Oligopoly is a market system that is intermediate between monopoly and perfect competition. It is a type of market that is dominated by only a number of firms. These firms control the prices of the commodities they sell and the industry they dominate is characterized by significant barriers to entry.
Oligopolistic markets are also characterized by similarities of the products they sell and thus the firms practicing oligopoly are normally interdependent in terms of policy formulation and competition strategies. The competition strategies are normally meant to make the minor differences in their products attractive to their customers so that the particular firm may have a competitive edge. Examples of oligopoly markets here in the United States are the automobile and the steel industry (Friedman 11 – 14).
Since oligopoly is characterized by a few numbers of firms in the industry, each individual firm must predict the response of rival firms before it formulates output or pricing strategies. This leads to the aforementioned interdependence and thus the firms are forced to engage in what is termed as non-price competition.
This kind of competition involves differentiation of virtually similar products by using means that are not price-based for fear of price wars. Therefore, companies achieve their competitive advantage by investing in promotions, improvement of the quality of their goods and services, offering of special services like delivery, provision of their goods/services at locations that are convenient for the consumers etc (Hannaford 1).
Firms in oligopoly markets also practice price discrimination to maximize on their profits or win a larger proportion of the customer base. As mentioned earlier, the firms in oligopoly engage in the manufacture and/or sale of goods that are not easy to manufacture.
The goods may be difficult to manufacture due to large capital requirement like in the automobile industry, unavailability of raw materials like in the steel industry, etc. The above stated reasons act as barriers to entry together with a number of other factors. Since the products are normally of high value, the industry is characterized with a high elasticity of demand.
It is this elasticity of demand that makes price discrimination possible in these markets. For instance, different people pay different amounts of money for the same car depending on the amount they are willing to pay for the car and their skills in bargaining. The above described price discrimination is one of three possible price discrimination strategies. It is known as first degree price discrimination. The other price discrimination strategies used by oligopoly markets are second and third degree price discrimination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second degree price discrimination involves charging of higher prices for larger quantities of goods while third degree price discrimination is the most common and it depends on the firm’s understanding of its market. The latter takes many different forms and it is the one commonly used for achievement of competitive advantage by oligopolies (Pietersz 1). Some of the possible forms it may take include the ranking of customers into groups depending on their income and selling goods to different groups at different prices.
The competitive strategies used by oligopoly markets have a lot of effects on the industry. For instance, price discrimination leads to the reduction of consumer surplus and thus it negatively affects the welfare of the consumer. On the other hand, the extraction of consumer surplus makes the firms make supernormal profits which are in the interests of the firms.
Such price discrimination is, therefore, advantageous to the firms since the primary concern of any business enterprise is profit maximization. Some firms may also set prices below cost for some customers in a bid to have a competitive edge in terms of market share. This kind of price discrimination will be advantageous to the consumers and disadvantageous to the suppliers. Similarly, non-price competition has a lot of influence on consumer behavior in an oligopoly market.
Consumers tend to prefer goods that have been promoted and those that are convenient in terms of delivery or those goods, whose minor details, like color, match the preferences of the consumers. Non-corporative strategic behavior also has numerous effects on the industry. It mostly results to unhealthy competition between the involved firms and tends o be advantageous to the consumers (Friedman 19).
As evidenced in the discussion above, oligopolistic firms have a major challenge in laying down competitive strategies and policies. This is because price competition in this industry is disastrous and can, possibly, drive all the firms out of business. The firms also sell virtually identical products and this magnifies the difficulty that they face in achieving a competitive edge.
As mentioned earlier, the firms settle for competition strategies like non-price competition, non-corporative strategic behavior etc. This is normally due to the interdependence of the firms. These competition strategies have the aforementioned injurious and beneficial effects on the consumers and the suppliers. It is therefore of, essence, that oligopolistic firms set policies and competitive strategies that are beneficial to both the firms and their consumers.
Works Cited Friedman, James. Oligopoly Theory. New York. Barnes
Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
During the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962), the French forces mercilessly tortured their opponents. Although the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) also tortured their enemies, the French military use of torture was more widespread.
Torture is defined as “any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, punishing him for an act he or a third person has done…”(United Nations, para.3). The French experience during the Algerian war proves that the use of torture, though regrettable, is important to defeat successfully terrorist organizations around the world. Therefore, is the use of torture justifiable in some instances?
The military combat of the FLN was being propelled by self-determination and the French state was equally determined to win the war. The French forces did not acknowledge that the colonial conflict was indeed a war, as this would recognize their opponents as a legitimate entity; therefore, it was until August 1999 that they stopped calling it “fight against terrorism.” That is why although France was bound by the Geneva conventions it had signed in 1951; it consistently used brutal warfare tactics in fighting against the FLN.
As shown by the experience of the French military during the Algerian war, torture is a good way of gaining timely and relevant information from terrorists. For example, in an imaginary situation when a terrorist has planted a nuclear bomb in Washington City, the detonation is going to take place in the next forty-five minutes, and cause widespread destruction. However, when the terrorist is captured, although he knows the exact location of the bomb, he is not giving any relevant information.
