Table of Contents Introduction
History of Same-Sex Marriages
Development for Gay Marriage
Introduction In normal social scenario, many people consider marriage to be an institution comprising of a husband and wife living together for reasons to do with, continuing a generation, under social and legal freedom. Normally, marriage takes place between males and females. Gay marriage is an institution of marriage where people of the same sex cohabit together. Depending on one’s background either by religion of culture; many people still consider gay marriage to be a norm.
However, still other people consider it one of the perfect forms of marriage of course with supportive evidences. The truth of the matter is that, two sides with opposing views are now in a debate. Some people have gone even to law courts to seek justice over the matter while in different countries, parliaments continue to debate and draft policy papers whether to legalize or illegalize gay marriage.
Gay marriage is now a worldwide debate. Interestingly, gay marriage is legal and bound by human rights under written law. (Craig, Clyde, pp. 233-235). The social, political and religious factions argue differently whether adoption of same sex marriage has any importance to the society.
While Christians will argue strongly against gay marriage, civil rights factions think that, denying people of the same biological sex marriage rights is an infringement of their human rights. From media coverage to hot discussions, it is evident gay marriage is a highly contentious issue.
The cause of disagreement lies whether persons should refer same sex marriage as ‘marriage’ simply because; many people understand marriage to be an institution of two people of different social genders. In addition to this, the issue of whether to award gay persons civil rights does not ogre well, especially to people who believe in different-sex marriages.
Those who vehemently reject gay marriage do not even want to refer to it as marriage. Moreover, they oppose the legal and social environments accorded to gay persons.
Furthermore, there are so many advantages associated with gay marriage. First, traditional beliefs do not warrant people of the same sex to enter into marriage rest they be seen as outcasts. In many traditional backgrounds be it African, European or America, so single community or society has accepted gay marriage in entirety. This is because; societal beliefs demand procreation as a way of life. Therefore, any deviations form normal marriage practices are likely to meet fierce criticism from traditional believers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Christians reject gay marriage on grounds of religious fundamentalism. They consider marriage as a sacred institution created by God and therefore, it deserves maximum reverence. Christians, whose fundamental beliefs falls in the Bible, always refer to Bible teachings when criticizing gay marriage? To them, there is nowhere in the Bible where two persons of the same sex performed marriage of this kind. Since, the Bible is their standard of living; they vision gay marriage as an abomination to God.
On the other hand, voters of same-sex marriage cite human rights in support of gay marriage. Moreover, these supporters believe that, persons who want to enjoy gay marriage should do so since; denying them a chance to cohabit, is like creating an effect into their physical and mental health conditions.
Like other human beings, there should be equality of people before the law and that law ought to protect people’s rights. Thus, prohibiting persons of the same sex not to intermarry is the same as going back to ancient prohibitions like interracial marriages perceived to be the backbone of racism. The aims of those who for their own reasons find gay marriage important just like any other marriage is to see a just world full of individual choices. (Abraham, pp. 12-14).
History of Same-Sex Marriages Both lesbianism and gay marriages did not start yesterday. In ancient times, these forms of marriages did take place but under abnormal circumstances.
They were mainly informal and took place under maximum secrecy. For example, in China, ladies did have marriage contracts with younger ladies in what they referred as a ritual ceremony to mark different functions of the Ming dynasty. Nevertheless, heterosexual marriages were still dominant all over the world. The first incident of gay marriage occurred in Rome during the Roman Empire jurisdiction.
Historians do indicate that, Emperor Nero decide to marry a slave worker to detract people from believing in heterosexual marriages. It is here that feud and controversy boiled into contention. Later on, subsequent emperors married their male slaves. However, Christian emperor, Constantius II to rule, he ordered an arrest and killing of gay persons who were already married. The war eluded between Christians and non-believers to an extent of creating enmity between these two factions. (Kuefler, pp. 347-366).
In all continents of the world, there are some countries that have legalised gay marriages. For example, Netherlands is the first country in the world to fully grant permission to persons of the same-sex to marry. In the recent past, countries like Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Canada have followed suit in recognising gay marriages judicially.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Concepts of Gay Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To avoid much criticism, these countries adopted new definitions of marriage as a lawful cohabitation of two folks. Meaning, under this particular definition, two persons whether from the same sex or from different biological sexes, can freely marry and receive protection from the state.
Other countries are also considering making gay marriage legal. In fact, some countries like France, New Zealand and Australia have formed parliamentary committees to look into the issue. In United States of America, gay marriage is not yet accepted federally. However, five states- Connecticut, Vermont, Massachusetts, Iowa and New Hampshire have enacted policies that grant gay marriage.
In these states, state governments have granted gay persons individual rights to marry across all sexes. On the other hand, the remaining states have tried to bring gay marriage legislation into the ballot box. Unfortunately, these bills have all been defeated meaning, gay marriage is not yet accepted by the majority of Americans.
Nevertheless, there are still other countries where gat marriage is not well defined. For example, in the United Kingdom, an indirect policy on gay marriage came into limelight five years ago.
Under civil partnerships gay persons in United Kingdom enjoy many rights like inheritance, parental responsibilities, and exemptions from paying taxes. The only difference with other counties is that, in United Kingdom, persons opting for gay marriage must register with civil unions. Thereafter, after two years of marriage, a certificate is then awarded as a sign of partnership.
Gay marriage in other countries is not a contentious issue simply because; their respective country constitutions do not provide detailed definitions on how marriages should be conducted and in many occasions, the word spouse apply instead of using male or female. Clearly, there is an element of generalisation from where, different interpretations assume centre stage. Luckily, the debate keeps status quo on the written law because of its complicated nature.
Opposing Views The controversy between supporters and opponents of gay marriage is all about ethics and human rights respectively. If different counties decide to conduct polls on whether how many people support gay marriage in their respective countries, the result will be in favor of those who oppose gay marriage.
This is because; at least every person including those who support gay marriage experienced heterosexual marriages. People of the same sex cannot bear children. For gay persons to alive and prefer gay marriage to heterosexual marriage, heterosexual marriage had taken place for them to be born.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Gay Marriage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Persons who engage in gay marriages have been into heterosexual marriages before embarking on the otherwise. For example, opponents of gay marriage argue that, any entertainment of gay marriage will lead to further loss of religious freedoms and beliefs. Furthermore, these proponents see a fault in raising children already born in a heterosexual marriage. (Blankenhorn, Para. 2-9).
There are many reasons why people criticize gay marriages. Many people do not even want to utter the words ‘gay marriage’ just because; they sound ridiculous to them. Considering the fact that these persons may engage in homosexual activities, it is even more annoying hence, its rebuff.
In customary anthropological circumstances, heterosexual marriages for centuries have been dominant. Therefore, deviating from this normal practice is not an easy task. Many will view it as an erosion of societal values. However, societies must ensure stern protection of individual rights and freedoms.
Many Christians believe heterosexual marriage is sacred. Therefore, introducing another form of marriage other than the one they are familiar with is likely to offend their religious standards. Christians perceive gay marriage to be a violation of freedoms to religion. For example, many clerics argue that, it is against God’s will to grant gay persons marriage rights as the real meaning of marriage will emasculate into meaninglessness.
Additionally, Christian opponents do not like gay marriage because; the likelihood of these persons practicing homosexual is high. (Bidstrup, Para. 1-15).
Nonetheless, other religious groups vehemently oppose gay marriage like the Muslim community. To them, gay marriage is an abomination opposed using the possible strongest words. On the other hand, there are individual Christians who are supporters of gay marriage. They do so convinced that, the introduction of gay marriage is a step forward towards stable marriage institutions.
Moreover, these Christian supporters have a strong conviction that, there is no single verse in the Bible, which prohibit same-sex directly. If this is so, then they support gay marriage and term it, a highway towards reaching human decorum, sovereignty and egalitarianism. (White, Para. 1-11).
Some people reject gay marriage because its eventuality centers around gay sex, which to them is aberrant. Undeniably, this is homosexual.
The logic behind a grown-up man deciding one day to take another sound-minded adult man as a marriage partner is not only disgusting but a perfidy to masculinity as well. Men seek a peculiar attention from women in a sexual relationship. For example, in primates, when an animal is on heat, it produces a certain, rather peculiar sexual sound, which attracts counterpart. This is the same thing with human beings.
Although, a section of men will prefer other men to marry, there is no amount of satisfaction to exhume the one in heterosexual relationships. Primarily, gay marriage like lesbianism acts as a barrier blocking marriage communication channels and standards. Gay persons should understand that all children need parental care and for any society to survive in future there must be children. People sire children through heterosexual sex hence, heterosexual marriages. (Wardle, pp. 8-27).
On the other hand, many people refute these claims and instead support gay marriages. Interestingly, these people either are gays, or have positive feelings towards gay marriage. In marriage institutions, people will want to have many things beneficial in a way.
These include rights to own properties, security and other responsibilities. These benefits are the one that make people to defend gay marriage in a court of law. The debate on gay marriage commenced in court of law but today, political intrigues continue to surround this hot debate of gay marriage.
Many lobbyists and supporters of gay marriages believe that legitimatizing it will give then enormous opportunities. Since many counties do not impose taxes to gay persons, these supporters could want to be part of this group.
Furthermore, it will make them have rights like owning property, inherit, have other benefits not limited to insurance premiums, pension schemes and social security funds. In favor to parental care of children, gay persons argue that, it is even easier to raise children as one partner can take a vacation in support of another partner.
Moreover, supporters of gay marriage believe marriage to be a personal choice, which accompanied by human rights hence, decriminalization of same-sex marriage is paramount in the provision of human rights especially to lesbians and gays. In addition, civil marriages popularly heterosexual marriages, in a way do not differ much from gay marriages. This is because; proponents of gay marriage understand that, there is no provable scientific evidence that indicate diverse differences between civil and gay marriages.
In terms of obligations, benefits and responsibilities, gay partners can perform what heterosexual partners execute. Under normal situations, the research carried out by psychologists show no differences in tasks performed by both civil and gay married persons. For example, the research indicates no dissimilarity in parenting roles, as both parents are well conversant with their roles. This is because; both the real and adopting parents, have their interests clearly spelt out under gay marriage laws.
In addition to this, children do not suffer any syndrome. According to this research, children raised in gay marriages seem more stable that those in civil marriages. This is because, in civil marriages, both the husband and the wife have commonalities unlike in gay marriages where, the law allows investment from both partners.
Nevertheless, supporters of gay marriage draw support from ancient times when interracial people could not marry one another. To subvert this discrimination, societal beliefs had to change. Consequently, gay persons believe if they continue fighting for this fundamental right, the society and the government at large will listen to their demands. In some countries, gay persons enjoy their marriages full of rights without and disenfranchisement. (Moore, Para. 1-8).
Gay persons enjoy civil union rights. Perhaps this might be the reason as to why, gays fight back to retain their status quo. In terms of property ownership, gay partners enjoy similar rights like heterosexual partners. During divorce hearings, both partners can appear in a court of law to settle out their marriage unlike in civil marriages where it is not necessary for any partner to appear in court.
Development for Gay Marriage At the dawn of the twentieth century, people used the word gay in reference to freedom, freeness and the state of happiness. However, as time went by, the word assumed a different meaning especially to acts associated with homosexuality.
Consequently, people engaged in same-sex relationships opted to use the word gay in reference to their operations. For example, in America, people only heard or saw images about people claiming to be involved in gay. Many could not belief their eyes because; this was totally against American civilization and societal beliefs.
However, in 2003, the issue of gay marriage came into public limelight. Previously, gay marriages had been a court issue. Therefore, the public had nothing to worry. Absolutely, people considered gay marriage as an illegal activity and by this time, there was neither constitutional right nor clause allowing such an act. The gravity of the matter attracted political redress where many presidential candidates used this opportunity to campaign in general elections.
In Ontario Canada, the court hearing a case on same-sex marriages gave seven couples the right to go ahead and marry. The court argued further by saying, gay persons as civil counterparts have the right to marry according to their wishes. Astonishingly, the then Canadian Prime Minister took legislation to parliament seeking a mandate to allow persons of the same biological sex to intermarry. Gay persons from United States of America started fleeing to Canada to practice their marriage there. (Cahill, pp. 1-36).
In United Kingdom, people used the word gay to refer to a woman who had many boyfriends besides entailing homosexuality acts. The truth of the matter is, people are never born homosexuals or lesbians. However, the real reason that conspire both males and females to divert their normal sexuality is still an irony to many.
Nevertheless, psychologists have tried to explain the development of persons into gay or lesbian acts. For example, in normal psychological situations, a person’s sexual orientation comprises of three characteristics, which in turn determine a person’s sexual behaviour.
These include sexual identity, desirability and performance. The three characteristics are incongruent and no one characteristic identify with another. There are people supporting gay marriage even when they have never practiced homosexual in their past life.
On the other hand, there are some individuals who are real homosexuals by word and deeds but still may never identify themselves to be bisexuals, gay or lesbian. From these two examples, it is clear that no person identifies or is born to be bisexual. An individual develops positive mentality towards certain sexual orientations. Nevertheless, the degree of sexual orientation varies from one individual to another and it is something that develops in persons as one grows up.
For example, in United States of America, the government identifies lesbian, gay and bisexual (LBG) persons and support them either psychologically or materially.
However, American community do not accept these people to enter into marriages. So far only, five states in America allow gay marriages amid intense public denigration. It has never been easy to anybody whether learned or illiterate, in understanding the changes that lead to LGB. Intuitively, there is an assertion to believe LGB persons not growing up in normal societal standards.
Had they grown in societies that value human sexuality and identifications, they would have received support from their communities on matters pertaining to normal sexuality. Rather, many people perceive LGB persons to have grown up in a more hostile environment, which either vindicated homosexuality or had little knowledge on human sexuality. These are the fundamental ideologies behind the development of LGB persons.
Conclusion It has never been easy for any particular community or society to fully accept gay marriage. The issue of gay marriage is highly debated in many counties all over the world. Even though some countries have endorsed and entrenched gay marriages in their constitutions, majority of the citizens do not believe in these clauses.
This is perhaps the reason why gay marriage has attracted political insinuations. Some communities do not want even to hear the word gay uttered because; to them, gay marriages entertain homosexuality which is an abomination. Supporters of gay marriage believe that, as the world undergo civilization and globalisation; past practices ought to change to represent this particular assertion. On matters of religion, some Christian churches, Muslim and Orthodox denominations sharply differ on this subject.
There are some proponents in these denominations who oppose gay marriage under religious grounds. They believe that, accepting gay marriage is trespassing against the will of God. Moreover, if societies allow gay marriages, the real meaning of marriage will be lost. Besides, it will be a trivial disenfranchisement of the freedoms of religion.
On the other hand, supporters of gay marriage do so with believe that, every individual should have a right to choose. Indeed, many lobby groups have emanated the rights of gay persons. Eventually, what we now have are two faction groups on opposing and one supporting gay marriages.
Each of these two groups has tangible evidences as to why they support or oppose gay marriages. The only solution is a debate to reach consensus. The sociological background and religious diversity constitute one’s perception about gay marriage. This is because; there are religious people, who support gay marriages while in communities and societies, some traditionalists accept gay marriage. The choice is mainly instigated by one’s environmental set-up and the cognition of individuals.
Works Cited Abraham, Julie. Public Relations: Why the Rush to Same-Sex Marriage? And Who Stands to Benefit? The Women’s Review of Books, 17 (8), (2000), 12-14.
Bidstrup, Scott. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2000. Web.
Blankenhorn, David. Protecting Marriage to protect Children. Los Angeles Times. 2009. Web.
Cahill Sean Same-sex marriage in the United States: focus on the facts. Maryland: Lexington books, 2004. Print.
Craig, Rimmerman, Clyde, Wilcox (2007). The politics of same-sex marriage. University of Chicago Press. Print.
Kuefler, Mathew. The Marriage Revolution in Late Antiquity: The Theodosian Code and Later Roman Marriage Law. Journal of Family History, 32, (2007), 347–366.
Moore, Leah. Points in Defense of Gay Marriage. 2001. Web.
Wardle, Lynn. Marriage and same-sex unions: a debate. New York. Praeger Publishers, 2003. Print.
White, Mel. What the Bible Says- And Doesn’t Say- About Homosexuality. Soulforce. 2009. Web.
Change online essay help: online essay help
Introduction In the 21st century, the ability of organizations to surmount the myriad of challenges that exist will sorely depend on how they are able to transform their processes to be in harmony with a host of fundamental variables such as technological advances, redefined values, cutthroat competition, and uneven customer demands. Assiduous and conscientious managers must always critically analyze the market trends and have the right kind of information at their fingertips if they are to capture the opportunities for growth (Morgan, 2008).
It should be within the realm of understanding of such managers that, not only does proper understanding of market trends and organizational frameworks dictates the business strategy, but it also dictates the success or failure of the organization since a well implemented business strategy results in success (Poole et al, 2000). This paper aims to critically evaluate how Harley-Davidson strategy of transformation dictated its success in a tumultuous and almost saturated motorcycle market.
The idea to establish Harley-Davidson was envisaged in 1903 by three entrepreneurs, Arthur Davidson, Walter Davidson, and William Harley. Since then, the company has experienced a lot of challenges, but has been able to safely navigate its way to its present state. Harley-Davidson achieved tremendous growth during the decades following its inception, becoming the world’s leading motorcycle company in 1918 after it produced and sold 28,000 motorcycles (Nolan
Why Get Married? Essay essay help
Nowadays people are disturbed by a variety of questions and dilemmas which have to be solved and evaluated, and one of the most burning ones is the idea of marriage. Is it really important to get married and legitimate relations all the time? Why are so many people eager to get married?
And why do some people still try to avoid getting married and continue living alone or with lovers but without marriage? It is always interesting to find answers to such questions, however, it is not always possible to be sure about the correctness of the answer. This is why to get a clear idea of why people get or do not get married, it is possible to rely on some literary works and evaluate personal attitude to marriages and life in family.
Works by Hemingway, Corso, and Hardy may be used as reliable sources for the analysis of marriages and their role in human life. It is not easy to comprehend why people get married: all old ideas and attitudes have already fallen away, and people are free to choose a person to marry, the time to get married, and the reasons to start married life.
There are many wrong and right reasons why people should start thinking about marriage. The variety of reasons may be connected to the wrong interpretation of marriage essence. This is why, to comprehend clearly why people get married, it is necessary to analyze its essence. In fact, any marriage is a union between two people who are eager to share their lives and souls to each other and become as closer as possible.
Among this variety of reasons why people want to get married, it is necessary to underline such ideas like the desire to have a lifelong partner, share this life with a person you are in love, have babies, support each other all the time, and enjoy this life together. Of course, nowadays all these reasons are not as powerful as they used to be, and many people prefer just to live together and not to hurry up to say “I DO” before family and church representatives.
In comparison to the past, modern conditions seem to be softer and more convenient for people. People are free to choose and think as long as they want. Some time ago, relations between women and men were very strict and reserved. It is enough to remember the poem by Thomas Hardy The Ruined Maid, where a woman suffers from inability to comprehend how it is possible to have sex and relations with men without being married and being in love.
Old rules and attitudes to marriage usually attract people’s attention. If a woman gets a chance to wear expensive clothes or jewelry like “gay bracelets and bright feathers three” (Hardy 445) without having a husband, she undergoes considerable critics and reproaches from the society she lives in. The lifestyle chosen by the character is similar to the one we live today, however, during those times, it was rejected and regarded as wrong. Women should have legal husbands to be able for reproduction and bringing up children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, the question of children in marriages is raised by many authors, and Ernest Hemingway was one of them. In his Hills Like White Elephants, he introduced a story of one couple that had loving affairs but was not eager to get married. They found it was ok to have relations and not to be bound. But still, their mistakes became evident; though the author did not name the problem, it was evident that a woman was pregnant and had to agree to abortion because her man did not want anyone except her.
She wanted to have this baby and regarded it as a white elephant (Hemingway 406) due to its importance and cost. This is one of the most burning problems any couple may face – birth of bastards. Unborn children are not guilty but already deprived of a chance to live in this world. Fathers do not accept this problem as well as mothers do, this is why when couples start living together without thinking of getting married, they have to admit the fact that one day their couple may become a trio.
Men have also a different attitude to marriage itself like it was described in Corso’s poem Marriage. He asks many questions like “Should I get married? Should I be good?/ Astound the girl next door with my velvet suit and Faustus hood?” (Corso 440) and cannot find appropriate answers. Even if a man fells in love with a woman, he cannot be absolutely sure about his readiness to create a family, and women have to be ready for this uncertainty.
Marriage is a poetic issue that is described by many poets and writers. Some writers accept this notion as something pure and amazing without which it is hard to imagine this life.
And some writers are eager to discover bad sides of marriage and life in family. Of course, each person has his/her own attitude to this issue and is able to decide whether it is time to get married or not. Still when people start thinking about the importance of marriage, it is necessary to admit that relations between men and women always lead to something, and if this “something” is a baby, such aspects like marriage and legalization of relations have to be taken into account.
Works Cited Corso, Gregory. “Marriage.” In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional Technical, 2004.
Hardy, Thomas. “The Ruined Maid.” In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional Technical, 2004.
We will write a custom Essay on Why Get Married? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hemingway, Ernest. “Hills Like White Elephants.” In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional Technical, 2004.
Channel distribution problems Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Distribution of PepsiCo products
Manufacturing channel of distribution
Broker warehouse distribution
Supermarket/ retail store
Introduction This paper is a report presentation of problems encountered by different members of a distribution channel. Snowball sampling will be utilized for the purpose of obtaining information about the players in the marketing field. The sampling technique simply uses the present subjects as leads to the future subjects.
The data to be collected therefore will be detailed information from manufactures through to wholesalers and finally retailers. The report will cover on problems faced as goods find its way to the final consumer. A local manufacturing company will be investigated for the efficiency of its distribution channels and the possibility of problems related with them.
Distribution of PepsiCo products Distribution channels represent a major actor in the marketing mix. Other elements of the marketing mix include: product, promotion and pricing strategy. Pepsico with other players in the distribution channel contributes in an effort of availing the soft drink to the final consumer (Dent, 23).
The intermediaries are the wholesalers and the retailers who pass the product to the final consumer. Each member of the distribution channel has specific needs which the producer must consider while manufacturing such product and service. It is therefore critical to manage efficiently the supply chain in order to realize maximum profits. Supply chain management represents an act of directing a product through an interconnected channel to the final consumer (Stern, 20).
The distribution flow chart for PepsiCo products can be illustrated in form of the following diagram
So as to analyze effectively the problems faced by different members in the distribution channel, snowball sampling technique was used to arrive at the subjects to approach for information. In the study of PepsiCo, respective managers in sales and marketing, and logistics acted as the source of information which necessitated the above diagram
Manufacturing channel of distribution For the purpose of this research, sales and marketing manager was critically interviewed for the problems faced by the PepsiCo as a member in the distribution channel. PepsiCo deals with a variety of worlds leading beverages and snack foods and scores among the top companies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The channel employed by PepsiCo in distributing its products include: supermarkets/ retail stores, restaurants, convenience stores and others (Mentzer, 25). Advertisements are frequently used to market the soft drink to the final consumers. Most of the television adverts propagate the effectiveness of the drink during a hot weather. This forms part of the distribution channel for the consumer goods.
The company was careful in adopting an allocation system according to the requirements and preferences of the global customers. Models adopted by PepsiCo to distribute products are: direct store delivery, broker warehouse distribution, and vending food service systems (Simchi-Levi, 54). There are other approaches to shaping up distribution channels. Giving incentives in form of subsidized price can help in motivating members in a distribution channel.
In consideration of the fact that products of PepsiCo are internationally oriented, then the process of identifying a middle person to handle the product is difficult. Information sourced from the company’s sales and marketing manager details that financial base of the channels is a determining factor whether the magnitude of the products can be sustained.
Productivity of the company can also describe the ability of a distribution channel in executing its mandate. If the management is stable and capable in producing a product, then the distribution channel would be stable thus guaranteeing a long term service (Mentzer, 25). It is extremely difficult for the company to predict the nature and reputation of middle men thus leading to doubting the efficiency of a distribution channel.
In an international setting, competitor’s activities are critical since they block access to distribution channels in the foreign nation. This can happen in the following ways: trade associations present in some countries have the ability of closing channels which could have been used to market Pepsi product. Political restriction like ban of fast foods and conventional marketing partners affects adversely distribution channels (Simchi-Levi, 54). Some of the products like coca cola have taken roots in some nations thus blocking foreign products.
So as to motivate channel members, promotional program must be built by the manufacturing company. The promotion strategy has the effect of creating high level interest in the manufacture’s products. On the contrary the cost of the product goes up to cover up on the expenses used in manufacturing a product. High prices of PepsiCo products are not competitive in the international arena.
The distance covered in international market is such long thus making the distribution channel slow. However, the problem can be overcome by PepsiCo’s own distribution system under its control. It is also important to note that PepsiCo has a well established local distribution channels which acts as a substitute in case the international market fails.
We will write a custom Essay on Channel distribution problems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another problem facing PepsiCo as a member of distribution channel is termination of relationships when middlemen fail to execute responsibility. In an international setting, relationships might be difficult to conclude owing to legal operation in countries of operation. An example in Norway a manufacture must possess evidence of negligence on part of the channel member (Mentzer, 25). Where sufficient prove is given, a channel member must be reimbursed for instituting customer contact.
Broker warehouse distribution This channel acts as a link between the manufacturer and the distributor in the chain link. After the goods are manufactured, they are kept in Go Global logistics as they await further distribution countrywide. The warehouse is strategically located across the United States to so as to cover most of the parts of the country.
The logistic company offers both long term and short term storage of PepsiCo products. As discussed with logistic manager, Go Global logistic can manage supply chain from the factory to the doors of the customer (Mentzer, 25). Although the services are varied, their cost is high. This overflows to the price of the product.
Supermarket/ retail store After completing the discussion with logistic manager of Go Global logistics, it was relevant to follow the channel of the product down to the supermarket. This is stage where the product meets the buyer at the point of need. The manager of one of the prosperous supermarket offered a supplement of information about the problems faced as a channel member of PepsiCo’s products.
In recognition of the fact that a variety of products exist in the supermarket, it is difficult to promote one product and leave other complementary products. Supermarkets make their profits from increased sales of all goods in the supermarket. There is also a problem of placing the product at the best point of sales where the customer can easily recognize it.
United States government has been more concerned with the increasing number of obese children. Campaigns against consumption of such foods have been on the rise. This factor ultimately acts against those who want to purchase the product. Strategic market analysts have a view that supermarkets provide manufactures with wider distribution compared with any other channel (Dent, 23). However, with knowledge explosion consumer trust in functional foods that assures of general or digestive health advantages.
For this reason, products on the distribution channel have a great impact on customer. While the participants in the industry want their products to be displayed all over the shelves in the supermarkets, there is need to build on the confidence so that consumers can purchase the goods from the shelves. It is also important to consider giving high level customer care so that products of the company can find market and in the long run increase the profits.
Conclusion This paper presented a snowball sample of: sales and marketing manager, logistic manager, and supervisor to study the problems faced by different players in the distribution channel. The manufacturing channel of distribution, through to warehouses, retailers and finally consumers are members in the channel.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Channel distribution problems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As discussed in the paper, various problems are faced by the members in a channel and if success is to be registered, then each participant show responsibility for their decisions. The retail management and vending foods services systems were also part of the channel members. Among the problems discussed are: international competition cost of promotion along the channel and government policies.
Works Cited Dent, Julian. Distribution Channels: Understanding and Managing Channels to Market. London: Kogan Page, 2008. P23.
Mentzer, Jerry, et al. Defining Supply Chain Management, in: Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 1–25.
Simchi-Levi, David, et al. Designing and Managing the Supply Chain. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007.P.54.
Stern, Louis, et al. ‘Marketing Channels’. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2006.P.20.
The History of Mambo Music Research Paper a level english language essay help
Introduction and background Throughout the history of Latin music, there has hardly been anyone who has heard this genre and not been fascinated by its exciting rhythms.
Latin music, specifically mambo, gained wide recognition among the non-Latin population in the twentieth century and demonstrated a remarkable ability to merge with other genres as well as nurture them in return. Mambo was originally a Cuban musical form that gained popularity in 1940s–1950s due to activities of Cuban musicians and enthusiasm of their American colleagues. The places that hosted mambo dance and music in its golden age were, correspondingly, Havana and New York City.
The mambo music genre demonstrates a unique fusion of international music traditions. Historically, the roots of mambo music can be traced back to three cultures: European, Haitian, and African. The European dance tradition was represented in Cuba by the Spanish genre of contradanza, from which mambo gained its specific bass line (Waxer 141). Contradanza was brought to Cuba in the eighteenth century by Haitian planters of French origin and their slaves who fled from the 1791 Haitian Revolution (Waxer 149).
This originally European dance gradually assimilated elements of local music and evolved into the genre of danzon by the beginning of the twentieth century (Leymarie 40). The several sections of danzon ended with a lively coda usually improvised by the musicians, and each section featured one of the solo instruments of the standard danzon ensemble — a violin, a flute or a clarinet (Waxer 149).
Mostly European in terms of melody, harmony and instrumentation, danzon was performed by black ensembles and therefore gradually acquired specific African rhythmic ‘swing’ (Waxer 149). Both the solo improvisations and the syncopated swing performance manner were inherited and developed in mambo genre later on.
The African roots of mambo reveal themselves in the very name of the genre. African by origin, ‘mambo’ stems from the name of a Bantu sacred drum and means “conversation with the gods” (Leymarie 40). Subsequently, the word was used to designate a part of danzon and only later became a name for a separate musical genre (Waxer 150). Another African connection is traced between mambo and the genre of son. The word son means ‘sound’ in Spanish and refers to a style of music by large based on the Afro-Cuban rumba (Waxer 142).
The two sections of son feature various elements: while in the first section, tema, the song itself is presented, the second section, montuno, is an improvisated dialogue between the soloist and the instruments (Manuel, Bilby,
Melbourne: Army Recruitment Report essay help
Recruiting and Marketing Initiatives Recruitment is done in various sections which include; Professional Graduate Officer careers, the ADF Sponsored Undergraduate scheme, Australian Defense Force Academy amongst others. ADF has to put down strategies that will ensure that they compete favorably for candidates within the market.
Their offer to the candidates should be extended to family members including free medical services, subsidized housing and further studies. ADF should extend their activities to schools aimed at creating awareness to the candidates beforehand on the requirements needed to pursue specific courses with them.
ADF should offer free short courses on career guidance and counseling to every high school student. They should offer access to schools whereby they allow them to make trips to some of their departments and see for real what takes place and how interesting it is to pursue career with them.
The marketing team should comprise of officers within the same age bracket, this will trigger the eagerness of the young candidates to join their fellows hence work extra hard to achieve the requirements. The young officers should go and share their wonderful experiences face to face at the grassroots (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
Mind- map of problem situation
In order to figure out the real process and the ideas required the following mind- map is necessary.
The central key word in this case is recruitment, which is visualized clearly by the specific ideas and words surrounding it. This is used to encourage the brainstorming process that ultimately leads to the solution of the tasks at hand.
