Concept Of Life-Course Perspective In Society Report (Assessment) Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Background of the interviewee

Understanding Vivian’s life


Social work believes that people’s current behaviors are largely influenced by past events and experiences throughout their life-course. Life-course perspective provides a model for understanding human behavior by looking at the series of events and experiences that occur at different stages of an individual’s life cycle.

People’s lives are often shaped by the chronological age, relationships within and outside the family, and social change that occurs throughout a person’s life cycle (Hutchison, 2011). Life-course perspective rests on the hypothesis that as people develop from childhood through adolescence to adulthood, their lives take a path characterized by continuities, twists and turns depending on the prevailing life-course factors (Hutchison, 2011).

As people grow from childhood to adulthood, their lives are shaped by such important concepts as cohort, transitions, trajectories, live events, and turning points as will be seen in the interviewee case discussed below (Hutchison, 2011). The social environment presents both risk and protective factors that directly influence an individual’s resiliency level (Greene, 2002).

Having provided a theoretical overview of life-course perspective, this paper presents a practical application of the model. The paper uses life-course perspective to analyze events, transitions, trajectories, and turning points that have occurred in a client’s life-course leading her development into a young adult.

Young adulthood is a critical stage in a person’s life cycle as it provides the transition from adolescence to adulthood (Mortimer and Shanahan, 2006). According to Levinson (1978), adulthood is “a period of undulating stability and stress, signified by transitions that occur at specific chronological times within the life-course” (cited in Hutchison, 2011, p. 278).

It is during this stage that a person becomes independent and is expected to pursue his/her life-course outside their original home (van Warmer and Besthorn, 2010). This stage also expects an individual to take up serious roles in life (Hutchison, 2011). While some people go through this stage smoothly, for others it is a nightmare as will be seen in the case of the interviewee analyzed in this paper. For purposes of confidentiality, I will call my interviewee Vivian.

Background of the interviewee Vivian is a 29-year-old African-American lady. She was brought up in a single-mother household together with her four siblings. Vivian grew up in poverty being raised up by her mother while her father was a useless crack addict who often stole from the family and even molested two of his daughters, Vivian being one of them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vivian’s family suffered evictions due to rent nonpayment and moved from shelters to staying with relatives, and finally to a rented home. However, Vivian’s mother was a devoted Christian who went to church three times a week.

Vivian attended public school and did so well. However, she was forced to drop out of college due to baby sitting. Out of her 10-year relationship with a black man, Vivian has two children; a seven-year old girl and a four-year old boy. However, her boyfriend is a drug dealer and has constantly battered her.

Their relationship is characterized by constant arguments, fights, disrespect, break ups and re-unions. She once had her boyfriend arrested for domestic violence, but still continues to have him back in her life and that of the children’s. Despite the troubled relationship, Vivian is unsure whether to let go of her children’s father or not. She claims to love him, but wants to move on.

However, she still ends up back with him. For this reason, Vivian has been in and out of relationships. While Vivian admits she would love to have a perfect family- father, mother and children- she fails to accept that this can never happen with her children’s father. Apart from relationship problems, Vivian is also unable to keep a job because of poor time and attendance. She is also materialistic and loves class.

Understanding Vivian’s life Based on the data generated from the interview as outlined above, Vivian’s life-course can be best understood using several developmental themes including timing of lives and linked or interlinked lives.

Timing of lives is more concerned about a person’s age with reference to expected roles and behaviors of that particular age group (Hutchison, 2011). In American society, career, relationships and childbearing are significant expectations of young adulthood. Vivian is 29 years old meaning she is almost halfway in young adulthood.

The transitions expected at her age include starting a career, leaving home, getting married, and bearing children, some of which has occurred in Vivian’s life with some twists and turns. Vivian had her first born when she was 22 years, which is “on-time” according to the timing of lives theme. While Vivian is blessed with two children, her relationship with their father is a nightmare.

We will write a custom Assessment on Concept of Life-Course Perspective in Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She seems to be in and out of relationships, all in a bid to conform to “timing lives”, which expects her to be in marriage at her age. Another expectation of her age is a career. Vivian is struggling to be in employment to conform to age expectations even if she has no time for a job.

Apart from the timing of lives, Vivian’s life can also be understood using the linked or interlinked theme. It is clear that people do not live their lives in a vacuum, but rather in a society where the social environment plays a greater role in shaping their life-course (Hutchison, 2011).

According to Greene (2002), the social environment in which a person is raised up can either pose a risk or a protective factor in their life-course. As a child, Vivian lived in a poverty stricken single-parent household together with her four siblings.

While her mother struggled to make them comfortable, Vivian states that her father was a useless crack addict who even molested Vivian and her sister when they were still children. Vivian’s family was also forced to live with relatives after eviction from their shelter. Vivian’s childhood and adolescence was thus linked to problems in her family and influence from relatives.

Even though, Vivian describes her mother as a dedicated Christian, events happening in her family must have affected her emotionally and hence her ability to provide emotional support to Vivian and her siblings. Raising five children as a single mother is not easy especially given her economic status.

In simple terms, Vivian’s childhood was marked by life events that must have affected and will continue to affect her ability to develop and maintain relationships during her young adulthood. Hutchison (2011) illustrates Erickson’s stage of intimacy vs isolation in chapter 7, which can describe Vivian’s present life stage. As an individual develops from adolescence to young adulthood, he or she has to transform the fragmentations, confusions and explorations of adolescence into intimate engagements (p. 276).

Vivian must have had a good relationship with her siblings, relatives and friends in the neighborhood, but she must have missed having a father figure around her and this can explain her desire to have a perfect family with a father figure for her children.

Maybe she does not want her children to go through the same experience she had during her childhood and adolescence stages being brought up by a single mother. Hence, Vivian would rather subject her children to a dysfunctional family unit than a single parent family.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Life-Course Perspective in Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cohort effects in Vivian’s life course can be traced to the post WWII baby boom. Vivian’s mother belongs to this cohort and the financial difficulties experienced in the 1960s and 1970s explain’s the economic trajectory of Vivian’s life course (Spain and Bianchi 1996).

Vivian’s mother suffered the increasing marital instability of 1980s and was thus unable to pursue any meaningful employment while also tending to her children as a single mother. We see Vivian’s life also taking the same course. Vivian has gone through many transitions in her life leading to her current life-course stage.

According to Hutchison (2011), a transition refers to roles and responsibilities that represent a departure from the previous ones. The first major transition in Vivians life occurred when she had her first born child. Vivian had to assume the role of a mother and was even forced to quit college so that she could babysit her daughter; something that must have generated some stress in her life.

Another transition in her life was when she got into a relationship with her children’s father. While relationship is considered by many as a positive transition in an individual’s life, for Vivian it became a negative transition that changed her life for the worst explaining her present stage of life.

Vivian is experiencing one important life cycle task, i.e., making the decision to end her relationship as she is confused on what to do. Hutchison (2011) states that young adulthood is a stage when individuals are expected to apply in their daily lives what they developed during their adolescence years such as sensitivity, personal morality, and awareness of wrong and right.

While most cultures around the world consider all married individuals as adults, American society considers a person an adult adult based on financial independence as well as ability to make independent decisions and be accountable for one’s actions (Mortimer and Shanahan, 2006). In this context, Vivian may not be considered an adult, despite her age.

Vivian’s life-course has experienced three important turning points. As Hutchison (2011) outlines, a turning point denotes any event that produces a lasting effect in an individual’s life course. Vivian’s major turning point occurred when she had her first born child.

As a result, she had to drop out of college shattering her dreams of a better life in the future. She was also forced to move in with her children’s father, despite his criminal acts. Likewise, the main trajectory of Vivian’s life-course is her relationship with her children’s father. This relationship first led to her having unplanned baby, then dropping out of college, then a series of domestic violence, and lastly her state of confusion.

Vivian’s social environment and family has had a lasting impact on her life-course. Having been born in a poor family, Vivian had to live the simple life ever. She had to go to a public school, watch her family being evicted from their shelter, and even live at the mercy of relatives. It is also because of her low social class that Vivian ended up with the type of a husband she has. She could not mingle with the rich since she was poor hence ended up with a poor drug dealer for a husband.

