internet exposed the injustices instigated by Ben Ali’s government. Before Tunisia’s election in 2009, Ben Ali’s blocked Facebook for two weeks to minimize the spread of information.
Online censorship was frequently used to control information. Facebook and Twitter were used to circulate videos of each demonstration and to schedule the next demonstration. The internet successfully encouraged the ousting of Ben Ali. It made it difficult for Ben Ali to control information in the media. Therefore the media was able to expose the repressive nature of his administration especially the Aljazeera, which played a bigger role in covering the news in the early stages of Tunisia’s revolution (Pollok para 5-7).
After Ben Ali’s exposure, the international organization started withdrawing support from him. He had a good relationship with the United States of America since he was known for his strong fight against terrorism, this earned him leniency in the international organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Revolution in Tunisia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In June 2008, the US congress donated aid to Tunisia and noted that the repression, restriction on political freedom and human rights violations were of concern for the relationship of both countries to strengthen. Later, president Obama said that he congratulated the Tunisian people for their “courage and dignity”. The U.S. offered a hidden helpful hand in the ousting of Ben Ali; they planned, oversaw and directed the revolution (Pollock para 9).
At the beginning of January 2011, Ben Ali grew cold feet when more protesters sporadically joined the streets in the capital Tunis. More deaths occurred when Snipers situated on roof tops and the army in the capital city killed the protesters. On the 13th of January 2011, the army withdrew from Tunis and consequently the Central Intelligence Agency called for the overthrow of Ben Ali.
Ben Ali and his family eventually left the country on the 14th January 2011 to seek refuge in Saudi Arabia. His family owned a lot of wealth which they got through a series of organized corruption. “They bled the country systematically” (Pierre para 7) says Nicolas Beau, co-author of the Regent of Carthage.
Ben Ali’s family constantly acquired wealth illegally and transferred the ill-obtained wealth abroad during his presidency. The French media reported that Ben Ali’s wife withdrew bars of gold from a bank in Tunisia before leaving the country. Most countries abroad have frozen assets belonging to Ben Ali’s family and allies since his exile. Some of his relatives were caught with cash and jewelry while they tried to leave at the airport.
Tunisia’s ousting of Ben Ali paved way to the second stage of the country’s revolution. Tunisia had a long list of pressing matters and among these were the questions on how to address these matters as they push for stability within the country.
These questions included issues regarding the political system along with initiating a reconciliation process to unite diverse political and social currents, and the issue of unemployment and corruption in the country. Indeed, Tunisia needed a ‘savior’ to salvage the country from the abyss which Ben Ali and his regime had thrown the country into.
An interim government was set up to lead the country. It immediately issued arrest warrants to Ben Ali and his family. In addition, his close associates were also detained. Although the interim government was in place, a few ministers and other loyalists of Ben Ali still held key positions in the interim government. These still fuelled a few protests over Tunisia’s revolution (Freeman para 2). They were undoubtedly enough reasons to make the Tunisian’s protest even after the ousting of Ben Ali.
Zisenwine (para 4) states in his article “An early step by the interim government to enhance national reconciliation” showed that the government’s interest in addressing public grievances. A three day national mourning for those who lost their lives during the protests was set up and the announcement of compensation of lost property during the riots was also made.
This further showed the interim government’s commitment for revolution of Tunisia. Former political prisoners were released and leaders in exile accepted back to the country, including the leader of the “Renaissance Movement.”
The interim government provided a roadmap to a free and fair election in October 2011. Previous holders of ministerial positions were replaced from the interim government due to the public’s unrest. This would go a long way in building public trust in the interim government.
The government established a 10-year vision for political action, as well as a 5-year economic revival program. Experts were allowed to manage the social and economic projects to tackle issues of employment, security, health and poverty with the new government. Revolutionaries were concerned mainly on drafting a new constitution which would protect their rights, which included a fresh electoral law, a free press and a good political system for the country (Bembo para 5).
Tunisia for the first time held a “free and fair election” in October 2011 since Ben Ali’s rule. Tunisia’s relation with the international partners has continued and a sense of freedom in the country is imminent. Most injustices have been addressed including the president’s term limits, a steady political freedom, a free press and an establishment of good economic policies.
Works Cited Bembo, Pietro. Biographical highlights. The world’s perspective. 2011. Web.
Freeman, Colin. “Tunisia’s first family.” The Telegraph, 16 Jan 2011. Web.
Pierre, Tristam. “Profile: Tunisia’s Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.” Middle East Issues. 2011. Web.
Pollock, John. “Green Revolutionary,” a profile of Norman Borlaug. Technology Review, January/February 2011. Web.
Zisenwine, Daniel. Telaviv Notes: An update on Middle Eastern developments. Moshe Dayan Center. March 27, 2011. Web.
The spectacle of Terror Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Terrorist attacks have had profound impact not only on the US, but they have also comprehensively transformed the world and how we view it. The attacks have changed our perception to terrorists, confirmed, heightened our fears and advanced our counter terrorism technology.
These changes are courtesy of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The media is vital in communication in today’s age. Visual media serves the public with the perception of a wider reality beyond the realm of personal experience. It offers the people with a unique chance of virtually experience events in which they were not part of.
The public believes it is honestly informed when all media agencies report the same story. Unfortunately, this is not always the case since the media reports are sometimes far from the truth. This does not mean to say that the media is always wrong, in fact, most of the time it serves a reliable source of information for the general public on matters that the people did not experience first hand.
Matters such as terrorism evoke concern on national security and the public is always alert when the visual media reports on such matters. These media reports have a far-reaching impact on the public and modify the people’s perception of the world.
People have been for a long time relied on the media to make even seemingly simple decisions; for example, people rely on the weather forecast to determine what they wear. Therefore, this essay discusses how visual media has transformed how the people view the world in relation to death and violence by drawing reference to the events of 9/11.
The reports from visual media elicited immediate reaction from the globe with the then US President George W. Bush declaring war on terrorism. This operation was aimed at bringing the architect of attack, Osama bin Laden to justice, an operation that never bore fruit.
Instead, it tainted the image of the US government as many innocent lives were lost and property damaged. The visual media gave this debacle a lot of attention and influenced American citizen’s way of thinking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barrack (10) says that even countries around the world some of which were sworn enemies of the United States were deeply offended by this attack as it exposed their vulnerability to similar attacks. For instance, Cuba offered air assistance to its longtime critic. This attack to some extent promoted unity to among countries.
The breaking nature of the events of September 11 influenced greatly media reports and live coverage. Various mainstream media houses reported the propaganda battle in the wake of US led retaliation. These reports suggested that Osama bin laden was out to spread hatred and convince the Muslims that the western world was wicked and it deserved the consequences of the attack (Bockstette 7-9).
The western world denied those allegations by Bin Laden by employing the media to correct those misguiding aspects. Although, Bin Laden was wrong to incite hatred the visual media misled the public by implying the Western world’s response was honest, as a matter of fact, the West’s intention was gain support on its war against terrorism from the public.
The West was right to address the terrorism acts however; this propaganda has stuck in the people’s minds such that their judgment on matters of terrorism has become blurred in the appropriation of policies to fight terrorism.
Shortly after the 9/11 attack, an American citizen named Mark Stroman decided to retaliate to the attacks after being carried away by media reports that projected Muslims as terrorists. In Dallas, he murdered two men who he believed were from the Middle East.
This is an indication that the visual media reports have eroded morals and fuelled hatred between religions and races (Cainkar 215-239). It has made some people believe that it is in right order to attack or kill each other because they do not subscribe to the same religion. This collaborate Humphrey’s argument in a National Post article that, what some people perceive as refugees they may be mistaken as terrorists by other people (9).
It is worth noting that some people believe that violence begets more violence thus, it is not fitting to forget the principle values of justice and our humanity. This has in some way strengthened the values of humanity and people are now appreciating life and acknowledging that it is a delicate thing that has to be preserved at all costs.
We will write a custom Essay on The spectacle of Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The visual media endeavored to report news as they broke out on a background of panic among citizens and the international community. In its attempt to cover the attacks authoritatively, the visual media sparked unnecessary wars between religions. Although the media was not the cause of the attack, the public relied on it to deliver reliable information on the tragedy.
The media appeared to castigate Muslims thus tainting the image of peace loving Muslims. The public was made to believe that a Muslims is a terrorist, which is far from the truth (Hoffman 32-34). This notion has remained etched on the minds of many American citizens.
The visual media has gone further by producing movies that portray terrorists as Muslims, which is outright misleading to the general public. Many people have become wary of potential terrorism acts of violence. For instance, a commuter may alight from a Metro bus that he has boarded because he has seen a suspicious package or person in the bus.
The events of September 11 have influenced people‘s behavior and a sense of patriotism instilled into people. Young Americans are now more willing to join the military to defend the country against future terrorist attacks. When one see images of people injured and others dead, a strong emotional feeling is aroused. However, America’s aggressive approach squandered its moral supremacy.
Sharp reactions arose and there was a wave of Anti-Americanism from a host of Islamic nations. The war did not only hurt this country economically but also tens of thousands of lives were lost in this unnecessary pursuit of revenge.
It suddenly became heroic for one to die or to loose a limb in Afghanistan in the context of fighting against terrorists. Robert in his New York Times article questions the government for exposing soldiers to danger in the guise of fighting terrorism.
Al Qaeda on the other hand was enjoying this immense media coverage, which offered a platform for it to spread its ideologies to anyone all over the world to anyone who cared to listen. The media had just granted the terrorists what they wanted; coverage (Abrams 86-89).
Some of the American citizens denounced their government’s efforts to fight terrorism criticizing it for unleashing terror on the Muslim world. The US government was considered the biggest terrorist. Many Americans today hardly believe what the government says about terrorists, climate change or any other issue of national concern even when the government is telling the truth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The spectacle of Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The citizens have simply lost faith in their government due to the contradicting reports given by the media. Some Americans do not even believe that the September 11 was an act of terrorism; they believe it was a conspiracy of the government (Michael 6-8).
