Table of Contents The Baroque Era
Origins of the Baroque Art
The Effects of Counter Reformation on Baroque Art
Paintings of the Baroque Era
The Baroque Era The Baroque era was a period in the art history when the Baroque art and architecture prevailed in the European and some of its protectorate’s art world all through the 1600’s to mid 1700’s. This form of art rose primarily because of the protestant reformation struggles that triggered the Catholic Counter Reformation Movement, aimed at averting the spread of Protestantism.
Historically, the period is commonly referred as the common European art style of the Mannerist and the Rococo Eras. The Baroque art had unique stylistic features that included dynamic movements, energy, and unconcealed strong feelings hence, the significance of this form of art all throughout its existence.
Other artistic features that were common in this art include a great sense of space, and realistic reflection of perspective, and realism; features whose main goal was to reflect the inner functioning of the mind and obsession of the human soul. Because of its historical significance in the world of art and contributions to development of the European art, expressions of the Baroque art are prevalent in almost all European nations and most of its colonies (Sullivan, 2000, p.1).
Considering this, the Baroque Era is one of the most significant periods in the world of art, as it bore a new world of art dominated by both religious and iconoclastic artistic representations, as a result of the new discoveries, and effects of the reformation and counter-reformation campaigns of different religious groups.
Origins of the Baroque Art With the increasing human conscious about their world in the 17th century, there arose a need for a representational form of art, which could account for the new discoveries and demands that arose in the European society. To accommodate and account for such changes and discoveries, a new and unique form of art rose, as most artists endeavored to represent this new changes and demands in their form of art hence, the rising of the Baroque art.
Three main factors that led to the rise of the Baroque art include the religious struggles that were prevalent among Christian societies, scientific advances, and the growth of powerful absolutist monarchies. As research studies show, although all these factors greatly influenced the rise of Baroque art, the greatest influence came from the then prevalent religious tensions among Christians.
Because of these, religion played a primary role of determining most features of the Baroque art. There were great influences from the Roman Catholic’s Counter Reformation movements of the 17th and 18th century, in its struggle to prevent the spread of protestant faith. Prior to the Protestants’ reformation campaign of 1400’s to 1500’s, the catholic enjoyed the autonomy of controlling the European art world hence, majority of the artistic work were religious representations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, with the emergence of the reformation campaign, majority of leaders stated to encourage the inclusion of iconoclastic artistic works. This marked the onset of the Counter-Reformation campaigns to oppose such new emerging ideologies, which had great support from some European prominent leaders.
In its Counter Reformation campaign, the church used emotional, pragmatic, and theatrical art as a methodology of winning the faith of more individuals, leading to the rise of more new Baroque art designs. As time progressed and the struggle heightened, such art designs spread to protestant territories, for example, the Bernini and Rubens hence, leading to the rise of the Baroque art in more European countries and its colonies (Held and Posner, 1972, pp. 3-17).
In addition to religion, the many effects of scientific discoveries of the time, for example, the evolution of the press, advances in astronomy, emergence of scientific literature, and economic growth, provided individuals with enough incentives to spend on exotic houses and homes. This greatly promoted the rise of the art as most individuals of the middle and upper class wanted exotic house and home designs to fit their standards.
On the other hand, to represent the new social class of individuals that had emerged, for example, absolutists’ monarchies, calls for formation a new form of art increased, leading to the rise of the Baroque art. As research studies show, the Baroque art was highly representational, had exaggerated decorations, created high sense movement and tension, features that represented the power in these new rising absolutist monarchies (Held and Posner, 1972, pp. 9-27).
The Effects of Counter Reformation on Baroque Art To win the hearts of more individuals in their Counter Reformation Campaign, the Catholic Church used a form of art that, whose main subject matter was that of grandiose visions, martyrdom, and intense emotion rendering.
Such artistic developments and representations led to the rising of the Baroque art, as the practice became common among painters, and other artisans, for example, sculptors and architects. One primary reason that enabled the Catholic Church to succeed in their endeavor of promoting the spread of the Baroque art is the nature of influence and autonomy it enjoyed over people and the world of art.
Therefore, because of this autonomy, majority of individuals believed representations in most church artistic works hence, greatly influencing the spread of the Baroque art in Europe and its colonies. Generally, the greatest contribution of Counter Reformation to the world of Baroque art was the inclusion of artistic features that could invoke in people deep emotions and strong thoughts, necessary to make them detest the protestant faith (Baldwin, 2008, pp. 3-13).
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of the Baroque Era specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paintings of the Baroque Era Although many forms of art characterized the Baroque era, paintings were the most common form of art during this era. Primary characteristics of paintings of this era included rich color, great theater, and the use of intense shadows as the main stylistic features.
The paintings also coined movement with actions, as a means of invoking in its audience strong emotions and excitement, rather than calm rationality. In addition, artists of this era also depicted aspects of naturalism, dynamic movement, and space in their paintings. Generally, most Baroque paintings were a representation of most church related events or figures and historical events (Sullivan, 2000, p.1.)
In conclusion, the Baroque Era is one of the most significant periods in the world of art, because through the many scientific discoveries of the time, and effects of the reformation and counter-reformation, new artistic ideas were born in the world of art.
Reference List Baldiwin, R. (2008). The impact of counter-Reformation on Art: Baroque Art in Catholic Europe (Italy, France, Belgium). Connecticut College. Web.
Held, J. S.
United Nations Global Compact Report essay help online free
Introduction The United Nations Global Compact being an initiative which has played a major role in making sure that business organizations subscribe to policies which enhance social responsibilities has enacted some principles which have been able to bring companies together in ensuring a global sustainability. In addressing the integration of Hewlett Packard into the United Nations Global Compact, this paper will basically consider two principles.
The first principle will principle number six which focuses on labour standards and seeks to ensure that in all types of occupations and employments, discrimination should totally be done away with (Utting and Zammit 2006, 16). The next principle in focus will be the 9th principle which entails precautionary measures to be taken as companies approach challenges posed by the environment (UNGC 2010, 155) (a).
Business approaches Hewlett Packard, in its undeterred ambition to providing cutting edge technology to the populations all over the world became a member of the United Nations Global Compact initiative in a bid to be in support of the ten principles. Some of the practices and approaches that the company can and has tried to follow concur with the principle of equity in labour distribution (Kell 2005, 33).
This has been a sad case in many companies who have been discriminating amongst color and origin. To incorporate this into the business system, the company must integrate transparency in its human resource system such that all workers feel respected. This too has to consider that the process of hiring and/or firing falls in under the same conditions where meritocracy is respected irrespective of skin color (UNGC
The Divine Comedy Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Durante degli Alighieri, shortened as Dante, was an Italian poet born in the spring of 1265 in Florence. Of his works, The Divine Comedy is the greatest literary statement in the medieval periods of the Europeans. It marks the foundation of the Italian language. The comedy explores the greatest unreciprocated, distant love story between Dante – the author, and Beatrice. Dante is almost nine years when he first meets Beatrice, who is a few months younger.