Vivian’s race as an African-American must have also had a lasting influence on her life. In most cases, African-Americans are considered low-class in American society and do not have access to opportunity compared to pure Americans. Since Vivian spent her childhood in a poor society being teased by the rich, she must have longed to be rich some day.

It is for this reason that Vivian is materialistic and class minded. She is on and off employment, but does not lose hope simply because she is determined to better her economic status.

Vivian’s life-course is characterized by events and experiences that can be considered as developmental risk. Her childhood through adolescence was characterized by cumulative poverty. She also spent her childhood in a non-intact family unit. According to McLanahan and Sandefur (1994), children who are brought up by single parents are likely to face the risk of teenage pregnancies, school dropouts, and idleness hence detrimental to young adults economic prospects.

However, Vivian was able to develop resilience, thanks to the support of her mother, relatives, and siblings. Contrary to what I would expect from someone who has gone through similar experience as Vivian, Vivian is able to develop intimate relationships and is even able to tolerate her boyfriend, which is a perfect illustration of resilience (Greene, 2002).

She is also struggling to be in employment. As a young adult her life has been marked by a series of domestic violence, despite her desire for a happy family. This is also a developmental risk, which if not professionally addressed would affect her future life stages as well as that of her children.

References Greene, R. (2002). Resiliency: an integrated approach to policy, practice and research. Washington, DC: NASW press.

Hutchison, E.D. (Ed.) (2011). Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course. 4th Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McLanahan, S.,


Homelessness in Vancouver, Canada: Discussing its Causes custom essay help

There is a massive and unprecedented scale of homelessness in advanced industrialized countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, among others. In the Canadian context, homelessness is a mounting risk for many immigrant families who are increasingly experiencing severe challenges finding affordable, adequate, and sustainable housing (Preston et al., 2009). The present paper aims to delineate the causes and effects of homelessness in Vancouver, Canada.

Available statistics demonstrate that between 150,000 and 300,000 people are homeless in Canada, making various government agencies to commit from $3-$6 billion to supporting the homeless in a country of over 34 million people (Graham


How to Become a Successful Athlete? Exploratory Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Athletics is a process that involves running faster, jumping higher or longer distances, or throwing some provided materials further than someone else. In addition, bicycle paddling, car racers and participation in football are also examples of athletic processes. It has been known for long and it is still known that athletes are among the successful persons in the world.

Despite the much success associated with athletic activities, many risks are made by the athletic competitors in partaking their trainings and competitions. Let it be clarified, however, that devoid of the proper training and directions, the well known successful athletes are none but a group of ordinary persons in the society.

Significance of athletics process Participating in athletic activities is an essential element in life; this is because during athletics process body movements are made, hence contributing immensely to the normal health of an individual. In addition, during athletic process, individuals lose weight leading to reduction of health associated problems such as obesity and vessel blockages.

Athletic activities also pays more well compared to other kinds of chores in the world. However, for an individual to be a successful athlete, he or she has to incorporate some steps in life. These steps include choosing of the right diets, thinking critically, having good listening and communication skills, input of much effort in athletic activities, undertaking trainings, avoiding risks, and having familiarity to athletic tools.

Picking of diet First, a successful athlete has the responsibility of picking on the right diets that will enhance body fitness for a competition. This is because athletic process is all about contraction and relaxation of muscles, and incorrect foods results to difficulties in muscle building of an individual. In addition to successful athletes taking the right diets, they should also learn to hydrate themselves in the period of summer.

Body hydration aids in reducing of body weight by not only preventing accumulation of cholesterol, but also tissue clotting in the body tissues. Intake water also plays a crucial role in enhancing the body tissues remain in fitness for any activity including participating in athletics. In addition, during the summer period, a lot of water is lost from the body due to sun heating that cause profuse sweating, therefore; it is vital for athletes to take a lot of water to reduce cases of dehydration.

Thinking critically Secondly, athletic activity involves extensive use of the brain for one to be successful. Therefore, successful athletes have the role of thinking critically in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches they make towards the problems they encounter in their daily athletic activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In so doing, they will not only learn from their own performance, but also from other individuals and make improvements where needed. In addition, thinking critically enables an athlete to participate effectively in a competition by making right decisions in partaking a competition, for example avoiding use of drugs.

Good listening and communication skills Thirdly, athletic activity is all about listening and communicating. For one to be a successful athlete, he or she has to be active in listening to other people in order to gain an understanding of what athletic process entails. For instance, during marathon process, individuals have to communicate effectively with each other in order to convey information on what should be done to improve chances of winning.

Listening skill also plays a crucial role when individuals are about to undertake a competition. This is because in a competition many sorts of sounds are used to convey messages, for instance it is the role of the marathon athletes to pay attention to the sounds made for the start of a race.

Input of efforts Fourthly, due to the challenge portrayed by athletics process, that is becoming a common element all over the world involving millions of people; it is the responsibility of athletes to put much effort in order to become successful.

Although the duration of athletic process tends to be so long and too much involving, one has to be persistent and strong in undertaking practices in order to be successful. The athletic competition also is prone to challenges that have to be overcome by an athlete, for example, in athletic competition, there are always losers and winners, and a successful athlete has the responsibility of taking both results positively.

Undertaking of trainings Fifthly, success in athletics is directly proportional to the rate of training; this is because the body in the process of training becomes adapted to the challenges involved in the strenuous athletic activity.

For instance, successful athletes in the process of training learn on how to manage their body movements to enhance speed movements. Therefore, it is the role of a successful athlete to undertake enough training in order to acquire body fitness before undergoing a competition.

We will write a custom Essay on How to Become a Successful Athlete? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Awareness of risks Sixthly, due to some of the activities involved in the athletic process being violent and subjecting individuals to hazardous physical injuries each time athletic process is partaken; it is the responsibility of the athlete to take amicable steps.

For instance, it is the role of an athlete to understand the risks involved in the athletic process and the best measures to take in avoiding them from happening in order to participate fully in a competition. Good examples are athletes involved in either hockey or bicycle peddling; such individuals have to use facial shields to prevent themselves from fatal accidents that may halt them from participating in a competition.

Material awareness Finally, some of athletic activities involve the use of materials. Therefore, it is advisable for the athletes to equip themselves with enough knowledge of athletic materials needed to enhance success. For example, successful pedal exercisers need to have access to exercise bicycles to acquaint themselves with enough knowledge on how to partake paddling competition.

On the other hand, car racers are not exceptional, just as bicycle peddlers they also have to acquaint themselves with procedures required in athletics as well as the vehicles that they will use in the athletic competitions. In athletic competitions involving the use of materials, material familiarity is so essential and, it is not exceptional for an individual’s success.

Conclusion In conclusion, successful athletes have to ensure that they have maintained healthy body fitness for the athletic competition through taking the right diets and trainings periodically. It is also advisable for individuals with aims of becoming successful athletes to learn on how to listen, and think critically while undergoing trainings, for this will aid the in taking in instructions during the competitions. Individual material awareness also plays a crucial role in enacting the success of an athlete.


Adamson House in Malibu, California Descriptive Essay essay help

Adamson House is a historic building in Malibu, California. Its second name is “Taj Mahal of Tile” because of the abundant use of ceramic tiles introduced by Rufus Keeler (Adamson House n. p.). Built in 1930 by Rhonda and Merritt Adamson, the house is premised on a period Mediterranean Revival.

Therefore, the elements of the architecture refer to the times of Spanish Colonial Revival (Adamson House n. p.). The house, therefore, represents Andalusian style that is remarkable for the extensive use of hard-painting decorative tiles that were produced by Artisans at Malibu Potteries at the end of 1930s.

Exterior of the Adamson house is represented through the splendor of colors, shapes, and forms. Despite the great number of elements, the mixture of colors is still conforms to the Spanish style with Persian elements. The tiles in the swimming pool and on the garden paths look like carpets. The predominance of blue tones in the swimming pools and fountains, including the tiles curbing the pool boundaries, harmonize with warm undertones of yellow and brown tiles.

The exterior style of the Adamson house complies with the style of the outside space. Thus, mahogany beams support the ceiling of the living room. The pointed arched window and fireplace reveal the Moroccan influences delivering Neptune-motif painting. Similar style is also observed in the kitchen and bedrooms in the house.