The way we view the world has been changed in a myriad of ways owing to the saturation of visual media in our lives. While it is an undisputable fact that the visual media provides information on what we do not know, it is important to approach issues that it reports with caution and consideration. It is worth noting that nothing is as it seems and we must subject media reports to our own judgment.
Visual images may be emotive and may influence a person to think with his heart rather than his mind. While it is for our own good that the government is fighting terrorism, we must question whether it is justifiable that an innocent child is killed because he is Muslim or that he comes from a country that is perceived to be harboring terrorists.
The media must be impartial in communicating to the public and resist succumbing to the urge of eliciting certain reactions from the public. More importantly, the media should refrain from being the mouthpiece of politicians whose main intention is to influence the people’s way of thinking with the ultimate objective of gaining support.
Works Cited Abrams, Max. “What the terrorists really want: Terrorists motives and counter terrorism.” International security. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 32.4 (2008): 86-89.
Barrack, Mendelson. “Sovereignty under attack: the international society meets the Al Qaeda network.” Cambridge journals, 2005.
Bockstette, Carsten. “Jihadist Terrorist use of strategic Communication Management Techniques”. 2008.7-9.
Cainkar, Louise. “The impact of 9/11 on Muslims and Arabs in the United States.” The Maze of fear: security and migration after September 11th. Ed. John Tirman. New York: The New press, 2004. 215-239.
Hoffman, Bruce. “Inside terrorism” Colombia University press, 1998.32-34.
Humphrey, Adrian. “One official’s ‘refugee’ is another’s ‘terrorist” National Post, 17 January, 2006.
Michael, Dillion. “Politics of security” New York: Routledge, 1996. 6-8.
Robert, Mackey. “Can soldiers be victims of terrorism?” The New York Times. 20 November, 2009.
Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success Case Study essay help
Introduction According to Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) strategic management enables organizations succeed beyond sustained business performance to attaining competitive advantage. This implies ordinary business management practices do not guarantee business success. This implies that business managers have to look beyond the traditional methods of business management since the demands of modern business keeps changing.
As such, any methods adopted have to enable the modern businesses adopt to change. In this view a company has to build on its core competencies so as to gain competitive advantage. Core competence is perceived as the efficient management of resources, including the human resource.
This is attained through the utilization of the most appropriate competitive methods. This implies that a company has to design products and services which would enable it to exploit new business opportunities. Designing these products and services is only attained efficiently allocate and manage available resources.
The assertions above are analyzed Vis a Vis Hotel Island View case. On the face value, Hotel Island View is a successful business. The challenge of dwindling winter sales seems minor and insignificant.
However, a careful evaluation reveals that there are deep rooted weaknesses within the company’s management processes that expose the company to gross under performance and future uncertainties. Suffice to state that the core of the company’s current challenges lies in human resource development strategies currently employed by the company.
The Company tends to rely on unqualified and untrained employees. This directly affects the company’s management processes.
The purpose of this essay is thus expose three major issues facing the company and to provide workable solutions. As such, inability to attain competitive advantage, human resource development and management, as well as intelligence and information seeking strategies have been identified as core issues affecting Hotel Island View.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These issues are explained in detailed in the first part of this report. Furthermore, specific solutions to these issues are offered.
Inability to attain Competitive advantage One of the key issues facing Hotel Island View is the failure to understand the link between core competencies and the attainment of competitive advantage. In order to understand how the company fails to attain competitive advantage, it is vital to recapitulate on a few issues pertaining Hotel Island View.
According to Max Harvey, the hotel’s General Manager, the hotel has experienced a sharp decline in occupancy rates during winter. Low occupancy rates have an immediate impact on the hotel since the vibe created during peak season is lost. This situation is complicated by the fact that, during winter, the hotel seems unable to provide all the services offered during the summer.
This is due to a number of factors ranging from inadequately skilled staff, financial limitations, among others. Solving the low occupancy rate seems easy task. However, the fact that the hotel is not adequately equipped to offer all services during winter complicates the issue.
Additionally, the hotels top management seems unaware of the fact that the current staff does not posses the necessary expertise that will enable it generate solutions aimed at enabling the business address new and emerging challenges. As such, the company is not able to adapt quickly to changing business environment.
According to Jehad and Faleh (2009), many of businesses have not realized the need to connect future business opportunities with the current management practices. Analyzed Vis a Vis Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) assertion, Hotel Island View seems unable to link its current management practices and emerging opportunities.
This is evident from the fact that instead of concentrating on building its core competencies, Island View Hotel management is concentrating on strengthening and protecting core products. Additionally, the hotel management is oblivious of the competitive space provided by dwindling occupation during winter.
We will write a custom Case Study on Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While Jehad and Faleh (2009) portray the need for a company to build on its core competencies to exploit new opportunities, Ljungquist (2008) asserts that building on core competencies enables businesses to diversify products and services, and that such diversification should address emerging business needs.
This enables companies to out do competition. Ljungquist (2008) assertions are evident in Hotel Island View’s case since the company is inclined to protect its primary products and services. By concentrating on its core products (summer water sports and boarding), the company misses the opportunity to diversify its products and services. As such it cannot address emerging consumer trends.
As mentioned by the private tour guide, winter guest want different products than what the company offer during summer. As such, winter guests look for alternative activities such as tennis, golf, biking among others. Unfortunately, the company’s management is unaware of the needs of the winter guests, since it is blinded by the positive feedback from summer guests.
As explained by Ljungquist (2008) the inability of Hotel Island View to diversify its products portfolio emanates from the fact that the company does not have the relevant resources, technologies, expertise, practices and systems which will enable the it gain competitive advantage over its rivals.
Human resource management Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) suggest that one of the best ways of achieving competitive advantage is through efficient management and allocation of resources, including the human resource. This assertion brings to the fore another key issue in Hotel Island View’s case: recruitment, management and development of human resource.
The problem of human resource management at Hotel Island View has many dimensions. To begin with, the hotel is a small establishment and as such, it cannot manage to hire experienced and qualified staff to work on fulltime basis. This is further complicated by the fact that the hotel is located in a remote and unattractive location.
As such, it fails to attract experienced staff especially during winter. This means that the hotel faces an irregular supply of qualified workers, especially considering that it needs such experience most during winter. As such, having inexperienced staff to manage the hotel during low season expose the hotel to mismanagement.
Additionally, the hotel over relies on students looking for part time summer jobs. According to Wilton (2010), inexperienced staff is not well equipped to handle the day to day management challenges and tasks in a company. In view of Wilton’s (2010) assertion, the reliance on inexperienced students expose the hotel to lack of focus especially pertaining addressing daily management challenges.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Management: Planning and Organisational Success by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the existence of inexperienced staff within Hotel Island View’s human resource poses a major challenge, the human resource dilemma take a more complicated dimension when considering the hotels competitive methods. Within Hotel Island View, there is an array of activities designed to keep visitors busy during summer. However during winter, the hotel does not have the required human resource to man and offer support in all these activities.
While Clardy (2008) sees this as a poor human resource development strategy, the company’s general manager sees cross training as the ultimate solution. However, this view is simplistic given that the hotel does not have a regular supply of fully qualified staff.
Furthermore, as Clardy (2008) and Jehad and Faleh (2009) assert, with poorly trained and unqualified staff, a company lacks the necessary human resource to build its core competencies. It is in this view that Hotel Island View lacks the ability to fulfill its promise to offer all services available during summer at winter.
While the effects of relying on inexperienced employees are not evident outrightly, a closer analysis of the company tendency to ignore current news tells the depth within which the company is affected by recruiting inexperienced employees. The hotel accountant makes efforts to inform the general manager on latest news. He goes further and analyses such information with regards to how these events affect Hotel Island View.
However, the General Manager, as well as the rest of the employees, perceives such events as insignificant. This is due to the fact that a majority of the employees lack formal training. Clardy (2008) confirms that on the job training helps employees overcome day to day management deficiencies.
This leads to improved performance by the human resource, effectively affecting business outcomes positively. However, since most of the hotels permanent employees lack formal training, they therefore lack basic management competencies (Clardy, 2008). This negatively affects the business.
Intelligence and information gathering As mentioned earlier, the private tour guide poses valuable information which would enable hotel island view address the challenge of low occupancy during winter. However, a few factors play against his determination to share such knowledge with the hotel management. To begin with, the hotel rejects his request to place his tour company brochures in the hotel.
While this has a direct impact on his tour business, there are negative long term effects which affect Hotel Island View than his tour company. By refusing to collaborate with the private tour guide, Hotel Island View management fails to utilize one of the key requirements of building on its core competencies: establishing successful partnership with existing business partners (Jehad and Faleh, 2009).
While Jehad and Faleh, (2009) consider this as a lack of awareness on enhancing a firms core competencies, Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006) sees it as an opportunity lost in building strategic networks. Strategic networks are vital as they not only help firms seal gaps that exists within the business structure but also utilize, synthesize and apply information that emanates from others partners within the network.
In view of Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos’ (2006) assertion, Hotel Island View has failed to utilize the private tour operator as the bridge to accessing crucial business information. This can also be perceived as one of the ways through which the hotel management fails to identify emerging competitive space.
In relation to Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) study, the inability of a firm to discover new competitive space implies that the company has not developed its core competencies effectively. Furthermore, Jehad and Faleh (2009) argues that by utilizing strategic partners a firm is able to exploit the competitive space, especially those brought about by new business trends.
This is attained by focusing beyond performance based on products and prices to creating strategic alliances. However, the company ignores the opportunities provided by the tour company operator and chooses to rely on products and prices as its main performance enhancement method. This results to poor business performance.
While the inability to establish networks with other private companies seems tied to Hotel Island View’s association with Primo Hotel Alliance, the hotel’s inability to gather market intelligence and information has a more significant dimension. The company had a tendency to rely on inexperienced and untrained staff. While Wilton (2010) suggests that the human resource is the most valuable asset for any firm, this assertion is not applicable to Hotel Island View’s case.
This is because the hotel’s human resource does not provide the necessary resources, especially information resource. This is evident from the fact that other than the company’s accountant who makes efforts to follow current news, other employees fails to see the correlation between current events and the effects on hotel business.
