Concepts Of Prenatal Drug Exposure Vs Poverty On Infants Essay (Critical Writing) Cheap Essay Help

The environment of a person is an important factor in shaping the character of that person. When an infant is born its social and cognitive characters as it grows up is mostly influenced by the environment in which it was brought up. There are many factors that influence the child’s behavior.

For instance if a child was born in a violent environment, where all he/she was used to are screams and bangs, then defiantly he/she would grow up believing the world is a violent place and one has to be tough in order to survive in order to survive in our world.

On the other hand if a child was born in a peaceful environment where people are friendly, the infant will develop good social character being friendly with everyone (Chasnoff IJ, Anson A, Hatcher R, et al, 1998).

Body In our case we will be discussing the influence of drug abuse and poverty in building the social and cognitive character of infants. Cognitive character describes the performance when it comes to academic activities. According scientist the character of a child is molded at the age of between six to seven years.

On the prenatal drugs exposure, different sexes are affected differently. According to some researchers, drug abuse during pregnancy has no influence on the development of the infants IQ, but the child’s general behavior.

Despite prenatal drug exposure poverty is also a key factor in influencing the character of an infant. Growing up in an underprivileged environment means that the child is brought up in a hardship environment.

This makes them grow up to be defiant. Poverty also influences the child’s language, as they tend to be impolite with aggressive behavior. They become hard to control or tame, thus making their management almost impossible when they are old enough.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effects of drugs abuse during pregnancy on the unborn is also greatly influence by gender of the child. Researchers have found out that if children’s IQ of children is influenced due to drugs use by the mother, boys are highly affected as compared to the female species (Prasanna N., et al., 2008). On the other point of poverty, generally areas with high population of underprivileged people are to be very violent.

In most case the male species are known to be the violent. Children learn most of the things through imitation and through this the male children grow imitating their elders. Making them always violent believing all misunderstanding should be sorted physically.

According to the study a test was carried out between children born under prenatal drug exposure and non prenatal drug exposed children. It was found that, there was a big difference on the academic development of the children as their intoxication does not influence their brain development in terms of academics.

Generally use of drugs such as alcohol and tobacco has little influence on the academic performance of the infants if the mother was a user during her pregnancy.

Despite the intoxication by the drugs the child’s brain development is not interfered with. But on the other hand the parent’s financial status can be of influence to the academic development of the children. Children born in urban and well developed families are more exposed to the corporate world as compared to children to from poor families.

Conclusion In conclusion parents are of great influence to the development of their children character. Drugs use and poverty are all parents fault, and has nothing to do with the child but they are a major influence to the shaping of the child’s character. Considering both prenatal drugs exposure and poverty, poverty has greater influence on the academic development of the infants.

References Chasnoff IJ, Anson A, Hatcher R, et al (1998). Prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs: Outcome at four to six years. New York: Acad Sci.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concepts of Prenatal Drug Exposure Vs Poverty on Infants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prasanna N., et al. (2008). Children’s Cognitive-Behavioral Functioning at Age 6 and 7: Prenatal Drug Exposure and Caregiving Environment. Prasanna Nair: Ambul Pediat.


Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period Research Paper college essay help

Islamic art includes artistic traditions of countries that developed under Islamic rule or influence, these are the countries that are extending from Southern Spain to Central Asia.

The works of art created in these countries are very different and similar at the same time. They are united by one style and the same purpose, but they are also characterized by strong local influence and influence form other nearby countries. Islamic art is represented by numerous works which have cultural, decorative and functional meaning.

In the following paper I will examine the example of the mina’i ware Ewer (Fig. 1) in order show how these aspects are presented in the ewer of the 12th century which is a perfect example of new tendencies and techniques in design of Islamic ceramics of the medieval period.

The work of Fahmida Suleman states that Islamic ceramics “represent a very small percentage of the total ceramic assemblage produced in the medieval Muslim world”[1]. It was used for domestic purposes and comprised unglazed storage and transport jars and “unglazed bowls, platters, and receptacles, which were made for the kitchen, pharmacy, or market shop”[2].

However, with the introduction of new techniques of design, ceramics began serving for decorative purposes and was considered a sough commodity in courtly context. We see this in the actual ewer by considering the form of the object and decorative details, such as delicate paintings which were produced to symbolize a “good life” of the owner.

The techniques of painting are typical for the 12th century and show the new stage of development in the Islamic art which later became very popular all over the world. The analysis has shown that a chosen ever helps establish the way of development of the mina’i artistic style and follow its travel between other cultures, such as Chinese.

The ewer presents a new type of luxury ceramics which was characteristics for Iran and neighboring countries in the second half of the 12th century. It is an example of the luster painting technique. It was a very costly process and the ceramic vessels made in such way were very expensive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, only higher layers of society could afford to buy them. The process was quite difficult. A jar, or any other vessel was covered with glaze (white or a turquoise opaque) and fried:

“The decoration was applied both under and over the glaze. Stable colors such as cobalt blue and turquoise, which could be fired successfully at a high temperature, were applied under the glaze before the first firing. The less stable colors — including red, black, and gold — were applied to the cold glazed surface and fixed in a second firing at a lower temperature”[3].

The ceramics of the period is very significant in religious and cultural context and related to the historical events. The ewer is decorated with figures taken from the Persian literature subjects,

“The paintings on mina’i ceramics attest to the existence of a vibrant tradition of Persian illustrated manuscripts from this period, which is now lost. Indeed, both mina’i and Persian lustre portray visual and poetic themes derived from Persian literature, such as the Shahnama epic or the romance of Varqa va Gulshah, depicting warriors, heroes, lovers, and fantastical beasts”[4]

The subjects of paintings were created to demonstrate happy and good life. The actual ewer depicts the figures of horseman in the upper register, musicians and dancers in the lower register. Such themes were distinguished characteristics of the time period when Islamic world began its fast cultural and economic development.

The Islamic invasion of the world also began in this period. From the context of the paintings, we can judge about values that shared people of the period.

For example, the horsemen and situated in the upper register of the ewer symbolizes that people valued this art of ride and it was very important for military purposes. Furthermore, singers and dancers in the lower register show that nation was culturally developed and the art of dancing and singing was appreciated in the Islamic world.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in the paintings wore rich closes which symbolizes that nation was on its economic rise. The objects of the ewer are particular Islamic. They share typical Islamic painting techniques and characteristic color scheme (red, purple, blue, gold). In addition, the paintings demonstrate traditional clothes which can also serve a source of historical and cultural information about the period.

As it has already been motioned, such ceramics was very expensive and only rich people could have it. The ewer probably served for decorative purposes and was used only on special occasions in order to demonstrate prosperity and good taste of the patron to his guests.

The ewer was a luxury, and was used for decoration of the house. Design, decorative motifs, function, patronage of the ewer tells about cultural and artistic influence of other counties.

The exiting decorative scheme was first introduced in Syria and later it came to Iran and China, “As with Persian lustre, Kashan appears to have been the main centre of production for mina’i, with vessel shapes ranging from bowls, pilgrims’ flasks, ewers, cups, and, in rare instances, tiles”[5].

The painting does not really demonstrate Islamic ideology because the purpose of the vessel was to show the material prosperity of its owner, but it speaks much of the culture of the country and demonstrates a “potentially unique expression of a desire or need”[6].

Moreover, this technique had a great influence on other countries though it was short-lived in Iran which can be explained with the technical problems associated with overgraze technique of painting which could lead to unsatisfactory result, thus, only true masters could create such articles.

In the 14th century, the technique was exported to China and later it was transferred to the Middle East where it caused “a fashion craze in the Muslim markets”[7].

Having been replaced from its original use, the ewer still represents a uniqueness of the Islam culture. These days, we are lucky to observe it in a museum, but for contemporary people it has a quite different meaning.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These days, we consider it only as an example of the cultural heritage and a source of information about the 12th century period of the Islamic history. As opposed to a “contemporary perception” of this article, people of the medieval period paid much more attention to the meaning of it as luxury and symbol of prosperity and development.

The art of this period presents more secular than religious art, “It would not be an exaggeration to conclude in the medial art as a whole, which is so often seen as a centered on religion, Islamic architecture appears as a sort of conscious secular variant”[8].

Two other examples of the late 12th century art is a Bowl (Fig. 3) from Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean Lamp (Fig. 2). Regardless the fact that they are “representatives” of the same period and the same Islamic art, a strong local influence can be observed in technique and decorations they represent.

In a bowl, we can see typical motifs of the Egyptian luster painting of the early 11th century which was popular in the 12th century as well.

The typical decoration presents the figures of people and animals (4 golden fish which were symbols of the prosperity in the Arab world) and typical golden color. The lamp was produced during the Ayybid rule and made of the Ayybid glass. The design of the lamp seems to be not characteristic for the Islam art, especially comparing with the previously discussed ewer.

Thus, we can conclude that Islamic art was very divers. Even within one time period, the design and ornaments of articles were very different from each other. The reason of this diversity lies in the diversity of cultures that were united under the Islamic rule in the 12th century.

Thus, Islamic ceramics of the 12th century is one of the greatest sources of information about Islamic culture and traditions. It is characterized by rich painting and great subjects which were used to show the prosperity, cultural and economic growth with is associated with the Islamic world of the medieval period.

In addition, Islamic art of this period had a great influence of art of other countries and made a great contribution to development of new design techniques. Having been placed in contemporary setting, it did not lose its greatness and value, though, the perception of it is different with contemporary people.

Bibliography Grabar, Oleg. Islamic Art and Beyond. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.

Komaroff, Linda. “Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period,” Los Angeles County Museum of Art, n. d. Web.

Suleman, Fahmida. “Ceramics,” in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Ed. Josef W. Meri, and Jere L. Bacharach, 143 – 144. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Footnotes Fahmida Suleman, “Ceramics,” in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Ed. Josef W. Meri, and Jere L. Bacharach (New York: Routledge, 2006), 144

Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144

Linda Komaroff, “Islamic Art: Early Medieval Period,” (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, n. d.)

Suleman, “Ceramics”, 143

Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144

Oleg Grabar, Islamic Art and Beyond. (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006), 107.

Suleman, “Ceramics”, 144

Grabar, Islamic Art and Beyond, 107.


Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix Essay essay help: essay help

Wall Street is a film about two stockbrokers who are corrupted by greed and an insatiable lust for power. The film stars Michael Douglas as Gordon Gecko, an ambitious stockbroker who uses clandestine means to feed his avarice.

The film also stars Charlie Sheen as Bud Fox, a young and equally ambitious stockbroker. Gecko takes Fox under his wing. Fox becomes Gecko’s apprentice and is easily swayed by his newfound extravagant lifestyle.

The Matrix stars Lawrence Fishburne as Morpheus, an infamous computer hacker on the run from government agents. It is later revealed that Morpheus is in fact the captain of a ship known as the Nebuchadnezzar. Morpheus actually lives in a post-apocalyptic future where machines have successfully conquered most of the human race.

The Matrix also stars Keanu Reeves as Neo, a computer hacker who discovers that his world is actually an illusion created by the machines. The illusion enables the machines to use human bodies as a source of energy. Morpheus tells Neo that The Matrix is a computer-generated virtual world that has been used to subjugate the human race. He believes that Neo is a Messiah who will eventually destroy the illusion and free the human race.

Similarities in Wall Street and The Matrix In The Matrix, Morpheus becomes Neo’s mentor. He teaches him how to survive in a hostile environment. The government agents are, in fact, computer-generated programs used to keep people sedated. They tend to kill anyone who becomes aware of their existence. Morpheus teaches Neo how to fight them within their virtual world. He shows Neo the tricks of the trade.

In Wall Street, Gecko also becomes Fox’s mentor. He teaches Fox how to steal assets from other companies. He shows him the tricks of the trade. He guides Fox on the road to success.

Morpheus is willing to sacrifice a few lives to save the world. Gordon Gecko is willing to sacrifice people’s livelihoods for financial success. In The Matrix, Morpheus kills a few police officers to help Neo escape. In Wall Street, Gecko teaches Fox how to protect his assets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Wall Street, the stock market serves as a learning institution for Bud Fox. Gecko teaches Fox how to cheat and steal his way through other people’s assets. In The Matrix, the virtual world is Neo’s learning institution. Morpheus teaches Neo how to navigate The Matrix. He shows him how to avoid agents.

Gecko uses Fox’s ambition to gear him towards financial success. Morpheus uses Neo’s ambition to gear him towards defeating the artificial intelligence residing in The Matrix.

Gecko convinces Fox that some rules are meant to be broken. He teaches Fox to use the loopholes of business to his advantage. He teaches him how to break certain rules in order to improve his financial status. Likewise, Morpheus teaches Neo how to bend the rules of physics within The Matrix. He teaches him how to exploit the resources at his disposal.

Both Morpheus and Gecko lead by experience. They show their corresponding apprentices that they are just as capable of carrying out the same tasks.

Gecko asks Fox to spy on a wealthy businessman. Gecko uses the information to buy shares from the man’s company thus improving his financial status. Likewise, Morpheus teaches Neo how to protect his teammates. On one occasion, Morpheus confronts powerful agents in order to save his crew.

Differences in Wall Street and The Matrix Gecko is corrupt while Morpheus is righteous. Gecko helps Fox to usurp his own father. Morpheus uses all the resources at his disposal to help Neo save the world. Gecko manipulates Fox. He plans to steal from his father’s company. He tricks Fox by convincing him that he is not interested in the company.

Gecko has little regard for the consequences of his actions. He is willing to destroy his friends to get what he wants. He teaches Fox to do the same. Morpheus, however, teaches Neo to be careful of his actions. He tells him that everything he does in The Matrix could change the fate of the human race. Neo’s enemies are powerful.

We will write a custom Essay on Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Morpheus displays compassion for his crew while Gecko does not care about his employees. Morpheus treats his crew like a family while Gecko treats his employees like pawns. During an attack on the Nebuchadnezzar, Morpheus

When the agents capture Morpheus, Neo rescues him. When Gecko is arrested, Fox does nothing to save him. Morpheus’s leadership skills are obviously more profound than Gecko’s. Neo uses the skills that Morpheus has taught him to save his mentor. Fox uses his new-found skills to save himself. He betrays his mentor.

Morpheus believes in having a chain of command. Trinity is his subordinate. When the agents capture him, Trinity is left in charge of both the crew and the Nebuchadnezzar. Gecko, on the other hand, pretends to be Fox’s equal partner. He, instead, manipulates his apprentice.

He lies to Fox on several occasions. He tries to steal from Fox’s father. He does not believe in a chain of command. He prefers to be in control of all of his resources. He does not like to share his power.

Gecko is a manipulative leader while Morpheus is a tutor. Fox trusts Gecko to run his father’s company. He is easily swayed by the set of principles that Gecko has taught him. He makes his decisions based on what he has been taught. Neo, however, learns to forge his own path.

He emulates Morpheus but he also makes his own decisions. Before he rescues Morpheus, he tells Trinity that he is not the prophesied Messiah. Nevertheless, Neo does his level best to save his mentor.

Neo impresses his mentor while Fox financially destroys Gecko. Later, in the film, Neo discovers that he is “The One”. He trusts his instincts and defeats agent Smith. Before the credits roll, Neo resolves to continue Morpheus’s mission. He implies that he will continue to find others who are willing to learn the truth about The Matrix.

Fox, however, decides to attack Gecko by going after his assets. He uses his skills of manipulation to trick Gecko. He ensures that Gecko’s stock prices decline by convincing other shareholders to dump their stocks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparing and Contrasting the Followership and Mentorship in Wall Street and The Matrix by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gecko teaches Fox the importance of self-reliance. He convinces Fox that self-preservation is better than friendship. He teaches Fox to trust no one. Fox uses this knowledge to betray Gecko. He collects evidence against Gecko in order to save himself. Morpheus, however, teaches Neo that humanity is sacred. He develops a bond with his student. Neo forges a lasting friendship with Morpheus.


More Communication is Not Always Better Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Technical aspect

Public aspect


Works Cited

Magnitude in communication across all professional fields underscores the intent and purpose of such communication. In fact the history of communication has bent towards lesser communication that guarantees quality. In the field of art and design, two main aspects stand out in providing a generalization that justifies the case for lesser communication.

Technical aspect The technical communication aspect refers to the tools that are used to develop and deliver the communicated message. The advancement in technology today has created and developed numerous communication channels. The traditional method of face to face communication has suffered numerous alterations that have revolutionalised the communication process.

Every message has to be transmitted through a channel or media. The communication field has created room for different varying versions of similar or substantially different channels that have been adjusted to suit the professional requirements of the time.

Technical communication entails the strategic and analytical use of machines or tools within the communication scope in their complex or simple versions.

It involves extensive analysis of the results of language mathematics which provide a summary of the effectiveness of using a specific function of technology or the technology as a whole. It allows for the adjustment of such technology to meet the objectives of the profession and the purpose of its adoption.

The more the number of channels available to the communicator the lesser the relative effectiveness of each channel (Andeweg et al pp 272). The technical aspect of communication in art and design provides a solution to the font verses type debate.

There are numerous advanced deviations and versions of font styles available thanks to improvements in software technology. This development comes into conflict with the consumer’s knowledge of the specific font type.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance every other person is familiar with the font type Times New Roman. It is therefore quite easy to identify with the formal effect that has been associated with this font. However if there is more than one font in the massage even with the prominence off a single font the message looses the intended touch.

Public aspect The public communication aspect engages the effects of language and numeracy related aspects of the communication process in the resultant interactive understanding and interpretation of a message by the target community context .The extent to which a communication device delivers the intended message within a limited amount of time (Andeweg et al pp 271- 284).

The public aspect engages in the application of mathematics in the analysis of the existing demands and needs of the public and the target of the communication initiative.

The situation as it is allows for a very limited timeframe for a communicator to deliver their message. As it were the longest the communicator has in an active environment is one minute and this period could even be less depending on the substance of the communication effort (Caricato pp 496-514).

The public communication aspect evaluates how well the message as a whole succeeds in informing the respondent of the message within the allowed timeframe without mis-informing or dis-informing such an individual. The art and design field has offered numerous alternatives in as far as pattern is concerned.

Everyday someone comes up with a new pattern that they hope will override the place held by previous ones. Statistical analysis of the effect of use of more than one pattern indicates that the more the number of patterns in a communication devise the lesser the effectiveness the message has.

People are more ready to understand simplistic patterns than where they are left to identify the collection of such patterns. This also applies in the application of colors. The more the number of colors used the lesser the effectiveness of the message.

We will write a custom Essay on More Communication is Not Always Better specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion More communication is not always better. This will depend on the various factors and interests that are represented in the communication process. This position however cuts across the general view.

Works Cited Andeweg, Bas. de Jong, Jaap.


Feminist Ethics Concept Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Feminist ethic is a new concept aimed at redefining and redesigning conventional and traditional experiences associated with women’s moral experiences from medieval times. Feminist ethic is therefore a development and a new concept developed to remedy the inadequacies created by traditional western ethics which have consistently overlooked female contributions in the society.

Such sentiments are supported by Alison Jaggar, a feminist philosopher (cited in Christine 2), who faults traditional western ethical ideals because of a number of reasons.

First, she identifies that traditional western ideals sought to emphasize more on male rights and interests at the expense of female rights. Secondly, she notes that traditional western ideals are characteristic of emphasizing on morally uninteresting realms of women roles which occur in the private world (such as the traditional roles of cooking, cleaning, taking care of the household, assisting the sick and such roles).

Thirdly, she faults the traditional western ethical philosophy because it perceives women as people who are not as morally developed as men and fourth, Christine explains that she identifies that traditional western philosophy “overvalues culturally masculine traits like independence, autonomy, separation, mind, reason, culture, transcendence, war, and death, and undervalues culturally feminine traits like interdependence, community, connection, body, emotion, nature, immanence, peace, and life” (3).

Lastly, Alison Jaggar notes that traditional western philosophy is sympathetic to culturally masculine ways of moral reasoning as opposed to the feminist ways which lack prejudice and favor (Christine 3).

