Concept Of Documentary Photography Essay Online Essay Help

A Composition A composition can be defined as the arrangement of different elements of a subject to make the theme complete in such a way that it instils sense to the person reading it or looking at it.

It is the act of putting different elements together for coming up with a relationship between elements in a way that logic is made out of it. However, at the end of the day, its function remains the same in that it defines the elements of a subject that make it a whole. Composition in visual arts can be described as the act of putting together graphic elements for creating a visual structure.

The purpose of composition in this case is to bring out a distinction between the different elements of a work that is being portrayed in such a manner that the elements of the work that the artist is trying to bring out are easily identifiable to the eye by the viewer. Composition is crucial in arts because it secures the subject matter from being lost among the many elements of the work, which may mostly be playing a supporting role to the main elements.

Composition guides the artists in making their decision on how they want their work to appear. Thus, they are able to first identify the elements that would be used to create the main image, which will in a way contrast with other elements that make up the whole work. It will also enable the artist to identify elements that would be used with the main elements to create a contrast that will be in relation with the main work.

Composition will then guide the artist in the organisation of the different elements of the work so that everything is put in the right place for achieving the purpose the work it is supposed to accomplish. According to Berger (1972), “…the photographer’s way of seeing is reflected in his choice of subject” (p. 9). The placement of the elements making up the work in the right way enables the artist to communicate the specific message to the viewer because different arrangements communicate different meanings.

The purpose of the artist is to communicate a specific meaning to the viewer of the work. If the viewer gets the wrong meaning of the work, the purpose of the work will be lost. Composition is important because it is used to eliminate confusion in the viewers’ mind. When the different elements are being viewed by the viewer, the viewers tend to digest what they are seeing to give a meaning to it. Berger reiterates, “Images are more precise and richer than literature” (p. 12).

Therefore, the artist will always try to be in accord with the viewer of the work in that when the viewer sees the work, he or she is able to get the point the artist was trying to put across without so much explanation. This therefore makes composition a very important element of visual arts because of the role it plays.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Composition Skills Composition skills in photography are the main difference between a photograph and a snapshot. Composition skills enable the cinematographers to see the object captured in the viewfinder the same way the camera they are using is viewing it. A camera is not like a human being who can be blind to some things and fail to notice them: it simply captures everything that comes within the vision of the viewfinder.

Therefore, photography composition skills enable the person seeing through the viewfinder to see what the camera is seeing and therefore choose what to take and what not to take (Freeman, 2007, p. 78). The difference between a snapshot and photograph is brought about by the composition skills of the camera operator. Composition skills come in different ways that can be grouped as either formal composition or accidental.

Formal composition skills Formal composition skills are the skills that one needs to follow in a guided manner when taking a photograph. Two skills in this case are the golden section rule and the rule of thirds.

Golden section rule

When a picture or a photo is viewed, certain specific points of the picture or photo will be the greatest attraction to the viewer of the photograph or picture. This case also happens to different types of objects as viewed by the viewer whether they are manmade or natural.

The viewer of the items will be attracted to specific areas the moment he or she sets eyes on the image before them because of some elements of the image that catch the viewer attention. The golden section rule works in a way that the image is divided into nine unequal parts using four lines. The golden rule says that the most important parts of the image should be found at the bottom right corner of the image, which should be the place the viewer of the image should look for when looking at an image (Freeman, 2007, p. 45).

Therefore, when taking a photograph of painting an image while being guided by the golden rule, one should concentrate the elements he or she wishes the viewer to see around this place as an easy way to capture the attention of the viewer as well as convey the elements he or she wishes to capture. The golden section came about from the fact that most people read books from left to right. This tactic is the same format photographers employ when looking at photographs and pictures.

One therefore tends to pause around this area while looking at the photograph. When he or she paused around this area, he or she tends to concentrate a lot on the elements that are found in this area and hence a good opportunity to capture the viewer’s concentration. Therefore, the photographers should concentrate the elements they wish the viewer to see most around this area to maximise the purpose of the image.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Documentary Photography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rule of Thirds

The rule of thirds is one of the formal rules to place and locate the elements that the photographer wishes the viewer to see. This qualifies as a composition skill that directs the photographers on the way they concentrate the elements on the image as well as directing the viewer where to find the main elements of the photograph. The rule of thirds requires one to “divide an image into three equal parts in a bid to compose the image in thirds with the dominant elements in the photograph being placed on one third of the image” (Sontag, 1977, p. 175).

They can be placed on “one third of the upper side of the image or on one third of the lower side of the image though the elements can be placed on one third of the right side of the image or they can be placed on one third of the left side of the image” (Sontag, 1977, p. 175). The areas described above are where the lines run or meet. This way of composing a photograph enables photographers to take the best angles from where they can concentrate the main elements of the photograph.

Accidental composition

Accidental composition can be described as a situation when elements fall in place on their own in a conjunction that is not planned into a kind of group that has a reflection of balance, energy, and meaning.

Whereas the elements can be captured through the effort of the photographer to position in an angle that will bring the main elements into a certain position in the formal composition, accidental composition has the elements somewhat in place on their own. This strategy is viewed as accidental because the photographer did not put an effort to organise the elements before taking the shot.

Comparison between good composition and bad composition

The comparison between a good composition and a bad composition can be found in the location of the main elements in the photograph. When the main elements are easily located in the photograph, the photograph is said to be a good composition because it easily conveys the message it is intended. A bad composition is one that has the main elements of the photograph lost among the other elements thus making it difficult for the viewer to see them instantly.

A good composition is one that has the main element of the photograph standing out of the background of the image. A bad composition has the main object lost among the many elements of the image thus making it difficult for the viewer of the image to point out what exactly the image is wishing to portray. A good image has all the symmetrical features in the right position while a bad composition will have its symmetrical features not being balanced in the image.

Social documentary photography The features of documentary photography

Social documentary photography is a type of photography that tends to focus on issues affecting society by providing images of the same. It has a purpose in advancing certain causes in society for alleviating the suffering that victims in the case go through. It tends to record human beings in their natural settings that might not be the very best standards for human beings to live in.

The theme of universal social

A theme in a photograph is what the photograph is meant to achieve and communicate as well. In documentary photography, the pictures are supposed to convey a certain message that should be common in the given documentary. Sontag 1977) finds, “A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened” (p. 175).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Documentary Photography by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The theme of universal social is meant to portray the social issues that affect the society in the world as a whole. These themes portray the human being in a mode of suffering or discomfort that the photographer wishes to show to the other side of the world for changing the situation for the suffering group. The theme of universal social is simply a theme that can be easily identified and understood by the viewer as to be portraying a message from the society.

The theme of universal social is meant to send a message to the viewer of the image and convince the viewer of the social situation the persons in the image are going through (Rothstein, 1986, p. 45). In documentary photography, the picture is supposed to speak for itself. In fact, the pictures in the given documentary are supposed to support each other in an effort to bring out the theme and the overall message of the photograph.

Reality of the style

Style can be realised in social documentary photography by the photographers taking their time to find out in what form an image will achieve its intended objective. The reality of the style can happen when the photographer is able to take images in a certain way that he or she can communicate a meaningful theme or themes to the viewer.

The images should be taken in a certain sequence that can allow the audience to piece them together and come up with a message that the images a conveying or a message closer to what the photographer wanted to communicate. The realisation of style can happen when there is consistency in the photographs or images being viewed. If the images are not consistent, they should be related in a way.

Reality of style can be achieved over a long period by the photographer staying in an area for a long time for them to capture the best elements of the theme that happen over a period (Sontag, 1977, p. 175). Style can be achieved in social documentary photography by portraying the images anonymously without a commentary so that the viewers of the image take time to create different scenarios in their minds.

The strong sense of form

Form as an element of art is the three dimensional feature that an image is portrayed in. Documentary photography tends to bring out form as its strong point as part of its composition. Form enables one to view an image from a three dimensional point of view thus capturing all the surrounding elements as they appeared when the image was being taken.

Form therefore gives the photographer an opportunity to capture other minor elements around the image, which when viewed with the image enable the image to communicate a wider message to the viewer.

Sontag (1977) states, “from the start, photography implied the capture of the largest possible number of subjects; paintings never had so imperial a scope” (p. 175). Form enables the viewer of the image to see the reality as portrayed by the image because social documentary photography is all about sending a message that should be convincing to the viewer of the image without so much persuading.

A strong sense of form brings out the image as the main element thus catching the attention of the viewer as early as possible. Form is achieved through such elements like dimensions, lines, mass, and colour among many others. Their strong uses in varying levels are meant to enable the viewer to catch the most important elements of the image that communicate the message of the image.

Emotional expression

Social documentary photography is meant to attract the emotional attention of the viewers as a way of making them move into the action and do something about what they have seen. Social documentary photography is mostly used by people campaigning for a certain cause therefore seeking the help of others in their campaign to change a situation in a certain social setting. Most social causes are meant to alleviate the suffering of people in those social settings.

The best way to do this is to get other people in better conditions to sympathise with them and come to their rescue. This stands out is the reason behind the use of emotional expression in most social documentary photography. Emotional expression is captured in this case as an element of the image. It is supposed to be very visible so much that the viewers of the image are touched by what they are seeing until they are moved into action.

Sontag further finds, “Photographs furnish evidence, something we hear about but seem proven when we are shown a photograph” (p. 175). Most social documentary photography images are of people suffering in one way or the other. The photographers tend to capture images that look sad without any form of happiness as a way of maintaining the consistency of the theme.

The relationship between the composition and features of documentary photography

The relationship between the composition and features of a documentary is realised in the images that the photographer comes up with for the purpose of the social documentary. In this case, the composition of the image should capture the image of the person in a mode of suffering by capturing most elements of the person and elements around the person portraying an image of suffering.

Composition is about capturing the right elements in the right position. Thus, when applied to documentary photography, the right image is brought out (Rothstein, 1986, p. 45). In documentary photography, signs of suffering are the right elements that make up the image for the purpose of communication. Thus, the images of people in social settings that are not right make up the composition of the photograph.

The attitude of taking documentary photography

The attitude of taking documentary photography can also be described as the drive for doing the same. This qualifies as the reason behind the photographer taking the said photographs. Different people have different reasons for taking photographs. They therefore tend to concentrate in specific areas that will bring out the message that they want to capture by making sure that the right elements are in place.

This case also applies to documentary photography. Different documentary photographers prepare documentaries for different reasons as well as intentions thus the questioning of the attitude of taking a documentary photograph. Therefore, the attitude of taking a documentary photograph should be in line with the intended purpose the photograph is meant to achieve.

Discovery: find out the question and respect the fact

One purpose of documentary photography lies in the fact that a documentary is made to provide evidence of something that is in existence, and that should be looked into by interested parties. A documentary is meant to create a form of awareness that will lead to further questions to find out the final truth about something to provide answers to questions raised before.

Therefore, the photographer is supposed to go into the field with a blank mind that will discover new facts or with information that he or she will be coming out to prove to be either true or false. The purpose of documentary photography is discovery. In this case, the photographer goes out to discover a situation that is vague in most cases and in need to have proof or needs clear information.

The photographers will then go ahead to find out the questions about the situation and move to the ground to find information with regard to the question that they need to answer. Documentary photography relies on evidence of collected on the ground as a way of answering the questions that have been raised thus not relying on hearsay. The photographer will prepare a presentation that will follow a certain sequence. It can be accompanied by captions that highlight what the picture is all about.

The photographer is supposed to approach the question with an open mind so that the discovery they make is not influenced any form of bias that might distort the answers to the question. The photographer should capture so many images that are relevant to the question so that there is a close relationship that can be followed by a viewer of the images (Sontag, 1977, p. 175).

The photographers should be honest in such a way that they present all the facts as they appear. In some instances, the photographers might be having their own opinion while taking the photographs though this should not be used to influence the outcome of the documentary. Any facts found to be outside the photographer’s mind frame should not be left out because it will negatively affect the outcome of the documentary.

Therefore, the photographer should respect the facts when compiling the documentary and in a way become neutral as much as the documentary is meant to prove a certain point. Respect of facts will make the documentary realise its purpose to deliver information that will be used by the viewer to make the right decisions. Biased facts will mislead the viewer into making wrong conclusions.

Creation: Base on the fact and add a personal idea or concept

Creativity in documentary photography adds a different angle to the whole work thus presenting it in a manner that will capture the attention of the viewer of the work. Creativity is the difference that separates different artists and photographers because the cameras are almost the same largely. If photographers were to take pictures, they would take the same photographs.

The touch in terms of the angle, the background, the lighting, and other factors that the photographer employs are the ones that will differentiate their work from one another (Freeman, 2007, p. 16). In the application of creation, the photographers should not lose the main point by diverting their attention to other things that can be referred to as secondary. The photographers should base their attention on the fact of the matter at hand to which they wish to use to communicate their message to their audience.

The fact that is being put across in this case should be packaged in such a way that will make it more appealing to the audience through the addition of personal ideas. Personal ideas range depending on the creativity of the individual who will be producing the documentary. They can include the background of the documentary, the captions used on the photographs, and the arrangement of the photographs.

Personal ideas in the concept can also involve the form in which the photographers wish to present their work to the audience as well as the location of the work, which adds to the theme of the work thus making the presentation more attractive. A point that should be noted in this case is that personal ideas should simply be used to reinforce the presentation of the work to support the composition so that the main idea is achieved at the end of the day.

The relationship between the composition and attitude of taking documentary photography

The relationship between composition and attitude of taking documentary photography can be found in the need for proof that documentary photographs tend to convey. The attitude of documentary photography is to find answers to questions and queries that society should deal with.

On the other hand, the purpose of composition is to capture the intended image and package it in a form that will be visible and presentable to the viewer of the photograph. Composition takes into account the elements that need to be captured in the photograph, their position in the picture, and their visibility to the viewer of the photographs. Therefore, with this in mind, the photographer is able take photographs that capture the specific elements he or she wishes them to capture.

The value of Documentary photography Documentary photography is done by different people in different fields for different purposes. Thus, they all give it different values depending on what they wish to achieve.

Reveal the truth to promote social development

Documentary photography has been used in many occasions to find out the truth about the social situation of some members of the society, reveal the truth about their situation and encourage others to support them. Most people in society tend to depend on media for information about different places they have not been to or different situations affecting different parts of society that is not in contact with them. A good example of this is the poor and the rich people.

Although these two groups of society might be living in the same city or not very far away from each other, they cannot easily come in touch with the issues affecting the opposite groups unless they visit them. This case is not easy. Therefore, documentaries are one of the few ways that the plight of the disadvantaged in society can be highlighted on and attract development from incentives from the other groups of society. Documentary photography goes to the ground to collect raw evidence.

When presented to either authorities or donors, it can attract funding or different types of intervention from either authorities or development partners (Sontag, 1977, p. 175). In most cases, the truth of the situation on the ground is not known to the concerned authorities. The documentary serves like a wakeup call for them to take action.

Historical value can be of benefit to scientific research

Documentary photography offers a valuable collection of photographs that form a sort of narrative that can be used for future research. The whole collection of photographs taken over a long period can be used to show the difference between the past as compared the present situation of a place.

This information can be used to do research in areas like geography, which study things like erosion of land and sea. Photographic evidence of how the area used to look like previously can be used to measure the extent of the changes that have occurred in the given period also providing a glimpse of the solution to the problem.

Photographs offer undisputed evidence that can be used by generations to come in the conduct of research in areas like marine life on species of marine life that are endangered or have drastically reduced in number (Sontag, 1977, p. 178) . They can also be used to trace animals that used to be there though presently not easily sighted as they used to before. Most importantly, historical evidence gives prove for comparison between two different situations that are a subject for studying.

The record of the reality reflects the humanity The record of reality reflects humanity in such a way that it exposes the different images of a human life that makes it real. Documentary photography takes into account different situations that human beings live their life and the different variances that the human life is. On one hand, records of reality show how there are so many different societies in one society that the human kind lives in. Documentary photography goes to the ground to collect information and evidence.

When put together, the true picture of humanity comes out (Rothstein, 1986, p. 34). Under humanity, there is a good life as well as suffering. There are different classes of humanity spanning the world with some sharing the same suffering while others having their own form of suffering. Under the social umbrella, there are the rich and the poor, war and peace, and diseases and good health.

Photographic documentary tends to expose the situation as it is on the ground to members of society who are not aware of it a make them develop feelings that would make them move into action to correct the situation. Documentary photography is a source of information that can be used to activate the human masses into action.

The relationship between composition and value of taking documentary photography

Documentary photography has its value in informing society through the depiction of different photographs, which are meant to portray a certain image of a certain part of society and make members of society to take necessary action. For a documentary to make sense and capture the society’s attention, it has to be organised in such a way that the pictures on displays communicate the same theme that the documentary is after exposing.

Composition as defined earlier is meant to balance the elements on a photograph in such a manner that the elements would be captured to portray the message they are meant to portray. When a photographer has the ability to make a good composition, they will be in a position to place the relevant elements into the right position for capturing the viewer’s attention to the right place (Berger, 1972, p. 12).

Therefore, a documentary will be of value only if the right elements are placed properly onto the photograph and in such a manner that the viewer’s attention is captured instantly. A documentary usually has so many photographs that one will have to go through to come up with a conclusion. Thus, the photographs should be taken in such a way that they can deliver the image as well as the message within a single look. This therefore makes composition very important in this case.

Daido Moriyama Daido Moriyama is a 74-year old Japanese photographer who is renowned all over the world for his post war works that show the differences that have been caused by timelines in Japanese society. Daido Moriyama’s works span five decades from around 1961 to present.

It tends to concentrate on the dark side of the Japanese urban society in his photography. Daido Moriyama also tends to focus his work on the underdeveloped side of the Japanese society that is away from the industrialised sectors of the Japanese cities. He produces his photographs in such a way that they are unique and different from others.

Work analysis Motivation

Daido Moriyama is motivated by the ability of the photographs he takes to speak for themselves. Moriyama is motivated in such a way that he believes the photographs will get a language wherever they go to. He is thus not obligated to give then a caption. Most of Moriyama’s photographs are taken randomly. When he develops the film into a photograph, each photograph will be given a meaning by the viewers who will see it repeatedly.


Moriyama’s style can be described as unique. Moriyama under exposes the images he takes heavily. He then overdevelops them in the dark room, making him come out with mostly black and white photographs that show the main image without other elements in the surrounding.

This strategy makes the photographs lose a lot of detail but again a lot in character. He kills off the other elements that can be found in the background of the image making the main element that he wanted to capture come out like an island. This aspect makes the viewer of the image remain with it their mind for a long time. His style is unique in a way that not many photographers can achieve it or develop interest in it.

Conclusion Photography is an integral part of the human beings life that cannot be ignored or wished away as such. The purpose of photography is both to communicate to another person different from the photographer and relay a message the photographer wished the viewer to see. This communication can only be possible when the right elements that convey the message are included in the photograph whether naturally or artificially.

A good photograph is said to be worth a thousand words in a way that it is able to explain itself even without a caption or accompanying statement. This stands out as the point where composition of the photograph becomes an important element of an image because the composition incorporates all the important elements that make up the photograph and or arranges them in such a way that they will be able to capture the attention of the viewer on the first instance.

The ability of a photographer to include all the necessary elements is what qualifies one to be viewed as a good photographer or not. Social documentary photography has a purpose in society to capture the different situations that the society finds them in and marshal enough support for a given cause. This purpose is one of the powerful functions of photography that when applied can bring a lot of change to the society.

Social documentary photography is a media tool that can be used to rally the world to a certain cause that is worth the world’s attention and mobilise support that would make the world a better place. All these goals can only be achieved through proper conveying of the message contained in the photograph (Berger, 1972, p. 23). A photograph that cannot be understood is viewed to be useless because it serves no purpose.

While preparing a social documentary photography, people should have their objectives set out so that the cause is not lost along the way. A good social documentary photography should have questions that need answers or should be able to bring out information that the people who are intended on viewing it will find it as new information.

It does not make sense to prepare a documentary whose themes and the topics are common knowledge because it may not attract the viewership it is supposed to get. Viewership in this case should be in a position of the learner with the documentary providing the answers to what they did not know.

Therefore, the way a documentary is prepared will define it as either a good documentary or a bad documentary depending on the factors that have been named above. Therefore, photography at the end of the day is a medium of communication that should be able to pass a message form one party to the other without too much explanation.

Reference List Berger, J. (1972). Ways of Seeing. New York: Penguin Group.

Freeman, M. (2007). The Photographers Eye. New York: Focal Press.

Rothstein, A. (1986). Documentary Photography. New York: Focal Press.

Sontag, S. (1972). On Photography. New York: Picador.


Influence of Design Element on Brand Experience Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction The symbols, names, designs, terms, or other aspects that identify good or service from a seller as unique from those of different sellers denote “a brand”. Brand experience underscores sensations, cognitions, emotions, and behavioural reactions induced by brand-associated stimuli that are components of identity and design of a brand, wrapping, communications, and surroundings (Neumeier, 2006, p. 18).

Originally, branding sought to distinguish the cattle of an individual from those of another by way of a characteristic mark burned into the skin of the animal using a hot iron stamp.

Branding was afterwards employed in marketing, advertising, and business (Neumeier, 2006, pp. 19-20). A current instance of branding is the Coca Cola used by the Coca-Cola Company. The most precious fixed asset to a company is its brand. A first encounter at the undergraduate dissertation briefing a month ago could make someone feel his or her heart sink at the massive books that one must read.

I went to Starbucks to have a nice coffee, took out my Apple laptop from my Zara message bag, dropped a note on Moleskine notebook using a Muji ballpoint, and noticed that brands are surrounding us. Brands actually use our emotions to divide us into numbers of tribes and choosing a brand turns out as our symbol of personal identity. Marty Neumeier has supported this view in the book, ‘The Brand Gap’.

I cannot live without brands, everything I am using is related to a specific brand, all the products or services have a label or logo on them and take over our life (Lindstrom, 2011, p. 123). After having conducted research, there is a conclusion that people cannot live without brands and thus I am interested in comprehending more about how people choose a brand. Martin Lindstrom wrote in his book, ‘Brandwashed’, that our taste preferences of a brand are firmly embedded before we were even born.

In addition, a research carried out by Yeh and McNeal found that by the age of six months, babies are able to form ‘mental images’ of corporate logos and mascots (Lindstrom, 2011, pp. 124-125). Besides, in what way do we choose brands (service or product) based on the taste fondness given by our parents?

Moreover, the society has in particular shifted from an economy of bunch manufacture to an economy of bunch customisation and hence our purchasing options have multiplied. In our each day lives, habitually the initial thing we arrive at in a brand is the logo (logotype or brand gap).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A study done by Meyvis along with Janiszewski found that individuals select a brand and not another due to a novel logo. Furthermore, the quality of the logo indicates the quality of the company, particularly to potential consumers who have not already had an experience with the company (Neumeier, 2006, pp. 21-22).