Dressed in crimson attire, she completely obsesses him. For nine years, he remains captivated by her from a distance. It is not until 1283, when she speaks to him as they pass each other on the way. After marrying Beatrice and enjoying three years together, sorrow strikes him. His 24-year-old wife dies! Though short, the time they spend together, significantly influences the rest of his life. Though dead and forgotten, her principal inspirations speak volumes of Dante’s works.
Firstly, after Dante meets Beatrice for the first time, her dressing forces him to fall in love with her in the first sight, mistaking her for an angel with divine and noble characteristics.
Though they hardly speak, it is from this first encounter that makes him write the poem Behold, A Deity Stronger Than I; Who Is Coming, Shall Rule Over Me. One afternoon, they meet along the Florentine streets, when Beatrice greets him. She says, “Love prompted me, that love that makes me talk…” (Lawall 1841). This greeting is enough to make him retreat to his room where he falls asleep, only to experience a dream that becomes the subject of one of his greatest romantic poems-The New Life.
Next, he frequently tours parts of Florence, his home city, looking for just a glimpse of Beatrice. His words, “You with your words have so disposed my heart, into longing for this journey…” (Lawall 1842) induces nervousness. These shows how much influence Beatrice words have on his decisions.
They are so powerful, that he has to pay her visits. His efforts to privatize his thoughts about Beatrice force him to compose poetry to a woman, to use her as a “screen for the truth.” Her influence is far from a straightforward inspiration, Dante makes her a character in his greatest works.
The book, The New Life, is almost full of poems of his praises to her. The Divine Comedy book shows how much she has influenced his spiritual life. She is the one who directs him to heaven For instance, “You are my guide, my governor, my master” (Lawall 1842). Owing to the fact that their relationship has no contact, their personal terms conversations is just Dante’s imaginations. The Beatrice on study is his mind’s creations. He calls her “The glorious lady of my mind.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, truth and beauty seem inseparable. Through an animation, Beatrice goes to the purgatory for Dante where he greets her. His journey from the purgatory, through inferno to paradise parallels a change of his relationship to Beatrice. In his journey with Virgil through the inferno, he depicts Beatrice as his only reassurance.
She says, “When I had risen from flesh to spirit and beauty and virtue and increased in me I was less dear to him and less welcome and he bent his steps in a way not true…” (Lawall 1843). Beatrice here asserts the fact that she is different from all the women Dante has met and for him to love any other, is unholy.
In conclusion, the author influences men’s imaginations, touching their hearts so that they can turn to righteousness. To the author, this truth reveals the divine wisdom. Being a poet with divine commission, he wants to familiarise men with this revelation. From his experience of a man on earth, this design is practicable.
Though Dante cannot be explained beyond this earthly plain, from the love that cropped from the sight of a beautiful girl, he has produced great works of poetry earning him the title “Father of Italian Literature.” As a lesson, the readers should be worthy of these heavenly gifts when they bestow their hearts on those they love.
Works Cited Lawall, Sarah. (Ed.) “The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. A: Beginnings to A.D. 100, 2nd Edition, 2003.
The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City Essay college admissions essay help
In the modern world of competition it is essential for hotel business to understand the needs and preferences of customers and provide them with the best possible services (Hall and Page, 1999, p.97). Thus, the majority of international or regional hotel companies start investing in training and development programmes (Olsen and Zhao, 2008, p.171). Hudson Hotel (New York) pertains to one of such regional hotel chains, Morgans Hotel Group (“Morgans Hotel Group”).
Admittedly, hospitality is the key consideration for every respectful hotel (O’Fallon and Rutherford, 2010, p.30). Hospitality presupposes that hotel staff will provide “the flexible delivery of hotel services” (Bardi, 2006, 309). Fortunately, nowadays flexibility has become accessible due to technology which assists in addressing “the training needs” and the needs of providing good services (Wallace, 1993, p.62).
As far as training is concerned, various visual aids have proven to be very effective in development training (Pike, 2003, p.63). Fortunately, Hudson Hotel has the opportunity of implementing various training strategies using technology since it is designed to become an example of the boldness and diversity of the city” with numerous conference halls and other accommodations suitable for training (“Hudson New York”). Thus, technology assists in implementing various development programs.
As well as many successful hotel companies Hudson Hotel uses various training techniques which can be divided into three major groups: “vocational training, professional education and executive development” (Jafari, 2003, p.176). Vocational training plays the essential role since it helps to develop the key consideration of hotels, hospitality (Weber and Chon, 2002, p.80).
This kind of training is preoccupied with such areas as skills (bad making, vacuuming, bathroom cleaning, using equipment, industrial safety), attitude (meeting standards, appearance, personal hygiene), and knowledge (hotel layout, knowledge of rights and benefits, grievance procedure understanding) (Jones, 2007, p.159). Executive development also plays a significant role in Hudson Hotel training programs. This training is aimed at developing new (modern, innovative) skills in management personnel.
To develop skills and knowledge mentioned above various training techniques are used in Hudson Hotel. For instance, demonstration and skill practice are very effective techniques (Malhorta, 1997, p.265). Demonstrations consist in sharing experience when a person who possesses definite skills shows (demonstrates, teaches) them to a newcomer, and the latter tries to repeat the same gaining the necessary knowledge.
Talks, lectures and seminars are also very effective in terms of employees’ development (Malhorta, 1997, p.266). As for such kind of training it is necessary to mention that one effective technique of organizing lectures (conferences, talks) is used at Hudson Hotel, i.e. the seating arrangements are organized in the “lecture theatre or classroom layout” (Rae, 1995, p.109).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This strategy helps to involve all people in discussion and lead to very positive results. Admittedly, the most effective training can be reached if it is a voluntary process (J, p.45). Thus, at Hudson Hotel various benefits for employees exist, and this forms a positive tendency of eagerness to self-develop. Thus, self-education is another effective technique used by Hudson Hotel (Hayes and Ninemeier, 2008, p.227).
Thus, Hudson Hotel implements various training techniques which are aimed at the employee’s development. These training techniques include talks, lectures and conferences. The training programs are mainly concerned with developing skills and knowledge in employees which will create the necessary atmosphere of hospitality, since it is hospitality which is the key consideration for any hotel chain.
Bibliography Bardi, J.A. (2006). Hotel Front Office Management. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Hall, C.M., Page, S. (1999). The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place and Space. New York, NY, Routledge.
Hayes, D.K., Ninemeier, J.D. (2008). Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons. “Hudson New York”. https://www.morganshotelgroup.com/hudson/hudson-new-york#/explore/?id=overview
J, David. (2005). Textbook Of Hotel Mgmt. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.
Jafari, J. (2003). Encyclopedia of Tourism. New York, NY, Routledge.