The sofa covered with tapestry resembles Bargello design (McKowen and McKowen 246). The floor lamps are made in the Tiffany Studios style and represent the brightest features of the period. The tiles on the floor create a perfect match with the tiles used in laying the paths in the garden near the fountains and swimming pools (McKowen and McKowen 246). The floors are more reminiscent of the Moorish style, which also corresponds to the era of Spanish colonial revival (McMillian and Gainer 67).

Realistic Persian rugs have been designed mostly for the floor files. With regard to the elements represented in the interior, including the living room, kitchen, and bedrooms, the House possesses Persian, Moorish, and Italian features with the prevailing Spanish and Mediterranean stylistic dominance (McKowen and McKowen 246). Due to the abundance of color and decorative elements, Rhonda Adamson decided not to include paintings, which are presented in many other mansions of that epoch .

The Spanish style of the architecture was explained by the renewed interest in the period of Italian Renaissance in the beginning of the twenties century in the United States. Therefore, most of the buildings constructed during this period reminded of villas and palaces with the style dating back to the sixteenth century.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Adamson house is located on the seaside and, therefore, much of the elements in style are reminiscent of the Mediterranean resorts. Most of balconies, windows, and fireplaces are made of wood and iron, which was also typical of the time of Spanish Colonial and Spanish Renaissance architecture. Ornamentation also refers to the Mediterranean architecture, the place where the Italian Renaissance was born.

The period of colonial revival also relates to the sixteenth century, the time when Spain has a particular interest in conquering the New World. The colonial settlements in the America, particular in the United States has had a potent impact on cultural and social development of the American society (McMillian and Gainer 67). Therefore, architecture has also been largely influenced by the Spanish invaders.

Works Cited Adamson House. Tiles of Malibu Potteries. n. d. Web.

McKowen, Ken., and Dahlynn McKowen, Best of California’s Missions, Mansions, and Museums: A Behind-The-Scenes Guide to the Golden State’s Historic and Cultural Treasures. US: Wilderness Press, 2006. Print.

McMillian, Elizabeth Jean and Matt Gainer. California Colonial: the Spanish and Rancho Revival Styles. US: Schiffer Pub, 2002. Print.


Analysis of Michael Foucault’s ideas and methods in social sciences Report best essay help: best essay help

Michael Foucault was a brilliant researcher and professor with extensive academic publications in the field of humanities and social sciences abode between 1926 and 1984. He was a political activist, who really despised modern life due to the oppression he witnessed. He used his lecturing and academic opportunity as a forum to criticize tyrannical power.

This made him one of the intellectual heroes of social justice movements in France, with greater focus on the marginalized persons in society including children, women, prisoners, deviants and patients.

Michael addressed the struggle of individuals in the society and the existing institutions of power, giving an in depth analysis of the Marxist capitalist theory. Some of his quintessential works include; Madness and civilization, History of insanity in the age of reason (1961), the birth of a clinic (1963), History and sexuality (1984), Discipline and Punish, The Birth of the Prison (1977) among other prodigious works.

Michael examined some of the underlying rules in society and existing cultures of people while discussing the methods used to understand archaeology. He wrote that society believed that ideas cannot be imagined, asking himself some of the rules that governed these ideas. He used archaeology to analyze what makes an idea powerful or authoritative and the constraints in individual’s thinking. Michael’s idea has been applied overwhelmingly by historians to unmask some of the views which had been hidden for many years.

Archaeological study has been instrumental in analyzing previous research works which were regarded as naïve and insignificant. This study therefore puts into light the truth and history which had not been explained by previous researchers. It opens the minds of historians and the public to trace the root causes of issues that negatively or positively impact the society.

Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche, Michael looked at genealogy as an attempt to write history for those who had been left out. He believed genealogy looked at convectional and unconventional history which has been silenced, unfinished and subversive. The study also looked at the knowledge which had been regarded as unscientific with a provision for criticism.

Michael had a view that genealogical investigations have been made possible with the removal of tyranny of overall discourses. The genealogical ideas can be applied when studying the society as it helps to trace societal roots and origins through debates which could not be accommodated in the past.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The understanding is important as it allows free absorption of societal knowledge and reactive to local knowledge. This study allows scholars to be tactical and skeptical, as it is the foundation in which archaeological understanding is focused against unitary, formal and scientific theoretical discourse.

Michael believed that every society struggles to get an uninterrupted right to speak. He looked at discourse as involving written, spoken and expressed language.

Foucault defined discourse as authorized statements about a particular subject. He reiterated that discourse is a social language which is created by a given cultural condition at a given time and place to give us information about a person who is speaking, his/her culture, the social institution he is involved in and the cultural beliefs upheld. This study can be applied in situations when one is studying a culture of a particular group.

It is important because it creates a world that shapes our reality with the changing times and assists us to generate truth or what is perceived to be true. Finally discourse enables us to understand how power agitates one to address a situation. For instance, a medical discourse gives a medical doctor a authority to examine patient and give a right medication.

Michael looked at normalization as a social process which treats ideas as normal. This involves construction of some norms and conducts which regulates our behavior in the society; giving an example with what he called ‘Hitler’s boys’. He reiterated that normalization was an ensemble of tactics for ensuring maximum societal control.

This understanding of normalization is applied in the developing of various regulations. Normalization is important as it explains the reason behind existing norms and why people adhere to them. Besides, it explains why there are norms, laws and regulations within the societies and the penalties tagged when violated.

Foucault viewed truth as product of relations of power. Societies have different forms of knowledge which acts as the basis of truth. In his view, power determines the truth which changes with the changing societal systems. Foucault explains that knowledge will be provided when a discourse has been created in life, though this type of truth can neither be true nor false.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis of Michael Foucault’s ideas and methods in social sciences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The truths in society come from the power which is generally accepted. The idea can be applied when looking at the existing beliefs and opinions regarded by people as true. The study of truth is important as it allows us to fathom factual matters within our societies and how to treat a statement as either true or false.


Playing with fire Essay college essay help: college essay help

Andrew Palmer explores the benefits and costs of financial innovations. He goes ahead to assess the previous and current regulatory frameworks. Financial innovations are essential in that they may produce many benefits just as they would enhance growth and efficiency in any other industry.

However, it should be moderated so that it does not tend towards excess (Palmer 3). Therefore, financial innovations can be said to have both benefits and costs. Recent financial innovations have been reported to be very explosive. They have been characterised with the presence of a huge number of products that have been introduced to the market before they could be understood fully. Many experts in the field of finance have expressed their worries concerning recent financial innovations.

The Economist uses the example of Peterborough rehabilitation to show some of the ills in terms of financial innovations. It implies that as the Peterborough rehabilitation flourishes, and so do the investors (Palmer 4). There seems to be no motivation for the local authorities to perform. The investors would not be rewarded for living in a dangerous environment.

Many changes have occurred in the industry such that many useful professions have been regarded as dirty businesses. The banking industry, for example, was once a renowned profession whereby the customers were valued highly and their finances safeguarded by the financial institution. However, it has been disregarded and the customers do not appear to be as important as they used to be. The agenda of the bankers appear to be tainted since they seem to only favour their own benefits.

During the financial crisis in 2007 and 2008, financial innovations graced the occasion. However, today’s policymakers are being annoyed by the sovereign credit-default swaps (CDSs). The rising of the exchange-traded funds is making things even worse. Some are worry that they are increasingly becoming more complex such that it is not of benefit to them. Investors and regulators have not been left off the hook either. The trading that is happening at high frequencies is becoming troubling for the investors and regulators.

On the other hand, the innovations that have been deemed controversial have been argued (by the champions of innovation) to be of much importance. These innovations include the likes of securitisation and the credit-default swaps. Investors are increasingly developing ideas on how to create new markets in order to curb the effect of the new laws. They further argue that systems are in place to provide security in case some of these innovations go bad.

The report basically assesses the functions of the financial innovations during the crisis. The benefits and dangers of the ETFs and high frequency trading are assessed. The dangers of conducting high-frequency trade include risk management failures that result in huge losses. However, high frequency trading could be beneficial in putting an edge to the investment this explains why the author believed that it would be hard to imagine a world without high frequency trading (Palmer 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The financial crisis was characterised by various failures. The bankers, regulators, economists and shareholders failed in a way or the other (Palmer 13). One of the failures was that of plumbing. Another failure was that of the imagination.