These perceptions withstanding, this study acknowledges the role feminist ethics has had in reformulating traditional western ethics and comprehensively, it acknowledges that feminist ethics are distinctive and uniquely incoherent with conventional western philosophy relating to gender.

However, there have been many debates advanced by critics regarding feminist ethics which purport that the concept is basically centered on overturning existing political structures and basically centered on the concept of power and subordination at the expense of ethical concerns relating to mothering, morality, care and justice (Christine 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With regards to this debate, this study identifies that this argument is flawed and instead proposes that feminist ethics is more committed to motherhood and care as opposed to political changes (in terms of doing away with the subordination women have experienced in the past).

Ideas Concepts and Terms to be Discussed Radical feminism: Radical feminism observes that the causes for gender oppression should not be solely blamed on the political structure of the society but also on the structures of the patriarchal society.

Liberal feminism: Liberal feminism works from the context that women need to be accorded the same opportunities men have, so that they are as prosperous as men.

Marxist feminism: The concept of Marxist feminism notes that women’s oppression should not be traced to the opposite sex but rather to the capitalistic nature of the society which makes women subordinates to men.

Supporting Claims Radical feminism

Mothering and care are depicted as the underlying issues that characterize female oppression which has been evidenced for many years (Christine 3). The feminist ethics concept basically revolves around matters of care and feminine virtues (more especially nurturing and compassion) as opposed to issues to do with power and subordination (in comparison to male counterparts).

More importantly, even though many critics of the feminist ethics tend to perpetrate the view that feminist ethics inclines more towards power and subordination, Christine (3) notes that feminist ethics is particular to experiences that are uniquely female such as pregnancy, childbirth, and nursing. These issues have nothing to do with power or subordination.

Much of the current “political vs. care” debate that surrounds feminist ethics can be analyzed from philosophical research studies done by Gilligan, a philosophical researcher.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Feminist Ethics Concept specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The same can also be said of Kohlberg’s research on feminist philosophy which can be summarized in the words of Tronto that “individuals develop morally as their cognitive abilities to understand the nature of moral relations deepen, and that this process of moral development proceeds through set, hierarchically arranged stages that correspond to different levels of moral reasoning” (5).

Kohlberg was trying to portray the view that boys had a stronger and more mature moral development as compared to girls, when analyzed within a given age group.

However, Gilligan was particularly disturbed by these assertions and decided to do his own independent studies on the same which concluded that girls had a uniquely different oral view when compared to boys because their moral voice expressed an ethics of care while the boy’s moral voice expressed an ethics of justice.

The ethics of care can be compared to relationships and justice while the ethics of justice can be compared to rights and rules. All these features can be better equated to processes as opposed to principles because they symbolize an ongoing element as opposed to a static one (Christine 6).

Gilligan’s assertion basically exposed a different field of philosophical research about feminist ethics that had not been previously researched before. Many researchers have also identified the research studies to be intrinsically positive but comprehensively, it is assumed that his point of view gives a new perception to the role historical oppression may have played in care ethics (Christine 6).

Tronto explains this concept by stating that “whatever psychological dimensions there might be to explain women’s moral differences, there may also be a social cause: women’s different moral expression may be a function of their subordinate or tentative social position” (6).

Gilligan’s perspectives gives a very interesting insight to feminist ethics in the sense that she identifies that feminist ethics essentially appeals to women’s’ unique experiences, but in the same light, the unique experiences can be traced to the oppression women face in the society.

A positive relationship can be hereby deduced because the underlying assumption in this relationship is observed whereby, though feminist ethics is based on mothering, care and nurturing, Gilligan exposes a relationship whereby the above concepts either add or subtract to the oppression women face (or have faced) in the society.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Feminist Ethics Concept by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same opinion is also held by radical feminists who observe that the causes for women oppression should not solely be blamed on the political structure of the society but also on the structures of the patriarchal society (Christine 6). Proponents of the radical feminist concept also note that political structures which limit the chances of women prospering in the same manner as men are essentially flawed and evidently irreparable.

Because of this fact, they propose that the entire political system should be eliminated. This point of view therefore leaves the patriarchal society as the only repairable institution and this is where radical feminist concurs with the fact that feminist ethics are centered on changing the social perceptions of women in the domestic environment. This essentially touches on the virtues of motherhood and care.

In other words, motherhood and care are the basic limitations to women’s’ chances of succeeding. Tong affirms that “Women’s reproductive roles and responsibilities, as well as the institution of compulsory heterosexuality, are the fundamental causes of women’s subordination and men’s domination” (8).

Liberal Feminism

Liberal feminism works from the context that women need to be accorded the same opportunities men have, so that they are as prosperous as men (Christine 7).

However, in accomplishing this objective, there is a strong view among proponents of the liberal feminism concept that there needs to be a clear-cut difference between public and private life. Public life essentially refers to the ability of women to prosper in various fields such as medicine, science, law and the likes (because it essentially refers to personal and human achievement).

Basically, this refers to the realm of political actions where many researchers have identified that gender oppression takes place. On the other hand, private life basically refers to the realm of mothering and caring which has often be synonymously equated to the traditional western ethical philosophy of women which defines the root of subordination.

From this understanding, liberal theorists have consistently acknowledged that women have a more social significance to the political world of men; meaning that their contribution is most appreciated from the fact that they best uphold social life, as opposed to political life.

Mothering and caring activities constitute the basic pinnacle of this social world (Christine 7). Since the above fact has been identified as constituting a great part of the western traditional feminine experience, feminist ethic was introduced to fight this ideology.

Feminist ethic was therefore developed from the standpoint that women should not be subordinated to the roles of nurturing, mothering and care because this is a false ideology that seeks to limit their chances or opportunities of competing with their male counterparts in the political world.

Liberal feminist therefore point out the view that there is no such distinction between a man and a woman because they are both human beings and that is the only existing definition according to them.

However, liberal feminists have been forced to acknowledge the physical differences between the genders but they have stuck to their point of view; purporting that physical differences between men and women do not in any way constitute a platform to differentiate male and female rights (Christine 8).

Nonetheless, comprehensively we are able to learn that feminist ethics is primarily based on unique women experiences (which are mothering, care and nurturing) as opposed to the political cause identified by critics of the feminist ethics concept. Relatively, when compared to the liberal feminist approach, Christine affirms that:

“Avoiding claims about specifically male and female natures enables liberal feminists to argue that men and women are entitled to the same opportunities in both the public and private spheres. In the liberal feminist view, when all are afforded equal opportunities, all women may freely choose to ‘mother’ or not to ‘mother’” (9).

Marxist Feminism

The concept of Marxist feminism notes that women’s oppression should not be traced to the opposite sex but rather the capitalistic nature of the society which makes women subordinates to men (Christine 9).

To remedy this situation, the Marxist feminism concept proposes that a communism concept will work to the advantage of women because it will give them equal opportunities that capitalist systems denies them. However, in support of the fact that feminist ethics is based on mothering and care, the Marxist feminism concept identifies that female oppression not only occurs in the public life but also in the private life.

To reiterate the Marxist feminism concept, Callahan affirms that “the inegalitarian system of classes leads to exploitation and imperialism–the domination at home (including the household) and abroad of the have-nots by the haves” (75).

Women’s’ oppression can therefore be defined by the oppression that goes on in the household and not necessarily in public life (as advocated by proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is primarily based on political motivations).

The exploitation of women at home is particularly contingent with the limitations that the capitalistic world imposes on women throughout most societies.

However, it is important to note that the Marxist feminism concept has been criticized by the fact that not all women hail from the same economic class, although in the same sense, it is also important to note that the Marxist feminism concept acknowledges that for women to be totally liberated and enjoy the same opportunities as men, domestic exploitation and oppression needs to stop first (at the household level) before any significant political changes can be felt to their advantage (Christine 9).

This fact is based on the belief by proponents of the Marxist feminism concept that gender oppression starts at the household level, and the discrimination that is evident at the political platform is just but a mere reflection of what happens in the domestic environment.

To affirm this point of view, proponents of the Marxist feminism concept point out the fact that women have been clustered together to constitute a single economic class that essentially works to produce goods and services that are only of value to the domestic environment (Christine 9). In affirming this argument, Jaggar notes that:

“In unpacking this notion of transformation, it is also important to note that Marxist theory itself would not find anything intrinsically degrading about childbearing, child rearing, cooking,… but instead Marxist theory criticizes the way in which these tasks are organized under capitalism. In this sense, Marxist feminist theory could be said to be “about” mothering and caring (19).

Counter Arguments Principles as opposed to feelings

Critics of the feminist ethics concept note that feminist ethics is basically reliant on the philosophy of principles of care as opposed to feelings of care because in the real sense, principles are deemed more reliable than feelings attributed to care (Christine 10). For instance, if we were to analyze the suffering poor people go through, it would only be logical to help them, as opposed to sympathizing with them.

This is true because contrary to the feminist point of view, in reality, principles are often relied on more than the concept of care. Equally, many philosophers have also voiced their criticism of feminist ethics, based on the concepts of justice and care, as two ultimate gender-neutral elements (Christine 10).

In this regard, these critics have voiced their reservations on the fact that feminist ethics seeks to make “care” triumph over “justice”. To support their point, they assert that, if there is a conflict between justice and care, impartiality often supersedes partiality because a person’s fundamental rights cannot be more important than another’s.

This scenario can also be equated to the American Southern grasp on slavery where many people hailing from that geographical area felt positively about slavery as a practice. However, since they harbored this sentiment, it did not mean that they were essentially ethically correct.


Many critics of the feminist approach have often observed that feminist ethics basically perceive ethical issues from a predetermined point of view (which is the feminist way) (Christine 10). More importantly, they note that the feminist ethics concept assumes that women are in an oppressed position when compared to their male counterparts.

In this regard, these critics base their contempt with the feminist ethics concept on the fact that, feminist perspectives base their standing on the structures that have contributed to this position and therefore, they focus their energies on overturning this state of affairs.

This contributes to their strong viewpoint that feminist theories stand on a political view-point as affirmed by Callahan that “A feminist perspective has three features: “a recognition that women as a group have been and are oppressed; an account of the source or sources of that oppression; and suggestions for how the oppression of women can be overcome” (78).

Nonetheless, critics who have criticized feminism, based on the concept of oppression, have also identified that the allegation by proponents of feminism that power has often been wielded to the disadvantage of men, is a female-biased point of view. Assuming this fact is well understood, the critics went ahead to assert that there was no way a one-sided view of power and oppression could be ultimately perceived as the ethical or moral point of view.

In the past, western ethical concepts have often perceived the concept of ethics from a general view-point but if the feminist view on oppression is to be relied on, it would mean that the development of ethical concepts would be targeting an individual group, as opposed to the entire human population. This is obviously a misguided and unjust view.

Historical Basis

Oppression, subordination, mothering and care which are all observed in feminist ethics can be best understood through the historical context of feminism.

The historical context of feminism in which perspectives about feminism and feminist ethics are developed can be all equated to the traditional political theory standpoint. This means that the tradition of western political thought is essentially characteristic of the historical view of feminism.

From this understanding, many proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is developed from a political viewpoint, such as Shanley and Pateman (12), argue that since feminist ethics are based on overturning traditional western concepts of feminism; they are based on changing the political paradigm as well. This argument gives feminist ethics a political nature.

Response to the Counter Arguments The opinions expressed by critics of the feminist ethics approach tend to portray the view that feminist perspectives do not acknowledge the unique experiences of women as a unique gender and in the same manner; they are not cognizant of the ethics of care which has been traditionally associated with feminism. However, many of such critics fail to note that at the centre of feminism is the appreciation of divergent points of views.

This means that, though feminism has been criticized for upholding the concept of care over principles, it is time that the society acknowledges the uniqueness of feminism and the female gender in general. This means that the female gender is more empathic and considerate than the male gender.

It is therefore only natural that feminism upholds the concept of “care” as opposed to “principle”. This is the balance that feminism tries to create in the society because even if critics of feminism were put on the spot, they would acknowledge that humanity would seize to be what it is, if the element of “care” was eliminated.

The argument that feminism is focused on the political structures that put men in power, as opposed to “care”, contradicts the arguments of similar critics of feminism who note that feminism is more focused on the concept of “care” as opposed to “principles”.

This contradiction exposes the misguided beliefs which critics of feminism have (over care and principles), because some fail to acknowledge that feminism emphasizes on “care”, while others note that it does not.

However, for critics who voice the opinion that feminism seeks to shift the political paradigm in the world, at the expense of upholding the concept of “care”, it is obviously apparent that this is the only way through which they can eliminate male domination and oppression.

This is true because power is vested in political structures and unless women become active in politics or change its paradigm, there is very little hope that they will ever be truly liberated from oppression. The concept that feminism is politically oriented is therefore correct because this is the only way women can take responsibility for their lives. This view therefore enforces the concept that women have been politically oppressed through sociopolitical structures and positions.

However, this point of view is not what feminist ethics is entirely based on. This is true because if we analyze feminist ethics, entirely from a political point of view, we would be advocating the fact that feminism is centered on changing the existing political paradigm and nothing more. This is obviously not the case.

Conclusion This study points out the fact that feminist ethics is essentially driven by issues to do with motherhood and care, as opposed to power and subordination, which define political motivations.

Arguments based on the Marxist, radical and liberal feminist points of view acknowledge that motherhood and care are at the centre of the development of feminist ethics because all forms of oppression start at the domestic level.

This argument is according to the liberalist feminists. However, the Marxists feminists note that capitalistic structures need to be eliminated to give women more opportunities in the society while the radical point of view suggests that the political structures that are created by men with the aim of limiting women to domestic roles are irreparable and need to be eliminated.

Because of this reason, proponents of the radical feminism concept advocate for a patriarchal societal change which is in affirmation of the view that feminist ethics is concerned with motherhood and care.

This study also acknowledges the input of proponents of the fact that feminist ethics is motivated by power and subordination as the primary motivators to feminist ethics, but comprehensively, we observe that social (as opposed to political) intrigues is the main factor leading to women oppression and this is what feminist ethics essentially focuses on.

This point of view is practically applicable today in the fight for gender equality in most functional areas of our society (including gender representation in political, social and economic positions).

This analysis is also a pointer to the way we should look at various areas of philosophy, in the sense that, practical relevance is important to the comprehension of philosophical points of views. This analysis has ramifications in other areas, apart from philosophy, such as science.

Therefore, considering the above intrigues to the whole feminist ethics debate, we can safely conclude that feminist ethics is more committed to motherhood and care as opposed to political changes (in terms of doing away with the subordination women have experienced in the past).

Works Cited Callahan, Joan C. “Feminism and Reproductive Technologies.” Journal of Clinical Ethics 5.1 (1994): 75-85.

Christine, James. “Feminist Ethics, Mothering, and Caring.” Kinesis 22.2 (1995): 2-16. Print.

Jaggar, Alison. Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1988.

Shanley, Lyndon and Pateman, Carole. Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory.

University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

Tong, Rosemarie. Feminine and Feminist Ethics. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993.

Tronto, Joan C. Beyond Gender Difference to a Theory of Care: An Ethic of Care: Feminist and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 1993.


The Black Madonna of Breznichar Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents History of the icon

Characteristics of the icon

Importance of the icon to the people

Why the icon is relevant to the people who worship it.

Ways the icon has been appropriated by people and culture

Works Cited

History of the icon The Black Madonna of Breznichar was fictitious and was a dark skin colored representation of Madonna by Mary. The Black Madonna of Breznichar is a Marian painting or statue of medieval origin. The first notable study of the origin of the Black Madonna was presented by Leonard Moss in a meeting held at the American Association for the Advancement of Science. This took place on Dec. 28, 1952. This was the supposed date of apparition for the black Madonna.

The Black Madonna of Breznichar is located in Bohemia. “It is an invented one though it existed in fiction” (Kidd Monk 54). Its symbolism to Mary is that it was a black version of her and was respected and considered holy by Catholics just like the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus.

Its representation of Mary highlights an important message whereby it poses trans-racial significance. In some recent time, it has been suggested that the Black Madonna should have a perception of the Virgin Mary which was not well clearly emphasized in the Christianity doctrine.

It has had history associated with it when we look at eccelesial lifestyle. The black Madonna has been a source and image of divine intervention for eccelesial life over the course of many years. The Black Madonna was approved by ecclesiastical authority a long time ago, and it was declared that it really performed miracles.

Characteristics of the icon The above image is a color picture of the Black Madonna. It is characterized to be the black version of Mary, the Virgin. The term used frequently to designate these kinds of images is known as inculturated Madonnas.

There are people and certain cultures that approve dark features and perceive them to have a particular prominence. The prominence of the Black Madonna is majorly due to the miraculous character it poses to the pilgrims.

The statue of Madonna gets its color from the material used, ebony or any other dark wood. “This is mainly done to depict the medieval “black” images of Mary, but this application and method has been fought for by the people who believe that the color of the originally black Madonna has some great significance” (Preston 79).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Importance of the icon to the people All the Black Madonnas are regarded as powerful images to people who believe in them including the Black Madonna of Breznichar and they are perceived to be miracle workers. It is praised for its intercessions in, problems of fertility.

It is mostly located in shrines and pilgrims go to these shrines covering hundreds of kilometers to seek divine help. It is usually seen by people as a representation of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus.

For example, “since the last decade when this practice was openly and strongly forbidden by church authorities, pilgrims used to journey to the shrine of Mount Vergine, and they would usually climb the steps of the shrine while on their knees and they would always lick each step with their tongues” (Alesha 218).

This was a weird practice, but this was believed to forgive sins and hence we equal the blackness of the Black Madonna of Breznichar with the magnitude of its power to those who believed in it. We see the attitude of the pilgrims approach to be about worship for the black Madonna. Therefore, the Black Madonna was a very important icon to people.

Why the icon is relevant to the people who worship it. The Black Madonna is mostly found in Catholic areas. Catholics hold high regard to the Virgin Mary and most go to extremes of worshipping the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus. Since the black Madonna is a representation of the Virgin Mary, there are people of Catholic denomination who worship it and others in the past who used to worship it.

The icon is relevant to the people who worship it because they believe it can perform miracles and this usually attracts great numbers of pilgrims from all over the world. It is also relevant in the sense that it offers people a chance to seek divine help by putting faith in it to solve their problems and give hope for the future.

This icon was very important to certain people since it was believed to be miraculous. “There were many miraculous Marian images, and the Black Madonna of Breznichar was one of them. It was very popular among the strong faithful.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Black Madonna of Breznichar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some authors casually compared the Black Madonna which was known as the ‘Black Virgin’ worshiped by Catholics with the pagan goddess images, had similar appearances and this provided some with a polemic argument against the Catholic Church” (Duricy 15).

Ways the icon has been appropriated by people and culture The Black Madonna has hugely been appropriated by people and various cultures. This is because many Christians, including the clergy simply do not deny that the ‘Black Virgin’ is a symbol of divine help. This has made it easily acceptable by many. It is also that some people and cultures believe that the Black Madonna represents a Christian form of being a mother with child.

It has also been appropriated by other cultures since it is believed to have special healing powers among other things. For example, “that it can give fertility blessings to newly married brides” (Begg 87).

Works Cited Alesha, Matomah. The first book of The Black Goddess. Arizona. Matam press, 2004. Print.

Begg, Ean. The Cult of The Black Virgin. Penguin UK: Arkana, 1985. Print.

Duricy, Micheal. Black Madonnas. New York: Dell, 1983. Print.

Kidd, Monk. The secret life of bees. New York: Viking, 2004. Print.

Preston, James. Mother Worship: Themes and Variations. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. 1982. Print.

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English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa Essay cheap essay help

In the Caribbean and Africa regions, the language has mainly been used as the tool to colonize the people. It has been used as a major weapon in practicing imperialism.

Many nations were influenced by the colonizers by the use of the English language through which they were forced to believe and act according to the will of their colonizers. By accepting the language, natives accepted various things about their colonizers. Language was used to colonize the natives through various ways.

Use of language to colonize people In Caribbean and Africa regions, language has played a very important role in practicing imperialism. The colonies have taken advantage of their language to expand their economic, political and social powers. In the British schools, students were forced to read the British literature only they were rarely given opportunities to read about their own communities.