The issue is aggravated by the fact that the company’s General Manager, a leader who is naturally supposed to motivate his juniors by setting standards and goals (Jehad and Faleh, 2009) fails to see the need to keep the hotel human resource updated on current events.
The fact that he is unable to correlate these two variables indicates his lack of managerial skills and competencies and exposes a weakness in the company’s management structure. As such, the inability of the company to utilize information as a business asset can be attributed to two major factors: its inability to establish strategic networks and partnerships as well as unskilled manpower.
Recommended Solutions Co-alignment strategy
Gaining competitive advantage is one of the major determinants of a firm’s performance in the business world. To do this, the firm must be able to link competitive advantage with the company’s core competencies. This will be achieved by aligning factors within the prevailing external environment and the strategic choices that a firm makes (Branzei and Thornhill, 2006).
In effect, Hotel Island View will not only attain improved business performance but also ensure the attainment of competitive advantage over its rivals in the hotel industry. By external environment, economists refer to the forces that determine change within the business environment.
These include factors that influence consumer trends and preferences. More often than not, the effects of these forces, if not properly managed, impact firm’s performance negatively (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008). With regards to Hotel Island View’s case, there are a number of external factors which influence the need for change on how the hotel’s management approaches business.
These include the weather season pattern and its influence on business trends. During summer, the hotels occupancy rates are almost 100%. However, for the last two years, the occupancy rate during winter has dropped significantly to 36%. Furthermore, during winter, guest demand for alternative recreational activities other than water sports.
This shows that the consumer trends changes with changes in weather seasons. As such, the hotel needs to realize that changes in weather patterns affect business trends.
To address the effects of external factors, the hotel management needs to make the right strategic choices. This includes the use of best competitive methods which will enable the company to gain competitive advantage over its rivals.
While Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse (2008) suggest that the need to reevaluate its products and services portfolio, Jehad and Faleh (2009) suggest differentiation; offering a wide range of products and services at market competitive prices. In view of Jehad and Faleh’s (2009) assertion, the suggestions made by the private tour operator on the need to have additional recreational activities such as snooker, tennis, biking, among others seems relevant.
By doing this, the management should be able to design new products and services, which will not only help Hotel Island View address the consumer trends but also gain market advantage over its rivals. The designing of new products and services will be attained through efficient allocation of human, financial, tacit and any other relevant resource. This will enable the hotel build its core competencies, and effectively improve its performance.
Human resource management and development strategy
Hotel island view human resource challenge is multifaceted. To begin, most of the employees at the hotel lack relevant training. Furthermore, the hotel supply of qualified human resource is irregular. In trying to come up with a solution for this problem, the hotels General Manager suggests cross training of existing personnel.
This will enable the employees acquire multiple skills, and thus serve in more that one area when needed. This seems to be in line with Jehad and Faleh (2009) assertion on the need to develop a firm’s capabilities to redistribute employees to handle new business challenges.
However, Clardy (2008) asserts that this is a traditional method and needs to be supplemented with modern forms of efficient human resource utilization. As such, Clardy (2008) suggest that firms needs to conduct a capability analysis. This is attained through evaluating a firm’s work routines and how those routines fit into the firms operations.
This enables the firm managers to understand the basic workflow and thus reengineer the firms operations. The existing human resource personnel is thus trained and equipped with the relevant skills and knowledge to handle the reengineered workflow.
As explained by Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006), the inability of Hotel Island View to gather and utilize Valuable information exposes structural gaps in the company’s business structure. To fill in these gaps, (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008) suggests reorganization of a firm’s strategic management practices.
While Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, (2008) sees strategic management as a combination of the external environment, finances, human resource management and business performance, Hotel island Views case requires the reorganization of the hotels human resource portfolio, especially with regard to the top management.
This is as a result of the realization that effective strategic management involves the cognitive abilities, the experiences and information management proficiency of the top management (Olsen, West and Ching-Yick Tse, 2008). Jehad and Faleh (2009) asserts that a firm’s top management needs to set goals which inspire company’s staff.
As such, there is need to reorganize the company’s top management. Jehad and Faleh (2009) assertion is in line with Clardy’s (2008) assertion that a firm’s human resource development strategies are basic requirements towards building company’s core competencies. This will be attained by replacing the company’s General Manager, preferable by the company’s chief accountant.
This is because the accountant seems aware of the implications of current news, something that the general manager seems unaware. If this is done, it will ensure that the company’s top management has the appropriate information management skills.
The company’s accountant has the appropriate information management skills and competencies since he is able to accurately assess current events and the effects they have on the hospitality industry. As such, he is best placed to help the hotel to establish information and intelligence seeking networks.
There are some valuable sources of information unused by the current hotel management. These include partners within the industry who, by offering auxiliary services generate valuable market intelligence. As explained by Kleinberg, Suri and Tardos (2006) the new manager should consider creating networks links with partners whose aim is to gain from establishing such strategic networks.
In this case, the private tour operator, who currently, holds crucial information that would benefit hotel island view, seems a relevant business partner. While Clardy (2008) links a company’s human resource development to the achievement of a company’s core competencies, Wincent, Anokhin, Örtqvist and Autio (2009) assert that a company’s human resource is the most vital asset that enables a company develop strategic networks.
This leads to improved business performance. In this case, hotel island view needs to evaluate its human resource development strategies, especially on hiring the top management personnel to help meets its business information needs.
Conclusion There are several issues that face Hotel Island View. Among them includes, the inability to attain competitive advantage, inappropriate human development strategies as well as weak information management strategies. While these issues seem unrelated, their core root is the company’s human development strategies.
The company has a tendency to rely on unskilled and untrained employees. This denies the company the opportunity to utilize new business opportunities since most of the employees lack the relevance expertise to spot such opportunities. The lack of skills is manifested in the inability of the employees to spot and utilize valuable information, as well as perform other strategic management practices.
Since most of the employees lack basic management skills they are not able to link the company’s human resource development strategy with the challenges the company is facing.
Reference List Branzei, O. and Thornhill, S. (2006). From ordinary resources to extraordinary performance: environmental moderators of competitive advantage. Strategic Organization, 4(1), pp.11-41.
Clardy, A. (2008). The strategic role of Human Resource Development in managing core competencies. Human Resource Development International. Web.
Kleinberg, J., Suri, S. and Tardos, E. (2006). Strategic network formation with structural holes. Social and Behavioral Sciences. Web.
Ljungquist, U. (2008). Specification of core competence and associated components: a proposed model and a case illustration. European Business Review, 20(1).
Olsen, M., West, J., and Ching-Yick Tse, E. (2008). Strategic management in the hospitality industry. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Wilton, N. (2010). An introduction to human resource management. London: Sage
Wincent, J, Anokhin, S., Örtqvist, D. and Autio, E. (2009). Quality Meets Structure: Generalized Reciprocity and Firm-Level Advantage in Strategic Networks. Journal of Management Studies 47 (4).
Managing Supply Chain of Nokia Essay college essay help: college essay help
History and Background of the Company Nokia Corporation is a Finland based company that primarily deals with the manufacture of mobile telephones. The company’s brand product is the Nokia phones. The success of the Nokia Company is largely attributed to its best management in supply chain practices.
This project will tend to analyze the supply-chain management practices at the Nokia Corporation. It gives a vivid description of how the company is enhancing its efficiency in a supply chain so as to counteract the impact of reduced market demand of mobile phone handsets.
Nokia is the number one producer of mobile phone devices in the world, and its supply chain has been rated as number six in the ranking of world’s top 25 companies in the world in terms of their supply chain. Nokia Company was founded in 1865 as a paper milling plant, and it was until 1982 that it began producing mobile phones.
Nokia Corporation has 15 mobile manufacturing plants that are spread in nine countries. Their plants are found in the following countries: Brazil, Romania, South Korea, Finland, China India, Mexico, Hungary and Great Britain. Its mother depot is located in Gurgaon.
The mother company provides help in the selection of market partners like distributors and dealers; it also provides monetary privileges to its priority dealers in order to assist in promotion of the Nokia products on a larger scale (Scribd, 2011).
Supply-chain management is defined as the totality of all activities that are involved in the delivery of company products to the customer. This process involves the sourcing of raw materials, assembling of the raw materials to form the finished products, warehousing, distribution and delivery of the final product.
Nokia operates two business groups, Nokia mobile phones and Nokia networks. The company provides wireless communication products and services. Nokia supplies equipment and communication services all over the globe. Nokia is considered as a leading international communication company which focuses its operations on wireless and wire line telecommunication areas (Shah 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the pioneer of digital technology and wireless data communications network; its innovativeness enhances its competitiveness and telecommunication network growth. Nokia is listed in four stock exchange markets (Nokia Website, 2011).
Overview of its Supply Chain Supply chain of an organization is the system of all the activities and resources that are involved in transferring a product from the supplier to the consumers, it is the transformation of the raw materials and the components into finished goods, which are ready for use by the customer. Market analysts associate the success of the Nokia Corporation to its best supply chain practices.
The supply chain of Nokia Corporation is an integrated one with “intertwined suppliers, manufacturing plants, contract manufacturers, sales and logistics service providers and the ultimate consumers” (Kalra, 2011, p. 3). The company has entered into a relationship with its suppliers while supporting them in their processes.
Nokia has been in a better position to keep the prices of its products low due to its efficient manufacturing system and production processes. Nokia Corporation has adopted a hybrid system of manufacturing, which is a combination of both in-house and outsourcing manufacturing. To enhance its competitiveness, the company has incorporated smart manufacturing techniques in its manufacturing facilities.
The company’s distribution network is wide, and this has enhanced its ability to reach the majority of its consumers. Nokia stands far much ahead when compared with other companies, particularly in regional outsourcing and its unique feature of collaborating with the suppliers to form an organized design of the supply chain (Cavinato, Flynn,
The impact of good supply chain management Essay college essay help
Supply management plays a major role in any business organization. As such, there is every need for managers and all stakeholders to embrace good supply chain management while executing their management and leadership roles.