What is the best thing to do in such a scenario? Is he left to go scot-free because torturing him will interfere with his “human rights?” If the individual is not forced to give out the vital information, then thousands of innocent lives are at risk. In such an instance, the choice of the use of torture is allowable in order to acquire certain life-saving information that could not be retrieved easily. Therefore, the use of torture as a tool in the global War on Terror is important in defeating terrorist groups around the world.
Concerning this issue, Levin states, “there are situations in where torture is not only permissible, but morally mandatory” (para.2). Levin illustrates how liberal societies do not allow the use of torture, and how other governments fear the fury of the United Nations if they are suspected of using or even planning to use it; however, he gives a different opinion on this attitude.
Levin terms the use of torture as “a weapon that is important in winning the War on Terror.” At one point, he addresses the above imaginary situation by saying, “if you caught the terrorist, could you sleep nights, knowing that millions died because you could not bring yourself to apply the electrodes?” (para.4). Some people argue that the use of torture against terrorists is unconstitutional; however, the thousands of lives lost after a terrorist incident far outweighs issues of constitutionality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More so, is the use of torture barbaric? The many innocent lives lost due to negligence is more barbaric (Buchanan, para.2).Therefore, the use of torture is permissible in extreme cases since in some intricate situations, it is a matter of balancing between mass murder and the life of one or a few people.
As Levin puts it, “letting millions of innocents die in deference to one who flaunts his guilt is moral cowardice, unwillingness to dirty one’s hands” (para.4). According to this statement, if harsh interrogation tactics can be used as a way of protecting the lives of the innocent, then no one should shy from using them when it is necessary.
When a nation fails to use torture, it puts thousands of lives at risk due to terrorist threats. This makes the nation to portray the same cowardice being portrayed by the terrorists. During the Algerian war, the French military did not shy off from torturing the terrorists who were potentially dangerous. If these harsh tactics could be used, then the strategies used by terrorists to wreak havoc could have been discovered by now.
Assuming that a victim does not die after he or she has been harshly interrogated, the victim will less likely commit the same crime. Currently, most of the interrogation methods available are laughable and dumb. The French soldiers successively used torture to extract vital information from their opponents. These punishments were meant to ensure that the victims either co-operated with them or confessed some of the enemy schemes.
In some circumstances, the use of torture, besides being essential, is the only available option. For example, in 1994, an Israeli was held captive by some Palestinian terrorists.
After searching for clues, the Israeli police detained the driver of the car, which was used for carrying out the attack. For them to get the information about the whereabouts of the kidnappers, they were compelled to torture the driver to extract some useful information from him. This is just one example of how torture as played a significant role in the war against terrorism.
The Algerian war induced the French military to use torture against its opponents. The French troops were in a difficult situation since most of the time it was not easy to differentiate their opponents from civilians at first sight. This situation was worsened by the fact that their opponents rarely wore easily identifiable war clothes. More so, the civilians were well informed of enemy movements; thus, most of the time they were under suspicion from the French military.
We will write a custom Essay on Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the war, every French soldier was obliged to be alert and give all the relevant information about the enemy by collecting all the vital intelligence information (Branche, 548). Therefore, to achieve this, the soldiers sometimes tortured their opponents. Against this background, torture was permitted as a way of combating the increasing threat of terrorists’ activities. Though the use of harsh tactics is regrettable, it is good way of gathering intelligence information about the movement of terrorists around the world.
Another reason why the French used torture during the Algerian war was to provide it with all the necessary resources for the protection of its citizenry. When a country wants to preserve a strong national security, it is obliged to use harsh interrogation methods as the best alternative.
In a situation when torture is used, prompted by the urge to save innocent lives, by just getting vital information from one individual, then it should be justifiable. The nation of France had always upheld principles of freedom, from freedom of speech to freedom of religion. Nevertheless, when the safety of its citizens was under threat, it had to sacrifice some of its rights.
This was to make the country as safe as possible because insurgents could easily enter the country from Algeria. These rights, which were sacrificed, ensured that its citizens at home and army in the combat zone were safe from acts of terrorism. As much as the use of harsh interrogations can be considered as an inhumane practice, it should be used when the need arises. To fight the growing insurgency in the world, torture is a vital tool that can be used effectively to achieve this.
The formal arguments against the use of torture are absolute; they state that it has no exceptions. This widely held statement is not true because it is a misguided opinion that always comes from social commentators.
This type of absolutist has created a void between good intentions and good consequences. As mush as the use of torture sounds inhumane, it is necessary to defeat successfully terrorist organizations around the world. In extreme circumstances, as experienced by the French military, radical measures ought to be done to avoid mass murder.
If this consists of making a terrorist to feel pain in order to preserve thousands of innocent lives, then it is permissible. However, it is important to note that torture is more beneficial when used as a means of preventing future evils, rather than as a form of punishment. Terrorism will not be completely obliterated from the face of the earth if individuals settle down and stop making efforts to win the War on Terror. The use of torture, in extreme cases, is one way of making efforts to win the war.