We will write a custom Essay on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, T.J.A. (2007). Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Malhotra, R.K. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Hotel Management and Tourism. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.
Morgan Hotel Group. https://www.morganshotelgroup.com/
O’Fallon, M.J., Rutherford, D.G. (2010). Hotel Management and Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Olsen, M., Zhao, J. (2008). Handbook of Hospitality Strategic Management. Burlington, MA, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Pike R.W. (2003) Creative Training Techniques Handbook: Tips, Tactics, and How-To’s for Delivering Effective Training. Amherst, MA, Human Resource Development.
Rae, L. (1995). Techniques of Training. Brookfield, Vermont, Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Wallace, P. (1993) Multimedia Boosts Holiday Inn’s Training System. InfoWorld, 15 (24) June, p.62.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weber, K., Chon, K.S. (2002). Convention Tourism: International Research and Industry Perspectives. New York, NY, Routledge.
The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Capital Punishment
Introduction Capital punishment has otherwise been referred to as death sentence or death penalty. It can also be used to refer to legal execution of a convicted individual or through a judicial process.
The capital punishment has always been used in situations where an individual or criminal is judicially convicted of a capital offence or capital crime (Milhorn 401). It is important to examine the origin of capital punishment. The capital is a term that was coined from the Latin word “capitalis” which actually, in its literal sense means “gaze at the head.”
So it means that initially, capital punishment was a situation where a convicted criminal had his or her head judicially severed. Nonetheless, it is important to note that capital punishment, in the past, has virtually been utilized every society (Milhorn 401). However, available literature indicates that only 58 countries of the world still practice capital punishment; this represents only approximately 5% of all countries in the world.
The meaning of this is that about 95% of all countries in the world have turned away from using capital punishment to contain crimes. In many countries, capital punishment is still a subject of hot debate in many countries, including the United States of America, and standpoints can vary within a given singular cultural religion amongst a group of individuals or political ideology (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).
Amongst the nations that do not recognize capital punishment as a form of deterring or terminating the commission of capital offences are those that are found within the European Union. This is well spelt in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Even though the Transparency International consider most countries as abolitionists against capital punishment, research findings indicate that more than 60% of the worlds population reside in countries where capital punishment is still an option for punishing or deterring capital offenders. Example of such countries where capital punishment is still an option are the United States of America, the People’s Republic of China and Indonesia (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).
However, looking at the contemporary society, the global distribution of death penalty has been varying greatly with some countries and states abolishing and reinstating capital punishments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the end of the Second World War, the global tendency toward abolishing the death penalty has been on the rise. According to available information, there are countries that have abolished death sentencing completely; some have only allowed it under special or specific circumstances while others are yet to make their decisions and take a stand on abolishing it.
Even though death penalty is still being practiced in a significant number of developed nations, it was widely practiced in developing countries most of which were under the control of repressive, dictatorial or totalitarian governments. With regard to this, it will be accurate to argue that that capital punishment has some times been used for political reasons to contain political dissidents.
The death punishment in America is varied depending with jurisdictions. Practically, death punishment in the United States of America is only applicable in cases of motivated murder and more remotely for felony assassination or what is otherwise referred to as indenture murder. The (capital) punishment is believed to have been there even at the time of the earlier colonies of the United States; it as well continued to be in force within the states that came to form afterwards.
In the process of judicial execution, the methods are different and depended on the type of criminal activity committed. The first to be sentenced to capital punishment in America was executed in 1608; the person was judicially executed after being convicted of spying on behalf of the government of Spain.
Afterwards, the capital punishment in the United States have been abolished and reinstated for a significant number of times. Nonetheless, several states within the United States apply capital punishment for differently in relation to crime committed (Clarke and Whitt, pp.03-68).
This positional paper will argue in favor of death penalties. To this effect, the paper will examine the various reason death penalty is still appropriate and important towards containing certain types of criminal activities. Moreover, the paper will utilize the ideas such as DNA evidences and other forms of evidences as they relate to death as a penalty. The various impact of banning death as a penalty will also form part of the themes in this paper.
Abolitionists’ Views In order to get the basis on which to understand the significance of capital punishment, it is important to start by looking at arguments against the judicial execution.
We will write a custom Essay on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that even though death penalty has gained support from various individuals, private organizations and state institutions, the subject is still hotly detested; there are a significant number of people or group of individuals who cannot see the positive side of capital punishment. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.
The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. Meanwhile, it was Cesare strongly campaigned against capital punishment the world over. Beccaria hypothesized that the state does not encompass any validation to take away life either for a group of individuals or an individual.
The work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. In fact, the influence of this theory achieved some grounds worldwide where some countries actually abolished death penalty as a way of judicial killing.
The ideas of Beccaria on death penalty had great influence on the American intellectuals who fought for its abolishment except in extreme cases like treason and crimes of murder. The abolitionist movement has argued, borrowing from Beccaria’s arguments, that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent to crimes for which it is meted.
During the early part of the 19th century, abolitionist movement gained momentum in the United States of America and consequently some states revised their statutes in relation to capital punishment. Even so, more states maintained their capital punishment statutes. By the time the United States was facing the First World War, capital punishment was reinstated; this could be interpreted as a blow to the anti-capital punishment crusaders.
As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of incontrovertible arguments that are worth acknowledging. They have argued that there exist nothing like humane method of judicial execution irrespective of what crime the convict might have committed to warrant death sentence. These people state that execution is torturous to a convicted criminal and that it must be realized that the criminals are also human beings with human feelings and fear of losing their families.
Moreover, an argument has been advanced that the mental conditions of the convicted as at the time of commission of capital offense is not usually given the attention it requires; besides, it is noted that from the time capital punishment is pronounced on a convict upto the time when execution takes place, the convict undergoes a lot of psychological torture and mental disturbance. This causes more suffering to the convict than the commission of offence may warrant.
The most important point raised by those arguing against capital punishment is the virtual conviction that there may be a miscarriage of righteousness where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this takes place. Due to this uncertainty, many individuals have petitioned and pressurized states to consider abolishing death penalties in their judicial systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another argument advanced by anti-capital punishment crusaders is that the families of the convicts should not be overlooked. They say that the families also feel pain when they realize there loved ones are to be judicially executed; the families of the convicts are said to go through hell during the time starting from the pronouncement of death sentence to the actual execution of the convicted criminal.
Racism has been linked to unjustified death sentences where members of a given race are more likely to be handed death penalty than others. For instance, it is estimated that black capital criminals are highly likely to get death penalty where the victims are mostly whites; in cases involving black victims, white capital offenders are most likely to escape death penalties.
Meanwhile, there are so many reasons the anti-capital punishment crusaders have advanced against death penalty. However, maintenance of death penalty in the penal code is still very important in terms of certain crime prevention.
The Need for Capital Punishment As much as there have been oppositions to death penalty by human rights and activists and other abolitionists, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences.