Nevertheless, branding does not only denote a logo design. The five different disciplines of branding that exist include validate, differentiate, innovate, and collaborate. The aforementioned five disciplines assist in creating a stage to commune with clients with the intention of manoeuvring their mentality and persuading them.

Similarly, the objective of design goal is to communicate a message, by using design principles to generate a clear idea of what a designer is trying to communicate (Neumeier, 2006, pp. 23-24). This paper will discover the resemblances between branding disciplines and design standards and to give insight into the manner in which the experience of a brand is influenced by its design.

Interview of Designer from Hong Kong Branding process takes strategy and creativity together with sometimes there being a rift between them caused by two kinds of people that favour to use different sides of the brain. The left-brain thinking is linear, analytical, verbal, rational, numerical, and concrete. On the other side of brain, right-brain thinking is intuitive, emotional, spatial, visual, and physical. How about the reality branding process?

Therefore, I interviewed a designer Khendi Lee who is the art director of STEPWORKS creative agency, his works also gained several recognitions like D


Combining visual and sound to enhance Brand Experience Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Nowadays, there are too many similar products in the same market. Hence, competition is high in the contemporary market. Besides, for some products, it is hard for customers to determine the right products to use since a majority of the customers do not have any outstanding popular brand. For any business or company to outdo others in the modern market, it has to make sure that it positions its brand in a way that it attracts customers and stands out from other brands (Aaker


Revision of Problem Gambling Case Study custom essay help

Introduction Gambling involves three things the stakes, the prizes and the result. The stakes include things of value that are placed by the parties involved. The prize is the valuable thing that participants opt to win after betting. The result is the outcome of the event that determines who wins and who loses (Fabiansson, 2010).

Any activity involving the three aspects is gambling. Some examples of gambling events betting such as horse races or sporting events; playing casino games for money; buying lottery tickets; participation in prize-draws and newspaper competitions (Collins, 2003, p. 15).

How gambling has evolved Over the past century and a half, gambling has evolved from being a furtive back-street activity to a multimillion-pound gambling industry (Parsons


The long run effect of the Eurozone crisis in Germany and Greece Cause and Effect Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The Solow growth model

The Eurozone Crisis


Reference List

Introduction The European financial crisis, which is mostly referred to as the Euro crisis, is an economic term that depicts the economic status of most European countries. The Eurozone crisis started in the year 2009 when most countries in Europe exceeded their spending limits and embarked on borrowing mostly from the European Central Bank (ECB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The most countries affected by the Europe crisis were members of the EU including France, Germany, Italy, and Greece among others. The crisis followed after the introduction of the Euro currency to be used as a common trading currency among members of the European Union that excluded countries like the Great Britain.

The Euro crisis was instigated by reducing the bank lending rate meant to steer economic growth, but most of the countries could not repay these loans. The countries defaulted to repay back the loans. Thus, the European Central Bank was left to struggle to keep the economy of Europe in the worst case scenario since 1998 when the global crisis emerged (Arestis 2012).

The existence of the European Union was threatened by this crisis as the banking lending rates became very low. This could stall economic growth thereby instigating loss of jobs in Europe when companies are forced to limit their spending just to keep afloat. Stringent measures had to be thought out quickly as it required the intervention of economic giants like the US and Germany.

This was meant to help avert the crisis that would lead to another global financial crisis. Countries like Greece were on the verge of defaulting to repay some of the loans lend out by the ECB and IMF. Thus, the intervention of Germany to help in stimulating the economy of Greece to help it repay the loan was crucial (OECD Economic Surveys: Greece 2011, 2011).

The Solow growth model The Solow growth model is an economic graph that examines economic growth by checking how factors like production, population and capital affect the economy. Factors of production like capital and labour affect production in terms of volume and quality. Consumption of goods forms a part of the equation.

In this case, demand and supply forces determine the cost of production. The Solow model is represented by the following equation. Y = c I, where y represents the production function in an economy, c represents consumption, whereas the I represent investments. The Solow model can be represented by the graph below.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the graph, it is clear that the higher the economy’s output, the greater the amount of investment. In the case of Greece, the government should increase the level of national output to stabilize the economy. In turn, this will increase the level of investment and thus leading to increased production.

A country’s level of output is determined by the input factors. These are factors present in the country where capital and labour resources need to be well utilized to increase the level of output. The Solow growth model can indicate that German has put in place good production resources. Thus, the economy of the country is stabilizing while else the economy of Greece seems to stagnate.

A country’s growth is determined by its production and how the production is integrated into its input such as labour and capital. The population in a country provides manpower that helps the industries to operate efficiently. The capital is used to set up a new production line that will help the country to experience growth.

The Eurozone Crisis German is known to have a stable economy where any decline in the lending rates could affect the economy of the country. The government of Germany has set good and solid financial policies that shield the country’s economy from major global financial crisis. However, the Eurozone crisis happened right in the middle of the country’s major trade partners and thus the value of export in the country could be reduced.

Thus, to the emergence of a single currency to be used by members of the European Union the effect of the Eurozone crisis would affect adversely on the members of this union. The Eurozone crisis would spell out a weak Euro currency, which would have a long term effect on the economy of Europe. The economy would reverse due to closure of businesses and companies as they try to cut down on the spending through employee lay off and reduced sale value (Great Britain 2012).

A strong currency would spell out economic growth where countries would experience an economic boom. Thus, the countries would increase the level of their export, and the government would collect high revenue. In the short run, the bailing out of most of the countries would spell out a relief to the economy of Europe where the central bank would be required to print more money to help in repaying some of these loans.

However, in the long run, the inflation in Europe would sky rocket registering double digits. This will finally affect the global economy leading to adverse effects on the running of major governments and businesses. The economy of Greece was on the verge of collapse, and as a result of the Eurozone crisis, the country’s economy was in huge trouble.

We will write a custom Essay on The long run effect of the Eurozone crisis in Germany and Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This would affect other countries in Europe (Petrakis 2011). Thus, proper policies from countries like Italy and Spain were to be implemented to help avert the situation in Greece. Greece would have resulted to more borrowing and accumulate the international debt further and thus slow down their economic growth or even resort to the printing of money, and this would raise the rate of inflation in the country (Siebert 2005).

The Eurozone crisis would spell out a sovereign financial crisis to major economies in Europe. Here, they would lose investors, and the Euro currency would fall in value affecting most export from Europe. This will also increase the government’s spending as they try to avert the crisis. The value of the Euro would fall amid fears from major world currencies like the US dollar and the sterling pound (Lynn 2011).

Thus, the effect of the Eurozone crisis would not only affect Greece and Germany, but other countries in the world would also be affected negatively. The economy of most European countries sustains many countries, especially in Africa and Asia. These are countries that rely a lot on the trading of the Euro and the financial capability of the European Central Bank to help in money lending and foreign exchange rates to stabilize.

The effects of the Eurozone crisis are more profound on the running of the economy of countries like Germany and Greece. The value of the Euro was mostly set out to match the value of the Deutschmark, which was the most stable currency in Europe. Thus, the economy of Germany mostly depends on the value of the Euro (Raussello 2012).

The German central bank also referred to as the Bundesbank acted as preservation of the Euro. The bank sought to clear the Eurozone crisis through the economic stimulus program.

This was designed to help most European countries to steer to better economic growth and preserve the value of the Euro. The Euro is highly recognized as a strong trading currency due to its capability and power to trade in different countries around Europe. Thus, any fall in the global market would adversely affect the Euro plus other major currencies in the world (Rogers 2012).

The demand of the Euro would reduce if its value declined and this would affect the international trade in Europe that relies mostly on the export of industrial goods and services. Third party governments had to intervene and help in financing these loans. This was due to the effect that some governments could not repay or finance some of the debt they owed to the major world financial institution.

Some of the countries that were unable to finance their debts include Greece. In the case of Greece, there was the intervention from countries like German (Fiorentini


Was TARP a Mistake? Essay essay help online: essay help online

The government’s responsibility is to provide the effective policies to regulate any signs of the economic instability or to overcome the economic crises. However, the problem is in the fact not all the policies proposed can be discussed as effective, and moreover, the results of these programs can be expected during a long period of time to make conclusions about the policy’s effectiveness.

Today, it is possible to assess properly the results of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) developed by the US government in order to overcome the consequences of the subprime mortgage crisis in 2008.

Many economists state that the idea of the policy is rather effective and advantageous, but the problem is in the approaches to its realization. Furthermore, the public was not aware of the possible positive effects of using the funds of $700 billion and purchasing assets to change the economic situation. Thus, it is possible to state that the general idea to recover the economic situation with references to TARP has many positive features, but it was not realized effectively.

The subprime mortgage crisis became the reality for the US economic environment in 2008, and the situation required its immediate resolution. Wolfson states that the development of TARP was rather ineffective with references to planning the program and realizing its key points.

According to Wolfson, “Treasury Secretary Paulson’s plan to use $700 billion to buy ‘toxic assets’ from financial institutions, signed into law by President Bush on October 3rd, failed to stop what had become by then a generalized panic and freeze-up of credit” (Wolfson 135).

Thus, to unfreeze the credit markets, it was necessary to use the additional or other approaches such as the direct investment into financial institutions (Wolfson 135-136). Those economists who worked out the program paid less attention to developing the steps according to which the program could be used effectively to cope with the panic of the financial institutions, public and private organizations. Moreover, the level of speculation was rather high to expect the positive results from implementing the policy.

Nevertheless, TARP can be discussed as the positive tendency in the development of the US economy during 2008 because it was used to prevent the further collapse of the state’s economy and the whole financial system. The goal of the policy’s development is to preserve the stability of the financial system and market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MacEwan and Miller pay attention to the fact that “governments have regulations in place that prevent bank runs”, but there are often “insufficient regulations” which are “in place in the international financial system” (MacEwan and Miller 139). Nevertheless, if to discuss the question in relation to the global economy, “it is not financial institutions that are subject to failure, but the economies of nations that, if not subject to failure, suffer severe disruption” (MacEwan and Miller 139).

Today, it is possible to speak about the further huge collapses associated with the country’s banking system in the situation when TARP was not worked out and adopted. The definite mistakes in overcoming the effects of the subprime mortgage crisis with references to TARP are observed, but they are influenced by the global situation of the economic instability during the period.

Thus, TARP can be discussed as a successful program regarding its economic benefits as a policy which can prevent the further development of a crisis. However, the realization of the policy was not perfect in relation to the political perspective and concentration on the role of banks in the crisis. Furthermore, a lot of banks could not use the presented opportunities completely because of many limitations.

Works Cited MacEwan, Arthur, and John Miller. “Globalization and Instability”. Economic Collapse, Economic Change: Getting to the Roots of the Crisis. Ed. Arthur MacEwan and John Miller. USA: M.E. Sharpe, 2011. 119-142. Print.

Wolfson, Marty. “Derivatives and Deregulation”. The Economic Crisis Reader. Ed. Gerald Friedman, Fred Moseley, and Chris Sturr. USA: Dollars


Ethics in Health Administration Essay college essay help

According to Morrison (2005), healthcare is a dynamic field whereby one area has an effect on different independent areas. In that case, decisions must have an ethical bearing on human dignity, human values, the mission of the organization, and community service.

Morrison in his text presents the ideas of eight philosophers whom he classifies into two groups. Each group contributes to the development of principles of health care ethics. The first group was comprised of Thomas Aquinas, Rawls, Mill, and Kant. The second group was comprised of Aristotle, Frankl, Buber, and Kohlberg.

The first group focuses on the issues that revolve around making of ethical decisions as well as the universal issues that have a bearing on ethics. Aquinas advances the principle of basic good. He argues that since human beings have the capability of rationality, they should choose what is good over evil.

Goodness has an effect of preserving life in the human race (Morrison, 2005). Kant on the other hand advanced the principle of good will. Kant argued that the test of what is good lies on a categorical imperative that whatever is right for one individual is right for all people.

Mill advanced the utility theory. According to Morrison (2005), he argued that for something to be good it has to fulfill the threshold of utility. In other words, goodness is whatever provides to the greatest number of people the greatest benefit. Ethical decisions should not focus on an individual, rather on the outcome that best serves the entirety of people who are affected. Rawls advanced the argument of social justice. He argued that ethical decisions should protect those of lesser stature in the society.

The second group focused on personal ethics. Aristotle advances the concept of virtue and practical wisdom in healthcare. He argues that for one to be virtuous, his decisions are not a point of discussion solely. Decisions are to be actionable. Buber advanced a hierarchy of relationships presenting how human beings relate to one another (Morrison, 2005).

Kohlberg advanced the developmental stage theory. In his argument, he discussed that human beings must pass through a lower stage to achieve a higher stage in their development. According to Morrison (2005), the transition from one stage to another is through finding solutions in the challenges of life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kohlberg’s developmental stage reasoning serves to explain and expound why different people make varied decisions in healthcare. Frankl argues that commitments, beliefs, and relationships the administrator has with a Deity will influence most of the administrator’s decisions. In this respect, he argues that when administrators make decisions, they are responsible for the effects of such decisions. (Morrison, 2005)

In conclusion, after a review of the ideas forwarded by the big eight, ethics at a personal sense can be described to be a set of rules or regulations that are independent of the law that determine what rules of morality are to be followed by an organization or a group when making decisions.

In the professional sense, they are policies that are set based on each profession to guide the health care administrators on how to make decisions and how to identify ethical behavior. (Morrison, 2005) For example, the American Medical Association’s Code of Medical Ethics lays down some of these guidelines used by physicians in America.

Reference Morrison,E.(2005). Ethics in Health Administration: A Practical Approach for Decision Makers. Sudbury: Jones


Behind closed doors Expository Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Domestic Violence


Works Cited

Introduction The term “domestic violence” is used to denote the physical or emotional abuse that occurs in the homes. It is the repeated abusive act or behavior of one spouse directed to another who is in an intimate relationship.

Physical abuse includes beating or hitting of the victim. On the other hand, emotional abuse includes threats directed to the victim meant to intimidate him or her, which leaves the victim living in psychological distress (Bolin, 1). Domestic abuse has devastating effects on the members of the family. This includes direct victims and other family members such as children who may be affected indirectly.

Domestic Violence Domestic violence is a vice that happens in many societies around the world. In China, the vice is on the increase. This has prompted an online campaign against domestic violence. Most of those supporting the campaign agree that there is no legislative support for the victims of domestic violence. This makes the victims afraid or ashamed of speaking it out. The lack of legislative support is a major challenge to fight against the vice (Bolin, 1).

It has been argued that the vice is widespread in the country. In fact, domestic violence is witnessed in more than thirty percent of families in China (Ribbons, 21). This is partly because China lacks legislation that protects domestic violence victims or even defining what constitutes the vice.

In addition, this can be attributed to the fact that the vice is entrenched in the Chinese tradition. In this case, it was normal for men to beat their wives. This practice was encouraged by mothers-in-law. Therefore, it has contributed to the spread of domestic violence in the country. The use of alcohol and drunkenness is also a probable cause of domestic violence. Though many women have been victims of domestic violence, there is no openness in saying it in the public (Ribbons, 23).

The case of Kim Lee brought to the light the fact that most Chinese Women are persevering in their intimate relationships. Indeed, many women in China are victims of domestic violence. An online discussion prompted by the case of Kim Lee revealed that over forty two percent of women had been victims of this vice (Ribbons, 23).

Nevertheless, it was asserted that many things have led to the revelation about domestic violence in China. This has been attributed to increased women economic independence, changed attitudes of men, high incidences of divorce, and increased awareness of domestic violence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These aspects have contributed to the revelation of what is happening in marital relationships. The vice is likely to reduce with increased activism. In addition, the drafting of a national law against domestic violence in China will be essential in reducing the vice (Ribbons, 23).

Conclusion Domestic violence refers to the abuse inflicted on an intimately related partner like those in a marriage relationship. It can either the physical abuse, which involves beating or emotional/psychological that involve threats of violence. This vice is caused by a number of factors.

They include traditional beliefs that women ought to be beaten by their husbands, drunkenness and lack of laws that prohibit the vice or that protects the victims of domestic violence. Increased sensitization of the existence of the vice and a drive to change men’s attitude towards women can significantly reduce cases of domestic violence.

Works Cited Bolin, He. Campaign to stop domestic violence. 2008. Web.

Ribbons, Elyse. “Behind Closed Doors: China Grapples with Domestic Violence” Ms Magazine, 2.1. (2012): 23. Print.


Criteria of Selecting Members of a Team Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction For effectiveness of any team, the team members themselves must be effective. The number of members in a team does not matter, what matters is the ability to work effectively together. Common timelines, visions, agendas, and goals must be shared by the members. In case these things are not shared, moving forward becomes an issue (Hitlin


When Human Diet Costs too Much: Biodiversity as the Ultimate Answer to the Global Problems Essay custom essay help

Introduction. Eat, Pray, Leave: A Consumerist Approach to Nature There is no denial that people have been taking nature for granted for too long. Because of the unreasonable use of the natural resources, environmental pollution and inadequate protection (WWF, n. d.), people have led a number of species to extinction; moreover, due to the increasing rates of consumerist approach towards the food which nature provides for people, the number of species has started decreasing even more rapidly. Therefore, people have either to reconsider their diet, or to watch most of the animals and plants disappearing fast.

The Problem, Unveiled: The Self-Centered Humankind Despite the obvious progress, people cannot control the natural processes. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous to intrude into the latter. Once having started to use natural resources, people will never be able to stop.

Because of careless attitude towards the small amount of natural resources and huge rates of consummation, some species are already extinct, and some have become highly endangered. The issue concerns not only plants, but also animals and fish (Landais, 2007, January 26). Eating whatever they want, people have been disregarding the fact that natural resources are exhaustible.

According to O’Sullivan, the recent event in Italy revealed the rates of people’s negligence towards nature: “The country’s foreign minister, Franco Frattini, commented that the banquet was distasteful at a time when Italy’s bears are ‘almost extinct and we are trying with great effort to bring them back to the mountains that have hosted them for centuries’” (O’Sullivan, n. d.). Because of high rates of fish consummation, a number of fish has become endangered. Yet these species are still consumed.

Moreover, to produce enough veal and beef, people have to use the nature’s forest resources as pastures. The above-mentioned leads to forest destruction. Finally, the lack of balance between the consumed food and the feedback to the nature leads to a natural crisis. The latter can finally drive to a planet-scale catastrophe.

Evaluating the Consequences: The Game Is not Worth the Candles Before proceeding with the solutions, people have to ask themselves a question, “How did this happen?” To understand why the consumerist attitudes have taken such a drastic scale, one must consider the way people treat natural resources.

The example above shows that people have a great problem in their relationships with nature. The problem is that the humankind has been taking nature for granted.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Probable Solutions: Helping Rare and Endangered Species As it has been mentioned above, the consequences of a thoughtless use of natural resources will be drastic. Even now, one can track some of the outcomes of people’s eating habits. For example, the following species have disappeared completely over the past few decades:

However, there is no time to panic. Even at the given stage, there is a way out. To start with, people should practice sustainability approach. Using natural resources only when necessary, people will be able to right the wrongs. In addition, it will be needed to contribute to nature as opposed to constant consummation.

Spreading awareness, one can enhance the process: “More than one million people have now watched The End of the Line, a groundbreaking expose of the consequences of overfishing, according to an evaluation of the film’s impact” (Levitt


The Sociology of Religion Aspects Essay essay help online: essay help online

Discussing the aspects of sociology of religion, it is necessary to refer to the religion as the social phenomenon when the religious groups can be determined and analyzed as any other social groups according to their specifics and goals. The sociology of religion as the sphere of knowledge is developed by sociologists in relation to their discussion of the issues of religion in its connection with the society.

There are a lot of problematic questions studied by sociologists in this field of knowledge which are associated with the nature of the people’s religious beliefs and realization of their religious practices in the social life. It is important to pay attention to the fact that religion as the concept within the sociology of religion is discussed and examined with the help of the scientific methods used in the field of sociology.

However, the subject matter of such an examination is the people’s religious beliefs and practices. Thus, following Johnstone’s discussion, it is possible to state that sociology of religion can be defined as the study which focuses on determining and analyzing the people’s attitudes to the sacred notions, their beliefs and practices, and their visions of the definite sacred beings and events.

There are questions about the relevance of discussing religion not as the individual choice or practice but as the social phenomenon studied by sociology of religion. Nevertheless, sociologists provide many arguments to support the idea that religion should be also examined in the context of sociology and that this subject is really important (Furseth).

To support the vision, Johnstone analyzes Simmel’s considerations in relation to the issue and states that “society precedes religion. Before religion can develop, there must first exist general patterns of social interaction – that is, a society – that can serve as a model” (Johnstone 30).

Thus, it is possible to conclude that any religion cannot exist without society because it emerges within it. From this perspective, the subject is important because it refers to both the society as studied by sociology and people’s religious visions. It is important to concentrate on studying sociology of religion because religion develops according to the definite patterns of interactions used within the definite social group (Furseth).

Furthermore, in his statement, Turner provides the answers to the questions about the nature of the sociology of religion and its importance. According to Turner, “religion refers to those processes and institutions that render the social world intelligible, and which bind individuals authoritatively into the social order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religion is therefore a matter of central importance to sociology” (Turner 284). Religion is important for the sociological studies because it is one of the major spheres of the people’s life, and it can influence the development of the social group in relation to determining the definite religious practices and rituals along with following the certain moral presumptions.

The religious visions of different groups are also different. That is why, the study of the religious practices can provide researchers with the important information about this or that group of people as a kind of the social community.

According to Turner, the examination of the religious phenomena among which it is possible to determine magic and myth can be effective for developing the sociological knowledge (Turner 284). In his turn, Johnstone states that religion is closely connected with studying the group dynamics as well the social impact that is why religion can be discussed as the subject matter of sociology (Johnstone 2).

Moreover, the study of the members of the group and their interactions is significant to explain their religious beliefs, practices, and rituals. To understand the particular features of the social development, it is necessary to pay attention to the ideas and beliefs which are interesting for the representatives of the social groups at the spiritual level of their perception of the world.

Sociologists are inclined to determine a lot of theories according to which the religious visions were developed and perceived by the public. It is necessary to accentuate the rational choice theory as the most appropriate one to explain the origins of religion from the sociological perspective.

According to Johnstone, the rational choice theory is a theory that tries “to deal seriously with not only the persistence of religion but also the observation that some form of religion appears to be ubiquitous among societies, even if some individuals deny the validity of the religions that surround them” (Johnstone 36).

In spite of the fact there are many opinions that the rational choice theory cannot be discussed as relevant to explain the origins of religion because of its rationality and appropriateness to refer to the economic processes rather than to the moral and spiritual choices, this theory is effective to discuss the people’s choice of religion as the conscious act to receive some benefits from this choice (Bruce).