The colonizers taught their own language in their colonies and therefore this restricted the learners to the culture of their colonizers.

More often, English language was used in giving instructions in most of the institutions within Africa and Caribbean. The students were not given an opportunity to study other languages in school. Therefore, the colonizers determined what these students should read. They used this opportunity to expand their interests.

For instance, the natives could not access literature which informed on how they can be independent from the western forces. This made them to remain submissive despite of the difficulties they encountered. In other words, the language suppressed their chances of rejecting the British system.

Language is closely associated with culture. A certain language reflects the culture of the original speakers. For instance, English language demonstrates the English culture. Therefore, learning a foreign language implies learning the culture of the original speakers. It became easier to control the people on adopting the culture of the colonizers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, language has been used in Caribbean and Africa to dominate the people both in their minds and hearts (Anonymous par 3). This is one way through which imperialism has been practiced in these regions.

Language can be seen as a unifying factor. English language brought many people together. It is easier to influence people when they are united than when they are diversified. Therefore, by unifying the people, the English language assisted the colonizers to gain more influence the local community. Similarly, when people are united

English language was also used in colonization in Caribbean and Africa through passing of the English culture. Most languages carry some cultural aspects of the original speakers.

For instance, it may reflect their beliefs, ways of living and traditions. Therefore, when the natives of these regions learnt the language, they adopted some of these cultural aspects. By adopting these cultural aspects, the people became more receptive to the directions received from their colonizers.

Fanon (31) talked about the colonizing culture. According to Fanon (31), English language was used in developing the colonizing culture. That is, the situation where colonization was viewed as any other day to day encounter.

It made people to become more satisfied of the existing system and therefore low levels of opposition. When the natives accept the language spoken by their colonizers, they are forced to accept their standards.

This is because they will be able to have an effective interaction through the same language. It would have been more difficult to influence the natives if they had not accepted the English language.

We will write a custom Essay on English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his book ‘Black face white mask’, Fanon demonstrated how the black people were made to behave like the whites (Fanon 31). Although the natives’ skin reflected their origin, it never reflected their culture. They were made to think and act like their colonizers. The languages they speak also reflect their colonizer’s backgrounds. Consequently, they acted according to the white man’s wishes.

Through the colonial language, the natives in the Caribbean and African region became alienated. This implies that they lost control of their own cultural elements. According to Fanon (32), the colonizers’ ambition to civilize the natives resulted into inert institutions which were dependent and were functioning under the supervision of their colonizers (Fanon 35).

In other words, through the language, the colonizers in Caribbean and Africa formed dependent institutions which relied on the colonizers for them to be effective.

Therefore, the colonizers managed to come with a system through which the institutions will be forced to function under their directions. This was one of the main process through which the natives became dominated by the colonizers.

By passing their languages to their colonies, the colonizers were not only creating their listeners, but also the readers and writers of their language (Mahadeo, par 6). The colonizers were able to get teachers who helped them in teachers others. In the process, these teachers pass to other natives.

In the process, the natives pass the culture of their colonizers to other natives. The literature provided to the colonies also reflected the colonizers way of living and experiences. This had a significant impact on the natives. They were made to believe on the western culture.

According to Thiongo (59), language can be destructive if it embraces only the foreign works and culture. In other words, the language can be very influential on the natives. This is because in most cases, language reflects the works and culture of the original speakers. It is important for the people to work in their own local language in order to have a successful interaction.

In the modern world, the former imperialism has also impacted on the people through language. For instance, the media reflects the western views through television, radio and other media (Thiong’o II par 5). The media has also contributed in the spreading of the cultural imperialism in the Caribbean and African countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on English Imperialism in the Caribbean and Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through his story ‘Decolonizing the Mind’, Ngugi believes that the western language has led to misinterpretation of the African culture (Thiongo 86). This has diverted the minds of the people from the reality. For instance, people are not able to realize that imperialism is the main cause of their suffering.

In other words, people’s vision is blurred from seeing the reality of the situation. In stead, they are made to believe exactly on the opposite.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that language was a very important tool which was used by colonizers in Caribbean and Africa. In these areas, English language was used in giving instructions to the natives in schools. The colonizers used this in selecting what the native were supposed to read.

They ensured that they don’t access any material which could enlighten them to oppose the system. By so doing, the colonizers were able to expand their political and economic powers across the region.

Works Cited Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press, 1967. Print.

Mahadeo, Satish. “English – Colonial to Postcolonial: The Problematics of Writing in English in Mauritus.” Language, Society and Culture, 6 Apr. 2011. .

Thiong’o, John. “Review: Decolonizing the Mind.” The Complete Review, 2002. 6 Apr. 2011. .

Thiong’o, John. Decolonizing The Mind: The Politics Of Language In African Literature. U.K: Currey, 1999. Print.


Problem of Smoke-free Campus Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help

Over the past, smoking has posed a big danger to the community. Many people have become victims of smoking both directly and indirectly. The people who are affected directly are the smokers themselves while those who are affected indirectly are the people who stay near the people who smoke. Smoking therefore poses a very big problem especially to people who live as a group or as a community.

In campus, the issue of smoking has been a major problem. This is due to the risks associated with smoking to the students as well as the workers. However, the issue of whether smoking should be outside or inside the campus has been controversial.

Discussion From my point of view, smoking should completely be barred from all public places where people are mixed up. This is because smoking has been found to affect both the smokers as well as those staying around them. Therefore, when smoking is carried out inside the campus, those people who are non-smokers will also be affected.

Some will even be forced to move away from the places like entertainment halls in case someone smokes around them. This denies them their right as individuals. In other words, people should smoke outside the campus to avoid interfering with other people’s lives.

Another reason why people must smoke outside the campus is to avoid peer influence into smoking activities. Peer influence is one of the main ways through which people are ‘recruited’ into smoking. Therefore, by allowing smokers to interact with non-smokers while smoking in campus, this may cause non smokers to adopt the vice.

Thus, people should smoke outside the campus to avoid such temptations. Also, smoking is closely associated with abuse of other drugs like cocaine. Most of the people who smoke are also victims of other drugs. Therefore, banning smoking within the campus will still be preventing the spread of other drugs’ abuse among the campus students.

In the same way, banning smoking within the campus will make smoking a burden to the smokers. This is because they will be forced to move outside the campus every time they want to smoke. In the long run, this may encourage the smokers to quit smoking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Smoking in the campus will expose every person residing in the compound to secondary smoke. That is, both students and workers who work around the campus.

Smoking has been associated with very many diseases. For instance, smoking has been a major cause of lung cancer. Smoking is also associated with other breathing and the general respiration system complications. Therefore, smoking within the campus increases the cases of illnesses.

Consequently, this increases health care service costs incurred by institutions in treating students and other workers within the campus. Most of the people suffering from the lung cancer are smokers. Therefore, smoking outside the campus protects non smokers from acquiring such illnesses.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that smoking in campus is very dangerous. Many problems can be avoided by banning smoking within the campus. For instance, it will be possible to protect non smokers from illnesses associated with smoking. It will also be possible to protect non smokers from the temptation of engaging themselves in the vice. Therefore, smoking should be abolished from within the campus by designating smoking zones outside the campus.


Capital Punishment: A Critical Evaluation of its Appropriateness in Modern Society Essay college admission essay help

The public reflection on the legality and morality of capital punishment has over the years been well documented by historians, philosophers and other theorists amid the complexities and controversies the debate continues to attract.

Although the practice is institutionalized and practiced in some countries, the raging debate about its appropriateness demonstrates a subtle balance of thought among critics and advocates that continues to be analyzed under the rubric of moral, legal, philosophical and political underpinnings (Homans 44).

It is therefore the purpose of this essay to critically examine recent arguments in support and against the practice of capital punishment with a view to elucidating facts about its appropriateness or inappropriateness in modern society.

It is indeed true that a growing number of countries across the world are abolishing capital punishment, which basically implies the lawful infliction of death as a form of punishment (Arguments para. 1).

However, supporters of the practice continue to echo their concerns in popular media using deep-seated rationalistic arguments and counterarguments that aim to widen the focus and the historical framework of capital punishment.

One school of thought argues that damages caused by some egregious behavior such as murder and rape cannot be sufficiently compensated, hence the need to formulate legislation that will provide optimum deterrence to the offender in the form of capital punishment (Baron 855).

Undeniably, the stakes in support of capital punishment are even higher if such egregious conduct is proved beyond reasonable doubt by a court of law, or if the perpetrator readily admits to taking part in the murder or rape of the victim.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such scenarios, the upholding of capital punishment is seen as a necessary antidote to such uncivilized and inhuman behavior (Steiker


History of Spanish-American War in the 19th Century Expository Essay college application essay help

The 19th century witnessed several conflicts among European powers. A lot of territorial expansion programs were conducted during this period by various European powers.

One of the conflicts that U.S engaged in was called the Spanish-American war. “The Spanish-American war was a conflict between the kingdom of Spain and the United States of America that took place from April to August 1898” (Nofi 23). America emerged the winner of this war and it marked the end of Spanish rule in the Pacific and Caribbean territories.

The Paris Treaty was used to ratify the conflict and after that, the Spanish colonies were taken over by the government of U.S.A. “These territories included Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the Guam, and it also controlled the process of independence of Cuba, which was completed in 1902” (Nofi 67). The Spanish-American War has been debated about in various political and academic circles and many people have tried to come up with a comprehensive conclusion on what really caused it.

The western hemisphere was under colonial rule for a period of four decades. In the last quarter of the century, most colonies of Spain had been emancipated and it now had very few territories. The Spanish occupation of Cuba and Philippines had been highly resented. Therefore, the people of Cuba resisted through military attacks.

Dealing with rebels was a challenging task for the Spanish. They tried to separate the rebels by establishing concentration camps. This caused a lot of suffering among the people of Cuba. “Hence, the U.S.A government found it necessary to avert the crisis by intervening through military attacks” (Nofi 98).

In 1898 during the month of February an American battle ship capsized due to an explosion, whose cause could not be established. It could probably have happened accidently. Back in U.S the media reports about the issue was not good and it led to tensions.

The issue of humanitarian crisis in Cuba dominated political debates in many parts of U.S. In Cuba the general opinion was in favor of war. Spain also felt that going to war was the only viable way out of the crisis, but they new that they could succeed in the war.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both America and Spain were keen to test the naval capacity of each other. Spain had much experience in naval wars, but U.S had newly built its navy and it was therefore ready to face Spain in war. The issue of going to war was not welcomed by investors in U.S who felt that they could lose business opportunities.

The Spanish-American war was not directly linked to the explosion of the Maine as some people would think was the case, but there were other serious underlying issues that spiraled out of control. America found it necessary to attack Spain mainly because it had refused to restore stability in Cuba.

Before the war, the situation in Cuba was seriously in a bad shape and many people found it difficult to cope with the situation. “The explosion of the Maine did not therefore cause the war, but it focused American attention on Cuba; the call was for an immediate resolution to the Cuban situation” (Nofi 89).

Having examined the situation keenly in March, Senator Redfield Proctor felt that the only way out of this situation was through fighting. After his comments, the people who earlier criticized the war now supported the move.

Cuba was declared free from colonialism by U.S congress in April, and they ordered Spain out of Cuba. They even advised the people of Cuba to rebel strongly against Spain. This move led to the end of the diplomatic ties between them.

The war was fought in different parts of Cuba and Philippines. The war had far reaching outcomes and many people lost their lives and a lot of property and infrastructure was damaged. The war was a turning point for U.S which now emerged as a world power.

After the war, America became more active in international politics. U.S also advanced economically, and it had a tremendous growth in population and infrastructure. The aftermath of this war also saw the collapse of the Spanish empire. “The defeat paradoxically postponed the civil war that had seemed imminent in 1898 and created a renaissance known as the generation of 1898” (Nofi 102).

We will write a custom Essay on History of Spanish-American War in the 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The colonies that had formerly been owned by Spain were brought under the control of America. Last but more importantly, the war brought together both the Northern and Southern States. It was for the first time since the civil war in America that they came together to fight against their enemies.

We can therefore conclude that the Spanish-American war generally had positive effects on the American side, but for Spain it was a great challenge that led to its decline. From the above discussion we cannot therefore simply attribute the cause of the war to the explosion of the Maine. I therefore conclude that the explosion of the Maine simply triggered the war but it was not the main cause of the war.

Works Cited Nofi, Albert. Spanish American war, 1898 (great campaigns). New York: Wiley, 1997.


Bill Clinton’s foreign policies Essay essay help online: essay help online

Bill Clinton was the forty second president of United States of America serving between the years 1993 to 2001. As the president of the United States of America, Bill Clinton promised the Americans that he would be “the most ethical administrator ever seen in the history of the nation” (Clinton 67).

Among his major concerns was the administration of foreign policy. However, he did not administer the foreign policy on his own; he had his “foreign policy advisors who were Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright the secretaries of state as well as Anthony Lake and Sandy Berger who were National Security Advisors” (Clinton 54).

Foreign policy can be defined as the way a nation interacts with other global countries through economic, political and social relations. Also referred to as international relations policy, foreign policy is of great importance in any nation state.

During his term, Bill Clinton did all he could to make sure that the United States of America had good relations with other nations through proper foreign policy administration. To begin with, Clinton increased the number of free trade agreements between America and other countries from three to seventeen.

This, he did to “boost the economy of the state as well as other developing and young democracies such as Jordan and Morocco” (Clinton 502). The Expansion of the US role to Somalia nation-building was another foreign policy under the leadership of President Clinton. He facilitated aid to Somalia during the political chaos by sending his troop to provide security as well as food.

In the year 1992, as part of his foreign policy, Clinton helped the refugees from Haiti who came to the United States to seek refuge. In the following year, 1993, President Clinton pushed for an aid package to Russia worth $1.6B. He did this in a bid to stabilize the economy of Russia despite its unpopularity.

In his fear for global crisis, Clinton pushed for a Mexican bailout whereby Mexico was forced to repay all the loans so that the other countries including the United States of America could not face economic collapse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also initiated peace throughout the globe by making peace deals with especially the war-faced nations. For example in the year 1993, he signed a peace deal for the Middle East countries with the then Israel prime minister, Yitzak Rabin and Yasir Arafat who was a Palestinian leader (Clinton 476).

Clinton was able to deal with the nuclear energy issue that has been of global concern for many years. During his policy administration, he made China, one of the Asian countries to sign the free trade agreement that included the clause of nuclear non-proliferation. Indeed, it was a success since China agreed with the terms thus making a positive change for itself and the world at large.

Being the president of the super power nation in the world Clinton was also obliged to make decisions concerning any wars and terrorists attacks as part of foreign policy administration.

In 1998 after the United States embassies bombings in two capital cities of Kenya and Tanzania which are East African countries by Osama bin Laden, Clinton ordered missile attacks to Afghanistan as way of retaliating for the bombings.

Just like any normal human being with success and failures, Clinton failed in some instances of his foreign policy administration. The greatest failure in his foreign policy administration was when he declined sending troops to Rwanda during the 1994 Rwanda genocide that led to death of about 800, 000 people through manslaughter. However, he later apologised his mistake in 1998 when he visited the country.

It can therefore be concluded that Bill Clinton was successful in his foreign policies which upgraded the country’s relations with the others of the world.

Works Cited Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2004.

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ACCIDENT ANALYSIS PAPER ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS OVERVIEW Find an NTSB report of an aviation accident that resulted from or demonstrates a breakdown in critical thinking or the troubleshooting process college application essay help

(should be flight related) 
You will write a 5–6-page (not including the title and reference pages) research-based paper that focuses on the application of critical thinking and troubleshooting principals discussed in the course to this accident.
The paper must be written in current APA format and include a title page and reference page with at least three references; at least one must be scholarly.
You will submit elements of the paper at different points throughout the course. Elements of the paper to be submitted include the Topic, AnnotatedBibliography, Outline, and the FinalPaper.
Accident Analysis Paper: Topic Proposal
Research the NTSB database and choose an accident for your final paper. Submit the topic for your final paper as a Word Document. Include the following in your submission: Title Page, identify the NTSB #, aircraft type, and provide an overview of what happened. Please follow APA7 guidelines. This will be a pass/fail submission. 
Annotated Bibliography Assignment
The bibliography should have a minimum of three sources, including at least one scholarly source. Annotations are to correctly summarize the corresponding source and demonstrates the student’s critical thinking skills regarding interpretation and application of material. Formatting is to be in accordance with APA7 guidelines.
Accident Analysis Paper: Outline Assignment
The outline should concisely establish a well-developed framework for your final paper. Include all headings and sub-headings and ensure current APA format is used.
Accident Analysis Paper: Final Paper Assignment
Submit your finished paper.


Alcohol Problems and Abstinence Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Facts


Owen’s Position

Fletcher’s Position

The credibility of the Authors

Personal View

Contemporary Research


Alcoholism has been a problem since the ancient times. People who abuse alcohol have always found themselves in problematic circumstances in regards to the negative impacts of alcohol (Fletcher, 2001). Whereas a majority of the alcoholics have the desire to quit, the compulsion to continue drinking overpowers them immensely. The solution to every problem lies in understanding the root of the concern.

Abstinence and moderate drinking are the available treatment options for alcoholism. Patricia Owen believes that abstinence should be the ultimate goal in alcoholism treatment.

On the contrary, Anne Fletcher supports moderate drinking in the treatment of alcoholism. This paper critically examines the contrasting position held by the two. In addition, the position supported by contemporary research is also outlined.

Facts According to Patricia Owen, all alcohol drinkers aim at achieving abstinence in the long term. People who opt for controlled drinking always train their systems to stay free of alcohol. Saying ‘No’ to alcohol is not only necessary (Owen, 2001). Rather, it is the most direct approach of ensuring that alcoholics address their problem.

In addition, Owen attests to the fact that moderation is not attainable by all people. People with serious alcohol dependence may find moderate drinking insignificant. Whereas a good percentage is comfortable with controlled drinking, the rest find the approach unsuccessful and impossible.

On the other hand, Anne Fletcher argues that alcoholism is a continuous process that requires professional care. Most alcoholics suffer from mild risks at the initial stages of their drinking experience. Subsequent drinking eventually leads to life threatening risks (Fletcher, 2001).

Abstinence is ignorant of this fact. Fletcher is categorical of the fact that moderate drinking is characterized by physiological stability, proper education and steady employment. People who possess these qualities greatly benefit from moderate drinking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Opinions According to Owen, alcohol dependent people find it problematic to moderate their drinking. This is because of the intense compulsion offered by the brain.

A person finds him/herself in a condition where alcohol becomes a need rather than a liking. Such people find it extremely impossible to desist from drinking temptations. Efforts and programs that advocate for moderation are therefore futile (Owen, 2001).In addition, Owen believes that abstinence is achievable.

The ultimate desire of all alcoholics is usually to quit drinking. Abstinence offers the best treatment for such cases. On the other hand, Fletcher is of the opinion that moderation is best achieved when professional guidance and help are sought. The professionals establish mechanisms to monitor the progress of alcoholics.

The success of controlled drinking does not entirely depend on the decisions made by the professionals (Fletcher, 2001). Rather, the involvement of the alcoholics is vital. Alcoholics need to be aware of the situations to prevent cases of self denial. Consequently, several studies have shown that controlled drinking applied at the onset gave better results than abstinence approaches.

Owen’s Position Abstinence is a logical approach. It is always correct to assert that the avoidance of causes of misery is the surest way to be safe. Alcohol dependency and addiction are situations that are not experienced by non-drinkers.

Abstinence is usually the ultimate goal for all recovering alcoholics. Avoiding alcohol altogether strategically mitigates all the effects associated with it (Owen, 2001). The fact that abstinence is an ideal condition does not render it impossible.

It is possible to abstain. Through abstinence, emotional health, spousal relationships, job performance, legal and health status are improved. Moderate drinking may lead to “Loss of Control”. This condition results from the intense compulsion generated by the brain.