In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention (Council of Europe, pp.3-13).
The argument between those for the death penalties has been going on for sometimes now in the United States of America. There are many people who have tried by all means available to them to push the state to abolish death penalty.
However, the fact is that death penalty is necessary in cases of certain crimes like serial killing, abduction and rape of underage children and other forms of felony. Those opposed to death penalty base their arguments on the possibilities of convicting and subsequently executing an innocent person (Council of Europe, pp. 15-25).
The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.
One striking fact is that before someone is convicted of a felony and sentenced to death, through investigation must be conducted; the process of conducting such investigations includes the use of scientific techniques like DNA tests even though this has been faulted to have possible errors of proof just like any other means of determining the guilt of a criminal offender.
Most important to note is the fact that the conviction process does not only utilize one means of determining whether one is guilty or innocent, a combination of methodological techniques is used so that one technique is highly likely to examine what is beyond the scope of another.
It is important to note that those arguing against the death penalty have advanced some arguments that are both logical and realistic. However, they seem to be oblivious of the fact that the process of conviction is so elaborate and effective that the chances of convicting an innocent individual is actually close to unlikely (Council of Europe, pp. 15-30).
Moreover, it is still wrong to argue that death punishment may condemn an otherwise innocent person to death. There is absolutely no proof for this claim; before anybody faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed.
Therefore, the likelihood of any innocent individual being executed by mistake is actually limited. Given the perpetually improving forensic science, the chances of judicial execution of an innocent individual is nearing zero. It therefore implies that the fear of executing an innocent person judicially should not now be amongst the reasons anti-capital punishment crusaders use against the death penalty (Gershman, pp. 107-117).
The inappropriateness of capital punishment has also been widely propagated through the various media. The fact is that the media has always confused the true distinction between the terms “acquittal” and “innocence” as they are used in the justice system.
It is this confusion in the media’s judicial reporting that present the public with the belief that those who escape convictions are actually innocent individuals who would otherwise be executed for a given crime. The clear characteristic is that innocence suggests that the individual did not indulge in the offense although being exonerated does not imply innocence.
The fact is that the court is likely to acquit a suspect in cases where the defendants are not able to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the accused actually committed the offense. It is in such cases where the court has acquitted an individual, irrespective of whether he or she committed the crime or not, due to lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt that the media has taken it as if the court has found the individual innocent.
In summary, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. This is also a proving ground on which capital punishment should not be abolished (Gershman, pp. 131-140).
The possible conviction and subsequent execution of an innocent individual is unfortunate by all standards of justice available. But, it is noteworthy that the unfortunate scenario can not only be avoided through abolition of death penalty. Instead, the immense role played by death penalty in terms of criminal deterrence should appear in the bigger picture. Even if innocent people can mistakenly be executed for crimes they have not committed or abated, their number may not match those offenders who qualify for death penalty.
This implies that the probability of executing an innocent person is immensely insignificant and hence should not be a reason for which death penalty should be abolished. Besides, in the recent past, there has never been heard of a situation where and individual has mistakenly been convicted and sentenced to death. This reinforces the argument that the chances of executing an innocent person are very limited and almost unlikely (Gershman, pp. 202-213).
Looking at the bigger picture, it is important to acknowledge that there are some career criminals whose existence means perpetual threat to social tranquility besides creating social disorder. For example, a career criminal whose presence in any setting is always defined by violence and even death might have been in and out of jail. This implies that such as criminal cannot be rehabilitated through jailing and hence the need to eliminate him or her from the society.
In this case, death penalty may not be considered as a punishment to the offender, but should be seen as a way of ensuring that a single individual or few people do not threaten the overall social peace within a given society. In relation to this, it will be noted that judicial execution is an effective way of stopping capital offenses. There may be many criminals who carry out capital offenses, but the judicially executed ones will never commit such crimes again.
The victims of criminals vary in terms of gender and age. In many cases, there are vulnerable groups which suffer in the hands of certain offenders. For example, children and women are the most likely victims of sex offenders. Sex offenders are normally handed more severe punishment than other offenders.
This is acknowledgeable, but the fact is that punishment should not be seen in terms of what kind of offence is committed; it should be viewed in the light of what effects or impacts it is likely to have on the general public, especially with respect to right to life and other fundamental freedoms.
In this case, it will be defeating to logic to let an individual whose behavior has proved heinous to the general public to continue living amongst the members of the society; this will simply offer such an individual more opportunities to continue with is heinous act. If left unchecked through death, such individuals are likely to remain threats to the neighborhood of their residence. So, the only way to ensure they do not continue with their socially threatening undertakings is sentence them to death (Gershman, pp. 231-137).
Generally, punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. In view of this, it is worth mentioning that death sentence is a unique its own capacity as a deterrence to reoccurrences of particular crimes. Unlike other penalties, death is not meant to teach the convicted a lesson. It performs two levels of functions; one, it simply puts an end to heinous criminal activities by a specific individual.
This implies that there may be other criminals committing similar crimes but the actions by the executed individual are completely terminated. Two, it is a fact that many people fear dying; and the constitutional provide for death as a penalty to deter an individual from committing certain crimes. Therefore, in situations where a convicted individual is executed, the message is not to the executed but to those who are yet to commit a similar act. This is what is referred to as general deterrence or indirect deterrence to crime.
According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.
The study findings further indicate that each death sentence pronounced resulted into 4.5 reductions in murder crimes while each execution led to reductions in murders by three. Research studies have also been conducted within the United States of America and the findings shows that the rate of homicide increased by 91% in the states where death penalty was abolished. Meanwhile, 70% of the states are reported to have experienced a decline in homicide after the states had re-introduced death penalty (Espejo, pp1-15).
Data collected from the general public are in agreement with the sentiment that capital punishment should not be abolished. Many of the surveyed public members of various countries have expressed their sentiments that retribution for the criminal activities committed against them, their relatives and friends is more significant to them than deterrence. An important point to take into consideration is that many criminals have been executed since death penalty was introduced several decades ago.
This means that the justice system has actually not been sufficiently equipped to handle the criminals and hence failed to reform their behaviors. For instance, different sex offenders have been caught severally in different cases. The fact therefore is that the threat of death has not deterred them, so the focus shifts from rehabilitating the criminals to protecting the safety of the general members of the society; and this is through legally eliminating them by execution.
The argument here may be that death penalty has not succeeded to deter such heinous criminal activities; nonetheless, it is better to have new people committing the crime dealt with rather than let individuals to live and repeatedly commit there heinous acts. This makes sure one does not perpetually commit the offence (Espejo, pp.34-38).
Death penalty has been limited to certain age. In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United State of America made a ruling that adolescent individuals are not subject to capital punishment. The ruling was premised on the research done by the American Psychological Association.