We will write a custom Essay on The Sociology of Religion Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rational choice theory can be used to explain how people make the necessary choice in relation to their religious vision. People are inclined to act rationally in almost all the spheres of their life, basing on the definite personal or public’s experience (Corcoran). To make the choice, it is important to examine the situation and its implications with references to the positive and negative perspectives. Johnstone accentuates the fact that people make the similar rational choices also in relation to choosing the religion (Johnstone 36).

This choice is based on the experience and on the proper examination of the information about different religions, their rituals, practices, and moral presumptions. Johnstone stresses that “people have a set of mental images stored in their brains with which they make decisions as rationally and sensibly as they know how” (Johnstone 36). From this point, it is necessary to concentrate on making the right choice because of the variety of the possible religious visions which exist in the contemporary world.

Sociology of religion began to develop in the 19th century, and a lot of its aspects require their further discussion by researchers because of the significant controversy in vision of the main theories used in sociology of religion to explain its main ideas or the nature of the religion as a phenomenon.

The characteristic feature of sociology of religion as the study discussing the people’s religious beliefs and attitudes to the sacred points is the dependence on the empirical information used to examine the main aspects of this sphere of knowledge. Thus, the religious concepts and the people’s beliefs and practices are examined with the help of the sociological methods which are rather scientific, and they allow speaking about religion as the social phenomenon which can be observed and studied with references to the definite social group.

Works Cited Bruce, Steve. “Religion and Rational Choice: A Critique of Economic Explanations of Religious Behavior”. Sociology of Religion 54.2 (1993): 193-205. Print.

Corcoran, Katie. “Religious Human Capital Revisited: Testing the Effect of Religious Human Capital on Religious Participation”. Rationality and Society 24.3 (2012): 343-379. Print.

Furseth, Inger. An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives. USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006. Print.

Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. USA: Pearson, Prentice-Hall, 2007. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Sociology of Religion Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turner, Bryan. “The Sociology of Religion”. The SAGE Handbook of Sociology. Ed. Craig Calhoun. USA: SAGE, 2006. 284-300. Print.


NJ – Global Operations Management Essay custom essay help

Dissimilarities in rules governing different societies and countries make international trade different from local trade. Different political, cultural, and economic environments also exceptionally characterize international trade (Helpman, 2011). These factors define the incomparable responsibilities of global business managers. It is important that as PPQ Parts strategizes to venture into international business, it should have plans that identify the diversities and outline methods of handling them.

The host foreign country also has issues to deal with. The issues may have impact on the business affairs of the foreign investing company. PPQ Parts will need resources such as water, minerals, and land. The host country will therefore have to share their resources with PPQ Parts. At the same time, the country will most likely be forced to legislate on the mode of sharing the resources.

The host country will handle social issues that the country had not faced before. PPQ Parts’ presence in the country will have social assimilation impacts. The locals will have the opportunity to learn new cultures (Helpman, 2011).

Additionally, local industries will face stiff competition from PPQ Parts. This may influence the local population to have ill feelings concerning the company. They may think that the foreign company intents to out do them in business. The host country may also face issues such as shortage of classrooms, market stalls, hospitals, and clubs, among others.

This may force the government to develop new facilities or improve the existing ones to accommodate both locals and the staffs of PPQ Parts. The host country will therefore, provide these facilities (Stern, 2009). Since the trade has positive effects, including economic empowerment for locals, increased government revenue collection, and positive social and economic assimilation, PPQ Parts management should plan to ensure that the positive trade consequences remain outstanding.

Remarkably, international, multinational, and global organizations face a myriad of cultural barriers and diversity issues. PPQ Parts is not exempted from facing similar challenges. The organization should develop strategies to overcome the challenges that commonly arise due to differences in religion, language, and cultural believes.

People who share these attributes belong to similar cultural backgrounds. Unfortunately, individuals from different societies and countries do not belong to similar cultural backgrounds. A successful manager should be prepared to deal with these diversities (Yacoub, 2010). The managers and marketers should have respect for cultural values, practise, and believes of all the business stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PPQ Parts therefore ought to train its managers and staffs on the cultural aspects of the host country. Studying their communication styles, taboos, religious believes, and lifestyle, among others, is highly essential. The training will help PPQ Parts to face little hindrances while interacting with the locals.

Moreover, the managers will learn to uphold the principles of honesty, transparency, and humility. These leadership attribute can help an effective manager top succeed both locally and internationally. Finally, it is important to encourage cultural assimilation.

The staffs should endeavour to assimilate to identify with the residents of the host society. When the staffs begin to assimilate, the local will also feel loved and appreciated as for who they are (Yacoub, 2010). If PPQ Parts successfully encourages its members to assimilate, it will increase its prospects of building a massive customer base in the respective host foreign nations.

There are serious consequences of ignoring the cultural barriers and diversity issues. Business experts hold that the ability to succeed in global business management is determined by the ability to manage the barriers and diversity issues effectively (Miller


ICT Disaster Management Systems Report college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The role of ICT in the management of disaster is enormous in the current world. ICT has proved to be very vital in effectively suppressing the impacts of the tragedies that humanity faces in the modern world.

The events of the beginning of the 21st century has witnessed an unprecedented capacity of ICT to solve the emerging human problems and calamities (Streitz, Kameas


The Role of Sheikh Mohammed in Financial Success of Dubai Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Sheikh Mohammed is often credited for the political, economic, and financial success of Dubai. This is why it is necessary to look at the goals and forces that motivate this person. First of all, he had several important visions and one of them was to build one of the most popular tourist destinations that could attract people from different countries (Mayo et al, 2010, p. 8). This is why the government invested capital into numerous construction projects, especially luxury hotels (Mayo et al, 2010, p. 8).

Apart from that, Sheikh Mohammed had a goal of creating a state that could foster creativity, innovation, and adoption of the best practices (Mayo et al, 2010, p. 8). This is why this political leader focused on the development of adult literacy programs, the construction of schools, colleges, and universities. To a great extent, this initiative was critical for the economic and financial development of the UAE. Furthermore, Sheikh Mohammed tried to create an economy could be independent from oil industry.

As a result, he paid much attention to such aspects of the economy as tourism, finance, petro-chemical companies, airlines, and so forth. On the whole, it is possible to argue that their Sheikh Mohammed is a person who has clear visions and goals and who can pursue them. Overall, the following statement throws light on the goals and visions of Sheikh Mohammed, “I want it (Dubai) to be number one.

Not in the region, but the world… Number one in everything: high education, health, housing…” (Mayo et al, 2010, p. 9). This is the main objective he attempted to achieve as a leader of the nation. Certainly, it is a highly ambitious goal, and one cannot easily attain it; this strategy helped the government to achieve considerable results.

It is also important to speak about the motives that underlie Sheikh Mohammed’s efforts. In this case, one can argue that he is a very ambitious person who does not want to disappoint the expectations of their parents. This is one of the factors that affected his behavior.

Additionally, he wanted to demonstrate his leadership skills and his ability to organize and guide the work of other people (Mayo et al, 2010). This is one of the reasons why he undertook numerous programs that were supposed to revitalize the political, economic, and financial life of the UAE (Mayo et al, 2010).

To a great extent, he tried to create a legacy that can appeal to the citizens of the UAE and the tourists. Additionally, one should not forget about such a driver as the sense of duty. In particular, Sheikh Mohammed says, “The first duty of an official is to make his people happy and provide them with security, stability, welfare, and progress” (Mayo et al, 2010, p. 16). It is possible that this factor was the most important one.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, one can argue that each of Sheikh Mohammed’s initiatives was successful, but his efforts were vital for the development of the country. Therefore, one can argue that the ambitiousness of Sheikh Mohammed contributed to the success of Dubai. It has to be admitted that he relied on the assistance of other people, and their efforts should not be overlooked. Nevertheless, the development of Dubai should be credited to the visionary leadership of Sheikh Mohammed and his efforts.

Reference List Mayo, A., Nonria, N., Mendrho, U.,


Professor Hans Thamhain’s “Management of Technology” Case Study cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction Most successful companies integrate research in their projects. This is done through utilization of new technological tools and concepts. Management is a key component of design in manufacturing industries. It ensures efficacy in performing of tasks, which increase quality of products.

Acquisition of modern technologies is also important in establishing a trend of technology driven enterprises. Moreover, research on organizational structures, innovations, project evaluation, management processes, and environmental quality is also crucial to the output of technology driven organizations.

Contemporary organizations with experience in innovative technologies are usually on the look for new methods of production. This paper will provide a study guide to Professor Hans Thamhain’s book on management technology. It will also seek to explore its concepts, technologies, and tools that apply in modern organizations (Thamhain, 2005).

Synopsis This book is authored by Professor Hans Thamhain who is the director of technology at Bentley College. In addition, he heads project management programs at the college. He boasts of 20 years of experience in industries with multinational companies like Verizon, ITT, General Electric, and Westinghouse, among others.

His vast experience in managerial positions at the named companies has also enabled him to author experience based books on management methods and its relation to technology. His book on management technology presents various assessments methods for management processes and organizations. These methods are aimed at actualizing the technological objectives of the organizations.

The book also provides special techniques and tools that can be utilized in organizing as well as managing product oriented challenges. In addition, it provides techniques that can be used in organizing new products. These techniques are also usable in managing as well as organizing research and development. In addition, the book provides numerous case studies that affirm and demonstrate use of these technologies in real-world situations (Thamhain, 2005).

The book is subdivided into fourteen chapters that are targeted at various significant concepts and tools of technology. These are coordinated in a strategic manner to allow for complete understanding of the concepts. It starts by exploring the challenges facing management of high technology organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It then moves to online business world that has utilized highly complex and extensive technologies. It then goes through the steps of organizing high technology enterprises. Product development is also researched with best practices being the point of emphasis. The book goes on to look into organizational management, which includes man-management strategies. Proper investigations along with use of real world examples are utilized to demonstrate ways of managing technology oriented projects.

Further research is done on project evaluation, measurement, research, and development, innovation, selection of projects, work control, and management of quality of environment. Moreover, it looks into the risks of management in high technology industries as well as way of managing those risks. It goes on to provide information on technology teams and new businesses. It closes by providing an insight into consulting as done in technology management (Thamhain, 2005).

Content The book begins by listing and describing challenges in managing high-tech organizations. In this regard, it defines the terms and concepts utilized in management as well as the role of engineering management in such organizations. It tackles the global dimensions of technology as well as the importance of e-commerce in influencing technology.

The relationship between technologies and society is described in this chapter with vivid description of future trends. It looks at the changing business environment with globalization seen as a factor in influencing this change. It also gives insight into the unique manner of treating technology-oriented businesses.

A detailed history of managing technology is also provided with in-depth descriptions of key milestones and forces that drive technology-based industries. It gives a case study of Amazon; how it was reprogrammed to achieve its current overwhelming potentials. It also gives the methods of measuring content and intensity of technology. This is important because numerous companies have found it difficult to measure technology (Thamhain, 2005).

The book describes ways of organizing high technology industries. It mentions the fact that current technologies should have the capability of providing speed, efficiency, and flexibility for quality results to be achieved. It then plans the structure and designs required in technology-oriented enterprises.

Organizational choices are also discussed with a view on real-world hybrids. The book also emphasizes necessity of operational management processes by describing its benefit to concurrent engineering, which the author describes as a unique concept of project management.

We will write a custom Case Study on Professor Hans Thamhain’s “Management of Technology” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It describes the structures for success in organizational management. The author looks into the changing roles in leadership management as well as the relation between employee motivation and technology performance. He therefore recommends motivation as a way of increasing effectiveness. The book emphasizes the fact that management of technology is project based. Moreover, it adds that project management is highly evolving thereby posing the need for constant evaluation and research (Thamhain, 2005).

The author also emphasizes need for time and resource management in high technology organizations. The books divulges deeply on effective controls and measurements of work. In this regard, it recommends effective use of and management of controls.

Project selection and evaluation is also divulged with focus on both qualitative and quantitative approaches to selection and evaluation. The book also describes technology teams. It looks into characteristics of teams that are technology-oriented. It also looks at the challenges that face most technical teams.

Moreover, it provides information on team building methods as well as the need for virtual and self-driven teams. Measurement of team performance is also essential in this section as it ensures achievement of targets. In essence, the book provides ways of achieving effective team management. Research and development is another crucial part of this book. The author mentions its need in innovative businesses. He also looks at its challenges and dynamics in a constantly changing business environment (Thamhain, 2005).

The book talks about characteristics of technical innovations with focus on the need to quantify innovative performance. It also gives a description of innovative work places as well as recommends ways of management with a view to achieving innovative performance. The author alludes to the fact that management of research and development is essential to achieving innovative performance.

In chapter eleven, the book talks about management of quality of environment. This includes focus on new policies and standards on environmental quality. Moreover, it talks about the essence of cost accounting in achieving environmental quality. The book also talks about creating of cost accounting system for environmental quality. These are aimed at reaping the benefits of cost accounting in quality management of technology-oriented firms.

In addition, the boo looks into the challenges and benefits of new approaches in management of environmental quality. The author also talks about high stakes involved in technology. Moreover, he looks at ways of managing such risks for the good of the company. In essence, managers should be well equipped with mechanisms of dealing with risks for effective management of technological firms (Thamhain, 2005).

In chapter thirteen, the book explores importance of developing new businesses. In fact, it goes through the process of business development. These include solicitation of proposals as well as their formats and types. It also explores new business ventures as well as contract opportunities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Professor Hans Thamhain’s “Management of Technology” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, it helps managers to write business proposals. Moreover, the book helps managers on how to negotiate and close contracts. Finally, the book talks about consulting as a task to managers in technological firms. It emphasizes the necessity for effective technology management experts. It gives the criteria for providing consulting services. It also provides recommendations to consulting professionals. This is essential for achieving high models of performance in technology management (Thamhain, 2005).

Conclusion The book covers an extensive part of leadership for technology and engineering managers. It also provides knowledge on modern concepts of technology management as well as on fundamentals of operational job performance. It provides a vivid description of modern and innovative concepts for management of contemporary technological firms. To achieve this, it describes the methods of assessing performance and effectiveness in organizations.

It also gives insight into the effectiveness of current work processes. These include integrated product development, phase gate processes, design-build, and concurrent engineering. It also looks into the tools for research and development in effective technological firms. This is linked to real world experiences and best practices aimed at developing managers with technical prowess in leadership (Cram101 Textbook Reviews, 2012).

References Cram101 Textbook Reviews (2012). e-Study Guide for: Management of Technology: Managing Effectively in Technology-Intensive Organizations by Hans J. Thamhain. Ventura, CA: Cram101

Thamhain, J. (2005). Management of Technology: Managing Effectively in Technology-Intensive Organizations. New York: John Wiley


Economic Order Quantity in Operation Management Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Definition: The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model can be defined as a traditional economic model which is used to determine the economic or the most optimal order quantity. This quantity of products or materials should be purchased or produced by the company according to the definite period of time which is fixed.

The EOQ model is developed to minimize the company’s total costs in relation to the order, including the complex of inventory holding costs and the ordering or setup costs (Collier


United Airlines Flight 173 Accident Essay (Article) scholarship essay help

On December 28, 1978, United Airlines flight 173 crashed in Portland, Oregon, while being operated from Denver, Colorado, to the Portland International Airport. The aircraft crashed in the suburban Portland neighborhood. The area was wooded and populated, and the aircraft destroyed one unoccupied house.

As a result, two members of the crew (the flight engineer and the senior flight attendant) and eight passengers were killed, 21 passengers and 2 crewmembers “were injured seriously” (Investigation: United Airlines Flight 173, 2012). It is reported that the accident was the result of the fuel exhaustion. The causes of the United Airlines flight 173 accident are the pilots’ error affected by the unawareness of the critical situation.

It is important to note that the accident was the result of the professional pilot’s failure. The captain of the DC-8 was Malburn McBroom, “a highly experienced pilot with nearly 28,000 hours, some 5500 of them captaining the DC-8” (Civil aviation disasters: United 173, n.d.).

According to the reports, approaching the Portland International Airport, the pilots began to prepare to landing. However, the landing gear malfunction was observed. It took time to investigate the problem, and the captain called the Portland Approach to report the situation.

The problem was in the fact that while the pilots were concentrating on overcoming the landing gear malfunction, the fuel state was improperly controlled. Thus, when the problem was investigated and the passengers were prepared for a possible emergency landing, the aircraft fuel state became critical (Investigation: United Airlines Flight 173, 2012). As a result, fuel exhaustion of all engines prevented the aircraft from landing successfully.

It is stated that it was not only the failure of the captain to control the fuel state but also the error of the whole crew because pilots did not tell the captain about the problems observed. From this point, the main causes of the accident were the preoccupation with the landing problems and landing emergency and the inattention to the fuel state which resulted in the fuel exhaustion and the aircraft’s crash.

The criticality of the situation was not aware by the members of the crew, and the pilots did not speak clearly about their concerns with the captain to prevent the problems with the fuel state. It is possible to focus on the problems in the communication between the crew members and the lack of the effective crew management to regulate the problematic situations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The impact of the United Airlines flight 173 accident on the air transportation system of the USA was significant. Although the problem with landing gears was determined and overcome successfully, the crewmembers were inattentive to the fuel state, and the error resulted in the accident.

That is why, the committees interested in examining the causes of the accident paid attention to the necessity to focus on the improvement of the crew management to avoid the similar situations in the future. Thus, in 1980, the United Airlines implemented the first “Crew Resource Management/Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) program for pilots” to develop the concept of cockpit resource management as the way to improve the performance and communication of pilots (Investigation: United Airlines Flight 173, 2012).

The program aims to encourage the pilots’ teamwork, to improve the communication and ways of sharing duties and important information between crewmembers. The similar programs are used in many countries today.

References Civil aviation disasters: United 173. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Investigation: United Airlines Flight 173. (2012). Web.


Do Sports Build Character? Essay essay help

Sports are not about gaining scores; it is about learning, expressing respect, encouragement, and experience. Both parents and coaches should be aware of that fact to be able to make sports for children as one of the most important components in their life. Moreover, they should recognize educational perspective of playing, as well as how they can contribute positively to development as a strong personality.

Finally, a parent-coach partnership should ensure that children take the right experience and life lessons while playing a game. In this true context of sport, it is possible to encourage youth to become much stronger and develop such important qualities as cooperation, mutual agreement, and respect.

Children going in for sports and taking part in competitions should not consider victory as the main purpose of game. Rather, the coaching committee should convince children that sports should be considered within a broader sense of life experience. Therefore, during play a child can learn what it means to support each other on the way to victory, solve problems, and work out successful strategies. It is also associated with shaping such qualities as patience and ability to control emotions and stressful situations. As a proof,

The Positive Coaching Alliance adheres to the ideas of exploring sports as a means for gaining a valuable life experience, for entertaining, and building a strong character (Positive Coaching Alliance n. p.). As soon as a child recognizes that the sports is a means of self-development, but not a cause of depression once the game is lost, he/she will start modeling life philosophy and strengthen his/her self-esteem.

Encouragement, therefore, is the strongest incentive for children to make better in sports and in future life. The role of a coach lies in promoting children’s awareness of their advantage and uniqueness. The creative thinking and persuasion, therefore, are among the most important conditions for shaping a strong personality and identifying the winning solutions.

The rights efforts made by coach can become a priority in character education. What is more important is that sports concepts should be reconsidered to make both children and parents gain practical value. Hence, a multidimensional approach should be selected for managing a sporting environment and taking an advantage of it.

Indeed, character education should become a foundational principle in sports. According to the report presented by Character Education Partnership, “when educators bemoan the fact “there is no more room on my plate” for character education, the common retort is that “character education is the plate”” (Berkowitz and Bier 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional development should be prior to the sense of competition, victory, and popularity in school when children go in for sports. Therefore, parents should be able to understand that and explain the greater purpose in life to their children. Once again, as soon as ideological foundation is introduced, children will be able to enhance their understanding of sporting activities as powerful means of shaping their character and personality.

In conclusion, it can be stated that sport activities contribute to shaping stronger characters once children start understanding its veritable purposes. In particular, both parents and coaches should encourage children and direct them at positive thinking.

They should persuade them that playing sport games is a marvelous opportunity for athletes to develop such qualities as self-respect, determination, confidence, and strength. Moreover, athletics provide children with experience that will help them to gain high results in other spheres of life.

Works Cited Berkowitz, Marvin, and Melinda Bier. Education: A Report for Policy Makers and Opinion Leaders. Character Education Partnership. PDF File. 2006. Web.

Positive Coaching Alliance. Tools for Athletes. 2013. Web.


Aimee Semple McPherson Essay essay help free: essay help free

Aimee Semple McPherson is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the United States, especially at the beginning of the twentieth century. This woman has been regarded as a saint or sinner by a great number of people who lived during that time. It is important to determine why people used this conflicting rhetoric while speaking about Aimee McPherson.

One can argue that these conflicting viewpoints can be mostly explained by the incredible charisma of this person and her ability to influence the audience. In some cases, this influence could be perceived as manipulation. Nevertheless, such words as saint or sinner do not accurately describe the personality of this woman who had various interests, goals, and values. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.

First, it should be noted Aimee McPherson was born to a very religious family. In particular, one should pay attention to her mother who was an active supporter of the Salvation Army (Cauchi unpaged). This upbringing strongly influenced her later life, especially her values, beliefs, and attitudes.

One should bear in mind that at the beginning of her career she was engaged in the so-called faith healing (Cauchi unpaged). Certainly, it is difficult to prove that she did cure people who asked her for assistance. In some cases, the positive effects can be explained to self-deception, rather than any significant change. This is some of the main points that should be taken into consideration.

However, her faith-healing campaign did earn her reputation of a saint who could almost perform miracles, even though she had some failures. Nevertheless, many people were skeptical of her healing abilities, and they viewed her only as a swindler who gave only false hopes to people suffering from various diseases. This is one of the reasons why she was often perceived as a saint and a sinner at the same time. So, from the very beginning people looked at her from different perspectives.

Additionally, one should focus on Aimee McPherson’s preaching and her ability to appeal to large audiences which was almost unprecedented at that time. It should be noted that she founded the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in Los Angeles. The performances of Aimee McPherson could be visited by more than five thousand people at the same time. This popularity was not matched by any other minister.

There were several things that greatly distinguished her among other missionaries. In particular, she was able to combine preaching with theatrical performance. She often relied on the assistance of decorators, artists, carpenters who helped her to produce a long-lasting effect on the audience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her sermons with the audience were often accompanied by music. It is often said that her sermons could be seen as a form of entertainment (Sutton 29). So, some of her critics said she was only striving for fame, and her behavior was perceived as vanity (Sutton 29). This is why her sermons could elicit different responses. Nevertheless, she was able to evoke religious feeling in many people who valued her sermons. This is why Aimee McPherson had a reputation of a saint and a sinner at the same time.

