The first component of the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) program was Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). This is an educational right for those students who have disabilities. It entails the provision of special or regular education to those that are handicapped in any way as those that are not would.
In addition, it states that there should be aids and services as may be required that should adhere to the procedural safeguards as is outlined under the law. This program is under the Department of Education that outlines regulations that define the manner in which individualized programs with special aids are provided, preferably in the regular curriculum, to those that have a disability that disrupts normal learning.
The goal of the program is simply to guarantee an individual with a learning disability a normal life with opportunities for further education, independent living and employment. IDEA stated that all those between the ages 3 and 21 years and had disabilities had a right to education.
The initial program also stated that the number of those with disabilities in this age bracket and under the care of the state would increase by 10% starting in 1979 when the program actually began. The services must be provided at no cost to the individual and all costs must be covered by the state.
Secondly, the individual with the disability should be evaluated. The nature of the evaluation has to be full and individualized focusing on the specific disabilities that he/she has. Trained personnel are involved in this process and there should be many evaluations done as a single one is not allowed by law.
The individual’s evaluation should be done in the areas of his/her disability, by a multidisciplinary team, in his/her native language and with the specific goal of identifying need areas. There should also not be any kind of discrimination on any line including on the disability itself.
Thirdly, those individuals with disabilities are entitled to an individualized education program (IEP). The program should be built by teachers in conjunction with counselors, parents of the individual and the principal in the school responsible. The program details the services that the affected individual is entitled to receive, the environment in which the program will be conducted and the duration of time that the program is expected to take. The result of this evaluation should be a detailed plan of action that is focused on the individual’s particular affliction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fourth on the list is consideration of the most suitable environment. The IDEA describes it as the LRE which is the least restrictive environment.
The most considered environment is in the general classroom setting. Before any special schools are thought of, the experts must always consider the public curricula and attempt to use it as the base environment. It is important to consider the additional and supplementary aids or services that are going to be utilized.
There is a continuum of alternative placements should the concerned experts feel that the particular person with the disability cannot do well in the public learning environment.
The fifth consideration is the participation of the parents and the students in decision making. By strengthening the role that parents play in the process of educating those with disabilities, it is believed that better results can be gotten. The parents have to be involved equally in the decision making process, they have to be given notice of any developments and also they have to consent to any additional evaluations and any other changes that may be deemed necessary by the concerned experts.
Finally, there are procedural safeguards that have to be put in place for the success of the program. As a starting point, the rights of the parents and their child have to be upheld at all time. Additionally, the student and his/her parents have the right from the onset to be provided with all the facts about the disability and also all the relevant interventions necessitated. Lastly, procedures for conflict resolution and mediation to any arising problems must be decided from the get-go.
Key components of the IDEA reauthorizations PL 99-457 (1986)
The reauthorization of 1986 was very detailed and expounded on the IDEA of 1975. It detailed the population that was eligible to receive special education as from the ages of 3 to 21 years.
It also stated that the diagnosis has to be made by a school psychologist, a psychiatrist or a qualified mental health professional and must be multidisciplinary. Furthermore, programs that were to be used in enacting this reauthorization were listed with the challenges that were being faced ironed discussed and amicable solutions crafted. There was also the topic of the funding of the IDEA.
We will write a custom Essay on Components of the original IDEA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More PL 101-476
The most notable change was that the original act of 1975 was renamed from EAHCA to IDEA. The previous act touched on children but this was corrected to reflect individual whereas the term “handicapped” was replaced with “with disabilities”.
There was also the addition of categories to reflect autism and traumatic brain injury. There was also the obligation of development of individuals transition plans (ITP) for people below the age of 16 years as part of the IEP. The related services were also expanded to include Social Work Service and Rehabilitation Counseling.
PL 105-17 (1997)
The reauthorization stated that an IEP must detail how a given disability limits the learning ability of the students. It also stated that goal and benchmarks must be stated for the IEP’s. Also, special education, related services and supplementary aids must be stated with the IEP being reviewed annually. The IEP tem members were defined and included parents, a representative of the LEA (local educational agency), a child’s teacher, a child’s special educator and the child where appropriate.