There are fewer candidates from the young age group who are joining the ADF department; this is attributed to various factors that include necessary qualifications for candidates. ADF cannot market effectively its career opportunities to the targeted individuals. The careers that require science and mathematics qualifications seems the most affected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because the candidates have difficulty in understanding the high level of qualifications required in most of the sections within ADF. The existing opportunities are not well advertised to the candidates who might be willing to join the industry. The targeted individuals are restricted to higher learning institutions and industry associations; this seems to be a disadvantage to those willing to join, but are not within the targeted areas (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
List of problems
There is the problem on how to attract candidates and make them apply for the available job opportunities. The market is devoid of qualified individuals that could fill some of the specified positions in ADF; especially in the health, engineering and trade sectors. The process used in selection and marketing may not be adequate since it does not favor those found in remote areas. There is also the problem of obtaining experienced workers to fill the vacant positions.
K-T Analysis of problems
SITUATION APPRAISAL – ADF methods of recruitment and marketing approach for their careers has not produced the required results
PROBLEM ANALYSIS – Most of the careers affected, requires qualifications in science subjects and mathematics of which majority of the targeted age do not pursue due to technicality involved. The areas highlighted lack candidates due to high level of qualifications required, and also inadequate information provided by ADF.
DECISION ANALYSIS – the best action to take to deal with this problem is starting with the students from the lowest grade. This involves offering them free counseling on careers choice before they settle on subjects to pursue. This must be done at an early stage to eliminate the sense of fear that majority of them possess towards science subjects and mathematics. They need confidence in order to exceed the expectations.
POTENTIAL PROBLEM ANALYSIS – The key risks associated with program is the financial support it requires. The other problem is how to convince the education board to incorporate military awareness within the school curriculum and the amount of time it will be allocated. There is also the issue of the number of tutors required to accomplish the task within the schools (Sawyer, 2008).
Rank of Problems/ Solutions with top recommendation
ADF should have its representatives at the grassroots; this will enable them to have direct contact with the youths at an early stage before they make their career choices. They should discuss with the ministry of education on how to introduce short military awareness courses within the education curriculum at an early stage.
We will write a custom Report on Melbourne: Army Recruitment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Fogler, HS and LeBlanc, S, 2008, Strategies for Creative Problem Solving, Prentice- Hall, New Jersey.
Sawyer, K., 2008, Group Genius: The Creative Power of Collaboration. New York: Basic Books, Perseus Books Group
Environmental Profile: ForestEthics; A non-Profit Environmental Organization Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Name of Organization
Brief History of the Organization
Organization’s Environmental Philosophy
Latest Organization’s Activity
Discussion about the Activity
Introduction One of the worthwhile activities in which we as human beings can engage in is the protection of our environment. To take up this noble cause for our environment’s sake, many individual activists and organizations have engaged themselves in various activities all aimed at the protection of the environment.
Canada in particular boasts of a significant number of activists. Some of these activists are motivated by the peculiar dangers that face Canada as a result of her wild forests and the dangers that can occur due to oil spillages on Canada’s Coast lines as was demonstrated in the Exxon Valdez tragedy of 1985 which resulted in irreversible damages to Alaska. This paper will review one organization which has been vocal and instrumental in calls for the protection of Canadian’s environment.
Name of Organization The name of the organization is ForestEthics and it is a nonprofit organization which is based in Canada as well as the United States. The organization is prominent in championing environmental awareness especially by large industries and it is acclaimed to be one of British Colombia’s top five environmental groups (Berkmoes
Management and Organization Behavior Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Basic control process engages careful sought of information on a certain system processes, and people so as to make sound decision about the subject matter. Basic control process assumes that there is an expected mode of behavior and that there is some managing function that performs to produce that expected mode of conduct.
This model encompasses many things from social processes ruled by a regulating control organ to automated manufacturing models. In all instances, a common feature is that some ascertainment of the real processes tendencies is evaluated against the expected process tendency. Organizations engage business control process concept in their operations to effectuate their operations (Williams
The Good and Bad Side of COSTCO COMPANY Research Paper essay help: essay help
Organizations are run by people and they have a direct or indirect effect on the society which makes up the environment in which they exist.
The behavior of a particular organization can be classified as either good or bad depending on some preconceive societal standards. One of the significant retail companies in America is Costco. According to Annual Reports 2008, Costco is the largest warehouse club in the world. The company deals with the selling of a wide range of merchandise and the customers purchase in bulk at greatly discounted rages.
While it may be assumed that the company is good owing to its huge membership and high profitability, this is a wrong assumption since socially irresponsible companies have been known to be successful. This paper sets out to present an unbiased analysis of CostCo by giving a critical discussion of the company’s past and current activities with respect to social responsibility and business ethics. This will enable us to give a knowledgeable take as to whether CostCo is generally a good or a bad organization.
The goodness of an organization can be inferred by the manner in which it treats the people who work for it. The relationship that a company enjoys with its employees can be gauged by looking at the rate of employee turnover.
A report by Goldberg and Ritter reveals that Costco’s turnover is at a mere 24% per annum. Compared to the 50% annual employee turnover of one of the company’s chief rivals Wal-Mart, this reveals that CostCo indeed enjoys a good relationship with its employees. This low rate of turnover is attributed to many factors among which are the relatively high pay that the company offers to its employees and the benefits that they receive.
Employee benefits such as health care benefits which are said to be extended to 82% of the staff show the concern for employee welfare by the organization therefore leading to increased employee loyalty (Priceviewer). The company’s founder and CEO, Jim Sinegal concedes that keeping the work force content is important since the employees are the people on whom the success of the business rides (Goldberg
Advertisement from Cosmopolitan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction There are a number of advertisements that contain educative and informative visual and written elements which perform many functions. In this paper, one particular ad will be analyzed and evaluated in order to define what key signs make this ad powerful, what cultural codes help to comprehend the message of the ad, and what arguments may be used to prove the correctness and reliability of the chosen image.
The popular English-language magazine Cosmopolitan is chosen for the analysis; among the variety of ads which are presented in Cosmopolitan, it is not very easy to chose the one and prove that the chosen image is the best for the analysis. However, taking into consideration the idea that ads have to contain a number of signs and message to people, the ad with Jude Law who advertises Dior is chosen.
Semiotics itself represents a kind of social interaction that should happen between an individual who observe this ad and the sign that is offered in a variety of interpretations. In this paper, the analysis of the ad from Cosmopolitan will be organized: this ad is both male- and female-based because women can find Jude Law attractive and stylish person with proper taste and ideas, and men may comprehend what kind of perfume is possible to use and become a true “modern” (Figure 1) man.
Discussion Identification of key signs. The advertised product under consideration, “Dior Homme Intense”, has a number of signs whose meanings introduce a kind of favourable impression on people and underline masculine context in which it is presented. Semiotic analysis evaluates a number of signs in the chosen societal society and turns out to be helpful for those who want to comprehend the essence of the ad under discussion and the purposes of its message.
Signs of advertisement are not independent from the context they are presented in. At the chosen semiotic level, it is possible to identify the following signs: the picture of Jude Law that introduces the image of a handsome, smart, intelligent, and stylish man who makes use of the perfume and achieves success in this life; white background that proves that nothing else is as important and significant as Dior; the chosen slogan “the essence of modern man” (Figure 1); and finally, the bottle of the perfume itself that informs people how Dior looks like.
Ferdinand de Saussure identifies two integral parts of any sign in the ad that are the form of the sign and the concept of the sign (Sebeok 2001), this is why it becomes very important to interpret each sign and its part in a proper way.
Interpretation of signs. There are four main signs in the chosen ad, and each of them has its own meaning (connotation) and function. First, the image of the man, Jude Law attracts the attention. The chosen perfumes are for men; and it is necessary to choose a successful handsome and attractive person who may prove that this choice is justified.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jude Law meets all these demands, this is why his image should attract the attention of many women who would like to buy Dior to their men and help them to become better, and male audience should be interested in the production because Law demonstrates good tastes, awesome achievements, and popularity among women.
White background is one more powerful sign that explains that nothing should matter when perfumes are presented. The chosen background makes the viewer focus his/her attention on the person and the production, and nothing more. The written effect is the sign that should inspire people to buy this perfume and be encouraged with the hope to be called a modern man, a stylish man, a successful man.
Finally, the bottle of Dior itself is the main sign of the ad that shows what action should be taken to achieve the desirable glory and success. Jude Law is the central but not the only main character of this ad. Dior is the key to male success and recognition. It exists, it looks attractive, and it waits for all men to use it and be improved.
Signs’ analysis. With the help of this ad, a good understanding of the effects of signs’ combination is demonstrated. First, the use is metaphor is evident: Dior is not only the perfume that has to be used by people on ordinary basics; Dior depicts “the essence of modern man” (Figure 1), and this essence may be observed though the image of Jude Law.
Elegant suit, kind look, slim figure, and bright shoes – all this makes a man real and successful. There are no colours around just black and white, and that gold bottle of perfume that is advertised.
The idea of choice, preference, and clarity are the main semiotic concepts which are used in the ad. The idea to choose concrete colours proves that nothing else is important right now, no other colours, tastes, and principles matter. There is one choice, one idea, and one decision to become a modern man, and this idea is justified by properly chosen colours, clothes, and words (the main semiotic concepts).
Cultural codes. Stuart Hall (1997) admits that it is not always easy to define cultural codes because their function is to underline the obvious structure of the ad.
We will write a custom Essay on Advertisement from Cosmopolitan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of such codes like colours (white and black to underline reality and dispose all possible distractions), chosen language (brief, accurate, and meaningful words to introduce the image), and location (words are at the foot, man is at the centre, and perfumes are on the left but still the most noticeable and colourful). Relevant concepts of the chosen ad are connected to fashion and style that is inherent to people.
The chosen codes and signs are perfectly combined in order to explain people how important fashion is nowadays. The relation between the text and the culture presented is clear: if you want to be stylish and recognizable, you are welcome to use this perfume and become better. Jude Law has already made his decision, and his popularity is one of the best evidences. Now other men should try this and make some changes in their lives.
Conventions and discourses of the ad. In our modern world, people make a considerable use of magazine advertisement in order to find out what is in fashion, what is better to use, what is more effective, and what makes this life more amazing, captivating, and worthy of attention. Usually magazines are gender specific, and Cosmopolitan is one of those sources where interesting information for both men and women who are interested in fashion and style may be found.
If a person is stylish, aware about fashionable trades, and eager to get the best profession, Cosmopolitan is the magazine with ads and facts reliable. This ad meets all conventions and principles of modern world.
There are no extra words which may be used to attract attention: everything is clear and understandable, and if a person is eager to use the advertised ad because of the discourse presented, the effectiveness of such ad is proved. The broader discourse of the ad is possible in the field of fashion, style, and tastes which are chosen by people.
Conclusion In general, the overall effect of the ad and its signs and codes is positive. People like fashion; they always want to know more and use real-life examples as powerful trends and proofs of their actions. Chosen colours, person, and background seem to be perfect for this ad because nothing could be add to improve the advertisement and everything is as clear as it should be to attract people, prove them that this choice is good enough, and make them believe that the power of perfume is great for the world we live in.
Reference List Hall, Stuart. “The Work of Representation” in his Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices”. London: Sage
Project Concept and Strategy Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Recommendations on strategies
Selecting of Alternatives
Success of the Project
Work Based Structure
Good project management is vital for achievement of desired goals within a company. The conception of the project was well intended since the manager wanted to improve on the level of production to meet the market demand within the furniture industry. However, in the process of planning they never considered the fact that the company could expand after some time. The management chose a small place for construction purposes that could not cater for future development.
There was no clear plan showing responsibilities for each person in accordance to their expertise areas. The process of making decisions based on design requires a skilled individual with vast experience and understanding of the real concepts and the project-life cycle. This helps in reducing the duration taken before the plan can be approved.
During the designing of the project some areas on the project were altered, this was not realised until the real construction work began. There was no clear guideline on what channel to be followed for communication purposes, this made some employees to easily undermine higher authority (Expert Project Management 1-14).
In setting up the project, Woody had wanted to construct his own Woodworking Company which would supply cabinet and furniture to the market. Woody was to design and produce classic household furniture in large quantity to supply the ready market. His starting point was to first of all build loyal and integral staff.
The other aim that could see the company compete favourably and increase in production was the idea of acquiring modern computerized automated machines. This was meant to reduce time taken for the completion of the production process and the time taken to deliver goods to customers. This was aimed at maximizing production and at the same time winning the confidence of many clients on the supply of special products. The cost of production was to be reduced to manageable standards.
Recommendations on strategies For expansion purposes the manager thought of relocating to a more spacious land that could easily accommodate the plant. In making and producing excellent designs of furniture the company opted to import materials (hardwood and softwood). In building loyal and integral staff the company employed only qualified personnel and more so incorporated the manager’s family members into management team.
Woody could have used experienced personnel to hold the director’s post before incorporating his son into the management team. The production section should be involved in the decision making process since they are the ones on the ground hence understands better what should be incorporated so as to realise quality production. Involving Expert Industrial Developers only leads to realization of quality building but not quality production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before disputing the option to relocate, the management team could have first of all sat down budgeted and compared the true figures instead of just arguing verbally without any written proof. The process of renovation could have been budgeted for based on the company’s financial position at present and estimated profit outcome.
The financial control could have been left to Vice president Finance and administration instead of the controller, every financial transaction should as well be recorded and filed appropriately to enable easy access. Woody also had the idea of using cheap and available knowledge and skills from his management team to come up with the design and concepts to be adopted for the whole process (Expert Project Management 5).
The project could have started with wide consultations on the best contractor to be hired, the cost of construction, the suitability of each section and the section to be given first priority during construction, or which equipments should be acquired first. The decision process should have looked into details on who within the company could be entrusted with specific areas. This should be done in accordance to the level of qualifications and expertise areas.
The main construction work should have been divided into levels starting from the foundation; this is so as to eliminate some element of confusion that might arise in the process. This helps the managers and the contractors to easily understand the specific order required. In this case the furnishing process must come after the construction work is complete. This allows the company to attain to its main target of improving on its production capacity before renovating the offices.
Selecting of Alternatives Instead of relocating to some new area, there was some opinion that the cost of relocation would be high as compared to cost of utilizing the available space. To increase the output level there was need for installation of modern equipments to cater for the required production level. The offices were to undergo renovation especially the President’s and the Vice President’s offices which would give the company a new look.
The expenses of course, exceeded the budget that was written down; this forced the manager to go for loan in order to complete the project. In the initial stages of project planning, the project manager should draw his plan based on the financial ability of the firm. The financial planning should assist in subdividing the project scope into smaller but manageable sections; this will give sufficient detail necessary before the start of the project and also during work process (Expert Project Management 6-9).
In the case of designing the project plan, the manager considered using one of the engineers within the company. This move might have seem cheaper except that the young engineer, though bright had neither experience nor training on project management. At some point the design work was disorganized when a third party decided to change some aspect of the design for the sole reason of increasing the capacity. This led to the damage of the already prepared soft ware.
We will write a custom Essay on Project Concept and Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This situation was overlooked since the project planner was not aware of the consequences that this damage might cause in future. The procurement process could have been done after deep consultation with those conscious on the quality of the hardware or software required (Expert Project Management 12).
Success of the Project Projects success can be noticed when each and every activity within the plan is completed within the scheduled time. The understanding of the project contract by the managers is a clear indication that the project could be headed the right direction. Whether the project is going to be successful or not can be identified from the start by looking at the plan produced.
This plan shows the amount of finances required, the duration to be taken by each activity and the kinds of materials required either locally available or not. The management should clearly indicate the protocol to be followed when undertaking any process, who should be involved for purposes of approval and what duration apportioned every individual (Expert Project Management 1-14).
The scope sequence is very important and helps in determining how to merge and integrate some specific works that are more interrelated. This can be achieved through grouping together specific tasks that depend on each other plus their elements.
The final construction work should be assessed, tested and approved by quality assurance contractor trusted by the manager. The specialist in-turn reports the quality outcome which is either approved or rejected by the manager. The contractors’ duties and responsibilities together with his team should be well indicated and timed.
Project Scope The inclusion of the office renovation was meant to give good picture of the company’s management organization. But it was not necessary for it to be included in the project’s budget. The development of the foundation is more important than renovation of offices that already existed. During project planning attention should be paid on the elements that present the part of the major work that is to be done. These elements should be given first priority in the budget by developing a hierarchy to be followed during implementation.
Understanding and following the order provided based on the objective of the project, is very important aspect. In this case the main objective was the expansion of the Woody not furnishing of the offices, this should be considered last after the expansion process is complete. The scope of the project was “construction of Woody” which was divided into the following components; management, buying of equipment, the installation process and contractors’ responsibilities (Expert Project Management 1-14).
Work Based Structure Work Cited Expert Project Management. “Case Study; Woody 2000 Project”. 30th April, 2010
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How Language is Different From Communication? Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison between language and communication in animals
Comparison between animal and human language/communication
Critical components needed for language development in infants
Introduction A language is a meticulous kind of structure for presenting, conveying, and understanding information. There are fundamentally two types of languages which are; the natural languages and artificial languages.
A Natural language also known as an ordinary language is any language which is formed in an inadvertent manner due to the human intellect’s ability to grasp the intrinsic capacity for language. Normally natural language is used as a basic form of communication hence the language could include spoken words, written or signs and gestures.
An artificial language also referred to as a planned or constructed language is any language that has not developed evolutionarily rather has been deliberately formulated by an individual or group by creating new pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary.
International auxiliary language or formal languages such as computer-programming languages, formal logic analysis languages, and code languages such as Morse code are examples of artificial language which are devised to simplify human’s communication for computer interpretation or to exercise discretion. To know a language in general is to be able to understand the language but a more technical approach would be to be able to transmit, receive, and understand information communicated in a given language.
Comparison between language and communication in animals Language is a basically a structure of sound symbols used to convey information while communication is the comprehension and deduction of language (Duranti 46). Therefore, language is a complex and intricate set of ciphers which need a common platform that is created through communication in order to be understood (Duranti 48).
Communication can thus be better understood as a median that bridges the gap between two language terminals which could either be similar or different. It is not uncommon to find two individuals who speak different languages being able to communicate and as a consequence being able to understand each other (Ammaria 5).
It is through the above statements that I draw the hypothesis that animals have and do use language. Animals have shown all basic necessities of a language that is symbols either oral or physical as well as an almost equal reaction to a particular sound or physical movement(Deacon 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example is of the meerkats which are social carnivores similar to mongooses that live in arid and semi arid areas in Africa and Australia (Serjeantson 11). Meerkats constantly communicate with one through over 20 different sounds each of which has a different meaning.
The sounds include lost sounds, alarm sounds, leading the group sounds, pup feeding sounds, guarding sounds, and foraging sounds. Since meerkats spend most of the day foraging, at least one is left to stand guard and watch out for predators (Thornton
Family Relations within the Amish Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Amish People
The Amish Families
Introduction This is one of the most “cultured” societies in the world, with strong protestant-religious beliefs, which defines every aspect of their lives. Regardless of age, occupation, civilization levels, daily occurrences, all individuals of this culture must follow provisions in the Ordnung; a form of written or spoken Amish rules, strictly.
One unique thing with this community is that, as compared to other world communities, which alter their life orientations or patterns; for conformity with technological or scientific changes, this community pays little attention to such changes.
It is important to note that, although this community’s practices adhere strictly to the provisions in the Ordnung, there is a great variation in its application as one moves from communities bounded with this culture. For example, sections of communities within this culture embrace the powered battery concept, something that other communities oppose on religious grounds.
It is also crucial to note that, all the practices of communities that embrace this culture have some symbolic importance, as far as this community is concerned. This is because; almost every concept and practice within this community must conform to specific religious beliefs, which nobody can alter or change to suit personal needs or any changes occurring in other global communities (Kraybill, 2001, pp. 1- 14).
The Amish People This community has existed since time memorial as one of the groups, which make the Mennonite group of denominations; primarily the Anabaptist. One primary feature, which differentiates this group from other world cultural groups, is that, to this group technological advancement and scientific innovations are passing concepts hence, of little significance to this group’s daily living.
In addition to looking down on technological innovations, this group embraces the concept of simplicity and respect for God in any undertaking, which members of this community may involve themselves in. Historically, this religious group originated from Europe; Switzerland, although with migrations due to many conflicts, this group spread to the United States, where they first settled in the state of Pennsylvania.
With increased popularity of the group and growing populations, the group expanded to other sections of the American continent and Canada. Presently, this group is in more than twenty-one states, which include Illinois, New York, Mississippi, Maryland, Minnesota, Indiana, Tennessee, and Michigan (Lancaster Country Information Center, 2010, p.1 and Coblentz
Write in Turabain format 9th edition. (From the Making of a Leader by Frank Damazio Chapter 4-13) A three writing essay help
Write in Turabain format 9th edition. (From the Making of a Leader by Frank Damazio Chapter 4-13) A three page summary of the bullet points of this reflection. what you have learned so far from this leadership journey? How can you apply what you have learned in your life and ministry? What plans do you have to reproduce yourself as a leader?
Management and Leadership Styles Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
This paper looks at the different characteristics of leadership styles in relation to the executive A, B and C and defining at their effect in the management of the organization upon the retirement of the executive A.
“Level 5” leadership style Any successful company must have had “level 5 leaders” at any time on its management. The “level 5” leaders are sometimes referred as ‘good to great leaders’, they take over the operation of any company at any level even when the company is in the verge of collapse, reconstitute the company and drives it to success. “Level 5” leaders are always associated with the high intellectual horsepower with high knowledge on the management of any company at any level. Level 5 leaders have high self confidence that enables them move towards success. They are also noted to be humble and modest people who posses workmanlike diligence. More notably, level 5 leader tend to give credit to the junior staffs that helped him in the success attainment (Bass, 1985).
Considering the above description, executive A can clearly be classified as “level 5” leader since he took over the company when it was running at lose of more than two million dollars a year and its stock had plummeted to $23 a share and achieved a stock of 128% with good profit in the second Quarter. He also didn’t own the successes of the company but he gave it to other organizational leaders.
Transactional leadership This is an outdated style of leadership that believes in power and authority excise over his employees. Transactional leaders tend to take control over their employees and they attach incentives and rewards for every good work done by the employees (Bass, 1985).
The employees under such leadership bear a whole responsibility for any kind of task given to them since they are being punished for any kind of fault. The leaders in this kind of style are always observed as managers and not leaders. They do not embrace change in work environment or employees transformation but leaving everything constant unless in terms of crisis (Burns, 1978).
Looking at the management strategies of the executive B, it’s clear that he fits in this kind of management style. Executive B believes in chain of command, attaching incentives and punishment to any kind of work done by the employees. The workers under this kind of leadership work under high pressure.
Transformational leadership This is kind of style of that tends to create positive changes in the work environment and to their employees. These leaders convey the vision and goal of the company in such away that they inspire and motivate the employees hence having the ability to recharge and energizing the employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Transformational leaders are usually characterized by their reputable mode of intellectual stimulation, their individualized consideration, Inspirational motivation and idealized influence on the employees (Burns, 1978). Considering the above characteristics, the executive C is classified as transformational leader. He believes in inspiring and motivating the employees to be passionate about the company’s vision. He builds the employees by continuously setting up goals for them and assisting them in achieving the set target.
How leader B (Transactional leader) will affect the corporation upon his appointment Though leader A will tends to leave the working environment unchanged, the issue of attaching punishment to workers incase of any fault will have a negative impact on the corporation. This is because he will be taking over the corporation from leader A, who used to take fault responsibility upon him and look at the appropriate ways of solving the problem. The workers will feel to be working under pressure, hence creating problem in the duty discharge hence not attaining the corporation’s target and goal.
The level of pressure at corporation under his management will lead to loss of quality workers that were built by the executive A. Most of the staffs will seek employment elsewhere where they can under low or no pressure. This will drive the corporation into loss since he will have to employ new employees and train them on how to do productive work.
Attaching incentives to every good work done will only work for a few moments at the start of his tenure. This is because it will later turn to be a burden to the cooperation. The incentives are usually known to be easier to initiate, but the bigger problem usually comes with its maintenance (Burns, 1978). Human beings too are known for lack of satisfaction and any kind of incentive will never be enough. The employees will quest for more incentive every time and then, hence making the corporation to run at a loss due to incentive maintenance.
How leader C (Transformational leader) will affect the corporation upon his appointment Leader C will bring transformational change within the corporation. The fact that he will get already nurtured people by Executive A, will give him easy time in inspiring and motivating the employees toward the achievement of the corporation set goal. He will develop an empire of followers who are inspired and with intrinsic motivation to handle the assigned task.
Leadership style of leader C will give room for high creativity. The employees will use the techniques developed in them by leader A to come up more creative ways of solving the rising problems within the corporation. This will be of high benefit to corporation.
The employees will feel to be cared for since they will be having C.E.O who attends to their needs, listen to their grievances, empathies with them and supports them. This will play a very major role in encouraging the employees to work towards the achievement of the corporation target.
We will write a custom Essay on Management and Leadership Styles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He will also continue with the previous C.E.O policy of training and building his followers to attain their successes and the success of the company. Leader C will always act as role model to employees; he will instill positive behavior change hence creating work environment among the employees.
Conclusion Due to the previous working environment created by the executive A, the employees will be productive when the corporation will be taken over by executive C, unlike executive B that will majorly have negative impact on the corporation performance.
References Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance. New York: Free Press.
Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Raw.
Concept of the Theory of Motivation by Maslow and Herzberg Essay a level english language essay help
The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on the outcomes of a situation as opposed to giving attention to the individual or specific needs. Unlike the presented relationship between internal needs and the resulting efforts by Maslow and Herzberg, the theory presents a separation between efforts due to motivation, performance and the anticipated outcome. According to the theory, in order to motivate a person, there is need to link the efforts, performance and, motivation.
The variables accounting for the theory include, “valence, expectancy and instrumentality” (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009). The theory supposes expectancy as the believe that increased efforts is the foundation for amplified performance, but the execution of an event depends on the availability of resources, such as raw materials and time, the skills required to perform an act and the external support such as the supervisory support, availability of performance information or data.
Excellent performance enforces believe of gaining some valued anticipated outcome referred to as instrumentality. The clarity regarding the understanding of the instrumentality affects outcome; the trust accorded the decision makers regarding outcomes and the transparency of the procedures for deciding the outcome affects the outcome.
The importance placed upon expected outcomes is the valence. Some people are motivated by money while others are motivated by the time-offs, thus the differences in valence.
People have different abilities and perceptions to change the levels of efforts for a given situation. The capacity mainly depends on the value placed on anticipated results depending on the strength of the link between efforts and outcomes. According to the theory, the individual motivation depends on the perception one has regarding efforts, performance and outcome.
All the three aspects must work together, for instance if one knows that increase on efforts increases performance, and consequently the performance increases rewards but the reward is not valuable to the individual then the motivation will not exists. People in the same field often compare personal outcomes with those of the colleagues. They therefore alter the level of efforts to achieve a fair play.
Expectancy theory of motivation works on the principal of perception because an employer may provide a work situation that seems to work well among most employees but it does not mean that everyone is satisfied. The aspects presented by the theory do not only apply for a situation where one expects to gain a reward but also for anticipation of a certain outcome.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The theory of motivation is not about self-interest in rewards but about the associations people make towards expected outcomes and the contribution they feel they can make towards those outcomes” (Robbins and Judge, 2006). The assumption of equality among people is therefore not applicable.
Lack of motivation at the work place arises because companies lack clarity on the efforts, performance and outcome requirements. Employees lack provision for an immediate clarification to problems that require solutions.
Most people are evaders and do not feel comfortable dealing with problems unless the remuneration is worth the pain or the reward is valuable to the individual or a situation. The company ought to implement the link between efforts, performance and outcome as a problem solving procedure to make the workplace more user-friendly and motivating.
Changes in a production company occur every now and then and people ought to consider them as opportunities for improving their lives or the system. Employees ought to take the changes as a chance to come up with solutions such as rules or regulations that overcome any future challenges. In line with Hansen, (2009) the biggest mistake people make is to have the predisposition of coming up with solutions over a need immediately, other than availing time for better understanding and thus finish off with stronger solutions.
In a close link to the expectancy theory of motivation, the first step to solving the production scenario is for the company to understand that today; employees need freedom of choice and suggestions because they have the sole power over service or goods delivery. The outcome ought to reward by enhancing support to sustainable productive and economic growth.
Considering that, the bonus offers for the employees’ extra efforts towards achieving production goals is not worth the efforts, there need to avail other aspects in support of or equivalent to the product of labour or productivity, intensity and customer satisfaction.
A company need to control the labour productivity. One of the major catalysts for revenue and motivation in a company is group work. The company should invest the human capital in the same setting by letting the total production be equitable to the remuneration generally among the employees.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Theory of Motivation by Maslow and Herzberg specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The aim of the company is to improve performance and reach the targeted production. The procedures ought to enhance the morale for development and promote new modes in the workplace operations. Working as a group boosts the knowledge intensity of the workers and production of developments.
According to the expectancy theory of motivation, the reward is not necessarily the source of the economical growth or group performance. The labour intensity can equate to the product of hours worked by every employee and the share of the employment within the group setting.
This ensures that an employee is responsible of individual performance as well as that of their group. Under this criterion, it is easy to know the laxity of one member, the productivity of a group and that of an individual and, determine who does not fit on a certain group setting.
It is also important to value the Quality of the work by analyzing productivity. In most companies, the relationship between efforts, performance and the outcome in the employees’ working life is a zero rated relationship. The overall production goals ought to be enhancement of the rewarding styles, for instance upgrading the workplace operations.
The shortcoming of the current workforces for instance the conflicts over interests are equally solvable through ensuring improved operations over the relationship between the labour productivity and quality of the work done to the efforts placed to enhance performance.
References Hansen, J. (2009). Sales Tips – 5 Rules of Improve For Sales Success. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/
The movie “Easy Rider” from Sociology Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Structural Functionalism in Easy Rider
Introduction Whilst movies in most cases are taken in as entertainment tools, they are also educative. Moreover, apart from the dramatic aspects of movies, they integrate other aspects touching on different fields of study like psychology, sociology, and political science among other.
The movie Easy Rider is one such movie. Easy Rider has more than two bikers traveling from Southwest to Mardi Gras in New Orleans in search of freedom. In addition to its thrilling nature, it touches on some deep aspects of sociology viz. structural functionalism, conflict interactionism, and symbolic interactionism. However, this paper focuses on the structural functionalism aspect of this movie.
Structural Functionalism According to Parsons (1961), “structural functionalism implies that social institutions; collectively forming a social structure, function to maintain the harmony of the social whole” (18).
In society, there are constituents that work in concert with each other to achieve the nature of society, as it exists. Among these constituents are institutions, customs, traditions, and norms among others. These constituents are cohesive and none can exist in absence of the other. In Easy Rider, structural functionalism comes out clearly, as Wyatt and Bill take their ride to ‘freedom.’
To understand the application of structural functionalism in this movie, it is important to note some of its themes for they give meaning to the movie hence validating the actions that bring about structural functionalism. During the time when this movie was being written, America was grappling with the reality of corruption, violence, bigotry, paranoia, and conformism to some extent. Everyone was crying for freedom; no wonder, Bill and Wyatt set to find this elusive element of humanity.
Structural Functionalism in Easy Rider In society, drug abuse and drug trafficking is a biting issue; however, the greatest question remains, how do these drugs come from producers to consumers? The most appropriate answer to this question is structural functionalism.