One should also take into account that Aimee McPherson could be dressed as a firefighter, police officer, or even a princess. This behavior utterly astonished a great number of people (Sutton 29). Again, one can say that she was able to transform a sermon into a theatrical performance, and this goal could not be easily achieved. This approach helped her to engage the audience, but at the same time, her behavior was criticized by other preachers who could not accept this show as a form of religious sermon (Cauchi unpaged).

To a great extent, she became to be viewed as a sinner by people who held more conservative views about the behavior of religious people, especially ministers. The dispute between the supporters and opponents of Aimee McPherson continues even nowadays. This debate is particularly relevant to people who represent the Foursquare Church.

Additionally, Aimee McPherson was one of the first preachers who began to use radio in order to deliver her sermons to the general public. This reliance on technology was not typical of ministers at the beginning of the twentieth century. This is one of the reasons why she became so famous, and her name became familiar to many people living in the United States. This strategy enabled her to address many listeners. In this way, she gained the status of celebrity.

Therefore, one can say that Aimee McPherson could be viewed as a very popular person. This status distinguished Aimee McPherson from other ministers in the United States. Mass media helped her to achieve many of her goals as a preacher. She was one of the few people who could appeal to mass audiences.

Apart from that, Aimee McPherson was a subject of some media scandals that polarized the opinions of people about her. For example, one can mention her alleged kidnapping and escape (The Kidnapping of Aimee Semple McPherson unpaged). This issue was widely discussed by many journalist of that time.

McPherson alleged that she was abducted by some unknown criminals. Moreover, she even claimed to be tortured by her kidnappers. Nevertheless, police officers did not find evidence that could prove her claim (The Kidnapping of Aimee Semple McPherson, unpaged). Her supporters believed this kidnapping had been taken place. In contrast, other people believed that McPherson had just tried to attract attention to herself.

We will write a custom Essay on Aimee Semple McPherson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Overall, this incident became a subject of many newspaper articles. To some degree, this article reinforced the conflicting opinions about this person, especially if one is speaking about her sanctity. Similarly, mass media closely examined her possible life, especially possible love affairs. This publicity prompted many people to believe that McPherson was a sinner. So, the life of Aimee McPherson attracted the attention of her contemporaries.

Overall, such notions as saint or sinner are not quite applicable to Aimee McPherson because they do not reflect the complexity of her personality. She was indeed a very gifted individual who could skillfully interact with the audience. Nevertheless, this ability does not turn her into a saint.

Similarly, one can argue that she strived for glory and recognition. Some people can regard this behavior as a form of vanity, but this vanity is typical of many individuals who are not usually called sinners. This is one of the main points that one can make. Nevertheless, McPherson could indeed exercise a strong influence on many people. To some degree, her opinions, values, and attitudes shaped their behavior.

Works Cited Cauchi, Tony, 2002. Aimee Semple McPherson 1890-1944. Web.

The Kidnapping of Aimee Semple McPherson 2002. Web. Feb. 2012.

Sutton, Matthew. Aimee Semple McPherson and the Resurrection of Christian America. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2009. Print.


The Social Organization of Religion Essay essay help free

Scholars from the social science discipline have focused on the study of religion. Their interests are geared towards understanding the various aspects related to religion. There exist certain social theories to explain this variant form of organizations, movements, beliefs, and religious ideologies.

The sociology of religion seeks to find the concept that underlies the complexities that come with religious organizations, as well as movements such as churches, cult, or even sects. However, the challenge with the sociology of religion is that, in this field, it is seldom to distinguish or separate whether the researcher’s thinking is purely sociological or religious (Hood et al, 89).

Theologians will be taught or trained in a manner that makes them biased when testing the question of sociology of religion. Furthermore, the methods they are likely to use will most likely be uninterested in sociology as a science. However, theologians are not at all insignificant in sociology.

Theologians have also had a positive impact on the advancement of sociology. In most cases, theologians introduce aspects that propagate confusion in this study. However, the study of religion has enjoyed contributions from many other disciplines which have enhanced the growth of the topic by developing themes, points of view, and certain problems that face the sociology of religion. This has enhanced the position of the sociology of religion in many social sciences and especially in sociology.

Sociological ideas may be defined through the identification of a social occurrence although the meanings deducted will vary depending on the researcher. To examine the sociological ideas behind churches and sects, show how the interpretation of these institutions will change over time, and show how their analysis and comprehension by sociologists will vary over time. One may use a three-part analysis.

In the analysis, I will begin with the church-sect typologies. Here, I will elaborate on the earlier opinions regarding the aforementioned section. Secondly, the analysis will focus on the transition period. This section will focus on the various groupings of the sect typologies. The focus will also be on the cults and other aspects related to religion. The third part covers the modern day era and seeks to show how the debate on cults and sects in the transition period enhanced the growth the debate on the same (Christiano 453).

The church-sect debate has a long history especially as far as church historians are concerned. However, the debate took a sociological perspective much later and was pioneered by Max Weber. According to Weber’s arguments, the nature of the church is closely associated with the political realm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weber’s argument on the definition of a sect is that a sect is voluntary, does not force or coerce to gain fellowship, and is not at all interested in the control of its followers to do things in a certain way. Furthermore, he argues that, in a church setting, the charisma is often seen to be possessed by the church. The religious leader possesses the charisma in the case of a sect. This is the argument that Weber presents and there are no additional explanation on this. However, his explanation and theory limit itself to church organizations.

Weber pioneered these analyses that shall be explained in detail. Troeltsch built on the basic explanations by Weber. He argued that the church is conservative and often time controls and dominates the masses and that this is what makes the church a universal authority. On the sect, he argues that the sect is a small entity whose aim is to gain direct and personal communion between members and further seek to counter the apparent domination of the world by the church.

Essentially, he argued that the church is more likely to be in good relations with the rulers and the state while sects tend to appeal and draw their fellowship from the lower members of the society who are disenfranchised. Guastafson criticized these two church-sect models. He argued that the typology of the church sect is ineffective and redundant. In addition, the two typologies can be used in a clear manner, in a context of Christianity, and the original point of reference.

He argued that the topologies can not be used to analyze any other religious organization save for Christianity. This perhaps explains the fact that these theories are rarely used in today’s world where there are many cults, as well as NRMs. Modern day sociologists are concerned with the historical aspects of the religious movements.

On the other hand, Troeltsch’s examination of the Christian movements was from earlier times and those of the times that he lived. H.R. Niebuhr later introduced the concept of church-sect divergence among scholars in America.

His study was aimed at explaining the difference between the church and the sect. This was done in such a manner that it made sense in the American denominationalism and aspired to make this difference clear even in the context of theology. His findings were that theology is much intertwined with the economics and the politics of the society that even its own formulation is much based on these factors.

This study was distinct in that it classified church-sect as poles of a continuum which had previously been seen as separate and independent groups. Thus, this study’s categorization of religion is that, unlike the church, it is not limited to any class. The definition of a cult by Howard Becker has largely been used by other sociologists. He defined a cult as a pseudo group representing an individual search for elated experience such as personal healing.

We will write a custom Essay on The Social Organization of Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The transition period is the period when different kinds of sects and cult movements begun to emerge. This can largely be attributed to the spiritual, cultural, and spiritual crises that arose as a result of the World Wars. Sociologists then had to devise new methods of deciphering and analyzing religious movements.

Earlier models and theories were increasingly becoming redundant in the analyses of the new cults and sects. Wilson was one of the earlier sociologists to study the new sects. He argued that, since the sociology of religion is all about moving forward, there is the need to form groups that permit sociologists to the social roles that religious movements perform. Thus, his model involved the categorization of sects as either conversions, Adventists, revolutionist, or introversionist (Wilson 361).

Notably, there is no clear difference between the mentioned eras and evaluations given in the discussion on religious movements. The studies that have been done since then are still applicable. However, the debate is no longer on the divergence of the church and the sect. The question today is on the typologies of the sect, cult, and NRMs. Sociologists who have pioneered in this area include Robbins and Anthony whose primary focus has been on the ideologies from a morality perspective of NRMs.

Works Cited Christiano, Kevin J, Peter Kivisto, and William H. Swatos. Sociology of Religion: Contemporary Developments. Walnut Creek [u.a.: AltaMira, 2002. Print.

Hood, Ralph W, Peter C. Hill, and Bernard Spilka. The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach. New York: Guilford Press, 2009. Print.

Wilson, Bryan R. A Typology of Sects. Oxford: All souls college, 1969. Print.


The Importance of Improving the Digital Divide between All Countries of Different Socio-Economic Climates Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Digital Divide: A Definition

Impacts of Digital Divide

Importance of Improving the Digital Divide



Introduction Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged as the most important tools for development through their ability to connect people to information and knowledge. Through inventions such as the internet, people’s lives have been transformed and the world has been converted into a global village.

Policy makers and scientists agree that ICT can play an important role in promoting development in a country. However, for this positive role of ICT to be realized, people have to enjoy adequate access to the ICT resources. As it currently stands, there is a great disparity in access between nations and this has led to a digital divide.

These divide has been driven by socio-economic climates with the developed countries benefiting greatly from technology while developing countries do not enjoy the benefits accrued from the utilization of ICTs. This paper will discuss the importance of improving the Digital Divide between all countries of different socio-economic climates. It will begin by defining what the digital divide is and proceed to highlight some of the negative impacts of this divide.

Digital Divide: A Definition The term divide is used to indicate a disparity between two parties in some context. Pick and Azari (2008) define the digital divide as the “rapidly growing disparities in the utilization, expenditure, and availability of technology between individuals, businesses, and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels” (p.91). As at 2004, the World Economic Forum reported that 88% of internet users were individuals from developed nations and this set of nations made up only 15% of the world population (Pick


The Short Story “Lust” by Susan Minot Essay essay help: essay help

Susan Minot, the person behind the masterpiece short story Lust, creates and brings out the main character of the story in a unique manner. The protagonist’s relationship with the other characters in the story brings it out her uniqueness as opposed to her physical appearance.

Through her actions and feelings, the audience sees her real part in the story. Lust’s narrator does not have a name, but she is in her teenage years going to a religious academy that is located away from her home. The narrator comes out as a promiscuous person right from the beginning of the story when she says, “Leo was from a long time ago, the first one I ever saw nude” (Minot 3). Her relationships seem to be mostly with boys as opposed to associating with girls of her age.

She is also sexually active as she confesses, “he kisses my palm and then directs my hand to his fly” (Minot 6). Her sexual escapades with different boys set the plot of the story. Even without the name of the main character, the audience can tell how she behaves and relates with others, which brings out the imbalance of power that exists between men and women particularly when it comes to sex. The powerful sexual desire that men in this story have completely overcomes the narrator.

Minot uses both the first and second person throughout the story whereby in some instances she uses “I” as she talks about her life experiences. For instance, she says, “I had tasted Bruce’s tongue” (Minot 3), while in others she uses “you”, which stands for all women in general; fro instance, she posits, “You begin to feel like a piece of pounded veal” (Minot 16).

The main character portrays behaviors of being overtly promiscuous such that in one instance, she admits that sleeping around was a normal thing that did not worry her at all. However, she discloses her fears of the promiscuous life by confessing, “All the next day, you’d be in a total fog, delirious, absent-minded, crossing the stress and nearly getting run over” (Minot 10).

She goes on to state that for a boy sleeping with many girls was a good thing whilst for a girl it was an ominous thing to sleep around. This aspect shows that despite portraying a “do not care” attitude, at times she knew what she was doing was wrong and it was eating her from the inside. However, it is only at the end of the story that the narrator brings out her fears and worries.

The narrator brings about the emotional detachment the main character has with authority figures; for instance, her parents. It is very easy for the audience to see there is no emotional bond that exists between her and her parents. She says, “My parents had no idea…parents never really know what’s going on, especially when you’re away at school most of the time” (Minot 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This assertion shows that her parents took her to a far away boarding school so that they would not have to deal with the issues that their teenage daughter was going through. The mentality of knowing her family is not anywhere near allows her to have all the freedom she wants in order to engage in whatever she likes.

Another character who was propagating the main character’s promiscuous behavior according to the narrator was the school doctor. He was giving students the emergency pill without asking any relevant questions as the narrator notes, “The joke was that the school doctor gave out the pill like aspirin” (Minot 8).

The main character reveals to the audience that most girls in the school used the pill, which would prevent them from getting pregnant once they engaged in unprotected sexual escapades. She could take the pills in the morning just before they went to the school chapel.

The narrator shows that even if she wanted to stop her promiscuity, she could not get enough support to advice her and stand with her, particularly her parents. The housemother, Mrs. Gunther, made a point of advising them on how to find true love as she had fallen for the only boyfriend she had, Mr. Gunther, at eighteen years old, which ended in a marriage. However, the girls ignored all her advice and they would go about their partying, drinking, and having sex.

Minot also shows that the main character was not confident even though she exuded a different personality. She felt weak with the men she associated with and so she was always obligated to say yes to sexual advances whenever they asked for it.

She admits, “So if you flirted, you had to be prepared to go through with it” (Minot 9). She later states how the boys would get angry if girl refused to give into sex advances. Therefore, Minot brings out the main character as someone who had a low self-esteem, which she masked with partying, drinking, and even taking drugs.

She wanted to portray a personality that was extremely social, outgoing, and fun to be around while it was the exact opposite as she divulges, “After sex, you curl up like a shrimp, something deep inside you ruined, slammed in a place that sickens at slamming…”(Minot 16). At one instance where she was with Tim, she stripped naked and lay on the rug after he had gone to close the door.

We will write a custom Essay on The Short Story “Lust” by Susan Minot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the entire story, the audience can see that the main character’s lustful behavior stands out courtesy of how she associates with other secondary characters in the story. Emotional dependence comes into view by the way the narrator lacks any qualms with sleeping around especially since she is a girl. Girls and women in general grow up in a society that nurtures the precept that it is very wrong to sleep around as compared to boys and men who emerge as macho by perpetuating the same.

The narrator also shows the amount of peer pressure that young people face and end up engaging in sex, alcohol, and even drugs. This aspect comes out clearly by how almost every girl in the school would take the birth control pill and also how the narrator could not say no to sex; she concedes, “I thought the worst thing anyone could call you was a cock-teaser”(Minot 9).

Minot has done a tremendous job by enlightening the audience on the challenges that young people, especially at their teenage years, face due to peer pressure to involve themselves in sex, alcohol, and other drugs. She also shows how girls give in to sexual advances easily to boys. Girls learn a little too late that sex never leads to love and as the narrator posits, “you open your legs but can’t, or don’t dare anymore, to open your heart” (Minot 17).

Works Cited Minot, Susan. Lust


Devil’s Playground Essay essay help online

Today, people are inclined to think that the modern society becomes more tolerant in relation to following definite social norms, rules, traditions, and rites of passage. I can refer to such important life periods and events as the graduation from high school and marriage as certain rites of passage, but they do not have the real ritual meaning for many people.

The graduation from university, career development, and marriage can be considered as important stages in my life, but I do not discuss them as the real rites of passage. For instance, getting married, people provide their vows, but this process often lacks its spiritual significance. Social norms and rules of morality should regulate marriages, and spouses should not betray their partners. In reality, these norms are regularly violated.

The advantages of the life patterns accepted in our society are in the possibilities for the personal and professional development. However, the disadvantages are in the people’s ignoring many social norms because of their limiting character. It is the first step to the social chaos and decline which can be observed today in the youth’s alcohol and drugs abuse in spite of all the limitations.

From this point, social norms, rules, and rites of passage are important to regulate the social life. Moreover, it is almost impossible to determine some strict rules regulating the life of the modern people in relation to morality without involving the legal issues and laws.

Nevertheless, there is the world where people follow the social norms and rules strictly. According to the Amish people’s visions, the world can be divided into the ‘English’ one and the ‘Amish’ one. Thus, the main difference is in the religion and social norms followed which determine the people’s way of living.

When Amish young people are at the age of sixteen they receive the opportunity to experience the life typical for the ‘English’ world. It is the period of their rite of passage known as Rumspringa. The main problem is in the fact the representatives of the ‘English’ world cannot understand the meaning of this period for the Amish youth because there are no fixed or followed rites of passage in this world. The advantage of the Amish life is in plainness, religious rituals, daily routine, rural activities, and humility.

They do not use electricity, television, telephones, and cars. Alcohol and drugs do not harm their health, and there are no other provocations and serious challenges in this world, except the period of Rumspringa. That is why, following their Rumspringa rituals and traditions, the Amish people face a lot of provocative situations which emphasize the differences between the two worlds and visions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Devil’s Playground (2002), the ‘English’ world is based not on following social and moral norms, but on violating them (Devil’s Playground, 2002). The religious principles are broken, the behavior of young people and their way of life are closely associated with alcohol, drugs, sex, and parties.

I cannot agree with such a position because it is only a limited viewpoint used to oppose the ‘English’ and ‘Amish’ worlds. Although some social norms in the modern world are not as strictly as in the ‘Amish’ world, it is impossible to speak about the Western world as the ‘Devil’s Playground’.

The Amish culture reflects the principles of life typical for the 18th-19th centuries. They wear plain dresses, men work as farmers, and women bring up children. The Amish people try to depart from all the conveniences as well as any temptation. From this point, the culture of the Amish people is based on the religious principles which help define the ‘Amish’ world.

The ‘English’ world is based on following people’s temptation, and the culture of the ‘English’ world depends on the secular principles. That is why, according to the stories presented in the movie, the ‘English’ world can be defined with references to rock music, premarital sex, alcohol, and the importance of money (Devil’s Playground, 2002).

Nevertheless, the features used to describe the oppositions between two cultures cannot be used as important to define them. I am inclined to define the ‘English’ world as more secular, but not as more ‘Devil’s’ one. The Amish people cannot live without their rules and norms. And the modern Western society tries to develop rules which are more convenient for them and contributing to the progress, but not limiting.

The rules and principles adopted in the society help regulate its development. The progress in the Amish people’s society is almost impossible because of rejecting the typical elements of the evolution, but the growth of spirituality can be observed when the community is regulated by preachers. Thus, the process of Rumspringa is important for the Amish people because adolescents can consciously choose the life and rules they want to follow basing on their own experience.

They can choose the most appropriate life pattern at the age of sixteen, comparing the ‘English’ and ‘Amish’ worlds. The Amish tradition to be baptized after making the significant decision to plan the future life according to this or that pattern is also important. From this perspective, the process of Rumspringa is the major stage in the Amish people’s life which helps cope with the life-changing issue.

We will write a custom Essay on Devil’s Playground specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Devil’s Playground. (2002). Web.


Inventory valuation methods Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction All business organizations have different methods of valuing their stock. This is aimed at ensuring that the right price is used in issuing stock. For instance, it will not be appropriate for a firm to make losses by issuing stock at a lower price than purchasing price.

Besides, a business organization has to decide on the method of inventory valuation. This is aimed at attracting a monetary value in the store. This is useful in costing output, state costing and decision making processes. Thus, this paper will highlight some of the methods used in valuing inventories.

First in first out (FIFO)

This is an inventory method that is used to value stock based on the assumption of first in first out. Stock that is purchased first is the one that is issued first. The price of the inventory issued is determined by the price of the first stock. In addition, the value closing stock is done at the latest cost.

This method has many advantages. This has facilitated its increased use in many firms. For instance, it is a realistic system or method of evaluation. Here, the oldest items are issued first followed by the newest items. Furthermore, the method’s calculations are easy whenever there are no fluctuations in the price of materials.

This method ensures that the closing stock value reflects the latest cost (Khan


Concept of the Charter Schools in Education Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What Is a Charter School?

Why Are They Necessary?

Are There Any Drawbacks?


Works Cited

Introduction Undoubtedly, education is the basis of every individual’s life as well as the future of the nation. The USA is famous for its high quality education. At present, it also takes pride in a variety of educational choices for young learners. Charter schools entered the educational scene in the late 1990s. Arizona is the state where the number of charter schools is on the rise and 14% of students in the state are enrolled in charter schools (Faller n.p.). Popularity of these schools is quite high.

However, as anything new, charter schools have their proponents and opponents. The latter say that charter schools take money from the district schools and allocate funds ineffectively. They also note that results of charter schools are not always satisfactory and the methods used are not properly evaluated. Nonetheless, proponents of these schools stress that the majority of charter schools have proved to be effective.

Clearly, Arizona must allocate funds to help charter schools develop as these establishments help cover larger groups of students, they introduce alternative educational approaches and they are competitors to district schools, which favorably affects development of educational system in the state.

What Is a Charter School? There is a great variety of charter schools which differ in form, curriculum, governance, etc. Charter schools may also focus on specific areas, e.g. sport, art, science, etc. Charter schools are non-profit or for-profit organizations. These schools may use traditional as well as innovative approaches. As a rule, charter schools are attended by students living in the district where the school is physically situated (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.).

There is one major similarity. If the number of applicants is too high, students are enrolled on the basis of a lottery. Students are not enrolled on the basis of their academic or sport achievements, ethnicity, socioeconomic status of their families, etc. (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.). Charter schools may have different visions and missions, but they are all aimed at providing educational opportunities for people.

Why Are They Necessary? Some people claim that charter schools should not exist as traditional district schools provide the necessary educational opportunities to those who need them, but this is far from being that way. Many parents face a variety of issues concerning their children attending district schools. Some are unsatisfied with their children’s results. Some are unsatisfied with the quality of teaching. Charter schools may be regarded as an alternative to a more traditional school.

They can be seen as a competition (Faller n.p.). Admittedly, competition positively affects development of any sphere. Everyone knows that the very existence of a competitor makes organizations (as well as people) perform better and seek for new better ways. Therefore, charter schools help raise the standards. Hence, it is a good idea to invest in tools which lead to development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from creating competition, charter schools can also be regarded as an option to address certain issues concerning coverage. For instance, they help cover larger population which is extremely important for the state. Importantly, charter schools (in the vast majority of cases) provide free education.

Admittedly, in the times of severe financial constraints, this can be a way out for many families. Thus, more children and teenagers have opportunity to obtain high quality education. This is why it is important to allocate funds to help the state provide high-quality education to larger groups of students.

Remarkably, charter schools provide high-quality education which is quite innovative in nature. Many charter schools are A or B rated educational establishments, i.e. students enrolled in these schools show high results (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.). Interestingly, many charter schools employ innovative approaches. For instance, Carpe Diem Collegiate High School and Middle School is one of such innovative educational establishments (Pandolfo n.p.).

Students have cubicles where they learn with the help of computer programs. They also have workshops where they discuss issues and learn to think critically. This is a very innovative approach which is quite effective. Students like studying there as they may learn at their own pace (Pandolfo n.p.). Those who can learn a topic faster do not need to wait until other students catch up with them. Those who need more time do not feel frustrated and can also move at their pace. This individual approach makes study enjoyable.