The students under IEP were expected to be assessed regularly in state and district assessments and the state itself was meant to be accountable for the IEP’s by using performance indicators. The reauthorization also mandated the team members to provide progress reports to the parents of the students under the program and also expected them to conduct the IEP’s under the most favorable environment.
There was also a list of special considerations that needed to be assessed before the IEP including English proficiency, visual and hearing impairments and behavior.
IDEA 2004: PL 108-446
The reauthorization of IDEA in 2004 contained the additions detailed below. The individualized education programs had to be benchmarked. In the previous versions, only short-term goal were mandated but that changed for those students with severe learning disabilities. The pilot program for having multiple IEP’s was rolled out in 15 states and allowed schools to offer them but not to exceed 3 years. However, this required parental consent before being implemented.
State departments were mandated to have defined qualifications for special educators and certifications necessary with defined responsibilities except for private schools. Schools were expected to base achievements on the level of interventions and not on the amount of instructions that were given to students. They were expected to revert to response to intervention rather dependence on IQ measurements.
The burden off determining whether a certain behavior was as a result of a disability in students was shifted from the teachers to parents. The schools were also mandated to remove students from school for up to 45 days in special circumstances e.g. assaults or drug use, even if the behaviors were a manifestation of disability (Gargiulo, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Components of the original IDEA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The mandated IDEA guidelines and processes for referring a student with a suspected disability for evaluation for special education services
There is need for a pre-referral process in order to assess whether a change in accommodation of a modification can change the behavior of a child and render the need for special education redundant. It has been proven that having a cascade of service delivery in the mainstream curriculum improves the quality of learning in those that have disabilities (Watson
The Committee on the Armed Services in the US Report essay help free: essay help free
The committee in question throughout the course of this paper is the committee on the armed services. This paper is going to talk about the number of subcommittees under this committee.
The committee is made up of 62 members.
The members are divided into Republicans and Democrats.
The ratio of Republicans to Democrats is 35 to 27. (Congress, 2006).
The subcommittees under this committee include emerging threats and capabilities subcommittee, military personnel subcommittee, oversight and investigation subcommittee, readiness subcommittee, sea power and projection forces subcommittee, strategic forces subcommittee, and tactical air and land forces committee. The emerging threats and capabilities committee has 18 members. These members are divided into 10 republicans and 8 democrats.
The military committee is comprised of 14 members. These are divided into 8 Republican members and 6 Democrats. The oversight and investigations committee is comprised of 10 members. These are divided into 6 Republicans and 4 Democrats. The readiness committee is comprised of 21 members. These are divided into 12 Republicans and 9 Democrats. The sea power and projection forces committee has 20 members. These are divided into 11 Republican members and 9 Democrat members.
The strategic forces committee contains 16 members. These are divided into 9 republican members and 7 democrat members. The tactical air and land forces committee is made up of 25 members. These are divided into 14 republican members and 11 democrat members. (United States Congress, 1866).
The emerging threats and capabilities committee is chaired by Mac Thornberry from Texas. The chairman is a republican. Other republicans in the party include Jeff Miller (FL), John Kline (MN), Bill Shuster (PA), K. Michael Conaway (TX), Christopher P. Gibson (NY), Robert T. Schilling (IL), Allen B. West (FL), Trent Franks (AZ), and Duncan Hunter (CA). The Democrat constitutes 8 members of the 18 members in the committee.
These are James R. Langevin (RI), Loretta Sanchez (CA), Robert E. Andrews (NJ), Susan A. Davis (CA), Tim Ryan (OH), C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger (MD), Henry C. “Hank” Johnson, Jr. (GA), and Kathleen C. Hochul (NY).
The military personnel committee is made up chaired by Joe Wilson. He is one of the 8 republicans in the committee. Other members are Walter B. Jones (NC), Mike Coffman (CO), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), Joseph J. Heck (NV), Allen B. West (FL), Austin Scott (GA), and Vicky Hartzler (MO).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The democrats are Susan A. Davis (CA), Robert A. Brady (PA), Madeleine Z. Bordallo (GU), David Loebsack (IA), Niki Tsongas (MA), and Chellie Pingree (ME). The oversight and investigations committee is chaired by Robert J. Wittman (VA). He controls a part of the 6 members making up the committee. Other members are K. Michael Conaway (TX), Mo Brooks (AL), Todd C. Young (IN), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), and Mike Coffman (CO).