In society, there are structures that facilitate this process and this fact stands out clearly in Easy Rider. Wyatt and Billy smuggles cocaine from Mexico and takes it to Los Angeles. This scene answers the ‘how’ question in the mystery of drug trafficking. Wyatt and Bill form a critical ‘constituent’ in American society in terms of drug trafficking.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Well, as noted in the definition of structural functionalism, there has to be intermediaries and consumers of these drugs for the existence of a society stained with drug abuse and drug trafficking. Remember, without these intermediaries, these drugs would not reach the consumers; therefore, there would not be existence of drug abuse in the society. There may be drug trafficking but no drug abuse and this would nullify the validity of structural functionalism.
The intermediary in this business is a man (acted by Phil Spector). This man buys the trafficked cocaine from Wyatt and Bill and supplies it in the streets of Los Angeles. The structural functionality element is now complete at this point. The constituents here are drug traffickers (Wyatt and Bill), intermediary (Phil Spector), and consumers (residents of Los Angeles).
The result here is a society that is maculated with illegal drugs. The ‘harmony’ of society talked of in the definition of structural functionality is achieved and maintained. There are structures facilitating this process.
Different institutions are involved. First, the failure of authorities to guard borders plays a key role in this functionalism. As an institution, authorities facilitate drug trafficking from Mexico to Los Angeles. To complete the structural functionality presented by failure of this institution, Wyatt and Bill utilize that opportunity to traffic in cocaine.
On the other side, in Los Angeles, drug laws are lax and this gives Phil Spector easy time in peddling the cocaine. Once more, the authority as an institution, acts as a constituent in society that fosters structural functionality. Drug abusers on the other hand complete the harmony in this social structure of drug trafficking and abuse. As aforementioned, the societal constituents may be institutions, customs, traditions, and norms among others.
Despite the fact that drug laws are lax in Los Angeles, the culture of drug abuse is deeply rooted amongst residents of this place. In these constituents, there is no mention of human beings (people); however, people are the building blocks of all these constituents. For instance, from people there comes culture, customs, norms, and even institutions.
After Wyatt and Billy are arrested for “parading without a permit” (Fonda
Morishita’s and Booth’s Articles essay help online free: essay help online free
This paper will critically examine both Morishita’s and Booth’s articles. Morishita’s article examines the relationship between the shape of local politics in the decentralization era and the resources found in a particular area. Booth on the other hand examines the role of the central government in charting out economic and policy decisions in the decentralization era.
Both articles concentrate on analyzing a feature of the post- Soeharto era. They both seem to analyze the performance of the government and developments within the political landscape after this historically significant change in the Indonesian government. Additionally, both articles recognize corruption as a major feature of Indonesian life and pay considerable attention to its effect.
The articles are written for an academic audience that is intent on understanding different features of the country, with respect to the change of the governing system. The audience is assumed not to have expert knowledge in the history of the country since they both give a lot of historical data in introducing and proving their respective thesis.
This means that the audience need not be experts in the field of Indonesian economics and history. The academic fields covered would be economics, political science and other social sciences. The themes covered in these papers are politics, corruption, decentralization and economics. The major difference, though, exists in the tone of the papers.
Booth takes on a hopeful tone, showing the positive progress made in planning by the new administrations. She gives a largely positive review of the progress; though there is still some realistic criticism in the paper. Morishita on the other hand has a critical tone; the paper has an underlying feel of criticism and cynicism that the game rules may have changed but the players have not.
As stated before, Booth’s paper examines the role of central government in planning. She asserts that the new decentralization system has changed the role of the government in planning, giving the regional governments more power and autonomy (Booth, 2005, p. 198). This assertion forms the basis of her paper.
They are well discussed, providing the reader with a clear understanding of how and why the change has happened. It also provides in detail the challenges of decentralization that this system faces. Her discussion is specific to Indonesia, citing examples and documented data, which keeps the arguments impressively in context. In order to adequately discuss this,
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Booth has used various methods to pass her point across. Most notably, she uses a chronological arrangement for her sub-topics. This allows the reader to follow the argument in a time format. The paper is discusses economic matters, and is thus littered with a lot of numerical data. In order to summarize it, she uses tables. This helps especially with comparative arguments as it is easy to see trends when they are put in tabular format.
Additionally, she frequently cites other sources, a trait that validates the authenticity of the data and arguments she puts forward. However, the data she uses is notably secondary data; and despite the dexterity in handling the data, it gives it a distancing feel. The paper’s central thesis is more theoretical than practical. She asserts that the decentralization will lead to greater accountability to the electorate and autonomy from the central government (Booth, 2005, p. 217).
She does not take into account other political factors in play, and the extent to which corruption is embedded in the country’s culture. In my opinion, this is a failure due to the sources that she used in research. She utilized quite a few government sources, which are well known to provide biased data. However, this is does not mean that she does not do a realistic analysis of the data.
The author gives an honest opinion of the challenges faced in planning due to decentralization, and gives a less than stellar review on the how realistic the planning process is. In fact, she states that the process is more of wishful thinking than true planning (Booth, 2005, p. 206-207).
Morishita on the other hand examines the new power games in play after the decentralization and their relationship with the resources found in a region. His thesis is that central government influence in local politics is more in regions with vast economic resources like oil (Morishita, 2008, p. 82). This is opposed to regions that have less important economic resources, like forests.
His basis his premise on two case studies of neighboring provinces, each with different economic resources. He traces out, with a lot of historical referencing, the influences of central government politicians on local politicians and the effect of the influences on their political careers. He then uses this information to base his conclusion. His use of history to trace the careers and influences of local politicians is impressive. It shows adequate research was done.
The author has used different tools to put his arguments forward. He has few diagrams, two to be exact. The diagrams are all maps. The maps are used to show the areas that have the resources that the paper is discussing. One can argue that the paper does not need to have tables and graphs since it is basically dealing in historical data.
We will write a custom Essay on Morishita’s and Booth’s Articles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, using tables and figures helps summarize data, a welcome strategy in any paper that has a lot of information being discussed, such as this paper. This being a historical paper, he might have incorporated a timeline diagram to aid in summarizing the data.
His main thesis is mainly argued out in the form a historical account. He demonstrates detailed knowledge of local events and politicians, a trait that impresses on the reader that the author knows what he is saying. However, that is the only strength in the paper. The fact that he uses only two provinces to create a blanket conclusion for the rest of the country is not very convincing. The argument should have covered at least three provinces or more in order to come to a more authoritative conclusion.
In general, both papers have a central thesis they prove throughout the paper. They both follow their thesis through, though with different styles. One can argue that the difference in the style of presentation stems from the fact that they have different contents that they are discussing: one is economic and the other more social in nature.
However, there seems to be a collision of facts or sentiments. Booth’s paper, especially the introduction and toward the conclusion, give the notion that decentralization was beneficial to restructuring the political scenario.
Booth (2005, p. 217) claims that it would lead to greater accountability and direct repercussions in the ballot box for errant local governments. Additionally, the central government would not have as much control as it once did over the local governments due to divulging of guaranteed funds (Booth, 2005, p. 217). However, Morishita seems to be reading from a different script. He states that the central government still exerts control over the local politics, albeit through questionable means (Morishita, 2008, p. 84).
He also claims that local politics are not molded by accountability of the leadership but rather wealth and political connections of the local politicians (Morishita, 2008, p. 84 ). According to him, the same personalities that existed over the Soeharto era are the same players in the game. The system may have changed, but the players and the corrupt game plan has not.
The truth is that Morishita is right, corruption and back handed dealing has not been removed through decentralization (Rinaldi et. al., 2007, 5). This is very interesting. How would two papers have different sentiments on the same issue? In my opinion, Booth looks at the system from a theoretical and potential point of view while Morishita examines it from a practical and historical viewpoint. However, they both concur that corruption is an issue in this culture.
I think the papers are highly enlightening. They both have convincing arguments with respect to the area of study they have chosen. However, I would rate Morishita’s paper higher and more convincing as opposed to Booth’s. I personally find Morishita’s account captivating and more reliable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Morishita’s and Booth’s Articles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, he has chosen an interesting study area. Booth’s paper also is enlightening, especially where she highlights the economic effect of decentralization. She traces out the development of policy, while feeding us details on the influencing forces that caused the policy change. I found this organized approach quite impressive. What still surprises me is why they would have a difference in the effect of decentralization on corruption.
References Booth, A., 2005. The evolving role of the central government in economic planning and policy making in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Studies, 41(2), 197-219.
Morishita, A., 2008. Contesting Power In Indonesia’s Resource-Rich Regions In The Era Of Decentralization: New Strategy For Central Control Over The Regions. Indonesia, 86, 81-108.
Rinaldi, T., Purnomo, M.
Human Freedom as Contextual Deliberation Essay college admission essay help
Across history, people have grappled with the question of freedom. Many have over time, due to the happenings in their life, wondered whether they have any control over anything in their life. For some other people, freedom is a given.
It is exemplified by they ability to make choices. Choice implies freedom i.e. if there is no freedom to choose, there is no choice. However, in other people’s conception, even in the face of choices, one is influenced on what to choose and can not claim to be free; he or she can not choose anything else apart from what the forces that control him or her incline him or her towards (Taylor 143).
This paper looks into free will as a phenomenon. The paper seeks to establish to what extent human beings can claim to be free. This paper, in agreement with compatibilists, will seek to establish that although determined to some extent, there is a lot that human beings determine. A human being can only be “a determined auto-determiner”. What this means is that, in human choices, there is always an element of determinism and freedom.
To illustrate that human beings are “determined auto-determiners”, I will first discuss the causal notion of determinism. Causal determinism is based on the fact that for every effect there is always a cause and the cause informs the nature of the effect. Based on this kind of basis, hard determinists have posited that humans are determined and free will is an illusion. On the other end of the spectrum are indeterminists.
Indeterminists argue that much chaos and unpredictability can be discerned in nature. For example, considering human behavior, it often happens that given certain conditions one is expected to behave in a certain way but he or she does not. Despite of that, the indeterminist view is also untenable.
Faced with the two extremes, I will argue that a compatibilist approach is more realistic. Hard determinists or indeterminist have many objections to the compatibilist approach. However, through analyzing some of the possible objections by hard determinists and indeterminists, the viability of the compatibilist view will be illustrated.
There are people who contend that mankind is not free by any chance. They postulate that for a thing to be there must be a cause that facilitates its being. The cause of a thing defines what the thing is and all its characteristics. Based on the principle of universal causation, Aristotle posited the first cause, the prime mover or the unmoved mover.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He argued that each thing has an efficient and primary cause that determines its existence. Like Aristotle, Determinists believe that everything is caused and the cause determines the essence or ‘whatness’ of each given being. A thing can not be more than what its essence allows (Taylor 137). This is the first level of determination i.e. that we are determined by our ‘whatness’ or essence.
The essence of something is what makes a thing what it is. The essence of all things is predetermined by causes that produce them. Each of the causes is explained by other causes. However, this regression can not be endless. According to Aristotle, at the end of the regression is an ‘uncaused cause’.
St. Thomas Aquinas took up Aristotle’s ideas and affirmed that the causal regression can not be endless. He argued that by reason, an order or system of efficient causes can be discerned in nature with one following the other. An efficient cause is basically “the producer of an effect”. For example, a carpenter is the efficient cause for a chair.
Considering the efficient causes discernible in nature, a system evolves whereby for everything there is one such cause. The carpenter is the efficient cause of the chair. However, the carpenter is not an efficient cause in self; he or she resulted from parents, who had their parents. The lineage of parents can be followed until we arrive at the first man or woman. To explain the existence of man, scientists proposed the big bang theory and related evolution.
For philosophers like Aquinas, the big bang is not explanatory enough. There must be a cause for the explosion posited by the scientists. According to Aquinas, there must have been a being, prior to all beings, which is the ultimate cause.
The ultimate cause must have characteristics or capacity for all possible things. For Aquinas, this first cause or ultimate cause is what theologians call God. Theologians teach that God knows and His knowing is not limited by our conception of time. It follows that before anything comes to be, it is already known by God.
They further, point out that God has a plan; the divine plan for creation. Everything fits or has to fit into this divine plan. It is this assumption that has led to postulates such as divine law. In nature, one can perceive an order that was instituted by the author of nature or creation per se. therefore, given things are created to fit into a given plan, it follows that a human being is a mere puppet or cog in the wheel of a system.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Freedom as Contextual Deliberation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Not all people agree with ‘first cause’ related claims. Another way one might look at determinism is to consider the findings of cultural studies. Cultural studies have continually shown that whenever an individual is born into a society, society makes effort to ensure he or she fits into given societal prescriptions.
For example, two twins, a boy and a girl, are born to the same mother. From the moment their sexes are identified, societal stereotypes begin to shape their lives. The girl is dressed in a given way, fed on given food stuff and handled in given ways that are dissimilar to how the boy is handled.
As the two children grow up, they are taught cultural relative ways of doing things. Society teaches individuals, through the process of socialization, how they should behave and live. The social norms become the normal life and any deviation from the same is treated with utmost harshness from the rest of society. Therefore, individuals live by standards they did not choose but rather values in-calculated into them from in the past (Cahn
Religion and American Politics Annotated Bibliography online essay help: online essay help
Hinnells, J. R. (2005). The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. New York, NY: Routledge.
This book puts into context the place of religion in modern politics. According to the author, religion in the world has shaped how politics is conducted in modern world. The author indicates that, In the United States, religion directly shapes how the policies implemented by the congress are formulated.
Politics on the other hand influences the practice of religion. Hinnells points out that there has been a sustained debate on how religion ideas, individuals and institution influences the entire governance system right from national, local and at global level. The government policies with regard to freedom of worship and acceptable public worship limit religion. Therefore, this book tends towards the position that Religion and politics are intertwined and thus collectively redefine the shape of the public.
The interaction between politics and religion is not a new phenomenon; it dates back to the early classical era of theocracies that have transformed steadily into current democratic shades. Religion has had enormous influence on civil liberation struggles around the world especially in Latin America. On the other hand, the political interests of the majority shape the focus of philosophy. Going back to the Latin American example, the civil conditions or politics of the time gave rise to what is widely known as liberal theology.
This book clarifies the role of religion in the fight for the human rights due to political changes in America. The efforts of different religious groups have influenced thinking on human rights issues in congress. Giving example of debate on congressional debates on apartheid in South Africa, the book helps explain how powerful religious sentiments are in determining political focus.
Moyser, G. (1991). Politics and Religion in the Modern World. New York, NY: Routledge.
In this book Moyser looks at major political issues and how religion has influence debate on them. Moyser (1991, p.261) indicates that years after 1960, the United States politics has been reshaped by congressional movement and religious communities. There has been a drop in students of politics as a result of persuasion. The voting pattern among the Protestant have declined significantly.
Moyser in his book notes that congressional voting has always been on issues that developed after World War II. The happenings during and after the world war ii led to the Democrats aspirants’ continued enjoyment of the support of the Jews, Catholics, and southern black protestant. This has enabled the Democrats to have an upper hand in areas that are predominantly occupied by members of these religious communities (Moyser, 1991, p. 261).
On the other hand, the republicans receive overwhelming support from mainland Protestants. voting patterns are always influenced by the policies and development goals of the parties involved. The policy of Government support by establishment of welfare organization to aid the disadvantaged and those who are economically threatened have facilitated a pattern of many religious groups’ differences.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The differences in policies among religious groups i.e. Protestants and the Catholics have led to diminishing relevancy of devotee competition. The policies by major congress parties have led to emergence of new political groupings which are issue specific moving away from traditional protestant and non protestant ideologies. New issues and policies tackling new era challenges have been welcomed (Moyser, 1991, p.262).
Social issues such as drugs, pornography and marital infidelity have categorized Christians and non Christian’s attitudes and consequently influencing congressional politics. The new pattern in the coalition has been affected by racial war.
The black Protestants, the unchurched and majority of Jews advocate for state action whereas other groups have held on to the call of preserving the status quo. Policies involving gender disparity, environmental degradation and political open-mindedness have exposed a characteristic of religious partiality which is not in line with past history that transformed religious disagreement concerning civic matters.
Religious groups have differed with congress on a number of things spanning from the 1960s which include; appeal of the civil rights movements, the Vietnam War and social justice aspects (Moyser, 1991, p.262). Though most of these issues have been institutionalized but some opposition still is witnessed from some protestant quarters. These issues have affected congressional voting.
Noll, M. A.
Does ‘China’s Growing Military Power’ Pose A Threat To The Region? Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Chinese Perspective of their Military
China Not a Real Threat
Introduction In the beginning of the year 2007, the Chinese government increased its expenditure on military and over 45 million dollars was invested. According to experts, Beijing has always understated its defence budget by even over 50%. The budget is estimated to have increased considerably as over the past two years, Beijing has conducted some anti-satellite tests.
This has raised concerns that the military growth of china could cause a threat in the area since it has not exposed much of its operations to the US foreign policy. The rapid growth of the Chinese economy and its increased and vigorous engagement in diplomatic issues within the region and the whole world at large is critical.
This is what brings about the discussion of the peaceful rise that china has undergone to achieve very powerful status in the world economy and democracy. Furthermore, the pentagon has noted that China could be the only hegemony on the basis that it can challenge the unipolar power of the US. The two perspectives of China as a very good global economic associate and a military superpower are challenged by the military budget.
Chinese Perspective of their Military The Chinese indicate that the increasing military investment is just a sign of economic prosperity and should not be taken as a security threat in the region despite that fact that China has the capacity to manufacture ballistic weapons (Chen
The Long Voyage Essay essay help online free
In his narrative The Long Voyage, Jorge Semprun tells about his voyage to a concentrated camp called “Buchenwald”, interspersing it with his memories of before and after the voyage. The peculiar detail about the book id the mode of its development: Semprun often uses switches between external to internal setting.
What is more, this tool is used both for literary internal and external settings, e.g. physical locations, and for general notions, such as internal and external sides of politics. This shift plays an outstanding role in the plot’s presentation. It gives a chance for the author to compare and contrast many elements of the book including his external state as a character in the book and the stream of conscious in his narration.
The contrast between the external and internal, however, is not only used for intensifying the aspects of reality and its perception in different views; Semprun also tries to show the interdependence of global things and some particular notions. Showing that a person is just a small detail in the enormous system of the world, the author later transfers to the inner world of one individual, showing that it can be as great as a separate Universe.
The rapid changes of the setting, from internal to external, add an important complication to the narrative. Each change conveys a special message. In fact, the nature of human consciousness suggests that people think with images, and their order is never chronologically or logically organized. Thus, Semprun tried to express the stream of those images in his narrative, showing the importance of every thought.
Those images, however, are either described in detail, or rather blended. This points to the author’s inability or even unwilling to remember certain moments, e.g. those connected to his trauma. “…You can never erase this voyage. I dont know, really. For sixteen years I’ve tried to forget this voyage, and I did forget this voyage.” (Semprun, 23)
Semprun is addressing the reader here, subtly asking us to sympathize with what he’s feeling. After clarifying his emotions, Semprun then returns to continue his story with a series of dialogue between him and the guy from Semur, his companion throughout the narration.
This character, by the way, can be identified as fictional, as it was invented by Semprun to “keep him company” during the voyages’ repetition. The companion also helps the author to switch from internal to external, form the author’s thought to his companion’s vision of the thoughts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tool of contrasting the inside and outside also serves as an intensifier of author’s testimony. For example, in one of the episodes Semprun first describes the setting outside the boxcar, and then switches to the inside, describing how many people there are; he then expresses how unbearable it is to be one of them, and finally ends by describing the pain in his knee. “There is a cramming of the bodies into the boxcar, the throbbing pain in the right knee” (Semprun, 9).
Such development of vivid description from the general events to his very own feelings allows the Semprun to analyze every level of reality, showing the inconveniences, pain and fear, or simply his current emotions on each of them. What is more, it allows the reader not only to imagine, but also to feel the horror inside the boxcar. The impressiveness is supported by the contrast of fear and tension inside the boxcar and the beauty of the Moselle valley outside the window.
The people experiencing terror inside the vehicle observed the life of free and troubles people on their way, which intensified the effect. Such contrast is, however, rather dubious, as the “free” people outside the window were treated by Semprun as those who were politically dependent, and in perspective oppressed.
The reflections of the inside and outside change the traditional positions of both the writer and the reader. For instance, in some cases, the narrator seems to discover the development of plot together with the reader.
Indeed, in some scenes Semprun builds the narration in a way that shows his uncertainty in the situation, and the change of external and internal seems to help the narrator to find the solution. In other cases, the author seems to be watching the situation on the neutral situation, just like the described events are not happening to him.
He also uses statements, which were apparently made by him, but which are familiar to everyone who might read them: “What carries the most weight in your life are the people you’ve known” (Semprun, 29). This statement expressed by Semprun integrates the readers into the author’s world, with his unbelievable experience of knowing a number of people, and, most significantly, losing majority of them.
Indisputably, this allows us perceiving the world though the author’s eyes, which is untypical of most readers, who never had similar experiences. This makes the reader and the writer much closer than in traditional setting. When the author tells about the experience of fifteen years, the reader gets the feeling of being of the same age with author. Apparently, such effect is due to proper use of the mentioned tools.
We will write a custom Essay on The Long Voyage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The relationship between inside and outside in the narration reflects various important notions. For instance, the notion of survival is presented in the contrast: in the most strict conditions people can be filled with desire to live, and this helps them to survive; on the other hand, even when a human has freedom, their inner world does not always survive.
This can be supported by the example of the German woman: both of her children were dead, and her own survival therefore was of no value to her. “”Both my sons,” she says, “both my sons were killed in the war.” She throws the bodies of her two sons at me for fodder, she takes refuge behind the lifeless bodies of her two sons killed in the war. She’s trying to make me believe that all a counter-balance for all my dead friends, for the weight of their ashes, she’s offering the weight of her own suffering.” (Semprun, 45).
Similarly, the author presents the notion of return. Having told about his will to return, he turns back to the global understanding of what is happening, and assumes that “perhaps one can’t take this voyage back in the opposite direction” (Semprun, 23).
Such conclusion serves as a contrast between the author’s thoughts and wills, and the real life; it reveals the very essence of human nature, which suggest that every individual has its own perception of the world, reflected in his mind; this perception, however, does not always coincide it the order of things.
As far as everyone is just a unit of a complex system, people cannot make the world work by their own rules. In this respect, the author shows how helpless he is in the flow of his destiny; he was not to decide whether to take the voyage or not.
Switching of the inner and outer is an effective tool used in the narration. In addition, it can be viewed as the author’s personal philosophy of world perception. Indeed, the contrasts of internal and external teach us to take into consideration the different factors of our life. In words of math analysis, they can be define as “dependent” and “independent” variables, which are either set by an individual, or appear according to the greater plan.
Works Cited Semprun, J The Long Voyage New York: Overlook Press, 2005.
The Signal Corps Officer Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Branch introduction
Branch officer life
Branch introduction The United States Army Signal Corps was established in 1860 with Albert Myer, an army doctor, as the pioneer Signal officer and was enacted as a distinct branch of the army by an Act of Congress in 1963. It has played a significant role since the American Civil War up to date, offering integrated services from military intelligence, weather forecasting to aviation. Signal corps has its headquarters located in Fort Gordon, Georgia.
The Signal Corps have a coat of arms with a shield; a crest; and a motto, “Pro patria vigilans”, inscribed on it. The Signal Corps are customarily recognized with white and orange colors. The branch’s insignia is shown by two crossed flags and a burning torch which symbolize communication or signals (U.S. Signal Corps 2003).
The Signal Corps Officers is an operations support branch, whose function is to provide dynamic and integrated information structure to enable command and coordination of the Army’s combat units at times of calm and conflict.
The success of the armed forces mainly is determined by the capability of the army to be mobile, shoot and coordinate (which is necessary to achieve the other two). The signal corps officers play two important roles in the army, these are; they provide technical communications assistance; and they also play the role of combat leaders in times of an operation.
Branch organization The Army’s Signal Corps handles all channels of communication for the whole Army force. The Signal Corps Officers aims to ensure guaranteed, secure, consistent and dynamic information structures in all stages of command and control and for whatever the environment. On every operation, information and data management (under responsibility of the Signal Corps) have been more important for the Army and its successive victory.
A Signal Corps Officer, subsequently, is required to be able to plan, set up, integrate, operate and maintain the Army’s voice, data and information networks, protocols and assets. Signal Officers are highly intelligent, forward thinking and possess a lot of knowledge on the variety of technology employed.
The Signal Corps Officers was integrated into the United States Army Regimental System in 1986, with the aim of providing the army with a flow of identification and to enhance that model with an individual system, which could increase an officers likelihood of serving consecutive duties with his/her regiment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Signal officers guide their seniors on the application of cables, switching, radios, and satellite communication structures and also command signal units at organization, team, and brigade stages. Vacancies to work as communication electronics staff officer are wide and demanding with missions globally at operational level “ranging from the forward edge of the battlefield to the White House Communications Agency in the nation’s capital” (U.S. Army 2000).
Orientation into the unit starts with the Signal Corps Officer Basic Course. At this stage many newly promoted lieutenants may acquire varied operations as platoon leaders in strategic combat signal unit or as objectivity commanders in signal units that manage “strategic fixed station telecommunications switching centers, satellite terminals, and radio relay stations”.
After graduation from college students who have electrical engineering degrees are assigned to work that involves exploring new technologies and bring up new communication gadgets, weapon control systems and other laser related technology.
Branch officer life The responsibilities of a Signal Lieutenant may include: To plan and execute all modes of communication on operations, both at the time of peace and wartime; Understanding strategic problem solving and the Signal Soldier’s function of a leader in a combined army team or joint force situation; Coordinating recruitment of Signal Officers at all levels of command, from platoon to battalion and higher, in United States and trans-national missions.
Training includes completion of the Signal Officer Basic Course (SOBC), where an individual is trained leadership attributes, tactics, maintenance and operational aspects of the networks and implements applied by the Signal Officers. To be a leader in the Armed Forces takes certain attributes; a leader demonstrates self-discipline, initiative, confidence and intelligence; an individual should be physically fit and be able to work under strenuous conditions.
Leaders solve problems fast enough, always taking into consideration the success of the operation, and respect for their subordinates and other army officers. A good leader show the way from the front and change to circumstances that are ever evolving and is judged by his/her ability to solve problems when faced by a difficult situation.
The Signal Corps has allegiance to other armed forces units such as the National Guard and Regular Army. The functional areas in the branch include the following: FA24 Telecom Systems Engineer, FA34 Strategic Intelligence, FA40 Space Operations,FA47 Academy Professor, FA48 Foreign Area Officer, FA49 Operations Research/Systems Analyst, FA50 Force Management, FA52 Nuclear Counter proliferation, FA53 Information Systems Manager, FA57 Battle Command and Simulation Operations, and FA59 Strategic Plans and Policy.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Signal Corps Officer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Branch accession The criteria of the branch accession depends mainly on the position one is willing to take, however special consideration is given to those individuals who have bachelor’s degree or higher educational advantage in the relevant fields for certain positions and also those with physical ability.
For instance, if an individual would like to become an FA 24, one is evaluated at the four and seven functional designation board and also the through the Officer Service Management Pilot Program. There are usually between two to five corps in the army and are recruited into the branch on a proportion of the general army in-take. Each year about twenty percent of the applicants are taken (U.S. Signal Corps 2003).
Conclusion With the current advancements in warfare equipments, command and coordination can be attained through applying current information systems developing on the worldwide stage, thus an efficient and reliable team must be in place, and that is the Signal Corps Officers.
The duty of the Signal Corps Officers is to control and enable communication and information services for the coordination and control of the military organs. Signal maintenance involves network operation and control of the electromagnetic spectrum; and engage in design, installation, maintenance, and running of information systems.
For those intending to be recruited into the Signal Corps, one should recognize that being in the army is a challenging and demanding work, and one needs passion, zeal and professionalism in his or her work. Men and women in the Signal Corps team are well disciplined, self-driven, confident, hardworking and intelligent. It takes ones commitments and achievements to ascend up the seniority hierarchy.
Notable branch alumni include: “General of the Army, Henry H. Arnold, Frank Capra, Tony Randall, Jean Shepherd, John C. Holmes, and Julius Rosenberg” (Raines 1999).
Reference List Raines, R. R. (1999). Getting the Message Through: A Branch History of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D.C., 350-407.
U.S. Army. (2000). Branch Skills. U.S. Army Signal Corps. Retrieved from www.hrc.army.mil/site/Branches-Skills/index.htm
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Signal Corps Officer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More U.S. Army Signal Corps. (2003). Mission Statement. U.S. Army Signal Corps. Retrieved from www.branchorientation.com
Women in Roman Society Essay college admission essay help
The roman empire was considered one of the most known and influencial empires of the ancient world.They are also behind many of todays most modern technologies and civilisations.
In ancient world, the role of women in every society was well defined though very controversial in many societies.In ancient Rome,Noble women were considered a lot freer than their Greek counterparts.They were accorded citizenship and enjoyed a lot of freedom outside politics. On the contrary however, these women were not allowed to contest for political office or take part in elections (Bauman, 1998).
Despite this disadvantage however, women enjoyed alternative freedom economically and could even air their opinions on politics. It is difficult to curve out the general role of women in ancient Rome for the reason that their statuses were widely varied; there were women of little influence like poor fish mongers to wealthy daughters of politicians who were more likely to leav a legacy during their time.
The wealthy women had slaves do all their household chores including daily routines like washing their female master’s hands and face.The slaves would also bathe their masters and spend hours fixing their nails, hair and eyes.
The wealthy women on the other hand spent most of their time relaxing, commanding slaves and planning amusement parties for their husbands and themselves. In regular households, the women were taksed with bringing up the children and house keeping. It is also worth noting that since there was no means of family planning, the women bore many children and were pregnant most of their adult lives. Men worked in the fields until about noon and spent the afternoons relaxing with fellow men at entertainment spots.
It was believed among the Romans that women be under a man as their guradian owing to their weakness in physique. A womans guradian would thus be her father during her early life before she got married and later her husband in marriage. In the event that the father died before the woman was old enough to get married, then a relative would be assigned to be her guardian by her father in will or by a government offficial.
In terms of education, girls and boys enjoyed the same treatment but only until the end of primary education. Upon completion of primary education, only daughters of aristocratic families went on with their schooling. The rest of the women would be trained in singing and dancing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this culture, marriages were arranged. Bride price had to be paid by the groom’s family and its value was determined by the perceived social status of his family. The marriages were arranged much earlier than they would occur. The women were betrothed at a very early age and bred to an age where they would then be handed over to their husbands. The betrothed women were forced to live lives with a limited social circle because perceived flirting with any other man other than the ones they were betrothed to was deemed ill manners.
The roman women gained a lot of freedom upon marriage and were treated like their husbands companions unlike the Greeks who oppressed their wives (Roman Society, 2004). The wives shared with their husbands in authority over their slaves and children. They also enjoyed the right to visitors, shopping and movement.
Despite all this freedom enjoyed by the roman woman, there were a few unwritten laws that governed her behaviour both in public and private. A Roman woman was expected to sit upright while attending parties with her husband. In addition, she would only be allowed to take grape juice while her husband enjoyed wine and could recline his seat to relax.
The rules on wine were later to be relaxed allowing the woman to join her husband in enjoying wine. This era made the roman women some of the least oppressed at that time in the world (Women in Roman Society, 2006).