What are the advantages of maintaining good supply chain management? This essay gives an analysis of the impact of maintaining good supply chain management in any form of business.
It is worth noting that supply management does not function alone; many other departments are always involved in ensuring its success and economical impact. However, the number of departments involved solely depends on the size of a given organization. While this is the case, it has been found that supply chain managers must work with certain departments in order to realize set goals and objectives of the organization.
These departments include engineering, finance, operations, marketing, quality and information technology (Burt, Petcavage
Global Warming and Carbon Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Global warming is believed to be as a result of excess carbon in the atmosphere. Scientists have predicted climate change. This essay analyzes and evaluates an article “The Global Warming Myth” by David Bellamy. Bellamy, who is a professor, is a founder of Tree Appeal and a well known botanist and environmental campaigner, as Salter (2009, p. 1) reveals.
The British environmentalist claims that the global warming allegations by scientist are manmade and that there is no imminent danger that carbon will cause an end to the present world. He maintains that predictions based on generated computer models cannot be relied on since the presence of carbon in the atmosphere cannot cause a catastrophe.
This essay analyzes and evaluates these claims by showing assertions that carbon may not be responsible for global warming as claimed by many scientists.
Analysis Bellamy (2007, p. 1) argues that global warming is as a result of carbon and is not a threat. The changes in climate that have occurred are not sufficient to make the assertions that the world is in danger. The climatic change that has occurred does not give transformed details of whether that could indicate an approaching catastrophe.
The challenge is that the climate change supporters have gone to extents of politicizing the issue and causing panic in the society. Their predictions are generated in a computer model which has been designed by man.
He appreciates the scientists for conducting research in the disputed area and notes that their research has contributed to science. The prediction dwell on the model yet accurate results of weather forecast can predict two weeks.
To support his argument, Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that global temperatures have displayed climatic trends in the past century that pronounce catastrophe. The highest temperatures were recorded in 1940 and 1980 whereas the lowest temperatures were recorded in 1910 and 1970.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following changes in 1980, scientists announced that global warming was approaching. The computer models they used are seen as unreliable by the professor. The recorded changes in temperature are not sufficient to declare danger in the changes in weather.
The ice age began to fade away 20,000 years ago when the sea level was increased and has since stopped. For global warming to be considered a threat, the cycle of change takes many years. It is thereof inaccurate to use data collected within 60 years and claim that climate change will cause a catastrophe. Airhart (2010, p. 1) states that, vast amount of data that cover tens of thousands of years is required to make a judgment.
The content of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The climate changes have varied in a cyclic manner from time to time. Many scholars have ignored that carbon dioxide has an advantage in plants growth. Scientists propose a long period to be considered when considering climate change.
Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that the climate has been recorded to be on decline in the past 10 years. Hence, the weather could have begun another cycle of change to global cooling.
The scientists scare the world’s population by spreading the word of doom. Bellamy (2007, p. 1) insists that wild animals have increased in the past decades. Governments funding on the spread of the looming catastrophe is enormous.
The variability of the climate change is challenging, only half is predictable. Consequently, the prediction is inaccurate. Predictions accuracy is applicable for less than two weeks, besides the weather being unpredictable in nature.
Bellamy (2007, p. 1), who is an environmentalist, encourage people to participate in sustainable programs that promote natural environment. Indigenous plans and animals are important to the climate. The changes in the weather are real.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming and Carbon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of carbon dioxide is not a danger to the population but may be useful for plants. Carbon dioxide is not capable of causing an end to the world.
Evaluation The climatic changes happening are likely to be a normal process that the earth undergoes from time to time. The global warming needs to be reversed to avoid the possibility of a catastrophe. This will be possible if indigenous trees and animals are safeguarded so that they do not become extinct.
The earth has been cooling since 1998 and thus, the global warming may be reversing as Airhart (2010, p. 1) indicate in support of the article. The increased amounts of Carbon dioxide alone are not sufficient to cause a global warming.
The models used in determining the future in climate are deficient. They fail to be realistic because predicting future weather is challenging when one considers the complexity of nature and patterns of weather.
There is no scientific explanation on carbon as having the capacity to cause a global catastrophe. Changes in weather that have occurred have been explained as natural phenomena. Scientists have failed to form a consensus on the natural explanation of the global warming.
There may be other explanations of global warming other than the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. May be the global warming is as a result of land use like the urban heat that is absorbed by buildings and roads in developed land.
There could also be a possibility that the weather stations collect measurements affected by the urban development. History of weather shows that the global temperatures increase first then the carbon levels are raised. The carbon levels increased after global warming and may not have a negative effect (Salter 2009, p, 10.
Bedard (2009, p. 1) argues that carbon dioxide is harmless and has benefits. More carbon dioxide is required to support the existing plants. Global warming may have originated from solar activities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Warming and Carbon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Slowing down carbon dioxide will affect the growth of plants, since plants require carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not harmful to human beings, the efforts on reducing carbon dioxide are unnecessary.
Global Wraming.com (2011, p. 1) differs with Bellamy (2007, p. 1) view of global warming effects and states that the earth’s air and water are becoming warm, which may result in a catastrophe. The article fails to see the effects of the global warming like the shortage of water as indicated by Natural Resources Defense Council (2001, p. 1).
Climate threats like drought expose people to the danger of starvation; hence the nations should conserve the plants and animals to reverse the effects of global warming.
Statistics shows that carbon emissions are on the increase in the present world than before. The professor fails to acknowledge the increase of emissions has been on the increase than before. Barett (2009, p. 1) notes that the states have entered into international agreements which have discussed various ways of reducing the carbon emission. Measures to reduce the carbon emissions are taken because the effects of global warming have been realized.
The effects of global warming have been realized across the globe. Carey (2011, p.1) argues that the extreme weather changes are as a result of global warming effects. The emission of greenhouse gases has been increased by human activities. Massive rainstorms, extended droughts and frequent floods are examples of extreme weather conditions that have not been realized before.
Researchers are in harmony that the possible cause of the adverse weather changes have been contributed by human activities. Mandia (2011, p. 1) states that, the climatic conditions that are witnessed today are beyond the regular climatic conditions. The adverse weather conditions are likely to cause major disruptions in the social life of human beings and the existence of the entire ecosystem.
There is great variability of climate than in other times. Researchers base their studies on the effects of global warming with an aim of finding out the accuracy of the claim that the earth is endangered. Scientists argue that it may be necessary to distinguish changes in temperature in a certain region with that of the entire globe (RealClimate 2011, p.1).
Conclusion The article mentions that there is global warming and denies that carbon is harmful and will cause a catastrophe. The essay has shown that carbon is harmless and the global changes are as a result of natural changes in weather. It is therefore inaccurate to claim that the weather can be predicted with the computer models and ignore that the weather is unpredictable.
The essay has also noted that extreme weather changes have occurred and may have been contributed by the increased emission of carbon from human activities.
References Airhart, M., 2010. Climate myths: Jackson school set the record straight. Web.
Barett, S., 2009. Rethinking Global Climate Change Governance. Economics, 3, 5. Web.
Bedard, P., 2009. Scientist: Carbon Dioxide Doesn’t Cause Global War. Web.
Bellamy, D., 2007. The Global Warming Myth. Web.
Carey, J., 2011.Global warming and the Science of extreme Weather. Web.
Global Wraming., 2011. What is global warming. Web.
Mandia, S. A., 2011. Global warming man or myth. Web.
Natural Resources Defense Council., 2011. Global warming. Web.
RealClimate., 2011. Myth vs. Fact regarding the “Hockey stick”. Web.
Salter, J., 2009. Eco hero: David Bellamy. The telegraph. Web.
Supporting organization strategies Essay essay help: essay help
Extensive training of workers in an organization is extremely beneficial in the reduction of costs, escalating market share, and improving the organization’s profits. Training of employees enhances suppleness and receptiveness of the organization.
It enables employees to handle multiple functions besides their allocated job in case need arises (Williams, 2008). This training is relevant to diminutive businesses with minimal staff. The employer needs to give employees a time off from their regular jobs to enable them attend some training courses thus equipping them with skills such as computer acquaintance.
Broad training is a fundamental component of management in many organizations. Moreover, the best-qualified workers should accustom themselves with the current expectations and practices of the business.
When the businesses are trying to lower the operational costs, employers may choose to employ workers with minimal skills in order to reduce expenses. However, the employers with vastly skilled employees’ experiences an enormous return on ventures and elevated profits compared to organizations with less skilled employees (Williams, 2008). It is imperative to say that extensive training of workers aids in increasing the organizations profit.
Extensive training of workers gives them a set of skills. After the process of training, the individual gets the relevant skills to handle complex projects in a more industrious and proficient manner. The training of employees gives them high levels of motivation in offering quality output and minimal errors thus resulting to lower operational costs.
An organization is able to improve profitability and market share by escalating the sales output. Employers from various sectors such as finance need sales professionals with the pertinent skills.
Maintenance of steady levels of better sales performance is not an easy task. Sales professionals need some training service to sustain the levels of motivation in order to increase the sales output. For employers with extremely skilled employees in the sales sector enjoy an enormous increase in sales volume and thus increasing profitability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though sales training is an expensive exercise, it is surely worthwhile to the employers. Well-trained employees really boost productivity, thereby aiding in increasing the organizations profits. Studies revealed that employees who obtain the needed sales training bring in more than fifty percent, in the net sales.
This eventually translates to superior gross profits for the organization. Some research confirms that the highest earning companies spend nearly six percent of the payroll costs to train employees, in order to enjoy high returns (Williams, 2008).
Training of employees at the start of their career results to increased profits, minimal errors, and greater efficacy. Employees with the capability of completing their work properly have a likelihood of remaining with the company, therefore, reducing the turnover and expenses related.
The act of training the employees effectively proves to be a marketing tool and still a method of recruiting additional employees (Williams, 2008). Highly trained employees help in minimizing rework and extra efforts by associates who correct the mistakes done by non-skilled employees.