Are There Any Drawbacks? As has been mentioned above, many opponents claim that innovative approaches used often prove to be ineffective. Of course, there may be some drawbacks. According to Arizona Charter Schools Association, some charter schools do not achieve high results (“State of Education” 3).

Some charter schools exploiting alternative approaches are only C and D rated schools. However, if parents think an approach cannot really work for their child, they do not need to choose the school employing the ineffective approach. Admittedly, when choosing a school for children, parents should be thoughtful. It is necessary to ask many questions and even visit some classes to see the difference. Charter schools’ ratings are available and it can be quite easy to find A or B rated charter schools.

Some may say that charter schools obtain quite significant funding, at the expense of district schools. However, these two types of schools have equal opportunities. At that, there is quite strict regulation when it comes to charter schools (Faller n.p). It is not easy to start a charter school as it is necessary to provide a thorough plan for five years where all major points (staff, funds allocation, curriculum, etc.) are covered.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Charter Schools in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also possible to mention another drawback, i.e. the lack of places in effective charter schools. This downside may be removed. Establishment of new charters schools can help solve this problem. Thus, allocation of funds to support development of charter schools is important as it provides more opportunities for people living in the state.

Conclusion To sum up, it is possible to state that funding charter schools is vital for educational system of Arizona. These schools are aimed at providing more opportunities for young learners. These schools are a good competition for district schools which will try to improve their approaches to remain competitive. Schools will try to find new effective ways to help students develop and achieve their academic goals.

Of course, charter schools should be under strict supervision of the state to prevent any violations. Some people say that Americans do not need these schools, while others insist there should be more charter schools. At any rate, it is up to parents to decide which school to choose for their child. However, when doing their research, parents should try to be far-sighted. Parents need to know that there are many options for their children.

Works Cited “Charter Schools; Admission Requirements.” Arizona State Legislature. 2007. Web.

Faller, Mary Beth. “Arizona Charter-School Enrollment In On Rise.” The Republic. Nov. 2012. Web.

Pandolfo, Nick. “Educational Nation: In Arizona Desert, a Charter School Competes.” The Hechinger Report. Sep. 2012. Web.

“State of Education.” Arizona Charter Schools Association, 2012. Web.


History of the Christianity Contributions to the Western World Essay scholarship essay help

Christianity makes a lot of contributions to the Western world because the history of Westerners is closely associated with the development of Christianity. From this point, many religious aspects which are characteristic for Christianity are reflected in the social and political orders of the Western states, in morality and philosophy of the Western people.

It is possible to state that two important contributions made by Christianity to the development of the Western civilization are the accentuation of the significant role of family within the society and the contribution to the Westerners’ morality, philosophy, and theology with references to the Ten Commandments.

Today, a lot of people are inclined to reject the significance of family as a social institution within the contemporary society. However, it is important to pay attention to the fact that family remains to be the basic social institution discussed as a fundamental one in many sociological theories (DeMar 38-40).

The focus on the importance of family and the sacrament of marriage can be considered as one of the main contributions provided by Christianity to the Western world. The sacrament of marriage and the role of family as the form of interactions between a man and a woman within the society are stated in the Bible. People can reject the significance of marriage for them, but they continue to marry in front of God in churches and discuss their families as a sense of their life.

There are many aspects associated with the role and functions of spouses in marriage which are regulated from the perspective of Christianity (Morris). That is why, Christianity with its accentuation of the family’s role is influential for the development of the society with references to its basic institutions.

The development of ethics and philosophy within the Western society is also based on the contributions of Christianity to these fields. The effective contribution to regulate the Westerners’ ethics and behaviors is the Ten Commandments (Nigosian).

Christians are inclined to follow the principles described in the Ten Commandments and other ethical doctrines without asking for their justification. The Ten Commandments involve the issues connected with the people’s ethics and rights necessary to cooperate within the society. That is why, the basics of the social interaction can depend on the Ten Commandments directly or indirectly (Morris).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this point, it is important to focus on the fact that non-Christians also follow the social ethical rules and norms correlated with the Ten Commandments while interacting within the Western society. Thus, the contribution of Christianity to the development of the Westerners’ ethics and morality is obvious because the theological questions connected with the Ten Commandments are not only actively discussed within the society but also consciously followed.

The progress of the Western culture and Western society is closely associated with Christianity. That is why, the Christian contributions influence almost all the spheres of the social life. The most obvious contributions are to the development of the Westerners’ beliefs, moral principles, rules, and moral norms with references to their ethics and philosophy.

Thus, the Christian Ten Commandments regulate the everyday life of many Westerners according to their morality and rights. Moreover, such Christian tradition as marriage is not only a religious practice but also a significant social act which affects the progress of the society in any Western country.

Works Cited DeMar, Gary. America’s Christian Heritage. Nashville, TN: Broadman


Entrepreneur Management in Canada Reflective Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction In the past, there has been no extensive study of entrepreneurs, and thus a general shortage of knowledge concerning what propelled entrepreneurs to success. Nevertheless, the recent concern in reviving an otherwise dormant field has changed the norms and the majority of business universities across the world currently offer entrepreneurship courses (Elyasi, Ghafourian,


The Rocks of Grand Canyon Essay custom essay help

Abstract The Grand Canyon is the second largest canyon in the world. The region has attracted a lot of tourists from various parts of the world for different reasons. Tourists come to this region for many reasons. Some of the tourists are scholars, while others are just holiday makers.

The rocks of Grand Canyon were formed in a number of ways. The sedimentary rocks found in this place have been inexistence for a period of over 2 billion years. Various climatic conditions and environmental factors have reshaped the rocks in this place. Currently, the rocks exist in different layers, with each layer being unique.

Introduction The Grand Canyon is one of the most visited places in the world due to its wonderful nature. According to Karl, the Grand Canyon is one of the largest tourist’s attractions in the world, drawing attention of both leisure and academic tourists. This scholar observes that this place is one of the most amazing sceneries around the globe.

The rocks, the trees, and the animals found in the Grand Canyon National Park, and the general nature of this place has seen it make visitors come to the region several times. Thayer says that nature at times comes with many wonders. This scholar says that the nature at the Grand Canyon is breathtaking because there are a number of objects which are obviously defying nature.

The nature of this place demonstrates a number of facts about the development of Grand Canyon. There are a number of natural sceneries in North America with some of the amazing features. However, the Grand Canyon presents something special to visitors who either come for leisure or for academic purposes. The caves in this place formed due to a number of natural activities, come in different shapes and sizes. The caves clearly demonstrate the strength of the rocks around it[1].

The rocks of the Grand Canyon are some of the most beautiful sceneries at this place. Kaiser says that the rocks of the Grand Canyon have attracted the attention of various scholars from different professions. The sedimentary rocks are arranged in beautiful layers of over 40 that are visible when one visits the Grand Canyon National Park. According to Abbott, there are about fourteen unconformities in geologic records which are in Grand Canyon.

These are features that are obviously going against the law of nature. Understanding these rocks will require an understanding of the historical perspective of the development that took place, and which resulted into the sceneries at Grand Canyon. This research is focused understanding the physical and historic geological facts about the Grand Canyon.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Formation of the Rocks of Grand Canyon The history of the geology of the Grand Canyon can be traced back to about 2 billion years ago. According to Augustin, a number of scholars have tried coming up with explanations as to how the rocks at Grand Canyon were formed.

Various geologists have studied the fossils found in this place in order to explain the facts about the formation of this place. This scholar says that some of the records about the formation of this place are contradictory. However, recent geologists have come into agreement in some of the facts. The fact that the rocks at Grand Canyon have been in existence for the last 2000 million years is undisputed.

Karl says that during those Precambrian times, substances such as sand, ashes, silt and mud were on the shallow end of marine basin adjacent to the organic belt. In about 1800 to 1600 million years ago, a number of Island arcs came into a collision with proto-North American continents. The plate tectonic processes then condensed and grafted some marine sediment in the basin. The sediments were pushed out of the sea onto mainland. As time went by, these rocks were buried deep under the surface, about 12 miles deep.

This resulted in a massive pressure on these rocks from the weight above them. The result was the formation of metamorphic rock. The resultant is what was named as Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite which has attracted the attention of archeologists and geologists alike. This granite consists of Metasedimentary Vishnu, and Metavolcanic Brahma which were formed about 1700 million years ago.

During the collision of mainland and volcanic islands, several magma blobs arose from subduction zone, and then intruded into Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite. The plutons iced slowly, which then formed Zoroaster Granite. Some part of the granite would later form metamorphosed gneiss. This is visible currently when one is studying these rocks as bands with a light color. According to Thayer, this intrusion took place in three phases. In the early Vishnu age, there were 2 phases of this intrusion.

The third intrusion came much later in about 1400 million years ago. This phase experience a massive faulting, specifically along the south-north faults. This led to a partial rift of the continent. The collision would then lead to the extension of this continent, from Wyoming-Colorado borders to Mexico, nearly doubling-up the depth of the crust in the entire region of Grand Canyon. This was how the ancestral Mazatzal Mountains which is about 10 kilometers high was formed.

Then subsequent erosion came, which lasted about 300 million of years. This erosion swept away sediments of the mountain. The consistent erosion of the mountains over a span of several years resulted in reduction of the height of the mountains, and after a while, the high mountains were turned into small hills which are barely ten meters high.

We will write a custom Essay on The Rocks of Grand Canyon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Kaiser, two main factors have contributed to the formation of rocks within this country. About two million years ago, the climate in this region played a major role in the formation of rocks of the Grand Canyon. The region was very wet all through the year. This scholar describes this as the ice age which was about 2 million years ago. During this time, excavation at the Grand Canyon was very high, which dug it deep as it stands now. The figure below shows some of the excavated site at the Grand Canyon.

Figure 1

This figure shows the activities of nature that has resulted in a massive excavation of the sedimentary rocks formed about 1800 millions years earlier. The wet weather meant that there was a constant flow of water during most part of the year. The figure above shows a ridge formed due to constant flow o water. The figure clearly demonstrates the power of water in motion in the development of some rocks. The movement of water started off by washing away the top, soil which could easily be swept away.

As the top soil was washed away, the sedimentary rock that had been formed due to the cooked-pressure remained exposed to the flowing water. This movement of water on the rock slowly excavated the rock over hundreds of millions of years. The first step would be to soften the rock. When the rock was made soft, it became easier for some of its particles to break off, and with time, the erosion became deeper and bigger. As Karl explains, the flowing water would form a path.

The figure above shows a path of water that can be clearly be stated as the main agent of the erosion of the sediments. Other parts where the water has not formed its path have remained higher. As the rock particles fall into the moving water, they are always swept off into downer parts of the stream. As they move in this water, they come under constant collision leading to their further breakage.

They decrease in size, and lose their original shapes. The vegetation is another natural factor that has had impact in the formation of the rocks. The sedimentary rocks can be strong enough to withstand the flow o water for a very long period of time. However, when there are vegetations on the rock, some of the roots would crack the rocks as they penetrate into the soil.

When the rock is crack, it becomes easy for water to penetrate into the rock and cause further erosion of the sediments. Earth quake forms another agent of the breakage of the rock in this region. The region is still prone to massive earthquakes which create cracks on the rocks. Mass wasting erosions still affect the regions, leading to further breakage of the sedimentary rocks.

Human activities have affected the rocks of the Great Canyon in two main ways. At first, activities of human accelerated the excavation of the sedimentary rocks. During those early years, farming was not practiced. However, hunting and gathering wild fruits were common. This could also involve digging deep into the soil to get some of the roots that were either considered as medicine, or fruits.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rocks of Grand Canyon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This digging was part of excavation, and when water swept such surfaces, erosion would be inevitable. As men became more sophisticated, farming became important. Farming also had an increasing effect on the excavation of the rocks. It was easier for the soil on the farms to be swept off. By the end of Pleistocene ice age nearing the onset of the Holocene, the climatic condition of this area began to change.

This was majorly due to human activities. The climate of this area was changing from a cool and wet pluvial climate, to a semi-arid climate. The area is currently a semi-arid. With the conditions getting drier, water erosion on the rocks became less. However, mass wasting was on the rise. Several cliffs became stiffer, making the Grand Canyon and tributary canyons wider. Mass wasting was reducing rocks in this canyon, as the debris fell off and was swept into Colorado River in a gradual and consistent process[2].

As modernization came to effect, people realized the importance of preserving these sites. Upon the realization that the sites were important, people came up with strategies that would help preserve these places. Building of dams have significantly minimized capability of Colorado River (which was one of the leading excavators of the canyons) to dig out the rocks Grand Cantons.

It has totally changed the pattern of movement of sediments, and their deposition. Glen Canyon Dam was constructed to control floods in order to bring a restorative effect on the Canyons. Animals, both domesticated and wild animals also play a vital role in the developments of the rocks at Grand Canyon.

Every animal, both carnivores and herbivores play an important role in the development of rocks. When these animals walk within the Grand Canyon National Park, they break particles of the rock. This is especially so to the large herbivores with hooves which have the ability to break rocks into smaller particles. These herbivores also eat the vegetations that cover the soil. This leaves the soil bear, and when rain comes, it easily erodes the rocks.

The Composition of the Rocks of Grand Canyon According to Abbott, understanding the composition of the rocks of the Grand Canyon may be interesting process. This geologist and a scholar say that the rocks of Grand Canyon have been in existence for a period of over 70 million of years. The plate tectonics on the North American continents and other adjacent island caused collision, and this was the genesis of how the rocks in this place started forming, as explained above.

As time went by, several activities, mostly natural process accompanied by some human activities, resulted in a massive erosion of the rocks, and the result is what we have today; different layers of rocks on top of one another forming the current Grand Canyon. The figure below shows the composition of the rocks of the Grand Canyon[3].

Figure 2

The figure above shows rocks arranged in a strata, with each stratum having a particular layer of rocks having different years. The layers are as follows.

Kaibab Limestone

This is the top most layers in the strata. According to reports given by Thayer (29), this layer is over 250 million of years old. The Kaibab Limestone has formed the surface of Coconino and Kaibab plateaus. In this stratum, the composition of the rocks is mainly sandy limestone, with a huge layer of sandstone under it.

Shale and sandstone subsist as upper layers in a number of places, particularly the upper regions of the cliffs (Abbott 94). The color of this layer is ranging from grayish-white to cream, depending on a number of factors. Abbott (26) notes that the layer has a strong resemble with a bathtub ring, and so the layer was named Canyon bathtub ring.

This scholar says that geologists have stated that this ring was curved in a way that may give the impression that the process was influenced by activities of human being. Besides the rocks stated above, some fossils also form composition of this layer. This includes the sea lilies, the corals, mollusks, and some brachiopods (Abbott 22). Fish teeth and worms also form part of this layer.

Toroweap Formation

This is the second stratum. This stratum is about 255 million of years old. This layer was formed through a pretty similar process as that of Kaibab Limestone above, but as time went by, it was pushed down due to the formation of the Kaibab Limestone. The composition of the rocks in this layer is similar to that in the Kaibab Limestone. Their fossil history is almost the same, only that the worms and fish teeth found in Kaibab Limestone are very minimal in Toroweap Formations. This layer is dark in color. The color ranges from grey to yellow[4].

Coconino Sandstone

The formation of this layer was in about 260 million of years ago. The rock composition in this layer is different from that of the above two layers. In this layer, the main composition of the rocks is pure quartz sand. According to Kaiser (59), these are essentially petrified sand dunes. This scholar also states that this stratum has a wedge shape cross bending, which is visible in places where the traverse section of the layer can be seen. In this layer, the color ranges from cream to white colors (Abbott 83).

Although archeologists and geologists have tried to study the rocks in this layer, skeletal fossils are yet to be found here. This may be an indication that this layer could not have supported life. However, the geologists and archeologists are still studying this layer for further investigation because a number of invertebrate tracks, and some fossilized burrows have been discovered.

Hermit Shale

This layer has been in existence for about 265 million of years. In this layer are the soft and easily eroded shale rocks (Karl 45). They have formed a slope. The weakness of this layer has been the main agent of mass wasting of these rocks. Because of this weakness, the rocks in this layer easily break off, undermining the sedimentary rocks in the above layer.

This makes it easy for this layer, and layers on top of it to fall off into the drainage in the lower canyons down into Tonto Platform. In this layer, the color is rust-colored red. The fossils in this layer include conifers, ferns, and other plants. Also discovered were fossilized tracks of amphibians and reptiles.

Supai Formation

This layer has been in existence for about 285 million of years. The layer mainly consists of shale which is mixed up with limestone capped together by sandstone (Thayer 48). In the western part of the Canyon, limestone features are more prominent (Augustin 29). Geologists have associated this by the possibility that this side could have been a marine as opposed to the eastern part. In this layer, the color ranges from tan for sandstone caps, to red for shale (Abbott 46).

On the eastern section, there are a number of fossils of the reptiles, the amphibians and some terrestrial plants, whilst on western part are the marine fossils (Thayer 19).

Redwall Limestone

This layer has been in existence for about 335 million of years (Karl 87). The main composition of this layer includes dolomites and marine limestone. According to Augustin (65), the Redwall limestone is the most prominent of the Canyon layers forming a cliff of about 400-500 feet high.

This layer is a barrier between upper canyon and the lower parts of Canyon. Though various earth movements, this layer cracked in some regions, breaking the barrier between the upper and lower parts of the canyon. The rock is brown in color. However, due to the presence of iron oxide, this layer appears to be red. Some of the fossils in this layer include corals, fish, trilobites and clams (Augustin 34).

Temple Butte Limestone

This layer has been in existence for about 350 million years. In the eastern part is dolomite; while to the west is freshwater limestone. The rocks in this layer are irregular. This may be due to the erosion of the Mauv Limestone. The layers are also very prominent, which then forms a cliff of great heights of several hundreds of feet (Karl 67). The colors of the layers range from grayish cream to the west, to purple on the east[5].

Tonto Group.

The rocks in this layer have been in existence for over 515 million of years. These layers differ in color and composition. Vishnu Schist forms the base of the Grand Canyon

Conclusion The Rock of Grand Canyon is one of the geographical wonders around the world. The rocks have attracted a number of geologists who have developed interest in understanding how the formation of the rocks was. The formation of the rocks was heavily influenced by a number of climatic conditions. The initial rocks of this place were ingenious rock. This changed after a long period of natural activities. The rocks of The Grand Canyon are mainly sedimentary, having been formed due to weathering process of the initial rocks.

References Augustin B. The Grand Canyon. New York, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.

Kaiser J. Grand Canyon: the Complete Guide. Ringgold: Destination Press, 2011.

Karl K. Grand Canyon Geology: Two Billion Years of Earth’s History. Boulder: Geological Society of America, 2012.

Stanley S. Earth System History Third Edition. New York: Clancy Marshall, 2009.

Thayer D. An Introduction to Grand Canyon Fossils. New York: Grand Canyon Association, 2009. Print.

Footnotes Augustin B. The Grand Canyon. New York, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.

Karl K. Grand Canyon Geology: Two Billion Years of Earth’s History. Boulder: Geological Society of America, 2012.

Thayer D. An Introduction to Grand Canyon Fossils. New York: Grand Canyon Association, 2009. Print.

Kaiser J. Grand Canyon: the Complete Guide. Ringgold: Destination Press, 2011.

Stanley S. Earth System History Third Edition. New York: Clancy Marshall, 2009.


Camera phone debate Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction Advancement in technology has brought about revolution in telecommunication industry. This has led to increased use of camera phones and digital cameras in the United States. Estimates show that nearly half of American families have cameras. Moreover, they also show that nearly 40% of the families have camera phones.

This shows that people have embraced technology. However, it is worrisome that some people risk their lives to use these gadgets. For instance, a graduate student (Jamal Albarghouti) took footage of the Virginia student massacre on a camera phone. Similarly, another 19 years old college student (Ho) took footage of plane crash on a digital camera. These cases provide examples of citizens who risk their lives to take video footages (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).

Summary of the two articles Praise for Student’s footage of Virginia tech Mass killing

The article by Lily Yulianti narrates about a chilling event at Virginia Tech. Yulianti reports how a Palestinian graduate student (Jamal Albarghouti) took footage of mass killings at the college using a phone camera. Albarghouti took a detailed footage of the event. Yulianti mentions in the article that Larry King, a news reporter with CNN, was amazed at Albarghouti’s achievement.

The article goes through the event as taken in the footage. It mentions mass shootings, which was experienced at the College. In addition, the article covers Albarghouti’s interview with Larry king. Yulianti’s main concern in the article is about Albarghouti’s safety (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265). She could not understand why Albarghouti stopped and take footage of events in such a commotion. Moreover, he was not a professional journalist.

The article describes how Albarghouti gave an account of the event to King. Yulianti describes Albarghouti’s account on the event as clear and firm. However, she also notes that Albarghouti was used to such hostilities back in Gaza. Later on, the author introduces the citizen journalism debate, which has received criticism from traditional media. She therefore wonders why exclusive reports from citizen journalists are met with suspicion by the mainstream media (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).

Disaster Photos: Newsworthy or Irresponsible

The second article is about a debate on whether photos taken by survivors are newsworthy or irresponsible. The article begins by recounting how plane crashes have prompted concerns by safety investigators.

In addition, it gives a detailed description of London bombings as well as witness photos from survivors. The article wonders why victims put the lives at risk to take pictures during tragic events like plane crash. It goes on to give a story of Ho, a student who took pictures of a plane crash disaster, in which he was a crew (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was quite worrying given that he could have easily delayed rescue missions as well as his safety. The article talks of photos from Eddie Ho, which were, broadcasted in ABC’s good morning America. Moreover, this information was also broadcasted in CNN and NBC. The article therefore tries to debate whether taking photos at such crucial moments is newsworthy or irresponsible. It utilizes several scholars such as Helen Muir and Kelly McBride to analyze the debate (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).

For instance, one scholar cautions media from taking footage/ pictures from citizens without prior information on how the sources got such information. However, other proponents like Sherwood welcomes contributions from citizen journalists like Ho. In the end, the article reaches a consensus on the issue by noting that over time, it is upon survivors to decide when to take pictures or not (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).

Analysis The first article gives an overview of events before criticizing journalists at the end. It gives an overview of citizen journalism and an overview of how it is clear and firm. It does not give detailed information on professional journalism although it criticizes mainstream media, which consist of professional journalists, of being suspicious of citizen journalism. The author therefore uses appeal to describe one side and to refute the other (Whately 11).

In this regard, the model utilized in the first article is Aristotelian, which promotes one claim but refutes the other. On the other hand, the second article gives a detailed description of both sides of the debate. For instance, it gives example of proponents of survivor photos with their reasons and those against survivor photos. In the end, it reaches consensus on situations when survivors can take photos. This article shows a rogerian argumentation, which normally reaches consensus after exploring both options (Whately 11).