In this world of oppression particularly towards slaves, there were only a hand full of women who worked as doctors, hair dressers and nurses. It has been reported that there were some female gladiators who fought in an arena for the amusement of crowds. Female gladiators however did not have helmets on during these reported fights.
From the information gathered above, it is very hard to draw a clear line that would define the role of a roman woman. It is in fact easier to define the different roles of different women with different social and family statuses. Perhaps it would be even easier to categorise the women in order to understand their roles better. There were the wealthy and powerful women who had power over slaves and entire households and did nothing but be served and plan parties with their friends.
Secondly is the woman in the average household who enjoyed some freedom but still had to do all the house keeping and ensure that her house was in order. The last group to be observed is the class of slaves. Even in an empire where women enjoyed relative liberty, slaves continued to be oppressed and were forced to do hard jobs including petty tasks like washing their master’s faces and bathing fellow women.
We will write a custom Essay on Women in Roman Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Bauman, Richard.1998. Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, Introduction, New York: Questia Roman Society. 2004. On-line. Web.
Women in Roman Society. 2006. On-line. Web.
Technology in Business Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Current Impact of IT in Hospitals
Future Impact of Technology in Hospitals
Introduction The upcoming technological trends have a lot to offer since they eliminates repetitive tasks that are usually coupled with errors. There are numerous types of technologies, which can be introduced in any business sector with great impact. However, these systems require numerous maintenance practices once in a while so as to ensure their reliance on critical tasks.
Hospitals, manufacturing sectors and others have been the major beneficiaries of these technological advances. The industry is quite promising since in the past few years, more initiatives have been released to the market and in regards to that, future systems will be required to do more complex procedures requiring critical reasoning.
This paper explains how business sectors have benefited with the advances in technology when handling their various processes. Hospitals have also seen a reduction of errors upon introducing such systems and therefore, technology is the way forward for such sectors that want to reduce error rates in whatever processes they choose to undertake.
Information Technology is the way forward for any business that wants to attain a competitive advantage and therefore managers, consultants, financial analysts are considering investing in IT as the best option. (Brynjolfsson
Global Supply Chain Management of Wal-Mart Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Background information of Wal-Mart performance
Wal-Mart Performance Statistics
Wal-Mart Global Sourcing and Outsourcing
Abstract The inventory management in a firm or organization highly depends on the management of resources and facilities as a measure towards economical expansion. Supply chain management depends on progressive and efficient production and distribution. In order to keep production and distribution costs at minimal levels, the organization ought to select raw materials and suppliers carefully.
Managing the supplier determines and catalyzes the flexibility and, quality of goods or services at minimal costs. The main reason why a supply chain store should work around reasonable costs is to ensure customer’s satisfaction at all times, especially during the market fluctuation periods. The main aim of a supply chain is to offer innovative dimensions and remain competitive in the market by introduction and delivery of dynamic and technologically high quality inventories into the market at sustainable costs.
Management of cost also enables organizations to build a vision or goal through recognition of performance break and thus narrow the competitive gap through utilization of available resources. Successful supply chain means that the consumer is not kept waiting after ordering and this is achievable via proper balancing of resources to meet demands (Lambert, 2008).
According to Wisner (2008), the current economical crisis means that the financial system remains unstable thus calling for critical but quick decisions regarding trade especially on money matters. Today there is need for careful inventory management and considering that utilization of technology is taking over the trading industries at a high rate, there is need to convert the physical elements of transactions to automated systems to enhance trade at the lowest feasible costs.
The high diversification of transactions means that companies need to invest in hi-tech information management urgently in order to facilitate goods transfer. In addition, this strategy assists in compensation of the low investments rates to the international transactions. Economic crisis means low investment rates thus the need for companies to invest the available resources smartly.
Background information of Wal-Mart performance This paper evaluates Wal-Mart supply chains. The Wal-Mart supermarket industry is among the largest firms supporting economic sector in the U.S. the firm deals with food and non-food products retail. The supermarket industry today enjoys a constant international growth of its customer base.
This kind of market growth requires an increased need to undertake effective management strategies in order to overcome the recent restrains to global economic developments. The 2007 financial crisis caused a change in consumer trends due to a lack of customer confidence, however, good inventory control ensure lower price for the products thus the current shifts in consumption patterns among households.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today the consumers’ behaviours indicate more consumption on food items than non-food products. This is due to a reduction in the level of consumers’ disposable incomes, which has affected the financial performance of the industries. Despite the current financial crisis, Wal-Mart has managed to improve its financial performance.
During 2007, there was a general reduction in the number of shop visits by the consumers in its distributed stores. Furthermore, consumers are more concern of the safety and nutritional value of food products, which results in increased regulation within the industry by government or non-governmental organizations.
Wal-Mart Performance Statistics Characteristics of Wal-Mart’s Supply Chains Designs and Strategies
In relation to Lambert’s writing (2008), companies use various methods of forecasting demands to manage supply chains inventory. The methods include graphical, historical or statistical elements. Graphical analysis involves many difficulties of modelling outputs, especially when the chains are many as in the case of Wal-Mart, but on the other hand, it offers clear picture of the reality and chances for expansion through clear analysis of hindrances and catalysts.
The daily demand shifts call for complex representations. However, it is possible to model systematic and similar graphs even when they call for demanding efforts. The statistical forecasting are more accurate because of defined data types compared to historical, which mainly entail predictions based on past performances.
Majority of the methods for the Wal-Mart supply chain relationships nevertheless utilizes supply situations that are a rough estimate as opposed to the current states of affairs, thus lack of exact prediction. Forecasting enables firms to learn the procedures of controlling some of the consumer’s systematic shifts such as weekly changes.
The shifts are rather much more complicated when a chain store of the company fails to carry out the observations. Forecasting enables the management to find information regarding insufficient supplies, which would otherwise be hard to note in the aim of ensuring better trading and accurate or timely supplies.
Close coordination means that the Wal-Mart chains are working as a unit, to allow uniformity especially over performance and dynamism. It is possible to avoid heterogeneity within the chain stores by synchronizing activities. The current technological change calls for intelligent systems and personnel who are able to handle the operations, research and provide system’s theories.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Supply Chain Management of Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a strategy to minimize costs, they harmonize and synchronize sequences procedures to avoid waiting costs, and retain customers through timely deliveries especially for the global markets. Coordinated activities enhance the firm’s ability to deliver solutions of the complex problems through integration of various aspects from different chain stores. According to Kurtz et al (2009), globalization makes the supply chains more complex and, limited but better and more profit oriented.
There are a number of interrelations in Wal-Mart supply chains. Modulating components enables the managers to design subsystems, which assist in meeting a wide range of business requirements. The production, manufacturing and procurement of components are highly reduced, thus saving resources in material to meet future demands.
The joint planning, integration and coordination process reduces the performance cost and offers chances for business expansion to other market niche. There is increase on returns on investments such as assets, improved customer services due to specialization and, reduction on the time required for delivery.
Wal-Mart Global Sourcing and Outsourcing Globalization of the supply chains is crucial because reduced procurement costs as well as decreases on the risks of international transactions such as purchasing behaviours.
The technological impact is forcing businesses to consider outsourcing inventory management systems and venturing into countries that are more productive. For instance, India was a rare consideration to venture into some years back, but today their advancement in technological matters makes most transactions easier, faster and cheaper compared to some of the U.S. and other western countries.
Today globalization enables the supply-chains to bid for the cheapest but best quality options through comparison of market offers. Competition requires better establishment, new ventures and proper marketing strategies thus the quests for globalized sourcing or outsourcing. Globalization brings about change for growth and that is the aspiration for every firm such as Wal-Mart (Ayers and Odegaard, 2007). Lastly, some of the market niches are only attainable through global sourcing because they require global supplies.
Some of the repercussions for the global sourcing or outsourcing trends involve higher overall costs in comparison to the traditional style of regional or remote supply chains management. According to Coyle (2009), the exchange rates, tariffs, and space are some of the extra costs incurred during the international transactions.
Beside the climatic conditions, the time factor due to regional differences may also affect the business transactions. A lot of complexity is usually involved when there are many global suppliers, thus the needs to consider the diversification. A good deal with low prices in the global markets may mean more costs especially if a firm does not consider other related factors such as time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Supply Chain Management of Wal-Mart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Ayers, J. B.
History of the Non-Profit Sector Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A history of Non profit organizations
Non profit organization Values
Justification of public good and utility
The value of public representation
Theories regarding the establishment of nonprofit organizations
Introduction Non profit organizations have always been considered as voluntary organizations that are officiated by private contributions. They are also regarded as silent contributors to the welfare of the public as well as the personal interests of individuals in society.
The main difference between non-profit and profit organizations is that profit organizations core obligation is to gross income and reallocate assessable wealth to the workforce as well as the shareholders while non-profit organizations core obligation is to provide self-beneficial and self preservation programs and services.
Consequently it is common to find volunteer human resources as well as volunteer executives who perform various roles without receiving any form of reparation. Charitable organizations, trade unions, public arts organizations as well as several other governments and government agencies all form examples of non-profit organizations which are sometimes referred as not-for-profit organizations.
Due to the self-interest goals perpetuated by these organizations as well as their role in society, most nations choose to exempt NPOs from revenue and property duty since the governments fail to execute or enforce policies proposed by the NPOs.
In essence, non-profit organizations are able to make a profit which is referred to as surplus and calculated at the end of every fiscal year; these earnings are retained as working capital for the internal mechanisms of the organization as well as further expansion plans rather than being distributed as dividend, shares or debentures. In most cases, NPOs use the surplus funds to hire new staff, reward the internal corporate leadership through bonuses and benefits.
The mid- level management staff along with the entire human resource of the NPOs also receive incentives at the end of the year through the surplus funds. This essay aims at discussing the history of non profit organizations as well as the transformations that have taken place in the organizations over the years.
A history of Non profit organizations According to Kranshinsky (1996), the non profit sector has existed in Europe and the United States since the eighteenth century though the organizations have only recently become prominent and a widely accepted aspect of the western society. The organizations’ initial operation system was strictly for charitable reasons meaning the non profit organizations in the 18th and 19th centuries never carried out business transactions. The non profit organizations of the early period depended entirely on funds donated by the financiers (Morris, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A survey in America revealed that there were slightly more than 12,000 charitable tax-exempt organizations that had no religious support while currently more than half a million of such organizations exist in America alone(Hammack, 2002).
The department of trade was initially responsible for authorizing non profit organizations on behalf of the government though congress and state legislatures were later given that mandate as well as the power to establish which sort of non-profit organizations meet the requirements to be excused from paying taxes.
In the 1960s, there was a rise in the number of non profit organizations in third world countries as an increasing number of communities were identified as needy either through education, food, clothing or shelter (Hammack, 2002).
As a consequence, the number of NPOs in South America, Africa and Asia almost doubled in a span of less than ten years (Kranshinsky, 1996). In addition, the discovery of fatal untreatable diseases such as AIDS, Ebola, and cancer among other diseases acted as a catalyst for the augmentation of NPOs that sought to research on specific diseases and provide a cure or disease management programs (Morris, 2000).
Affluent members of the public were encouraged to provide support and promote several other non profit organizations (Powell
Juvenile Justices Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Increasing Child Abuse and Neglect
Challenges in Juvenile Justice System
Introduction Over the last decade, child abuse and neglect has been on the increase. This fact comes with its challenges and right now juvenile justice system is facing challenges and some unique issues that if not well addressed would plunge this system into crisis in future. It is unfortunate that, this system has not undergone restructuring to accommodate changing trends in society.
Laws have not been reviewed to address the ever-changing societal trends in justice matters. Ignoring the facts does not change them, and whether the juvenile justice system acknowledges it or not; there are numerous challenges and unique issues facing the juvenile justice system, in the 21st century regarding the increasing numbers of child abuse and neglect.
Increasing Child Abuse and Neglect As aforementioned, child abuse and neglect has been on the increase over the last decade. According to Nation Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) (2007), “Child abuse reports have maintained a steady growth for the past ten years, with the total number of reports nationwide increasing by 45% since 1997” (p. 5).
This depicts how grave the issue of child abuse and neglect is. According to National Center on Child Abuse Prevention Research (2000), the year 1999 was the climax with 3,244,000 reports of child abuse and neglect reaching the Child Protective Service (CPS). Neglect is the prominent form of child maltreatment causing over 43% of child fatalities in a year. These statistics are alarming and they pose great challenge to juvenile justice system.
In 2001, the Third National Incidence Study (NIS-3) compiled results on child abuse in 25 states showing that, “62% involved neglect, 25% physical abuse, 7% sexual abuse, 3% emotional maltreatment and 4% other. For substantiated cases, 31 states gave the following breakdowns: 60% neglect, 23% physical, 9% sexual, 4% emotional maltreatment and 5% other” (Reid, 2001, p. 6).
These figures, compared to say figures of twenty years ago are very different. Most recent results are more revealing. According to Lung and Daro (2009), “information from 34 states representing 67.3% of the U.S. population under the age of 18, an estimated 1,215 child maltreatment deaths were confirmed by child protective service (CPS) agencies in 2008” (12). Interestingly, these statistics show deaths only.
Logically, not all the abused and neglected children die; therefore, the numbers of the abuse and neglect cases has to be higher than the deaths. Moreover, these statistics represent only the reported cases, meaning that the actual number of cases is higher than the documented ones. Therefore, extrapolating these statistics to cover all cases of abuse and neglect and including the unreported cases, child abuse, and neglect has up surged in the recent past. What does this mean to the juvenile justice system?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Challenges in Juvenile Justice System The fact that more children are being abused and neglected means that more children will end up in criminal practices. According to National Child Abuse (2010), “Children who experience child abuse
History of Origin of the United Nations Essay best essay help
After 1939, the world was in chaos and there were social economical problems that resulted from the World War II. Also, in this period, the world was suffering from the effects of the wars and governments found it hard to regain the social, political and economic stability they had enjoyed before the onset of the war.
Due to this factor, the world governments felt that it would be prudent to have an international body that governed the world governments and could assist the countries heal from the effects of war since in such periods the governments could not do that by itself.
Therefore, by having an international governing body, they felt that the world order would be restored. The origin of the United Nations resulted from the effects of the World War II and the need to establish a new and stable world order by the world governments and the common people affected by the instabilities.
In 1939, the European continent was in war which resulted in other states joining the war in an effort to save democracy of some states that were under attack, this war was referred to as the World War II. During this period the world order seized to exist and there was chaos socially, politically and economically.
Governments found it had to stabilise their countries hence a lot of suffering was witnessed around the world. As a result of this, the world governments felt that there should be an international body that could be able to assist them in such critical periods.
The government leaders unanimously proposed to form an international body to oversee this mandate and in addition maintain world order where wars and other man made catastrophes would be controlled by it. “The direct lines of the United Nations may be traced to war-time declarations of intent to establish a post war organizational system.” (51).
Nonetheless, the post war international agencies proposal began during the war in Europe but it was not until the war was over that the world felt a great need for such an organization. During the war period, crafting of the international agencies manifesto was under taken by the U.S secretary of state and would serve as a foundation for the numerous talks and meetings on how the international agency should look like and act.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first international body created was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration in 1943 was to take care of the of war and post war effects. From then on other international agencies were created in a series of deliberations in San Francisco.
It is in no doubt that the world was exasperated from the war and its effects in the society that setting up of the international agencies took place very quickly. “The decision to proceed piecemeal in the building of the post war system reflected the belief that governments were ready to commit themselves in regard to economic, social and technical matters”.(52).
Nevertheless the process of setting up the body was not an easy task. The process involved a lot of meetings, consensus and compromises as some countries felt that proposals brought up by some countries would be detrimental to their national interests and so there were wide consultations before an issue could be unanimously agreed upon. This process was dominated by three countries, USSR, U.S and Britain; this was because it was them who had felt the greatest impact of the war.
Still, the U.S had the greatest influence on the formation of the UN due to its resources and dominance in the world both politically and economically. “In a more specific sense the UN was shaped by the influence of American planning and leadership.”(55). The major three countries and other lesser super powers, France and China took part in the deliberations in San Francisco to come up with a clean manifesto on how the UN would operate.
These major powers were fully aware of the corporate responsibilities vested on them by the rest of the world and therefore had to ensure that the UN would be able to maintain order in the world without resulting in catastrophic measures by member states. Though the five major states had the influence on how the UN would operate, other smaller countries were also significant in the process and deliberations.
In fact they added significant proposals and amendments to the draft that resulted into a more comprehensive document which encompassed the interests of the whole world together. “By and large, the small states contributed constructively and realistically to the drafting of the United Nations Charter.” (57).
Finally the manifesto of the UN was influenced by common men and women on whom it was to serve. After the war, the people felt that there should be a body that was to protect them in such times of crises since they had suffered booth economically, socially and politically from the wars and lack of a world order.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Origin of the United Nations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The charter was influenced by the opinion, psychological state, and the aspirations of millions of common and uncommon men and women.” For that reason during the drafting of the charter their views were represented by various lobby groups and taken into account by the five major countries that were directing the process. “We, the people of the United Nations,” Is a statement that reflects on the views and opinions on which the UN mandate was built upon and whom it was to serve in the end (Claude, 57)
In the end, the United Nations Charter was a draft that resulted from the past war events in the World War II that made world governments feel the need of an international body that would overlook on the interests of the whole world, maintain world order and assist them in times of crises. “The United Nations Charter was the composite product of past experience in the building and operation of international institutions… and popular pressures for noble aspiration for a just and durable peace.”(58).
Works Cited Claude, Inis. Swords Into Plowshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organization. New York: H. Wolff Book Manufacturing Co., 1964. Print.
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Read “Focus On – Growing Demands for a Limited Supply of Water in the West” on page 380 of your textbook. Describe the problem, the cause, and some possible solutions. Describe a possible problem that might arise in the future as a result of the solution you are offering. Explain. Include textbook citations and a Reference entry to avoid plagiarism.
The strategic marketing program of the “Harley Davidson Motorcycle Company” Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
This is a company situated in America and majors on manufacturing process of motorcycles. The company was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin during the 20th century (Wagner, 34). This was the period during which the great depression was recorded in major parts of the world but the company stood the intense shock of the years.
Its main competitor includes the Japanese companies manufacturing Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha. However Harley Davidson Motorcycle Company has managed to out beat these products consequently maintaining its market niche. Harley Davidson Motorcycle Company participates in the manufacturing and selling of 750 cc motorcycles which are designed to be used on the American highway system.
The motorcycles therefore are heavyweight in nature. In addition to this, Davidson Motorcycle Company sells parts of the motorcycles, its accessories, and general products related to motorcycle (Howard, 108). Buell Motorcycle Company which is a subsidiary of Harley Davidson Motorcycle deals with production of sport motorcycles. Harley Davidson financial services, is also a subsidiary company of Harley Davidson, Inc.
In the year 2009, Harley Davidson Company considered joining the Indian market in a bid to expand on its market niche. This was facilitated by trade agreement between India and USA to allow importation of mango. Harley Davidson Motorcycle therefore managed to establish a subsidiary company in India located in Gurgaon. In the resent years the value of the HD brand reduced by 43% a value associated with a drop in profits by approximately 66% in the previous years (Doug, 56).
Organizations marketing mix In recognition of the fact that the company encountered major problems related with its marketing in the year 1980s, the management explored the possibility of new innovative plans to increase its market share.
Teerlink Richard, who was the former CEO of Harley-Davidson, came up with a strategy of management circles aimed at converging dealers and workers together to formulate specific critical decisions. Products were also manufactured to suite the needs of the customers. This paper presents four marketing mix used by Harley-Davidson Company in its marketing criteria.
This makes up the decisions to ensure continuity of the development of the brand of the company while shaping the outlook of the brands so as to attract more customers. During the formation of the company, motorcycles with grey color were offered to the customers but have continuously developed its brand in order to maintain its profits at a higher level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More V-Ron was a new product developed by the company in an attempt to capture the young population and ultimately increase its share in the market to a proportionally greater extent (Edge, 42). So as to sharpen more the product, HD considered reshaping its production criteria by improving the production process and facilities. Another point to note is the inculcation of statistical controls in quality improvement procedures.
While recognizing the customer as an important person in business, HD found it good to importune customers during their rallies. As stated by Howard (107), HD plans to hit the market with new and sophisticated makes during the year 2010. The products will give customers a real taste.
There are several approaches to promotion available to HD Company in its distinct promotional program. The use advertisement beautiful images of female gender are seen to capture the attention of the target group who in this are the male gender. Cyber cafes located in most of the outlets have served a great advantage to the company by exposing its product to a variety of internet visitors.
Its website has an aspect of interactive therefore bring the customers to the point of care. Visitors to the site can get detail information about the variety of products and services. One of the key promotional programs is its brand outlook (image) of being a real American product. This image orients a person to a position of self-importance in an American environment. Subsequently, formation of HOG closed the gap between the company and the customers.
After the financial crisis which had reduced the asset base of HD, cutting on cost remained the objective of the company. This necessitated reducing on the capacity of the company and subsequently slashing the salaries of the employees. With an aim of fighting products from Japan (Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha), HD participated in delivering its products in real time basis. Furthermore, introduction of tariffs on imports came as advantage to HD since it managed to offer competitive prices.
The company uses low-end method of targeting its customers. The price of V-Ron is the second highest after MSRP. Some of the factors which have contributed to the pricing of V-Ron in its 22% market niche are is the inability of the company to be in congruent level with demand, the low priced motorcycles and the market available from the used motorcycles (Edge, 42). These factors offer an aspect of competition to the company consequently shaping the price technique.
HD has seen its branches infiltrate the international market like India. Some of the promotional magazines available in international market have substantially elevated the company’s products to an internal recognition. The availability of dealers in most of the parts of America with largest focus of customers offers a good distribution network.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The strategic marketing program of the “Harley Davidson Motorcycle Company” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The dealers mainly indulge in distribution of HD products to an extensive customer base. In the same vein, HD expands its distribution network by the use of dealership programs, shows, and PR. It is also in its distribution programs that Demo bikes are availed at proceedings like Daytone (international convention). Some of the outlets of HD are designed to target customers with low enthusiasm. Such departments include: Costco’s and BL’s (warehouse clubs located in the USA) which are non dealer network.
Reference List Doug, Mitchel. Harley-Davidson Chronicle – An American Original. Lincolnwood: Publications International Limited, 2009.
Edge, Dirck. ‘‘ 2009 Harley- Davidson Touring Models and V- Ron Muscle- MD Firstrides’’. Web.
Howard, Wilson. “The Encyclopedia of the Motorcycle”. London: Dorling-Kindersley Limited, 2005.
Wagner, Herbert. At the Creation: Myth, Reality, and the Origin of the Harley-Davidson Motorcycle, 1901–1909. Madison: Wiconsin Historical Society Press, 2003.
Concepts of Unions Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why UNIONS are more Important
Promotions and Discharge
Introduction Primarily, under normal social scenario, people consider ethics a life value. In many occasions, ethics encompasses individual, faction or societal politics at the expense of meeting organizational values. These values must represent fairness to all members and social harmony. Unlike individualism, ethics provides a platform of collective organizational responsibility whether in communal or business levels.
In ethics, people learn how to relate with each other and perform duties either independently or jointly. Personal, group or communal ethics is necessary for social development. If a society decides to perform a communal activity, ethics is necessary among its members, in order to meet their expectations. In the past, there were no groups and instead, people liked to work as individuals.
At the dawn of civilization, workers realized deprivation of their rights by their employers. A union was necessary to avert this scenario. Unions can be either of trade or of labor groups. A union is an assemblage of people with the same targets. Workers can join hands to push for better working conditions.
Instead of collective responsibility, these workers can elect members who will bargain on their behalf. Additionally, union leaders can negotiate wage increase, abhorring of some work rules, enact hiring and complaint policies, defend unnecessary contact termination and ensure safety at workplaces. These are some of the reasons that make unions important business collaborates hence; successful business management. (Weil 20-26).
Ethical Issue During the industrial revolution age, people had little skills hence could not perform some tasks, which required professionalism. Therefore, employers used this opportunity to exploit workers. Employers underpaid and mistreated their employees. There was no ethics in them, as they enjoyed doing it while maximizing their profits. At the dawn of civilization, European workers decided to form unions to fight for their rights.
Though disorganized until the end of 19th century, the unions fought to work in fewer hours and wage increase. Thus, unions became fundamental in organizing and protecting employee rights. Through them, workers could voice out their demands in order to maintain job dignity and security. Thus, to promote business ethics, unions are very important. Successful business opportunities take employee interests at heart. If unions exercise their freedoms without employer restraints, that business is bound to succeed.
Why UNIONS are more Important In today’s business ethics, unions are important business collaborators. For instance, unions situate didactic standards at workplaces, provide technical knowledge to employees, bargain for superior working environments, parley salary increase, and improve the welfare of unionized members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research has indicated that, workers in a union enjoy higher wages and other benefits than non-union workers. For instance, many countries do not have job breaks. Interestingly, these countries enacted legal laws prohibiting employee vacations. Under this scenario, the state has the right to terminate contracts in case of absenteeism or any other simple mistake. Within a union, members can negotiate for vacations and even take a leave.
In the present society, unions are paramount more than they were long time ago from industrial revolution age. With the current economic tumult, some employers are resisting unions, terming them too demanding. To discourage members from joining unions, employers use anti-union campaign strategies, intimidations, firing of union members, half-truths and innuendo, and routine responses wherever workers opt to form unions.
Unfortunately, when employees work on individual grounds, they are bound to fail. However, unions have greater influence and can effect many changes. This is because; unions speak for the minority and safeguard the interests of workers under law. Additionally, they ensure fair treatment from employers. Many employers do recognize the ethicalness behind paying employees superior wages and other benefits.
This is because; companies that project on long term opportunities could want to maximize their profits through a skilled work force. Thus, meeting employee expectations ensure workers remain to work for an organization with satisfaction. These business opportunities value an organized workforce, which on employee experience to increase productivity. (Hirsch and Schumacher 201-219).
Traditionally, on social ethical grounds, the role of enterprises towards employees has been to pay an equal amount of wages for the work done. This has really changed over the recent years. There is unprecedented rise of political, social, and moral philosophies at workplaces. Yet, the question on the roles of an employer to employee remains unanswered.
In 1935, the Wagner Act prohibited employers from firing workers because of union status. Later, in 1964, the Civil Rights Act prohibited all Americans from exercising racial, sex, national, age and creed discriminations. There were major law alterations, which gave civil service workers, job protections especially against unnecessary contract terminations. (Freeman and Kleiner 27-50).
Currently, there is debate in America on whether employment at will suits American workers. The answer is, absolutely no. Some businesspersons believe that, it is immoral to employ new working policies, other than ‘employment at will’.
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Unions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To them, employees have no rights beyond employment acts and therefore, view them as business hindrances. This is what separates successful and unsuccessful business enterprises. Those that respect employee rights and value humanity are triumphant, while those that reject policy changes, experience business downfall.
Organizational conducts such as payments, firing, hiring, and promotions determine business success or failure. This is the reason why unions do exist. In the past, organizational conduct has been wanting, especially when these policies appeared to infringe employee rights. Unions play an important part in ensuring that, these conducts adhere to humanity and working laws. (Freeman and Meddoff 1-21).
Hiring Hiring process is one organizational conduct that has serious flaws. Although sometimes it is not easy to determine the level of skills in a person, there should be an efficient and transparent hiring process. So far, unions have been beneficial, in drafting hiring policies, which characterize justice and equality. Good hiring processes include screening, testing and then interviewing recruits. Under screening, employees with most skills qualify for a detailed and accurate job description.
Unions assist employers in recruitment because; inequalities arise due to improper hiring processes, which attract civil strikes. Any form of discrimination is unethical and affects the entire workforce. Consider a recruiting organization marred with sex, race, ethnic and religion discriminations rather than professionalism. This is one of the roles of unions in ensuring, fair and justice prevails in the hiring process. Testing should be feasible and unswerving to epitomize fairness.
Promotions and Discharge Unions bargain for fair promotions in organizations. Many organizations rely on inbreeding, or seniority or nepotism in promoting workers rather than using personal qualifications. This is an ethical issue, which has paralyzed many workforces. People without experience and qualification can assume high responsibility and those with qualification denied the chance.
This creates discouragement in the workforce hence, business failure. Additionally, unions protect workers from unnecessary contract terminations. Whenever an employee makes a mistake, there is a fair hearing process to determine a just outcome. (Hirsch and Schumacher 212-216).
Wages Collective bargaining of workers’ wages is a sole prerogative of unions. In fact, research indicates that, unionized workers receive better pay as compared to non-union members. Moreover, some strong unions insist on qualification rather than discriminations. Fortunately, some employers dictated by common sense, may decide to increase the wages of lowly paid workers, especially in this period of economic downturn. (Mishel and Matthews 1-10).
Union Criticisms Despite these important union roles, there are some people and entrepreneurs who believe unions are unnecessary. For example, some people accuse unions of partisan interests especially in benefitting a section of workers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Unions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Job seekers fail to secure their dream jobs because, some unions characterize with racism, sexism and other discriminations. Organizations blame unions for unemployment because; the increase in wages means, some workers are bound to loose jobs. Overall, employers are opposed to unions and in some situations; many workers loose their jobs because of unionization. (Kramarz 1-6).
Conclusion Unions are vital to workers’ job security and in many instances; they improve the lives of the citizenry. Through unions, countries continue to register an expanded economy and social stability. Some infringing laws do not exist today, courtesy of unions. In terms of wages, unions continue to fight for workers’ pay increase relative to the amount of work done.
Additionally, unions do collective bargaining with employers on behalf of employees, especially on the amount of time employees should work, organization rules and conditions, and other organizational decision making processes. If employers fail to yield to union demands, unions can mobilize their members to strike, boycott or campaign against employee abuses. Perhaps these are the major reasons why employees need unions.
Works Cited Freeman, Richard, Kleiner, Morris. Do unions make enterprises insolvent? Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 52.1: (1999): 27-50.
Freeman, Richard, Medoff, James. What Do Unions Do? New York: Basic Books, 1984. Print.
Hirsch, Barry, Schumacher, Edward. Unions, wage, and skills. Journal of Human Resources. 33.1 (1998): 201-219.
Kramarz, Francis. Outsourcing, Unions, and Wages: Evidence from data matching imports, firms, and workers. 2006. Web.
Mishel, Lawrence, Matthew, Walter. How unions help all workers. 2003. Web.
Weil, David. Enforcing OSHA: The role of labor unions. Industrial Relations. 30. 1: (1991): 20-36.
Solid Waste: A Report on its Environmental Impacts and Solutions Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Solid Waste Management
Environmental Impact of Solid Waste
Solutions to Waste Problems
Introduction As long as the human race has existed, there has always been solid waste that man has produced and subsequently had to discard. However, the amount of solid waste produced by human beings has significantly risen in the course of the years.
This might be attributed to the fact that over the course of the last century, most nations in the world experienced industrial growth at a previously unprecedented scale. This expansion in industries invariable led to rapid economic growth of many nations and considerable rising in the standards of livings of many people and thus the increase amount of waste.
Dealing with solid waste is fundamental to the existence of any civilization and how solid waste is managed determines the kind of effect that it has on the environment. This paper will discuss solid waste with particular reference to plastics and how the waste affects the environment. Solutions that have been suggested and can be used to reduce the negative effects will also be analyzed.