It is worth denoting that highly skilled employees make few mistakes. When the employees know how to carry out a task efficiently, confidence increases, and this enhances efficiency in their work thus leading to improved profits and products of high quality.
Training from the start saves time in the end by eradicating the need to ask other colleagues to assist in performing a given task. Increased efficiency in an organization results to increase in profits and acquisition of a superior market share.
Extensive training to employees is advantageous the organization and employees. The employees are able to offer eminent output during the process. They acquit themselves with the definite skills needed to act upon their assigned jobs. Greater quality in work results to enormous profits and better satisfaction to the associates.
We will write a custom Essay on Supporting organization strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The productivity of an organization increases if the employees have skilled skills. Efficiency also improves since the employees become efficient. In a short time, there is the completion of more work as the employees know exactly what to undertake.
When employees are more familiar with their work, there is certainty in productivity gain (Williams, 2008). Profitability also increases due to wide training of employees. Consistent training of the employees aids in reducing errors. The sales increase since the sales team use a homogeneous selling process. The training also impacts positively on consumer relations as the employees learn on appropriate procedures to enhance consumer satisfaction.
When all the managers learn to use a suitable performance process, the turnover readily decreases. It is worth denoting that superb training results to improved profits and promises a greater future for all the members in the organization.
It is imperative to say that highly trained employees prove to be better performers, as they are capable of working independently, and occasionally participate with excellent results in teamwork. The result of having skilled employees is superb sales performance and increased production (Williams, 2008). This is beneficial to the organization as there is enlarged market share.
It is worth concluding that extensive training of employees’ results to their retention in the organization. The skills acquired by the employees during their training enables them to be more competent in their work thus offering excellent output. This later benefits the organization as it enjoys improved profits, reduction of costs, and improved market share.
Reference Wiliams, C. (2008). Management. New York: Cengage Learning
Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Green buildings and water efficiency
The future of green buildings
Introduction Green buildings or high-performance buildings incorporate design and construction standards that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impacts of the building on the environment and occupants. Green buildings essential elements of focus include sustainable site, safeguarding water and its sources, energy conservation, conservation of materials and indoor environmental quality.
Property developers are beginning to understand that it is possible to build green buildings on a usual budget. As such, the need to develop green buildings is on the rise. Constructors and property owners are now extending green buildings to large residential homes, industrial and commercial buildings.
At the same time, they take advantages of the new modeling tools, regulatory incentives, design techniques and wise financial spending. The growth occurs as a result of companies and individuals who are seeking spaces that respect their values and lifestyles. Green buildings go a long way in fulfilling these needs (Yudelson, 2007).
The concept of green buildings emanated as a response to human activities in altering the global climate. Most of the carbon dioxide emissions causing global warming come from buildings. Environmentalists blame developed nations for emitting much of the world’s carbon dioxide responsible for global warming.
However, the concerted efforts to adopt green buildings are most likely to change this trend. Observers predict much development in emerging nations, which will increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The focus should now shift to energy efficient and green buildings.
Otherwise, we do not have many options in tackling global warming. Several countries are economically going to benefit by embracing green technologies and carbon reduction technologies, processes and systems.
We must understand that there are lots of literature and debates concerning green buildings. The information usually concerns social and economic issues. People who prefer to embrace environmental friendly involvements often meet greenwash activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Studies in green buildings and environmental issues tend to give a full picture of what exactly are green and in what context. Critics ask whether the materials in use are also green or how green are the buildings. The resources are useful in terms of provide regulation of buildings, components of green buildings, selection of green materials and where to purchase such materials.
There criteria a building must pass so as to qualify as a green building. The essential element is its impacts on the environment. Designers must evaluate all the constituent parts so as to enable users to make informed choices about the buildings’ impacts on the environment.
People who operate in commercial buildings tend to refer to such buildings as environmental friendly buildings. Still, others call them high-performance buildings.
Participants in the building construction, design and real estate have embraced sustainable designs as landmark development in the careers and businesses. At the same time, changes in global temperatures have forced people to fight for environmental protection and reduce energy consumptions in buildings. Today, water is becoming a scarce resource as its consumption continues to rise.
Studies show that, between the year 1990 and 2000, the usage of water rose by 12 per cent (The U.S. Green Building Council, 2009). Water supply serves purposes of domestic, industrial, commercial, agricultural and other purposes. The high demand for water is straining its sources leading to massive withdrawals and reduction.
Developers have noticed the need to involve the communities. They believe that a genuine concern for the environment must involve the community from the grassroots levels for meaningful changes. Using large quantities of water increase the maintenance and life-cycle costs for building operations, and additional costs on the occupants.
Conversely, buildings that employ the efficient use of water reduce costs through lower service charges, reduction in energy and chemical use, and discharges. This paper shall focus on green buildings or high-performance buildings and their waters consumptions and efficiency processes.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Green buildings and water efficiency Observing water usage and performance are the first steps in understanding water wastage. Water and energy use relate to each other. This can help decision-makers to decide on overall efficiency. Individuals and organizations that can monitor water and energy usage can take these advantages to create greener and sustainable buildings (Wilson, 2006).
People should find ways to minimize indoor potable water usage. This involves using alternative water sources for non-potable uses. Installation of buildings components such as water-efficient fixtures, flow restrictors, composting toilets, and waterless urinals to minimize water usage.
Lowering water usage in showerheads, faucets will reduce the total amount of water users withdraw from natural resources and other water bodies. This method is efficient and effective in large commercial buildings that require much water for their occupants, workers and visitors (Spiegel and Meadows, 2011).
Saving water usually results into saving energy as well, which is leading to environmental well-being. Water efficiencies in green buildings result into reducing the amount of water for treatments, cooling, heating and distributions for potable use. These aspects require energy, of which if reduced, will result into costs savings and clean environment, through less energy consumptions.
Engaging in water conservation improves both human and environmental well-being. The looming water shortages in the leading cities are raising alarm among water suppliers and environmentalists. Water reservoirs and underground water are facing depletion. This will affect both the human and environmental well-being.
This is because low water levels can improve the concentrations of environmental pollutants. Green buildings attempt to improve water efficiencies by keeping it at safe levels. Users can also derive benefits from discharge of used water.
This is because there are costs, energy usage and materials inputs for treatments of used water. This is particularly vital in public facilities, which have high discharge rates.
In the US, water usage in landscaping is increasing at a massive rate. Observers consider landscaping as an outdoor water use that consumes large quantities of water. People should improve on landscaping activities and adopt best practices, which will reduce or even eliminate irrigations needs for landscaping.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Green Buildings and Their Efficiency Water Consumption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Green buildings are reestablishing native plants to foster self-sustaining landscaping practices. This is because such plants require less water in irrigation, and provide other environmental benefits. Green buildings tend to look so natural in a natural habitat.
Native plants also require small quantities of fertilizers and treatment chemicals. These benefits reduce environmental degradation and other unwanted environmental impacts.
Outdoor water usage has created the concept of Xeriscaping. This term denotes water conservation in landscaping. The term refers to dry or natural landscaping. Xeriscaping applies techniques of selecting suitable plant types and planting methods which reduces or eliminates water except for normal use.
This method tries to minimize the negative environmental impacts of landscaping. Environmental consciousness and the need for green buildings have resulted into popularity of xeriscaping among property developers and landscape architects. Green buildings require temporary irrigation for the first year till the plants become well formed.
Xeriscaping also combines plants with similar water requirements. Landscaping architects do not normally xeriscaping in areas with abundant rainfalls. Therefore, the initial step to involve xeriscaping involves the evaluation of the site in terms of rain, sun, wind, existing vegetation, direction of orientation, topography and soil.
Landscaping architects should carefully choose the plants with regard to their various needs such as water requirements, sun tolerance, shelter and food requirements, including plants value to the natural surroundings. Once the plants have established themselves, nature takes control (The U.S. Green Building Council, 2009).
Records indicate that urinals consume more than 150 billion gallons of fresh water per year. Designers of green buildings are venturing into designing of water-free urinals. These designs have oil seals below the drain. These prevent sewer gases from rising up.
The system eliminates the need for flushing water to prevent the smell in the urinal. The pleasant-smelling seal has to be changed periodically to provide an airtight barrier between the urine and the restroom, thus preventing odor from escaping the drain. Sealant allows urine to pass through because it is lighter than the urine.
Urine flows to the drainage and uric sediments get collected by the cartridges. The result is an odor-free environment with clean pipes and no wastage of water at all. Water-free urinals are useful in places where large volumes of water are in use, such as public toilets, hotels, schools, stadiums among others.
Water-free urinals require proper design, installation and regular maintenance, drastically reduce water consumptions in green buildings by significant quantities. The future needs of water-free urinals will lead to less demand for water, sewerage infrastructure developments, and energy (Foster, Stelmack, and Hindman, 2006).
Green buildings have water-free urinals installed. The installations pay for themselves through savings in water costs, and energy consumptions. Examples of buildings with water-free urinals include Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Jackie Gleason Theater in Miami Beach, among others.
Green buildings have concerted efforts to construct wetlands which are part of storm water management and sewerage treatment solutions. Constructed wetlands hold storm water, and use treated sewage to supply nutrients to aquatic lives.
The idea of constructed wetlands as part of green buildings, is beneficial in terms of provisions of nutrients, provision of shelter, elimination sediments, heavy metals, oil, grease, and transform sewerage nutrients into life giving-carbon, and trace minerals.
Constructed wetlands are sources of recreations, tours, environmental studies, wildlife habitats, and open space for green buildings. Architects consider constructed wetlands as cheaper to construct than the normal sewerage and storm water treatment plant. Constructed wetlands are cheap to maintain and operate. They also handle large volumes of waste water than the normal sewerage plant systems.
Examples of constructed wetlands with varieties of functions to both human and wild lives include Phoenix of the Salt and Gila rivers and Tres Rios of the Phoenix metropolis. Constructed wetlands are rapidly growing across Europe, America and China.
Earthship green building is an example of water efficiency use in green buildings. The building collects and stores rain water in the tanks. The channels carry rain water into a cistern for storage.