Regulators have been determined to have a weakness in that they may not be good predictors of impending dangers in case of financial crises. Therefore, it is important for the system to have enough capital in order to combat calamity. However, innovations may be encouraged since this would increase the chances for the prosperity of the industry (Palmer 16).

Works Cited Palmer, Andrew. “Playing with fire.” The Economist 1.1 (2012): 2-16.


History of Crafting Islam Essay college essay help

First of all, it should be pointed out that Islam was founded by Muhammad. One is to keep in mind that Muhammad is considered to be a messenger, whom Allah provided with his last revelations. The final prophet stated that Allah established high ethical standards, which people are to follow. These standards involve generosity, just, truth and purity.

Those, who refuse to live according to the principles, will be punished by the one true God. One of the messenger’s key aims was to rectify mistakes other prophets made while introducing their religious teachings. Muhammad’s major aim is to encompass all people and show them the ways, which lead to Paradise. Treating parents with respect, seeking knowledge, cleanliness, treating women with distinction, self-control, the richness of the soul, modesty and faith, compassion are some of the key values Muhammad highlighted.

Generally, the religious roots Muhammad used to craft Islam involve teachings of other religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism; although the key of the teaching is that the one true God is Allah. Koran is considered to be the God’s last revelation to people.

The final prophet faced resistance when he started to preach Allah’s final revelations to the representatives of the Quraish tribe, “but in 622 CE the city of Yathrib (270 miles north of Mecca), invited Muhammad to take power as its governor, to preach to its people, and to mediate disputes between rival tribes” (“In the Wake of Rome: the Islamic, Byzantine, and Carolingian Empires,” n. d.).

Muhammad stated that the God’s will was to convert Arab tribes to the new faith. A base for military expansion was also given to the final prophet. Thus, Muhammad obtained religious and political success using “a combination of intimidation, politics, and charismatic preaching to convert other Arab tribes” (“In the Wake of Rome: the Islamic, Byzantine, and Carolingian Empires,” n. d.).

To convert non-Arabs to Islam, the power of the Koran and the oral traditions established by the final prophet were used. Non-Arabs were deeply impressed how the God’s last messenger solved numerous governmental contradictions and law problems. A political alliance with other communities allowed to convert non-Arabs to the new faith (Tahir-ul-Qadri, 2001).

When Allah’s final prophet died, he left no instructions how to rule the Islamic Empire. However, within a century, his followers established a powerful empire. Abu-Bakar who was a well-known Meccan businessman and one of Muhammad’s followers expanded Islamic power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He started war against those Arab tribes, which did not want to accept him as a ruler. A dynasty of Caliphs was established. Christians and Jews got an opportunity to live according to their own faith; although they had to accept Islam as a dominant faith and were obliged to pay taxes.

Faith, spiritual perfection and practice are considered to be the most important variables Islam is based on. The three key things are associated with peace and mercy. Finally, it should be noted that Muhammad’s teaching must not be regarded as a religion.

The most appropriate word, which can be used to explain the connotative meaning of Islam, is Deen; despite the fact that Deen is translated as a religion, the semantic meaning of the Arabic word differs from the meanings English dictionaries contain. One can probably conclude that Islam is not a religion; it is a mode of life.

References In the Wake of Rome: the Islamic, Byzantine, and Carolingian Empires. (n. d.). Retrieved from 1650 lecture 8.htm

Tahir-ul-Qadri, M. (2001). Islam and Politics. Retrieved from


The Aspects of Hispanic History and Culture Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents History of Hispanics

Culture of Hispanics

Usefulness of the Term Hispanics

Ways of Engaging with Hispanic Students

Activities of Educating other Students about Hispanics

Addressing Hispanics in Standard Curriculum


History of Hispanics In the history of the U.S, New Spain came into existence before New England. Santa Fe and N.M also came before Mass and Boston. Most of the studies that focus on U.S history emphasize on how the British colonies of North America were found and their subsequent growth, their gaining of independence in 1776 and the east to west growth of the U. S.

This approach disregards the truth that the current American Southwest was significantly colonized by Spain since the 16th century. The fact that the entire Southwest region was characterized by individuals who spoke Spanish, with their unique culture, heritage and customs for a long period of time is also not considered. This fact is only recognized after reference to the Mexican War is made (Guisepi, n.d).

The groups of U.S Citizens who spoke Spanish and became part of the country due to the Mexican War are known as Mexican Americans. Additional Spanish-Speaking individuals originated from Puerto Rico and Cuba while few immigrated from South and Central America. All these individuals are collectively referred to as Hispanics.

Culture of Hispanics Hispanics comprise of an ethnic minority in the U.S with the fastest growth rate. Approximately 60 per cent of the Hispanics is believed to have originated from Mexico. Despite the fact that their experiences of discrimination have not been as pronounced as those of African Americans, some of them have nonetheless been characterized by low education and economic levels.

Hispanic is not a term with an ethnic orientation but rather makes reference to a native cultural and language background. The group referred to as Hispanics is comprised of individuals whose ethnic origins are diverse. Since the Hispanics have a strong attachment to their particular national origin, they do not consider themselves a group with single identity (Guisepi, n.d).

Despite the fact that they are spread throughout the U.S, their number is higher in some regions than others. For instance, the states of California and Texas constitute about 50 per cent of all Hispanics that live in the U.S. Their concentration is however most significant in Miami, which is also referred to as Dade country.

The immigration of Hispanics into the U.S is justified by two fundamental reasons. The first one is that they were running away from political incrimination while the second one is that they were in search of economic opportunities in the U.S. For instance, a large percentage of Puerto Ricans and Mexicans entered the U.S in their bid to earn a living since they lived in poverty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Cubans fled their country into the U.S due to political reasons after Fidel Castro took over the reins of power in the 20th century (Guisepi, n.d).

Usefulness of the Term Hispanics As a minority group, it is very important to focus on children of Hispanic origin in the U.S educational system. Since the group is characterized by racial orientations that differ from those of Native Americans, it is possible for them to be ignored, misrepresented or misunderstood in U.S early childhood education programs.

It is therefore important for early childhood education programs to factor in their racial orientations to ensure that their needs are addressed effectively. This is because cultural values cannot be separated with educational processes.

When children are taken to school, their societal or family values can either be challenged or enhanced as they begin to get socialized. Their values vary the same way their cultural backgrounds and ethnicities do. Owing to the ever changing nature of student population, it is critical for early childhood education programs to satisfactorily address the needs of students without eroding their culture (York, 2005).

Misrepresentation and wrong understanding of Hispanics in early childhood education programs in the U.S is likely to occur due to the ever increasing number of Hispanic immigrants into the country. Studies have indicated that about 20 per cent of bilingual students in the U.S grow up in Hispanic set ups. The number of Hispanic children has also been increasing faster than the rest of the other ethnic and racial groups found in the U.S.

Ways of Engaging with Hispanic Students The bio-ecological dimension of looking at child development argues that the diversity of contextual factors that influence the development of children should be considered. Rogoff (2003) explains that the cultural development of children is biological.

This implies that culturally responsive education should be encouraged during the formative years of students in order to enhance development conditions that are both biologically and culturally appropriate. This involves the employment of prior experiences and cultural knowledge in order to increase the efficacy and appropriateness of learning. In such an approach, children are educated through their own strengths.

We will write a custom Essay on The Aspects of Hispanic History and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, social, intellectual and emotional learning can be enhanced through cultural references to inculcate skills, knowledge and attitudes among the students. Teachers can also include cognition that is culturally mediated, social situations that are culturally relevant for learning and content that transmits culturally recognized knowledge. Finally, teachers who are culturally responsive emphasize the need for education to preserve cultural heritage and identity alongside teaching academic content.

Activities of Educating other Students about Hispanics In order to ensure that Hispanic children are integrated into the early childhood education systems, it is important to educate other students on the importance of appreciating and honoring the culture and background of their Hispanic colleagues.