Group 1 represents the emerging threats and capabilities of the committee, and this is represented by the blue color. Group 2 presents the military personnel committee and is shown by the green color. Group 3 represents the oversight and investigation and is marked by the red color. Group 4 features the readiness committee and is presented by the med blue color.
Group 5 represents the sea power and projection forces and is colored in orange. Group 6 is the strategic forces subcommittee which is presented by the yellow color. Group 7 is meant to be the tactical air and land forces which is represented by the brown color. (Jewell, 1982).
References Congress (U.S.). (2006). Congressional Record, V. 148, Pt. 13, September 20, 2002 to October 1, 2002. New York: United States Congress.
Jewell, M.E. (1982). Representation in state legislatures. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.
United States. Congress. (1866). Congressional edition. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
China. Economic Analysis Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Population
Economic Statistics and Activity
Science and Technology
Channels of Distribution
Population With nearly 1.5 billion people, China has the biggest percentage of the world population based on country terms. The vast majority of the country’s citizens is largely rural as around eight hundred million people reside in rural areas while the rest, roughly 35 percent reside in urban areas.
Since the introduction of new family planning laws took effect, the population growth rate considerably slowed down (Murphey 10). The Chinese population continues to grow disproportionately as the number of girls born is less than the number of boys, for example, in 2000, for every 100 girls born; one hundred nineteen boys were born. The total imbalance stood at 128: 100 (Murphey 10).
China falls in the eastern part of Asia. The country stretches around three thousand four hundred miles from the North to the South while stretching approximately three thousand two hundred miles from the East to West. A bigger percentage of the population resides in the rural areas while few reside in the urban coastal towns of the country (Yu 28).
Economic Statistics and Activity In the recent past, China has been registering between eight and ten percent GDP growth. The country has managed to maintain GNI and per capita GDP at around one thousand seven hundred from the year 2005. The trade volumes between China and the rest of the world continue to increase.
However, it is notable that trade outflow has increased at a higher rate than the trade inflow. Another notable occurrence in China rests on the notion that inflation is under control. In the recent times, it is only in 2004 that inflation was high, as it stood at seven percent. In 2007 and 2008, China recorded around seven percent inflation. In the latter part of 2008, inflation rose to 8.7 percent (Guo 200-9).
The accession of the Chinese economy into the world stage took an interestingly turn in 2001 when China got admission into the WTO. After this admission, China became more open in terms of trade. As a direct result of the opening up, the trade volumes between countries such as the ASEAN countries and Japan on the one hand and China on the other hand, grew rapidly. At the same time, China lowered its tariffs (Guo 200-9).
According to Ilan and McIntyre (45), the opening up of the Chinese market also allowed for an increase in the levels of Direct Foreign Investments in the country. A year after the accession of the country to WTO, Foreign Direct Investment rose from forty-four to fifty three billion dollars. The Chinese trade volumes in 2010 was roughly 3 trillion Us dollars, making it the second largest trading country after the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the recent successes being witnessed in the Chinese economy, one problem has emerged. The country’s employable work force has declined over the years. This is likely to force the country into further problems based on the notion that pension and associated benefits would put the economy under pressure (Guo 200).
Another problem that affects the country is based on the idea that China solely relies on a fixed exchange rate. The effect of using a fixed exchange rate rests on the belief that the system adversely affects inflation since counter-inflationary policies are comparatively less flexible. This system may benefit if some reforms are carried out.The other aspect that characterizes the Chinese economy is inequality.
The coastal cities of the country keep on registering unprecedented growth levels while the rural areas continue facing various hardships. China is thus among the most unequal societies. In the period between 1980’s and 1996, China registered the highest income inequality. At the same time, per-capita incomes were 2.3 times higher in urban areas in 1990. This rate increased to 2.7 in 1999 before rising to around 2.9 in 2000.
Thus, it is rightly alleged that China is split into two countries, the rich coastal megalopolis and the rest made up of poor interior regions. In the coastal megalopolis, per capita incomes are as high as $1,000 while in the interior regions, per capita incomes are as low as less than $200 per year (Guo 2009).