We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Problems and Abstinence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owen affirms that a person finds him/herself graduating from the condition of “liking” to that of “wanting”. Several factors are overlooked. Alcoholism is usually a process that requires professional care. Professionals are usually aware of the fact that people with severe neuronal sensitization may find it difficult to abstain.

Owen assumes that abstinence is the best treatment option for all. It is not correct to assert that all the prescriptive rights are vested on the professional. Abstinence may be the treatment goal prescribed by the professional. However, the alcoholic should have a say about his condition.

Fletcher’s Position Several cases are available to support that moderate drinking is possible. Abstinence should be driven by intrinsic forces and not external forces.

External forces should not be imposed against people recovering from alcoholism (Fletcher, 2001). Nolan changed from being an alcoholic to a non-problematic drinker. Abstinence and moderate drinking work together as posited by Nolan’s story. However, most alcoholics attest to the fact that abstinence is not easy as most people believe.

Moderate drinking is best achieved when one disregards emotions and the drinking environment. Drinking problems are continuously propagated as opposed to the view that they are instantaneous. Enco was of the view that most alcoholics feel more comfortable once introduced to moderate drinking programs (Fletcher, 2001).

Fletcher affirms that involving the alcoholic in the treatment process is important. The alcoholic makes an informed and experimental choice regarding moderation or abstinence. Heather, another alcoholic found out that abstinence was indeed the best option. Moderate drinking was the initial option but later on abstinence became the ultimate goal.

Studies indicate that moderation approach has been successful than abstinence on 3-year treatment programs. Setting drinking limits has worked for most alcoholics who moderate their drinking. Ed Shaw, Pat and Jack are good examples of alcoholics who have moderated their drinking (Fletcher, 2001). Moderation drinking is subjective and discriminatory. It has been found to work well in women and people under 40.

The credibility of the Authors Owen is inclined towards the views held by Alcohol Anonymous. The group insists that abstinence should be the aim of all professionals. Owen however assumes that alcoholism can be addressed instantaneously.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alcohol Problems and Abstinence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects associated with alcoholism are regarded to end at once in cases where abstinence is applied (Fletcher, 2001). Owen assumes that abstinence can be applied to all people under the influence of alcohol.

This assumption ignores the gradual effects that alcoholics suffer from starting from the initial and advanced stages of their alcoholism. The other weakness posited is the fact that the author fails to validate her position. Lack of possible life examples is questionable. Fletcher is conclusive in her study.

She gives practical life examples to support her position. Her literature review is detailed. She is considerate of all cases of alcoholisms. She appreciates the role played by both professionals and the alcoholics in the treatment process. Her study is conclusive of the fact that moderation drinking is superior to abstinence.

Personal View Alcoholism is a problem that can either be handled through moderate drinking or abstinence. The choice on which method to adopt solely depends on the condition of the alcoholic.

Abstinence is the ultimate goal in the treatment of alcoholism. However, it is not the only available option. It is ideal and difficult especially for heavy drinkers. It is therefore important to actively incorporate the views of the alcoholics in the treatment programs.

Professionals become aware of how to address specific alcoholism cases. Studies have indicated that indeed treatment programs that are interactive yield positive results. Fletcher uses various cases to validate her position. Heavy drinkers may find it difficult to abstain at once.

Moderate drinking programs may work for such people in the long term. The drinking limits set by the recovering alcoholics aid in the rehabilitation process. It is therefore correct to affirm that abstinence should not be the ultimate goal. Rather, moderate drinking should be advocated for.

Contemporary Research Total abstinence is usually the best way of treating alcoholism. However, a strong social network and family support are vitally important in the treatment program. Whereas some drinkers find it possible to abstain, the majority affirm that moderation is the best approach to take. In addition, complete alcohol abstinence remains a challenge (Campbell, 2011).

For this reason, it is prudent to advocate for moderate drinking to avert the serious problems associated with alcohol addiction. People should be actively involved in alcohol treatment programs.

Through such a forum, people are able to realize the harms posed by alcohol. Consequently, they can aim at living a sober life. Honesty by family members is usually important in situations where moderate drinking is prescribed. Stanton Peele and Herbert Fingarette have expressed their dissatisfaction with how the USA government compels alcoholics to abstinence (Campbell, 2011).

They are of the view that personal freedom should be sought in regards to alcoholism. A study involving 80 participants showed that indeed moderate drinking was the best mode of treatment.

Most participants attested to the fact that that their abstinence levels had increased from 16% to 20% through moderated drinking (Campbell, 2011). During the 12 month period, the blood alcohol content levels had reduced by 50%.Moderate drinking is therefore superior to abstinence (Campbell, 2011).

References Campbell, H. (2011). Moderate Drinking: Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial With Non-Dependent Problem Drinkers. Journal of Counseling and Psychology, 12 (5)

Fletcher, A. (2001). One Drink Does not a Drunk Make: How the Masters Determined whether they could ever drink again. Houghton Mifflin

Owen, P (2001). Should Abstinence be the Goal for Alcohol Treatment? American Journal of Addiction, 289-295.


Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Cannabis Dependence

Psychiatric Disorders

Cannabis Induced Psychiatric Disorders



The purpose of this study will be to examine psychiatric disorders that have been induced by overdependence on Cannabis. Cannabis Sativa is a herb originating from the Cannabaceae family that is recognised worldwide as a euphoric and hallucinogenic drug.

The strong smelling herb is used for medicinal purposes, for making hemp fibres and for developing recreational drugs (hashish and marijuana). The different parts of Cannabis have been used for different purposes and functions with one of the most common uses being for recreational purposes.

Marijuana is basically derived from the dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis sativa plant which is usually ingested or smoked while hashish is a resinous extract obtained from the plant which is usually vaporized or smoked (Elsohy, 2007).

Cannabis is one of the most famous recreational drugs in the world after caffeine, alcohol and tobacco where over 100 million people especially in the United States are consumers of the drug on an annual basis.

The reason for this is attributed to the fact that Marijuana which is derived from the Cannabis herb allows the user to be in a state of relaxation thereby reducing any cases of anxiety, paranoia or stress.

The tetrahydrocannabinol compound found in the leaves of the herb usually acts as the main stimulant once it is consumed by the user enabling them to experience a sense of peace and relaxation (Bolla et al, 2002). The drug however presents tertiary and secondary psychoactive effects that might pose a threat to the individual taking the drugs some of which include an increased heart rate, hallucinations, loss of memory, increased anxiety levels, high energy levels and an increasing sense of hunger.

If larger doses of the drug are taken through smoking, vaporization or oral ingestion, the effects might last longer for 24 hours where the consumer experiences both the secondary and tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug (Fusar-Poli et al, 2009). Marijuana is a very addictive drug which means that once it is consumed, it is very difficult to stop smoking or ingesting the drug because of the various effects that are presented by Cannabis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cannabis Dependence Cannabis dependence is defined as a condition where an individual who continues to take Cannabis or Marijuana demonstrates cognitive, behavioural and physiological symptoms.

Based on the DSM-IV criteria for diagnosing substance dependence on various drugs such as the one understudy (Michael et al, 2004), cannabis dependence is determined by the existence of three or the following criteria which might occur within a period of 12 months.

Tolerance which is the first DSM-IV criteria explains Cannabis dependence to be the need that an individual has to consume large amounts of Cannabis Sativa so that they can achieve an increased level of intoxication that will lead to diminished thoughts, emotions or feelings on the part of the user (Michael et al, 2004).

The second criteria based on the DSM-IV criterion for substance abuse is withdrawal which explains Cannabis dependence to be a manifestation of withdrawal symptoms such as increased restlessness, insomnia or poor sleeping habits, increased appetite as the drug brings about hunger, irritability, paranoia and anger.

Other DSM-IV criteria that are used to explain dependence of marijuana is when an individual takes the substance in large amounts for a long period of time than was intended to relieve anxiety or stress, the individual experiences a persistent desire to reduce substance abuse but unsuccessfully fails to do so and/or they spend most of their time and resources trying to acquire the substance or drug which means that their social life and other recreational activities are abandoned because of the continued use of the drug (Wenger et al, 2003).

Based on the various studies that have been conducted on the dependence of cannabis, the drug has presented a less addictive potential when compared to hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, tobacco or alcohol (Coffey et al, 2003). According to Michael et al (2004), Cannabis dependence has been cited as one of the clinical entities of substance abuse and dependence in the DSM-IV of mental disorders criteria.

The coding criterion that is used by the DSM-IV is usually based on the international classification of diseases where the signs and symptoms of diseases are identified and described in the various versions of DSM-IV textbooks. Based on the DSM-IV criteria, cannabis dependence falls under the category of substance related disorders as the individuals who consume the drug experience the various side effects that lead to cannabis dependence (Michael et al, 2004).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To further explain cannabis dependence, the extended use of marijuana or hashish is likely to produce various changes in the bodily processes of an individual which affect how cannabis is absorbed or metabolized by the individual. These changes which are referred to as pharmacokinetic changes usually force the user to increase their dosage of the drug so that they can be able to achieve a desirable effect which is known as a higher tolerance to marijuana or Cannabis Sativa (Joy et al, 1999).

Higher doses of cannabis further reinforce the metabolism rate of the individual thereby increasing the rate at which the drug is broken down and expelled from the body. This means that Cannabis sativa, marijuana and hashish act as a system of reinforcement to the metabolic functions of an individual’s digestive system as well as their small and large intestines (Wenger et al, 2003).

According to Hall et al (2001), the risk factors of Cannabis dependence are usually determined by the number of doses an individual user takes in a day as well as the frequency of these doses. Based on their research, the authors determined that one in every ten people who consumed cannabis were more than likely to become dependent on the drug at some point in their life. People who consumed the drug frequently (five times in a day) were more than likely to increase their risk of developing dependence on the drug.

The risk factors that are considered to be the major contributors to cannabis dependence based on longitudinal studies conducted by Copeland et al (2004) include the frequent use of the drug especially at a young age where drug users who begin taking the drug during their teenage or adolescent years are at a greater risk of being cannabis dependent.

Coffey et al (2000) conducted a study in Victoria, Australia where they examined 2032 high school students to determine the impact that young age had on cannabis dependence.

The results of their study revealed that mid-school consumption of cannabis sativa was mostly associated with other factors such as frequent cigarette smoking, peer pressure from other students who are ingesting or smoking cannabis sativa and anti-social behaviour such as stealing, sexual promiscuity and violent tendencies.

Coffey et al’s (2000) study also revealed that the regular use of marijuana or Cannabis Sativa among young people at an early age continued to persist even as the adolescents approached young adulthood.

A follow up study conducted by Coffey et al (2003) of the high school students who had attained the ages of 20 to 21 years revealed that one in five the adolescent users of the drug demonstrated dependence to cannabis well into the early stages of adulthood.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cannabis Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders: Outline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other risk factors that have been related to an increased risk of cannabis dependence include psychological distress where individuals use the drug to relieve feelings of distress, anger or sadness, poor parenting where children raised by parents who are cannabis consumers are more than likely to develop cannabis dependence in their teenage and adult years and influence from peers where children with friends who smoke or ingest cannabis are more than likely to consume the drug and also become cannabis dependent at an older age.

Ehrenreich et al (1999) from their study of cannabis dependence from a young age have concluded that there exists strong evidence that children who are exposed to cannabis or marijuana at a young age are more than likely to become cannabis dependent when they are older.

Psychiatric Disorders A psychiatric disorder which is otherwise referred to as a mental illness/disorder is a psychological or behavioural pattern that is usually associated to emotional distress or mental disabilities which an individual goes through. Psychiatric disorders are not part of the normal development of an individual and they are therefore termed as abnormal manifestations of the mental health of the individual.

Psychiatric disorders encompass very many mental health conditions which affect the behavioural, intellectual and cognitive abilities of an individual and some of these mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, personality disorders, sexual disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders and drug dependence disorders (Akiskal


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) Research Paper best essay help

Controversy surrounds the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD as an illness. Some critics maintain that the condition is a work of fiction by the psychiatric and pharmacists who have taken advantage of distraught families’ attempts to comprehend the behaviour of their children to dramatise the condition.

Others claim that ADHD is a viable condition only not very well known in the scientific world. In an ADHD documentary, Drugging our Children in 2005, drugs have been discredited as being inadequate and immoral in addressing the disorder.

Controversy and medication not withstanding, families still find it hard to cope with children suffering from ADHD. As a result, there is need to identify means through which ADHD can be managed without being overly dependant on medication. (Blackman 1011-1025).

This paper seeks to discuss ADHD disorder, its probable causes and the advantages and disadvantages of using medication to contain the condition. It most importantly seeks to emphasis helpful application of other alternatives to medication in addressing the controversial yet increasingly common phenomena.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is psychiatric complication affecting normal growth and development. This condition is common in children though it can persist through other stages of development like adolescence and adulthood.

The condition is based on a combined sequence of behaviour but is basically marked by attention difficulties and or pathologically intense levels of activity (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). ADHD is divided into three special types;

overbearingly hyperactive and impulsive

majorly inattentive and

A blend of hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention.

Overly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD children may also exhibit lack of attention while the inattentive ADHD ones may also show symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Both signs are however minimal compared to the dominant ones. Combined ADHD is the most common among children.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is quite hard to define the symptoms of ADHD since it is difficult to clearly delineate between normal and clinical levels of hyperactivity, lack of attention and impulsiveness. However, the most common manifestations of ADHD are not being able to direct and maintain one’s mind on something for long, distractive tendencies, and or being overly active and acting unpredictably.

These symptoms recur constantly making it difficult for the individual to function normally across all spheres of life. This is because people with ADHD are mostly restless, easily distracted, cannot organise themselves, act and talk before considering the repercussions and are very impatient, have poor memory and cannot maintain permanent relationships.

Potential causes if ADHD Various theories have been propounded to shed some light into the probable causes of ADHD. Among the common theories are the evolution theories, environmental theory, neuro diversity theory, social construct theory, low arousal theory, social theory and diet.

However, according to Bailly Lionel a lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the exact causes of the condition are not yet established. Meanwhile, scientific studies indicate that the condition is brought about by a blend of various factors.

ADHD is believed to be a hereditary disorder that can be carried on amid members of a family. Though it is yet to be known just what genes lead to the condition, research is still on to determine the exact genes or the mixture of genes that could make an individual prone to the disorder with the hope of developing a cure or curbing the disorder way before its symptoms manifest themselves.

ADHD is also thought to originate from the different substantial properties of the brain parts. Studies show that the condition is eminently inherited though the genetic factor is dismal. ADHD is an unfathomable synergy of genes and other external and internal factors (Acosta, Arcos-Burgos and Muenke 1-15).

Environmental factors are also likely to contribute to the condition. Cigarette smoke and alcohol abuse by expectant mothers affect the unborn making them prone to developing ADHD. This is because nicotine could cause oxygen deficiency to the foetus hence affecting the brain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children born prematurely are also likely to suffer from ADHD while infections in the course of pregnancy, at the time of birth and viral and bacterial childhood infections like measles could also cause the condition. Similarly, exposing young children to lead and some pesticides puts them at risk of developing the condition (van Cleave and Leslie 28-37).

To a small extent, ADHD is also associated with trauma suffered from brain injuries. Children with ADHD constantly sustain head injuries. However, this does not imply that that they developed the condition as a result.

The presumption that refined sugar is a likely cause of ADHD or worsens manifestations of the condition is widespread. However, research dismisses the notion as myth since studies indicate that there is no notable behavioural difference between children who took sugars or substitutes or even more than the required amounts of sugar.

Diet has also been identified as one of the probable causes of ADHD. According to a study by McCann, Barrett and Cooper, there is a connection between children’s consumption of various popular food additives (food colours and preservatives), with hyperactivity.

Sodium benzoate is a common preservative found in salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams and fruit juices which has been pointed out among others to prompt symptoms of ADHD. However, more research is still on to fully establish just how they are related (McCann, Barrett and Cooper 1560-7).

In addition, the World Health Organisation advances that the manifestation of ADHD is a consequence of the malfunctioning of the society and not an individual problem.

It attributes the condition to failures in the family institution and flaws in the education system. Others conceive that thrusting children to care givers and the subsequent correlation impact a lot on the abilities of the child to pay attention or take care of themselves. At the same time, children in foster care are more likely to develop symptoms closely associated with ADHD.

Furthermore, (Cuffe, McCullough, Elizabeth and Pumariega 327-3) advance that children who are victims of violence and psychological trauma are prone to developing ADHD. Psychological illnesses like Complex post Traumatic Stress Disorder can end up causing attention problems that resemble ADHD.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to a recent CNN article, children adopted across nations are more likely to develop psychological illnesses like ADHD/ADD. This has o some extent been attributed to the long duration it takes to be adopted during which time they could be violated or disregarded.

ADHD Treatment/ management ADHD is a condition that needs to be treated and monitored. This is because if neglected, it can result in serious complications for an individual such as poor grades at school or ineffectiveness at the workplace, problems in forming and maintaining lasting relationships and low self evaluation.

There is no known cure of ADHD. Treatments only serve to alleviate the symptoms and make life better for the individuals suffering from the condition. This way, ADHD victims can lead a relatively normal life. However, research is still underway to discover more fruitful treatments for the disorder.


Stimulants are the most widespread medications for ADHD. Stimulants provide calm to children with the condition. They can either be pills, capsules, syrups or skin patches. The most conventional stimulant medications are Ritalin, Concerta, Dexerdrine, Metadate, Adderal and Focalin.

It should however be noted that these medications are not applicable to all individuals hence a matter of careful prescription when it comes to individual choice. This is because what goes well with one person may not fair well with another (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 284-287).

There are also other preferable medications other than stimulants such as atomoxetine, tricyclic anti-depressants, and bupropion and also generally prescribed medications for children from 3 to 6 years of age. However, not all the medications are sanctioned to be used in grown ups.

Pros and cons of medication

Medications serve to alleviate cases of hypersensitivity and impulsiveness in children. They also help children to focus more and be able to do constructive work and learn properly. Drugs also do help make physical interaction of the individuals better.

However, it has been reported that these drugs cause acute side effect like lack of appetite, sleep disorders, anxiety, irritability, stomach problems or headaches. Majority of these side effects are not severe and usually go away with time or when the dosage administered is lowered or by changing medications.

Sometimes the use of stimulants may result to drug abuse and over-dependence on the drugs as some of the drugs make individuals feel “different”. According to the National Institute for Drug Abuse Community Epidemiology Work Group, methylphenidate is reported to be abused among teenagers in the USA and the UK. They administer the drugs orally while some inhale the crushed drugs or mix with heroin and cocaine to have a more powerful effect.

Similarly, using stimulants on individuals suffering from other complications like heart conditions may prove catastrophic as they make cause strokes, heart attacks or even sudden death. Medications may also cause other psychosocial problems like hallucinations, delusions, moodiness, and being overly suspicious. The use of some non stimulants like strattera atomoxetine in teenagers and children prompts suicidal tendencies and they therefore need to be observed strictly.

Even when some medications are safe and have minimum or no side effects, they still do not cure ADHD. The symptoms of the conditions are only controlled and depending on if the medications are adhered to, monitored and regulated. It is also not guaranteed that medications help boost children’s learning abilities and academic performance.

Alternatives to medication

According to Van Cleave and Leslie, effective treatment and management of ADHD involves a combined process of medication and complementary treatment. This is because medicines alone cannot guarantee efficacy. In some countries like the UK and the US, use of medication is only advised in cases of intense manifestation of ADHD.

Similarly, children under three years are not sanctioned to use medications owing to the un-ascertained lasting effects of the drugs. Moreover, owing to the controversies on whether ADHD is an illness or a scam by psychiatrists and pharmaceuticals, there has been need to identify other ways through which the condition can be contained.

Psychosocial therapy

It involves a variety of psychological and social curative processes that focus on helping ADHD children alter their behaviour. It includes behavioural therapy, psycho educational assistance, interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, group therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, training in social skills, school based interventions among others.

It ranges from literary helping the child organise tasks, finish homework to assisting the children go through events that are emotionally draining (Van Cleave and Leslie 28-37).