The first activity that teachers can use to educate other students on this is by giving students from Hispanic origin tasks that require them to integrate and interact with the rest of the students. By so doing, the other students learn to appreciate the culture and background of the Hispanics (York, 2005).

The second activity that teachers can use is to organize competitions that enable the Hispanic students bring out their best qualities and strengths. In such events, they might even exhibit the ability to do things that native students may not be able to do. As a result, they learn to appreciate the cultural diversity of the Hispanics.

Addressing Hispanics in Standard Curriculum In order to address the Hispanic culture throughout the standard curriculum, a number of measures should be taken. The first measure is to promote acculturation or integration. This implies that the culture of the Hispanics should be valued and recognized throughout the curriculum as opposed to compelling Hispanic students to assimilate to American culture.

The second measure of addressing the culture throughout the curriculum is by recognizing common values and ideas that characterize different cultures while the third measure is being attentive to the needs of minority races to ensure that their concerns are fully addressed in the curriculum.

Some of the important resources that can be utilized include ‘The cultural nature of human development’ by Rogoff, Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers by Bowman


Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Rainforests

Preservation of the Rainforests

Threats to the Rainforests


Works Cited

Introduction Costa Rica (a country in South American) is located between Nicaragua and Panama. With a total land size of 19,653 sq miles, Cost Rica boarders Caribbean Sea and North Pacific Ocean.

The greatest distance connecting its principal point is 200 miles. This paper discusses Costa Rica with respect to preserved Rainforests and other related geographical phenomena. The country is not highly populated and has a total population of only 3.5 million people. It has five major geographical areas namely the Pacific, Caribbean, North Central Plains, Central Valley, and the Northwest Peninsula.

It has seven provinces namely “Alajuela, Heredia, San Jose, Limon, Guanacaste, Cartago, and Puntarenas” (Infocostarica 1). Different regions of Costa Rica exhibit different geographical and climatic conditions. The regions have features such as volcanoes and mountains, rivers, forests, and valleys. The rainy season is one of the features of Costa Rica. This has increased the number of rivers and rainforests tremendously. Some of the major rivers in Costa Rica include San Juan, Tempisque, Sixaola, and Pacuare.

There are numerous mountain ranges stretching across the country. A major mountain ridge is the Costa Rican ridge that includes Cordillera of Guanacaste, Cordillera Central, Cordillera of Tilaran, and Cordillera of Talamanca. The volcanic ranges in Costa Rica include the Guanacaste Range, the Central Volcanic Range and the Talamanca Range.

The Rainforests Costa Rica is featured with various rainforests (a habitat of about 10000 species of trees and plants). More than a quarter of this Central American country is used as biological reserve and for wildlife refuge. It is also among the most bio-diverse countries in the world (Govisitcostarica 1).

The forests in Costa Rica can be classified as rainforest, cloud forest, and topical dry forest. However, the rainforests are the most common in Costa Rica. They are mainly located in the south western parts of the country. Moreover, they exist in the Atlantic lowlands and characteristically featured by tall trees as well as drooping vines. The trees in the forests are tall and some reach up to 70 meters.

The forests are habitat to many animals and many species of plants. Some of the rainforests include Arenal Volcano National Park, Barbilla National Park, Carara National Park and Braulio Carrillo National Park. The cloud forests are mainly located on the slopes of volcanoes and mountains. The tropical forests, on the other hand, are mainly in the North Pacific coast of the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rainforests of Costa Rica are characterized by high levels of biodiversity. Rainforests possess nearly 12000 species of vegetation as well as 1240 different kinds of butterflies. Species of birds in Costa Rica nears 838 while reptiles constitute 440. This is a critical ecological provision when observed decisively. In addition, there are 232 species of mammals (rainforests.mongabay 1). There are five different layers in the rainforests and these are the emergent, the canopy, the under storey, shrub and ground.

Each of these layers has particular plants and animals that are adapted to the conditions in them. The rainforests are also characterized with many rivers and many waterfalls. Geographically, this is a critical provision in the context of biodiversity and environmental viability. It is important to protect the rainforests as advocated by the government.

Rainforests receive approximately 2000 to 6000 mm of rain per year and are in the altitude of between 0-1000m above sea level. The highest temperature in the forests is usually 330C while the lowest is usually 22 degree centigrade (costarica21 1). The tropical rainforests have a variety of plants and trees.

Some of the animals in the rainforests include the green basilisk, the green iguana, the two toed and the three toed sloth and the poison dart frog among many others. There are also different types of birds in the rainforests and these usually attract a lot of bird watchers.

Preservation of the Rainforests Costa Rica has established and enacted critical conservation plans mandated to protect the mentioned rainforests considerably. The plan aims at protecting more than ten percent of the country so as to have large forest coverage. The implementation of the plan has began and one strip of forest covers over 40 miles without any interruption. The forest strip covers 9 ecological locations in Costa Rica. It extends to areas 12500M altitude.

In 1995, the state initiated a credible program mandated to guard 18% of the Costa Rica’s rainforests. The 18 percent land coverage was to be converted into national parks. In addition to this, another 13 percent of the country was to be given to individuals so that they make private reserves. The state besieged regions with enormous biodiversity for protection. Land owners were issued with certificates of forest protection by the government.

These certificates paid the land owners an average of $50 annually for every hectare of forest cover that they protected. This is the method through which the government funded the project. To this end, around two third of the country’s rainforests are under protection. The country has also initiated a number of programs to promote growth that can be sustained.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Forest Project of the Foundation for the Development of Central Volcanic Mountain Range is one of the projects that that aim at promoting sustainable development. This project manages around 13000 hectares through the development of plans that land owners can use to manage forests (climatepath 1).

Threats to the Rainforests Costa Rica earns remarkable revenue from ecotourism. The amount that tourism earns the country in terms of foreign exchange is higher than the amounts earned through the sale of timber. Rainforests have a lot of bio-diversity and this attracts tourists. This is a critical provision when considered decisively in the realms of economic growth and other viable developmental provisions.

The parks that the country has are accessible and the safety standards are high. However, the number of tourists at the parks is at times restricted so as to avoid damage to the forests. The encroachment of the forests by hoteliers has also led to a lot of controversy in the country.

Despite the efforts exerted by Costa Rica to protect rainforests, the country has faced numerous challenges due to deforestation. Costa Rica once had a 99 percent forest cover. This environmental viability has reduced gradually. The present situation nears only 35 percent of forest cover.

The main reasons for deforestation in this country is harvesting for timber and conversion of land for agricultural purposes. Loss of biodiversity and the effects on the climate are the two most severe consequences that destruction of the rainforests has on Costa Rica (Coztarica 1).

The threats that rainforests of Costa Rica face also include high population growth, forest sustainability challenges, and human interferences. Areas with rapid population growth in Costa Rica are in the tropics. In these areas, people clear land for sustenance farming.

Clearing of land, however, continue since rainforest soil loose nutrients quickly after a few years of farming. The other threat to the rainforests in this country is the global and regional climatic change. Global climatic changes have made the tropics warmer and have had the effect of changing the rainfall patterns and thus affect rainforests adversely (costarica21 1).

Conclusion Costa Rica is a country rich in bio-diversity. The country has numerous geographical features with five major geographical regions and seven provinces. These regions have different climatic conditions. The country receives a lot of rains and has many rainforests. The abundant rain has made the country to have many rivers. The rainforests in the country act as homes to many animals and plants. They have five different layers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Costa Rica, a Rainforest Preserved by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each layer only harbors plants and animals adapted to it. this is a critical provision when scrutinized critically. The trees in the forests are usually tall and can reach up to 70 meters. The government of Costa Rica has put in place forest conservation plans and has involved citizens in the preservation of the rainforests. The goal is to ensure that there is a large forest cover in the country.

There are also projects that develop management plans to assist in the management of protected forests. The forests have earned the country revenue through tourism even though there are many challenges. The major challenges are deforestation, clearing of forest for farming, population growth, and global climatic changes that threaten the rainforests of Costa Rica.

Works Cited Climatepath. Costa Rican Rainforests. 2012. Web.

Costarica21. Costa Rica Tropical Rainforest. 2012. Web.

Coztarica. Tropical rainforest – a Costa Rican treasure. 2012. Web.