Solid Waste Management The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (2010) describes solid waste as “any garbage, refuse, sludge and other discarded materials.” This wastes is made up of matter such as scrap metal, domestic refuse, vehicle discards, used car oil and construction debris to name but a few.
It has been suggested that globalization, a process characterized by major integration of economies and cultures, has been chief in the exponential growth in solid wastes experienced in the past few decades. If unmanaged, solid waste can have an adverse effect on people since it may lead to the spread of diseases therefore decreasing the quality of life. As such, waste management policies have been proposed and implemented by various authorities.
The objective of solid waste management is to reduce the amount of solid waste disposed on land and lead to the recovery of material from solid waste through various recycling efforts. Effective solid management system is the key to ensuring human health and safety and as such, it is a prerequisite for the safeguarding of public health and the prevention of spread of diseases. In addition to this, effective solid management leads to the sustainability of natural resources as well as mitigates harm on the environment.
Plastic Waste While there are multiple other forms of solid waste, plastic waste are an especially formidable class of solid wastes. One of the reasons for this is the frequency with which plastic is used in modern day society leading to great waste.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Central Pollution control Board (2007) assert that an estimated 10 thousand tones of plastic waste is generated per day making plastic waste a significant portion of the total municipal solid waste. The prevalence in the use of plastic is mostly as a result of the change in life style and socio-economic conditions leading to increased usage of plastic by the population.
One of the factors that set plastics apart from many other solid waste substances is the fact that plastics contain various toxic constituents (Kreith
Large Hadron Collider Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online
The standard model of studying particle physics is surrounded with several issues in the wake of the anticipated entry of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Particle physicists are not sure whether LHC will challenge or add to the standard model used to study particle physics presently.
Moreover, LHC might explain the some controversial macrocosmic issues like dark matter in the universe. Moreover, the Higgs hypothesis of massive W and Z bosons appearing the same way as massless photons might also get answer. Nevertheless, these postulations are surrounded by numerous questions, ambiguity, and assumptions and this is what John Ellis tackles in his paper Beyond the Standard Model with the LHC.
To date, physicists have only managed to define matter using the standard model of particle analysis, which raises many questions but answers few about pertinent issues like mass differences between matter and antimatter among other cosmological issues.
LHC is expected to offer answers to some of these questions; however, physicists agree that for theoretical calculations at lower-energy accelerators to yield meaningful results that agree with the standard model, there has to be an unknown ingredient that is yet to be observed – the Higgs boson.
Therefore, the greatest question here is, can physicists find the Higgs boson? The chances of finding the Higgs boson particle are high. This elementary cum composite particle is thought to have mass of 114 GeV. In the standard model, symmetry is already broken into vacuum, the lowest energy state.
Physicists argue that just the same way a quantum particle associates with electromagnetic field, a photon in this vacuum has a particle that associates with it (the Higgs boson) whereby the photon gives masses to others and remain massless itself. If the postulated weight of this Higgs boson is 114 GeV, then the LHC will establish it provided its weight be below 200 GeV.
Nevertheless, there raises the question of whether, the Higgs boson particle is elementary or composite. This leads to the hierarchy problem in which some physicists believe there is other physics beyond the standard model. The answer to this question seems to favour a composite Higgs boson. Two arguments support this postulation viz. the supersymmetric solution and possibility of extra dimensions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In supersymmetric postulation, fermions like leptons and quacks pair up to form ordinary matter with bosons like W and Z or gluons, which carry forces between the matter particles that could be the Higgs boson thus making it a composite particle. On the other side, the possibility of extra dimensions of space not the conventional three dimensions is high.
There is a probability that there are other small dimensions, which are curled up but too minute to be seen. Nevertheless, the LHC is expected to be able to detect the extra dimensions where the Higgs boson is thought move in space.
The final question in this LHC machine is whether it will solve the problem of matter-antimatter riddle. Presently, the small differences between matter and antimatter can be used to explain origin of matter in the universe but only to scales that the standard model can allow which are insufficient to generate the matter observed in the universe.
However, the LHC has a TeV scale that will reveal this deficit. Nevertheless, even with high hopes of the LHC discovering the Higgs boson, there remains questions of whether its coupling of matter and antimatter would be the same among other questions like the origin of matter in the universe. The biggest setback of this LHC is the long time the accelerator is expected to take before it reaches its nominal collision rate. In summation, there is hope and realization of LHC would herald redefinition of physics.
Reference List Ellis, J 2007, “Beyond the Standard Model with the LHC”, Nature, vol. 448, pp. 297-304.
The Advantages and disadvantages of Using Celebrities in Advertisements Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Advertisement and Celebrities
Advantages of Celebrity Advertisements
Disadvantages of celebrity Advertisements
Introduction In today’s business environment, advertisements are a part of our everyday lives as business aim to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Advertisements appear in any conceivable legally acceptable place as organizations aim to capture the attention of their prospective clients. TV programs are punctuated by commercial breaks which increase in intensity at the time of day when advertisers concede that there is maximum viewership and towering billboards continue to litter our highways.
Advertising as a marketing medium for business promotion is here to stay owing to the huge successes it yields to the organizations which employ the means. Advertisements have evolved in complexity and creativity throughout the years as a result of numerous research efforts undertaken in advertisements.
In the recent past there has been the prevalence in the use of celebrities by organizations in advertisements. The fashion industry in particular has been notorious for its usage of celebrities to endorse its products. This begs the question as to whether employing celebrities to front fashion marketing campaigns results to greater gains for a particular organization.
To answer this question, this paper shall set out to discuss the significant advantages and disadvantages that may come about as a result of using celebrities in marketing campaigns. An analysis of the merits and demerits of celebrity advertisement in the fashion industry shall enable the paper to authoritatively state if these means of advertisement is worthwhile for the industry.
Advertisement and Celebrities There is no universally accepted definition of the term “advertising” but the legal and statutory definition puts it as “a paid form of message disseminated by businesses… specifically and systematically designed to influence the attitudes and decisions of individuals in relation to their consumption of goods and their use of services” (AGCM 2010).
As such, advertising is always aimed at biasing the attitudes of the market to be favourably disposed to the company’s product. Despite the lack of a universal definition, the core function of advertising remains the say: to sell a good, service or product to a targeted audience (MacRury 2009, p.1). One can therefore infer that good advertisement is that which results in the increase in sales of goods or services to the targeted audience.
The fashion industry stands out for its use of celebrity endorsement as a major marketing communications strategy. A celebrity is a well-known personality who is famous to the public for his or her accomplishments in some area e.g. acting, entertainment or athletes. Celebrity endorsement is generally defined as “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement” (McCracken 1989, p.310, cited in Wong 2009, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A report by Cooper (2010) indicates that the reason that celebrities are so prevalent in fashion marketing strategies is as a result of the acknowledgement by marketing executives that celebrities actively influence the public’s taste.
Advantages of Celebrity Advertisements For a product to sell there must be some positive regard to the product by the consumers. If the consumers can perceive the product as being of a superior quality to other similar products by differing companies in the market, the consumers are more likely to purchase the alleged quality product.
Celebrity advertisements are very effective in creating this perception of quality in the eyes of the consumer. This allusion of quality as a result of the products being used by the celebrities springs from the fact that the public assumes that being a celebrity is synonymous with having a taste for quality products. A case in point is the Nike “Just Do It” campaign in the early 1990s which made use of a number of celebrity sport figures including Michael Jordon and Bo Jackson.
The Center for Applied Research (2000, p.2) asserts that the use of celebrity sports figures was very effective in reassuring consumers that the brands they picked (Nike in this case) was a quality brand. As a result of the celebrity endorsement, Nike rose to become the leading sports apparel company in the world. This goes on to demonstrate the power of celebrities to showcase a product as being of high quality hence leading to increased sales.
The core goal of any advertisement efforts is to expand the consumer base of a product and ensure that the current consumer base is maintained. Celebrity endorsement enables an organization to tap into the fan base of a particular star (Elberse 2009). This is especially significant if the organization desires to reach a certain group of consumers who are known to make up a significant presentation of a celebrity’s fans base.
Devoted fans of a celebrity have been known to don the product that the particular star vouches for regardless of their prior like/dislike for the same. Contrasting this with non-celebrity advertisement personalities who have no fan base and are unknown to the public, one can see why an organization would prefer to use celebrity advertisers whose mere endorsement of the products represents an intrinsic increase in the products consumer base.
One of the defining attributes of using celebrities in advertisements is that they are generally very expensive. However, celebrity endorsements are in most cases regarded as worthwhile investments in advertising since the company makes up for the costs incurred through the positive stock returns and increased sales.
We will write a custom Essay on The Advantages and disadvantages of Using Celebrities in Advertisements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This may be because a product always has a higher likelihood of being successful if it is well known to the consumers and the use of celebrities invariably leads to the generation of a lot of publicity and attention by the public to the product in question.
While the high cost may be seen as undesirable since it cuts into the company’s bottom line and the success of the celebrity endorsement is not always guaranteed, Elberse (2009) reports that a survey she conducted indicated that use of celebrity endorsements mostly led to the increase in a firm’s stocks. It can therefore be reasonably argued that despite the high cost for celebrity endorsements, an organization gains more than it losses in advertisement costs.
Today’s market is saturated with multiple products serving the same purpose but made by varying manufacturers. This is especially the case in the fashion industry where the there may exist multiple dresses, hand bags and shoes to name but a few, all made by different designers. In such a case, celebrity endorsement can achieve the invaluable task of differentiating the organization’s products from those of its competitors (Elberse 2009).
In an attempt to differentiate its products from those of other organizations, a company will have to invest a lot of time and money into ensuring that its products remain visible to the public. As a matter of fact, celebrities are more exposed to mainstream media than anonymous models (Bergstom
Islam in France Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Veil in Monotheistic Religions
Islam in France
How Government Deals with Muslim Population
The Burqa Problem
Introduction This paper focuses on France and Islam with special attention given to the Burqa controversy. To appreciate the origins and history of the veil, the first part of this paper is an analysis of veil use in the three major monotheistic religions. The paper goes further to look at how France deals with the Islamic population and religious signs. Finally, it looks at how the burqa has become a problem for the French Government.
The Veil in Monotheistic Religions Veils have been used in many cultures in the history of mankind. Some veils are worn for religious purposes. In a religion like Islam, veils are used by women as a sign of modesty. Apart from modesty, veils are used for many other purposes. For instance, some cultural groups have special veils.
The veil in such an instance is a cultural symbol. The veil in Islam helps to institute a socio-sexual distance and signifies personal devotion towards Allah. Veils used for religious purposes were adopted from the cultural groups among which given religions developed. This is the reason why all the monotheistic religions i.e. Christianity, Islam and Judaism have veils.
In given cultures around the world, especially among the tribes in ancient Palestine or current Middle East, all women used veils. This is because these tribes practiced certain forms of seclusion against women.
Women were secluded from men to avoid promiscuity. However, given physical seclusion was largely impractical; veiling was used as a way of ensuring a woman remained an untouched mystery of sorts. Later some women who rebelled against veiling were regarded as prostitutes i.e. people ready to trade their dignity with the pleasure of attracting men to themselves.
Beyond issues to do with seclusion, veils have been used among some cultures for general cleanliness e.g. keeping hair dry. In some other instances, veils were worn to signify life seasons e.g. special veils during funeral or when mourning. Some veils developed as a way of hiding identity. For example, individuals would veil themselves and walk around so as not to be identified.
In Judaism, most religious articles were veiled. Brides used to be veiled only to be unveiled on their marriage day. In day to day living, all indications show that Jewish women, practitioners of Judaism, veiled their heads and on special occasions even the face was veiled.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Christians borrowed veiling from the Jewish traditional way of life. Jewish women generally wore veils. In the early church, all church going women wore veils. There are many bible verses that talk about veiled women. There are liturgical veils that are used to cover the altar, church tabernacles, church documents and all sacred places or tools. Apart from veils used for sacred things or tools, head covering is an entrenched Christian practice.
The use of veils in Islam is also attributable to the Arab culture in which Islam developed. Even before Islam, Arab cultures general advocated for seclusion and veiling of women. Muslim women are required to dress as per to Hijab (modest dressing). Hijab refers to a code of dress for Muslim women meant to veil or to conceal some parts of the body that should not be seen by marriageable men.
There are a variety of veils worn by Muslim women. The basic veils are headscarves and are used for aesthetic purposes in addition to the modesty requirement. The burqa is characteristically different from the veils because it is a garment that practically covers the whole body.
In actual sense, no part of the face is left visible and one is only able to see and breathe through netting. “Veiling among Muslim women has become iconic in the world creating a distinct difference between dressing in eastern countries and dressing from the western countries”.
Islam in France The jihadist crusades of Muslims led to introduction of Islam in France in the 8th century. However, after World War II, Islamic presence in France dwindled and currently, the Muslims in France are a minority group. Many of the Muslims in France are siblings of immigrants who came in search of green pastures.
Over the years, despite challenges, the government has sought programs that address immigrant’s characteristics e.g. documentaries on immigrants cultures. The surge of Muslims into France can directly be attributed to France colonization of Islamic areas especially in North Africa. Apart from the ever soaring numbers of Muslim immigrants, Islam grew in France from the conversion of some natives into the religion.
Unlike in other countries, due to overemphasis on secularism, Islam in France is overly strained. Many French people still consider Islam as an alien culture. They consider it inherited as its presence in France is as a result of immigration of Muslims mostly from Algeria and other northern Africa French colonies. Though France is a secular state, it has recently attempted to facilitate for representation of the Muslims.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Islam in France specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a move to create a “French Council of the Muslim Faith” in 2002 though it faced criticism with claims that it will enhance communism. Having been immigrants most of the Muslim families are relegated to living in suburbs outside the major towns where the conditions are poor. This probably is one of the causes of the Paris suburb riots in 2005.
How Government Deals with Muslim Population The French government seeks to treat the Islamic community like any other citizens. It strives to ensure religion does not influence state operation in any way. It allows for congregating of Muslims and many mosques exist in France. However, the laïcité framework or code that guides religious conduct, no religion is allowed to display religious symbols or practice in public as to affect others.
This kind of approach to Muslims and people of other religions is supposed to foster integration and facilitated nationalism. People feel more belonging to France because religion does not come into play when in the public places. However, some people have argued that secularism should be more about accommodating difference thus integration than banning difference.
Muslims in France live a normal Islamic life except that they have to follow the laïcité framework. This framework or code of conduct specifies how religious conduct is to be approached. It stipulates that people have to practice their religion without affecting the rest of the public. Muslims in France are allowed to follow Islamic stipulates but due to general secularism, it is very difficult.
For example, they are allowed, as required of all Muslims, to carry out daily prayers (salah) and observe the fast of Ramadhan. However due to work demands and lack of proper recognition of Ramadhan feast days, many Muslims find it had to live their religion. The government, based on a proposal by the current president, set up “The French Council of Muslim Faith” (CFCM). The CFM controls Islamic conduct and works closely with the “Federation of French Muslims” and the “Union of Islamic organizations of France.”
The Burqa Problem Since 1905, France adopted a framework called laïcité. The framework aims at the “separation of state and religion” or basically secularization of France so as to accord all citizens freedom and equality. It is on the basis of laïcité that veils were banned in schools and the work places. In the recent past, the burqa, which is a garment that covers the whole body (even the face) and is worn by Muslim women, came into focus.
Politicians have made concerted efforts to have the burqa banned. The biggest huddle to their intentions has always been the constitutionality of such a ban.
In March of 2010, the top most administrative court in France quashed plans to ban the burqa. The plan to ban the burqa had the support of President Sarkozy himself. The president had supported the ban on the ground that the burqa denied women the dignity they deserve. The attempted ban, supported by Sarkozy enlisted tremendous heated debates in France and across Europe.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islam in France by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Those in support of the ban have argued that it is in line with laïcité. According to them, laïcité as a framework aimed at ensuring all conspicuous religious signs and symbols are kept away from the public domain. There are other arguments that have been raised in favor of the ban. It is widely believed that some traditionalists force women to wear the full veils.
This is against the principles of equality as envisaged by French secularism. To tame those who may force others into wearing full veils, the ban had proposed a hefty fine. Radical Islam is perceived by the politicians, especially from the right wing, and majority citizens as being in disagreement with the cardinal French values. The French values are enshrined in the famous “liberte, egalite et fraternite”.
Radical Islamic values tend to place women in subservient positions and are thus understood to go against what being French means. The majority in France are very passionate about their national identity; the more reason why Sarkozy did badly in the regional elections.
Islamic scholars, on their part, are generally divided on whether wearing of veils is an Islamic imperative or not. Nevertheless, the traditionalists among the Muslims tend to favor the wearing of the ‘burka’. The government saw it fitting to ban the use of veils in schools as a way of ensuring equality and freedom for all.
The ban of veils in schools and other public places enlisted widespread condemnation, in some cases violent protests, by the Muslim fraternity. Many Muslims view the banning of the burka as a direct attack on Islamic religion and values. However, as Killian reports, majority of the Islamic women supported the ban on veils in schools thus are likely to support ban on burqa.
The biggest huddle to the banning of the burqa in France is the laws and courts by extension. It is for this reason; it is argued, that the Sarkozy government consulted the Council of State even before the law had been passed. Rorive explains that in EU law, the concept of indirect discrimination is very meaningful.
As the ruling of the council confirmed, both French laws and the EU laws do not support such a ban. According to the council of state, the move to ban the burqa was merely out of bias and there was no legal or jurisprudential basis for the same. There are those who had been arguing that a ban was necessary for the sake of public security. According to the council, a ban on the burqa alone in the name of public security does not stand the test of non-discrimination.
Conclusion The history of the veil as an apparel indicates that it is a piece of clothing that has been used for long in many cultures. The use of the veil in the three major monotheistic religions resulted from the cultural practices in which the religions grew. The use of the veil is advocated for in the Quran. However, the Burqa i.e. a veil that covers the whole of a woman’s body, even the face is controversial and some Muslims concur that banning it in schools is welcome.
The French government seeks to bar any conspicuous religious practices that can affect the public. Based on its Laïcité framework, it banned the use of veils by school going girls. Statistics show that very few high students have refused to abide by it. It is in the opinion of analysts that an increase in Muslim schools could assist those who are objected to this ban. The ban has been seen as a discrimination against the Muslims.
Bibliography Ahmad Fawzia, “Beyond the Hijab as a Lodestone”. Journal of Feminists Studies in Religion 24, No 1 (2008): 99- 101
Cesari Joselyne “The Muslim Presence in France and the United States: Its Consequences for Secularism” French Politics, Culture and Society 25, No. 2 (Summer 2007): 34-45
Dimier Veronique. “French Secularism in Debate: Old Wine in New Bottles” French Politics, Culture and Society 26, No. 1 (Spring 2008): 92-110
El Hamel Chouki. “Muslim Diaspora in Western Europe: the Islamic Headscarf (Hijab), the Media and Muslim’s Integration in France.” Citizenship Studies 6, No 3 (Carfax Publishing, 2003): 293 – 308
Grillo, R. D. Pluralism and the Politics of Difference: State, Culture, and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998
Jelen Brigitte. “‘Leur Histoire est Notre Histoire’: Immigrant Culture in France between Visibility and Invisibility” French Politics, Culture and Society 23, No. 2 (Summer 2005): 101 – 125
Borneman John “Veiling and Women’s Intelligibility” Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009):2745- 2760
Kilian, Caitlin. From A Community of Believers to an Islam of the Heart: “Conspicuous” Symbols, Muslim Practices and the Privatization of Religion in France. Madison, Sociology of Religion 68, No. 6 (2007): 305-320
Mac Cormaic Ruadhán. “Imam Seeks Ban On Burqa As Report Set To Urge Prohibition In Public Places”. The Irish Times (January 23, 2010): 12
Rorive Isabelle “Religious Symbols in the Public Space: the search for a European answer” Cardozo Law Review 30, No. 6, (2009):2669- 2698
Sachs, Susan. “Will France Dictate What Muslim Women Can Wear?; Committee’s Hearings On The Niqab Will Pit Ideal Of A Secular State Against The Guarantee Of Religious Freedom”. The Globe and Mail (July 7, 2009 Tuesday): 1-2
Saltmarsh, Matthew. “French Panel Stops Short Of Total Ban on Full Veil; Deputies Recommend Excluding Muslim Garb in Public Facilities.” International Herald Tribune (January 27, 2010): 1-2
Scott, M. Joan. “Symptomatic Politics: The Banning Of Islamic Headscarves in French Public Schools. Institute for Advanced Study”. French Politics, Culture
Applying problem solving techniques Problem Solution Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Solutions by Persuasive Thinking
Solutions by Scientific Thinking
Abstract Considering the “Customer Service” situation, it is common for a consumer to engage employees who are never mindful of the customer satisfaction or the loyalty. The food industries suffer strongly from such situations where employees especially the service men/women treat clients negligently as if they were a burden to their work.
Sometimes the employees become rude or obnoxious. It is often easy to find or hear advertisements state that ‘the customer can have the services their way,’ but this is a rare occurrence. The customer services seem to be on a downhill trend today. This paper considers a situation of rude treatment of the customers by the food industries employees. What solutions can be applicable in such situations? The paper applies both the persuasive and scientific thinking as the solution to the situation.
Solutions by Persuasive Thinking Customers’ satisfaction and customer loyalty are two quite different but logically utilized business concepts in food service industries, as very important marketing strategies. According to the industrial experts, when the customer is satisfied, the business gains a huge leap on their faith and thus the continual loyalty.
Marketing and customer relationship is achievable when the service experts such as the waiters/waitress use strategic approaches to ensure customer satisfaction. In line with Crowder et al (2007), this is a logical counter measure to retaining customers as well as maximizing business profits.
Today, logical marketing entails rationality as opposed to the common transitional approach of advertising. According to the American Marketing Association (2008), marketing is a function of an organization, which involves the process of creating and respecting customers’ values in persuasion of their requests for services.
It also entails friendly correspondence and deliveries as a measure of managing or ensuring good relationships for maximum benefits. In accordance with Harker and Egan, (2006), the persuasive style/approach of offering services is more acceptable as a modern style of enhancing business growth. In close link to Kotler and Keller (2009), the logical Customer Relationship Management (CRM), is more preferable and chosen as a top priority approach among most companies worldwide.
It incorporates the use of independent reasoning, to solve small and simple occasional scenarios involving consumer’s demands. In connection to Kotler and Keller (2009), the strategy of CRM has a foundation of the additional personnel knowledge penetrating the involved sectors with the aim of strengthened relationship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today the use of logical value added services such as smiling expressions during service, use of polite and friendly words, showing concern and assurance communication is important for enhancing consumer satisfaction. According to Kotler and Keller’s writing (2009), to harness the success of CRM, the stakeholders ought to be educated; the idea behind the approach should ensure value of persuasive thinking as a strategic innovation to retain the customer.
Solutions by Scientific Thinking On the other hand, the scientific thinking of the case scenario entails a way of enhancing or ensuring the firm-to-customer relationship. Scientific theories of marketing indicate that customer satisfaction relates to results, while loyalty links to relationships, and this is achievable thought improved customer relationship management system.
From the scientific point-of-view, if the customers are repeatedly satisfied with goods or services, they are likely to become truly loyal and easily overcome the negative occasional impacts or business challenges. Satisfied customers may not necessarily be or remain loyal, but existence of a management system to strengthened relationship with them especially for the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises enhances the loyalty (Baas and Schrooten, 2006).
The scientific thinking indicates that the business can gain economically by establishing the value for customer satisfaction, ensuring that the business revolves around the customer’s interests and considering the key elements that accelerate their loyalty. Today it is eminent for businesses to identify the segments that the customers tend to have greater value upon by finding the satisfaction elements that may control decisions regarding their needs. (Kotler and Keller, 2009, 3)
Scientifically the business is also able to manage its relationship with the customer by ensuring good focus on customer’s needs as a business strategy or objective. Reinventing the interactions with the customers ensures proper support especially to the highly valued clients. The business also have the role of ensuring existence of a well trained, motivated and organized personnel, with the ability to support all the customer’s needs.
Summary Scientifically a food industry can integrate customer information to have a comprehensive view of their needs and thus ensure satisfaction. The company can capitalize on self-service concepts through accurate and rapid response to needs. The technological advancement can be of help in understanding customers’ needs and measuring relationship progress.
The technology ought to provide the customer’s data source through various channels for analysis. The provision for satisfaction across the wide range of customer’s interactions is another key determinant of a firm’s success. The customer relationship management has to focus on supporting specific business financial objectives for it to have a positive impact on business profitability or customer satisfaction.
We will write a custom Essay on Applying problem solving techniques specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concepts behind this management mainly regard client satisfaction, especially during the current robust technological platforms, customer retention necessities, accelerated growth over the competitors and higher returns. Logical persuasive strategies in the food industry involve consideration of the factor that requires immediate personal thought and address in connection to specific scenarios, in order to maintain a strong customer relationship.
References AMA (American Marketing Association). (2008). Customer Relationship Management. Web. Web.
Effective Reasons to Support the Idea of Confucius Classrooms Essay college essay help near me
A number of different schools promote education and Americans’ awareness of different cultures, peculiarities, and backgrounds that aim at improving human lives. This is why if people want to know more about one particular country, they can easily choose the school and get proper education. According to Confucius, knowledge may be defined in the following way: “when you know something, recognize that you know it, and when you don’t know something, recognize that you don’t know it.
That’s knowledge” (Freedman 16). Such definite and clear understanding deserves attention and recognition, and it is not a surprise that people are eager to create schools on such basis and share Confucius’ ideas all over the whole world. So many people are eager to become an integral part of Chinese culture and rely on the ideas offered by Confucius in order to get a chance to enjoy this life, evaluate ethical norms from another perspective, and clear up how to gain complete satisfaction.
Confucius Classrooms are characterized by many positive and powerful aspects that help to promote such schools in future: people are eager to learn different cultures and have a chance to study them from original sources that are available in Confucius Classrooms; the development of such networks does not prevent the development of other educational spheres; and finally, these schools represent a really high quality of Chinese language education in the United States of America.
Confucius Classrooms are one of the possible examples of how people organize their work and attempts to study Chinese culture, language, traditions, and cognition of this world. Confucius Classrooms turn out to be a good opportunity for different people to learn deeper Chinese basics.
The establishment of “58 Confucius classrooms in 81 countries” (Kavalski 88) seems to be a good proof that such schools are obligatory and interesting for people of different cultures. For a long period of time, Confucius Classrooms have been developed in many states, and one of the most successful examples is the Confucius Institute in Florida that aim “to develop closer ties with China through Chinese language instruction and cultural exchange” (University of South Florida para. 2).
Some people may wonder whether it is so important to develop such close relations with China and to spend so much time, money, and efforts in order to implement Confucius Classrooms.
Witness for this development, it is necessary to underline the fact that “China has always been a very important partner” (Brzezinski para.1) of many states in America and has always been a good example in the financial, economic, and manufacturing spheres. In order to learn and realize what makes this country so powerful and able to take leading positions, it is better to provide American students with a chance to gain proper skills and knowledge and to communicate with the representatives of this country at the proper high level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results of properly developed relations will be beneficial for both countries, and what is more important, Americans will learn better the ways of how China becomes so powerful and will be able to use the same ways to benefit as well.
The main point about all these Confucius Classrooms is that Chinese do not want to impose Americans study Chinese language and culture. What the representatives of these classrooms do is “developing the field of Chinese language teaching in American schools” (Asia Society para 1). If people want to study, they have such an opportunity; if people do not want to deal with a foreign culture and language, they are welcome to neglect the offers and be interested into those spheres that are necessary for them.
The most important argument to support the development of Confucius Classrooms is all about knowledge. When people are aware of something, they certainly know how to use this knowledge and what the outcomes of this awareness may be. China is a powerful country, and Americans have to consider its power and efforts to know its weaknesses and shortages.
Only in case American people are aware of Chinese efforts, plans, and abilities, it becomes possible for Americans to take the steps that are more serious and benefit from this knowledge. As a rule, human power is in human knowledge, and if these Confucius Classrooms help to enlarge the level of knowledge, American people should make use of such possibility and define how to become more powerful and better than Chinese people are now.
In general, Confucius Classrooms that are connected to Chinese-funded US education have a number of positive feedbacks and supporters. Due to a considerable number of these classrooms, many Americans have already got an opportunity to study Chinese language, culture, and all those historical aspects that make this country as powerful as it is right now.
Those people who want to know more about foreign country and the ways of how its success has been achieved should find the proposition to implement more Confucius Classrooms and change the way of how Americans think about Chinese people.
Works Cited Adelman, Hacienda. “Chinese Gov’t School Grant Divides SoCal Community.” The Seattle Times. 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Effective Reasons to Support the Idea of Confucius Classrooms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Asia Society Confucius Classrooms Network.” Asia Society. 2010. Web.
Bledsoe, Deb, C. “UCPS Receives National Grant for Chinese Program.” Union County Public Schools. 2010. Web.
Brzezinski, Joan. Interview with Megan Conley. Confucius Classrooms Change the Face of Chinese Education in Minnesota. 2010. Web.
“Confucius Institute.” University of South Florida. 2010. Web.
Freedman, Russell. Confucius: The Golden Rule. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 2002.
Kavalski, Emilian. China and the Global Politics of Regionalization. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2009.
Problem Solving Application – Where in the World is Disney? Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Disney Corporation is planning to move its operations to other parts of the world. For the company to compete favourably in these markets it has to come up with workable strategies. The targeted market is in the far- east and Australia specifically Shanghai and Sydney. Disney has a burning desire to serve as many cultures as possible all over the world.
The Company’s unique sense of creativity and imagination can be well utilized to conform to the culture of both Sydney and Shanghai communities. In every place all over the world, there is always a desire to create some sense of learning within the young generation. This can be achieved through improvement of the facilities that are used to foster the love for learning. This idea gives the young people the confidence to tackle new discoveries identified throughout the world (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
Brainstorm and Mind-map The following mind-map helps in generating ideas on how to approach the operations within the targeted areas. It gives valid information concerning various segments that are of great interest.
In the case of Shanghai, there are some elements that must be considered to generate an idea on how to plan and approach the market. The population of Shanghai should be considered in order to determine the amount of space required to establish the operations. The average income per person should also be considered, the likes and dislikes of the community and the tourists.
Majority of the young population within this area like products with cartoon pictures on them, this provides a good market base. The urban population is considered the wealthiest; however they should be grouped according to their financial ability. The criterion to be used to estimate the economic status of the market should be addressed. The city is reach in domestic tourism; this provides Disney Corporation with a sure and available market.
Disney Corporation can do well in the entertainment sector in Sydney, majority of the children in Sydney enjoy watching Disney’s animated films. However, the older generation must be convinced that the films are free from staff that may endanger their children’s social lives.
Problem Statement In both markets majority of the rural population live in poverty, this is a limitation on Disneyland. This is a problem since Disney Corporation will not be able to profit from this market. The city lacks middle income earners, this shows that there is a very big disparity between the rich and the poor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The area is dominated by communist and this puts a lot of risk to Disney Corporation unless they give the government a big share to control. There is also the risk of terrorist attack and wars which is a big threat to tourism within the region, and also the risk to natural disasters since China is a country prone to Natural calamities.