Gravity and pumps direct water through filters for purification to create safe water for domestic purposes. Thus, results into a safe drinking, cooking and bathing water. Water used after cooking goes to botanical tank with rubber-lined walls.
These containers hold gravels and plants. The plants naturally clean the water. Roots and gravels filter the water and add bacteria. The bacteria consume soaps and chemical in the water. This water is now safe for reuse. However, water that is too dirty for reuse finds it way in a different drainage channel.
Occupants can use this water for toilet purposes. Earthship residents can reuse water up to four times, and always have a constant supply of water from the filtering channels (Sirvaitis, 2010).
Green buildings apply effective ways to reduce water usage through the installation of flow restrictors or reduced flow aerators on the toilets, sinks and showers. High-performance buildings also have automatic faucet sensors and meter control devices.
The buildings have high efficiency water urinals and closets. They have no water fixtures and have rain water trapping systems installed.
Products selections Green buildings have their products and selection is becoming a complex affair. There are several innovative products to cater for green buildings in terms of standards, certifications, and metrics as means of assessing them.
However, some of these materials are just greenwash. The selection process requires the user to navigate all these pieces of information to find the materials he or she requires to use.
The product selections guidelines are the same as those of non-green buildings. All aspects of quality, aesthetics, costs and performance of the products are essential in green buildings materials selection processes. The fundamental questions for consideration include the environmental impacts and potential interventions measures on the products chosen.
The standard selection processes for green buildings including identification of materials, performance criteria, building materials options, technical information available, review of submitted information, evaluation of materials and selections and records of choices.
Product selection process is essential because there are many “environmental friendly” products available in the markets. Currently, majority would like to maintain the status quo concerning buildings. In fact, the industry pundits observe that clients do not show interests in eco products and continue to purchase materials which are not environmental friendly.
However, people are not all that informed about green buildings materials and where they can source them. This general lack of information has affected the market and distribution of green buildings materials (Woolley and Kimmins, 2002).
The future of green buildings New developments are likely to impact the on the future of green buildings and their materials. The emerging fields of scientific studies such as virtual reality, chaos theory and holographic philosophy will change the world’s perspectives as well as the buildings.
The uses of computers are also likely to alter some of the requirements in modern buildings as methods of working relations are dramatically changing. The shrinking natural resources may cause crisis in energy demand with a massive impacts on building designs and demands.
This might results into a search for energy efficient buildings. The solutions are green buildings with the renewable sources of energy like wind (Harrison, Woolley, Kimmins, and Harrison, 2001).
Buildings have risen beyond the need for shelter and protection. Today’s buildings reflect environmental and economical concerns. The future buildings might entail social, environmental and economic aspects.
The ability to notice changes as they occur allow us to implement counteracting measure e.g. in the case of global warming. This is possible due to rapid means of collecting, processing and communicating feedback to the users.
References Foster, K., Stelmack, A. and Hindman, D. (2006). Sustainable Residential Interiors. New Jersey: John Wiley.
Harrison, P., Woolley, T., Kimmins, S. and Harrison, R. (2001). Green Buiding Handbook: A guide to building products and their impact on the environment. London: Spon Press.
Sirvaitis, K. (2010). Seven Wonders of Green Building Technology. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
Spiegel, R. and Meadows, D. (2011). Green Building Materials: A Guide to Product Selection and Specification, 3rd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley
Human Resource Management Issues Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Types of Human Resource Management Issues in International Business International human resource management is defined as the effective process of procuring, allocating and utilizing human resources in multinational corporations. The issues that are considered to affect human resource management in foreign establishments are as discussed below.
“Culture is defined as a set of assumptions, rules, and values about social interaction” (Hofstede, 2003). “HRM personnel should develop culture sensitive policies that are acceptable within the local culture.” (Sims,
Designing a Vehicle Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Planning and clarifying the task
The construction structure and layout
An analysis of functions
Introduction Design and development of a new system or product requires certain procedures and development stages before it finally becomes a product. Design and development of a product or system is a technical process. Design is the process which revolves around its look, its overall style, as well as other issues that make up the product work.
Development is a global process of creating a product so that it could appeal to the audience; it as well modifies, and tests the product until it fully fits the market and is ready for production. There are several methodologies that can be used to design and develop a new system or product. The Pahl and Beitz design method is one of the methodologies that is used to design a new product or system.
This method of design is based on the value of the new product that is being designed or developed. The overall design of the product is usually divided into different sections that perform different functions.
In this methodology, the evaluation is usually listed so as to determine the factors that design of the new product is being judged on. The design and development of the vehicle will follow the following method
Planning and clarifying the task The new product that is being developed is a commuting vehicle that is meant for transporting a single person at a short distance of about eight miles. The vehicle is supposed to be designed and developed with the lowest costs possible and it should conserve the environment. The vehicle should also be motorized.
When designing the vehicle, all these factors have to be considered so as to ensure that the design is good and well developed. The vehicle will be specifically for short distances and motorized and therefore the design should focus on these factors and also focus on environment conservation and reduction of costs (Chambers, 1992).
The design will be based on the demands and the wishes of the clients or customers because the product will only be successful if the customer is satisfied. When designing a system or new product, the customer demands and wishes should drive the design and the development of the new product.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main demand and wish of the clients is the need of a vehicle that will enable short distance travels probably within the city or town center. The vehicle should be able to reduce the number of people walking in the city center and also help in carrying luggage within short distances (Chambers, 1992).
Some of the design objectives will be as the following:
The vehicle will only be driven in short distances where there is traffic or no traffic of similar cars
The car will be driven by a single person at any given time and it will be driven on both wet and dry surfaces
Safety of the driver is of paramount importance and the car should be environmentally friendly and produced with the lowest costs possible
The vehicle must be able to be maintained by equipment found in a general or ordinary mechanical store
The car should also be motorized
The wheels should be small but thick because the vehicle is small since it is designed to carry just a single person
The vehicle must have a chassis
The car must be equipped with a fully operational double wishbone suspension system in the front and in the back
The braking system must affect all four wheels and be operated on one control
The vehicle will be powered by a motor
The sketch of how the wheels are designed is shown below
Concept The vehicle should be designed for one person because the distance is short and the vehicle is small and convenient for only a single person. The vehicle will also be designed for one person because it is not for public service but rather for public use.
The vehicle will be designed to carry one person at any given time and to travel only for short distances within the urban centers as these are the gap needs demanded by customers that need to be filled by the new vehicle being designed. Another wish or demand that the design must consider is low cost. The design should ensure that the vehicle will be developed at the lowest cost possible.
The construction structure and layout The structure of the vehicle will be four wheels and a single seat and a small chassis. The layout of the vehicle can be as shown below
The construction structure shows the foundation model from which the vehicle will be built. In the diagram above, it shows that the vehicle will be built as a four wheel vehicle with a single seat. The four wheels will be for support of the vehicle and for easy movement within the short distances
We will write a custom Assessment on Designing a Vehicle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Outline specifications The outline specification will include the list of the required materials for developing and building the model, the systems and the equipment that are required for the motorized vehicle and that will favor all its specifications.
It will also include the quality performance expectations of the motorized vehicle. Some specifications for the vehicle such as it should be used by only one person at a time will form the basis of the outline (Chambers, 1992).
An analysis of functions The main functional areas of the vehicle will include the body which will support the whole vehicle, the electrical part, the chassis and the climate control components. The main objective of a system approach to designing a vehicle is to clearly state the technical requirements of each component of the vehicle and also clearly identify the functions of each component.
The main function of the vehicle will be to carry a single person in short distances within an urban center. The main function of the chassis will be to protect the driver from harsh environmental conditions such as hot or rainy weather. The motor will be used to move the vehicle since the demands of the clients was that it has to be motorized.
The double wishbone suspension system will be able to protect the driver from any unfortunate incidents like injury incase of an accident. The breaking system will also be for stopping the vehicle (Chambers, 1992).
Functional matrix A clearly stated functional matrix is necessary for any design especially for technological and mechanical products. The functional matrix is used to describe the functional requirements of the product or system. A good functional matrix should be able to map the functional requirements of the product or system being designed with its design requirements or parameters
The materials after the development of the vehicle will be recycled. They will be used as scrap metal and others will be recycled into new design materials to be used for making other designs and developing other products.
Although the design and development of the vehicle is usually regarded as costly, its value becomes justified when the results of the vehicle’s functions are seen (Chambers, 1992).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Designing a Vehicle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Chambers, J. (1992). Modeling and design. California: Cengage Learning “Vehicle structure and layout”. Web.
Policy Effects with Exchange Rates Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Policy Effects with Floating Exchange Rates
Fixed Exchange Rates
Policy Effects with Fixed Exchange Rates
Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rates
Policy Effects with Floating Exchange Rates This chapter continues chapter nine’s discussion on the AA-DD model. It looks into the effects of the AA-DD model on an economy with a Floating Exchange Rate System. It also describes the government’s use of the model to formulate policies. It is evident that the AA-DD model affects a number of economic variables in the macro economy.
These variables include the GNP and the value of currency. Economists developed the above model to understand the connection between the various economic variables. The government affects some of these variables through expansionary policies and contractionary policies, among others. Therefore, this chapter looks at an Open Exchange Rate System and the effect of government policies on the AA-DD model.
The government uses two policies to control money supply in a country. That is, expansionary and contractionary policy with the effect of increasing and reducing money supply respectively. The effect of expansionary policy on the AA-DD model is a shift to the right. This increases the exchange rate of a country’s money with respect to another country. However, this does not happen fast. It takes on a transitional mode with many factors at play.
For example, the real money supply exceeds the real money demand. This, in the short run, means that inflation levels increase quickly. However, the trend lags as more people convert their money assets into non-money assets to beat or take advantage of the inflation levels. In the long term, the natural effect is that the exchange rate will increase with the amount of cash in the economy.
Governments employ the contractionary monetary policy when the money supply in an economy reduces. This reduction has the effect of shifting the AA-DD model downwards. When this happens, there is an immediate reduction in Gross National Product of a country. It also leads to a relatively stronger local currency.