Govisitcostarica. Costa Rica Rainforests. 2012. Web.

Infocostarica. Geography: Overview, by Infocostarica Staff. 2012. Web.

Rainforests.mongabay. COSTA RICA. 2012. Web.


The Six Major Functions of the Government Essay a level english language essay help

Administration of justice; the government has the mandate of enforcing the rule of law. The government operates the system of courts and laws which make all mature citizens equal under the law and gives the citizens equal opportunities to achieve a just settlement of their civil disputes. It also ensures that fair treatment is given to the suspected or accused in the event of a criminal activity.

Common defense; it is the most important function of the government. A political society’s government, whether central or national, is liable for preserving the safety of that society from alien aggression according to Ethridge and Handleman (2009). As a result, the government upholds the armed forces which it utilizes during attacks and incursions by foreign authorities to provide protection of the country and the people it governs.

Domestic order; it is the duty of the government to govern and protect its citizens. Therefore, the government should uphold internal peace among the people and other groups in the society. In the constitution of the United States, domestic order or internal peace is known as domestic tranquility. The constitution was established to ensure domestic tranquility.

Protection of civil liberties; in a constitutional democratic civilization, the protection of civil liberties is the most significant function of the government. The government preserves and conserves the basic rights and liberties assured by the constitution to the members of the society.

Foreign diplomacy; the handling of foreign diplomacy is another crucial responsibility which in a sovereign state is done by the national or central government as stated by Dick, Blais and Moore (1996).

In a completely independent political culture, the central government sustains official diplomatic ties with a considerable number of other sovereign nations in the globe whose central governments formally recognize the independence of the particular political culture. It also maintains these ties with those sovereign societies willing to maintain diplomatic ties with its conventional existing central government.

Promotion of the general welfare; the government should endorse the universal good of all classes of citizens by ensuring laws safeguarding them equally are passed and that equal opportunities are provided. The general welfare encompasses transportation, education, public health and safety as sated by Noona (2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The human basic needs and interactions which are human rights, public service, allocation of resources, war and peace and physical environment are highly affected by how the government upholds its functions. The instability of the functions of the government has very adverse impacts on the most basic needs and the interaction of the citizens.

For instance, the allocation of resources can be impossible in a case where the domestic order is not maintained. Internal peace is very crucial to the survival and satisfaction of every individual and any rift in this can affect how resources are distributed.

In addition, the provision of public service in a democratic government is bound to be fair to all citizens. Therefore, the lack of justice in the provision of public service for instance in a court case, might cause enormity among citizens.

Foreign diplomacy is very important as it keeps the country secure from war and maintains peace according to Webel (2007). However, failure of the government to maintain good relations with foreign countries is likely to cause war and lack of peace among citizens.

The physical environment in which people live is very important and the government should provide enough defenses to that environment. In case of instability in military defense it can lead to insecurity of the environment in which people live since there is no strong defense.

Human rights are a major stake in the political process according to Poe and Souffrant (2008). It is the mandate of the political arm of the government to guarantee equal rights for all individuals and make sure that every individual enjoys their rights to the full capacity. Failure of the government to provide general welfare or maintain protection of civil liberties to all citizens leads to a case where some individual live much better than others hence it breeds indifferences among citizens.

References Dick, J., Blais, J.,


Processing of Intel and AMD: Chipset Technology Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Intel faces stiff competition from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) in the manufacture of Central Processing Units (CPUs) which are a key component in computers. AMD produces a significant percentage of the total number of CPUs sold annually. The two chipmakers have been constantly advancing the technology employed in their chipsets to retain proper market share.

The frequent refining of chipset technology by the two companies aims at realizing optimum performance in terms of graphics, speed and power consumption among other features. These chipsets differ in their clock speed, host-bus speed and cache memory among other aspects. For example, while Intel employs the hyper-threading technology in its processors, AMD uses the hyper-transport technology.

In this regard, the market has witnessed fast changes in chipset architecture and price wars between Intel and AMD. For example, AMD was the first company to introduce a 64-bit processor clocking the gigahertz speed. In response, Intel introduced the EMT64 CPU. In addition, when AMD introduced the NX processor technology, Intel responded by introducing the XDB technology in its processors.

Advantages of AMD64 chips AMD chips are manufactured from pre-existing sockets until technological constrictions demand the upgrade to a new socket. This strategy considerably favours consumers regarding replacement and upgrading of chips. AMD processors support the backward-compatibility feature as seen with the introduction of the AMD64 processor that supports 32-bit software with optimum functionality. This provides a lot of flexibility for users unlike the equivalent Intel EMT64 CPU that has minimal 32-bit functionalities.

Furthermore, AMD bridge components are easy to mix and match unlike Intel chips whose design considers certain processor families. On the other hand, Intel chips releases occur too fast and consumers face difficulties associated with replacement or upgrading due to varying socket sizes accompanying new releases.

Regarding energy consumption, AMD CPUs operate at a low energy consumption of about 275 watts. An Intel processor with similar functionalities will operate a higher power consumption of about 400 watts. This variation in power consumption is crucial as it caters for the consumers economic aspects.

AMD chips support faster clocking and over-clocking while maintaining stability. The L3 cache memory located outside the CPU core supports this functionality. By varying the BIOS settings, a user can considerably increase the processor speed. This capability is essential in high-end graphics operations where a large L2 cache memory has minimal benefits. Such applications include gaming. Intel chips, on the other hand, demonstrate resistance to over-clocking.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages over Intel Intel L2 cache memory has a higher performance compared to the L3 AMD processors cache memory, as it is located inside the processor’s core. Since the cache memory is the fastest accessible memory, Intel EMT64 chipset has a generally faster speed compared to AMD64 Athlon especially regarding small data applications. Computers running on Intel chipsets exhibit effectiveness in extracting and analyzing data during a single program operation.

The architecture of Intel CPUs ensures the execution of tasks occurs with minimal heat generation. In addition, they have advanced cooling features. In this regard, Intel chipsets are likely to last longer than AMD chipsets with equivalent functions as they normally exhibit higher heat generation.

This is a major setback for AMD equipped machines when dealing with heavy applications. While Intel manufactures their own system boards to support their processors, AMD relies on third parties to build system boards for their CPUs. This has the effect of dragging new releases of chipsets.


Successful Strategy of Resolving Conflicts Analytical Essay a level english language essay help

It is believed that a conflict can be effectively resolved only if people search for the solution that can benefit both sides. Furthermore, decisiveness is often viewed as a negative force that only harms a person involved in a conflict or dispute.

However, there are cases when decisiveness is the only morally responsible choice that an individual can take. This argument is applicable to those situations when a person has to compromise ones ethical values.

As a rule, this compromise will not yield the expected results. Moreover, it can limit the freedom of this individual. The discussion can be important for negotiators and people who try to resolve conflicts. They have to determine when and why decisiveness can be appropriate.

First of all, one should note that conflicts usually occur when people have opposing views, goals, values, or priorities. In most cases, such disputes can be explained by the fact that people have different perceptions of the same problem of question. For instance, a conflict can arise when co-workers propose different ways of achieving the same goal. Such disputes can also occur in a family when parents have different perceptions about the education of their children.

In such cases, decisiveness is not appropriate because it usually prevents people from finding the most optimal solution. As a rule, it will harm both sides of the argument. Moreover, an individual can make concessions without compromising ones ethical values. This is why decisiveness is often regarded as a negative phenomenon.

Nevertheless, there are circumstances when decisiveness is the only appropriate approach. In particular, one can refer to the situations when a person or organization is forced to abandon ones values, ideals and moral principles. The most eloquent examples of such situations can be found in history. In 1938 England and France consented to the demands of Germany and tried to appease the leadership of the Third Reich.

At that time, many people thought that this compromise had been the most optimal solution. However, it turned out that these concessions did not bring peace to Europe. More likely, they only contributed to the outbreak of the war. It seems that in that case, decisiveness was the only responsible approach but it was not adopted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, one can refer to the situation when a person is forced to make concessions that can limit his/her freedom and ability to take independent decisions. Very often people are made to withhold some of their rights. Such situations are widespread in the world of business, politics, and law.