The research findings claimed that adolescents are less mature than the adults and hence are subject such factors as peer pressures, difficulties in restraining their impulses and the general underdeveloped sense or responsibility. This research made the Supreme Court to rule that people under the age of 18 years old cannot be handed death sentence.
The Supreme Court ruling on this matter is not sustainable in terms of ensuring justice for all citizens, especially the victims whose only hope is retribution for criminal acts committed against them. It implies that victims of heinous activities committed by the less than 18 years old criminals can never get justice yet the state is mandated to ensure justice and safety for all.
The fact is that, in terms of development, there is a thin line between an 18 year old and 17 years old individuals and thus adult age may not imply. The 17 year old averagely thinks just like an 18 year old individual. In this case, age should not be a factor in determining who gets death sentence and does not. Every behavioral activity should be considered with respect to its danger to the members of the society (Espejo, pp.132-146).
Death sentence should apply to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. For instance, the victim of rape by a less than 18 year old teenager will have the same horrible experience as the victim of rape by some who is 18 years and above.
The death penalty should therefore be applied for the safety of all members of the society. The rationale here is that the magnitude of pain inflicted through heinous act is totally independent on the age of the offender and that is what should actually inform the justice process.
It has also been argued that death punishment is cruel an unusual to both the convict and the convict’s family members and friends. Those who pose this argument are oblivious of the fact that the victim and his or her families and friends also have the same experience.
To argue on the cruelty about the cruelty of capital punishment meted to a convict and remain silent on the side of the victim actually defeats the logic of justice. One thing that is important to be borne in mind that the convicted criminal must have been aware of the consequences of committing capital offenses. This is reinforced by the fact that the consequences of crimes are well spelt in the statutory books and have been in existence for very many years.
Again, it is worth recalling that every judicial execution taking place now, especially in the 21st century, is not the first ones; the executions have been going on since over a thousand years ago. It is therefore a common knowledge that every criminal should know the most probable consequence of every criminal act. In addition, the law is very clear on the kind of people who can be tried and convicted before the court (Espejo, pp.156-162).
There are those who are exempted from judicial proceedings; such are those who are mentally ill or have mental disorder, the minor children who are statutorily underage amongst others. In view of all these, it is important to realize that a convicted criminal is always aware of the consequences but went on to commit the crime anyway.
Again, the convict must have been aware of the potential harm and pain to the victim, the victim’s family and friends but went on to commit the crime anyway and also, the convict must have been aware of those who have committed similar offenses and actually convicted and judicially executed.
So, it is justified to say or assume that a convicted individual sentenced to capital punishment had sufficient information at his or her disposal to enable him make a rational choice, though this may not always be the case. It therefore implies that in the presence of all these overwhelming information, that is also common in the public domain, the convicted individual still chose to go a head commit a capital offense; this may be referred to as crime by impunity.
For this reason, it justified to judicially execute the convict irrespective of whether he or she feels the pain or his or her friends and family do. The idea here is that in case of pain felt by family members and friends of the convict, the convict failed to think of that before committing capital offense.
In support of the forgoing argument, it is suitable that the mode of an eye for an eye is utilized. Many people who support capital punishment are highly likely to see this as cruel, but this will be very effective in terms of deterring capital offenses and protecting the general innocent public members. The issue is that the victims of capital offenders are, in most cases, innocent; and in cases where they die from heinous acts of offenders, it cannot be argued that they will ever get justice.
So, judicially executing somebody who has killed does not necessarily afford the dead victim justice, but it is ensuring that as many capital offenders as possible are eliminated from the society. In terms of moral grounds, anti-capital punishment crusaders have argued that death penalty does not have moral standing; but it is important to state that if that may be true, then the activities of capital criminal offenders are also not morally acceptable in the society.
Nonetheless, the question that may be asked is that of how the perpetually or dangerously immoral behavior can be eliminated from the entire society if not by judicial execution. If this question were to be answered, then the response will be none, hence leaving capital punishment as the only means (Mandery, pp.1-9).
One other thing that has not been given much of attention in the debate about the appropriateness of death penalty is that every prisoner or inmate would like to escape from prison should an opportunity arises. In fact, there have been several reports indicating that many prisoners have escaped from prison premises. In particular, those on long-term jail terms are most likely to escape from prison given that there lives are at stake due to the jury’s approval.
In this case, if capital offenders were to be given long jail terms, they are likely to escape and find their ways back into the society where they are likely to continue committing the very capital offenses they had been convicted of. In order to avoid such incidences, it is important that those found guilty of capital offenses be handed death penalty and thereafter be executed within the shortest time possible (Espejo, pp. 260-167).
Again it is important to recognize that laws are very dynamic and subject to change with time. In situations where a capital offender were to be jailed for life without a parole, the change of law may grant such an offender some minimum level of parole which may beat the logic of justice for the victim or close relations of justice.
For instance, a capital offender may be sentenced to life in prison but after some times, the law may possible change in such a way that those who are on life imprisonment jail term may be eligible to release if they meet certain requirements like changed behavior or showing remorsefulness. The consequence of this is that this kind of statutory change may be misused by the inmates through pretending to have behavior change but once released may again go back into committing similar capital offenses for which he or she was jailed.
This imprisonment may be considered to be the most appropriate alternative to capital punishment, but laws change and people also tend to forget about the past. In this scenario, life imprisonment may be abolished and capital offenders may be allowed back into the society after a given period of imprisonment. For this reason, it serves no good the society to abolish capital punishment and this may even lead to upsurge in the number of capital offenders (Yorke 283).
The cost of judicial execution has been fronted as one of the reason capital punishment should be abolished; it is explained that the process of running a case of capital punishment demands a lot of money from the state and also the family members of convicts who may be engaged in several court appeals.
It is true that going through the process of issuing capital punishment is complex and requires time and financial input. However, the cost is justified; first to ensure that the due process is thorough to avoid convicting an innocent person and also to ensure that it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect is actually guilty.
The processing of executing a convict requires exhaustive evidences which should be ensured are as accurate as possible since everything at that time revolves about lives; first, it revolves around the life of the suspect who may unjustifiably be executed for a crime that might attract lesser sentence and second, in case of murder, the life of the members of the society who may continue to be victims if the accused is released on account of insufficient proof. It is clear that the cost of the whole process is to ensure justice for both the suspect and the victim and potential victims (Yorke 283).
Conclusion Death penalty is a capital penalty used in punishing criminals who engage in serious criminal activities that may even go far as causing real or perceived threat of life. The death penalty has been a serious debate topic in the United States of America.
The existence of execution as a form of meting punishment to serious offenders and criminals has over the past drawn mixed perceptions. It is important to note that the differences in opinions are significant reasons for which some states within the United States have abolished death penalties while some still maintain it in their statutes (Milhorn 401).
As much as capital punishment is still relevant, there has been heated debate about it with a significant number of people arguing against it. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.
The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. However, it was the work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice.