Table 1 proves that average disposable income and the consumption levels in the Chinese republic are relatively low when compared to other developed nations. Another aspect that springs up centers on the expenditure patterns of the Chinese people. Unlike other people from different parts of the world, the Chinese people prefer saving their money than spending. This is based on the Chinese tradition, which lays emphasis on saving for the future generations.
Urban families (Yuan/person)
Rural families (Yuan/person) Disposable income 3934.94 1280.5 Consumption expenditure 2619.55 1072.2 Table 1 showing consumption rates in 2007
China’s nominal GDP between 1952 and 2005
We will write a custom Research Paper on China. Economic Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mainland China GDP distribution in 2007
The transportation system in China is an important sector in the country’s economy. However, the transport system remains highly unequal (Donnithorne 252). This is coupled with variations in human and natural resources that have affected the development of the country.
The development in infrastructure remains inadequate in China. However, the country is working towards improving this state of affairs as it seeks to link its major economic centers. In order to achieve this goal, the country is reworking its road network. By 2000, the country had planned to have eight hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which, five thousand was to be highways.
In the same vein, the country aspired to put in place about nine hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which twelve thousand was to be highways by 2010. Despite the planned improvements, this would only present around 15 KM highway density. This is way behind the densities of leading countries such as the US and Germany which have 64 and 177 respectively. It is worth to note that road transport account for almost ninety percent of the country’s transportation services (Donnithorne 252).
From 2005, questions regarding labor emerged in China. This was because the country’s demand for labor was becoming stronger. Such a scenario enabled workers to select work that paid well and offered better working conditions. This forced companies to adjust the minimum wage upwards in order to keep hold of their employees. The fall in the number of workers may be connected to the idea that the family planning policy was taking its toll in the country.
Currency system RMB to the US dollar from 1981
Chinese yuan per US$1)
Not sure if you can write a paper on China. Economic Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More July 31, 2008 – RMB 6.846
Mid 2007 – RMB 7.45
Early 2006 – RMB 8.07
January 2000 – RMB 8.2793
1999 – RMB 8.2783
1998 – RMB 8.2790
1997 – RMB 8.2898
1996 – RMB 8.3142
1995 – RMB 8.3514
Oil and natural gas are the major minerals available in the Chinese republic. In 2005 the production levels of oil stand at 47.87 km3, consumption was at 44.92 km3, imports were 0 m3, exports were 2.943 km3 while proved reserves were 1,448k m3 in 2006. Regarding oil, the following statistics were available
Production levels: 3,631,001 bbl/d (600, 000 m3/d) in 2005
Consumption levels: 6,535,000 bbl/d (1,000,800 m3/d) in 2005
Export levels: 444,300 bbl/d (70,470 m3/d) in 2005
Import levels: 3,182,000 bbl/d (505,676 m3/d) in 2005
Net import levels: 2,750,000 barrels @ day (435,000 m3/d) in 2005
Reserves: 16.4 Gbbl (2.589×10^9 m3) in 2006
Oil and natural gas
Science and Technology China is among the top countries in the world on the technological advancement front. China has made much progress in the area of technology. The most recent case is the breakthrough made in fuel reprocessing technology. However, China is accused by other countries as abusing patent and copyright rules because of non-adherence.
Spending on research and development in China has doubled over the last 15 years. In 1995, China spent roughly 0.6 percent of GDP ON research and development while the country used 1.2 percent in 2005.
Using the current exchange rates, this represents an increase from seventeen billion to ninety four billion US dollars. Surprisingly, investment in research and development is growing at a faster rate than that of the economy. Despite these developments, the percentage of the Chinese labor force posses technological skills remain relatively small.
Channels of Distribution The supply and retail industries play a valuable role in the Chinese republic. However, a number of restrictions that limit the extent to which foreigners participate in the industries. The following table clearly illustrates ownership in both supply and retail outlets. In reference to channels of distribution, the Chinese republic also has two faces.
Most Chinese are small-scale distributors while a minority group operates as large-scale distributors. Due to the high number of restrictions, only five percent of retailers are foreigners. This accounts for two thousand four hundred foreign retailers who have invested around five billion US dollars in the business (Gattorna 575).