It is possible to mention those cases when employees are not forbidden to disclose any information regarding the policies of a company. The problem is that sometimes these activities can run against the law or ethics. Workers, who accept these requirements of the employer, agree to limit their freedom.

Overall, negotiation and conflict resolution can hardly be possible unless both sides seek constructive or win-win solutions. However, there are exceptions to this rule. One of them is the necessity to compromise ones principles or restrict ones liberty.

A person who faces such situations should choose decisiveness, rather than the search of a compromise. It should be noted that negotiators can play a central role when resolving such conflicts. Their task will be to determine what kind of strategy a person should choose in order to succeed.


Comparative Ideologies Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Form of Government

Economic Policy

Nationalism and Internationalism

Civil Liberties/Political and Socioeconomic Rights



Introduction Different forms of governments are based on different ideologies. The ideologies are important as they shape the political, social and economic structures that are important in governance. These ideologies may be different but in some cases they intertwine in order to achieve good governance.

According to Mullins (1972), political ideology refers to a collective program that deals with actions which are focused on maintaining, altering or bringing forth a positive transformation in a society. Important to note is that positive transformation varies from one society to another. It is said to be collective because it comprises of beliefs, values and morals of that particular society (Hamilton, 1987).

Form of Government Ideology forms the core values of what a government wants to achieve. It forms the underlying principle against which policies and laws shall be formed. Most ideologies concepts are based on the social contract theory. This theory states that a government’s political legitimacy is derived from a social contract between the people and the ruling class.

Social contract theory allows the citizen to cede their rights to the ruling class in exchange for the protection by the same. The political structures that shall be put in place are those which will promote the political ideologies.

Economic Policy Political ideologies normally govern the economic shape of a country. The conservatives are normally concerned with the individuality of the economic rights (Ethridge


The Ottoman Empire’s Policies against Secessionist Minorities during the period of 1820-1918 Essay essay help online: essay help online

The Ottoman Empire controlled the territories occupied by different nationalities, and this situation was the result of the historic process. However, the problem was in the fact the authorities of the Ottoman Empire did not provide the ethnic minorities with any political or social rights accentuating the highest status of the Turks over the other nationalities and discriminating minorities.

The situation of a constant tension between the Turks and the representatives of the other ethnicities who lived in the Ottoman Empire was complicated by the religious question, secessionist ideas of the minorities and a lot of bloody conflicts which were triggered with the ethnic uprisings.

Although the Ottoman Empire was the multinational state and this situation was affected by the historic processes, the Turks followed the policy of exterminating any non-Turkish elements in the Empire and provided violent repression policies against the representatives of Greek-Balkan people, Armenians, and Assyrians who were Christians and against definite Muslim populations in order to ‘clean’ the territories from the minorities who rejected the principles of the discriminating strategy.

The authorities of the Ottoman Empire provided their repression policies during the whole century. To annihilate all the non-Turkish population, including Kurds and Arabs, and maintain the power of the Turks, the authorities developed a strict repression policy based on discriminations, massacres, and deportations (Goldschmidt, 2001). The discriminative measures depended on a lot of legal restrictions for the non-Muslims.

The Christians did not have the right to participate in the political life of the state, keep any arms, and their taxes were higher in comparison with the taxes determined for the Muslims. Any fact of the minorities’ opposition against the discriminative policy was discussed as the trigger for developing numerous massacres.

The bloodiest massacres were against Maronites in 1860, against the Armenians during 1894-1896 and in 1915, and against the Assyrians after World War I. The cause for these mass murders was to decrease the opposition and frighten the representatives of the other nationalities and religions (Quataert, 2005).

The specifics of the repression policies can be discussed with references to the problems of the Assyrians at the territories of the Ottoman Empire. To reduce the possibility of Christian rebellions during World War I, the authorities developed the strategy of the violent deportation of the Assyrians in the region of Mesopotamia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step was to kill the male population who could develop rebellions. The next step was to repress and arrest the representatives of the social and cultural elite in order to reduce the opposition of the other minorities’ representatives.

The last stage was the deportation of the Assyrians. As a result, women, old people, and ill persons were finally deported. These people had to walk several weeks, and many of them died. The other deported persons were challenged by the issues of starvation and poverty in new territories. These stages of the repression policies were used for discriminating all the representatives of the ethnic or religious minorities in the Ottoman Empire (Quataert, 2005).

Trying to preserve the Empire’s powerfulness and avoid its decline, the authorities of the Ottoman Empire were inclined to prevent any oppositions and rebellions of the minorities with the help of the further discrimination, massacres, and deportations. The efforts to ‘clean’ the Empire from the religious and ethnic minorities or non-Turkish elements resulted in developing repression policies and Genocide.

References Goldschmidt, A. (2001). A concise history of the Middle East. USA: Westview Press.

Quataert, D. (2005). The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. USA: Cambridge University Press.


Marketing Plan: Legacy Village Essay essay help online

Introduction Marketing plan is essential for companies or enterprises in order to reach their clients and establish a strong base of customers. It describes the strategies, which an organization intends to use to retain and attract customers (Berkowitz 127). Therefore, marketing plan is significant for success of an organization.

It is therefore, paramount for organizations to develop effective marketing plan. This helps in management and operational plans for the organization. In addition, marketing plan assists organization to accomplish the set goal. This report devises budget of one of products of Legacy Village and evaluates outcomes to measure the effectiveness of marketing plan.

Legacy Village is located in Layton. It a serene and convenient place that offers services such as retirement living, assisted living, rehabilitation, and memory care. Retirement living enables clients to interact with each other comfortably through learning and leisure activities. Assisted living entails providing services for senior people who are unable to manage themselves. However, these people do not require comprehensive and intensive daily medical care.

Memory care encompasses total management and assistance of senior people. Professionals in memory care help clients in grooming, bathing, and eating. Finally, rehabilitation at Legacy Village offers services such as recovery from surgical operations, strokes, injuries, or orthopedic cases of hospitalization (Legacy Village 1).

Legacy Village is extremely essential for helping seniors who have some disabilities as well as those in the recovery process. It is therefore significant for this organization to develop a marketing plan that enables it to achieve its goals. The following table indicates budget estimates for the retirement living. This is one of the products, which Legacy Village offers to its esteemed customers. The budget shows the costs of services such as an advertisement in both print and electronic media.

Table of Cost Estimates for Retirement Living at Legacy Village of Layton Type of Advertisement Cost Estimate (U.S Dollars) Daily Newspapers $2000 Television $1500 Online $2000 Social Media $3000 Exhibitions $5000 Publications/Articles/Brochures $8000 Telemarketing $2500 Grand Total $26000 Methods to Evaluate outcomes of Marketing Plan on Retirement Living It is highly prudent for Legacy Village to devise a method that evaluates the outcome of the marketing plan for retirement living. This is because evaluation of the plan is tremendously significant in establishing whether the organization has accomplished its set goals and objectives (Berkowitz 200).

This therefore means that the marketing plan should give tangible results for the success of Legacy Village. Some of the ways that the health organization in question can use include, bottom up approach, negotiated approach, and objectives approach.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bottom-up approach entails getting feedback from the consumers of the retirement living service. This will help the management at Legacy Village to have deeper knowledge of the demands of their customers. On top of this, organization will improve the quality of its services hence satisfaction to the customers.

Negotiated approach is a method that encompasses collecting comments from a big number of people. This will assist Legacy Village elicit and attract potential customers to use their products. This organization can create a strong database, which will enable current and potential customers to post their feedback.

A third method, which is sound for evaluation entails objective approach. The organization in question can use statistical data such as records and surveys (Berkowitz 195). This therefore calls the organization to keep the data of any transaction and activities safely. The three ways of evaluation, which this report has highlighted can benefit the Legacy Village in their mission to care for seniors.

Work Cited Berkowitz, Eric. Essentials of Health Care Marketing. New York: Aspen publishers, 2011. Print.

Legacy Village. Legacy Village, Layton. Web.


Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The Aouzo strip was a barren land between the border of Chad and Libya and both countries were claiming it. Chad was claiming the strip because the border was fixed by the treaty of friendship and good neighborliness between Libya and France but not between Libya and Chad.