Behavioural therapy imparts children with skills that can help them supervise and regulate their actions. It also aims at teaching children to learn to evaluate themselves positively for behaving in an admirable way. It involves having clear and precise set of rules, activities and a variety of systematised customary procedure that exercise restraint to a child’s behaviour and a feedback mechanism.

Through therapy, children learn social skills like waiting their chance in play, sharing, requesting for assistance, or how to react towards others. They also become able to interpret facial and tonal variations and what is required in response.

Guidance and counselling

Children with this condition require a lot of love, kindness, guidance and most of all, understanding from the people around them. This involves teachers, parents, siblings, neighbours, caretakers, friends and anyone who comes in contact with them.

This enables them be the best they can ever be. The children should not be blamed or made to feel guilty of their condition. Instead, they require special assistance to deal with the condition effectively.

Exchanging opinions and making consultations gives individuals with ADHD a forum to express their feelings and come up with effective ways of coping with ADHD such as low self esteem, lack of friends, inability to form and maintain relationships and other frustrations.

Social Skills Training

Through this approach, individuals suffering from ADHD learn more acceptable ways and skills of interacting with others that were previously unknown to them. This way, they ameliorate their fundamental ways of associating with others. Parents are trained on skills and attitudes that can help change the behaviour of the children in a loving and understanding manner.

This involves rewarding good behaviour and ignoring or redirecting unpleasant behaviour; in essence, focusing more on the child’s abilities and strengths rather than their weaknesses and disabilities. If for instance a child becomes uncontrollable, the child is driven away from the scene that upsets them and is given time alone to cool off. This way, even those around them get to learn how to manage their emotions.

Support Groups

It is about finding strength through association with people affected by ADHD. This not only refers to ADHD individuals but also parents and the loved ones. Through sharing with people facing the same situation, people learn from others and get encouraged to move on.

Alternative sleeping patterns

Children with ADHD have sleeping problems yet sleep is a natural requirement for normal growth and a remedy for many ailments. Sleep is achieved through developing a consistent sleeping schedule regardless of the day so that a child gets used to sleeping and getting up at a given time.

This also includes regular timing for meals, resting and going to bed and minimising or doing away entirely with any form of disturbing noises that would distract the child.

There are other approaches that compliment treatment like changing diets to involve food that are less in saturated sugar, artificial additives, caffeine, chocolate, tea and some energy beverages. This reduces chances of stimulating conditions related to the disorder (McCann, Barrett and Cooper. 1560 -7).

Conclusion ADHD diagnosis is still largely dependant on the explication of the psychiatrist or clinician and in most cases a third party. Its probably caused by an amalgamation of internal and external factors. While the real diagnosis remains a bone of contention, ADHD remains an increasingly common childhood disorder for which research indicates a combination of medications and alternative can prove effective in controlling it.

There are risks in over-dependence and misuse of medication and medication on its own cannot effectively alleviate the problem. There is need therefore to focus on other ways of making those affected with the conditions cope easily and be able to lead a normal life.

After all has been done failure in these combined approaches in alleviating the problem means going back to the beginning and reviewing the diagnosis. Either there would be an error in the diagnosis or there may be other factors present at the time that also lead to lack of positive response. That will mean a total evaluation of all those factors.

Works Cited Acosta, Maria T., Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio and Muenke, Maximillian. “Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Complex phenotype, simple genotype?” Genetics in Medicine 6.1(2004): 1–15. Print.

Bailly, Lionel. “Stimulant Medication for the Treatment of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence-b(i)ased Practice?”. Psychiatric Bulletin (The Royal College of Psychiatrists) 29.8(2005): 284–287. Print.

Blackman, John. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder in Preschoolers. Does it exist and should we treat it?” Paediatric Clinics of North America, 46 (1999): 1011 -1025. Print.

Cuffe, S.P., McCullough, Elizabeth L. and Pumariega, Andres J. “Comorbidity of attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder”. Child and Family Studies 3.3 (1994): 327–336. Print.

DSM-IV-TR workgroup. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2007. Print.

McCann John D., Barrett Agnew and Cooper Anderson. “Food additives and Hyperactive Behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old Children in the Community: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Trial”. Lancet 370.9598(2007): 1560–7. Print.

Van Cleave Jeanne, Leslie LK.”Approaching ADHD as a chronic condition: implications for Long-term Adherence”. Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 46.8(2008): 28–37. Print.


Comparative of a Widow for One Year and the Cider House Rules Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

John Irving, the author of the novels the Cider House Rule and A Widow for One Year focuses on the theme of motherhood through the description of the main characters. Children who experience parental negligence especially from their mothers are unable to make solid decisions in their lives.

Mother is the backbone of every family; consequently, children who grow up without mothers end up having tough times in adulthood, as it is the case in the two novels. Irving focuses on failed motherhood either before or after the birth of the children.

In the Cider House Rule, Homer Wells undergoes awful ordeals during his childhood which forces him into an Orphanage called St. Paul. Surprisingly, Homer comes to the orphanage when he is still an infant. He does not know his mother’s whereabouts; he simply tries effortlessly to live with four foster families. While under foster care, Homer has never known how it feels to be happy.

Similarly, Ruth Cole does not have a happy childhood after the death of her two siblings; her mother neglects her parental duties. In addition, her parents have frequent fights, which lead to divorce. In the two cases, there is evident failed motherhood and the two kids; Homer and Ruth, experience this unfortunate failure.

Dr. Larch parents only tolerated to remain in marriage for the marriage was void of love. His mother does not care about her son’s wellbeing; she is rarely at home, because her job is perhaps more important; her family more so her son comes second or third in her priorities. Interestingly, when her husband brings the young Larch a prostitute as a present for passing exams well, she does not object.

Ruth experiences the same neglect just like Larch; her mother does not love her and its not surprising when she eventually leaves Ruth under the care of her father. Regrettably, the issue of failed motherhood paints the picture of current parents who leave their children under the care of either teachers or house helps to pursue their dreams.

After growing to become a doctor, Dr. Larch bases his career on abortion; he simply lacks no respect for human life courtesy of poor parentage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Talking of abortion, the author highlights the failure of some mothers, who respect not their unborn children; abortion to them I a common thing. Additionally, in Larch’s neighborhood, most mothers are the oldest professionals in the world; prostitutes. Besides prostitution being ‘unethical’ though controversial, the fruits are repugnant.

These ‘professionals’ conceive children they cannot raise and thus abortion becomes the last resort; unfortunately, some mothers die in the process of abortion; what a piteous way of living. On the other hand, Ruth witnesses the painful death of a prostitute in one of the red districts; statistics and conventional knowledge attribute prostitutes to failed motherhood.

The comparative element in the novels is the theme of motherhood. In both books, the role of mother is in the society goes unfulfilled. Consequently, the main characters like Ruth, Larch and Homes are unable to make standing decisions in their lives due to poor motherhood.

Children need mother’s guidance as they grow for life issues might be confounding even to the wise and children needs guidance to know what decisions to make under what situations. Irving goes further to highlight the detrimental effects children incur when parents neglect their duties and the product of the same.

In conclusion, conflicts from either marriage or poor relationship cause loss of life and heart breakage of the children. The two books comparatively highlight parenthood, especially motherhood and its significance in the society. Finally, Irving is able to enlighten the society about the expectations of a mother.


Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry Report custom essay help

America has being a super power for a long time after the fall of the Roman Empire. The country has not only been powerful economically, but also politically. However, a critical analysis of the issues that the country is facing especially in the current century indicates that its power is declining. In the book ‘Lament for America’ by Fry, the author clearly illustrates that the super power is on the decline.

The situation has been caused by various factors such as the effects of globalization, problems and challenges within the borders of United States as well as the stiff competition arising from other countries and nations within the European region. The signs of decline have already been evident in the first decade of the twenty first century.

As much as anyone may want to be optimistic, there is no doubt that the issue of America as a super power will be history. With that background in mind, this paper strongly illustrates that it is true that America is on the decline as illustrated in the book ‘Lament for America’ by Earl H. Fry.

As much as the challenges facing United States are from without, studies indicate that there are a lot of domestic problems which are affecting not only its capability to influence other nations but also the country’s ability to support its population and provide a better and comfortable life to the present and the future generation.

The economic situation in United States is troubling bearing in mind that the country has always been recognized as a super power in the past. For instance, United States is leading in terms of the government debt. The United States’ public and private sector borrow seventy percent of the world’s savings.

Although the private sector is growing tremendously, the huge government debt becomes a real obstacle to any type of development. Analysts project that the problem may become worse because during the last three decades, the government debt increased by twelve times.

Although United States was the largest creditor after the First World War until 1980s, it is the largest debtor country currently. The citizens, corporations and well as the government have been living far beyond their means and that is why the external debt is on the increase[1].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popularity and the importance of the United States dollar is a major contributory factor to the United States popularity. Dollar has been a major currency in the world for long time although Euro and Yean as well as the Swiss franc are replacing it. It is clear that currently, the United States dollar is the chief international currency since it accounts for about sixty percent of the central bank reserves.

However, analysts project that in the next decade, the reserves will fall to less than fifty percent. Most the United State’s competitors like Brazil, China and Russia are in the forefront pushing for diversity in the monitory system. Due to such issues and increased government debt, it is clear that it is difficult for United States to remain as a super power.

It is the duty of each nation to provide health care to all citizens irrespective of their economic status. As studies of Fry indicate, it is true that United States health care is almost the most costly system in the world and worse still, it lacks equity. Further studies explain that compared to other western countries in the world, United States spends twice as much on health care only.

On the same note, it is important to point out that though America spends twice as much, many people in the country lack any medical cover, while those that are already covered lack full cover. Due to lack of medical cover, many Americans die every year after succumbing to various sicknesses.

While most of the countries western regions spend around twelve percent of their Gross Domestic Product on health care, United States spends around seventeen percent. Families in United State spend more on healthcare more than on any other need. Health care costs have been increasing consistently and as a result, it is expected that the trend will continue in the future decades.

Most of the private companies that are operating in United States have been evading provision of medical cover to their workers. In addition, some of the companies have been shifting their operations to other places where the health care is more affordable like Canada. In that case, it is clear that the situation in America will continue to become worse.

It is easier to argue that the situation can improve but as the studies of Fry[2] illustrate, viable solutions would only have been applicable about two decades ago. Therefore, while focusing on the health care only, it is clear that United States is declining daily and the situation is becoming worse. Moreover, the viable solutions may not be of much help currently, or they may take quite some time before they are implemented.

We will write a custom Report on Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As highlighted in the introductory part and contrary to the views of the majority, America is poorly prepared to support its population especially them that are expected to retire in the current decade as well as in the subsequent decades. Studies indicate that a quarter of the population in the United States was born from the year 1946-1964[3].

The same studies illustrate that the same population is expected to retire in the current and in the following decades. The situation clearly illustrates that the obligations of the programs that are meant to take care of the retirees like the Medicare and Social Security will increase.

Although the increased spending of the benefit programs like food stamp and health care are worsened by the economic recession and may reduce once the economic improves, spending by Medicare and Medicaid may not be affected positively. The problem is worsened by the high life expectancy, which ranges from 80 years for women and 75.4 for men.

Initially, life expectancy was much lower but due to various reasons, it is on the increase. As a developed nation, America ought to be prepared to take care of the aging population. On the contrary, no program has been put in place cater for the same. Such a situation will continuously deplete the savings, a situation that will contribute to the decline of the country as a super power.

Globalization has many benefits in many countries as it has in United States. However, disadvantages of the same are present in most countries of the world. To begin with, globalization leads to interdependence not only among states and countries but also among business corporations as well as among different societies. Due to that, domestic affairs are seriously affected by decisions that are made in foreign countries.

For instance, United States depends so much on the petroleum products from other countries and the same has a great effect on its industries. In addition, globalization calls for increased international interaction between various countries. Such activities and engagements are serious disadvantages to a super power like United States.

For instance, studies of Fry [4] indicate that the government debt of United States was doubled during the time of the George Bush administration. In the view of the fact that United States was actively involved in solving some of the international problems, the money spent on defense increased greatly[5].

Consequently, foreign countries like Japan and China hold more than half of the public debt after buying various instruments of debt like bonds and shares. Such situation is very dangerous to a super power like United States because the economic status is highly dependent on countries that buy the country’s government debt.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Position Paper on ‘Lament for America’ by Earl Fry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The upcoming competitors like China and Japan are challenging the economic and the military power of United States. The economy of China is growing very fast and if the trend can continue for two decades, it can surpass the economy of United States. European Union, which has twenty-seven states, is also becoming stronger, politically and economically.

In addition, there is a high possibility that Euro can replace the dollar. Countries like Japan and Brazil are also becoming stronger economically as well as countries from the South East Asia. If such countries can continue with such trend, they will get a voice in making of the international decisions and will eventually challenge the international standing of United States.

The study has indicated that it is true that United States has been a super power for many years. However, as Fry [6] illustrates, there is a high possibility that the future generation will know a poorer nation and not an economic giant. This is because its economic and political power is on the decline.

As much as anyone may want to disagree with the book ‘Lament for America’, reading through the text indicates that valid reasons are used to project the decline of the United States.

A critical analysis of issues pertaining to globalization, competitors as well as domestic problems of United States indicates that the current trend is not promising at all. In the view of the fact that implementing changes is not only a long process but also a lengthy process, it is clear that the decline is inevitable.

Works Cited Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.

Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Footnotes Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009 pp. 181. Print.

Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.26. Print.

Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp. 33. Print

Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.28. Print

Paterson, Thomas, et al. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009 pp.. Print.

Fry, Earl H. Lament for America: decline of the superpower, plan for renewal. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 2010 pp.2. Print


Proposal For A Small Business Opportunity Essay scholarship essay help

The business plan provides a basis for starting a sustainable business in healthcare service provision industry to both male and female customers typically aimed at the low and middle level income bracket.

The business owner is a dedicated entrepreneur, who has identified a business opportunity in body fitness service provisions and has strategized to exploit the opportunity by offering the services at competitively low costs tailored to meet customer needs and satisfaction.

The core competencies that characterize the entrepreneur is experience and thorough training in providing services in the fitness industry for several years and the self motivating drive to offer the fitness services in healthcare services. The business will be branded as Fitness For All (FFA) (Cooper, 1993).


A number of research findings led to an informed decision to start the business. Key findings indicate that an exponential demand for healthcare services is on the rise. FFA is a precise timing. Typically, other findings indicate that within the proposed Witherands locality, there is only one business that offers fitness services without competitors. Their services are expensive and rarely are the lower and middle income cadres enjoy these services reinforcing the reality of an already available opportunity to exploit (Liao


Regarding the Research Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The research proposal focused on the importance of applying technology in workplaces to enhance worker’s productivity. The proposal suggested that the use of internet by the employees have both negative and positive effects.

Regarding the positive effects, the proposal suggested that the use of internet for leisure activities such as chatting, blogging and doing personal activities motivates and improves the performance of the employees hence productivity in the workplace.

Such an argument is difficult to understand because employees waste their time in leisure activities while the company is expecting high productivity. Since time is a valuable resource that when wasted is forever gone, it is apparent that time wasted by employees in leisure activities translates directly into loss to the company.

It is difficult to understand how employees can spend some hours in leisure and at the same time increase productivity in their workplaces. Conventionally, employees should dedicate their efforts to working for the company throughout the stipulated time and then have leisure at their own time.

Another difficult concept to understand is how the use of technology would enable human resource management to change the mode of management from subjective to objective management that promotes and motivates workers.

Subjective management involves constant monitoring of workers’ activities throughout their working time, and technology has made it possible for human resource managers to track the progress of all employees during work.

With the use of technology such as internet, human resources managers can have real time access to progress of duties and can assess the performance of the employees even from the comfort of their homes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ultimately, the application of technology in work places is more subjective as compared to instances where technology is not applicable because human resources management cannot easily track and assess the performance of employees.

In the proposal, it is easy to understand why and how application of technology in various aspects of work in companies increases employees’ performance and productivity.

Many companies are struggling to keep abreast with the advancement in technology because application of technology significantly reduces the cost of labor and production, thus giving their products and services competitive advantage in the market.

The objective of companies is to automate all process that lead to the production of goods and services to avoid unnecessary costs due to manual processes of labor.

Therefore, the use of technology does not only enhance performance and productivity of employees, but also leads to the reduction of labor cost. Therefore, availability of technology and technological experts in workplaces determine the company’s capacity to compete effectively in the world of business.

Finally, it is easy to understand that internet and web-based technologies are great tools that human resources management can employ in attracting prospective employees and retaining current employees.

For the human resources management to access large and diverse pool of employees from various places and backgrounds, internet advertisement and application process prove to be very effective in this era of technological revolution.

We will write a custom Essay on Regarding the Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internet adverts reach millions of prospective employees and this increases the chance of human resource management to recruit potential candidates that suit the needs of the company.

Moreover, since human resource management have great task of maintaining current employees, internet is the most convenient means of communication that is essential in monitoring and training of employees. Therefore, internet provides interactive relationship that is critical in motivating employees in the workplaces.


Ethics and Morals Analytical Essay essay help online

Terms Ethical Relativism

In ethical relativism, it is believed that there are no moral absolutes, and rights or wrongs. Rights or wrongs are supported by dependant social norms. Ethical relativism permits a wide range of cultures and practices. This permits people to adjust ethically as per the culture, awareness, and changes in the society.

In this case, the rights or wrongs are all relative, and a group of people might think that something is right; this should not be assumed that it is right. Ethical relativism does not allow complete lay down of ethics. Rights or wrongs are not complete, and must be determined by a grouping of emotions, experience, social like and logic.


Altruism means the selfless concern about the welfare of other people. This is a virtue which is traditional, and a foundation of many religious traditions. Altruism centers its interest on helping others, and doing well without reward. In this virtue, duty focuses on a moral commitment towards a specific individual, for example, a king or a government.

Rosen argues that altruism is giving without expecting anything in return, or expecting recognition that might come along with the giving (28). Altruism is also known as an ethical doctrine which claims that individuals are morally made to help others.

Positive Rights

Positive rights permit or make actions; this may be a legal or moral character. Positive rights include police protection and society rights, for example: education, security, and access to health care facilities. Positive rights are associated with second and third making.

Other people must provide positive rights in order for them to be satisfactorily – they require action from others. For example, in health care, a doctor must be hired to fulfill a right for health, but he is paid for it, and others must pay the bills.

Negative Rights

Negative rights means rights to not have bad things done to an individual or individuals. For example, right to freedom of speech or autonomy. They enforce duties on other individuals to leave an individual alone to do things that concern that person, and do as he wishes, such as decision making. Negative rights include freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom to private property, and freedom from crime and slavery.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is the thought that moral value of an action is decided by its importance in increasing utility, which is preference of satisfaction, and reducing negative utility. The moral importance of an action is determined by its results. Utilitarianism begins by looking at the potential rules of action.

For a rule to be followed, an individual looks at what would happen first if the rule was followed. If that rule is observed, and gives more happiness, than otherwise, it is a rule that is considered to be followed at all times.

Psychological Egoism

Psychological egoism is the view that people are at all times motivated by self interest. This means that when people decide to help others, they do so because of the benefits that they expect to get, either directly or indirectly, hence actions are encouraged by self interest. People have ulterior desires when they help others which may be ultimate desires that one has for something as an end, or extrinsic desires which entails pain avoidance and enjoyment desires.

An Issue of Long Standing A nation is better with many altruistic individuals because it looks into the welfare of others, while the egoistic individual puts weight on people doing what concerns them individually rather than what concerns others. Egoistic individuality is seen as selfish, while altruistic is the opposite. An egoistic individual acts or does something for his own interest, while an altruist focuses on helping others without getting or expecting anything in return, they are morally obliged to benefit others.

Moral Stances Altruism moral stance is better because individuals look into the welfare of others without any selfish gain. Superstone argues that the advantages of altruism is that it helps people in situations which are out of their control, it can give people choices, and is beneficial for human species survival because they depend on each other (130).

The disadvantages include the following: there is no personal responsibility; lowers the recipient because he/she has to depend on others; and can spread weakness throughout time.