Table 1: China’s Retail Market Structure, 2008 Sector Enterprises (10,000) Employees (10,000) Revenue (¥ billion) Total 54.9 836.9 4,335.3 Autos, motorcycles, fuel, and auto parts 8.0 122.9 1,693.3 Integrated retail 6.4 285.9 1,141.6 Household electric appliances and electronics 9.1 97.3 475.6 Textiles, garments, and daily consumer products 6.0 74.9 219.0 Medicine and medical devices 4.9 62.5 199.9 Hardware, furniture, and decoration materials 7.2 56.9 182.9 Source: Communiqué on Major Data of the Second National Economic Census (No. 3), PRC National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
Sales plus Operating Revenues: 2000-2009
China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)
Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.
Net Revenues: 2000-2009 China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)
Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.
Media Primarily, the Chinese media is made up of magazines, newspapers, radio and television. However, in the recent times, the emergence of the internet has brought a new dimension to the media as it continues to gain prominence.
Access to the media has remained limited since the State controlled the communication channels. However, access has improved especially after the introduction of the economic reforms. Nevertheless, State run media agencies such as People’s Daily, Xinhua and CCTV continue to hold considerable market share in the country (Shirk 1-23).
Shirk (1-23) observes that television revenues have been on the rise in the recent times. As an illustration, in 1995, the earnings totaled two billion US dollars, by 2005, the income was expected to rise to around six billion US dollars. At the same time, television advertising generated one fifty million US dollars.
The income covered roughly ninety percent of the television revenues. In contrast, radio advertising ranks way behind television in terms of earnings. However, print media earnings continue to rise at very high rates. The developments being made in the print media poses serious concerns to the other forms of communication.
An issue in Renmin Ribao in Hangzhou
Based on a World Bank report there were about thirty-five TV sets per hundred people in China. It was also indicated that on average each household had access to radios since the report established that eight out of ten people had radio access. The report also indicated that China has over one thousand radio stations.
Although radio has the largest coverage in terms of the ability to reach the biggest number of people, the other forms of communication are also progressing. Television continues to advance although not at the same pace with the print media. The resurgence in the use of print media is mostly attributable to the developments in the internet (Shirk 1-23).
Works Cited Donnithorne, Audrey. China’s Economic System. London: Routledge, 2008.
Gattorna, John. Gower handbook of supply chain management. Farnham: Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2003
Guo, Rongxing. An Introduction to the Chinese Economy: The Driving Forces Behind Modern Day China. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
Ilan, Alon and McIntyre, John. The Globalization of Chinese Enterprises. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2008.
Murphey, Robert. East Asia: A New History. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996.
Shirk, Susan. Changing media, changing China. London: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Yu, Keping Globalization and changes in China’s governance. Boston: BRILL, 2008.
Appendix Table showing the volumes of world trade
China rank by population
Map of China Location in the World, Map of China
Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Difference and similarity in Ontological view by Spencer and Herbert Ontology is the study of objects and their ties. It gives criteria on how to differentiate objects which are real or non real, abstract or concrete with their ties. In short it is the study of reality. Marx idea on how human’s perception suggests that humans believe they see but they do not see (Allan, 2010). He says human nature is expressed in the work produced or created. The aftermath of the work should act as a mirror to the human being.
Marx ontological work is based on human’s material dialect. To Marx, reality is perceived in two ways; by idealism and materialism. He says that the world only exists in our idea. Marx believes that what exists to man in the world is only man’s idea. In his materialism aspect he argues that reality is similar to physical properties which are the simple reflections structured by the innate physical properties. Marx disregarded the idea of materialism but was in at least support of idealism (Allan, 2010).
Ontology in other words can be seen as what exactly occurs. Herbert on the other hand demonstrates the evolutionary theory to explain various phenomena. Herbert explains the aspect of organic and inorganic evolution. This he projects on human society, animal and the physical world at large. His work completely disregards the issue of idealism (Allan, 2010).In addition Herbert elaborates the issue of human liberty and moral rights.
To him a life projected by these two issues means an amazingly free and enjoyable life. Also in his discussions he reveals that, progress in a free environment enables man to use all his faculties. This implies that the government’s sole work is to protect man. Moral sentiments and social condition are inextricably connected, constantly interact. For Herbert moral habits are the primary motivators of man (Elwick, 2003).