In the entertainment sector, Disney Corporation is considered to present their films in a discriminating manner encouraging anti-socialization between cultural groups; they present their films in an acceptable manner. The films are considered to abuse cultural integrity.
There is the challenge of using meaningful scribbles to suit every local culture served, this might seem a challenge especially when it comes to Chinese way of writing. The use of magic does not at interest at all majority of the cultures in the far-east (Brand Channel, 2009).
K-T Problem Analysis SITUATION APPRAISAL: The market demand for Disney Corporation is growing weaker due to the nature of services it offers to consumers. A lot of questions have been raised on the cultural integrity of Disney productions and the impact it has on the younger generation.
PROBLEM ANALYSIS: The situation within the cities provides some risks that have to be faced by Disney Corporation before penetrating the market. In Shanghai there is the problem of natural disasters and also the risk of facing it off with a communist society where there is a big disparity between the rich and the poor. Then there is the sharp criticism from the Sydney community which believes that though Disney’s animated films attract millions supplies, they are more stereotypical. This is believed to promote social division amongst individual races and communities.
DECISION ANALYSIS: One of the best actions to be taken by Disney is to first of all monitor the economic and general performance of some related companies involved in the same targeted opportunity, and then evaluate on what steps they need to take in order to deal with the shortcomings. This presents a good channel on which point they should start exploring the market.
POTENTIAL PROBLEM ANALYSIS: The question lies on how to convince the general community that the services provided are culturally friendly and means no harm to children. The other issue how much finances will be required to cater for the risks involved which includes terrorism, wars, community risk and natural disasters (Sawyer, 2008).
We will write a custom Report on Problem Solving Application – Where in the World is Disney? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More K-T Situation and Decision Analysis Decision Analysis
Decision statement: It is a good move for Disney Corporation to explore Shanghai and Sydney Markets. This would make sure that there is an increase in income and revenue collection, it will also ensure that Disney has a wider market to satisfy presenting it with opportunity to build its brand name (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
Objectives to be achieved by the decision
To develop a strong image amongst the consumers
To develop a strong economic and social status amongst different communities having diverse cultural set-up.
To ensure that every consumer all over the world is reached by the services offered.
To attract and serve foreign, urban and rural markets
To nurture close ties with the governments within the countries they serve.
List of alternative or options (Fogler and LeBlanc, 2008).
Alternative solutions A B C Parks Hotels and resorts Animated films ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION A B C Musts 1. Develop strong image brand.
2. Strong economical and social status
Go Not Go
Go Not go
Wants weight Rating score Rating Score Rating score 1.Services to all – 9 consumers GO NOT GO NOT GO 2.serve foreign, – 7 urban and rural markets
GO NOT GO NOT GO 3.Nurture close ties 5 with Govt GO NOT GO NOT GO Concise Decision Statement The company must incorporate social responsibility to its audience so as to gain the ability to penetrate market as fast as possible. However, there are several benefits involved that outweigh the disadvantages, this makes it very ideal for Disney Corporation to stage its foot in these regions, focus on the rate of return and face the challenges which will ultimately lead to more gain.
Recommendation of Disney’s location Disney Corporation should first of all monitor at a close range the performance of other companies offering the same services in these areas. This is of advantage since it could give Disney the chance to evaluate and set its investment priorities right.
It should first of all start by building a theme park to assess the market potential then include other projects like hotels later. The shanghai government also regulates the number of films to be released in the market annually; this might pose a big challenge to Disney’s animated films (Brand Channel, 2009).
Disney Corporation should first of all test the market’s worth through the building of parks. This may help in determining the actual size and status of the market since it serves both local population and foreigners.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem Solving Application – Where in the World is Disney? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is easier to influence local community and foreigners to visit parks than hotels or buy animated films. In addition Disney should put strategies on how to attract through their services, the large number of tourists that visit these areas. The amount of money it will cost to put up these projects must be calculated based on the level of risks involved.
Conclusion The success of Disney Corporation has long been linked with the generation it served at an early age. This means that taking Disneyland to Shanghai will not attract much attention since their children are nurtured on a totally different culture. This may lead to poor sales because the services might not seem to be of much interest, hence better they focus on Sydney as opposed to Shanghai.
Reference Brand Channel, 2009. Is Disney’s Shanghai Dream a World of Make Believe?. Web.
Fogler, H. S.
HRM in Multinationals Problem Solution Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
HRM Approaches to Cross-national differences
Similarity in Diversity
HR Challenges to Multinational companies in the global economy
Resolving HR Problems in Multinational Corporations
Introduction This essay explores the relevance of the saying “when in Rome do as the Romans Do” with regard to human resource management in multinational firms. Multinational firms are organizations that operate in more than one nation. Necessarily, cultures differ from nation to nation or country to country. The import of ‘when in Rome do as Romans do’ resonates with human resource management practices in multinational firms.
In their operations, multinational firms have to conform to the diversity of cultures and beliefs in the host countries in order to avoid conflicts thus guaranteeing good working relations. Some multinationals have had challenges, even stopped operations in some countries, due to not being responsive to cultural differences. For multinationals, appreciating and understanding cultural differences is a necessary obligation towards profit maximization.
When a firm engages or rides on cultural diversity well enough, it is able to create a formidable organization. Diversity should empower and spur an organization to greater heights rather cause problems or disparage operations. When the human resource management function works on cultural differences to its advantage it helps towards minimization of loses while maximizing profit (Harris, 2007, p. 164).
HRM Approaches to Cross-national differences Human resource management refers to efforts aimed at optimal utilization of manpower contribution in a workplace. HRM aims are optimizing personnel efforts geared at production of goods or services. For a multinational firm, it’s important to have regulations that will ensure that the working environment is conducive to the entire array of multicultural employees. Accommodation of difference is critical for maximization of productivity in a firm.
Tjosvold and Kwok (2003, p. 6) believe that respect and tolerance are a vital ingredient in dealing with individuals from other cultures. Additionally, they point out that accepting other people’s differences should be treated as a moral obligation. They point out that interaction between different cultures must be encouraged to reduce culture shocks. Harris (2007) concurs that interaction helps reduce culture related prejudices and stigmas.
He further advices that this could be achieved by organizing training programs for the employees in the host countries in order to integrate them into the work system (Harris, 2007, p. 164). Cultural immersion or induction helps improve employee’s personal skills and helps them towards appreciating other peoples’ values.
Apart from training, rewarding employees who support diversity can be a good way of encouraging people to move from their cultural safety zones. Managers have to highlight all the contributions achieved due to the diversity of the employees so as to help all realize how beneficial diversity can be (Harris, 2007, p. 165).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cultural difference affects the way employees handle their respective duties. African Americans have their unique way of interacting that would baffle the Japanese. Therefore, cultural flexibility is an important factor to consider when hiring employees.
Recruiters have to look into finding employees that can do what roman’s do when they get to Rome. It would be pointless getting someone who is too prejudiced against Africans as head of marketing in an African country. Their prejudices will most likely come into the way of their job and affect the organization in a big way.
Another consideration human resource managers in a multinational corporation have to take seriously is homogenizing guiding principles in all the firm’s operational countries. Homogenizing procedures and principles ensures an all inclusive and unique culture is created in the organization. Any employee joining the organization from wherever meets the culture of the organization. By so doing, cultural differences only enrich the working culture in the organization as opposed to becoming an impediment.
Human resource managers have to address themselves to the issue of stereotypes. When dealing with multinational related matters, stereotypes often guide individual’s instinctual reactions. However, stereotypes only become an impediment to organizational operations if an organization has not addressed itself to them. Human resource managers have to institute systematic research and from findings implement guidelines that help workers live interact well with others from different backgrounds.
Similarity in Diversity Warner (2005) notes that for effective running of multinational firms; human resource managers must address themselves to the psychological, financial and technological perspectives of the firms operations. He argues that the type of technology adopted in an organization determines the firms’ level of production in conformance to the local context. Not all countries are at the same level of development.
Therefore, human resource managers have to be aware of the business environment in different countries. For example, if there is a subsidiary in an African country, the kind of technology available or applicable may not be as sophisticated as what is applicable in the US. Therefore, the human resource department has to address itself to the peculiar characteristics as per business environment and get deserved employees (Warner, 2005, p. 31).
On the other hand, Warner (2005, p. 32) notes, some technical operations remain the same despite place or culture. Therefore, if an organization uses given plants, since the procedures of running such plants are the same, employees to engage in those operations can only be sourced on the basis of competence. Warner also notes that psychology also presents a certain similarity or point of integration.
We will write a custom Essay on HRM in Multinationals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Psychology is basically depended on nature of humanity; Irrespective of their cultural differences, human beings share similar requirements or needs. They are driven with the desire to fulfill individual goals. Therefore when it comes to employee motivation, the basic assumptions should apply to all employees despite cultural background. In concurrence, Moran et al (2007, p. 31), asserts that the human person will always have a drive to be successful irrespective of his or her cultural beliefs.
Based on the noted similarities, a cross cultural work force should not hamper productivity in an organization. In actual sense, diversity in the work place should add value to operations. Diversity should be a source of unconventional views that offers answers to challenges that arise as a result of assumptions or oversights. Diversity, therefore, becomes a fertile ground for quality judgment and thus strengthens loyalty (Tjosvold et al, 2003, p. 6).
Diversity does not just exist in terms of cultural differences but also in terms of skill level. There are skill differences between experts and non skilled employees in every organization, which could easily lead to a sense of rivalry. However, with proper HRM practices that lead to appreciation of difference or contribution of every individual member in organization, difference becomes asset as opposed to liability.
HR Challenges to Multinational companies in the global economy Due to technological changes especially in the communication and transport sector, the world has become one integrated market. Most organizations are keen on becoming global players. Globalization of an organization is the process of linking an organization to the worldwide market.
With the emergence of multinational trading, the issue of sending employees to different destinations for assignments has risen. The expatriates should be well versed with the new culture they are bound to encounter in host countries.
Acquainting with the cultures in host countries enables them to be prepared in all perspective for challenges such as adjusting to new laws in the country, learning foreign language and the cultural shock associated with intermingling with the natives. If not appropriately addressed, there may arise the challenge of coping. If the expatriate cannot cope with host country culture it may cost the organization dearly either in terms of poor relations or employee replacement costs.
Even with proper prior preparations, sometimes an employee may not be able to adjust and as a result execute work poorly. Harzing and Ruysseveldt (2004) argue that such an employee becomes a liability to the parent company due to loss of business prospects and damage to company reputation. The employee may also suffer from psychological problems such as low self esteem which further affects her total output (Harzing
Electronic arts (EA): case analysis Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Overview EA is an international developer, marketer, publisher and distributor of video games. Competing in a $35 billion global market, EA is one of the leading companies in the video game industry.
Focusing on delivering games in all four of the leading consoles, (PS3, Xbox, PC, and Wii) they achieve to simultaneously launch titles in each of the platform in order to provide a game quality gaming experience to every possible gamer out there. EA, along with its competitors, faces the challenges of rising costs brought by the high demand of quality graphics and game play, a numerous game selection, rapid evolution of game consoles, and a highly contested but promising E-market segment brought by the online gaming trend.
Driving Forces PESTEL Analysis (Macro environment) No major political factors in this industry
Social: The rising trend in online gaming brings new business opportunities. Large groups of gamers are within this segment, making it an important target for video game companies. With the age of the average video game player on the rise the gaming industry has created new niches that desire a more demanding adult gaming experience.
Technology: Great leaps in the quality and game play brought by the new platforms demand more complex gaming by the consumers resulting in increases in R
Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
During the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962), the French forces mercilessly tortured their opponents. Although the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) also tortured their enemies, the French military use of torture was more widespread.
Torture is defined as “any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, punishing him for an act he or a third person has done…”(United Nations, para.3). The French experience during the Algerian war proves that the use of torture, though regrettable, is important to defeat successfully terrorist organizations around the world. Therefore, is the use of torture justifiable in some instances?
The military combat of the FLN was being propelled by self-determination and the French state was equally determined to win the war. The French forces did not acknowledge that the colonial conflict was indeed a war, as this would recognize their opponents as a legitimate entity; therefore, it was until August 1999 that they stopped calling it “fight against terrorism.” That is why although France was bound by the Geneva conventions it had signed in 1951; it consistently used brutal warfare tactics in fighting against the FLN.
As shown by the experience of the French military during the Algerian war, torture is a good way of gaining timely and relevant information from terrorists. For example, in an imaginary situation when a terrorist has planted a nuclear bomb in Washington City, the detonation is going to take place in the next forty-five minutes, and cause widespread destruction. However, when the terrorist is captured, although he knows the exact location of the bomb, he is not giving any relevant information.
What is the best thing to do in such a scenario? Is he left to go scot-free because torturing him will interfere with his “human rights?” If the individual is not forced to give out the vital information, then thousands of innocent lives are at risk. In such an instance, the choice of the use of torture is allowable in order to acquire certain life-saving information that could not be retrieved easily. Therefore, the use of torture as a tool in the global War on Terror is important in defeating terrorist groups around the world.
Concerning this issue, Levin states, “there are situations in where torture is not only permissible, but morally mandatory” (para.2). Levin illustrates how liberal societies do not allow the use of torture, and how other governments fear the fury of the United Nations if they are suspected of using or even planning to use it; however, he gives a different opinion on this attitude.
Levin terms the use of torture as “a weapon that is important in winning the War on Terror.” At one point, he addresses the above imaginary situation by saying, “if you caught the terrorist, could you sleep nights, knowing that millions died because you could not bring yourself to apply the electrodes?” (para.4). Some people argue that the use of torture against terrorists is unconstitutional; however, the thousands of lives lost after a terrorist incident far outweighs issues of constitutionality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More so, is the use of torture barbaric? The many innocent lives lost due to negligence is more barbaric (Buchanan, para.2).Therefore, the use of torture is permissible in extreme cases since in some intricate situations, it is a matter of balancing between mass murder and the life of one or a few people.
As Levin puts it, “letting millions of innocents die in deference to one who flaunts his guilt is moral cowardice, unwillingness to dirty one’s hands” (para.4). According to this statement, if harsh interrogation tactics can be used as a way of protecting the lives of the innocent, then no one should shy from using them when it is necessary.
When a nation fails to use torture, it puts thousands of lives at risk due to terrorist threats. This makes the nation to portray the same cowardice being portrayed by the terrorists. During the Algerian war, the French military did not shy off from torturing the terrorists who were potentially dangerous. If these harsh tactics could be used, then the strategies used by terrorists to wreak havoc could have been discovered by now.
Assuming that a victim does not die after he or she has been harshly interrogated, the victim will less likely commit the same crime. Currently, most of the interrogation methods available are laughable and dumb. The French soldiers successively used torture to extract vital information from their opponents. These punishments were meant to ensure that the victims either co-operated with them or confessed some of the enemy schemes.
In some circumstances, the use of torture, besides being essential, is the only available option. For example, in 1994, an Israeli was held captive by some Palestinian terrorists.
After searching for clues, the Israeli police detained the driver of the car, which was used for carrying out the attack. For them to get the information about the whereabouts of the kidnappers, they were compelled to torture the driver to extract some useful information from him. This is just one example of how torture as played a significant role in the war against terrorism.
The Algerian war induced the French military to use torture against its opponents. The French troops were in a difficult situation since most of the time it was not easy to differentiate their opponents from civilians at first sight. This situation was worsened by the fact that their opponents rarely wore easily identifiable war clothes. More so, the civilians were well informed of enemy movements; thus, most of the time they were under suspicion from the French military.
We will write a custom Essay on Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the war, every French soldier was obliged to be alert and give all the relevant information about the enemy by collecting all the vital intelligence information (Branche, 548). Therefore, to achieve this, the soldiers sometimes tortured their opponents. Against this background, torture was permitted as a way of combating the increasing threat of terrorists’ activities. Though the use of harsh tactics is regrettable, it is good way of gathering intelligence information about the movement of terrorists around the world.
Another reason why the French used torture during the Algerian war was to provide it with all the necessary resources for the protection of its citizenry. When a country wants to preserve a strong national security, it is obliged to use harsh interrogation methods as the best alternative.
In a situation when torture is used, prompted by the urge to save innocent lives, by just getting vital information from one individual, then it should be justifiable. The nation of France had always upheld principles of freedom, from freedom of speech to freedom of religion. Nevertheless, when the safety of its citizens was under threat, it had to sacrifice some of its rights.
This was to make the country as safe as possible because insurgents could easily enter the country from Algeria. These rights, which were sacrificed, ensured that its citizens at home and army in the combat zone were safe from acts of terrorism. As much as the use of harsh interrogations can be considered as an inhumane practice, it should be used when the need arises. To fight the growing insurgency in the world, torture is a vital tool that can be used effectively to achieve this.
The formal arguments against the use of torture are absolute; they state that it has no exceptions. This widely held statement is not true because it is a misguided opinion that always comes from social commentators.
This type of absolutist has created a void between good intentions and good consequences. As mush as the use of torture sounds inhumane, it is necessary to defeat successfully terrorist organizations around the world. In extreme circumstances, as experienced by the French military, radical measures ought to be done to avoid mass murder.
If this consists of making a terrorist to feel pain in order to preserve thousands of innocent lives, then it is permissible. However, it is important to note that torture is more beneficial when used as a means of preventing future evils, rather than as a form of punishment. Terrorism will not be completely obliterated from the face of the earth if individuals settle down and stop making efforts to win the War on Terror. The use of torture, in extreme cases, is one way of making efforts to win the war.
Works Cited Branche, Raphaelle. “Torture of terrorists? Use of torture in a “war against terrorism”: justifications, methods, and effects: the case of France in Algeria.” International Review of the Red Cross 89.867 (2007): 543-560. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buchanan, Patrick J. “The case for torture.” Worldnetdaily. 10 March 2010. Web. https://www.wnd.com/2003/03/17663/
Levin, Michael. “The case for torture.” People.brandeis. N.d. Web. http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/torture.html
United Nations. “Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” UN convention. 10 Dec. 1987. Web. https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/convention-against-torture-and-other-cruel-inhuman-or-degrading-treatment-or-punishment-commentary/
Customer care challenges and opportunities in the UAE Essay college essay help near me
The United Arab Emirates, (UAE) faces numerous challenges and opportunities in their quest for customer care satisfaction for the younger and older generation, immigrants and citizens alike. How to adequately, effectively and satisfactorily handle and manage the groups is indeed a great concern. A need arises for knowledgeable and well trained service providers in government and private sectors thus catering for the increasing growth in number of people.
The rate of immigration in the UAE is rapidly increasing and it is estimated that there are approximately 5 million refugees in the region consequently increasing the need for customer care. The country has the world’s highest net migration rate and a very diverse and multicultural society.
The region is the second-fastest growing populace, making it difficult to adapt to social change, monetary and political strains. Although today the population is predominantly Islamic, there are three dominant races which originally originated there- Christianity, Islam and Judaism.
The customer is the key focus throughout any sector in the global market. Customer care both in the government and private sector involves receiving walk in customers in the reception, technical expertise and advice, front office management and international relations with countries in which they export their products.
All staff should be trained and equipped with communication skills and be aware of and be committed to customer care. Efficient systems and procedures should be designed to enhance customer care in any organization. Loss of a customer does not only mean the loss of one sale but it may eventually impact on a lifetime of sales.
The government sector is involved in the invention, delivery and provision of goods and services for its citizens. The UAE houses seven states, commonly referred to as emirates. Petroleum and subsidiary products play an essential role in the UAE financial system. It boasts of the most luxurious airline service in the world and customer retention and satisfaction is of great priority.
The government makes huge contributions to poor African countries and helps in emergency relief and creating good rapport with its customers. The UAE government is also committed to foreign corporation, modernization and creating employment opportunities. This necessitates extensive diplomatic relations with other countries creating new opportunities for customer care.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The private sector comprises privately owned large, medium and small organizations and business which are not run or controlled by the government. In the UAE, the classified companies hire majority of the personnel. The success and continuity of this sector hugely relies on how well its staff relate with customers hence the need to employ trained and knowledgeable employees keeping up with national and international developments.
Another major challenge in customer care in the UAE is illiteracy and communication, the medium of instruction in the public schools being Arabic. Education is examined and funded by the government, through the ministry of education. However, illiteracy standards are reducing due to courses that curb illiteracy among the different population.
Health care is only free for UAE citizens only in government hospitals. The ratio of doctors to patients is greatly depressing hence creating stress in customer care provision. In the private hospitals, there tends to be less congestion for bed space and doctors attention due to the high cost. The high costs therefore call for improved customer care compared to the government owned medical facilities.
By 2020, the largest airport in the world will be in Dubai. Both the government and private sector have made huge investments in tourism, real estates and leisure, creating more opportunities for customer care and international relations. UAE has the ability to address challenges.
Mexican American/Chicano/Latino/Hispanic Cultural Variations in Childrearing Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help
Mexican Americans form about 12.5% of the population in the United States. They are of Mexican descent and most of them trace their origin to the ancient colonial settlers. The Mexican Americans are descendants of Mexicans and Spaniards. The group is multiracial. The Mexican Americans are mostly concentrated in Southwest of the United States. Today many Mexican Americans are illegal immigrants as they come to look for employment.
Mexican Americans migrated to the United States during the early colonial days. Most of the Mexican Americans lived in areas in the USA that once belonged to Mexico that is areas such as California, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and others and in the regions that they got employment as well as in steel producing areas in the United States. The identity of this group has changed rapidly throughout history as it fought for equal treatment in the USA.
Today the group struggles to the definition and maintenance of their identity. The Mexican Americans form the largest part of employees in labor market. The rising numbers of illegal immigrants provide cheap labor to their white employers and most work as janitors, gardeners and other blue-collar jobs. In matters of education, due to their immigrant status most families had to choose between sending their children to or save the meager income for other needs (Englekirk and Marin 1).
The Mexican Americans have strong family values and have strong family relationships. The bond goes beyond the nuclear family due to familism-family obligation and care. Mexican Americans has strong cultural practices that are passed on to children and this responsibility is mainly left to the women.
Through socialization, the children are able to grow up and become integral members of the family. The parents often demand that the children comply with authority and those who fail are often punished physically. Through strict parenting, the children are given verbal commands and often-harsh threats when it comes to discipline.
Through this strategy, parents want to teach their children the value of family or familismo and respect especially for the adults-respecto. This involves parental behavior that the children are supposed to copy to learn how to behave in the family or with the family norms. Next, let us focus on gender socialization among the Mexican Americans (Livas-Dlott, Alejandra et al 567-9).
Gender socialization among the Mexican Americans is tailored along traditional roles. Just like in most societies in the world in which gender roles are determined by one’s sex so is the Mexican American gender socialization. It is also interesting to note that in spite of changes about gender roles in the country most Mexican Americans retain their traditional view about gender expectations (Raffaelli and Ontai 288).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally the female gender roles are being submissive, dependent and chaste. On the other hand, male gender roles are independent, virile and dominant. The different ideals of gender roles thus have an impact on how boys and girls are socialized to fit in their expected gender roles.
For example, the girls were expected to maintain their virginity and thus had to be careful during dating while the boys did not have to observe any rules during dating. This means that girls are restricted from interacting with romantic partners in case they lose their virginity. Girls are also restricted in their movements and cannot go wherever they wish as their brothers can as their parents tend to be very protective with them (Raffaelli and Ontai 287-288; Englekirk and Marin 1).
The Mexican Americans parents have different child rearing habits from their African Americans and Anglo Americans. “The Mexican Americans place greater emphasis on the development of proper demeanor and a sense of dignity than on early achievement or attainment of developmental milestones” (Kolobe 440). The Mexican American families are nurturing, indulgent and egalitarian. This leads to different outcomes of their children’s behavior and that of children from other cultural backgrounds in the United States.
It is also important to note that the among the Mexican Americans there are different child rearing practices depending on the origin of parents for example parents who are USA born and speak English tend to allow their daughters to play like boys and are less protective. On the contrary, parents who emphasized on traditional femininity roles have lower levels of education.
In addition, fathers who encourage their sons to get involved with roles traditionally set out for girls and restrict their sons movement have higher education levels(Raffaelli and Ontai 294-295).
Mexican Americans even in the 21st century are still considered as foreigners by the other members of the society (Englekirk and Marin 1). Many of them have complained about discrimination and especially about police profiling. The Mexican American youths face problems concerning identity as they try to maintain their cultural identity as socialized and being acculturated into the Anglo American culture fully due to the benefits that come with it such as speaking English.
The youths also face the challenge of a segregated educational, system and the schools they attend lack all the necessary facilities and many students drop up thus reducing their employability (Chavkin195). It is important for the problems that Mexican Americans face to be addressed well to reduce the feelings of anti-Americanism by the Mexican Americans, as America is their country too.
We will write a custom Essay on Mexican American/Chicano/Latino/Hispanic Cultural Variations in Childrearing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Chavkin, Nancy Feyl. “Joining forces: Education for a changing population.” Educational Horizons 68.4 (1990): 190-196
Englekirk and Marin. Mexican Americans. 2010. 12 May 2010. https://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.html
Kolobe, Thubi. “Childrearing Practices and Developmental Expectations for Mexican-American Mothers and the Developmental Status of Their Infants.” Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association 84. 5 (2004): 439-453.
Livas-Dlott, Alejandra, Bruce Fuller, Gabriel Stein, Margaret Bridges, Araina Figuoera and Laurie Mireles. Commands, Competence, and Carion: Maternal Socialization
Practices in Mexican American families. Developmental Psychology 46. 3(2010):566-578
Raffaelli, Marcela and Ontai, Lenna. “Gender Socialization in Latino/a families from two retrospective studies.”Sex Roles: A journal of Research 50.5 (2004): 287-299.
School Violence in the USA: Causes and Solutions Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
What is School Violence?
Why does School Violence Occur?
How to Prevent School Violence
Introduction In the recent years, there has been a marked rise in cases of juvenile violence. These cases have been highlighted by some especially tragic shootings that have taken place in school districts throughout the nation.
Owing to the high publicity that school shootings have received through the years, policy makers have engaged in the increased implementation of zero tolerance policies on violence that are meant to extinguish violence (Cornell, 2006). However, school violence has continued to take place despite the presence of these policies which were meant to ensure that schools remain safe for students.
Unlike other forms of violence, school violence is shaped by numerous factors including socioeconomic, status and cultural (UNESCO, 2007). This complexity makes school violence harder to predict or even understand. To try and shed some light on the issue, this paper shall perform a detailed research as to why school violence occurs, and the people most likely to perpetrate it. A discussion of the proposed solution to the problem of school violence shall also be undertaken.
What is School Violence? School violence is defined as “any behavior that violates a school’s educational mission or climate of respect or jeopardizes the intent of the school to be free of aggression against persons or property, drugs, weapons, disruptions and disorder” (NTAC, 2002). From this definition, it is clear that school violence entails more than just the brutal school shootings that have come to be synonymous with the term “school violence” owing to the media depiction of the same.
The definition of “school violence” also suggests that there are some behaviors which have been noted to lead to violent behavior which manifests itself in the form of school violence. A deeper understanding of these behaviors can help policy makers, school administrators and parents alike ensure that the cases of school violence are reduced.
Why does School Violence Occur? Preti suggest that school violence and in particular school shootings may be caused by “peer’s rejection, particularly bullying and victimization” (Preti, 2008). This is an opinion that is reinforced by the Center for Disease Control (2010) which affirms that according to research on youths, individuals who have a history of violent victimization have a higher risk of being involved in cases of school violence.
This is a physiologically sound reason for the cause of violence since when people feel victimized, they tend to be more prone to perform acts of violence. Cornell (2006) theorizes that victims of relentless bullying mostly respond by rejecting conventional values and becoming morbidly preoccupied with violent revenge schemes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When young people feel alienated from their peers, they end up feeling unconnected with the school community and the world around them. This may lead to them resorting to the planning and engaging in violent actions in an effort to win the attention as well as the notoriety of both their immediate community and beyond. (Gerler, 2004).
Arguably one of the factors that have led to the increase in the rates of school violence is the increased possession of firearms by school age children as well as the relative ease of access to guns. Cornel (2006) reports that “more than three-fourths of the murders committed by juveniles involved guns.” While guns by themselves do not result in youth violence, their presence plays a critical role in escalating aggressive behavior as even ordinary disputes and arguments can escalate into killings.
Depression and other mental disorders may also predispose one to violence. Most of the students who have gone on shooting rampages in the previous years have been noted to suffer from depression and suicidal behaviors (NTAC, 2002). This suggests that violence may have a more deep rooted cause than just the presence of guns or a non conducive learning environment.
The causes of depression or mental disorders are varied and they may include many factors such as economic hardships, abusive environment at home and failure at school to name but a few. Students who suffer from these psychological disorders may not be able to handle some situations as well as psychologically healthy students.
Another not so subtle cause of school violence is the media influence on children. Specifically, violent video games have been blamed for some of the worse school shootings in the country. This is because the correlation between video-game violence and increased aggression amongst the youths is unnerving.
Anderson and Bushman (2001) hypothesize that it is no coincidence that recent cases of high school and campus violence are in most cases perpetrated by individuals who habitually played violent video games. Studies indicate that the reason for increased aggression with increased exposure to violence scenes is because aggression is largely based on the learning function of the brain and as such, each violent episode is in essence one more learning trial (Dill, 2009).
While proponents of video games insist that video games cannot influence a non-violent person into violence, hundreds of scientific studies affirm that “exposure to entertainment violence increases a child’s aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and, over time, increases the risk that a child will engage in violent criminal behavior” (Cornell, 2006).
We will write a custom Research Paper on School Violence in the USA: Causes and Solutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another argument advanced as to the cause of school violence is that schools in general promote negative responses from students thus invoking violence and other anti-social behavior.
A report by UNESCO (2007) asserts that a negative perception of the school environment by students can result in active aggressive resistance. In its most extreme, this aggressive resistance can manifest itself in the form of school shootings. The report further suggests that the fact that most schools have an authoritarian system rather than a democratic model schools can indeed lead to resentment by students and therefore violence.
How to Prevent School Violence Owing to the adverse effect that violence has on both the students in school and the community at large, measures to alleviate this problem have been proposed. One of the measures proposed is the introduction of a curricular to help prevent violence. Reece, Russell and House (2001) indicate that such curriculums teach students means other than violence through which they can solve their interpersonal and personal problems.
By integrating such educational programs into the students learning, children can be empowered on how to react to situations without having to resolve to violence. Such curriculums also place an emphasis on the need to seek help if a person is troubled (Reece, Russell
The Digital Divide Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What is the Digital Divide?
Causes of the Digital divide
Reducing the Divide
Introduction The invention of the computer and the subsequent birth of the internet have been seen as the most significant advances of the 20th century.
Over the course of the past few decades, there has been a remarkable rise in the use of computers and the internet. Sahay asserts that the ability of computing technologies to traverse geographical and social barriers has resulted in the creation of a closer knit global community (36). In addition to this, the unprecedented high adoption rate of the internet has resulted in it being a necessity in the running of our day to day lives.
However, there have been concerns due to the fact that these life transforming technologies are disparately available to people in the society. People in the high-income bracket have been seen to have a higher access to computer and the internet. This paper argues that the digital divide does exist and sets out to provide a better understanding of the causes of the same. Solutions to this problem are also addressed by this paper.