Conclusion From the two articles, it is clear that the latter provides more information for decision making than the first. For instance, it does not only make claims on the need for survivors to stop taking picture in distress, but it also provides evidences from proponents.

These include Helen Muir and Kelly McBride, among others. On the other hand, it provides information from opponents like Sherwood, among others. Finally, it reaches a solution with evidence from Mark Glaser. The second article is therefore more convincing than the first (Munson and Black 55).

Works Cited Munson, Ronald, and Black Andrew. The Elements of Reasoning, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011.

We will write a custom Essay on Camera phone debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rottenberg, Annette, and Winchell Donna. Elements of Argument, London: Bedford, 2012.

Whately, Richard. Elements of Logic, New York, NY: Sheldon


Health Care for Human Beings Essay online essay help: online essay help

Good health is very important for human beings. This is because any health complication denies people a chance to live comfortably and perform crucial duties in their lives. Most of their resources are spent on expensive medical services. Access to affordable health care has always remained a big challenge to many people.

One of the most important factors that prevent most of them from accessing health services is poverty. This implies that it is important for governments to take the responsibility of providing health services to the poor through medical insurances.

Providing medical insurance for the poor is an effective method that can be used to ensure that individuals who do not have adequate financial resources gain access to quality health services. There are numerous advantages that are associated with provision of medical insurance for the poor.

For instance, it enables them to find regular doctors and visit them more frequently. Most people find it difficult to have regular doctors because of limited financial resources. This is usually detrimental to their health since it is easy for them to develop health problems unknowingly. In addition, medical insurance for the poor enables people to visit doctors regularly. Regular visits to doctors are very beneficial because they make it possible for early diagnosis of diseases that are deadly if not treated early.

The other benefit of providing medical insurance for the poor is that it enhances their financial stability. This enables them to feel better and also reduces depression. The financial stability is achieved when money that is supposed to be spent seeking medical attention is utilized on other needs. Poor health among the poor causes them to undergo depression. This is justified by the fact that in addition to physically struggling with their health conditions, they constantly think about how to access medical facilities and cater for other needs.

Another important concern with regard to provision of medical insurance for the poor is prevention of diseases. This is an important strategy that can be used to eliminate diseases in the society. People are able to use their money in catering for other needs other than looking for medical attention. Preventive care is particularly very important for women from poor backgrounds. Medical insurance enables them to access preventive services such as mammograms, cervical cancer screening and other services that enhance their health.

Women are regarded as high consumers of health care services hence the services should be made affordable. In addition, they are highly exposed to chronic diseases such as diabetes, stroke and heart diseases. This issue becomes complicated where most of the women do not have the ability to pay for health services. Their problems can only be solved by ensuring that they are provided with medical insurance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although some scholars have pointed out the disadvantages of providing medical insurance for the poor, there are many benefits associated with the plan. It relieves them of the stressful moments that are associated with sicknesses. For instance, when people are sick, they experience psychological, physical and financial instability.

However, when they are provided with medical insurance, they do not have to worry about these issues on a daily basis. This gives them the ability to meet other important needs in their lives. As a result, they are able to live more settled and comfortable lives. The poor should therefore be provided with medical insurance because it is very useful.


Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Essay essay help online free

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is an agency of the US federal government that governs Medicare. In addition, CMS collaborates with state governments in governing Medicaid, State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

The HITECH Act tasks CMS with the responsibility of advancing the implementation of IT in the healthcare industry. In addition, the act gives CMS the responsibility of implementing the electronic health record (EHR) and formulation of standards for certification of EHR technology. Implementation of IT in healthcare is one of the major activities of CMS. Therefore, CMS collaborates with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to improve the efficiency and relevance of its activities.

Tens of thousands of patients die annually due to preventable medical errors in various American hospitals. According to a report by the Institute of Medicine, avoidable medical errors lead to the death of between 44,000 and 98,000 patients annually (Kohn, Corrigan,


Apple Company’s Competition Case Study online essay help: online essay help

As at the end of 2009, what was the major strategic challenge facing Apple’s senior management? Apple is a global brand and a market leader. However, it is now battling to keep up due to strategic crisis resultant from a range of internal and external factors core to its design and related business strategy specifications. Although computer sales soured considerably for Apple prior to 2008, the company’s management faced numerous challenges in deciding on its various product categories and had to take precautionary measures to avoid the following notable issues that stood out in its previous years of operation (Apple Inc. 4).

Emphasis on the use of proprietary designs as opposed to mutually exclusive designs that can be cloned by other manufacturers.

Placing excessive focus on style and design at the expense of the real performance of its products.

The above were the company’s key business strategic specifications.

Apple’s generic strategy and a brief description Overview

Apple Inc. has gone out of its way to bring about strategic value in the manufacture of computers and other related products in its industry of operation. The company has managed to stand out from its competitors with its emphasis on design, quality, elegance, outstanding customer service while at the same time outsourcing actual production to trusted electronics manufacturers. Even so, Apple has encountered various challenges ranging from stiff competition to the commoditizing of the notebook market (Apple Inc. 8).

Generic strategy

Since its inception, Apple has been pursuing a wide differentiation strategy by producing exceptionally high quality designs with customized service. The company’s strategy is broad, placing emphasis on unsophisticated product users to special needs high end users.

The competitive intensity in the industry segments in which Apple competes

The advent of personal computers and notebook usage have resulted in intensive competition characterized by dozens of manufacturers selling in the already saturated computer market globally. Consequently, the penetration of computer in the day-to-day life of individual customers and businesses has led to the gadget becoming a necessity and more of a commodity product. Most users place more emphasis on business economy as opposed to sophisticated features.

Consequently, this has led to the upsurge of low end products from such competitors as Dell, Lenovo and HP. Further, the similarity of product features resulting from standardized industry settings has set the stakes high hence necessitating Apple to rethink its strategy (Apple Inc. 15).

The specific strength or weakness, opportunity or threat that explain the challenge, e.g. a strength that is threatened, an external threat that is looming, etc.

The most apparent threats facing Apple Inc. include relatively prices on the company’s products, incompatibility with other company products and increased competition from such companies as Dell and HP. In addition, there seems to be increased music downloads with increased competition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above can be perceived to be the main external threats facing Apple Inc. All in all, Apple has designed a strategy to stay aloof of the competition by coming up with high end products while still producing products for low end users. This factor has played a huge role in preventing market share erosion. Case in point is the production of the high end iPhone 4S while still maintaining the production of the free on contract iPhone 3gs.

In addition, Apple Inc. has proven that it does not need to be the market leader. This is because the company has managed to maintain a growing customer base with the production of subsequent devices. Consequently, the firm’s revenues have continually superseded those of competitors. With continued innovations in such areas as cloud computing among other areas, Apple Inc. is bound to stand out from the existing and future competitive forces (Apple Inc. 16).

Works Cited Apple Inc.: The Steve Jobs Effect. Apple Case Study, 1-16. Web.


Strategic Management in Apple Case Study essay help site:edu

Since its inception, apple has witnessed one success after the other. It invested in high quality products which made it a market leader from the very earlier days of its incorporation. Borrowing from the famous saying that successful companies do not compete in a sector but rather strive to shape the nature of the sector, Apple endeavors to technologically improve its products.

The firm heavily invests in research and development to ensure that it keeps up with the ever changing customer needs. Unfortunately, despite the successes, the competitive nature of the technology industry poses some strategic challenges to Apple firm.

The main strategy of apple has been to come up with state-of-the-art technology that would satisfy customer needs. Products like iTunes and iPods that apple introduced to the market in 2006, has enabled the firm to command a substantial percentage of customers.

Moreover, in the year 2007 Apple introduced an I-Phone which not only helped the firm in increasing its market share, but also led to rise in prices of the firm’s stocks. With substantial efforts directed towards innovation, Apple has been able to be a technological leader in the industry.

However, the firm operates in a first-cycle market where there has been a paradigm shift in technology. The competition especially in personal computers is very stiff and each firm in the industry is trying to outsmart the others. Apple can be able to comfortably offer it products at high prices to the crateful design community.

However, the reverse is true for personal computers to individuals unless someone is looking for sophisticated features. On the same note, other firms are offering their products at lower prices than Apple. It is important to note that in the technology industry, it is impossible for a firm to maintain its competitive advantage for long.

Despite the advances that Apple has been able to make, there are new threats in the industry. Switching costs in the technology industry has drastically reduced thus increasing the rivalry from other firms for example, Dell, HP and IBM. On the same note, switching costs for customers are low thus placing the customers at a very strong negotiation position.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This requires strategies that can increase the switching costs. Moreover, the shrinking United States market calls on the firm to venture into other markets. Unfortunately, in a market where regulation is not that that efficient imitation can not be avoided and Apple needs to enhance its strategic decisions.

Apple has various weaknesses which include its heavy investment in research thus increasing its operating costs. Additionally, the firm highly depends on Motorola and IBM for the processor chips which put it in a precarious position incase the firms make unfavorable decisions.

However, Apple has various strengths vital for its future endeavors. Firstly, its closed operating system is secure and not susceptible to computer viruses and hacking. Secondly, it designs complete products which not only come with applications but also peripheries. Additionally, the firm has been praised for its high horizontal and vertical integration. Similarly, the firm is design and innovation oriented which is a crucial feature in the technology industry.

Despite the strategic challenges facing Apple, the firm has many opportunities to solidify its market control. One of the opportunities is to take advantage of Mac OS which has gained the reputation of being safe, reliable and secure among the customers.

Similarly, Apple can capitalize on exposing the weaknesses of its closest competitor, Microsoft, and thus sell its brand as a superior one. Moreover, the firm will have to increase its overseas outlets to ensure that it increases its sales. However, it is important to note that strategic decisions will need to be made faster and effectively to avoid imitation and to counter its competitors.


Sherlock Holmes Films Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience

Betrayal of Holmes

Works Cited

Introduction Although we may not typically consider a trailer released months before the film’s debut or a quote from an interview as a part of an actual movie, these do serve significantly to shape how we approach our viewing of the film for the first time as well as how we reflect upon it while viewing, after viewing, or upon revisiting it.

To many diehards of Sherlock Holmes, Benedict Cumberbatch appears to be the definitive figure in this contemporary work. Playing Arthur Conan Doyle, Jeremy Brett complicates the detective in the adventures of Sherlock Holmes up to 1994. On the other hand, most viewers observe that Benedict has honored the great man who defined Holmes for the current generation.

Although Genette discusses the paratext in reference to literary works in particular, the concept can easily be applied to the filmic text. Cumber batch provides a writer’s eloquence in relaying Brett’s impression.

A literary paratext might include a book’s cover, title page, preface, or even reviews about a book, whether quoted upon its jacket or encountered by a potential reader in a magazine. In the analysis of this paper, a film paratext could be a movie trailer, DVD cover, title sequence, reviews from the press, or interviews with the writers, directors, and cast.

Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience Sherlock’s creators, Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss, anticipated an international audience of newcomers as well as a homegrown Holmes fan base. This is amid Brett’s public battle with a bipolar disorder that almost ended his career in acting.

The first episode’s title is a variation of A Study in Scarlet, Conan Doyle’s 1887 novel that introduced Sherlock Holmes to readers; it is an appropriate choice for the episode that introduces 21st century Sherlock to television audiences in Britain. Brett’s death in 1995, after a heart failure, was a major blow to other members of the cast.

The murdered “pink” lady reflects not only a color and story connection with the original text but twists the tale into a modern commentary about eye-catching colors for women working in the media and the victim’s need to be perfectly groomed and color coordinated in order to be acceptable for her job and her lovers (Aumont 38).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even her accessories, such as a mobile phone, are in, as Sherlock refers to them as being of an alarming shade of pink. In every version of this episode, whether broadcast in the U.K. or internationally, in edited or full format, the story begins not with Sherlock but with Jeremy Brett, who becomes the character with whom the audience is expected to identify and thus is an appropriate entry character to get viewers involved with the story.

Brett’s flashback to an Afghani war zone, also appropriate to the original Watson’s war record (another plus for traditional Holmes fans), makes him a sympathetic modern character who might be a returned veteran like someone viewers know in real life.

The news-style flashback modernizes Watson’s pre-Sherlock experiences, as does his visit with his therapist and comments about writing a blog.

His final line before the opening credits, “Nothing ever happens to me,” may be appropriate for the couch potatoes watching this episode; vicariously, their lives, too, are about to change as they enter the world of Sherlock’s adventures (Aumont 29). The opening theme immediately follows this line, overlaying the rush of London traffic and pulling Benedict Cumberbatch, and the viewers, into the story.

They, walking alongside Watson, become pulled into Sherlock’s world, learning a lot about the detective’s “science of deduction” as well as his personal history within the scope of the first episode. This Victorian setting in England brings forth Downey Robert Jr. as Holmes opens up to the 21st Century tales of sensibility (Aumont 34). Beyond the television series, new viewers can also “play Watson” by visiting Sherlock’s website, The Science of Deduction, which appears the same as on television.

Betrayal of Holmes Appropriating Ritchie’s initial vision for the films, Downey has on multiple occasions promoted the adaptations as potentially homoerotic. During the first film’s production, his suggestion to the press that Holmes and Watson would wrestle and share a bed attracted critics’ and audiences’ attention.

On the other hand, Brett’s appearance in the 41 episodes of Holmes from 1984 to 1994 allows the audience to comment on his betrayal of Holmes. They observed that He would have continued with such line of action had he not died at the young age of 61 (Aumont 42).

We will write a custom Essay on Sherlock Holmes Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although Ritchie has never declared Holmes as gay-rather, he has elaborated “while these guys are sort of in love with each other,” they are “a hetero-sexual couple that at moments could seem gay” (Aumont 46). Downey’s inferences have dominated, serving as the defining paratext for the films.

Genette’s theory of paratextuality posits seemingly external materials as an inextricable part of a text, with the prefixpara- at Once denoting that which is “separate from or going beyond” while also serving as “analogous or parallel to,” according to the OED (Aumont 48).

Works Cited Aumont James. L’Analyse des films/Analysis of Film. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. Print.


International supply chain Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction According to Chrismopher, to understand an international supply chain we have to define a simple supply chain. The components of a supply chain involve the parties that respond to a request made by a customer. Here, a supply chain does not only constitute the manufactures and the suppliers. It also constitutes retailers, transporters, customers, and warehouses (14).

According to Logan in the past two decades, the supply chain networks have developed and extended in scope and application. This has resulted to more interrelated as well as complex networks. The reason underlying such development is associated with globalization of the world’s economies. It is the emergence of competitors across supply chains that compete in the international arena for market place dominance.

This competition has resulted to establishment of international supply chains (59). According to Chrismopher, organizations have to establish an international supply chain because of the global business environment that expands on a daily basis. Here, organizations have to respond to consumer expectations that are beyond the confines of their traditional expertise (20).

Background information

According to World Economic Forum, in the past 20 years global sourcing as well as supply has become a reality. According to Logan, the local for local manufacturing patterns have been done away with. In turn, the closing of the local patterns pave way to establishment of a global village (15).

An example is the migration to China that has become the favorable destination. China has become a force in international trade. During 1990, its trade activities increased three times faster as compared to the global economy. Between the year 2000 and 2002, when the world was suffering a stagnated trade it was enjoying a 30% rise in imports and exports (Mentzer 34).

The market today has fierce global competition that entails an excess of supply over the demand. According to Mentzer, businesses undergo such risks because of quantitative anomalies and qualitative effects. The qualitative irregularity comes about because of principal components and biasness in the selection.

On the other hand, qualitative effects come about because of the pressures associated with productivity enhancement, duplication removal, minimization of costs and elimination of waste. Businesses address the risks by balancing these priorities. Employing real time data, risk mitigation strategies, as well as use of analytical tools are some of the strategies a business can use when balancing these priorities (9).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risks in the international supply chain

Risks in the supply chain are the products of consequence and incidence. Globalization has resulted to a business environment that is complex and interrelated. In turn, the complexity of the supply and demand networks has intensified (Mentzer 10). In reviewing the risks that come with global supply chains, we will review real events around the world that brought about challenges in the global supply chains that brought about risks in the sector.

Political risks

Political instability in North Africa specifically Egypt and the Middle East resulted to short-term hiccups in the supply of oil and natural gases. In Egypt, there was political instability in early 2011 whereby the president Hosni Mubarak stepped down because of military pressure. Demonstrations and protests filled the country advocating for better living conditions and transparency in governance. The region has 61.1% of the total oil reservoirs and 45% of the natural gas reservoirs in the world.

In addition, it dictates 35.3% and 18.8% of the world’s oil and natural gas production and supply (D


Snowstorm Causes Accidents In North Dakota Essay essay help online

A sudden snowstorm surprised the North Dakota area on Monday morning, causing many accidents around the area. One of the accidents had happened at around 9:40 a.m. at Interstate 94. “Two cars and a truck wrecked at about 9:30 a.m. and left motorists stuck on the highway for 70 minutes,” Lieutenant Bob Boone, the Fargo Fire Department spokesman reported.

This was evident with the many cars packed up half a mile on both sides of the scene. At the scene were two fire engines, a water-tanker truck, a rescue squad, a paramedics unit, a tow truck, and state and county troopers. Boone confirmed that the truck driver got minor injuries but was rushed to MeritCare medical Center.

John Washburn, an undergraduate in a local university, was lucky to remain uninjured after driving into a mailbox. He reported that he had just pulled off his snow tires the previous week. “The ground froze fast last night when it was near zero. The concrete was so cold this morning that instead of melting, the snow turned to ice,” said Dotty, who witnessed the accident.

A 68-year-old woman died on impact when her vehicle slammed into a mailbox. There were no witnesses to the accident. On a separate incident, students taking driving lessons collided but remained unharmed. However, the driving instructors suffered broken bones.

The National Weather Service at Fargo’s Hector International Airport reported about the source of the snowstorm. The forecasters had only expected mere flurries. Boone reported that the accidents occurred since the drivers had removed their snow tires. In total, sixty vehicle accidents occurred between 9 a.m. and 11 a.m.


Competitive Advantage in Companies Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Companies strive to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Environmental conditions are some of the major factors that determine the competitiveness of an organization.

Analysis of the internal strengths and weaknesses of a firm helps in determining the competitiveness of the firm. For an organization to gain a competitive advantage, it should have the ability to add value to various products and counter threats by its competitors. In addition, the resources and capabilities of the organization should be rare and inimitable.

The organizational structure is also a critical success factor of an organization. An efficient organizational structure helps in coordinating various capabilities and resources of the organization. This increases the competitiveness of the organization (Barney, 1995). The sole aim of the existence of any organization is the production of goods and services that fulfill the needs of their customers. Therefore, it is vital for an organization to have an efficient production system.

Lean production is an efficient production system that helps in improving the competitiveness of an organization. Lean production leads to a significant reduction in the cost of production. Lean production strives to minimize the amount of inventory. This reduces the costs of managing inventory. Keeping low levels of inventory frees up capital for other income generating activities. This increases the profitability of an organization. In addition, lean production helps in reducing the duration of the production cycle.

However, an organization may face several challenges during the implementation of a lean production system. Lack of a reliable supply chain limits the efficiency of a lean production system. Disruptions in the supply chain may have adverse effects on an organization due to the low levels of inventory in lean production systems. In addition, the organizational culture may limit efficient implementation of a lean production system.

Toyota credits its success to its lean production system – the Toyota production system. In fact, Toyota was the first company that introduced the concept of lean production. The Toyota’s production system leads to production of defect free products. In addition, the system strives to reduce the batch sizes of the production cycle.

This minimizes wastage. Toyota’s lean production system strives to minimize the level of inventory. The company receives various components just before it uses them in production lines for the manufacture of vehicles. Toyota has an efficient supply chain that enables suppliers to access the company’s database and determine the components that the company needs. However, Toyota has spent decades to develop and perfect its production system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational culture of the company facilitates efficient running of the production system. Toyota’s production system enables it to make efficient use of resources and add value to various products. Toyota’s lean production system is inimitable. The company has spent several decades to perfect the production system. This has enabled Toyota to identify skills, abilities, and resources that are essential for the smooth running of the production system.

The management and employees of Toyota make numerous small decisions that lead to the ultimate efficiency of the production system. The uniqueness of the production system makes imitation by other companies impossible. Companies can only use certain aspects of the Toyota production system to improve the efficiency of their production systems. Therefore, Toyota’s production system is one of the major factors that give the company a competitive edge over other automobile manufacturers.

Reference Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49-61.


Religion and Politics Essay essay help free: essay help free

Religion is closely related to politics in a number of ways. In the traditional society, religious leaders were both temporal and civil leaders. In 1648, a treaty of Westphalia was signed, which separated politics from the Church. However, religion has always influenced policy making process and decision-making in government. In many parts of the world, religious leaders influence political leaders to come up with policies that are in line with the provisions of religious beliefs.

However, the main question is how religion influences politics. In the United States, there is a clause in the Bill of Rights referred to as the disestablishment clause, which provides that politics must be kept separate from politics. In established democracies, somebody with questionable religious record stands no chance of being elected. The populace believes that a religious leader would always be willing to listen to the wishes of the majority (Settimba 9).

A non-religious leader is believed to be indifferent to the sufferings of the majority in society. In other words, a non-religious leader would fulfill his or her own interests instead of serving those who elected him or her. During campaigns at state level in the United States, local leaders quote the Bible whenever they want to bring out a certain fact.

In human life, each group has a belief system that is established with the help of religious values. These beliefs influence the political standpoint of an individual in a political system. The media will always evaluate the life of a politician using certain religious principles.

These principles are derived from religious morals and beliefs. In this case, a candidate in an election is identified as a Christian or a Muslim. The religion of a political leader determines the number of votes he or she would gunner in an election. In the United States, politicians associate themselves with Christianity because a majority of voters are Christians.

In the Arab world, a political leader must associate himself with Islam because it is a dominant religion in the region. Furthermore, the religious sects must be stated clearly before a political leader is elected. In other countries, religion is the major variable in every electioneering year. It is believed that certain religious affiliations are related to cultural beliefs that affect the performance of leaders in any political system. Recently, the issue of religion emerged in the United States when Obama was said to be a Muslim.

Many people were much worried that Obama was a Muslim. Islam has always been associated with extremism meaning that Muslims are accused of using warped means to attain justice. It was feared that Obama could support Muslims once he became president. However, the president dispelled fears by declaring that he was indeed a Christian. This nearly cost him the presidency (Johnstone 64).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a popular belief among Christians that good leaders are usually sent by God. This is based on the Bible whereby many kings and prophets were sent by God to lead Israelites in the times of war and calamities. Political leaders have always presented themselves as leaders sent by God to accomplish certain missions.