Difference and similarity in Epistemological view by Spencer and Herbert Epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified beliefs. Knowledge here includes; sufficient conditions, sources, structure and limits. It focuses on knowledge production and dissemination of that knowledge to areas that need clarification. Epistemology can be combined with ontology to form metaphysics.
To Karl Marx who is an idealist, knowledge is a product of the mind (Allan, 2010). The main concept of knowledge to him is to reason. On the other hand Spencer tries to inquire the basis of scientific study of education, psychology, sociology, and ethics of man from an evolutionary point of view (Alston, 1989).
His work although not valued in the present time brought out the distinguishing factor between sociology and social science. His work on evolutionary progress from a single unit of matter was justified. Spencer social philosophy dominated in the 19th century (Craig, 2002). The main ideas he coined were of free existence or laissez-faire and survival for the fittest. His work was against reform because this affected the balance between nature and human society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Difference and similarity in Human nature view by Spencer and Herbert Karl Marx idea on human nature is based on society as a key survival tactic of different species. His thoughts linked how the human species survive with human consciousness. In addition is survival by creative production. The human conscious therefore has evolved by economical changes.
Marx illustrates that through production and creation of products, man did form an intimate relation with his/her environment. Hence, products made by other human being were as if they were made by him, hence man viewed himself as a creative producer (Allan, 2010). This depicted a form of social relation since every human identified with the product made by other human beings. They did communicate by the world they created.
Marx believes in communism. He says the world has dictated the current attributes of man. He adds that for man to be a communist again, he will have to undergo a social restructuring process. Marx argues that every species is defined by the mode of its survival or existence. Marx says to understand a human being is to understand his alienation, ideology and false consciousness.
On the other hand Spencer argues that human nature is flexible and is in the process of advancement (Elwick, 2003). He says ancient man was very primitive, aggressive and irrational. He envisioned human beings to be perfect at the end of evolution, hence completely adapted to social life. This was due to the adaptations to the requirements of the society in future. His notion was based on generations passing quality trait mantles to the next generation.
He saw a society that would be living in balance, harmony, and peace because of the calm nature of environment they would live in (Allan, 2010). Hence, no one would inflict pain on the other. This of course would be from the idea of natural selection as new adaptation would create a perfect human being (Craig, 2002) .Spencer last years of writing depicted him as a pessisimst regarding human’s future.
Reference List Allan, K. (2010). Exploration in classical sociological theory. Seeing the social: London: Pine Forge Press. (2nd Edition).
Alston, W (1989). Epistimitic justification; Essays in the theory of knowledge. Ithaca: Conwell University Press.
We will write a custom Essay on Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Craig, J. (2002).Classical Sociological theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Elwick, J. (2003). Herbert Spencer and the disunity of the social organism. History of science journal. 41, (pp, 35-72).
Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost
Global warming and nuclear power
Introduction Nuclear power is the energy generated by use of Uranium. The energy is produced via complex chemical processes in the nuclear power stations. Major chemical reactions that involve the splitting of atom’s nucleus take place in the reactors. This process is known as fission (Klug and Davies 31-32). The first nuclear power station was established in 1956 in Cumbira, England. Nuclear energy provides about sixteen percent of the total earth’s energy requirements (Cohen ch. 2).
Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost Nuclear plants take years to be built.The cost of buying, and building the reactors is way too high (Klug and Davies 31-32). The kinds of security installations done around the power plant are of high technology which is extremely costly. Managers of nuclear power plants would prefer claiming their returns at the commencement of the plants activities which describes the high cost of fuel. The claim is thought to include cost of installations and time taken to construct the nuclear plants.
Other reasons that could lead to high cost of fuel namely, Security measures, installation factors and safety measures (Klug and Davies 36). The safety measure gadgets are very expensive and are made by great technological experts. Another form of safety measure is availability of machine spare parts. This ensures frequent renewal and upgrading of the plant’s mechanical equipment and this is again very costly.
The main reason for such security is due to the danger that could be caused by exposure to the products of radioactivity. The main equipment that needs close check up is the reactor. Its installation is quite costly hence appropriate renewal of worn out parts is an option that should not to be overlooked.