As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of undeniable facts that are worth acknowledging. They argue that capital punishment is cruelty against humanity, offenders might have not been sound mind at the time of commission of a capital offense and that execution puts the family of the convicted into pain and agony (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).
The most central point raised by those arguing against death punishment is the virtual certainty that there may be a miscarriage of fair dealing or honesty within the court system where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this happens. Because of this, several human rights group have petitioned various governments in the world to drop capital punishment from their statutes.
Despite the opposition to it, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment.
This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention. The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.
In order to avoid executing an innocent individual, anybody who faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed. However, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt.
Death punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.
Capital punishment should be applied to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. Moreover, capital offenders seem to be always aware of the consequences of their criminal act before they commit it yet choose to go ahead (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).
Again, in case capital punishment is commuted to life imprisonment, there is high possibility that if the long-term serving inmates escape out of prison, they will still continue to commit the very crime they were convicted of and hence place a mockery on the justice system for the victims and potential victims. Besides, the laws may change in such a manner that the capital offenders get an opportunity to go back into the society and may possibly not be cowed by the lesser consequences (Espejo, pp.156-162).
Works Cited Clarke, Williams
Seeking Philosophical Problems Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Philosophical problems are solved by thinking critically, unlike scientific experiments and mathematical equations, which give the undisputable results and solutions to their respective problems. In this essay, the writer argues whether all varied philosophical responses to a philosophical problem or question are valid or if a solution can be preferably accepted more than others can.
Philosophical Responses There are different ways of solving problems or questions we encounter in life; the scientific questions need laboratory experiment result to answer the question, mathematical questions need mathematical theory to solve and give result, while philosophical questions can be answered by just thinking.
The philosophical approach to problems by thinking begs more questions as to whether our minds are very similar in response to similar problems in same or different environment, whether we have duplicate thoughts, and what standard of thoughts can give preferred solution among varied responses?
There are broad philosophical questions that are answered by many philosophers with all different kinds of evidences in support of their answers. However, how do they get these answers? What kind of experiments and thoughts make them give the probable answer to a problem? They say it is the conception analysis that determines the philosophical answer.
The first step that we should know about to answer the philosophical question is the basic concept. The meaning of basic concept is what we learned from experience in our lives and the knowledge gained from the people. Novak and Canas define concept as “a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label” (Para. 1).
In the simple philosophical question “Does God exist”, first, we have to know what God is. The meaning of God from a dictionary says is “The creator and ruler of the universe.” Now we have basic concept of what God is, we can now think the God exist or not. However, the answer could not be the right answer because the evidence is not absolutely coming from the mathematical calculation or a laboratory experiment (Clayton Para. 3).
If God does not exist, what are the evidences and proofs that makes us so? If God does exist, what are the concrete arguments that support our thinking?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The start point of the argument is the word “God”. Human being came up with the word “God|” as a name of their creator and ruler of universe. Do they have a picture or seen the God who made the universe? If God exists why does not He/She shows up in front of us? Do they ever hear God’s voice? Have they touched God before?
They probably answer is no, hence this could be the evidence and support my answer that God does not exist. This answer did not come from any laboratory experiment or a mathematical calculation. The assumption of the thoughts is that all the questions were negative (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Para. 1-5).
If the answer to the question is not right, why should we answer it? Should we also think all science experiments, mathematical theory, and the other questions do not need answers? Human beings have to think and determine their own future by their experiences or analysis of the collected data, which help them in solving problems.
The world is full of problems, for example; human being solves technologies, fire, cars, nature, and variety of tools that help in our living. If they did not have minds to think and knowledge from their experiences, we could not exist in this world.
Conclusion Most philosophical problems cannot have evidence like science and mathematical but are just solved by using basic concepts of thinking and life experiences. Philosophical answers are not right but are very subjective since many people have different thoughts and knowledge, which justify varied responses to be valid in their own right.
Works Cited Clayton, John. “A Practical Man’s Proof of God. Does God Exist?” 27 Aug. 2007. Web.
Employment Relations Essay a level english language essay help
I would advocate for a minimization of the state’s role in regulating employment relations. Most workplace matters should be left in the hands of employers and employees. However the complexity of employment relations in many states tends to make it hard to comprehend this argument.
The areas of interest between the parties in employment arrangements, which take centre stage are: “typical and flexible work arrangement; disagreement settlement procedures; job security, anti-discrimination and gender equality; acknowledgment of unions and employers’ associations; regulation of collective bargaining; parental leave and childcare directives; the capacity of individual agreements to override or not override collective agreements; and minimum wage rates among others”.
Every company or industry has its own code of regulations that are to be adhered to by its employees in all the activities being coordinated by the employer. It is the employer who ensures that a harmonious coexistence prevails between the organization and the employees so as to have smooth running of activities.
The role of the state should be to enact laws that will have to be followed by the employers and their employees, but the role of implementing the laws should be left to the labor organization within that given country. By looking at employment relations, it involves interactions between the employer and the employees at a workplace meant to boost the firm’s performance.
All actions taking place within a working environment concerns the employers and their employees, so any actions or decision making matters pertaining the place of work is within their jurisdiction. The states full involvement in employment matters happens to paralyze the activities as it may impose laws which may act as a barrier to the performance of the organization.
For the implementation of laws regarding workers and their employers, an institutions within the government known as trade unions are formed which link the company and the state, although the powers of the union are independent and do not allow for government interference. However, looking from a Marxism point of view it is undeniable that the state plays a vital influence over the conduct of employment relations.
The state is largely involved in providing an environment in which capital can flourish at the expense of the labor interest by setting up measures, such as progressive legislation for instance, designed to protect employee’s consciousness and assist legitimize the exploitative nature of the employment arrangement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In support of this argument, we will discuss the various theories have been developed to explain this interaction. The most common theory is individualism, which bestows the management of the employees solely on in the employer. It majorly focuses on safeguarding the interests of the employer over the employees at the workplace.
The state and the labor organization tend to play a passive role, although they act as watchdogs to ensure the rights of the employees are not violated in areas of remuneration and how they relate with their employer at work at work. In Australia individualism has taken center stage in the labor market where the federal has established the Workplace Relations Act that ensures all the stakeholders in the employment system work under good conditions.
According to individualism, human resource is a key factor in a working environment. Individualism theory argues that there is need to develop high trust and promote a sense of common purpose between the employees and their management system. So in the absence of labor unions things like open communication networks, team work, incentive compensation and the dissolution of status barrier have been easier to implement.
Individualization here refers to “formalization of management’s power to determine terms and conditions unilaterally rather than rather a shift on emphasis towards mutual trust and shared power”. Although it encourages smooth running of activities without external interference, the employees are denied the chance to present their grievances to the union incase they are not well attended to because it has been excluded from decision making in company matters.
The best thing that employees ought to do is to adopt a strategy that will benefit them and their staff what is commonly known as collectivism where both the state and trade union have a say in the decision making of the employees at a working place. However, the state’s role should be limited to overseeing the adoption of best policies.