On the contrary, psychological egoism should not be considered because people act on the motive of self interest, and they try to conceal their motive of helping others. Ethics egoism falls under psychological egoism, and it claims that people should seek their self interest first even if all persons might not do so.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics and Morals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One disadvantage of this theory is that a person obtains knowledge of how to help others when he/she helps herself first, hence this is a selfish moral as compared to the others.

In this regard, morals are rules or habits of conduct. They are the thought of what is good or bad and how one should behave. They may be formed within the societies, and become traditions for a period of time. Moral rules may be different depending on the country or cultures. They are subjective occurrences since most of their rules do not follow advice or objective necessities.

These rules are all about how to dress, where and how much one can cover his/her body, how to carry on speeches, what is appropriate to do and what is not, and so when judging peoples’ morals, its better to know where they come from because different societies have different moral beliefs which are deeply influenced by cultures.

Works Cited Rosen, Frederick. Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge, 2003. Print.

Superstone, Anita. The Moral Skeptic. New York: Oxford University Press, 20092003. Print.


Arizona Immigration Law Reform Cause and Effect Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

For a long time, Arizona has been one of the states facing law enactment crisis. Particularly, the Arizona’s state law has been faced with internal instability and fluctuations in controlling various illegal activities, especially the eminent illegal migration of Mexicans into the state.

As revealed by American Immigration Council (1), various Acts have been developed in the Law system to enhance the improvement of the situation in the state, with an aim of integrating the people and the police force in the maintenance of the state’s laws.

For instance, the “Support Our Laws and Safe Neighborhood Act” referred to as SB 1070 was recently developed and approved by the legislature of the state. It had been noticed that, the high rate of immigrants from the neighboring states has been accompanied by evils like smuggling, trespassing, and alien registration documents among others.

On this basis, there has been significant need to control such activities using the legal system. This paper will present the factors which contributed to the establishment of immigration law reform in Arizona.

According to Good (1), the amendment of HB2162 law on April 29, 2010 in alignment with SB 10170 was meant to incorporate other races, nationality and color of all the people in the state. It is important to note that, the Arizona laws were initially developed with les regard of the future changes the state, resulting into the kind of disequilibrium in the co-existence between the state’s citizens and its neighborhood.

The currently experienced racial profiling in the state has been one of the major rising issues; as the initial laws did not consider other races in the state (Kaye 1). In this regard, HB2162 law was established to define all the terms and specifications of co-existence between the citizens and the other races, especially the immigrants.

The main concern underlying Arizona is whether it has the capacity as a state to enforce its laws effectively without external interventions. The bureaucracy of interpreting the Law and implementing them into policies that are administratively workable policies has been a major issue. The neighboring country of Mexico has also aired its views on the matter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Foreign Ministry has written to the State for reviewing of the Laws but to no avail. In a statement made by the Foreign Ministry of Mexico, it was clear that the establishment of the Arizona Law of Immigration has interrupted the good neighborhood that had been existing between Arizona and Mexico (Kaye 1).

It is even worrying to most citizens of Mexican origin since the law is especially aimed at minimizing their illegal presence in the State. This means that even rightful dwellers of the State might find themselves in the wrong side of the Law.

As revealed by Good (1), the suggested law system has also been found to create divisions among police officers since it has some major management issues.

Many patrol officers as presented by a fragment of Phoenix Law Enforcement Association (PLEA) want freedom so as to fully enforce federal immigration laws. The other faction is of the idea that checkups should be in place to ensure minimal exuberant crack downs on illegal immigrants (Kaye 2). Divisions in the police unit saw two groups argue publicly about the law.

Supporters claimed that it would give officers more liberty necessary while carrying out their jobs and only little additional training was required. The bill was termed as having just enough teeth to keep off ignoring immigration laws by departments; on the flip side, it explicitly forbade officers from discriminating citizens on racial grounds.

Conclusion Generally, the State’s Law Legislature furthers the tussle by maintain it is failure of the Federal government to contain the immigrants that has catalyzed the enactment. Although the Law is not different from Federal Law the main debatable part of the whole issue is the enforcement of the Bill. The Law is ineffective or it is not properly enforced in the United State and thus raises questions on whether it should be enforced at the State level and its effectiveness when enforced.

Works Cited American Immigration Council. How Much Will Arizona’s Immigration Bill (SB1070) Cost? 2010. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Arizona Immigration Law Reform specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Good, Charles. Arizona’s Immigration Law Comes with a Price. 2010. Web.

Kaye, Jackson. Arizona Police Agencies in a State of Confusion over SB 1070. The Huffington Post. 2010. Web.


Chinese Art: Art at Court Descriptive Essay essay help free: essay help free

The current exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, entitled “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”, reveals one individual’s very personal stamp on their environment. The retreat, designed and built by the Qianlong Emperor in a corner of the Forbidden City, demonstrates luxury, appreciation for beauty, decided ideas about beauty, and devotion to a philosophical ideal. This kind of private indulgence is rare, but not unknown elsewhere[1].

Among the 90 or so objects and artifacts included in the exhibit, the Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels, represents much of what is interesting about the royal owner, is preferences, and the intimate space from which the objects were taken.

The screen in particular demonstrates how the interest and appreciation by one powerful person could affect iconography and fashions in decoration for many years after their lifetime

The Qianlong Emperor built his Studio of Exhaustion from Diligent Service in the 18th Century, with the intention of using it for relaxation, entertainment[2], meditation, and reflection. The Emperor planned to enjoy it when he retired from active management of the Middle Kingdom.

It is compactly built on a roughly two-acre plot in one corner of the palace grounds. He was able to choose whatever he liked in terms of design and decoration, and display gifts from his subjects as well. They are rare, one-of-a-kind, and expensive. Thus, the furnishing of the Studio of Exhaustion from Diligent Service reflects his own taste, rather than anything handed down from previous rulers.

The screen, from the pavilion named The Building of Luminous Clouds, has a colorful and romantic story. It was a gift from a provincial governor. The Emperor liked the surface of it that featured human figures, and it was therefore displayed with that part facing outwards into the room. As a result, the other side was not seen or even known about for several hundred years. The reverse side has decorations that are just as lovely.

The paintings on the surface that is best known are copies of works by an artist from the 9th century named Guanxiu. This Guanxiu was a monk in Hangzhou Province. He was inspired by a dream to paint images of the disciples of the Buddha, known as Arhats.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These figures are known in Chinese as Luohans. They are described as beings that have attained some degree of enlightenment. They “protect the faithful Buddhist”[3], until the whole human race achieves some sort of enlightenment themselves

The veneration of Arhats was at its height at exactly the time that the artist Guanxiu made his depictions[4]. There was no documentation of their actual appearance, and since Gautama Buddha was from India, not China, there were no local reports about them. However, Guanxiu claimed that he had been visited with a vision in a dream[5].

He created 15 of the images based on the dream but may have used himself as the model for the 16th.

The Emperor saw the paintings while visiting the region in 1757, and liked them. He ordered his staff to make copies of them[6]. He also wrote eulogies, or brief, haiku-like descriptions of each Luohans’ personality and spiritual characteristics.

Accounts differ as to how the copying of the images proceeded, but sets were sent to all of the 18 provinces for display. There are stone relief copies of them remaining in situ today in several provinces of China[7]. The abbot of the temple in 1757 must have been delighted at this opportunity for publicizing the monastery and preserving its 800-plus year old treasure!

With the paintings copied in stone, the images could be duplicated many times through stone rubbings. This seems like a remarkably innovative idea, but it apparently may have pre-dated printing in China. Stone rubbings had been used to preserve and disseminate all sorts of information and images, including Buddhist scriptures[8].

In the case of Guanxiu’s Luohans, it seems reasonable to infer that the Emperor and the abbot wanted to ensure the exact duplication of each image. This was especially true since it was believed to have been divinely inspired. In general, since art played an important moral role in China, correct copying was important[9].

We will write a custom Essay on Chinese Art: Art at Court specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These stone rubbings were copied back into painting form by the previously mentioned provincial governor. The Luohans were drawn in white on black, which is the way they would have appeared in a rubbing. This also gives them an almost cartoon-like effect. The eulogy written by the Emperor Qianlong appears in the upper right-hand corner.

The images on the reverse are painted in gold. They look like jewelry hung on the screen. The forms of some of the plants depicted are variously contorted to fit into the space. This contortion also evokes for this viewer the action of nature and time on all living things. Others, like the bamboo in the first panel, are so realistic that they look as though one might touch them and find them living.

These individual works of art were all installed together in a beautiful folding screen. It was lavishly crafted of “Purple sandalwood (zitan), lacquer, jade, and gold paint” [10]. This luxurious and flexible setting of the paintings would have allowed the Emperor to gaze at any combination of the images at once.

The trees and shrubs on the reverse probably have symbolic meaning. Given the deep religious significance of the Luohans, this would be reasonable to infer. Information on their symbolism is not readily available, perhaps because their discovery is recent. However, there were traditional associations of plants noted elsewhere in the exhibit. Some sort of similar symbolism may be reflected in the screen paintings. For example, the ‘three friends of winter’, depicted in the Emperor’s heavily decorated window, are described as pine, bamboo, and blossoming plum[11].

It must be noted that within Chinese Buddhism, there were Luohan cults associated with a group of eighteen, and five hundred, as well as the sixteen. These, unlike the cult of the sixteen, are described as “not canonical”[12]. This means that they lacked the backing of scripture or religious authority.

Thus, the Emperor, by commissioning the copying of the sixteen Luohans, writing eulogies for each one, and choosing to display the gift screen in a specially constructed niche, was giving his personal support to the sixteen-Arhat cult. This is very much like Michelle Obama dressing her daughters in J. Crew for the Presidential inaugural events, or Madonna wearing Kabbalistic symbols.

That fashion, or that religious practice, becomes more popular with the population as a whole, as a result of the adoption by an opinion leader. In this way, the Emperor had the power to affect artistic and decorative choices all over the country.

Indeed, Guanxiu’s images are said to have been reproduced all over China[13]. Was this entirely the result of the Emperor’s interest? This is certainly the view of some Chinese commentators. Sets of these images were reproduced in jade, and other materials and given as highly desirable gifts[14].

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Art: Art at Court by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Emperor’s interest certainly did not discourage the spread of these depictions. In fact, these depictions seem to continue to be reproduced in mass-marketed images today, if a visit to a Chinatown souvenir shop is any measure.

The copies of Guanxiu’s images on the Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels are very un-Chinese in their prominent features, and they have been described as wild and eccentric[15]. They are depicted as old and they look downright ugly to 21st century eyes. A modern commentator described them as “grotesque, enlightened, wrinkled old coots”[16]. Since Buddha was from India, they may have reflected popularly held conceptions of the appearance of non-Chinese people.

One of the images, shown below, seems to be the Luohan (or Lohan) named Asita, and nicknamed Long Eyebrow Lohan (for obvious reasons). This immortal is described as, “Compassionate elder, A monk who has attained enlightenment. Perceptive of the infinite universe, with tacit understanding.” His name in pinyin is rendered as Chángméi Luóhàn[17].

This consistent lack of prettiness has been assumed to convey an important message. The message may have been that a person’s spiritual strength or beauty was not related to their physical beauty[18] This is also characteristic of the Chan school of painting in that part of China in the 9th century, which sought to show spontaneity, like the process of creation.

This school of painting also sought to shock and surprise the viewer[19]. In addition, art in China, particularly art that depicted people, was meant to convey a moral message rather than depict the accurate details of a person’s appearance[20].

Each Luohan is traditionally associated with one or more objects, animals, plants, or accessories. These are not readily visible in all of the screen paintings.

Every item in the exhibit is similarly rare and significant. For example, a mandala, or aid to meditation, usually drawn in two dimensions, is depicted as a sculpture in three dimensions. The standing screens and window frames that included glass are an obvious expression of the Emperor’s interest in, and approval of technology and artistic techniques from other countries.

Glass was an expensive European import at the time[21]. Imported Japanese decorative arts are represented by cabinets with gold painting on black lacquer[22] . By selecting these items, he could have been signaling that it was ok to own items of foreign manufacture. The oddly shaped root wood furniture was symbolic of a Buddhist ideal.

The seeker after nirvana was supposed to display a rustic disregard for comfort or the niceties of life. However, the root wood furniture was actually made of very expensive wood with careful artisanship [23]. It was thus a style or fashion enjoyed by the Emperor rather than a real abandonment of comfort and culture.

The exhibit makes a very convincing statement about the Emperor’s taste, and his effect on the taste of his fellow citizens and women. Unlimited by money or labor, he collected the best of everything that he liked. His choices reflect a person deeply committed to his religion and curious about the world around him.

The Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels discussed above is a very dramatic example of this. It conveys a spiritual message, and is a reproduction of something very significant to the Emperor. As such, it seems to have been copied and re-copied all over the country, for decades and even centuries. This sound very much like the way a viral video is copied and transmitted today.

The spread of the style and image of the Guanxiu Luohans was clearly boosted by the Emperor’s personal interest and affection.

Bibliography Cook, Greg. “An Emperor’s Heaven on Earth.” The Providence Phoenix. 2010. Web.

East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. “What is a Rubbing?” East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. 2004. Web.

Joo, Bong Seok. “The Arhat Cult in China from the Seventh to the Fourteenth Centuries: Narrative Art. Space, and Ritual.” 2007. Web.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Screens.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.

— “Rootwood Chair.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Rootwood Chair”. 2011. Web.

— “Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web .

— “The Emperor’s Private Paradise.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.

— “Window.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.

ShanghaiCentral. “China art: new Chinese arts and craftss silk painting..” Shanghai Central. 2011. Web.

Kuiper, Katherine, ed. “The Culture of China.” Scribd. Brittanica Publishing. 2011. Web.

Watanabe, Masako. “Guanxiu and Exotic Imagery in Rakan Paintings.” Go Antiques. 2011. Web.

Footnotes Examples might include Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s home, and that of Frederick Church, called Olana, both designed in every detail by their owner.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise”.

Joo, Bong Seok. 2007. “The Arhat Cult in China from the Seventh through thirteen centuries: Narrative, art, space, and ritual”.


Much like the founder of the Shaker movement, creating religiously symbolic images from a dream.

This is much like gravestone rubbings that history buffs make today in old cemeteries. China Art”. 2011. ShanghaiCentral.

East Asian Library, University of California, Berkeley. 2004. “What is a Stone Rubbing?. ”

Kuiper, Katherine. Culture in China, 2010. Brittanica Educational Publishing.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise: Treasures from the Forbidden City”.


Watanabe. Masako. “Guanxiu and Exotic Imagery in Rakan Paintings”. “China Art”.

Watanabe, Masako.

Cook, Greg. “An Emperor’s Heaven on Earth”. The Providence Phoenix.

Wikipedia. “Eighteen Lohans”. 2011. Although Wikipedia is not usually considered a scholarly source, it was the most comprehensible description of the Luohan iconography readily available that could be cross-referenced against the images on the screen itself.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. “”Screen of Sixteen Double-Sided Panels”.

Kuiper, Katherine. The Culture of China.


Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Screens”.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Pair of Cabinets”.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. “Root wood Chair”.


Gambling should be illegal Essay college admissions essay help

For years, several government quarters have continued to debate on the legality of gambling. While the debate continued, people continued to gamble.

The attraction from the beautifully decorated neon lights, the excitement, and even the five start hotels where the gambling activities take place kept gamblers wanting more and more. Although to some it looks like pastime activities, to others it has been a destructive activity that has led to addiction.

Also, gambling has led to accumulation of debts for families. This notwithstanding, gambling has led to increase in crime rates. Finally, the manipulations present in these casinos are a negative factor on their own. Therefore, this paper intends to argue that gambling should not be legalized under any circumstance.

First, gambling leads to an addiction as strong as drugs. Although many people tend to believe that gambling is just a part time and that one could spend a day gambling without any harm, experience has proved otherwise. People have become addicted to gambling hence spending more time in gambling casinos than doing other constructive jobs. These people become so addicted to the extend that they look for any opportunity to enter a casino.

This is problematic because it leads to less working time and hence less productivity. Sadly, the reduced productivity comes hand in hand with increased expenditure as more money is pumped into the casino. Therefore, legalizing gambling creates devastated less productive individuals.

Second, gambling leads to accumulation of debts. As mentioned in the above paragraph, most gamblers spend time gambling which reduces there productivity while increasing their expenditure. Given the addiction, one would rather borrow from a friend to go and gamble than stay home when he has no money.

This borrowing leads to amassing of debts. Studies have shown that a seasoned and addicted gambler has an average debt of $ 80,000. With such great amounts of debts, it becomes difficult to take care of one’s family. Eventually, some of these families break up due to inability to carry out one’s obligations as a father or mother.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gambling leads to increase in crimes. Compulsive gamblers look for every reason to gamble whether they have money or not. After too much accumulated debts from borrowing, a gambler might find it difficult to get money from friends. Given that he cannot control himself from gambling, he might opt to use other means of getting cash to spend in the casinos.

This is how crimes begin to escalate in a given region. This is very true based on the fact that the odds of winning in a casino are as low as 1-54 million. This is as good as nonexistent.

It has also been proved that very few people can afford to lose in a casino. This larger group of people that cannot afford to lose is the one that opts to indulge in crime so that they can make some money to go back to the casino with the hope that they would have a chance of getting back their money.

Statistics from the Atlantic City of New Jersey pointed out that development of casinos in the region witnessed a 467% increase in crime within a short span of nine years.

Gambling also strains the government’s budget. As mentioned earlier, gambling is as addictive as any drug. Equally, a person can be salvaged from this destruction through rehabilitation.

The government hence loses a lot of money trying to rehabilitate the addicted gamblers. The strategies to increase security cost money. Therefore, the government is forced to spend a lot of money to mitigate the crime caused by gambling.

Furthermore, gambling leads to lowering reputation of the city in question as a result of the crimes associated. This means that tourists fear to come to the city fearing the likely consequences and for their safety. With this, the city loses a lot of money that would have been brought in by the tourist. Finally, gambling diverts money that could promote other business activities.

We will write a custom Essay on Gambling should be illegal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A great percentage of the City’s money goes straight to gamblers and owners of the casinos while other business people get pea nuts in return. A comparative analysis of the contribution of casinos and other businesses to the state’s economy shows that casino’s contribute pea nuts while demands more from the government. This means that casinos are a liability to the city or state in question.

In conclusion, it is necessary that policy makers make gambling illegal. This is as a result of the associated damages and negative contributions not only to the individuals but also to the state. For instance, gambling will lead to increased rates of crime as witnessed in Atlantic City of New Jersey.

Gambling will also lead to straining of government budget. The government is forced to spend a lot of money in controlling crime and rehabilitating addicted gamblers. Finally, gambling leads to addiction and debts hence devastation of the family institution. Given these arguments, I believe that gambling should not be legalized under any circumstance.


3 Criteria that Determine Whether the Manager Is Making Good Decisions Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help

When a manager makes decisions, he/she thinks about the outcome of the affair. A good decision-making process is resulted in a successful project. This criterion may be considered as one of the signs that good decisions are made. The second criterion, which may determine whether the manager is making good decisions or not, is the possibility to meet the budget.

There are always different risks which cannot be forecasted, but at the same time, the financial issues are usually stated and the possibility to meet them is a sign of good decisions-making skills. The third criterion, which helps a manager understand whether he/she makes a good decision, is the opportunity to follow the process.

“Achieving success requires that a rational and explicit or structured decision process be developed and used” (Powell


Opening a detergent plant in two Asian countries Analytical Essay custom essay help

This paper will provide valuable information on the opportunities of opening a detergent plant in Pakistan and Mongolia which should be considered by Spring Clean Products.

It is important that both these countries have rich deposits of the raw materials which are required for the manufacturing processes within the detergent plant, including sodium chloride, phosphate and chlorine. Kogel et al (2006) noted that “In Pakistan, several hundred small lakes contain sodium carbonate, chloride and sulfite” (p. 863). Regarding Mongolia, this country is known for its Quaternary Quagan Nur deposit which contains salt deposits as well (Kogel et al, 2006, p. 863).