What is the Digital Divide? The term divide is mostly used to refer to the economic gap that exists between the poor and richer members of the society. In relation to technology, the OECD defines digital divide as ” the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities.” (5). As such, the digital divide refers to the disparities in access of communication technology experienced by people.
Causes of the Digital divide While the respective costs of computers and internet access have reduced drastically over the years, these costs still remain significantly expensive for some people in the population. As a result of this, household income is still a large determinant of whether internet access is available at a home.
Income is especially a large factor in developing countries where most people still find the cost of owning a PC prohibitive. However, income as a factor leading to the digital divide is not only confined to developing nations. A report by the NTIA indicated that across the United States, internet access in homes continued to be closely correlated with the income levels (3).
Education also plays a key role in the digital divide. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration indicates that in America, certain groups such as Whites and Asian Americans who possess higher educational levels have higher levels of both computer ownership as well as access to the internet (3). This is because the more educated members of the society are having a higher rate of increased access to computers and internet access as opposed to the less educated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A simple increase in the access to computer hardware resources through the production of low cost versions of information technology which is affordable to many does not necessarily result in a reduction in the digital divide. This is because in addition to the economic realities there are other prominent factors.
The lack of technological knowhow has been cited as further widening the digital divide. This means that even with access to technology, people might still be unable to make effective usage of the same. Sahay best expresses this problem by asserting that “just by providing people with computers and internet access, we cannot hope to devise a solution to bridge the digital divide.” (37).
Another cause of the digital divide is the social and cultural differences evident in most nations in the world. One’s race and culture have been known to have a deep effect on their adoption and use of a particular technology (Chen and Wellman 42).
This is an opinion which is shared by Sahay who notes that people with fears, assumptions or pre-conceived notions about technology may shy away from its usage (46). As such, people can have the economic means and access to computers and the internet but their culture may retard their use of the same.
Reducing the Divide The digital divide leads to a loss of the opportunity by many people to benefit from the tremendous economic and educational opportunities that the digital economy provides (NTIA 3). As such, the reduction of this divide by use of digital inclusion steps is necessary for everyone to share in the opportunities provided. As has been demonstrated above, one of the primary causes of the digital divide is the income inequality between people and nations.
Most developing countries have low income levels and their population cannot afford computers. To help alleviate this, programs have been put in place to reduce the cost of computers or even offer them for free to the developing countries. For example, a project by Quanta Computer Inc in 2007 set out to supply laptops to developing world children by having consumers in the U.S. buy 2 laptops and have one donated to Africa (Associated Press).
Studies indicate that males are more likely than females in the comparable population to have internet access at home mostly since women dismiss private computer and internet usage (Korupp and Szydlik 417). The bridging of this gender divide will therefore lead to a reduction in the digital divide that exists.
We will write a custom Essay on The Digital Divide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In recent years, there has been evidence that the gender divide is slowly closing up. This is mostly as a result of the younger generation who use the computer and internet indiscriminately therefore reducing the strong gender bias that once existed. This trend should be encouraged so as to further accelerate the bridging of the digital divide.
As has been illustrated in this paper, there exist non economic factors that may lead to people not making use of computers hence increasing the digital divide. These factors have mostly been dismissed as more attention is placed on the income related divide. However, dealing with this social and cultural related divides will also lead to a decrease in the divide. By alleviating the fears and false notions that people may have about technology, people will be more willing to use computers and the internet.
Conclusion A divide, be it digital or economic acts as a major roadblock in the way for economic and social prosperity. This paper set out to investigate the digital divide phenomena. To this end, the paper has articulated the issue of digital divide, its causes and solutions to the problem.
While some people do suggest that the digital divide will get bridged on its own as time progresses, I believe that governments should take up affirmative action and fund projects that will result in a digitally inclusive society. Bridging of the digital divide will lead to people and nations increasingly being included in knowledge based societies and economies. This will have a positive impact to every community in the entire world.
Works Cited Associated Press. Hundred-Dollar Laptop’ on Sale in Two-for-One Deal. 25 Sept 2007. Web.
Chen, Wenhong and Wellman, Barry. The Global Digital Divide- Within and Between Countries. IT
Market segmentation Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Market segmentation is the procedure of engaging products, prices, places and promotions. The process involves identifying and targeting different markets as the basis for identifying with particular marketing mixes. Proper market segmentation has to engage people, practices and different corporal substantiations.
The procedure for market segmentation involves identifying the potential customers and their needs, possible market segments and later development of profiles for identified market segments.
After the identification, the second stage involves selection of a target segment before engaging an attraction towards the particular market segment. It is equally important for a marketer to engage proper positioning by identifying the advantages of the chosen market segments. This may involve selection of a positioning concept before engaging the marketing plan for each identified segment.
Market segmentation involves division of large markets into consumer-focused subsets for the clients who have common needs or applications for services or goods on offer. Clientele subgroups are identifiable through various demographics in connection with the purpose of the market segment identification or goal of the marketer. Customers’ segmentation determines deigns and implementation procedures of the marketing campaigns.
In relation to McDonald and Dunbar (2007, p. 213) writing, marketers engage in the market segmentation in the aim of understanding the importance of finding a sufficient customer-base to cater for the needs. Categorizing various customers on a given criteria helps firms to establish a better application for the products or services. The gathered ideas of a criterion can thus be of help in identification of a larger audience within the demographics, and thus increase the profit margins due to amplification of market shares in the submarkets.
There are various characteristics of a targeted consumer base. The attributes are identifiable for a given market segment such as gender, age, location, income level or education level. The market segmentation process allows for a phenomenon where a consumer may fall upon various categories. Segmentation of the market allows the company to understand the ways of enhancing customer loyalty especially among potential long-term clients.
The marketers allow the customers to make suggestions concerning the practical means of improving product or service. The changes may be minor with little or no effect to the value of the core product, but they are vital in maintaining a strong and loyal customer base. The changes also ensure that the company is of goodwill because of the readiness to listen to its clients’ needs. Market segregation is generally for strengthening the bond between the vendors and the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of market segmentation is important because the buyers and sellers form non-homogenous groups for the reason that there are differences on needs, preferences, characters and resources. Considering the Dell Inc case study, the marketing and distribution department realizes that it not possible to cater for each of its customer’s characteristics.
Marketers are however able to accomplish some standardized measures of segmentation by grouping customers to various categories of common characteristics. The common characteristics are the basis for standardized marketing merges into segments.
The decisive factors for market segmentation involve either the consumer or the business marketers. The segmentation requirements for Dell Inc would entail the geographical segmentation. As an international and well-known company, Dell Inc would involve the regional variables in its segmentation such as the concentration of the customers, the measures of international industrial growth rates and, other microeconomic factors such as business expansion plans.
A good example of the geographical segmentation is decision to concentrate on sale of specific products to particular countries. Secondly, the company can segment markets according to the type of customers. Some of the clients are possibly big international organizations, companies, governments, or private firms. The organization’s dimensions, position in a market niche and the capacity of its value chains are the main determinants of concentration.
Thirdly, there is need for Dell Inc to consider the behavioural segmentation based on the consumer performances and behaviours such as the customization, usage, patterns, prices, benefits, competition, consumer and brand loyalty. The demographic segmentation touches on the age, ethnic setting, gender, income levels, status, or occupation, which can equally be of assistance. Lastly, the company ought to consider the psychographic segmentation to determine clients’ bases depending on the attitudes, lifestyles and values.
Integrating the marketing communication strategies Communication is a key strategy of an organization’s success. A company may be having the best and most innovative services or products, but without strong internal and external communication, then the demand may be weak. Communication of products requires the marketers to focus on the value.
The quality is of much benefit to the client than quantity. Enhancement of dialogue requires invitation of client’s thoughts to enhance a rapport in promotion of coordinated efforts. Client participation ensures timely delivery of proper information or right contents.
We will write a custom Report on Market segmentation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Doole and Lowe (2008, p. 232), the proper marketing communications tools, which promote companies products and services to its customers and the intermediaries include, the ability to ensure proper direction, precision, uniformity, appearance and timings for the targeted audiences. Marketers have to guarantee the values of proper communication to avoid confusion about branding and products recognition.
The marketing mix enables them to examine prices of products, the distribution procedures, adverting, promotion mechanisms and customer service certification. “By integrating marketing communications strategies, it is important for the marketers to define as well as conduct some research concerning… the targeted audience, objectives, budgets, competition, social effects, and cultural or other technological issues” (Doole and Lowe, 2008, p. 232) .
The final process of the strategy involves evaluation of the decided promotion strategies. Marketers can automatically acquire the customer trust and loyalty by enhancing ethical plans, right communication procedures and following the right communication guidelines such as the marketing communication tools.
Marketing communications tools Advertising
This tool requires the right medium to get the accurate messages efficiently to the right audience. The effective avenues of transmission depend on the market segments, the chosen niche, and the dynamics.
Considering the Dell Inc company that faces the challenges of international segmentation and maintaining the well-established customers’ loyalty, the advertising tools can be the product magazines, newspapers/ newsmagazines, internet, billboards and, mobile television such as the telephony advancements. The advertisement tools have to reach a wide clientele base regardless of the expenses.
This is a marketing communications tool involving the public perception of the products or services on offer. For a marketer to be in a position of enhancing excellent public appearance for an organization there is need to engage sponsorship vents in the aim of building good customer trust and goodwill. The product or service has to give a positive perspective.
Mostly, the sales promotion is a marketing strategy that involves the media, for instance, advertising contests, sales of coupons through the media, provision of prototypes/sample products, sales of premiums, displays, demonstrations and engaging incentives. Promotion of sales accelerates the short-term sales by enhancing brand awareness campaigns, and creating or encouraging a repetitive buying procedure.
Direct involvement is a strong marketing strategic tool that involves responses to specific individual emails, telephone calls, inquiry catalogues or mails of customers. The marketers have to respond directly to inquiries made through the media such as television or radio. The responses cater for targeted audience to increase sales and introduce new products as a different option for marketing approaches.
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This marketing tool involves direct interaction where the marketing team must set sales appointments to selected clientele. It involves making direct presentations such as one-on-one communication to attract a strong clientele base and strengthen their relationships or loyalty to the firm.
Before selection of a particular marketing tool, the marketing managers and representatives must analyze the “social, competitive, legal, regulatory, ethics, cultural and technological” effects to avoid inappropriateness, controversies and illegal encounters (Shimp, 2008, p. 8).
Analysis of Dell’s decision to enter into relationship with distributing retailers Since its initiation, the marketing strategy of Dell Inc involved a direct client-server interaction. Its engagement of a retailers’ involvement such as, Wal-Mart is a significant change of marketing strategy. Some well established retailer stores like the Wal-Mart are internationally preferences to most customers and therefore an advantage to Dell in its global retailing strategy.
The shift from strict direct selling to incorporate indirect selling by external retailers is definitely a simpler choice for the marketing team, but equally a difficult cultural move in its marketing strategies. The move is currently still on its underway and it may be difficult to determine. Is it a strategic move to avoid disastrous snarl-ups considering the competition or are the challenges bonds to increase?
Losing its leadership mantle to the rival group Hewlett Packard (HP), Dell may be making the move due to pressure. On the other hand, the establishment in the market may be an indication that the need to emphasize on direct sales is not necessary the attraction to its products among most clients.
Selling through the well-established retailer stores is an excellent move for the Dell Company because of the benefits of exposure especially in different market niches. The company also considers the safety of its products by starting mainly with the low-end products.
The progressive changeover on the marketing strategies enhances performance and ensures provisions of extended commitment in cases of needs. It is usually safe to change from one strategy to another slowly while keenly monitoring the effects as opposed to the direct changeover.
Involving the retailers is a great strategy of testing how well the company would work with the retailer stores especially on the up-coming products. How well would the company be able to handle the sales of its products by third parties especially stores that the company can barely be in a position to control? The experience is worthwhile for Dell Inc future marketing decisions.
The move will automatically affect Dells procedures of engaging customers such as the advertisement strategies and, the supply chain management. The move ensures that Dell Inc is able to develop a record of accomplishment from involvement with the retailers. The record of performance such as, the rate at which the products sell would enable the marketers to decide on the possibility of engaging the more vibrant retailers.
The records provide Dell’s ability to retail from various sublets in the diverse retail channels. According to Cranfield School of Management (2000, p.5), the ability to form relationship with retailers is also a greater chance for other interested parties to channel their interests and form new links since this assists the retailers on their establishments.
The well-established retail markets have the advantage of moving their products very fast and this can turn to be a huge benefit to the Dell Company. The question many marketers would arguably pose is, how well can computer products sell like the other products in the stores? Selling a computer is similar to selling any other product, but the clients want to know how to deal with the product such as the procedure for setting it up.
How many retailers have the workmanship to withstand the long hours of user explanations and education? The arguments may fall upon the earnings of the marketer. The pay scale of Wal-Mart sellers may be quite different from that of Dell, thus Dell’s move to engage outside retailers may seem like a huge bargain over sales.
Conclusion The main marketing strategy is the need to enhance proper customer relationship. Dell Inc has all along emphasized on the need to focus attention on the clients’ needs and demands. Companies need to find various methods of getting closer to the client for success thus the reason why dell is focusing on diversification into the retail markets. The Dell Company detached the partnership functions to emphasize on the need for it responsibility of customer relationship.
From the case analysis, it is evident that Dell categorizes its business transactions in various customer segments for instance the recent retail stores relationship, which involves the public and private sectors. It also includes the direct customer relationship and lastly the home or public medium or small business sectors.
Such a company need to approach various segments carefully and differently in the aim of customizing to fit specific needs. Arguably, the most viable communication tools for Dell’s marketing strategy would include the internet and call centres considering the diversification of the products and market competitiveness.
References Cranfield School of Management (2000). Marketing Management: a Relationship Marketing Perspective, Macmillan Business, Basingstoke
Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” Essay scholarship essay help
Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” is a rather untypical sort of stories. Having a generally light-hearted character, the story appears to be extremely educational. It amazes, entertains, and sometimes even terrifies the readers with its main character, Bartleby, and his behavior, which the author often calls “unaccountable” (Melville, 8).
Undoubtedly, the man appeals to its readers in some inexplicable way, and gives new lessons to them. However, an interesting point to explore is not the interrelations between the reader and the character, but between the narrator and Bartleby.
The story is told from the first person singular, thus giving the readers a chance to see everything with the eyes of the narrator. He often tells about his feelings, emotions, and thoughts, which he has in the course of communication with Bartleby. As it may first appear to the readers, the narrator does not understand anything about the man’s behavior. Bartleby’s origin, interests, character, preferences – everything is covered with a thick fog of mystery, and there seems to be no chance to ever approach to his thoughts or feelings.
In addition, a vivid contrast of their perceptions of different situations is presented. Indeed, while the narrator expresses such feelings towards Bartleby, as being “disconcerted”, “consternated”, “perplexed”, “irritated”, and so on, the man remained “oblivious” and “dimly calm”, sticking to his “steadiness” and “unalterableness of demeanor” (Melville, 31).
All the mentioned emotions or their absence proved that the relations between the narrator and the scrivener seem to be rather one-sided. Bartleby is not by any means rude, or impolite; he is simply passive. At the same time, the narrator does not give up his idea to break the ice and become friends with the worker.
This purpose seems unjustified, when at the end of the story Bartleby dies, despite all the attempts of the narrator to help him. However, these one-sided relations implied something more than unsuccessful tries. Despite the fact that Bartleby was not eager to communicate, he helped the narrator to learn a lot of things. Even though the author does not name these things directly, they can be seen in some details of the story.
Indeed, the changes in narrator’s character are obvious throughout the story. Indisputably, these changes were caused by his communication with the scrivener. One of the basic changes is his attitude to life. At the beginning of the story, the narrator mentions: “though I belong to a profession proverbially energetic and nervous, even to turbulence, at times, yet nothing of that sort have I ever suffered to invade my peace” (Melville, 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this quote we can see, that the narrator is obviously a rather calm man, who does not let his emotions out, if he ever has any. However, after getting acquainted with Bartleby, the narrator has become rather emotional, and sometimes too expressive. At first sight it may appear that the range of emotions felt by narrator are caused by anger. Indeed, he was treated with disrespect by one of his employees, who only answered to all of his asks: “I prefer not to” (Melville, 15).
However, in case the basic feeling was anger, the narrator could have been more abrupt, or even cruel to the scrivener. But the more reservation Bartleby carried, the more interest he caused in his chief. This proves that the narrator cared for him. Undoubtedly, the narrator felt much of compassion, which testifies his human qualities.
It should be noted though, that these human qualities were revealed by Bartleby alone, as far as before communication with him the narrator never showed them. Therefore, it can be stated that communication with Bartleby made the narrator more open; he did not only try to help, but he was eager to understand the scrivener, indefatigably analyzing his behavior and trying to justify it.
What is more, the narrator admits the above stated idea himself: “I trembled to think that my contact with the scrivener had already and seriously affected me in a mental way” (Melville, 19).
As we can see, the narrator changed not only his behavior, but also his way of thinking. It was a great surprise for the readers to discover that a man, who was described to be a “perpetual sentry in the corner” (Melville, 8), and who barely said a word to one of his colleagues, was eventually admitted by the narrator to have “in some degree turned the tongues, if not the heads of myself and clerks” (Melville, 20).
All the workers of the office gave up the idea to change Bartleby and accepted him as he was. This is probably the greatest lesson the narrator learned from this scrivener: to take things as they come, not trying to adapt them to his subjective views.
At the end of the story, when the narrator attends Bartleby in the Tombs, he seems to have a completely different perception of the man, comparing to the one that was at the very beginning. When the grub-man calls Bartleby “odd”, the narrator answers that he would rather call him “deranged” (Melville, 46).
We will write a custom Essay on Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is where we see, that the narrator does not see Bartleby as a demented man anymore, but treats the specific features of his character with respect. What is more, he showed a disinterested will to help, when offering money to the grub-man, in order to keep Bartleby fed well. Such an unselfish devotion to a person, whom he barely knows, attests the deepest changes in the narrator’s consciousness.
Works Cited Melville, Herman. Bartleby the Scrivener. NY: Kessinger Publishing Co, 2004.
Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis Report essay help online: essay help online
Hotel Cavendish is located in the dynamic center of Bloomsbury in UK. A PESTEL examination is an essential tool which helps in analyzing the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative pressures which may affect an institution (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). These external pressures that have an effect on Hotel Cavendish ought to be vigilantly taken into account by the hotel administration.
The hotel’s strategic fundamental position in the capital makes it susceptible to PESTEL pressures. This is evident in the existence of new rules in the city that need acquiescence. Demographic changes may lead to the diminution of market size and a fresh technology may be introduced (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). This requires new advertising and end user approval alternatives that need clear exemplification.
In a social context, London has an assortment of religion and cultures. Hundreds of languages are spoken in its environs and the employment of more trained staff that is multi-lingual is necessary for the 4-star hotel. Around 2 million visitors from all over the globe visit the center every month either for business purposes or leisurely as tourists.
Demographic trends evident in the changes in the populace age, composition along with the entry of new cultures and race in the area make it appropriate for the hotel to identify its potential clients.
The capital is an economic center and countless intercontinental businesses are carried out here. Large business moguls arrive in the city of London to transact huge business deals. There ought to be additional options of spacious conference rooms for delegates, aside from the present ones which host 2-80 people (Cavendish hotel, 2010).
The hotel administration should endeavor to sustain regular businessmen who may want urgent accommodation in the hotel or referred to alternative areas. Even though it is required to reserve in advance, there can be exceptional reservations for a number of regulars.
There are hundreds of overseas banks and offices for thousands of companies in London, and the employees and officials may need making urgent reservations. The effect of recession and change in stock exchange market fluctuations must be strictly monitored. Trends in economic indicators like the cost of raw materials and the level of income of its clients are essential information in knowing the visiting trends of clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental issues from time to time control the social decisions and purchasing options that clients make in the selection of new services being offered in the hotel. Use of solar technology to produce energy and having breezy areas of shady plants are a benefit in selection of whether one will make reservations for the hotel or select a different option.
Out-of-doors landscaping with appropriate foliage at the lounge and entrance can take account of areas for dining. The hotel is a non-smoking zone. This course of action will successfully draw more non-smokers (Cavendish hotel, 2010). Those who smoke have to use alternative hotels, hence loss of clients. An effective way of pleasing both is by having rooms in a section for smokers. Some delegates may either be smokers or non-smokers and may desire to be accommodated in the same place.
It is not forgotten that technology is intensifying at an extraordinarily rapid pace. Sources of power and information systems are undergoing modification thus the need for the hotel to be very adaptive to these changes. Available options for publicity should be employed in an aggressive edge (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23).
The government on numerous occasions initiates changes in bylaws and rules which may stabilize or weaken the hotels functionality. Such changes are directly related to politics consequently affecting the number of visitors into the country and the hotel. The operations in Cavendish hotel is affected by different forms of pressure that are best illustrated by the Pestle criterion.
It is imperative to acknowledge that the success of the venture is wholly reliant on the manner in which it manipulates the environment as portrayed by the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative concepts (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23)
Reference List Cavendish hotel, 2010, Hotel Cavendish, 12th may 2010,
Institute of leadership and management, 2007, marketing for managers, Massachusetts, Elsevier. Pp. 23
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Social Influences on Behavior: Towards understanding Depression and Alcoholism based on Social Situations Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In our daily endeavors, we go through social experiences that impact upon our behavior in major ways. The society itself is a conglomeration of many laws, moral obligations, and values that dictates how members should behave (Schueler, 1997). Though we may not agree with some laws set by society, we are forced to toe the line due to the repercussions that may follow.
Apart from societal regulations, there exist a myriad of other social experiences that affects our behavior and interaction with others. For instance, marriage as a social institution greatly influences behavior in that married men are no longer expected to behave like school boys. Behavior can also be negatively affected by social experiences (Smith
Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Team Recruitment and Association
Budget and Risk Assessment
Introduction A project was proposed by Engineering Solutions a corporation dedicated to expertise inclusion, novelty, and blueprint initiatives. In the firm’s venture to offer customers assured response to their needs, Engineering Solutions proposed a project on the development of a web linked power measuring device. Engineering Solutions intended to design an inclusive and reliable energy measuring device. The firm pioneered an energy measuring device novelty as a product for residential houses and public housing.
The power measuring device project was developed as an appliance that quantified energy utilization in homes and public lodgings. The energy quantifying device was a mechanism designed to compute operations expenses and overall or private energy consumption. Engineering Solutions project team members were scheduled to work on the energy measuring apparatus project for eleven weeks. Work on the project was planned to commence on 2nd February 2010 and end on 28th May 2010.
Prior to constructing the web linked power measuring device, the project team had to establish the energy meter specifications. The web linked energy meter was intended to have the following qualities:
Capacity to measure power voltage; a product of direct electrical energy and current built-in over a series.
Capability to transmit integrated power consumption information through a remote register in the internet.
Simple to operate from anywhere in the world and interpret power information transmitted.
Affordability of the energy meter by power consumers.
Integrated power consumption information was to be posted on to an internet site through an Ethernet intersection. The Ethernet junction innovation was anticipated to facilitate consumer assessment of power utilization in different homes and apartments. Accessibility to energy utilization information was expected to promote power conservation by the consumers. Modern societies had realized conservation requirements for energy and other resources.
Environmental temperatures had changed worldwide and resulted in damaged surroundings (Atkinson, 2009 p.1). A universal reaction to resource preservation required novel innovations that might sustain the deteriorating world reserves. Therefore, an improvement in energy utilization and preservation was a significant advancement for Engineering Solutions.
Engineering Solutions organization designed a power measuring device that was to be linked onto a website for monitoring energy consumption. Energy utilization information posted on an internet site permitted worldwide monitoring by consumers anywhere. Contrasts in energy utilization by consumers were projected to create a determined spirit that reduced individual energy consumption. In addition, a customer’s web link might also be an avenue for passing information on energy preservation.
Energy measuring devices had previously been manufactured; however, none had integrated an internet crossing point that displayed power consumption. Consequently, Engineering Solutions decided to develop a product integrated with a web link for consumers to supervise individual energy consumption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm’s invention was developed by a competent project team. Engineering Solutions set objectives that were targeted to a realization of the energy meter project.
However, project limitations were expected, especially, on financial support and research period. Based on intensity of the project work packages, a skillful team was to be constituted by Engineering Solutions. Work packages in the project were expected to be detailed and requiring diligence from the team members. The project work packages were divided into multiple tasks in a work breakdown structure.
Task Management Engineering Solutions project team divided the web linked power measuring device project’s tasks into five work package phases. The tasks were grouped according to the work package as follows:
Team and project development
The internet linked energy measuring device was projected to cost $250. Time frame for the project was anticipated to be one hundred and fifty eight working days. Based on projected work intensity, members of the project team were compelled to schedule the tasks to avoid confusion during project development.
Project tasks were varied in resource requirements and intensity. Nevertheless, all project tasks were considered crucial to success of the project. Project thoroughness was observed to minimize interruptions caused by lack of task synchronization. Project administration measures were instituted to ascertain successful teamwork. The project management team ensured that work packages and tasks were harmonized.
The initial work package, team and project development, tasks were prearranged in a chronological array. It was believed that at project start completion of the following tasks was necessary:
Define team roles
Searching for investors
Tasks scheduled at the initial stage of the project were critical and could not be avoided. Sequential arrangement of the tasks guaranteed that project progression was certain. Significance of the team and project development work package was stressed by the project team.
We will write a custom Report on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Important project objectives and work definitions were addressed at the team and project development phase of the project. Total steadfast commitment was expected from each project team member at this stage. Duties and tasks were allocated to project team members at the team and project development stage. Project team members were expected to confirm participation and commitment to assigned tasks.
The second segment of the project work packages was project design. Project team members were to perform investigations on advancements similar to the project already on supply. Mechanisms that performed energy meter tasks were to be researched so as to determine what has been offered in the market. Purposes for the investigations were to establish areas for product improvement. Investigation outcomes were to guide the project team members at the project design stage.
Decisions on project blueprint and requirements were to be set up at this stage. Decision making stages ought not to take a lengthy period. Complexities caused by project idea and blueprint disagreements ought to be avoided. A chronological arrangement of tasks guaranteed a prolific and stable planning procedure. The following tasks were scheduled for the project design work package:
Research Target specifications
Identifying customer needs
Concept generation process
Select product concepts
Test product concepts
Set product specifications
Benchmark competitive products
Appearance Design specification
A third stage of the work packages was the construction phase of the project. The stage was considered the most complex and lengthiest phase of the project. However, at the construction stage, project team members were at liberty to alter the progression of task administration. The construction stage involved of the following tasks:
Construction of the energy meter
Energy power measurement device
Analog input sub-system
Internet web interface.
Amalgamations were done on interdependent tasks to better manage the responsibilities. For instance, assembly of the energy meter and the analog input sub-system were performed concurrently. To make certain project tasks were well coordinated; project team members had to frequently trade facts while working independently.
Accurate tasks harmonization was highly regarded as critical to cooperation and prevention of project adjournment. Tactics applied to encourage teamwork were weekly meetings, continued vital information updates, and financial incentives. Motivation campaigns were valuable to project success based on how the project management applied them.
A fourth work package was the project assembly stage. The package consisted of four tasks as follows:
Finishing the project.
At this stage the project team was permitted to utilize numerous models of task assortment. The tasks were either joined or chronologically arranged. An example of task unity was between product assembly and testing. The two tasks were closely related and could be undertaken concurrently. Nevertheless, cooperation and accuracy was inevitable at this critical stage of the project development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A fifth and final work package was marketing. This final stage of the project development was significant. Information on the novelty was to be passed on to end users as accurately as possible. Tasks that constituted the marketing work package were as follows:
Preparations for the trade show
Organization of the project display
Convincing potential buyers of the product benefits.
Tasks at the marketing phase of the project were performed alongside each other. Project administrators arranged the construction procedure to ensure a team member‘s working liberty. Challenges in other sections of the project were not predestined to interfere with a member’s work. Task management largely determined project accomplishment or breakdown. Project tasks were managed in accordance to resources and timelines provided in the Gantt chart figure.
Team Recruitment and Association To ascertain project success, project team members were selected from a group of highly trained and knowledgeable persons. The selected members possessed proficiency in varied technical disciplines. Areas of expertise included energy experts, planners, salespersons, economists, and administrators.
The well selected project team was expected to add to the ultimate project success. Project team selection and creation was a significant feature in development of the project. Recruited project team members required specific attributes. The group had to be well matched with visibly unwavering responsibilities. The project team members were selected from locations that were easily accessible for each member. Locations specification guaranteed convenient communication and coordination for the members.
Product Strategy Procedures for product planning and strategy consisted of numerous sections. Product examination was a major section that integrated the following stages:
Target market research
Predictable financial impact
Preferred performance levels.
Attributes of pricing, timelines, and value added to achievement of product development. Production costs of an original product were mandatory. Financial investment and machinery in put costs were computed. Product development timeline was established based on project team member’s flexibility.
End user needs were assessed to determine specification for the final energy meter product. Engineering Solutions confirmed from the onset that if the energy meter met consumer demands a reasonable product market value would be achieved.
Engineering Solutions was concerned about meeting consumer requirements. Therefore, it was beneficial to have the best team qualified to meet the customer needs. An expertise project team was expected to train product end users on how to handle the energy meter. In the process, forecast on customer approval of the product was probable. Consequently, end users of the energy meter were advantaged in saving costs and conservation of the environment.
Reaction to consumer requirements, down playing rivalry, and initiating new products were benefits accrued from swiftness. This advancement was also regarded as product planning. Swift introduction of the product into the market guaranteed income profits and prolonged market share. However, swift product improvement was monitored not to interfere with superiority of the end result.
Budget and Risk Assessment Project threats assessments were conducted to prevent potential interferences in product development. Risk analyses were performed on potential hazard areas of the project cycle. Risk management required that an initial investigation on probable threat stages be performed. Project budget was a significant aspect of the project and if not well assessed might have resulted in project failure. A sure method applied in budget risk management was the provision of budget emergency funds.
Allocated finances for the project were estimated and probability of budget deficiencies was noted in the risk assessment. Budget risks were managed by integrating investors into the project. Potential buyers of the end product were expected to cushion project budget deficits. Alternatively, costs were slashed from tasks at the preliminary project phase.
Project interruptions were probable threats. The danger of project disruption was anticipated at any phase of the project cycle. Nonetheless, critical phases that were vulnerable to disruption threats were the design and construction stages of the project. Project team members were also prone to disagreements.
To manage the threats, project administration established a logical mental picture from the beginning. Project team member dependence on each other was set from the project onset. However, reliance by team members was only considered for tasks that occurred simultaneously.
Project administrators concentrated on task supervision, team structure, and threat analysis when creating the energy meter project. However, it was recognized that at emergencies were likely to occur based on unexpected expenses and probable setbacks. Proper management of project threats were measures constituted to reduce risks. The web linked power measuring device project had prolonged ability based on its demand. Power consumers required a formula where they could measure power utilization.
The consumer trend ensured that projects like the energy meter were to have protracted existence (Violino, 2009 p. 1). Equipments that met consumer demands were destined to have a prolonged demand. Parts utilized in the energy project were available locally. However, further research was required for product superiority. Continued need for power utilization information and resource conservation ensured that the web linked energy measuring device was valid for consumers.