Furthermore, the prevalence of market individualism and laissez-faire principles provide the foundation for the development of ‘collective laissez-faire’, and argues that employers should handle employment arrangements matters, and with unions, themselves, without direct intervention by the state. This framework enables employers to handle union activities in ways that do not undermine their objectives.
Another important theory is the welfarism theory that mostly addresses issues to do with industrial relations of employees and their employer. In Australia it was meant by the employers to increase productivity and control from external challenges (Balnave 36). The importance of welfarism movement is to create a scope of good and quality workers from which the management can emulate.
We will write a custom Essay on Employment Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also it is a strategy by managers to enhance control of their workers and their productive effort as a way of building worker consent to managing system. This increases worker dependency on the company thus minimizing individual or collective resistances at the same time strengthening managerial authority.
Industries pose a great risk on the life of employees as they are deemed to work with machines that happen to pose a risk to their lives, so the managers should understand and listen to their grievances incase any are raised. Democratic principles ought to be incorporated so as not to hamper with the industry operations. If these institutions are established, they should either be freely offered or low costs are charged on the workers who are meant to be the core beneficiaries.
The achievement of this can be done through the introduction of programs such pension schemes, company sponsored recreation, provident funds, health and accident schemes, company housing, in-house medical care and company libraries and if possible schools for the children’s of the employees, all aimed at boosting the morale and loyalty of the workers.
Mostly employers will not be ready to incur extra costs on establishment of institutions that are meant to care for the employees thereby lowering their productivity as their performance is minimized due to management services they are offered. Attending to your employees in a very cruel manner by establishing strong dictatorial laws that they are bound to follow, usually results into a state of tension in the company, it may result into a strike that may hinder the functions of the company thus making it run a great loss.
Every employee is entitled to enrolment in a labor union that is mandated for fighting for their rights while at the work place. A number of factors tend to interfere with employment relations at any given firm one of them being management style and attitude towards Trade Unions Recognition.
Some firms and their managers tend to neglect the role of the trade unions in the welfare of the workers in a way that they stop their employees from joining them, or if they are enrolled, the unions are not usually recognized in the area of collective bargaining or consultation. Some will even try to persuade employees not to join the union citing that they are in their best interests, just as a way of maintaining their authority without interference from external sources.
According to the theory, the management should restore the confidence of its employees on how it executes its duties by allowing them to join trade unions. It should also be sensitive and attend to the employees’ needs so as to save the firm from incurring losses as a result of strikes or boycotts. The management style adopted by the firm’s stakeholders is also vital and it should encourage a harmonious working environment with the workers.
Regulations that are stipulated as the firm’s guidelines ought not to be oppressive, and those coordinating them should act accordingly, not administering autocratic kind of leadership. What they should note keenly is that human resource is most important at a workplace, and by showing that their presence is much recognized boosts their morale of working even extra hard in order to ensure the company objectives are achieved as well as their own welfare and needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Upgrading of workers from one position to the other is also vital and should be done with a lot of transparency and integrity. An employee working in the same position over a long period of time feels that he or she gets little or no attention from his employer, and by developing such a feeling it totally destabilizes his performance.
When a worker is moved from a lower position to a higher one his morale of working extra hard is increased as he will be fighting to ensure that he is moved to an even higher position, and this creates a healthy competition among the employees at the same time production being increased hence high profits.
Learning opportunities should be encouraged as a way of helping them acquire new skills and improve on their working and also their salaries. This can be done by establishment of things like study leaves where they are given time off to go and study and then come and take on new position. This is a good idea although most employers do not value it as they cite it increases the cost of production as the company will be forced to hire extra staff to take care of the vacant position for the time being.
Another good way of conducting knowledge acquisition and skill improvement without incurring extra costs is by organizing in-service programs. Here the workers can improve their knowledge at the same time executing their duties what leaves the amount of money spent on salaries remaining at the same rate. All this are contributing factors towards good relations between the employer and their employees within a given work place.
Time specifications should be spelt out as to when the workers will be reporting to work and the time they will have to leave. Incase any employee is not able to report at the work place within the specified time, a friendly interaction should coexist to establish the reason why and be able to reach an agreement without conflict arousal.
A situation where an employer becomes the overall authority leads to conflicts every now and then because they believe workers have no role in decision making concerning matters of the workplace. Bonuses should be given to the workers as per how well one has performed his or her duties and according to how long he or she has at the company or institution.
This bonus should not be part of the net salary of which one earns but should be seen an extra boost on the usual salary as a way of recognition for service offered. Incases where there is need for overtime working, there ought to an agreement reached between the two parties and not being the decision of management. This should be followed by an extra pay on their salaries reflecting the extra hours they dedicated to work.
The use of scientific system of management should not at all be used within a workplace as it puts a lot of pressure on the employees on the amount of work that they perform. This involves the use of things like stop watches top record the time one has worked or use of a card recording system as it was introduced in Australia, but it was welcomed with a great resistance as it was characterized by the great strike that called for government intervention to control it.
This a clear indication of lack of efficient management principles that can encourage good service delivery but it only deals with individual interest, which is of the employer.
Workers are supposed to work at free will and that they should know that they are working because they are after earning an income. Everyone should do his work with interference from the other and that they should love their work so that they may do it without much hindrance. A big problem that happens to affect most employees is the manner in which they take decision without consulting them.
A decision like retrenchment of workers as a way of cost cutting to save the company from making more losses should be discouraged completely. One thing is that activities will be interfered with at the same resulting into a major strike that will at long last ruin everything. Other important measures such as reduction on input cost in order to maximize output profits can be used to substitute the retrenchment process.
The overreliance on personal regulations that are quite stringent is what normally calls for government intervention in order to control events. A situation where a worker is involved in sort of an accident in the line of duty should be treated as a company expense as for the treatment. This makes the workers to carry their activities without fear as they are sure of their safety incase they get injured.
This is a measure that should be included in codes of regulations governing industries they working conditions pose a big threat to the lives of employees as they are the ones exposed to the tough working conditions.
In conclusion the participation of the state in employment relations should be minimized; instead an emphasis on ‘free’ collective bargaining between employers, or employers’ associations, and trade unions.
An organization should be allowed autonomy to operate within its parameters in achieving its objectives, though the state can set standard measures, which address the labor market as a whole.
However, the abstentionist role of the state in the employment relations should not advantage the employer, because as others have argued the removal of the state from employment relations would allow unbalanced effects of the functioning of private law, so that collectivized labor can engage with capital, on a par basis, in the independent economy.
Bibliography Allan, C., Bamber, G. J.
Principles and Practice of Information Security Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Security threats in computer networks Computer security is an issue that has grown to be of gross concern in the present years. Individuals and companies have suffered major losses as a result of the vice. Many people have spent quite a lot of money on the same though at times information insecurity has gone on to rise.