Taking into account the Pakistani semi-industrialized economy and the recent shift towards the growth of the manufacturing sector, it can be stated that currently there are a lot of skillful factory workers and managers. Regarding Mongolia, the industry accounts approximately for the same rate as the agricultural sector does. It means that skillful factory workers can be found in Mongolia as well.

The potential size of the market in Pakistan with the population of nearly 170 million is impressive. Taking into account Afghanistan, Iran, India and China on which the country borders and to which the market can be potentially extended, it can be stated that the hypothetical size of the market is favorable for opening a detergent plant in the area.

Regarding Mongolia with the population of about 2 million, the potential sizes of the market are smaller, but can be compensated by extending the market to Russia, People’s Republic of China and Kazakhstan bordering on the country.

Regarding the political stability in Pakistan and Mongolia, it should be noted that the situation in both countries is rather stable. It is significant that Pakistan does not support the Taliban regime. Mongolia which is a parliamentary republic maintains positive relations with other countries and supports diplomatic missions.

As to the trade and investment policies in Pakistani economy, it can be stated that with the recent shift towards industrialization of the country, the foreign investments have already been made into several sectors. Regarding the Mongolian policies concerning the same issues, it can be stated that the country’s government implements strategies for encouraging the foreign trade and investments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Keegan and Green (2008) noted that “foreign exchange is an aspect of global marketing that involves certain financial risks, decisions, and activities that are completely different than those facing a domestic marketer” (p. 147). The local currency in Pakistan, the Pakistani rupee has been relatively stabilized by the central bank through decreasing the interest rates and buying dollars.

The Mongolian local currency tugrik is recognized as one of the best-performing currencies in the world. The relative stability and high performance of the local currencies in these countries create favorable conditions for opening a detergent plant on their territories.

Taking into account the availability of the raw materials on the Pakistani territory, it can be stated that the costs of transporting the materials and the finished goods would be minimal. Taking into account the correlation between the area and the population rate in Mongolia, it can be concluded that transportation can be more costly. Still, the developed railroad net of Mongolia would allow transporting the finished products to not only different regions of the country but also the neighboring states.

The governments of both these countries encourage the foreign investments. As to the competition of the local and international companies, it can be concluded that it would be stronger in Pakistan because the chemical industry is one of important sectors of Pakistani economy.

Analyzing the above-mentioned information on the availability of the raw materials, socio-economical situation and the government policies concerning the foreign investments in Pakistan and Mongolia, it can be stated that the conditions of both countries are favorable for opening a detergent plant.

Reference List Keegan, W.J. and Green, M.C. (2008). Global marketing. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Kogel, J., Trivedi, N., Barker, J., and Krukowski, S. (2006). Industrial minerals and rocks: Commodities, markets and uses. Littleton, CO: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration.

We will write a custom Essay on Opening a detergent plant in two Asian countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


“World in the Balance: China Revs Up” Essay college admissions essay help

The DVD “World in the Balance: China Revs Up”, focuses on the fast paced growth of the Chinese economy and its impact on the environment.

Within the past three decades China’s economic policy, supported by government initiatives aimed at economic reform, has attempted to remodel the Chinese economy into a global economic powerhouse. The result was the creation of the world’s second largest economy in terms of overall imports and exports and a boom in Chinese consumer purchasing power which has further supported the Chinese economy.

Unfortunately as seen in numerous scenes throughout the DVD this sudden growth came at the cost of severely deteriorating environmental conditions where nearly 6% of the total GDP of the country goes into supporting the growing health problems of various sectors in its population.

Rapid industrialization coupled with a blatant disregard for environmental stewardship has resulted in China becoming the second biggest producer of CO2 emissions in the world with estimates showing that it should reach and even exceed the C02 output of the U.S. by 2025 or 2030.

There are two specific reasons shown as to why the pollution problem has grown to such an extent namely: the rapid affluence of China’s consumer market and the government’s reluctance to impose stringent environmental safety measures for fear of the possible economic ramifications such a decision might cause. As China’s population continues to grow and prosper so to the needs of its population grow ever more complex and luxurious.

The result is a growing market in consumer goods that is attempting to meet the demand of an affluent consumer base. At the heart of this growing market is the car industry with thousands of cars being bought, sold and reaching China’s roads. Estimates show that there are approximately 20 million cars as of late on China’s busy roads with millions more to come within the next decade or so.

This sudden rise is attributed to the distinction of success that the Chinese have placed with car ownership and as such this has resulted in making China one of the largest car markets in the world. It must be noted that cars are one of the primary contributors to the release of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, with the growing car population in China it is to be expected that the rate of pollution will go up as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second reason behind the pollution problem in the country is directly related to the government’s reluctance to place effective environmental safety measures for fear that it may cause a slow down in the country’s economic activity.

Estimates show that in order for China to keep pace with its rapidly expanding population nearly 15 million jobs have to be created per year. This presents a unique situation for the government in that enforcing certain environmental standards may in fact cause various sectors in the economy to limit production thus resulting in a slowdown of the economy.

Overall the DVD is similar to the movie “An Inconvenient Truth” by Al Gore, it shows how rapid industrial expansion can and will affect the environment in negative ways if nothing is done about it. The environmental situation, the manufacturing industry and the growing affluence of the Chinese people are portrayed in a well balanced manner resulting in a rather well put together film.

My only critique is that the film neglected to showcase the effects of pollution on the waters surrounding China. While air pollution is a definite concern the fact remains that on average a lot of the pollution in the air is absorbed by the water in the sea resulting in the creation of filmy toxic sludge like substance on top of the water.

This substance is of course poisonous to all marine life and could adversely affect the Chinese fishing industry should it reach the food chain. In fact the fishing industry in China may be well aware of this fact already with Chinese fishing boats fishing in disputed waters despite the international scandals that may occur as a result.


Album Revolver by The Beatles Descriptive Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The Beatles is a famous rock group, which is known across the world. The group has a rich historical background as evident in their album called Revolver.

The group is based in Britain; however, they have engaged in numerous performances in many world-class stages, which have made the group internationally renowned. The group’s album called Revolver is their most famous regardless of other popular albums. Therefore, the album is viewed by many as the peak of the group’s career.

Revolver was released in 1966 and started by winning awards in many fronts. After its release, Revolver stayed top of a famous “English ranking called British chart” for close to seven weeks. It also won other top classifications such as the “American chart” where it dominated for six weeks.

These two charts are still top ranking measures in the music industry thus they justify why the album is still regarded as one of the best albums in the history of music. As late as 2009, the album still topped many charts and it was ranked third in a “British magazine known as Rolling Stone” which ranks the best five hundred albums in history of music.

The album is made up of fourteen songs which won various prizes as singles. These include the “famous Good Day Sunshine, Taxman, and Yellow Submarine”. Most of the songs in the album were composed by Paul McCartney who is a famous composer in Britain and he was assisted by Lennon.

A few songs such as “Love You To” and “I Want To Tell You” were composed by Harrison who is a great composer and especially in rock music. The three composers were also the lead vocalists for their songs which are the main reason their voices blended well.

The album was also promoted by high quality instrumentation which went with the songs. John Lennon applied his classic skills in playing the guitar for most of the songs. He doubled as a guitarist and a vocalist thus his voice was well in harmony with the guitar as well as the other instruments. Lennon was assisted in playing the instruments by Mal Evans who has a legendary quality and way of playing guitar.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other instrument players in the album were “Geoff Emerick who was an engineer” for the musical instruments. Brian Jones was also involved as “he played the sound effects which give a sound of clinking glass as it is heard in the song called Yellow Submarine”.

Revolver is also characterized by songs which have a great lyrical background and the vocalists were able to merge this with the instruments while creating the right tempo. The songs are cross-thematic where most of them are related to love and others are party songs.

However, “Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison” merged their talents well to give the album the quality and reputation it has earned. The quality of their album has made its songs to be preferred soundtracks for numerous movies.

Conclusion Music is largely dependent on talent but this is not always necessary to develop great music. In many cases, it also depends on the effort put in to come up with the desired music. This is evidenced by the quality of music that Beatles infused in their famous album called Revolver.

The main contributing artists have different capabilities but it took a lot of effort to merge these talents and come up with that album. The album is classical as attested by its continued preference over other new albums. It is difficult to find modern music which has the same lyrical and instrumental quality like the album.


“Doll’s House” by Henrick Ibsen Essay college essay help near me

“Doll’s House” is a three act play written by Henrick Ibsen in 1879 that gained popularity before the play’s first performance as it initially sold thousands of copies, which bring much anticipation to the audience.

The play created a dispute as it portrays social problems on how female seeks individuality. It draws audience attention because it challenges the conservative society in those times. The restrictions experienced by women in the 1870s were contained in the play. This was the time where naturalistic theatre gives importance to the working and middle class characters to discuss societal issues.

Every character in the story shows how they want to break away from the social norms. The character that clearly demonstrates this is Nora.

She is the doll in the story, as what her father and husband Torvald treats her, and she considers her home as her playroom. The play centered on Nora, who represents the typical woman at that time, who is relying on her husband and supports him being the breadwinners of the family.

Torvald is a bank manager and represents the typical men as the master of the house. Supporting character Kristine, who is Nora’s friend, also shines in the play by showing an opposite character to Nora. Unlike Nora, she needs to work to survive and experience how it is to live outside the confinements of her home.

Other characters are Krogstad, who is meant to destroy everyone’s lives by threatening Nora to tell her secret to Torvald if he will be fired from his job, Dr. Rank, a friend to the couple and a confidante of Nora, and Anna- Maria, the trusty nursemaid to the Helmer’s. The Helmer’s children, the housemaid and the porter all portray the cameo role in the play.

The plot is at Helmer’s house. The play started with Torvald, who does not like the idea of a person being in debt, without knowing that his wife is in debt, but is tries to keep this secret from her husband.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A clash between the couple is being pointed out in the second act. Kristine and Krogstad’s make a marked appearance on the third act where both decided to get back together. The worst thing that happens in this part is when Torvald read Krogstad’s letter, which was about Nora’s deepest secret, her debt.

This is the time when Nora doubts the love of her husband and the time when she wants to establish her own identity. This part shows how Torvald values society more than his wife and Nora’s realization to leave Torvald. At the end of the play Nora seeks independence by leaving her husband and children.

The striking part in the play is when Nora slams the door, implying on how Nora gained confidence to break from the typical social norms. The characters are convincing enough to showcase the theme of self-reliance, the will to sacrifice what one considers important, and to achieve the idea of changing the framework of domesticity.

The plot created a believable scenario where the internal conflict and the distinct ending have been established well. The play is exciting and is successful in drawing out the curiosity of the audience.

Henrick Ibsen conveys the true meaning of the play as it defines the moral and political stand of the society against the issues of suppression of humanity as he hopes to repeal the expectations for both gender.

As the stage rings the curtain down, “Doll’s House” manages to open the door for women to experience equality and independence. It serves as a bridge for men and women who want to get out from the gender role issues.


Conflicting Motives in “Hippocrates” Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Ganeshananthan’s, “Hippocrates”, is a wonderful short story which reveals the sufferings caused by the ethnic violence in Sri Lanka. Like her novel, Love Story, it probes into the terrific nature of the human situations in which human life loses all values and relationships.

The narrator in the story says that “there was no point in discussing what had already happened” (Ganeshanandan, 1). The cruelty inflicted by the Sri Lankan soldiers, particularly on women, has caused lasting wounds, both physical and mental, for which there is no cure available, feels the narrator. This paper is an analysis of the story to trace the conflicting motives in the characters.

The story opens with an atmosphere of indifference and strangeness. Everything seems to be mechanical, sans human emotions. The narrator is coming back from Jaffna to Colombo and her fellow passenger is a girl of her age known to her: “We had known each other since we were very young” (Ganeshanandan, 1), and yet they do not speak anything. The train jostles them, indicating that it is the external forces which direct their nearness and relationships, their life.

The narrator’s uncle comes to receive her, but even he is a stranger: “This man, my uncle, looked like my family, but he did not know me, he did not want to know me and the feeling of being surrounded by strangers made a pocket of pain inside my chest” (Ganehanandan, 1). The essence of the story is this pocket of pain created by the ethnic violence in every Tamil heart in Sri Lanka. As her uncle does not speak anything she looks outside but sees nothing.

Her heart is filled with the events of the past. She says, “My eyes were still full of Jaffna. I wanted my brothers – my brothers, who were gone. And I wanted my mother and my father” (Ganeshanandan, 1). The story now takes the readers through the experience of an innocent girl, whom the narrator once treated, to the aftermath of the horrible violence.

As the narrator listens to the radio, the announcer tells the story of a pregnant girl. This provokes the narrator to reveal the truth to the readers. She says, “I want you to understand: I was not born to fight for a political cause. I did not feel chosen. And this woman was not born this way. She was not chosen” (Ganeshanandan, 2). All the girls who join the Tiger Force do not do it willingly. It is the circumstances which led them to it.

There is no existential choice for a Tamil girl in Sri Lanka. The narrator says that like her “she was gangraped, and she watched the men who raped her kill her four brothers. I want you to understand” (Ganeshanandan, 2). No one seems to understand that the girls in that country have/had no choice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fate is decided by external factors. The narrator is pregnant, so is the case of many girls who were raped by the soldiers. She admits that the pregnant women were used to detonate the bombs because the officers may have sympathy towards them: “A transgression against a mother is a universal transgression” (Ganeshanandan, 3).

The narrator remembers an event of treating a raped and wounded girl. They both realize that pain has become part of their lives. The girl says that “I want to know what is happening and if the pain goes away then that might be worse”. “She was right. Pain informs”, admits the doctor (Ganeshanandan, 4).

Ganeshananthan’s skilful narration of the protagonist’s past is great and beautiful. Her characters are original and the social conditions rendered are real.

The way the conflicting motives of the protagonist are given is marvelous. The story keeps the readers anchored to the terrible events that took place in Sri Lanka. “Hippocrates” surely places her among the best Diaspora writers. It is a heart-rending story.

Reference Ganeshanandan, V. V. “Hippocrates”. Web.


Definition of Advertising and Its Elements Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

Algos (2010) defines advertising as an art of bringing goods to the attention of a customer. A good advertising incorporates elements of typography inspired by ideas, recognises the importance and value of message. Media requirements reveal significance of an advertisement to the reader and sluices information effortlessly and memorically into the reader’s mind.

Heavily weighted in product and customer characteristics as well as target market size, advertising reveals the significant of a product to a potential client, selling the idea visibly, by image manipulation which induces the reader to take some action.

Media requirements as dictated by advertising briefs also include factors such as time factors, creative dimension and aspects of the message, merchandise objective as well as legal and ethical considerations that relates to products such as alcohol.

The medium used in this research will be advertisements using internet protocol due to the large number of households that have access to the internet, availability of products to choose from and how the availed products are used. The study linked the increased numbers of Internet shoppers over the years to be related to the increased access to internet use by many households and increased use of household products.

The studies also recognized the increased numbers of household online buyers in the past few years to be linked to diversification of products and increased access. It was however concluded that online advertisers have provide a wide array of good and services for consumers to choose from as earlier experienced and has the ability to reach wider audiences including teenagers, stay at home parents and urban men.

Conclusively, growth of e-consumers has been attributed to increased numbers of internet services and existing internet users. Despite increased usage and range of products for which internet purchases are required to chose from, growth in access is likely to slow if consumer buying behaviour is not carefully assessed (Lowe 2002, p.7).

Radio advertising may not be a suitable advertising media since most advertisements last up to 30-60 seconds which may make it impossible to cover all the key points including product use and target audiences (AllBusiness 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Primary advertising are outdoor campaigns such as billboards and door to door sales. Primary advertising has the characteristics of displaying visual material to the potential buyer (Primary Media Outdoor Advertising 2008). Secondary advertising on the other hand includes aspects such as radios, internet, newspapers and television.

The internet

Slowly moving from door to door sales, marketing, promotion, notice, message and testimonials, internet advertising is recommended to be the best and fast media gaining recognition in advertising industry.

Lycourgos and Christou (2006) analysis argue that “online retailing has provided a successful medium for consumer spending, and therefore the technology used should be able to match the utility provided by the retailing formats” (p.2). Utilities mentioned to facilitate online business include facilities such as immediate delivery, choice of payment methods, personal assistant in selecting goods, credit facilities and return policies.

The mentioned utilities are particularly significant in building consumer satisfaction and trust in an online environment. To do this, Lycourgos and Christou (2006) advices advertisers to implement strategies that will sufficiently motivate online consumers to place orders.

E-consumers driven by internet communication have revolutionized the way people use, access and share information.

Internet services has been credited for facilitating the economy and transforming organisation by eliminating paper based functions and integrate global operations. Benefits attributed from e-commerce are listed to include; online advertisers and consumers have access and low-cost, consumers can access information through diverse forms of technology including mobile phones.

Advertisers also don’t spend so much time doing marketing campaigns and suffer no geographical constraints. Organisations get the opportunity for rationalizing operations and downsizing and can easily adapt to new payment schemes. Online business had eliminated middlemen, minimized stockholdings and reduced transaction costs.

We will write a custom Assessment on Definition of Advertising and Its Elements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More E-commerce introduces a consumer to interaction rules, procedures, and safe mechanisms and provides consumer with recovery methods such as money back guarantees when trust breaks down. Trust has been viewed as the cornerstone to of any successful online trading because without it, no one will be able to trade (Sweeney 2008, p.3).


Newspaper advertising is the use of print to entice readers into purchasing a product. Its advantages include;

wide audiences in a given geographical area

Readers can cut out the advertisement for future references

The advertisement image can be large to communicate the required information to the reader

Radio Advertising

Radio advertisements are always creative and listeners can call in and get instant answers on how the product is used

A vast array of listeners can be reached worldwide including web portals (Pleshette 2003).

According to Ruane (2008), internet advertising should adhere to privacy laws and provide truth, clear and fair information to its users.

Pirelli Tyres Company, Pepsi and Coca cola companies have used online advertising, more specifically to the internet and applied the true and clear information to its potential customers.

Advertising Media Plan Two basic tasks of media planning are message creation and message dissemination. This helps an advertiser to know which media to use-be it internet, television or the internet. It simply entails the selection of media time and space to display the advertising message to order to accomplish marketing objectives.

Advertising turns features of products into benefits, reasonable for someone to try the product, while typographers convert the story into strategy and execution by positioning the product against competitor products, and by giving an identifiable look

Many businesses depend on modern technology and its promised miracles as a way of expanding their business. Modern technology has opened up new generation of visual designers. The most recent innovative developments such as e-banking, social marketing and YouTube are extensively used to expand businesses across different spectrums.

Composed of text that is readable, coherent and visually satisfying many advertisers are forced to search for very professional corporate look and attract customers (Algos 2010). Evidently, websites offer plenty of information on the product intended to be sold and clarity and transparency of information presented should be of paramount importance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Definition of Advertising and Its Elements by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Offline advertising such as radios and television, print mediums such as brochures, catalogs and post cards have been very effective when designed with good graphics and language approach in mind. Although immediate profits may not be realised, advertising both off and online should be regarded as long term investment (Algos 2010).

While many advertising options that are relevant to online advertising exist, individual aspects such as lifestyle and personal characteristics, psychological and trying to embrace, are all important in determining the type of advertising to be used.

A successive advertiser should carefully assess how the website is facilitating consumer information searches and examining how their organisation is offering consumer value (Lycourgos and Christou 2006, p.2; Sexton 2010; Lacan 1978).

Market Evidence for using internet advertisement Soft drink companies have long been dominated by two companies; Pepsi and Coca cola. Both companies have spent significant huge amounts of money on advertising and promotion and have been reported to create brand loyalty that has made it difficult for other competitors to enter the market.

Pepsi for instance devised a strategy of cutting down prices soon a new competitor tries to enter the market thus forcing them to curtail expansion plans. In brand recognition through billboards and newspaper advertising, Pepsi changed its brand to blue, consumers viewed it as modern and cool as it was exciting and dynamic and communicated refreshment.