Conclusion A project plan plainly detailed the project from the beginning. Project tasks requirements were defined and conformity arrived at. Project work packages were initially constituted and further divided into tasks. Resource allocation and monitoring were made possible by splitting of tasks.
Advantages of the project plan were numerous from management and ease of contribution by project team members. The project plan guaranteed that confusions were avoided, realistic facts were revealed, and analyses were made possible. The web linked power measuring device project required an elaborate plan. Information on parts, budget, and scheduling of activities was important to project success. Therefore, a project plan was inevitable for the project.
Works Cited Violino, Bob. Smart Meter Made. Information Week. 2009.
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Table of Contents Executive Summary
Measuring Capability Performance
Options, Recommendations and Implementations
List of References
Executive Summary Since Apple was established in mid 1970s, its popularity has become immense especially in computer technology industry. Its full potential was realised when it shifted its focus from marketing and promotion of computer products to development of innovative industrial design in modern electronics, unique hardwares, operation system and application softwares and services. It provides customers with new products and solutions that are easy to use and seamless integration.
The relevant competitive models chosen for this assessment includes the Michael Porte’s five forces such as entry of competition, threats to substitutes, bargaining power, power of suppliers and rivalry, SWOT and Industrial analysis as well as micro analysis in order to assess Apple Inc. strategic capabilities and suggest future directions for the business. Apple assessment also analyses the results of a study presented to examine how it utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism.
Introduction Company background
Apple was founded in 1970s by Steven Jobs who then became the company CEO. Apple first started as a computer company in 1976 and was fast recognised for its intuitive adaptation approach of graphical user interface that saw the adoption of the first mouse and first onscreen windows.
Steven Job innovative approach focused more on specialised products and by 2001, its full inventions came into play with the introduction of iPod, a product that ranked top in the market leader in music players. Eventually, iPhone came into play in 2008, followed by iMac, iPad and iTunes which have also been widely successful. This meant that electronic products combined with eminent good customer support throughout its product base were slowly becoming the company’s primary objectives.
Summary of Macro Analysis
Macro analysis also known as PESTLE is an analysis of the external macro environment in which a business operates. PESTEL analysis includes factors such as political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental issues. For a detailed analysis, the following table illustrates the macro environment of Apple Inc:
Factor Implications Political factor Apple’s operations in the United States were not affected by political regimes as the government was open to technological advancements. The company also tried to apart from politics
Queensland Health Case Study best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Power in Organizations
Decision Making In Organizations
Queensland Case Crisis
Introduction This paper provides a critical analysis of power and Decision making at Queensland Health. This research paper first provides an overview of power and decision making in organizations. The concept of power is demystified i.e. the negative connotations associated with the word are discussed and dispelled.
The paper then looks critically into the exercise of power in the Queensland Health case and how the same influences or directs decision making. Based on the analysis, recommendations are made in terms of how to improve power structure in the organization thus improve decision making efficiency and effectiveness.
Power in Organizations In often cases, the mention of the word ‘power’ makes individuals think dictatorship, bullying, cruelty, manipulation, lording over others and general unjustified social inequality. It is latently believed or subconsciously held, in many cultures around the world, that power makes individuals exploit, mistreat malign and even enslave others (Clegg et al, 2006, p. 40). It is for this reason that many find the saying “power corrupts but absolute power corrupts absolutely” to be an unchallengeable truth.
However, on thinking about it, it should occur to individuals that power in itself is an admirable thing or quality. Each individual has some form of power or capacity within himself (Thomas, 2003, p. 7). Power in itself is not a negative word. The word refers to or is synonymous to authority, influence, clout and control.
Having power over others does not mean having lee way to coerce, manipulate and dominate. In the real sense, power only means one has capacity, a talent, a skill, knowledge that others can rely on. Therefore, the individual can provide direction or influence others positively towards a goal.
The basic roles of managers in an organization are planning, controlling, organizing or coordination and directing or supervising operations (DuBrin, 2008, p 112). Managers rely on different management skills to instate plans, control measures, organizational structures and directions that are accommodative of all. The control measures are very vital as they reinforce a power balance in the organization.
Organizations cannot survive without control. Control, which is one of the fundamental functions of management, ensures everything in an organization is done in an orderly way. It is only through managing power in organizations that control is achieved. Proper management of power in organizations means that each employee understands his or her position in the organization. Therefore, power distribution largely depends on the organizational structure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational structure adopted by an organization is largely dependent on what the management believes about employees. Traditionally, scientific managers focused on providing controlled measures to maximize output (Koontz
Concept of Hyperventilation Anomaly in Medicine Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Hyperventilation is a breathing anomaly that makes the body’s ventilation to go beyond the required optimal metabolic demand. This condition makes individuals to over-breath, leading to many physiological changes associated with the normal functioning of the body. In most cases, it can cause giddiness, unsteadiness muscle spasms, and quivering of fingers and sections surrounding the mouth.
Medically, such effects result because of carbon dioxide deficiencies in the body, as most individuals who suffer this condition will exhale more carbon dioxide quantities, which exceed the produced amounts from the body’s metabolic activities. It is important to note that, although most individuals may associate hyperventilation to panic attacks medically, these are two distinct health complications, although they share some symptoms (Vorvick, 2010, p.1 and Fenner, 2000, pp. 287-288).
Causes Hyperventilation occurs in specific medical conditions, for example, heart attack and metabolic acidosis; a health complication characterized by increased blood acid levels, caused by increased hydrogen ions amount in the blood. Primary causes of this problem are either diseases or physiological anomalies, which include anaphylaxis, chest injuries, chronic obstructive pulmonary ailments, anxiety, Pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, heart ailments, stress, and psychological stress (Medicine Net, 2010, p.1 and WebMD, 2010, pp.1-5).
Symptoms Medically, there exist two types of hyperventilation namely sudden and everyday. In the former case, detection is easy, because it has intense symptoms. The case is very different in the latter type, because it is a continuous occurrence, making it to lack a detecting criterion. Common symptoms associated with this complication include dry mouth, hyperpnea, belching, dizziness, irritable bowel syndrome wheezing, sleep anomalies, muscle spasms, and suffocation feelings (Rosh
Modern Political Thought Essay essay help: essay help
The “after seventeenth century modernity spectaculum” The global development in the sense of modernization as per seventeenth century has given the world no more than decaying senses which has been accompanied by perverted human roles, with concentration of hatred and aversion between human kind and between them and the environment.
The known good deeds were integrated into intensive definitions incorporated in evil, human contempt, vile as well as inconsiderable. Despite this, the irony is that what used to be good became shunned while the scramble of the vices introduce, became significantly rampant. Long-living practices began to be viewed as being mundane and the short-lived practices accompanied by threats and fears completely replaced the good-old world.
As the sense of independent and development sunk in peoples mind, the aspect of communism disintegrated and in its place individualism and the sense of “I” was adopted that is embraced world-wide. As a result, man’s life was affected, as the bond between people gradually melted and in its place a trench evolved.
This has put man’s life in a solitary situation, bringing with it massive poverty, nasty living style, brutish undertakings whose combination has shortened the life of human being. This has made the man race to indulge into daily conflicting activities, pertaining competition, diffidence and glory as state of nature. This has created one of man’s rule which entails that Thomas Hobbes (215) states that “every man has to endeavor peace, as far as he has hopes for obtaining it. If he cannot obtain it, he can use all helps and advantage of war.”
In addition, human beings have been assumed as having right of everything even to one another’s body. What does this bring to the race of human being? It only gives a room to the stronger in having their ways right which means that the life of the majority-minorities depend on the mercy of the few powerful. In other words, it became the survival for the fittest. This has contributed to excessive injustice between individuals as well as in the governmental law bodies (Hobbes, 113)
Moreover, the introduced civil society had brought separation of power that initially was not there. This has been met by rejection from individual and parties affected by this power division. Consequently, civil war has been a major occurrence in many nations as they tend to fight against the abuse of power by the acting government or other nations that creates an effect or pressure to them.
This has expanded gaps existing between parties and every party is seeking its own way of dealing with any threat that can be imposed to it by the other parties. However, instead of this being a channel of peace and comfort within the societies involved, fear concerning the massive destructing weapons manufactured by the name of defense, such as atomic weapons, has taken over the climate and the element of peace has scrambled off (Hobbes p.131).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, people’s perspectives have been readjusted and believe that people can’t function without a powerful body over them, which creates fear and suppression had settled in people minds, and as a result oppression and dictatorship has based people’s ways of living (Machiavelli, 57).
Religious perspective has also been altered. For instance, the scripture has been reinterpreted in a materialistic assumption. For example, Hobbes has tried to bring out the contradiction concerning incorporeal entities, claiming that both Heaven and Hell were in this world, as well as opposing some of sync which are incorporated in church teachings. Thus, morality has acquired a definition as an “acceptable cruel action”, which involves decisiveness and swiftness in dealing with material matters.
For instance, according to Niccolo Machiavelli, it is ironically that good result comes out of evil actions. In addition, the philosophy in the middle age was primarily based on Christian philosophy. However, different lines of philosophical argument came up, with one bringing a sense of nationalism threatening the position of church-men, by introducing a powerful secular based perspective.
The other one widely secularized the knowledge reducing the control of ecclesiastical elite and in its place introducing, what Descartes (102) describes as “philosophical classics of Greece and Rome.” As time goes by, the power of a single religious authority was gradually effaced giving power of vernacular tongues by the influence of protestant ethics which resulted to philosophers becoming less recognized in their ecclesiastical hierarchy but instead their recognition was shifted to their national origin (Descartes, 77-8).
In studying the way people live, Machiavelli (312) agrees that the way people lived traditionally was a true way of living. Everyone was required to live virtuously and this was clearly observed. However, living virtuously didn’t mean that people could live happily. The adaptation to the modernized ways pushed the leader to try making people to both fear them as well as love them.
But since these two factors couldn’t go hand in hand, they saw that significant security would be obtained in making people to fear them. This was associated with suspicious from other opposing parties concerning any acts of insecurities that can be thrown toward the leader in question. As a result, any action to suppress the other party or individual was seen as a gateway to remain feared and recognized (Rousseau, 37).
According to Rousseau (87), civil society has introduced inequalities in human kind which mostly concerning moral inequality, whose relation is in power and wealth. This has been attributed to man’s act of straying out of the natural state and stepping in his own cocoon of individual need and desire. As a result, those who first took the advantage of people’s naivety and grabbed shares of the available properties moved up the ladder where they perpetrate the weak so that they can maintain their wealth and power.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Political Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the beginning of evil, where unlike the early man who was strong, fast and in prime condition and who only killed for his self prevention, the civil man started using all means, including killing his fellow to maintain what he has obtained. (Rousseau, 62).
In conclusion, modernization has accompanied its countable good aspect with uncountable vices which has greatly eroded natural state of human being’s moral in relation to other and environment and in place redefined these moral in a self centered perspective, attributed with a lot of evils.
Works Cited Descartes, Rene. The principal of philosophy. Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Johnston: Norton, 1997. Print.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The prince and the discourses. Modern library, 1950. Print.
Rousseau, Jean. Discourse on the origin of Inequality. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. Print.
Learning Styles argumentative essay help
Various seminal studies in the field of educational psychology have illuminated fundamental components on the learning process that could be used for effective communication and collaboration either at the classroom level or in the social context.
These studies have demonstrated that students are not only inclined to learn in divergent ways, but they also favor different instruction methodologies and materials for teaching (Franzoni
Psychoanalytic Personality Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Various psychologists find a wide engagement in different theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, there are various proposals of personality components such as ego, id, and superego, proposed for introversion and extraversion of character. Each of the proposed components forms part of the psychological functionality and therefore the need for combining the parts into a single unit.
However, it is not possible to combine the elements into a single unit because of the differences on the interpretation, but analysis of various theories assist in organizing the components into an interrelated nature without a regard to their originality. The aim of the theories is to define personality using a set of components functioning as a unit. Various theories have therefore emerged in support of the psychic personality appraisal.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic assessment of personality as presented by Freud’s influential work indicates that there are there main components namely the identity, ego and superego. The identity is a force that naturally and unconsciously expresses within a human being as either a love feeling/instinct or a destructive feeling.
The superego is also an instinctive personality vigour that is associable with the manipulation of superlative being of an individual. The superego is a tremendous conscious and is an extreme feeling as the identity. The ego on the other hand is a personality trait that maintains a balance between the two natural forces of personality identity and the superego. Freud presents the human being as a personality in crisis due to the different components.
Freud approach to development of personality indicates that there are five stages in the formation of personal traits. The development stages begin in the early phases of human maturity towards various fixations and life encounters.
According to Freud theory, failure of psychological completion and release can lead to defence mechanism due to conflicts associable with the anxiety of progressing from a stage to another in the development lifecycle (Cotton, 1995). Freud presents five stages of personality development in the psychoanalytic theory.
The stage mainly affects the infants up to two years of age. The child faces the world and is eager to explore nature. The exploring process takes place using the mouth. Therefore, they develop a personality linked to oral perspective and are often pre-occupied with eating, drinking, and biting objects in the aim of reducing the tension.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By having this personality trait, the child is therefore needy, passive and very sensitive to any form of rejection. Various ideas and actions easily carry away the conscious mind of the toddlers. The opposite to this form of personality is the orally aggressive trait. The child becomes hostile, often aggressive and possibly abusive. During this stage, the child tries out the oral fixations to acquire satisfaction. They feel that life is not complete and thus a lot is not yet met, thus the urge for exploration.
Behaviours training or ‘Anal/ Potty’ Training
In the second stage, the child undoes training to control the natural body functions such as training of the toilet procedures. The child can easily develop trauma in case of mishandling, thus becoming retentive and rigid to changes. The opposite to these results of mistreatment is development of a personality devoted to obsessive behaviours that are irrational to the norm.
The stage is associable to scenarios of being out of control or obsessively working hard to maintain order. The child may therefore develop a retentive personality that is stingy. Such children are obsessive to tidiness, but arguably stubborn due to their need for perfectionism. They may also become expulsive and will often lack control and end up being careless or messy.
The stage is associable to children between the age of four and five. The child recognizes the gender differences. Full development of personality occurs at this stage. According to Freud’s theory, the stage is classifiable through the “Oedipus and Electra Complexes (Cotton, 1995). The Oedipus represents a male child’s love for his mother and the fear/jealousy towards his father. The Electra is the female version where the female child has anger or envy toward her mother” (Cotton, 1995).
During the puberty or adolescent stage, there are very little observable personality developments because the teenagers sublimate their discoveries and urges into their hobbies or favourite sports/activities. The friends from the same gender also assist in avoiding the vibrant sexual differences and eminent need for observing the impulsive growth.
The stage begins from the age of 12 years and lasts to the climax of the puberty stage. The phase is associable to the reawakening of the sexual interests especially among opposite sexes.
Comparison of the Psychoanalytical theories Freud’s theory specifies the stages of personality formation but faces a lot of challenges and critics. The argument basis indicates that the outline lacks substantial evidence and corroborative data (Jonson and Jonson, 1997). People still utilize the indications metaphorically to explain the observable behaviours especially in the human development phases. Evidently, I highly agree with the facts that in his psychoanalytic theory,
We will write a custom Assessment on Psychoanalytic Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freud believes in the motivational forces of a dream in the personal wish to fulfil goals. The theory portrays power, control and love as issues that can manifest in people’s dreams as they advocate for satisfaction. From the conflicting point of view, the theory presents the manifestation of the imagery and symbols in the dreams as aspects that have sexual connotation.
Jung presents the analytical psychology or the ‘Jungian’ analysis that conflict with Freud’s psychoanalysis approach of harmonizing the conscious and the unconscious elements. Jung presents a scenario where the patient works with the analyst with the aim of increasing the patient’s conscious in a move to liberate him/her from the psychological suffering.
The theory shows the current treatment setting of finding meaning and relief form common emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety. I highly agree with Jung’s presentation of enhancing the relationship between the unconscious and conscious self, with emphasis on the supporting the continual development of the psychic self. It also presents the human urge to become unique and discover the potentials for development.
Adler’s presentation of personality assessment indicates that every person has a unique personality. I highly concur with the presentation made by Adler that the there is need to ensure consistency over character, with the aim of a achieving the set goals.
However, I disagree with the notion that unpredictable or inconsistent character traits of an individual are because people act from the unconscious mind in the aim of confusing others. Alder presents an important factor of social interest as a fundamental aspect of enhancing unity within the community. He also confers the aspect of social interest as an important measure for the psychological health, and an important factor for building a strong bond among people for sustenance.
Freudian Defence Mechanism Although the presentation of human personality by Freud fails to address factors that link to the education sector, there are various principals from the psychological analysis utilized by other philosophers for education and training. Some of the good examples of the application include the influential approach provided by Freud towards group interaction. He assists in understanding how groups function within the context of education and training.
His analysis also forms the basis for presenting the two levels of operations; the “work group” that performs unconcealed or detailed tasks and the “basic assumption group,” which behaves in a way that indicates that people share various approaches or intentions to solve problems such as dependency, sharing or defence (Bion, 1961).
Conclusion Current psychoanalytic assessment of personality points outs the need to emphasize on the power of classifying or relating to personality components. It is wise to find the differences and similarities between the affective and cognitive components.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personality is the power to determine the personal components or trait that defines and highly affects an individual. Various theories have enormous definitions of personality and the changes involved over time. Only some of the personality components change over time, therefore it is crucial to identify important components that are more prone to change of personality.
References Bion, W. R. (1961) Experiences in Groups, London, Tavistock
Cotton, J. (1995). The theory of Learning: an Introduction, London, Kogan Page
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
One of the most influential ideas offered by liberalists in their time is connected to money and its role in human life. The representatives of liberalism truly believe that money can make people free. Taking into account this assertion, it is possible to admit that money can also make people happier because freedom and happiness are the concepts which are usually connected to each other.
However, there are a number of philosophers and great thinkers who cannot agree to this idea and believed that money should never be regarded as a means of freedom and happiness but vice versa as a source of inequality, poverty, and disappointments.
Such brilliant modern philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx introduce captivating approaches which help to realize a true essence of money and to get a clear idea about what can make people free and happy. On the one hand, it is difficult to imagine that ideas of Rousseau and Marx may have a lot in common; however, on the other hand, their attitudes to money value deserve attention.
Marx and Rousseau were eager to improve the society they lived in and make people free; to achieve these purposes, it is necessary to prove that money does not have such power to provide all people with necessary freedom and happiness because their main purpose is to create inequality and to divide people into groups in accordance with demands and possibilities.
Almost the whole century divides such brilliant and educative philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. However, time is not the only factor according to which these men and their ideas have to be compared.
They are the representatives of different countries, traditions, and beliefs, and still their works and ideas are characterized by a peculiar similarity that is connected to the value of money and its power over people. Rousseau and Marx defined the power of money that was inherent to any type of society; however, this identification was not the symbol of money as something emancipative.
They spoke about the power of private property and the necessity to make some changes because rights people maintained had nothing in common with equality; Rousseau underlined the idea of people freedoms but under such condition which could promote orderly society, however, he could not decrease the necessity level of rights of property. The ideas of these two philosophers demonstrate that private property made people isolated and self-interested but still dependent on each other and unequal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having such attitudes to money, human freedoms, and rights, Rousseau and Marx could easily create a kind of powerful opposition to the representatives of liberalism who strongly believed that money was one of the most crucial sources of human freedoms and happiness. However, the idea of relations between money and freedom has faced a number of philosophical difficulties.
Liberalists made numerous attempts to prove that freedom and money had a close connection to each other because a person without money cannot become free. According to the liberalistic point of view, freedom has to be economically defined. A person has money, and this is why he/she is able to buy freedom and to be happy.
Such weak and sometimes even humiliating ideas made the vast majority of philosopher develop their own strategies and theories in order to prove that such money dependence should influence human freedoms. Rousseau admitted that he “should wished to live and dies free” (Rousseau 2) and he did not underline the necessity of money for this freedom; and Marx believed that “man (a worker) only feels himself freely active in his animal functions” (Marx, Estranged Labor 74).
Can money make people free and happy? Hardly! If you have money, it is impossible to say that sometimes you may have enough money to be satisfied and enjoy this life. When a person gets an access to money, this person is enslaved by it. This is why it is possible to say that people are not free especially when they have money.
And what is more important if people are enslaved by other people, they can easily recognize this dependence and its power. And when people are enslaved by money, they are not able to define this dependence and continue living under this invisible but still crucial dependence.
The desire to get more money leads to inequality between people. And if so many people are eager to destroy all features of inequality, why do they continue supporting the idea of having money and making money powerful? In other words, it is possible to say that money can make people happier for a while but never free; and when the moment of happiness passes, the long-lasting period begins that makes people work for money, think about money, and live for money.
Karl Marx said that “free development of each is the condition for the free development of all” (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 12). This person truly believed that it is possible to achieve freedom and happiness only by means of properly arranged order. According to him, money is condition for development but still not its result. If a person has money, he is eager to be identified among the rest. If this identification takes place, the process of inequality begins.
We will write a custom Essay on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And if inequality continues its development, there is no chance for people to have freedom. Almost the same attitude to freedom and money was represented by Rousseau. He underlines a chance of any person to be born free. Of course, much should depend on the conditions under which people live; however, they should not forget their true human nature that explains the only “free men” may be involved “in search of the truth” (Rousseau 15).
In comparison to Marx, Rousseau seems to be more pessimistic to the idea of money. If Marx believed that the value of money was crucial for inequality that develops within a society under specific conditions, then Rousseau identified money as the reason to start fights, develop discontents, and increase the desire to have more and break the already established norms.
Though money plays such a significant role in this life, it cannot make people free from all things and conditions inherent to this world. People are not as strong as it may seem because they may become blind in respect to the requirements and peculiarities of their life. Money may promote survival, prosperity, and success but such concepts as freedom or happiness should have nothing in common with money.
So, if the answer to the question whether money makes people free and happy is a certain NO, another question should appear. What can make people free and happy if money cannot? In fact, it is very difficult to give one clear answer to such philosophical question. Rousseau as one of the most sophisticated and polite philosopher suggests paying more attention to human lives and the ways people prefer to choose.
For example, he underlined “either desire or an opportunity of emerging from it” (Rousseau 31) as the most powerful components of human happiness. If a person believes that his /her desires as well as his/her faculties are equal, he/she may become happy.
As for freedom, Rousseau believed that there were different types of freedom that could be achieved by means of human participation in processes required from community. And Marx in his turn evaluated freedom as freedom from interference in people’s education, communication, evaluation, and realization (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 40). And human happiness is closely connected to human needs, labor, and ownership.
In general, the idea of human happiness and freedom may be regarded from many different sides. First, each person has his/her own demands, needs, and interests. Of course, much depends on the community a person lives in.
This is why it is possible to believe that human freedoms come from human faith and desire: if you want to become free, you are welcome to use your skills, knowledge, and faculties to achieve the desirable aim. As for human happiness, it is more personal issue: friends, food, health, knowledge, etc. When a person knows what makes him/her happy, achieves purposes, and enjoy the feeling of satisfaction, this person may be called happy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The works by Rousseau and Marx help to define that much about happiness and freedom depends on human surroundings. It is useless to represent some definite claims and prove their correctness. Constant development of this society requires considerable changes and new requirements for freedom and happiness. It is difficult for one person to define what makes other people happy, and this is why it is better to be responsible and confident in personal happiness and personal freedoms.
Works Cited Marx, Karl. “Estranged Labor.” In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Marx-Engels Reader. 2 ed. New York: W.W. Norton
Fashion and Appearance Essay essay help site:edu
Fashion is transitional rather than static, it is this dynamism in its nature that makes it difficult to comprehend and study as a concept in isolation. This is mainly because fashion is interwoven into culture, music, personalities, the economy and a number of other social barometers. Fashion in itself is the custom style and form of appearance that prevails over a specified period of time.
In essence, this means that fashion is short lived and usually acquires manifestation and common usage in the form of dressing and costumes. All that form of fancy attire that acquires a social place and is popular at a given point is what constitutes fashion; this might not however just be limited to dress and costumes but also encompasses other elements within a social perspective such as walking style and even talking and body language.
A number of different world civilizations have diverse cultures and fashion trends and this has been unparalleled not just in recent times but from time immemorial. The West has probably had the greatest influence on the fashion that is currently in the world at any given time (Kitwana, 2000).
The Hip hop fashion and appearance for instance, is western and has constructed a strong social identity that has come to be associated with the youth. Hip hop fashion has a distinctive style of appearance and dress code that is Afro American in descent. This has strongly impacted the social fabric of the youths for instance in major American cities like Philadelphia, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Jersey, Chicago and Miami.
All the above cities have a special contribution to the type of hip hop culture seen in the universe today. This type of pop culture and mode of dressing basically compliments and deeply expresses the attitudes of the people and their form of musical conduct. Various diverse ethnicities around the world have now formally accepted this culture and appearance and indeed mimic these western antics; this is largely seen in Africa and Latin America.
The hip hop fashion has probably created booming business for sportswear and jeans clothing manufacturers around the world, such include Levis Strauss, Kangol, adidas, kappa and sportif. This is because the youthful generation has embraced these designs in society and has come to be associated with these forms of baggy and flashy dressing with sagging outfits.
Over time, the world has witnessed a number of hip hop icons wearing tracksuits, bomber jackets, sneakers shoes and bandanas. Because such icons command a lot of authority among the youthful generation, they are seen as pace setters and role models by many. This can now explain the reason behind the creation of a thick social fabric that regulates social behavior and conduct hinged on this hip hop culture (Grammer, 1996).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1980s for instance, popular accessories ruled the atmosphere of pop culture including elements such as Clark shoes and adidas shelties these were often adorned with laces that were considered “phat” or oversized. A number of hair cuts and hair do’s were also made famous by strategic musical icons like Will Smith who popularized the “hi top fade” and Christopher Reid of Kid n Play who popularized the Jheri curl among others.
From this it can be observed that a variety of fashion and appearance designs usually have fashion ambassadors, these are social icons who find acceptance and command respect from society, because their conduct is admired by a majority of dwellers in these setting, their ideas are bought without question and hesitation, they thus help to play a significant role in moderating social conduct and creating identities.
Tommy Hilfiger became a fashion icon especially on the late 90s as a preferred sportswear. There was however significant levels of competition from other trendy fashion brands like DKNY and Calvin Klein. To illustrate the interrelationship between the media (publicity) and social icons, an incident that occurred in New York City can be useful.
Snoop Doggy Dogg (an afro American rap icon) was once invited to appear in the popular television show “Saturday Night Live” this show usually interviews celebrities, top politicians and famous businessmen, in this particular television talk show, Snoop appeared wearing a sweatshirt with the Tommy Hilfiger label, the next morning this brand made many sales in all the New York clothing stores.
This trend has indeed made a number of clothing labels to be associated or linked with popular musical and media personalities as this is on the surest ways to guarantee increased sales volumes (Wilbekin, 1999).
After the 90s and presently, a number of business executives and artists established their own designer and fashion labels. The following are examples of such designs by prominent artists and designers of fashion in the west: Phat Farm (Russell Simmons), Sean John (Puff Daddy), Roca wear (Jay Z), Shady Limited (Eminem), Akoo (TI), Makaveli
WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The WWI-War was influenced by conflicts among military groups from countries known as world’s supreme powers. It was a four year war i.e. from 1914 to 1918, centered between two disputed allies’, central powers and the triple entente. Sources indicate that close to seventy million soldiers were deployed with fifteen million people perishing as a consequence of the fateful period (Caddick-adams).
In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live with minimal supplies and restricted space for operations.
Soldiers serving in the frontline during the First World War faced a lot of challenges and difficulties when fighting for their own countries. As a way of hiding from ruthless enemies they had to live in unhealthy trenches at the expense of their health.
Due to this fact they faced frequent deaths as a result of attacks by dreadful diseases and unpredictable enemies who attacked via gunfire or bayonet (Caddick-adams). Though living in the trenches could keep them safe from the enemy that was not so in the case of attacks by frogs, rats and lice. Furthermore, trenches provided conducive environment for their multiplication hence a big threat to the health of soldiers.
Regardless of a conducive environment or not, lice could still multiply fast due to their short breeding periods and caused painful itches which led to high fever followed by severe headaches. In the filthy trenches they were expected to be on high alert and constantly having their weapons ready at any moment just in case the enemy attacks.
In addition, movement was minimized and attending to any personal issue was scheduled after fully completing assigned duties. Such kind of life was boring consequently leading to deterioration in the quality of life.
Sources indicate that bodies were left lying and rotting on the ground or buried in shallow graves. As a result the entire battle field was clouded with a stinking smell that was a disguise to the dedicated soldiers. Overflowing shallow latrines, also contributed to the disguise by its stinking smell. In addition, sometime the soldiers fell short of adequate water supply which forced them to go weeks and sometimes even months without taking bath (Caddick-adams).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly introduced soldier in the frontline had difficulties in adapting with the situation on the ground but with no option of turning back they had to adjust for the sake of their survival. Most of the frontline soldier suffered a disease known as shell shock, a mental illness that eventually leads to mental breakdown.
The First World War significantly affected the civilians or persons at home front, forcing them to adjust and adapt by the situation. Rationing was not only done on luxurious commodities but also on the basic ones such as food supply, attires and many more household materials (Caddick-adams).
As a result, various households had to adapt to the situation by venturing in home gardening to act as a substitute for the missing diets. Fortunately, to the civilians who lived in countryside were not greatly affected since most of their home use products were locally supplied. Many home use equipments were eventually turned into weapons to act as protection devices against enemies.
The First World War was characterized by displacement of people so as to create room for battlefields. Once an area was declared a battlefield by the government it had to be evacuated no matter what, hence civilians had no option but to comply. Furthermore, who would want to stay close to battlefields with an ongoing war at place?
Women also had to take great responsibilities due to the fact that men were sent to war. They had act as the sole breadwinners by ensuring each member of their family was quite comfortable as far as provision is concerned. Sometimes they could go the great extents by carrying the entire burden left by the absence of men for the well being of their families.
In some instances women were also expected to frequently supply food to their husbands when fighting in battlefields. Education and formal job were left at stand still due to insecurity was a big threat to future of civilians as they could not study or make a living.
The impacts of the WW1-war were felt by both persons at fore front and home front. Soldiers at the fore front suffered from diseases and poor living conditions that accelerated their deaths. Not forgetting persons at the home front who were displaced, unemployed and had to work extra hard to meet their needs. As noted from the findings the WW1-war was characterized by negative impacts both to civilians and soldiers whether at home or at fore front.
We will write a custom Essay on WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Peter, Caddick-adams. The home front in world war one. BBC. March 14 2005. Web. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/wars_conflict/home_front/the_home_front_01.shtml
Business Issues: Vodafone Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Power, Politics and Conflict in Organizations
Organizational structure and Goals
Introduction This essay analyses Vodafone Group in relation to work motivation, power, politics and conflicts in the organization and finally organizational structure and organizational goals. Basically, management approach to employees determines how well they take to their work. Defining power balance in the organization, in the way organizational structure is set; helps focus resources on organizational goals as opposed to power struggles and derailing conflicts.
Work Motivation Human behavior unlike animal behavior often has a rationale behind it. It is widely accepted that even our instincts are based on a belief system or collective thoughts that inform our interpretation of situations. Vodafone appreciates that workers are intelligent beings out to self actualize through their every day work endeavors.