This paper aims at identifying threats posed by viruses and security tools which can be used to protect computer data from inadvertent usage and for maintenance of confidentiality within persons and organizations. At first the paper will focus on the security issue in general as guidance to the rest of the paper.
There are very many security threats that exist in any particular system in the organization. Some of the most serious threats include intrusion by hackers, terrorists, spies, corporate raiders, professional criminals, military forces and vandals, and viruses.
Due to the way the current generation has become technology savvy, there are various tools that the attackers have specialized in perfecting their trade. Some of the most common methods are using user commands to gain entry into computer systems, using special scripts and/or programs, making use of autonomous agents, toolkits, data taps and distributed tools.
The attackers then pose various vulnerabilities to the system which includes implementation, design and configuration vulnerability. In order to make sure that their efforts are fruitful, they either infiltrate into the computer systems using unauthorized use where a person uses data or information which is otherwise supposed to be limited to him and unauthorized access to some systems.
After various series of processes, the person or persons can be able to access files stored in the computer or other information which may be in transit like data, objects and invocations. This paper will be specific in its focus and will clearly go through virus attacks with a special concern on poison Ivy.
Poison Ivy is a computer virus that started showing up in the year 2006. When it attacks the computer, it makes firefox.exe to appear in the task manager without the consent of the user. According to experts, the factor that leads to this behavior is a malicious Trojan which is based on Poison Ivy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is tools which has been used for bypassing a firewall and remotely administer a system. When the tool is in the system, it tends to create up a server kind of a file on the system it is occupying. It alerts a maker of the Trojan of the presence of the system when it is online.
When this happens, the maker is given the rights to access, monitor and completely control the system which has been infected. Among the critical information which can be made available to the user is system passwords and usernames, banking information, credit information, and private data which might have been accessed on screen either through typing or just viewing for the instance that the system was infected.
The settings for this ‘server’ entail it to infiltrate itself into the browser’s memory of the system which is being targeted. After this, it runs as a duplicate process of the browser thus being able to bypass firewalls installed in the system and router protection. On securing itself safely any other actions go ahead unnoticed (MozillaZine, 2009).
This mode of sophistication has been the reason that the virus has been able to go undetected by many antivirus software and also other detectors. In the recent past, the virus has been detected by some common antivirus like nod32, avira, bit defender and others.
The worst case about this utility is the way that it is undergoing constant development and also the fact that it has been able to be developed by the hackers without being noticed. The virus has been said to be spread through emails and also in most instances through online games which mainly attacks through the cheats (Mozillazine, 2009).
Some of the symptoms that are evident when a computer has been infected with the virus are automatic loading of fire fox as the default browser ones the systems loads the OS. In the task manager, there are two instances of the web browser though one is open. After closure of the browser, it still persists in the processes. At times, the browser becomes so slow or at times alerts that a certain un-requested port is being accessed, and at times some uncontrolled movement of the mouse which falls in when the hacker has control over the mouse.
The virus has quite a lot of impacts to the system. Some of the files get renamed, executed and even deleted. At times the hacker can download files from the system or upload files to the system without notice. The hacker has the capability of viewing and editing the windows registry. He has such powers in the system such that it is possible to view and consequently kill or suspend processes that are currently running in the system. The person gets permission to view and control services in that he can start or stop them. It is possible to view the installed devices and also to disable them. Programs which have been installed in the system can be viewed and uninstalled.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Looking at the above possibilities not forgetting the ability to record voice or web footage, it is very dangerous to have the system exposed to this virus. Financially, it is a killer virus. Once the person has been able to access saved passwords and password hashes, the person can simply get the banking information for online bankers and be able to directly interfere with the banking system to such an extent as exhausting someone’s accounts.
Access of someone passwords can lead to various other security breaches which can cost companies a lot of money. It is possible to get into the deep secrets of a company and sell the information to enemies or malicious traders who may want to sell back the information or pose the company a risk of exposing it. People can be able to interfere with bankroll details posing more financial drains.
From this information on the presence and the capability of the risks that can be posed by poison ivy, it is necessary for all IT personnel to be aware of the dangers that can occur due to some of these risks. The main thing that should be taken into consideration is the way technology is being used as a tool against others. Poison ivy does not just get into the computer through sheer luck or guess work, but it is a tool that has professionally been made to achieve some objectives (MozillaZine, 2009).
With this in mind, the management of all companies irrespective of how big or how large need to equip the IT department with constant updates and refresher courses so that they can march with the incoming technologists who are proving to be more equipped with the latest in the books. The question of security should bypass physical security at the door but also should incorporate IT security as a whole.
Threat classification for the threat being averted Human made threat → intentional fault → interaction fault → deliberate
Data is insecure in a variety of ways which range from storage, transmission and even when in custody of the right people. When the right person has the right information, attackers can easily get it through social engineering processes which makes the companies vulnerable to all kinds of threats. This means that the management should always seek to block all the vulnerabilities so as to minimize the attacks. Apart from sealing the vulnerabilities, which might not be enough, measures should be employed through which data is protected in all means whether during storage or transmission (Dawson and Wong, 2007).
In conclusion, security in all areas of IT is under threat and it is upon the relevant authority to be cautious enough of the possible attackers. This paper has focused on security as an issue and deeply looked at the poison ivy virus, what it does and the dangers it poses to users of the internet and intranets. It has winded up with some of the lessons that the people in charge of security should learn as they undergo the duty of securing all the systems (Volonino and Robinson, 2004).
References Dawson, E. and Wong, D. (2007). Information security practice and experience: third international conference. New York: Springer.
MozillaZine (2009). Firefox.exe always open. Retrieved from: http://kb.mozillazine.org/Firefox.exe_always_open.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Volonino, L and Robinson, S (2004). Principles and practice of information security: protecting computers from hackers and lawyers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Australia and international relations challenges Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction In the 2000s, the concept and understanding of security in Australia has dramatically altered. What was once considered a self defence issue has now been redefined to encompass economic issues, social factors and environmental concerns associated with the well being of the nation. Therefore, trade, political relations with other nations, immigration and diplomacy are all critical contributors to the challenges faced by Australia in its international relations.
Whether there is a challenge to Australia given that it faces numerous international challenges (China and the US) in the areas of potential great power conflict
Armed forces as a form of national defence in Australia have been critical in assessing the perceived challenges in international relations. In the cold war era, Australia along with the world did not shy away from the use of military power because the war was seen as an ideological battle that would assist in the end of totalitarianism.
The continued existence of such a phenomenon (Totalitarianism) would have been a threat to world peace and it was therefore justifiable to act militarily at such times. Later on, in the 1990s and into the 2000s, perceived threats to Australian security were seen through events in New Guinea, East Timor and Fiji. Therefore, events occurring around the Australian region prompted the country to act accordingly in order to protect its interests in this regard (Ravenhill