Through this, they have been able to ascend to leadership positions. Whenever political leaders make speeches, they quote the Bible to show the electorate that they understand the Christian principles. The idea that political leaders must come up with policies favoring the poor is based on the teachings of the Bible. The Bible and the Koran teaches that people must always be assisted to achieve their potentials in society.

It is not the interest of the ruling class to help the poor. The main aim of the ruling class is to amass wealth and use the proletariat to ascend to power. Political parties that tend to favor the poor in their manifestos have always clinched political power. Social justice ideology is based on the teachings of the Bible because the poor must have equal access to resources including healthcare, education, and employment.

Religious Fundamentalism Religious fundamentalism was first used in the United States to refer to those individuals who opposed the principles of the mainstream church. Those who subscribed to the ideas of the Protestant Churches were perceived as religious fundamentalists. In other words, fundamentalism was interpreted to mean diverting from the mainstream faith.

However, what should be clear is that fundamentalists had pertinent issues with the mainstream church since the mainstream church never allowed competition. Religious fundamentalists observed that it was critical to follow the teachings of the Bible instead of subscribing to the interpretations provided by the religious leaders. Religious leaders interpreted the teachings in the Bible to suit their interests.

Many people were not happy with this behavior. The mainstream church interpreted the Bible in accordance to the new dynamics of the modern world. However, fundamentalists were never happy about this. They believed that it would be better to stick to the teachings of the Bible. In the modern society, fundamentalism is used loosely to mean diverting from the normal beliefs and principles of major religions (McGuire 76).

Fundamentalism is a relatively new term in the sociology of religion because it was first used in the 19th century. The modern society is complex to understand because of the changes brought about globalization and technology. Therefore, fundamentalism in the modern society has a different meaning. Religion in the modern society serves a different purpose as compared to its role in the traditional society. Religion is an instrument that brings people together.

We will write a custom Essay on Religion and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, it must be used to bring about understanding and unity. This implies that religious teachings are usually interpreted to simplify the complexities in life. Religious fundamentalists do not believe that anything has changed as far as religion is concerned. In this case, modern interpretations must not be accepted because they go against the traditional teachings of religion (Weber 22).

When other people embrace change in society, religious fundamentalists encourage conservatism. To them, religion is absolute meaning that it dictates everything in society. There is a controversy among scholars regarding the use of the term because fundamentalists are perceived as people who are not intelligent.

Others view them as uneducated individuals who believe religion is everything in society. Religious fundamentalists believe that some things should not be allowed to go on in society. For instance, they oppose science, abortion, feminism, the use of family planning drugs, and homosexuality.

Recently, the term has been associated with Islamic extremists who believe that justice should be sought through terrorism and violence. For Islamic fundamentalists, the main problem in the world is exploitation. The west has always exploited people in other parts of the world, including the Middle East. To them, the main issue is that the west has always neglected the presence of Arabs.

Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

McGuire, Meredith. Religion: the Social Context. New York: Sage, 2002. Print.

Settimba, Henry (2009). Testing times: globalization and investing theology in East Africa. Milton Keynes: Author House, 2009. Print.

Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Los Angeles: Roxbury Company, 2002. Print.

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Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics Essay online essay help

The relationship between religion and politics is normally interpreted differently by different people due to the presence of a wide gap between religion and politics.

However, the most important aspect of religion is that it plays an important role in the world of politics. Religion has been used for many years to legitimize regimes, build support for social movements, deflect social complaints, and also to provide definition and understanding of justice (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 1). The relationship between religion and politics is dependent on the type of religion and political system in question.

Most nations in the modern world have put up measures aimed at separating religion and the state. However, this has been almost impossible due to the fact that there are myriads of religious aspects that have been borrowed by the state. Religion has been used by many politicians to assert their influence on the people.

In the United States when the 2012 presidential campaigns were underway, Former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum came up with policies based on religious beliefs. He believed that the Republican Party was on the side of God (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 2). Religion has great influence in the moral thinking of people and thus affects how people view political policies. Throughout President Bush’s term, he based most of his principles on religion.

United States is one of the few countries that have the oldest democracies in the world. Religion is still a major influence in political decision making. The influence of religion in politics is undeniable. However, these influences can either be positive or negative. This depends on how religion is used to influence politics. Politicians are known to use religious excuses when advancing their political agenda (Johnstone 198).

Politics are controlled by the constitution. Most of the information found in the constitution is based on some religious background. The ethical issues, moral obligations, justice and several other aspects of the constitution have religious inclinations.

The use of the constitution in managing a country’s politics therefore incorporates religion into politics. Most constitutions are religious in nature. For instance, the swearing functions of political officers require the use of religious books and religious statements. For a United States president to assume power, he or she must be sworn in using a Bible and the mention of the word “God” in the swearing in statements is very conspicuous (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current world has witnessed reduced religious influenced in politics as the world becomes more secular than it used to be in the past century. The increased level of secularism has tried to separate religion from state. Politicians who are not religious can now be voted into offices.

Besides, religious leaders no longer influence political directions (Norris and Inglehart 25). In any case, the current world religions have influence on politics although the influence is not as strong as it used to be a century ago. Religious subjectivity has also reduced across the world. This has resulted into minimal influence of religion on people’s lives.

The influence which the clergy had in state affairs has declined significantly especially in the industrialized and democratic nations (Norris and Inglehart 25). Currently, religion is still influential among people from poor countries since they are the majority in the world.

It will be wrong to conclude that religious influence in the world politics will be completely eradicated since most people still have strong religious affiliations. Therefore, religion will always be part and parcel of politics. The only issue of importance is that the world has come up with two major groups namely the believers and the non-believers. As a result, there is increase in the gap between these two extreme groups (Norris and Inglehart 25).

Religious fundamentalism The word ‘fundamentalism’ is normally used when referring to a requirement by a group to firm devotion to certain theological principles (Global researcher 11). Modernization and e globalization have had a negative effect on fundamentalism. This has weakened people from observing religious doctrines although modernist theology has continually increased in terms of influence. Fundamentalism is still being observed by several people around the world.

Fundamentalists have a strong belief in their religions and the Holy Scriptures (Johnstone, 164). Hence, they possess a strong desire of replacing the current secular law with a law that is more religious (Global researcher 1). This has resulted into cropping up of some religious extremists all over the world. Such individuals inflict harm on others in the pretext of religion. The world is currently undergoing sporadic changes some of which have been influenced by religion (Global researcher 1).

Before the pre-modern era, religious fundamentalism was a way of life for many societies around the world. When modernization and secularism became pronounced across the globe, the impact of fundamentalism had significantly reduced in many nations. Analysis of fundamentalism in the modern world reveals the presence of religious fundamentalists in all the world’s major religions (Global researcher 5).

We will write a custom Essay on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principles that are observed by these religious followers may be different in some cases although they share other beliefs that define their fundamentalism ideals. Their views on aspects such as abortion, homosexuality, adultery, feminism, and science reveal a lot of similarities and differences.

Political liberalists do not advocate for fundamentalism. They associate bad aggressive behaviors such as extremist with fundamentalism. This argument may possess some backing due to the recent attacks by Muslim extremists on Christian nations and the infiltration of Israelites into Palestine. Most acts of war and terrorism in the world are linked to religion and fundamentalism (Global researcher 4).

Religious fundamentalism influences the social and political practices of any society (Global researcher 20). For example, the dressing code, gender roles, marriage, and the rule of law are some of the aspects that are influenced by fundamentalism. The levels of influence of fundamentalism on human life are widespread and cannot be discussed exhaustively. This spans from the American world and Europe.

On the other hand, Christian fundamentalists are dominant in Africa, the Middle and Far East. As much as the world is becoming secular, fundamentalism has become more intense since the past 30 years (Global researcher 4). The number of fundamentalists is regularly increasing. The problem is that as these numbers increase, there are increasing instances of violent attacks on other groups or non-believers.

Fundamentalism in the world began in the 16th century. It was later amplified in the 19th and 20th centuries when political leaders approved the existence of state religions (Global researcher 14). This gave fundamentalists more power and vigor to spread their influence. The decline of religious influences in state affairs across the world came with radical fundamentalists since secularism was seen as un-Godly.

This explains why the fundamentalists decided to take such dangerous measures in an attempt to restore the influence of religion in society. Some fundamentalists often go an extent of misinterpreting the Holy Scriptures in an attempt to justifying their deeds. Currently, fundamentalism has more negative effects compared to the positive effects that are known to humanity.

Works Cited Allen-Dell’Amor, Julene, Book Review: How Does Religion Influence Politics. 2012. Web.

Global researcher. Religious Fundamentalism: Exploring International Perspectives. 2009. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. New York: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

Norris, Pippa and Ronald, Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.


Ethics is not Based on Religion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The purpose of the study and my opinion

General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning

How ethics is earned and its benefits

The philosophical perspective on the issue


Introduction The relationship that exists between religion and ethics is an issue that draws varying opinion from various individuals. This is evident due to the wide spectrum of views that are presented by religious personalities and non-Christians. Indeed, there are those who believe that religion has obvious historical connection to ethics.

They affirm that the connection between the two aspects are deeply rooted and morally founded. They also state that ethics is not only tied up with religion but religion settles ethics. That is they believe that religion is the bedrock of ethics and that religious persons are individuals with immense moral principles.

However, another school of thought states that religion and ethics has no direct correlation. Individuals under this school of thought argue that ethics is not based on religion. They state that one can be ethically sound even without religion or attending Christian teachings.

They hold that ethics is a concept that is based on strong humanistic assumptions. The assumptions are justified through reasoning and understanding that most people including secular individuals practice ethical principles or live under moral values. The reasoning seems to be factual, realistic and true in my view since not all religious personalities embrace ethical guidelines. This paper discusses the relationship that exists between ethics and religion based on the varying schools of thought that are presented.

The purpose of the study and my opinion This paper gives insightful and credible information on the relationship that exist between religion and ethics that studies human conduct. It seeks to equip those who believe that religion has a historical connection with ethics and those who believe that ethics is not based on religion with pertinent information on the issue. In review of the two schools of thought, I agree to the reasoning that ethics has no basis in religion.

This is because it is just a means to achieving ethical values but not an absolute means of being morally sound. This is evident since even non-Christians live under strong ethical guidelines more than some religious individuals. This explains why the reasoning that ethics is not based on religion may hold absolute credibility.

General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning As noted, there are individuals who believe that religion has a strong connection to religion. They state that religion forms the basis of ethics and that ethics is a key component of religion. They reason that individuals with a strong religious background automatically develop ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, prudence and kindness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because religion teaches noble ideals and principles that foster good life and interrelation ideals. The principles that are socially relevant and culturally acceptable have been instrumental in enhancing cohesiveness in most settings. However, the second school of thought overrules the idea. The thought depicts that ethics or moral values are not based on religion.

Individuals who believe in this school of thought reason that being a religious person is not a guarantee to adopting ethical lifestyle. They affirm that religion is not an end but may just bet a means to an end. The individuals state that it is mythical for one to believe that religion contributes to the development of ethical principles.

This is wrong since developing moral values is a strict humanistic perspective that is intrinsically informed. Ideally, it is proven that even those who do not subscribe to any religious setting live under immense ethical guidelines. The secular individuals live ethically more than some of the persons who attend religious teachings.

This aspect has been proven through observation and studies that shows that there are religious people who practices ethics while others do not. Consequently, there are secular people who live a morally upright lifestyle more than Christians do while others do not. Therefore, it is right to conclude that developing ethical or moral values is dependent on humanistic perspective. It is an individual’s choice and determination since practicing noble principles of life requires total dedication.

How ethics is earned and its benefits Indeed, ethics that is a central aspect to good life or a satisfying life can be earned without going to church. Various individuals have earned it across the social divide including secular individuals who knows very little about religion. This quells the notion that those who live ethically are individuals with strong Christian background. As indicated by scholars, moral values or ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, kindness, cautiousness and prudence are essential for human life.

The principles foster peaceful coexistence and intercalations that is noble for effective integration. They facilitate economic, social and cultural growth among individuals in the societies. Evidently, an individual who hold no ethical value and principles lives in the brinks of destruction. Such a person cannot meet his social and economic obligations with ease.

The philosophical perspective on the issue As noted by philosophers, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on one’s understanding. They state that the issue is a polarizing topic that has led to great divisions across social strata. This is because every group that supports either of the views does not always want to give in on the issue.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics is not Based on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The groups want to gain prominence or dominance over the issue and to be heard. That is every group is keen to supporting their basis of argument without the willingness to compromise their stand on the issue. This calls for sobriety and immense caution when this debate is instigated due to its sensitiveness especially among Christians and secular personalities.

The philosophers also state that, one cannot flourish ethically by virtue of being a Christian or a strong member of a certain religion. Flourishing in any aspect by embracing these ethical principles is more than a religion. It calls for effective decision-making and determination to living a satisfying life.

It is a choice that is made by both Christians and secular individuals who are keen to changing their lifestyle. The philosophers affirm that the reasoning behind the two schools of thought have not found credible answers since there are morally sound personalities who holds distinguished characters in both sectors.

That is, there are religious individuals who are ethically poor and who do not treat others with dignity that they deserve. They fail to recognize the rights of others due to acute selfishness and negative attitude. The same way there are good and bad individuals in the secular world. Therefore, the relationship between the two concepts is a debatable issue.

Conclusion Imperatively, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on an individuals understanding. This is due to the complicated nature of the topic. This is evident as presented under the two schools of thought that various individuals subscribe to in the modern world.


The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The challenge of nuclear waste


Works Cited

Introduction Wastes derived from nuclear reactions are a health hazard with long-term effects on people who are exposed to them. While it is possible to assume that all people know this fact, the nuclear waste question attracts heated debates among scientists, politicians, and other interest groups of health hazards that people create everyday (Wald 12).

Politicians campaign for enactment of policies to resolve the nuclear waste question that they do not understand. On the other hand, scientists make incredible attempts to research on the possible strategies that can be put in place to dispose nuclear wastes (Gwyneth 35). From the public eye, the challenge is even more amplified since the public absorbs all information it receives with a presumption that it is correct.

The dilemma that rises is knowing the extent to which nuclear wastes are dangerous and or what the way forward can be to handle the problem. As the paper unveils, all people engaging in the nuclear waste debate are not so correct yet not too wrong. This position is discussed in the paper by considering Richard Muller’s article on how important the subject of nuclear waste is relevant in the scholarly and contemporary world.

The challenge of nuclear waste At first glance, Muller’s Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing seems inclined to the face of anti-nuke while engaging in the arguments about the problem of nuclear wastes. In his arguments about his position on nuclear wastes, he presents enormous number of disputes that favor his position about the significance of handling nuclear wastes in an appropriate manner particularly waste disposal.

His readers are incredibly persuaded by his argument by interrogatives, which send readers consistently looking for the answer about particular debates on nuclear waste. For instance, he poses the question of how “we possibly certify that this material can be kept safe for 100,000 years” (Muller 207).

This question is strategic in defending his positions on nuclear waste. The question calls readers to take on the subject of debate of nuclear waste by helping to reinforce the magnitude of the problem. It also makes readers assume and speculate on particular actions to curtail the problem. By creating this atmosphere, one wonders how people would create such an immense health hazard and yet remain non-cognizant of its implications.

From the point of Muller, production of nuclear waste seems like the worst mistake that people have ever made in the history of the human race. Muller argues that he is so concerned about the problems since, even without presenting a large number of facts, people would still draw conclusions (Muller 209). Nevertheless, Muller continues to provide statistical evidence on the negative implication of nuclear wastes on human health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Muller seems convinced about the health hazards of nuclear wastes at the beginning of his book, he later provides statistical evidence that contradicts his position. For instance, he claims, “to present the facts and just the facts, and let you draw the conclusions” (Muller 209). In this extent, he does not provide a consistent position about nuclear wastes disposal.

Although he thinks nuclear waste is problematic, he is not convinced about how serious the problem is to people. For instance, towards the end of his book, he posits, “if the Yucca Mountain facility were at full capacity and all the waste leaked out of its glass containment immediately and managed to reach groundwater, the danger would still be 20 times less than that currently posed by natural uranium leaching into the Colorado River” (Muller 212).

The impression created in the reader’s mind is that the position taken earlier in his book is not the appropriate one. However, this confusion on the subject of nuclear wastes reinforces his argument that the subject attracts valid views among different people (scholars, politician, and other interest groups) for which none of the views can be considered right or wrong.

Based on this argument, nuclear waste is not perhaps the only threat that people face. In comparison with some other threats, it does not top the list. Nevertheless, the emphasis of Muller on the dangers of nuclear wastes through statistical evidence makes the problem stand out as a harmful risk with the potential of causing death.

In this regard, Muller’s work may be interpreted as endeavoring to forcefully draw the attention of people to focus on the dangers that may emanate from improper disposal of nuclear wastes. Orientation of the attention of people to look into a mechanism of handling the nuclear waste question may provide substantive grounds for looking early into the problems of nuclear waste before the problems escalate to levels that make them produce more adverse effects (Vennessa Para.3).

Muller deploys rhetoric strategies to enable him drive his point home. Through his facts, evidence, and arguments that connect with his viewpoints on the topic, the reader gains mixed reactions on the topic.

On one hand, the reader may argue that the challenge of nuclear waste needs to be resolved with the best option involving a scientific approach. On the other hand, engagement of the political aspect in the problems prompts the incorporation of political strategies such as enactment of policies to regulate the handling and disposal of nuclear wastes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue that concerns Muller is whether the existence of a way of disposing nuclear wastes is better in relation to having none at all.

He argues that one of the alternatives to dispose nuclear waste products is through placing it at a secure facility that is far away from human civilizations. According to Muller, Yucca Mountain is one of such places. Indeed, he confirms that the government of the United States has established a prototype nuclear waste facility at Yucca Mountain.

Through this confirmation, he creates rhetoric to the reader who endeavors to know the impacts of such toxins on people given that Yucca Mountain is not much populated. Responding the rhetoric, Muller reasons out that people living in the area face the risk of being poisoned through drinking water in case nuclear containers leak.

He further evidences that uranium takes 10,000 years for its radioactivity levels to decay to levels similar to just before its mining. To ensure that he does not take a stand on the issues of nuclear waste, Muller argues that, as time moves on, Uranium, which comprises the major bulk of nuclear wastes, decays progressively. Therefore, it is not necessary that nuclear wastes are maintained secure for the whole period of 10,000 years.

Based on his calculation results, Muller argues that, in case nuclear toxins are maintained safe for 300 years while maintaining a 1% chance for the escape of the wastes during the time, the risk of contamination of drinking water by the wastes is incredibly reduced. However, the argument has to be in relation to when the waste is just placed at Yucca Mountains in its natural state. This argument creates a rhetoric dilemma to the reader.

Should people leave the risks of lives of others at mere chances? Many readers of Muller’s work would contend that it is not appropriate to leave the lives of thousands of people to dangers that pose potential health risk to them based on the arguments of chance. In case people know that radioactivity that takes place in rocks would pose threats to their lives, they would adopt any possible option that is within their power to eliminate the risks or even curtail them.

The arguments raised by Muller also open his work to criticisms. One of the criticisms is whether the fact that the water flowing in the Colorado River poses the risks of contamination from radioactive material found in the rocks is enough to justify disposing nuclear wastes at the Yucca Mountains.

Unless the waste that is disposed off at Yucca Mountains is from the radioactive material that was extracted in the mountain, and which could have found its way into the Colorado River, any attempt to dispose nuclear wastes from materials obtained elsewhere would go into adding more nuclear wastes into the Colorado River. Therefore, the existence of a risky situation does not justify any attempt to magnify the magnitude of the risk.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rhetoric analysis of Muller’s arguments on the problems of nuclear waste is a challenge of the question on the best scenarios for storage and disposal of nuclear wastes. Nuclear plants, which generate nuclear wastes, are not found in an area that has many people. This fact raises the question of whether the place of disposal of nuclear wastes needs to bother politicians and scientists in the extent that Muller would want people to embrace, or more focus should be on the safety of the nuclear plants themselves.

The leakage of the nuclear power plants in Japan (Foster Para.2) evidences that the problem of nuclear material-related risks is bigger than the challenge of disposal of the nuclear wastes and the place of storage of the wastes once they have already been produced. The challenge is whether the creation of nuclear energy justifies the risks that are associated with the process of creation and the wastes produced.

This argument is based on the incapacity of people to get rid of the levels of nuclear wastes that have already been produced. Why then should people produce more of the refuse? Muller insists that many people are inclined to the line of thought that nuclear energy is an ardent solution to the reduction of reliance on the fossil fuel energy. However, is it an acceptable answer bearing in mind the risks involved?

Conclusion In his book Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, Muller gives readers who are not well acquainted with science an opportunity to synthesize the problems related to nuclear waste generation, storage, and disposal.

Although it is acceptable that problems exist, it is debatable whether a good scenario exists, which can be provided to explain efforts to reduce nuclear waste risks to levels that are slightly lower. Can people afford to trade their right for living in a safe environment with energy sources that are superior? If it is possible, what are the costs? Muller addresses these perplexing issues.

Works Cited Muller, Richard. “Nuclear Waste” They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. New York, NY: W.W. Norton


Road to Revolution Essay scholarship essay help

The American Revolution was one of the key events that took place in America during the second phase of the eighteenth century. In 1607, the British brought many drastic changes in the American society that interfered with their civilization. During this time, Britain was much preoccupied with advancing its economy. In this regard, Britain enacted colonial policies that would favor its maximum exploitation of its colonies. This paper discusses the road to American Revolution.

The revolution started in 1763 when the ‘French and Indian war’ ended. The British Proclamation of 1763 was meant to help them create governments for the new colonies, forester peace among vanquishers, and facilitate British commercial interests in the colonies (Allison 2-17). The British government had incurred many expenses during the war and it was keen on regaining its lost resources through taxing its colonial subjects.

Accordingly, many taxation measures were implemented in order to generate revenue for the British army in America. The Sugar Act was implemented in 1764 and it was meant to reduce tariffs charged on non-British merchandise sourced from West Indies. It was also supposed to facilitate the collection of those goods. This act was followed by the first Stamp Act, which was implemented from 1765 in order to provide income for the army (Brinkley 23-105).

Soon after the enforcement of this act, the Quartering Act was also put in place in 1765, and it was intended to enable the British army to have access to social amenities. More taxes were levied on goods that were imported through the enforcement of the Townshend Act that was introduced in 1767. The British also implemented the Navigation Acts, which further strained the economy of the Americans.

The Americans resisted the new taxes imposed on them through various methods. For example, they refused to buy goods imported from Britain. The harsh economic policies led to serious economic disillusionment, which sparked off violence in various parts of America. In March 1770, a serious picketing incident in Boston led to the gruesome massacre of five Americans by the British troops.