Fiscal policy refers to government spending. The government is the biggest consumer and its consumption has many policy effects on the economy. The government uses this power to effect policies in a country through either reduction in spending (contractionary fiscal policy) or increase in spending (expansionary fiscal policy).
An increase in government spending causes AA-DD model to shift to the right. This causes a decrease in the exchange rate. For example, the Canadian dollar would do better than the American dollar in this situation. However, this leads to an increase in the GNP for the country. This is because it may attract more foreign investment as it is favorable to them. There are many causes for an expansionary policy. This includes transfer payments, tax reductions and government direct spending.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three factors lead to different effects on the AA-DD model. The increase in government direct spending and tax reductions leads to increase in disposable incomes in a country, which causes increase in GNP. This increase leads to increase in GNP, which also increases real money demand. The effect is that interest rates increase. The reverse is true for contractionary fiscal policies, which occur because of limited government spending.
Government expansionary policy that occurs when the economy has numerous jobs spurs economic growth. This is because retailers and manufacturers enjoy better returns because of increased process of goods and services. Expansionary policy over a long period has some necessary effects to the economy.
The economy feels the heat as the increase in interest rates bites. However, the GNP does not increase immediately and before that happens, the government may plunge the economy into a placid situation. This is because lesser and lesser people will be willing to borrow.
Fixed Exchange Rates They were once the only way to do business in the years before 1973. They are still in use albeit at a lower and managed level. There are various types of fixed rate exchange systems. In a fixed exchange rate system, the government determines the value of a country’s currency.
This is contrary to a floating exchange rate system in which the prevailing market conditions determine the rate of exchange. In a fixed exchange rate system, the government or the controlling authority has a lot of control on the value of a country’s currency. However, this is not the case in a floating exchange rate system (Suranovic 56).
There are various fixed exchange rate systems. The most common is the Gold Standard. In this system, which is the most common with people, Gold is used as the measure for exchange. Since it is considered to have an equal value world over, the exchange rate is fixed for particular amounts of gold. Price specie flow mechanism is the second one. It advocated for a reserve of gold whose value was known by all central banks that would have used the system.
This would maintain fairness and a particular standard. Other systems include the next one is crawling pegs where a country forecasts that during a particular period there will be volatility of its currency. Thus, it fixes the exchange rate for that particular period to eliminate problems with the economy. The most drastic method of fixing a currency is to use the currency of another country. For example, south Sudan may use the American dollar at a time when using the currency of another country is the best way to curb inflation.
We will write a custom Essay on Policy Effects with Exchange Rates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a fixed exchange rate system, it is evident that the country that uses it has to do something after a certain period to adjust the exchange rates. This means that the treasury or the government arm that deals with monetary and fiscal control has to be alert at all times to mitigate a possible problem. In a floating system, however, this is not the case since the system controls itself with up and down movements depending on demand and supply.
Hence, economists ask the question is it possible for the two systems to work well at the same time in a country. This is not entirely possible for a long time. It can only happen where the country wants to solve a particular problem. When the problem disappears, a country reverts to its earlier method. This is because the dynamics are too intricate and the formula and manner of doing it is too complicated.
From the above discussion, it evident that a country’s central bank can intervene to solve an economic problem using exchanges rate systems. They do this through a controlled environment where a country declares a particular amount of money to the reserve bank. This is to adjust the levels of a particular currency in the market in cases where it is in little or too much supply.
Hence, the central bank puts up Foreign Exchange Bureaus to buy or sell the currency in its residency. For example, the United States may put Foreign Exchange Bureaus that trade currency to sell British pound so that it can control its spread in the country.
This chapter looks at the balance of payments. For a country to be able to purchase foreign currency, it has to stock foreign currency in reserves in its country. These reserves are called the balance of payments reserve. Because of the frequent buying and selling of both foreign and domestic currency, these reserves may run low or increase.
When they run low, this is balance of payments deficit and when they are high, this is balance of payment surplus. These two are the indicators of the activity of the exchange rate and the government uses them as pointers.
In any market where there is trading in currency, the issue of black market trading is imminent. The players in this illegal market can be even the best financial operators in a country. This includes banks and other financial institutions.
Governments need to use so much resource to avoid this market since it has ability to cripple the financial system. The government also needs to ensure that the Foreign Exchange market is vibrant to eliminate a situation where there is undue demand or supply of one currency leading to a serene environment for black market trading.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Policy Effects with Exchange Rates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Policy Effects with Fixed Exchange Rates Governments do not work the same in either fixed or floating exchange rates. These policies shift depending on the type of exchange rate use. In this light, it important to know how the AA-DD model would behave in such situations. This means that a country should have a fixed exchange rate policy. This chapter is an analysis of the fixed exchange rate policy in light of the AA-DD model in situations of monetary policy and fiscal policy changes.
As seen earlier, the AA-DD model shifts according to changes in monetary policy. Under expansionary policy, the AA-DD model shifts to the right. The money supply puts pressure on the exchange rate. This cause significant reduction the interest rates, which arouses public interest to borrow more from among themselves and the government.
In that case, they sell their bonds and treasury shares. However, since the exchange rate is fixed, an automatic intervention form the government forestalls a situation where the rates overshadow its efforts. This is the effect in the short run.
When this happens for a long time, the government loses part of its GNP. This is the exact opposite when contractionary monetary policy is involved. Hence, governments that use fixed exchange rate systems need to strike a balance between quick short-term benefits or the long-term health of its economy in making policy decisions (Suranovic 67).
The government may also use expansionary fiscal policy or contractionary fiscal policy. In these two situations there are different after effects that play out. Fiscal policy emanates from the fact that the government is the major consumer in an economy. Another way to influence fiscal policy is through transfer of payments and tax revenues. Overall, expansionary fiscal policies increase the growth national product to a certain level. This happens in the short run in a situation where the exchange rate is fixed.
However, in the long term detrimental effects may play out in the economy. Contractionary fiscal policy causes the GNP to reduce significantly in the short run in a fixed exchange rate system. However, the long-term benefits outweigh the short-term results.
In a situation where there is an exchange rate policy with fixed exchange rates, the government uses the concept of devaluation and revaluation to affect the monetary policy. Devaluation refers to a situation where the government lowers the value of its currency through use the reserves reduction.
If the government increases the value of the reserve, it increases the value of its currency through a concept called revaluation. Generally, devaluation in a fixed exchange rate system causes a significant increase in GNP. Revaluation has an opposite effect and this happens in the short run. This is what the United States government accuses china of doing.
This part explains the reserve country and its effect on the reserve currency. For example, India may use the American dollar as its reserve currency and fix its exchange rate. By doing this, USA government has no authority to manipulate the Indian government in policy making just because it uses its money for reserve. It can use both expansionary and contractionary monetary policies to ensure the reserve fund is at its best.
To maintain sanity the country holding the reserve, the government needs to constantly buy and sell the reserve to respond to different market demands. Normally, a government holds the reserve in form of treasury bonds. This way it makes it easy to trade the bonds and hence control the market real time.
Failure to observe this may lead to a balance of payments crisis. Several things may lead to a balance of payments crisis. These crises may result from many things such as devaluations, capital flight, borrowing reserves, return to float among others.
Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rates The hardest question that governments and economist find is the determination between the fixed and the floating monetary policies. It is mind boggling to know which one to use. However, there is no definitive answer as all have worked and failed in different situations. For example, it is hard for a government to have the autonomy to control an economy in a fixed economy. However, it is easy to that in a floating economy.
Before choosing which system to adopt, a country must consider a number of factors. This includes its effect on the volatility of the risk involved, inflationary consequences and how autonomous the monetary system will be.
Exchange rate volatility refers to refs to what extent the value of exchange rate fluctuates over time. In essence, even from the wording, fixed exchange rate is not supposed to change at all. On the other hand, floating exchange rates are supposed to move up and down depending on the performance of the markets.
Hence, the more the changes in the value of exchange rate the more volatile it is. By definition, fixed exchange rates are not supposed to change. However, this is not necessarily the case as they are constantly revalued and devalued denoting changes. Exchange rate risk refers to the possibility that a person may lose money because of the changes in exchange rate (Suranovic 70).
Exchange rate risk is not unique to any particular person in an economy. Actually, it has the potential to have spiraling effects that span across the board. This is because it touches on various parts of the country’s economic system and particularly the import and export trade. This trade has a direct or an indirect influence on the prices of many commodities especially basic ones.
Exchange rate systems have inflationary effects too. When a government wants to adopt a particular exchange rate system, the best way is to adopt a system with the minimal inflationary tendencies. The writer notes that many governments world over have fallen prey to citizens demanding more spending from it and transfer of payments.
However, these governments do not increase taxes to cover these spending and transfers. This leads to huge public deficits, very high interest rates and inability to borrow money without significant harm to the economy (Suranovic 78).
In a floating exchange rate system, the options for the above situation are quite limited just as in the fixed system. This is because the short-term solution is normally to print money. This is not very popular as it the cause of many historically infamous situations. For example, the recent happenings in Zimbabwe and the Turkey situation in the 1980 etc. After departure from the fixed exchange rates system used in 1960 and 1970, the controls were chaotic.
This is because devaluation leads to automatic inflation. Additionally, the base currency in use, the dollar, sometimes experienced critical shortages because of unnecessary hoarding from some countries. Then, economists suggested the floating exchange rate where each country controlled its economy.
The problems it presented were numerous as the formulation of exchange rates to facilitate import and export trade came into being. Currencies were not steady anymore and some countries suffered because of runaway inflation. Currently, the return to the gold standard, used before the arrival of Bretton Woods’s institutions, are the ones frequently proposed.
The issue of monetary autonomy is back from history. In the past for decades and counting, the need to come together and have a single currency was not good. This was in the wake of a single fixed rate system, which led to a lot of chaos. Monetary autonomy refers to a country’s independency to make monetary decisions through its central bank.