In addition to these costs, the costs of containing the waste matter is also quite high (Cohen ch.11). Although many people think that investing in nuclear power is a costly event, I do not feel so because it is a worthy venture and one of the cleanest sources of energy.
Though it is not renewable, its establishment and good management could provide a perfect source of energy to the world at large. Nuclear energy production requires low fuel and once the plant is built the cost variables are minor. The Cost of doubling fuel or uranium cost in nuclear plants will only increase fuel cost by 9%. For other sources like coal and gas, doubling fuel prices will increase the fuel prices by 31% and 66% respectively (Cohen ch.9).
Global warming and nuclear power Global warming is caused by the effect of green house gases. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, vapor and ozone. They are produced by burning fossil fuel. When the gases accumulate in the atmosphere they serve as a mirror in reflecting heat energy back to earth. The accumulation of these gases leads to increased temperature on earth’s atmosphere resulting into global warming (Klug and Davies 31-37).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nuclear power should not at any instance be regarded as one of the causative effects of global warming. This is because it consumes carbon dioxide which is of the green house gases during energy production. Carbon dioxide is a major gas among the green house gases. Hence nuclear energy has provided a solution point for its disposal.
Nuclear energy should therefore be referred to as a cleaner rather than destroyer. It has also boosted the economy by creating a market for sale of carbon dioxide gas. Industries producing this gas can as well trade with nuclear power plants. When serious action is taken in trading this gas from various outlets to various nuclear plants, then a solution would be made on how to regulate global warming using nuclear power generation.
In addition to nuclear power generation, use of renewable energy would also help in countering global warming. Due to the increased need for electricity, more nuclear power plants should be built. These will provide enough market for carbon dioxide waste from other manufacturing industries.
Nuclear energy should be adopted in place of fossil fuel. This is because fossil fuels position’s the earth at a higher risk of global warming. The only task that would justify the use of nuclear energy is when the purpose of Uranium metal is not shifted to bomb production or nuclear weapon production. New adoptions and policies on how to prevent global warming should be implemented.
Article Annotation Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.
Steve Barkan, a retired article writer basically points out people’s views that have been influenced by environmental degradation. The people have turned more attention to nuclear energy technology as a means of addressing the problem. Barkan’s article examines people’s opinion on nuclear energy. Those against the notion of nuclear energy as a source of energy believe that carbon dioxide emissions mostly emanate from nuclear power and not renewable energy.
These people’s arguments are based on the argument that high grade ores will get depleted hence low grade ores which produce carbon dioxide will be used with no installation of advanced reactor equipment.
We will write a custom Essay on Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition the opponents say that nuclear waste makes the environment susceptible to harm in the future, but they fail to point out that long lived constituents or radioactive elements give off small portion of radioactivity. The opponents also fail to mention any person that could have been harmed as a result of using fuel from power plants.
Another argument is that high cost of nuclear plant management has resulted to increased cost of fuel. In this case, they fail to note that the cost of electricity from nuclear energy is cheaper than most sources. Barkan also brings out the contrasting issue of terrorist attack whom the anti nuclear group argues that could cause melt down of ore. He responds by saying that high level of technological security would not allow access of such suicidal sabotage.
Conclusion Nuclear energy is more affordable to produce than coal energy. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Instead, the carbon dioxide is used in the process to remove heat from the system. In this case carbon dioxide does not act as a byproduct rather it serves a positive purpose by being utilized. In addition its usage, nuclear energy produces less waste. It does contribute to neither environmental hazards nor green house effect like coal.
Nuclear energy is reliable and produces large amount of energy from less fuel. The negative effect lies on the risks that are associated with nuclear plants especially accidents and suicidal terrorists. These could cause extremely deadly effects and scars that can never be erased. Only good management and high technological security can assist in nullifying such fateful occurrences.
Nuclear power reactors should not be built in politically unstable regions. Political instability results in war and negative effects on the economy. For instance war prone areas are susceptible to attacks by terrorists which could result in detrimental effects. There is need for effective safety policy to be implemented that will address the following factors namely, climate change, security of power plants, safety, energy security and proliferation of nuclear technologies. This is because such proliferations would result in nuclear bomb.
Works Cited Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.
Cohen, Benard. The Nuclear Energy Option. Plenum Press.1990.