Chad further alleged that the treaty included a formal acceptance by Libya’s France claims to the borders of its colonial possessions in Africa. The borders had been the subject of earlier agreements between Italy and Britain. Chad claimed that the 1955 treaty that recognized the validity of these previous colonial agreements still bound Libya.

Libya on the other claimed title not only to the strip but also to significance amounts of territory south of it, based on variety of assertions including the invalidity of the 1955 treaty which France illegally coerced Libya’s king into signing, the lack of any recognition in the treaty of the Chad –Libyan border in particular; the allegiance of Libya to various inhabitants of the region and prior title to the territory held by the Ottoman Empire and Italy, the predecessor colonial power to Libya.

Libya supported a rebellion by inhabitants of northern Chad against an already weak central government to assert its claims. After the central government lost control of the strip, local leaders allowed Libyan military personnel into the area, following which it set up a de facto administration of the region. Diplomatic negotiations through out the 1970s by OAU failed to reach a solution.

In 1980 when Chad’s civil war intensified, Libya invaded a large area of Chad out side the strip, captured the capital, N’Djamena and ousted the official government in favor of its pro Libyan rival. Libya and the new government even discussed the merger of the two states. OAU strongly condemned this invasion and threatened to cancel its scheduled summit to take place in Tripoli. It is then that Libya agreed to pull its trips out of much of the country.

In 1983, the Chadian government appealed to UN Security Council to demand Libya’s total withdrawal. The Soviet Union vetoed a UN resolution calling for withdrawal. Chad succeeded in ousting the Libyan military from northern Chad- except for the strip- in a lightning action in august 1987.

After two more years of OAU sponsored negation and mediation, the two states agreed to settle the dispute by political means within one year or if they failed to do so, to summit it for determination at the ICJ, in The Hague. In 1990, after negotiations failed, the two states asked the court to determine their mutual border in accordance with principles of international law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The primary actors in the Libyan Chad dispute are former colonial masters i.e. France, Italy and Britain who established the treaty of friendiship and good neighborliness. The 1955 treaty is also a primary actor because it recognized validity of previous colonial agreements. The secondary actors are the two countries in the conflict i.e. Chad and Libya.

The main governing legal instruments include the OAU and the ICJ in The Hague. The 1955 treaty of friendship and good neighborliness is also an instrument in this case because it provides the guidelines and principles which were to be adhered to by parties which entered the treaty.

A part from the OAU, the UN Security Council and ICJ no other institution or people were involved in arbitration. The ICJ relied heavily on a French colonial map of 1899. The line from the 1919 France- Britain agreement, combined with the line resulting from the France. Italy agreement determined the border, as Chad had claimed.

The court further considered the attitude of the two parties involved in the conflict. Before the matter got into international arena, Libya had not made any complaint. During this period France submitted reports of this territory to the UN General Assembly. The 1955 report showed the area of Chad’s territory as 1284000 km2 which expressly includes the Aouzou strip. Libya did not challenge the territorial dimension of Chad as set out by France. The ICJ ruled that Chad’s area was 1284000 which include the Aouzou strip.

Libya and Chad agreed to abide by the ruling and in April 1994 they reached an agreement on the practicalities of the Libyan withdrawal, removal of mines and demarcation of the border. A team of UN observers was called to monitor the withdrawal. On May 30, in accordance with the withdrawal schedule previously agreed upon, Libya completed its withdrawal and the UN certified the result.

The case rainbow warrior The Rainbow Warrior was a converted research trawler bought by an NGO called Greenpeace. Rainbow Warrior was used to publicize protests against commercial whaling practices, the dumping of nuclear wastes in the oceans and off shore oil and gas operations.

The rainbow warrior was bombed by members of the French Directorate General of External Security (DGSE) which docked in Auckland harbor, New Zealand. The ensuing explosion resulted in the sinking and total destruction of the ship and death of Fernando Pereira, a Dutch crew member. The vessel had been scheduled to protest upcoming French under ground nuclear testing in the Atoll.

We will write a custom Essay on Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sinking of the vessel made France to start restricting certain New Zealand exports to French and French territories. France also began to link the Rainbow Warrior dispute to the question of future access to the European community of New Zealand economy. In response New Zealand filled a formal complaint to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The contentious issue was the fate of major Mafart and captain Prieur. The ICJ ruled that the agents be taken to a military facility of French away from Europe for a period not less than 36 months. They were to stay to the island until both countries could give permission for them to leave. The court further stated that French should submit reports of the two to the government of New Zealand and UN General Assembly. The New Zealand government was free to visit the island with an agreed third party (Thomson 122).

France failed to comply by the ruling but manipulated the system and gave lame excuses to remove the two agents from the island before the end of their three year term they were supposed to stay on the island. The tribunal set to arbitrate on the case ruled that a financial kitty be established and France begins by contributing $2,000, 000 to enhance peaceful coexistence among the citizens of the two countries. France complied with this condition and donated the money.

The main actor in this conflict was an NGO called Greenpeace and the French government. New Zealand was a secondary actor in the case while the governing legal instruments used for deciding the case were the ICJ and the arbitral tribunal provided in paragraph 5 of Secretary General’s ruling. No other people/institution was involved in the process of arbitration a part from the family of Fernando Pereira that was compensated by the French government.

Comparison of the cases The two are different in terms of actors involved because the Libya-Chad case revolves around a stronger state (Libya) trying to undermine the territorial integrity of a weaker state (Chad) by taking advantage of civil unrest to claim parts of its geographical area. In this case also the government of Libya accepted to abide the ruling of the ICJ because of fear of international sanctions from the Security Council.

The channel of arbitration is also different because in Libyan – Chadian case the parties did not seek the indulgence of local courts to solve the dispute instead they relied on international bodies like the ICJ and OAU to solve their dispute. This could be based on the fact that the courts in these countries are not independent and prone to manipulation by the executive.

In the case of the rainbow warrior however, both countries had independent judicial systems but the difference was in the laws. The means of arbitration and the governing legal instruments are similar in both cases i.e. the use of the UN Security Council (Azevedo 58).

It is possible to consider the first case as representing a more traditional (classic) approach to international law because there was no difference in law over the issue but only a matter of proving that a territory belongs to the country. In this case Chad proved beyond doubt that the territory in question was hers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chad Vs Libya Territorial Dispute Of the Aouzo Strip by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second case can be considered a move towards more “contemporary” modus operandi to international law because the two countries had laws that contradicted each other over the issue of committing a crime on official orders.

Works Cited Azevedo, Mario. Roots of Violence: A History of War in Chad, New York: Rutledge, 1998. Print.

Thomson, Janice. Mercenaries, pirates, and sovereigns: state-building and extraterritorial violence in early modern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Pres, 1996. Print.


Columbia Industries, Inc. by John Zerio Case Study scholarship essay help

In a quest for the leadership of the Columbia Industries, Inc., to address the safety and performance problems with the Hyster lift trucks formally presented by the head mechanic, a number of options were explored.

Crucial in the specifications to address the problems included maneuverability, safety, maintenance costs, and mast extensions that could reach 260 inches. The search for solutions was further reinforced by the failure of Columbia Industries Inc., to address in a timely manner the needs of their customers due to limited trucks, which impacted adversely on their customer base.

The procedure to purchase the lift tracks undertaken by Mr. Stuart West, the industrial engineer, Mr. Jacques Debre, the plant manager, and Ms Sandra Orgosky, the plant engineer followed a process where each of the 5 companies (Komatsu, Toyota, yale, Caterpillar, and Hyster) were provided adequate opportunities to provide demonstrations of their lifts for evaluation purposes.

Each of the salesmen of these companies provided their presentations and product offerings, but attempted to use means to influence the decision to have their lift trucks bought, with the exemption of Komatsu narrated about their lifts. Hyster relied on past business relationships and regular meetings with Mr West, Caterpillar and Komatsu extracted secrets about other companies, Toyota made little effort though they had reliable machines.

The company had settled on purchasing five weight lifts instead of seven as was the initial requirement therefore limiting the flexibility of addressing the concerns of the workers. However, Caterpillar was the company that completely addressed the needs of the buying center. That was because Yale offered relatively cheaper machine at $ 17, 380 and surpassed the safety and performance expectations.