This is true in a floating exchange rate system. It can increase money supply by lowering interest rates, which triggers borrowing, investment and economic growth. However, this is not possible in a fixed exchange rate system. In this system, different methods such as crawling peg. For effective central bank control of the monetary system, it has to have an independent way to operate separate from the government. This will avoid the situations in both Argentina and Zimbabwe.
The above discussion leads to the question, which is better between fixed and floating exchange rate systems. The fall of Bretton Woods meant that countries would formulate either their own monetary system or come together to have a bloc that had Base Exchange rate systems.
However, currently all countries look into options that best makes its economy more vibrant and stronger. For example, the Euro zone is currently engulfed in a monetary situation that is threatening its unity. Countries must formulate prudent and flawless monetary and fiscal policies if they are to survive the current turbulent times in the world economies.
Works Cited Suranovic, Steven. International Finance, 2012. Web.
An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow Proposal cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This document assesses the viability of the project by outlining the possibilities of putting up the wind farm to produce energy. The wind energy plant will be able to generate electricity in large quantity. The decision on the construction will be based on this document.
Initial assessment is focused on the finances, suitability of location, the modern, latest technology on the design and the community around the area of the construction site. Noted concerns above are some of the issues incorporated in this document to make an informed decision in construction of the farm.
Evaluation of Possible essential factors for the construction Arguments for the construction
Geographical advantage: the area has got quite a good soil structure and the location is strategic whereby the wind mills can be firmly constructed. Since wind is the driving force for the farm in running the turbines. Location is having reliable strong wind that can be used to generate large megawatts of power at all times (Andrew and Jamie 34).
The interconnection and accessibility: the area is vital for successful construction of the farm. The region is well connected with good roads whereby it is possible for the management and the government to supervise the process during its initiation times and operation process (Gipe 9).
Availability of required finances: the government is ready to avail funds for the construction and this is our supportive factor on this project (GE Energy 21).
Power requirement: the generated power from the company will be useful in pumping in more megawatts in the national grid system. This will reduce power rationing in future.
Community acceptance: the surrounding community is happy with the project because this will create development of employment opportunities in that particular region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market for the power produced. The power produced will be readily used by the locals both in residential areas and for commercial business purposes.
Economic impact of the farm: the project has economic benefits for the nation landowners and communities. The land owners are entitled for compensation every year. The state is also able to get more taxes to run the economy.
Security: there is sufficient security for the equipments in case option for construction is selected.
Arguments against the construction of the farm
Environmental constraints: the construction site alternatively is useful in farming. ( American Wind Energy Association 12). The neighboring residence has raised concern about possible noise pollution by the generating turbines (Williams and Palmer 56).
The construction process requires expertise and proper approach by the government on the progress. Wind energy may face transmission challenges (Keith 8). Market barriers: it is associated with lack of financial, legal and institutional framework to support the uptake of renewable energy projects.
Analytical barriers: the quality and information availability necessary for practical underwriting and developing quantitative analytical methodologies for risk management instruments (U.S. Department of Energy 14). Political barriers: they are associated with policy issues and regulatory procedures by the government ( Elgerd 25).
Long lead times and up-front failures: involves planning permission and construction cost which is very high. Failure of the critical components: For example, turbines and gear train and bearing blades. This may raise maintenance cost.
We will write a custom Proposal on An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The offshore cable laying is cumbersome and expensive for transmission purposes. This is on infrastructural necessities (U.S. Department of Energy).
Conclusion The stated assessment factors are vital to provide informed decision on the possible construction of the farm located at Whitelee, south of Glasgow in Europe.
Works Cited Andrew, Swift and Jamie, Chapman. “A Primer on Wind Energy: Meteorology, Technology, Economics and Transmission,” Wind Energy Institute Conference, Austin (2007): 1.
American Wind Energy Association. The Economics of Wind Energy. 2008. Web.
American Wind Energy Association. The Most Frequently Asked Questions About Wind Energy. 2008. Web.
Elgerd OI. Electric Energy Systems Theory. 2nd edition, New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.
GE Energy. Offshore Wind Energy, 2007. Web.
Gipe Paul. Wind Power. Renewable Energy for home, Farm and Business. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2004.
Not sure if you can write a paper on An assessment to build the largest Wind farm in Europe at Whitelee, south of Glasgow by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Keith Johnson, “Renewable Power May Yet Yield Windfall,” The Wall Street Journal (March 2007): 8.
U.S. Department of Energy. Department of Energy to Invest up to $4 Million for Wind Turbine Blade Testing Facilities. 2007. Web.
U.S. Department of Energy. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006. Web.
Williams Griffith and Palmer Lennie. Impact of Manawatu Wind Generation on the Scheduling and Dispatch Processes. Sept. 2005. Web.
Role of mergers and acquisitions in achieving a corporate strategy- InBev Case Study essay help free
Table of Contents Description of InBev Company
Analysis of the estimated Value this deal will create for InBev
Description of InBev Company This is a company that resulted from the merger between AmBev and Interbrew in 2004. Interbrew was ranked third largest in the entire world in terms of profit margins with most of its sales emerging from North America, as well as, Europe, leading to a total of 120 countries being captured in the marketing strategy.
On the other hand, AmBev was ranked fifth in the global market with most of its sales centered in Latin America. The merger between the two companies was strategic in terms of business development of both companies resulting into a new brand name- InBev.
It should be noted that the mutual intention for both companies was related to gaining of market share value in the respective regions where the counterpart company was strongest, i.e. AmBev’s intention was to gain a foothold in the Northern America and Europe where its brands had not been fully introduced while Interbrew had intentions of fully launching its brands in Latin America.
As a result, it can be noted that the intentions by both companies were strategically business-sensible since they would lead to more sales for both partners due to expansion to foreign untapped markets.
InBev launched its bid to acquire Anheuser-Busch Company in 2008 in a deal that would see the company paying extra, in order to close the deal. InBev placed a bid of $46.4 Billion in order to acquire Anheuser-Busch in a deal that would see the merger of the two companies form the strongest and largest brewer in the world with an estimate of about $36 billion worth of sales annually.
With the Anheuser-Busch rejecting the initial offer of $65 per share by InBev, the CEO of InBev raised the bid to $70 per share, willing to go extra heights in order to close the deal. This represents a major step whose long term corporate strategy would have to produce maximum estimated returns.
Problem Statement What is the rationale for the deal in which InBev Company is willing to pay up to $70 per share in order to acquire Anheuser-Busch Company?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analysis of the estimated Value this deal will create for InBev In order to comprehensively answer the question presented above in the problem statement, it is important to critically evaluate the potential benefits that InBev Company estimates to achieve in acquiring Anheuser-Busch Company that would justify the decision to pay the high premiums. An analysis of this issue will require an in-depth examination of the potential benefits lying ahead after the closure of this deal.
First, InBev is estimating to increase its sales to approximately $36 billion dollars annually. The Budweiser brand from the Anheuser-Busch Company maintains a dominant lead in terms of sales in America, having done well in the market for the last 139 years.
An acquisition of this company by InBev brings forth huge financial benefit since the dominant value of Budweiser in American market will help InBev to achieve its goals in expanding dominance in the American Continent market environment.
According to the CEO of InBev, this deal would create a competitive advantage for the company since the sales are estimated to go higher with annual estimates rising to $36 billion. This would represent excessive sales in the American markets through the sale of Budweiser brand, as well as, benefits of international sales emanating from the sales of brands from InBev Company. As a result, it can be noted that this deal will be a potential benefit for InBev leading to a justification of the high premiums paid for the acquisition procedure.
The creation of the world leading brewer industry is another justification for the acquisition. This acquisition deal will lead to the formation of the world’s largest brewing industry since it will constitute the combination of the world’s fourth largest producer (Anheuser-Busch) and the second largest producer (InBev).
As a result, it can be observed that the acquisition will lead to the formation of a major company that will gain variety of potential benefits in the beer industry. As a matter of fact, InBev is estimated to benefit from the market share in Europe and American continents.
Since Anheuser is majorly dominant within the American continent occupying up to 50% of the market share due to the sale of its brands, the combination of sales from Europe that will emanate from the InBev companies will create a major boost for InBev due to the increased market share.
We will write a custom Case Study on Role of mergers and acquisitions in achieving a corporate strategy- InBev specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, InBev is estimated to increase in net profit margins through expansion and increased sales due to variety of beer products from the company. In addition, the highly estimated sales will be helpful in terms of giving InBev absolute opportunity to dominate the beer industry by investing the money into research in the market to find out the existing untapped markets, as well as, the changing tastes of the consumers and customers (Mitchell-Lee and Mirvis 23). As a result, this will create an effective corporate strategy by the company that will lead to more potential benefits of the company.
Third, this deal will ensure that all the US breweries remain open. Due to the threat of global recession, the chance of companies going bankrupt is a likely possibility. Efforts to consolidate unity in the market in such tough financial seasons would be necessary in terms of ensuring that the beer industry stays alive in the global business environment.
It should be noted that the government policies that may be launched by various government s in response to the global financial crisis may be unfavorable to the beer business.
As a result, the decision of InBev to pay high premium in order to acquire Anheuser-Bush, is an effective corporate strategy that will not only strengthen the stakes of the company, but also, help the breweries within the American continent to stay open and operational within the tough financial season in the global environment.
As a result, it should be noted that it was a good corporate strategy for the CEO of InBev to invest in the acquisition of Anheuser-Busch Company at the time.
Creation of large chain of employees and executive managers of both companies is another justification for the high premiums paid by InBev in the acquisition procedure. It should be understood that the acquisition would create a large pool of employees from both companies which would potentially create great manpower resource since highly-skilled employees from one company can be deployed to other non-performing branches of the company to create a turn-around which would be financially useful for the company.
In addition, the inclusion of the board of directors from Anheuser-Busch Company will provide more executive and intellectual management skills that will help InBev to scale higher heights in the global environment in terms of management.
Works Cited Mirvis, Philip, and Mitchell-Lee, Marks. Joining Forces: Making One Plus One Equal Three in Mergers, Acquisitions, and Alliances. New York: MacMillan Library Reference, 1998. Print.
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