Pepsi another advertising strategy included the introduction of variety soft drinks clients to choose from and also, reinforce the name as stated by Dehmardan 2008 as “Coca-cola Classic., a name that reflects image of value, reliability and old time values” ( p.22).

Pirelli Tires Company on the other has been a true multinational corporation that has maximised on internet advertising to reach worldwide audiences.

With a presence in 160 countries as leader in car production, internet advertisement strategies enabled the company reach greater efficiency and effectiveness, developed new networks sites directed at consumers while increasing its performance and technology.

For example, the new portal Oracle WebLogic Server is currently reported to have more than 34 million users in 40 countries. Its success is strongly linked to delivering extensive and timely company information. The quantity of pages visited during a session are all clear indication that its ability to attract interest of anyone who access the website.

The Java 2 environment typology and the introduction of dynamic website that enables easy development of core structure applications such as interactive calendar, dealer locator, product catalogue and fitment chart are all clear indications of Pirelli Tires market dominance through advertisements (Oracle 2009).

Media Primary Supplementary Time Cost Sydney Morning Herald * 8.00am $350 Highway Billboards * Throughout the month $440 NBC * 7.00pm $500 New York Times * Mondays and Fridays $320 It has been evidenced here that customers are more influenced by advertisements they see even if they only see a small portion of the video. E-consumer behaviour can also be analysed by using psychological measures which include examining consumer responses as a way of forecasting positive impacts (Bellinson 2006).

Tracking customers’ shopping behaviours during certain seasons helps an online advertiser study customer shopping trends, levels of interest and likings and plans when to avail certain products and certain periods. Sweeney (2008) states that “tracking product performance over time gives a advertiser guidance as to which products are effective and which ones are not” (p.1) It’s also important to note that e-consumer behaviour can also be linked to external environment that relate to cultures and subcultures.

Advertising can influence consumer buying behaviour by recognising the importance and value of message. Since culture is something learned rather than something being born with, an online advertiser should learn morals of his marketing demographics and try to accommodate various cultures when considering for international consumers.

This research argues here that advertisement should aim at achieving both legibility and readability. Since advertisement campaign vary in price and effectiveness, measure of its effectiveness should include aspects such as conducting a comprehensive customer service and support that will help establish consumer shopping behaviours (Naples 1979).

Customers feel secure for an organisation that provides online assistance 24 hours and 7 days a week. It’s also important to design software that would formulate answers to customers’ most critical issues like FAQ.

In some instances, a company should also engage in human talk to solve more complicated problems. Its evidenced that information-driven websites embedded in graphics tends to convert window shoppers to potential customers (Canada’s Office of Consumer Affairs 2008).

Holly (2009) studies states that “consumers prefer to start their online shopping through search engines and social media sites rather than going directly to the site to establish an advertiser” (p.1).

Advertisers that consider these aspects in their marketing campaigns gain competitive advantage over others. For internet shopping, possible measures for its effectiveness could include social media services such as facebook and twitter networks.

Just like twitter, face book provides an attractive platform that studies consumer behaviour through online interactions. Advertisements may also be placed on individual profiles pages aimed at targeting certain demographic consumers.

Since registered face book users have no problem providing personal information such as date of birth, religion, sex, and e.t.c, online advertisers use this information to their advantage by advertising only on their target demographic (Holly 2009).

Therefore, Algos (2010) recommends that advertisers should always find an advertising program that fits his customers’ data base. In this regard, long term and short term perspectives such as simple solutions for advertising special offers and one-off events such as product promotions, banners, posters and flyers that put marketing into words should be considered.

A planned budget in deciding what advertising medium to be used should be considered. Measuring campaign’s success at the end of a campaigning period is important to determined continued relationship with new customers if any (Algos 2010).

List of References Algos, A., 2010. Innovative and Modern –Technology Logos. Ezine Articles, 1, pp.1

AllBusiness. 2011. Radio Advertising Pros and Cons. Web.

Apple. 2010. Apple Customer Privacy Policy. Web.

Bellinson, R. L., 2006.Theory in Culture: Toward a Psychoanalytic Criticism of Advertising. Georgia: Georgia State University.

Canada’s Office of Consumer Affairs., 2008. The consumer trends report. Web.

Dehmardan, J., 2008. Pepsi Blue. Marketing classes, 1, pp.1-50.

Holly, A., 2009. Tracking consumer behavior. Web.

Lacan, J., 1978. Seminar Eleven: The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. NY


The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist Descriptive Essay essay help

Daniel Barenboim is one of the most re-known pianist and conductor in the world. He is an Ashkenazi Jew born in Argentina. His passion for piano started at a tender age of five with his mother teaching him some piano lessons.

He gave his first official concert at age seven and from then he never looked back. His postings on YouTube are very fascinating to watch. Some of the postings include the famous Beethoven Sonata and later some pieces by Wagner.

The clips are just amazing and incomparable in terms of quality and passion the Barenboim demonstrates. The G-major sonata truly rocks and has attracted a lot of admiration and respect for Barenboim. This paper will discuss Barenboim’s musical journey, life philosophies and political views.

A strong personality is what is needed for one to play the piano and conduct at the same time. Being a high profile international artist, having a warm personality is a basic ingredient.

Barenboim expressed this when performing Beethoven’s masterpieces. Daniel has always had a modest performance without any pretence. His musical personality has made his performances to be so compelling to the audience (Lewin 32). Barenboim is always regarded to as a spontaneous and impulsive performer. Some people see Daniel as being very impatient in the way he plays the piano at the podium.

This is debatable because Barenboim’s performances have always been unpredictable. Some people attribute this to his spontaneous personality. Generally, Barenboim is an accomplished performer with a musical personality that is warm and compelling. These qualities have made many people allover the world to like his performances.

Barenboim’s musical philosophy is a very pragmatic one. According to Daniel Barenboim, music is an art that has neither a beginning nor an end. He argues that sensuality and feeling can only find some form in music. According to Barenboim, true music is a combination of form and freedom and not emotionalism which he considers as lifeless. Barenboim has the ability to make music to appear as it was born at the time of performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barenboim’s music always takes a rigorous form combined with deep strategy and endless knowledge (Lewin 56). Daniel believes that sound perfection should be done in the living moment because music sounds unique every time it is performed. Daniel argues that the only way music can thrive is by performing it repetitively. According to Daniel, people can learn a lot of things about life from music than the opposite.

Barenboim believes that music and politics can not be separated. He has been at the forefront in criticizing the Israeli foreign policy especially against Palestine.

Fearing for his life, Daniel Barenboim gave up his intention of performing Wagner in his native Israel. This did not stop him completely from continuing with his mission. He has gone ahead to collaborate with Palestinian musicians by developing the Barenboim –Said Initiative.

According to Daniel, the Israeli-Palestine conflict can only be resolved if the two sides take the initiative of trying to understand each other’s suffering. Despite being a Jew, Daniel accepted honorary Palestinian citizenship in 2008 after one of his concerts in Ramallah (Barenboim 45).

He made history by being the first Israeli to accept Palestinian citizenship. Daniel regarded this as a public gesture of promoting peace between the two nations. This action sparked a lot of criticism in Israel with some leaders calling for the stripping of Daniel’s Israeli citizenship (Barenboim 68).

From his performances, Daniel Barenboim portrays his authoritative nature. His high minded persona makes him to freely air his political views with any fear. Barenboim is very commanding and his level of confidence is just unbelievable. These qualities have made him to be very influential on stage and out of stage.

His authoritative conducting is just a beauty to watch. Daniel commands a lot of respect and trust wherever he goes and is always one of a kind. By being authoritative, Daniel has made a lot of friends and enemies alike. Barenboim has received a lot of praise and recognition because of the unique way he looks at issues (Lewin 116).

We will write a custom Essay on The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Daniel Barenboim views music from a very different angle. He reiterates that subjectivity is very necessary in music. According to Daniel, music making should be both objectives.

Daniel believes that the nature of music and the kind of associations generated by it need to be differentiated. Barenboim believes that transparency, power and strength as used in music would make the world look wonderful just like music does. According to Daniel, music is so powerful because it communicates to the entire body system.

Daniel argues that all issues whether personal, social or political are completely depended on each other just like the different voices and elements in music. He further clarifies that all the elements in music are dependent on each other and so is the case with life.

Daniel encourages us to understand this vital lesson from music that everything in this life is dependent on each other (Barenboim 20).

Daniel has greatly emphasized the concept of learning through music. This concept is widely used by early childhood educators to who use music to transfer knowledge to children.

According to Daniel, music is helps us to have a better understanding of the whole society in terms of political and social aspects. There needs to be integration in our education systems for a complete revolution to be witnessed in the education sector. Daniel is of the view that human activities are all associated with music in one way or the other (Lewin 123).

According to Daniel, there should be a change from the traditional way of knowledge delivery right away from the Kindergartens to universities. Daniel has continued to popularize the concept of education through music especially for children in early childhood centers. Kindergartens have started to use music in teaching because of the aggressive campaigns done by Barenboim. Daniel calls for the integration of musical abilities and skills in all kinds of training.

Daniel Barenboim and other musicians have continued to support these initiatives by offering to give free music lessons in the institutions that have implemented the concept of learning through music. The concept of education through music has become very popular around the world with many kindergartens imparting knowledge to their early childhood pupils through music (Lewin 142).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The “Great” Humanitarian/Utopianist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Daniel emphasizes the need for everyone to have a point of view about life and music. Daniel sees music as a powerful medium of bringing people together and making peace .This is clearly demonstrated by the number of numerous shows and performance he has had in Palestine whose main objective was to preach peace and understanding. Daniel sees music as a powerful universal language that is able to unite all the people in the world (Barenboim 36).

He is considered utopian when he refers to music as a great authority. Daniel sees himself as a musical prophet when he says that music is the most powerful tool that goes beyond the political and racial boundaries. Daniel’s utopian views are portrayed when he holds massive performances in Palestine in coordination with Said in attempt to bring peace in the Middle East. Daniel Barenboim has earned a lot of titles and praises from various important personalities.

His pragmatic political view together with a flamboyant musical career has made him to receive a lot of admiration and recognition (Barenboim 64). This recognition has come with a lot of titles for the musician. Daniel has enjoyed a lot of social capital over the years which have made him to be so authoritative.

Daniel’s performances have been regarded as among the finest in the world. His performances have been signaled out as an actual representation of the composer’s original thoughts. Many people refer to his performances as expressive and thoughtful at the same time. There are various social institutions around the world that totally support Daniel’s artistic persona.

The Barenboim-Said foundation plays a key role in promoting peace in the Middle East through music (Barenboim 76). The foundation plans and coordinates music education projects that are aimed at promoting peace and tolerance in the Middle East.

The Palestinian Medical Relief Society has taken music education to children in refugee camps. The education through music initiative is aimed at enabling emotional, social and cognitive balance by developing the children’s personality and creativity in their desperate social environment (Barenboim 151).

Civil society institutions in Europe pledged their support for Barenboim’s global initiatives through music. Ignor Markevich is a Ukrainian conductor and composer who speak highly of Barenboim. Having been his conducting teacher, Markevich probably knows Barenboim better (Barenboim 188). According to Markevich, Daniel Barenboim is not only a mere pianist but also a born conductor.

Markevich acknowledges Daniel’s noble efforts in promoting peace and togetherness in the Middle East through his music. According to Markevich, Daniel is a great leader whose leadership is always demonstrated in his performances. Markevich believes that a great conductor should offer something extra apart from just playing instruments.

This extra thing is what Daniel offers and that is why Markevich sees him as somebody very special. According to classical ideology thinkers, conductors have a great role to play apart from just playing instruments. Markevich sees three fundamental qualities in Daniel.

He regards Daniel as an exceptional musician, conductor and leader all in one. Barenboim is an ideology thinker whose philosophies and views are pragmatic and unique (Lewin 72).

Daniel relates music with life in a special way. His musical philosophies have convinced many people that without music there is no life. Daniel’s performances are so compelling and authoritative at the same time. This makes his performances to be very unpredictable sometimes. Daniel’s courage and approach to music has made him to be labeled as a musician with a high-minded artistic persona.

This high-mindedness is what has given him the social capital to have his own independent political views. Daniel’s political views have made him to lose favor with Israel which is his native country (Lewin 118).

Barenboim‘s stage performances are always compelling and electrifying. Barenboim recorded the Beethoven Sonata during the early stages of his musical career. He is regarded as one of the world’s best interpreters of the Beethoven sonata. The Beethoven sonata consists of six master classes each running for fifty-five minutes.

In the Beethoven DVD, Daniel is seen coaching young pianists on a number of Beethoven movements. At an early age of seven, Daniel had already performed an official concert (Lewin 120). This would mark the beginning of his illustrious career on stage.

He first recorded the Beethoven sonata when he was1 just eighteen. The historical background of Daniel’s recordings and performances is quite amazing. Daniel made recording of gramophones in 1954. He later recorded piano sonatas of Beethoven, Mozart, Brahms and Bartok respectively. He then started serious stage performances when he joined the English Chamber Orchestra.

During his time with the English Chamber Orchestra, he performed in many international concerts as a pianist and conductor. His 1967 performance in London with the Philharmonic Orchestra increased his demand by many orchestras in Europe (Lewin 154).

Daniel made marked his first operatic debut by performing at the Edinburgh International Festival in 1973. During the concert, he performed the Mozart sonata. Daniel Barenboim has also done chamber music in collaboration with his late wife. In 1996, Daniel recorded Argentinian tangos by collaborating with Hector Console and Rudolf Maderos.

Barenboim met Said in early 1990s and formed a strong friendship based on both music and the Israeli and Palestine political conflict. Having a common mind of promoting peace, the two started to collaborate in musical concerts to demonstrate their common interest of finding peace in the Middle East (Barenboim 87).

They held a series of concerts in the West Bank and Ramallah with an objective of preaching peace through their music.

In 2006, Daniel Barenboim recorded the Beethoven sonata for a second time. The recording consists of six DVD sets. In this second recording, Daniel works with six young pianists at various stages of development. The Beethoven Sonata has been so dear to Daniel and that is why he decided to do a rendition of the sonata (Lewin 134).

The young pianists include Aboud Asshkar form Palestine, Jonathan Bliss from America, Shai Wosner from Israel, David Kadouch from France, Allesio Bax from Italy and finally Lang Lang from China. Daniel trains the young pianists in sonata movements and at the same time demonstrating to them the relationship that exist in piano playing elements (Lewin 126)

Daniel was greatly inspired by the overwhelming interest of young pianists who were ready to perfect their skills. Daniel had chosen the Beethoven sonata as his first album because it was very well received from the first time he recorded it. The Beethoven sonata had been so dear to him in his entire musical career and by no doubt his best sonata.

This was a perfect way of finishing his musical career in style. After the first recording of the Beethoven sonata, Daniel Barenboim recorded over fifteen other recordings before doing the Beethoven rendition in the twilight days of his successful musical career (Lewin 140).

The Beethoven sonata popularly known as the appassionato sonata was played at F minor which is also Daniel’s favorite key. Realizing that he was almost retiring from the entertainment scene, Daniel thought that it was not enough to just be a mentor to upcoming talent without offering them any meaningful help.

Lang Lang is one of Barenboim’s best students and beneficiaries of his lessons so far. Because of the good musical foundation given to him by his musical mentor and teacher, Lang Lang has become a household name. His first major solo performance was during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing (Lewin 135).

With almost 40 million people viewing him, this was a perfect opportunity for Lang Lang to showcase himself at the international stage. Barenboim introduced Lang Lang to real performing in his second recording of the Beethoven sonata. Daniel offers him and the other five young pianists some valuable master pieces in piano playing and conducting.

During the lessons, Daniel taught the young pianists about the key musical elements of rhythm, tempo and harmony. The electrifying performance he gave in Beijing was an outcome of some splendid tutoring by Daniel Barenboim. This budding young musician demonstrated his love for piano at tender age of two.

Lang Lang used to use pillows to in order to reach the keys at that tender age. His musical journey is almost similar to that of his mentor and tutor Daniel (Barenboim 43). Despite coming from a humble background, Lang Lang’s sheer determination and passion has made him who he is today. His supportive and dedicated family had to sacrifice a lot for him to achieve the success he has today.

Lang Lang has participated in many musical competitions before he finally got his break. Daniel Barenboim has been very instrumental in nurturing the talent of this talented young man.

The success of a student always speaks volumes about the teacher. In Daniel Barenboim, Lang Lang found the best teacher in piano playing and conducting .His experience on stage combined with his musical philosophies are just inspiring (Lewin 162).

In conclusion, it is no doubt that Daniel Barenboim has left an indelible mark in the world of music. The caliber of his performances and recordings are just world-class and that makes him one of the biggest performing artists in the world.

His personal philosophies about life have influenced his music and political views a great deal. Daniel Barenboim commands a lot of respect and recognition around the world which has earned him a lot of titles such as humanitarian, finest pianist, authoritative conductor, great leader and utopian.

Works Cited Barenboim, Daniel. Music Quickens Time. New York: Verso, 2008.Print.

Lewin, Michael. A Life in Music, Daniel Barenboim. New York: Nicolson Limited, 1991. Print.


The Biomedical Model of Health in Medicine Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Health, illness and treatments have been looked in different ways based on the cultural beliefs and traditions where one belong. Cultures all over the world have created and practiced different kind of healing system and all of these have rational points on how human bodies function normally and abnormally.

Health professionals should integrate diverse cultural concept in dealing to various healing system and modify treatments that put emphasis in giving the best health care that one deserves to have. Multi-ethnic understanding should be taken into consideration because different cultures have their distinct ways in dealing with diseases.

The biomedical model of health focuses on the biological aspect of the individual and uses scientific methods to diagnose and cure an illness. The diagnostic methods and tools are used to restore the physical state of the human body. It sees good health as the absence of pain or freedom from disease and is based on a fact.

While this model focus on the individual, other healing system like the Hmong model, that has little information about the western medical practice, believes that the causes and the cure of illnesses are divided into two parts, the spiritual and non-spiritual aspect.

The story of “The Spirit Catches You and You Fall down” implies that the Hmong sees epilepsy as of divine nature where a spirit enters the body.

This contradicts to what the doctor views that it is merely an illness that needs treatment to stop the seizure. In Hmong model, if the cause of the illness is of spiritual aspect, ancestral worship and ritualistic ceremonies are done by the shaman. In cases where illness is caused by non-spiritual aspect, they seek for traditional cures, and this is where herbal medicine comes in.

This is not only practiced by the Hmong, but also practice by other Southeast Asian cultures. Like in India, they practice the Ayurvedic medical system. Dietary and herbal are part of the treatment scheme because of the belief that it is essential in restoring the balance of mind, body and spirit and this balance is vital in achieving a healthy life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are two basic principles of illness causation that explain the rationale behind every healing system. The personalistic and naturalistic principles of illness causation discuss the mode of diagnosis, treatments and other elements that made up the health system.

Personalistic principle is derived from the idea that disease, magic and religion are inseparable. Misfortunes play a part why individual suffer from illness. Diseases occur because of the human and nonhuman intervention, the participation of the powerful being or deity and that illness is a result of the spiritual and moral aspects that are treated by those having magical and supernatural powers.

This is in contrast to the naturalistic principle that views illness in a systematic way. It states that the illness suffered by an individual is not because of misfortunes, magic or religion. The focus of this principle is therapeutic and conforms to the equilibrium model that health and illness is a product of balance and harmony of the human body and the environment.

When the state of balance between human beings and the environment are disrupted or when imbalance occurs, it will result to illness. The principle of equilibrium conforms to this model and is being practice by the Humoral model and the Ayurvedic health system.

The decision process in treating illness is complex because cultural beliefs and social factors are relevant in giving a quality multicultural care. How human beings respond to illness is essential and understanding the concepts of every healing system is vital in combating diseases.


Questionnaire Design for Business Essay essay help online free

Asses the range of data and sources you can use to research a subject area and assess the reliability and validity of this information

To research any subject area, it is important to collect data. This data should be valid and reliable in order to make the research results useful.

To consider the job satisfaction, the research team should pay attention to the following information, salary, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, procedures, coworkers’ work, communication, etc (Wood