This was followed by the burning and sinking of a British mercantile vessel in Rhode Island in 1772. “On 16 December 1773, some colonialists destroyed many tons of tea in Boston and the event was termed the Boston Tea Party” (Middlekauff 56-89). In reaction to the spate of violence, the British government immediately responded by imposing more punitive measures on its subjects.

In mid 1774, the Boston Port Act was sanctioned and it led to the cordoning of the Boston Port, which later resumed its operations after the compensation of the East Indian Company. “The British Congress further proclaimed Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act and Massachusetts Government Act in the same year” (Guevara 78-109).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Americans argued that these Coercive Acts were arbitrary infringement on their prerogatives. Consequently, in late 1774, the colonists organized a demonstration during the First Continental Congress.

As the hostility escalated, many colonists engaged in chaotic protests that culminated to American Revolution in 1775. Independence was finally granted to the American colonies in 1776. From 1777, the Americans started making constitutional changes that would enable them develop their country. The struggle for independence was very difficult for the Americans. However, through a concerted effort they managed to dislodge the British from their territory.

Works Cited Allison, Robert. The American Revolution: A Concise History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey, New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hil, 2009. Print.

Guevara, Che. The Economics of Revolution, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.

Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.


Companies Ethics: Benzene and Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Benzene exposure

The Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure

Scenarios of Bribery/Gift Giving


Benzene exposure Benzene is a toxic substance if consumed above the recommended minimum levels. The company understands all the regulations that are intended to keep the environment clean and non-toxic to human beings and other animals. The decision by the company to release benzene into the local water resources used for domestic purposes is a real issue of concern.

Professionally, the company will not break any laws by releasing the toxins into water resources. The concentration of the toxic substances will be far much below the recommended levels. This implies that if the toxins are released into water, no harmful effects are anticipated (Harris, Pritchard


Summary of concepts/ideas by Christine Matheson Essay college essay help online

The article by Christine Matheson emphasizes the importance of consumers being environmental conscious in their purchasing patterns. Specifically, the author highlights the need for consumers to adjust their buying behaviors by refusing to support firms and businesses whose operations contribute to environmental pollution.

For example, she opens the article by noting that her writing is “…a bunch of ideas to help you become a greener fashionista “(Matheson 116). Therefore, the author outlines the need of consumers to employ green shopping strategies. Such an adjustment will contribute towards elimination or minimization of the opportunity cost incurred in the process of undertaking waste management.

The author asserts that it is imperative for various industries to adjust their production processes. Some industries that contribute to environmental pollution according to the author include the fashion industry and the transport industry. The author calls for consumers and producers to appreciate the importance of recycling in lowering the rate of environmental pollution.

Additionally, she underscores the importance of industries in diverse economic sectors embracing sustainable technology and adopting renewable energy in their production processes. For example, car and vehicle manufacturers should adopt hybrid technology.

Additionally, the author is of the opinion that limiting the high rate of environmental pollution, which is currently being experienced, requires collaboration of individual and government efforts. This assertion arises from the fact that the government will be required to institute laws, institutions, and infrastructure to enhance reduction in the current rate of environmental pollution.

Summary of concepts/ideas by Collin Beavan Similar to Christine Matheson, Collin Beavan emphasizes the importance of protecting the environment. Collin identifies consumers as the most effective agents of change. The author asserts that it is fundamental for consumers to adjust their consumption behaviors. He alludes to the importance of consumers establishing an ecological balance in their consumption processes.

For example, he asserts that consumers should design, implement, and adhere to environmental friendly rules that guide their consumption processes. Rather than focusing on the incorporation of systems that contribute to minimal or no environmental pollution such as adoption of sustainable technology and use of renewable energy, the author is of the opinion that social change is the only missing ingredient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He posits that he believes, “…in rising to the challenge rather than shrinking from the obstacles” (Beavan 61). Therefore, to achieve this goal, consumers should develop a comprehensive understanding of what they need in life, which should form the basis of developing the necessary technical and social systems. Thus, consumption should be based on socio-technical design.

Despite the contribution of the government and other institutions in limiting climate change, Collin Beavan is of a different view. The author cites change of culture as the most effective avenue of countering environmental pollution and climate change. The author appreciates the fact that cultural change can have a significant effect compared to instituting legislations and systems to deal with the same.

The author further opines that despite the perception that individual effort is minimal in tackling an enormous challenge such as climate change, individuals’ input can lead to the development of a positive culture towards climate change within society. Consequently, individuals, as opposed to systems, are the agents of change “because it is upon the definition of a good life that our socio-technical designs must be used” (Beavan 62).

Conclusion In a recap, the two authors try to illustrate the role of consumers in limiting the high rate of climate change. Adjustment of consumption behavior has been highlighted as one of the most effective ways through which consumers can aid in countering the high rate of climate change. However, to be effective, it is necessary to develop effective systems.

Works Cited Beavan, Colin. “The Year without Toilet Paper.” The New York Times, 22 March 2007: 61-62. Print.

Matheson, Christie. Green Chick: Saving the earth in style, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2008. Print.


The Importance of Value Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

From a psychological perspective, values can be presented as broad preferences of individuals about various actions and outcomes. At this point, they express individuals’ sense of morally justified action. Values also allow people to distinguish between right and wrong, as well as shape their attitudes and perceptions about other individuals. Shared beliefs have influenced the formation of social norms under which people should observe behavioral patterns accepted in society.

As a result of social development, belief systems have been premised on different norms in terms of morale, ethics, and individual choices. These discrepancies are predetermined by the presence of cultural values that influence people’s perceptions of such issues as the good, evil, or justice. Due to the emerged differences, a number of value theories have been developed. In sociological studies, value theory is associated with individuals’ views that are shared by a community, as well as how those views change under certain conditions.

While discussing the importance of value, many Western theorists, including Max Weber, Talcott Parsons and Emilie Durkheim inclined to believe that values are regarded as independent variables. However, the supporters of traditional sociologists withdrew the concept of value and focus on cultural dimension that builds the foundation for value creation. At this point, although values are often identified with common notions and concepts, their meaning is differently represented across cultures, leading to subjective and objective judgments.

This is of particular concern to religious norms that often influence people’s attitude toward the political power and social norms. For instance, some countries consider the important role of religion in shaping social, cultural and political relations whereas other societies insist on the separation of religion and social system because the former is more associated with personal values.

In fact, considering social values as products of individual behavior, the emphasis on behaviorism and observational philosophy should be placed. The introduced theoretical frameworks are influential for development of educational systems that encourage a learning process as a set of activities focused on understanding morale, ethics, and law. The learning process reflects individual’s engagement in gaining experience about acceptable norms of behavior, as well as deeper understanding of self-image.

Finally, learning provides individuals with the accepted definitions of the right and wrong. In order to control value creation, social sciences refer to the political, social, and cultural institutions studying various dimensions of human organization based on empirical evidence. The proposed framework contributes to comprehending the common values that are accepted in societies, as well as those shaped in various cultures.

As it has been mentioned before, social values can refer to cultural norms that are considered in a broader context. Hence, norms create rules and principles of behavior in various situations whereas values define what actions should be considered as morally right or wrong.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cultural norms base on broader meanings, their understanding differs in various societies. Although cultural values are regarded as objective principles, they are still premised on individual’s attitudes toward specific traditions and norms recognized in a particular culture. Hence, values reflect the human ability to analyze and synthesize various aspects and principles that bear especial meaning to them.

For instance, various communities have a specific set of principles and rules that distinguish them from other communities. This is of particular concern to professional communities in which members adhere to specific philosophy and vision of an organization. Hence, although many company’s values differ, the development of global standards influence their normative systems. Due to the globalization process, organizations often address such issues as cultural diversity, human equality, and individual values.

Values can change across time to adjust to new conditions and challenges. If a member of a community adheres to a value that contradicts the commonly accepted norms, the community’s authority can impose certain regulations that encourage adherence and conformity to accepted behaviors.

As a result of such violations, fixed values are often controlled by legislature. The development of the legal system has contributed to the development of the international law that introduces global standards in such fields as healthcare, education, culture. There are many non-governmental organizations, including the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization, that provide consistent frameworks for shaping global principles of accountability and legitimacy.

In conclusion, values constitute overwhelming definitions that encompass personal belief systems and socially accepted norms. They also refer to the preferences about such concepts as moral action, ethics, and human behavior. In the course of social development, theorists have worked on various frameworks that can justify value creation across cultures and communities. Although the presence of diverse value systems, there are specific standards that should be followed by the world community.

These standards are monitored by international organizations and, therefore, violating rules can lead to imprisonment and punishment. In general, the existence of fixed values is not justified because societies are constantly developing, introducing new norms, perceptions, and preferences. At the same time, acceptance of diversities in belief systems is also important because it expands individuals’ perception about moral and immoral actions.


Death Comes to the Archbishop Essay college essay help: college essay help

In the article Death Comes to the Archbishop, Norman Cantor focuses on the life of Thomas Bradwardine. Cantor details how the archbishop’s endeavours in science and psychology made him one of the greatest scholars of Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. As a young boy, Bradwardine was a bright student.

He later joined Oxford University where he studied mathematics, philosophy, and theology. By the age of 30, he had become a faculty member of the university. In the year 1323, Bradwardine joined Merton College where he studied Masters of Arts. At Merton College, Bradwardine met a group of scientists who were devoted to studying astronomy, physics, and mathematics.

With the help of these scholars, Bradwardine published several scientific treatises, which made him one the best-celebrated philosophical and theological persons in Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. In the next paragraphs, this article describes the philosophy of the Oxford school towards the relationship between faith and the natural world.

As illustrated by Cantor, the philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that God was a supreme and infinite being. This implied that from their perspectives human beings could not question God’s deeds. Equally, it was believed that human beings could not understand God’s actions clearly. However, Bradwardine and his fellow scholars believed that human beings had the capacity to investigate and understand the natural world.

Based on Bradwardine’s treatises, it is apparent that philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that there were relationship between faith and the natural world. For instance, Bradwardine asserted that God created the earth and several other planets in the universe. This view contradicted with the religious doctrines that were widely upheld by the public. As highlighted by the article’s author, Bradwardine’s innovative doctrine was little known outside Oxford.

Although Oxford school of thought philosophers had developed innovative theories on nature, these theories were never developed during their lifetimes. For instance, the Bradwardine theory of the universe implications was never developed because the theory could have contradicted with the then religious and moral beliefs.

Similarly, deeper understanding in the field of biomedical sciences was blocked by the people’s faith. By then, medical theories developed were ineffective since they had no basis on science but rather on faith and psychology.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the Black Death had not struck down Bradwardine, the modern science would have been different. Although some of his theorists on nature were never developed until the 16th century, it should be noted that some of his innovations such as his experiments on optics led to the inventions of eyeglasses.

In this regard, if Bradwardine lived longer he could have come up with more innovative theories and inventions. Similarly, his death marked the end of Oxford School of thought. Therefore, if he could have lived longer he could have influenced his fellow elites to advance his theories and inventions.

Equally, by the time of his death Bradwardine was 50 years old. This implies that at the time of his demise he was still in the productive age bracket. Therefore, if Bradwardine had lived longer there are higher chances that he could have convinced those in power to believe in some of his scientific theories. As evident from bibliographies of great inventors such as Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, Bradwardine’s great ideas could have created an intellectual revolution if he could live longer to expand and implement his ideas.


The Phantom Menace of Sleep-Deprived Doctors Essay college application essay help

The article written by Darshak Sanghave is aimed at discussing the causes that underlie medical errors in hospitals. In particular, the author focuses on such a problem as sleep-deprivation experienced by many interns. Furthermore, the author mentions the lack of coordination among different practitioners.

Yet, this article can be related to various economic aspects of economics. One should first speak about health economics that evaluates different strategies implemented by medical organizations. For instance, Darshak Sanghave discusses the advantages and disadvantages of 30-hour overnight shifts. The author shows that this approach is largely ineffective because it greatly impairs the quality of healthcare services that patients receive.

Additionally, Darshak Sanghave touches upon a question that has long been studied by many economists. In this case, one should focus on the relationship between demand and supply. Judging from the examples given by the author one can say that many medical organizations cannot meet the demand for their services. This is why interns have to work almost round-the-clock. This is one of the problems that should be addressed by hospital administrators.

Furthermore, economists often focus on the efficiency of investment that is aimed to improve the quality of products and services. Despite the increasing cost of healthcare, patients still fall victim to medical errors. Therefore, it is vital to develop strategies that can improve the work of medical institutions.

These issues are relevant not only to hospitals, but to many other organizations, including private businesses. On the whole, Darshak Sanghave’s can be assigned in a course of economics, because it shows how different economic concepts such as production of services, supply, or demand can be applicable to various fields of human activity.


Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din (commonly known as Saladin) stands apart as the single most prominent figure in the history of the Middle East. Because of his exploits in the Crusades, Saladin is perceived as the chief “hero” of the Crusades by both his Islamic side and the Christian side. Saladin was able to establish a strong dynasty and lead his army to victory against the Crusaders. This paper will set out to discuss Saladin with emphasis on his military expeditions, and his encounters with the crusaders.

Early Life Saladin was Born in the village of Tirkik, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) in the year 1137 to a prominent and influential Kurdish family from the area. A few years after his birth, his family immigrated to Aleppo (which is modern day Syria). Saladin grew up in modern day Syria and he was an avid scholar of the Islamic religion. He embarked on religious studies until the age of 18 when he was appointed deputy to his uncle, Asad Ad-Din Shirkuh, who served as a military governor for Nur al Din, the emir of Syria (Grossman 303).

Early Expeditions Saladin’s first military expeditions were carried out in the north of Egypt under his uncle Shirkuh’s command. Saladin engaged in a military expedition in support of Shawar, the caliph of Egypt, who had been driven out of Egypt by powerful local lords.

Shawar had asked for help from Nur al Din to regain his position as Fatimid in Egypt. This military campaign was a success and Shawar was able to defeat his rivals and reestablish himself as Fatimid. Following this victory, Saladin and his uncle remained in Egypt to represent the interest of the Syrian Emir.

Shawar was opposed to the presence of Syrian forces in Egypt and this led to his falling out with Saladin’s uncle. As a result, Shirkurh and Saladin engaged in military expeditions against Shawar. Shirkurh commanded four military expeditions into Egypt to fight against the Fatimid and the local lords who were resisting Syria’s over-lordship (Grossman, 303).

These rebellious local rulers were acting with the support of the Crusaders in the Holy Land who also feared Syria’s overlords. With Saladin’s help, Shirkuh carried out military expeditions against these local rulers as well as the caliph of Egypt therefore establishing Egypt as a Syrian stronghold. Shirkuh’s death in 1169 gave Saladin a chance to become the head of Syrian forces in Egypt.

Saladin’s Personality Historians record that Saladin was serious and contemplative by nature. In his early years, he was not enthusiastic about the military expeditions by his uncle but took on active fighting roles during the invasion of Fatimid Cairo. He established himself as a courageous soldier and a brilliant strategist. Saladin was a just ruler and he was often personally involved in the grievances brought forward by his subjects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gibb documents that in reaction to the abuses carried out by his governors and officers, Saladin issued decrees prohibiting illegal taxes and other oppressive practices against his subjects (48). Saladin’s justice can further be demonstrated by his decision to spare all the Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem even though his army was far superior to the Christian forces and he could have destroyed them if he wanted to (Byfield 73).

Saladin was a modest person, owing to his religious background. He wore simple clothes and he treated the men of religion with whom he regularly associated himself with as colleagues in spite of the fact that he was the Sultan. However, he commanded great discipline among his subjects and did not condone unruliness.

Byfield states that Saladin has an instinct for iron discipline and when his Sudanese guards were accused of being disloyal to him, he massacred them (74). Rioters in Cairo were hanged and the unruly Bedouin Arabs were engaged in battle under Saladin’s command.

Saladin’s Mission in Syria, Egypt and Palestine Nicolle observes that Saladin’s prominence began when he took on the role of Nur al Din’s governor in Egypt (15). As the governor of Egypt, Saladin set out to change the official faith of the country from Shi’a to Sunni effectively abolishing the Fatamid caliphate in Egypt. The conversion of Egypt from Sunni to Shiite was very significant since it made it bridged the division that Syria and Egypt had had for centuries because of religions considerations.

Saladin also embarked on an ambitious recruitment effort for a new army that would be loyal to himself and not the Fatimid Caliph who had died in 1171. At the same time, Saladin tried to foster loyalty to himself instead of Nur al Din, the Emir of Syria under whom he served.

When Nur al Din died in 1174, he was succeeded by his ten-year-old son. In the months following the Emir’s death, Saladin marched from Egypt with his loyal army, took over Syria, and proclaimed himself Sultan of the vast territory (Byfield 74). Saladin ventured into Palestine in 1177 following the breakdown of the truce with the Crusaders. He hoped to recover some of the territory that the Crusaders had taken and establish a Muslim stronghold in Palestine.

War against the Crusaders Saladin’s first engagement with the crusaders was in 1170 when he tried to capture the southernmost fort of Jerusalem. This early efforts were unsuccessful and the Crusading knights were able to rebuff Saladin’s forces. A truce was signed and this fragile peace deal was able to last for a decade.

We will write a custom Essay on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fragile truce lasted until 1180 when the Frankish Prince Reynald of Chatillon attacked Holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina. In retaliation to these attacks by Prince Reynald, Saladin vowed to vanquish the Christian forces and execute Reynald for his action against the Muslims. Saladin’s victory over Frankish forces at Hattin is regarded as one of the most spectacular in military history. He was able to defeat the Frankish knights in the battlefield and force them to abandon their quest to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.

Having destroyed the Christian army, Saladin continued to seize the remaining Christian strongholds. In a few months, Saladin was able to launch an attack against Jerusalem. His attempts at breaching the walls of the City of Jerusalem using siege engines was thwarted by Christian defenders who protected the city. However, the Christian force was weak and they therefore bargained for a peaceful surrender with Saladin. Following this surrender, Saladin was able to seize Jerusalem on October 2, 1187.

The Third Crusade was prompted by the great defeat of the second Crusade by Saladin in 1187. On hearing the news of how Saladin had decimated the Christian army, Richard I (popularly referred to as Richard the Lion Hearted) declared that he was staging a Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem. In the first clash between Saladin and Richard the Lion-Hearted, Saladin’s Army was defeated. A serious of battles continued with Richard pressing Saladin’s forces until they withdrew to Damascus.

The Ayyubid Dynasty Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty and established Egypt as its power base. This dynasty was able to survive though to the 13th century. As the governor of Egypt, Saladin was able to establish an Ayyubid army that was solely loyal to him. With this Egyptian Ayyubid army, Saladin set out to expand his empire first in Egypt, and then next to Syria where the Emir had died. This expansion missions were successful and Saladin was able to establish himself as the ruler of vast territory in the Middle East.

The Death of Saladin Saladin died in 1193 after a period of brief illness. By his death, he had succeeded in creating a vast and strong Dynasty that would last for over a century. Historians record that because of his irresistible impulse for giving; he did not even have enough money left to pay for his funeral when he died since his vast wealth had been given to his poor subjects.

Saladin was buried by his subjects in a magnificent tomb in Damascus with an inscription reading, “Oh mighty God, let his soul be acceptable to thee” (Grossman 304). Following Saladin’s death, his brother al Adil took over the leadership of the Dynasty.

Conclusion This paper set out to provide an informative discussion on Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, who was one of the most fascinating personalities in the history of the Middle Ages. The paper has highlighted Saladin’s early life and his early military expeditions. It has highlighted that through warfare and diplomacy, Saladin was able to bring Egypt into harmony with the Syrian government. However, this great figure will always be remembered for his military conquest against the Frankish Knights and the seizing the Holy City of Jerusalem.

Works Cited Byfield, Ted. A Glorious Disaster: A.D. 1100 to 1300: The Crusades: Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith. New York: Christian History Project, 2008. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gibb, Hamilton. The Life of Saladin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Print.

Grossman, Mark. World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Boston: Infobase Publishing, 2007. Print.

Nicolle, David. Saladin and the Saracens: Armies of the Middle East 1000-1300. London: Reed International Books, 1986. Print.


Colonialism and Economic Development Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reasons for Aid Withdrawal

India’s Take on the Matter

Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal


Works Cited

Introduction Most developed countries are opting to stop the aid they give to various developing countries. This is due to the fact that countries which were once colonies of various nations from the west are now economically stable. Many of the countries which depended on foreign aid for their development are now able to individually fund their projects.

Consequently, many developed nations have opted to reduce or even permanently eliminate the foreign aid. Britain is one of the countries that have announced its intention to stop its foreign aid to India by 2015. However, contrary to the expectations of many that India would get disturbed over that move, the reverse has been actually the case.

Reasons for Aid Withdrawal It has been realized that developed countries which were once economically stable are now facing financial crises. On the same note, the donor countries have gone back to the drawing board to determine if actually the aid is as important as deemed, and if the aid achieves its expectations. Given the economic problems that are facing many developed nations, their economies need money to spend.

In this regard, these nations have to choose between giving aid to foreign nations and solving their own internal problems (Mandhana par 3). Therefore, emerging markets have found themselves on the receiving end when any decision to reduce aid is taken. On the same note, though India used to be among poor countries, it has now turned to be among the world’s economic power destinations with the ability to donate money to other low income countries.

India’s Take on the Matter For a country that has been receiving aid since its independency, the information was expected to come as a rude shock. On the contrary, this information was not received by India as negatively as it would have been for developing countries due to several factors. To begin with, the amount of money that Britain has been injecting into India’s economy to fund various projects, is very little compared to the amount that India injects into the same projects.

On the same note, despite the economic difficulties that are facing almost every country in the world, India’s economy has been growing at an impressive rate for a relatively long period of time. As a result, India has been able to elevate its status to a lower middle income country (Mandhana par 7). Similarly, India can afford to donate to other countries for example, the Philippines, implying that India is not that poor. As put by the then Prime Minister, India does not depend on the foreign aid for its economic development (Mandhana par 8).

Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal Though India did not seem concerned about the announcement that the foreign aid will be withdrawn, there are economic repercussions of the decision by Britain. Firstly, though India’s economic growth is impressive, there are still a lot of people living below the poverty line (Mandhana par 15). These people highly depend on the aid from foreign countries for their basic needs. Secondly, Britain’s aid has highly influenced the health sector and its withdrawal will have significant implications.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The article brings into the forefront issues that are emerging between former colonies and their masters. Countries that were once dependent on foreign aid have now turned into economic giants and can no longer be considered as being underdeveloped. On the same note, it highlights the trends that are most likely to be taken by most developed nations, the United States of America being one of them. Developing nations should therefore take caution not to be too dependent on foreign aid because no one can tell what is in store.

Works Cited Mandhana, Niharika. “A Global Shift in Foreign Aid, Starting in India.” New York Times. 2012. Web.