Works Cited Branche, Raphaelle. “Torture of terrorists? Use of torture in a “war against terrorism”: justifications, methods, and effects: the case of France in Algeria.” International Review of the Red Cross 89.867 (2007): 543-560. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Torture during the Algerian War and its relevance on the War on Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buchanan, Patrick J. “The case for torture.” Worldnetdaily. 10 March 2010. Web. https://www.wnd.com/2003/03/17663/
Levin, Michael. “The case for torture.” People.brandeis. N.d. Web. http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/torture.html
United Nations. “Convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.” UN convention. 10 Dec. 1987. Web. https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/blog/document/convention-against-torture-and-other-cruel-inhuman-or-degrading-treatment-or-punishment-commentary/
Customer care challenges and opportunities in the UAE Essay college essay help near me
The United Arab Emirates, (UAE) faces numerous challenges and opportunities in their quest for customer care satisfaction for the younger and older generation, immigrants and citizens alike. How to adequately, effectively and satisfactorily handle and manage the groups is indeed a great concern. A need arises for knowledgeable and well trained service providers in government and private sectors thus catering for the increasing growth in number of people.
The rate of immigration in the UAE is rapidly increasing and it is estimated that there are approximately 5 million refugees in the region consequently increasing the need for customer care. The country has the world’s highest net migration rate and a very diverse and multicultural society.
The region is the second-fastest growing populace, making it difficult to adapt to social change, monetary and political strains. Although today the population is predominantly Islamic, there are three dominant races which originally originated there- Christianity, Islam and Judaism.
The customer is the key focus throughout any sector in the global market. Customer care both in the government and private sector involves receiving walk in customers in the reception, technical expertise and advice, front office management and international relations with countries in which they export their products.
All staff should be trained and equipped with communication skills and be aware of and be committed to customer care. Efficient systems and procedures should be designed to enhance customer care in any organization. Loss of a customer does not only mean the loss of one sale but it may eventually impact on a lifetime of sales.
The government sector is involved in the invention, delivery and provision of goods and services for its citizens. The UAE houses seven states, commonly referred to as emirates. Petroleum and subsidiary products play an essential role in the UAE financial system. It boasts of the most luxurious airline service in the world and customer retention and satisfaction is of great priority.
The government makes huge contributions to poor African countries and helps in emergency relief and creating good rapport with its customers. The UAE government is also committed to foreign corporation, modernization and creating employment opportunities. This necessitates extensive diplomatic relations with other countries creating new opportunities for customer care.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The private sector comprises privately owned large, medium and small organizations and business which are not run or controlled by the government. In the UAE, the classified companies hire majority of the personnel. The success and continuity of this sector hugely relies on how well its staff relate with customers hence the need to employ trained and knowledgeable employees keeping up with national and international developments.
Another major challenge in customer care in the UAE is illiteracy and communication, the medium of instruction in the public schools being Arabic. Education is examined and funded by the government, through the ministry of education. However, illiteracy standards are reducing due to courses that curb illiteracy among the different population.
Health care is only free for UAE citizens only in government hospitals. The ratio of doctors to patients is greatly depressing hence creating stress in customer care provision. In the private hospitals, there tends to be less congestion for bed space and doctors attention due to the high cost. The high costs therefore call for improved customer care compared to the government owned medical facilities.
By 2020, the largest airport in the world will be in Dubai. Both the government and private sector have made huge investments in tourism, real estates and leisure, creating more opportunities for customer care and international relations. UAE has the ability to address challenges.
Mexican American/Chicano/Latino/Hispanic Cultural Variations in Childrearing Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help
Mexican Americans form about 12.5% of the population in the United States. They are of Mexican descent and most of them trace their origin to the ancient colonial settlers. The Mexican Americans are descendants of Mexicans and Spaniards. The group is multiracial. The Mexican Americans are mostly concentrated in Southwest of the United States. Today many Mexican Americans are illegal immigrants as they come to look for employment.
Mexican Americans migrated to the United States during the early colonial days. Most of the Mexican Americans lived in areas in the USA that once belonged to Mexico that is areas such as California, Texas, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and others and in the regions that they got employment as well as in steel producing areas in the United States. The identity of this group has changed rapidly throughout history as it fought for equal treatment in the USA.
Today the group struggles to the definition and maintenance of their identity. The Mexican Americans form the largest part of employees in labor market. The rising numbers of illegal immigrants provide cheap labor to their white employers and most work as janitors, gardeners and other blue-collar jobs. In matters of education, due to their immigrant status most families had to choose between sending their children to or save the meager income for other needs (Englekirk and Marin 1).
The Mexican Americans have strong family values and have strong family relationships. The bond goes beyond the nuclear family due to familism-family obligation and care. Mexican Americans has strong cultural practices that are passed on to children and this responsibility is mainly left to the women.
Through socialization, the children are able to grow up and become integral members of the family. The parents often demand that the children comply with authority and those who fail are often punished physically. Through strict parenting, the children are given verbal commands and often-harsh threats when it comes to discipline.
Through this strategy, parents want to teach their children the value of family or familismo and respect especially for the adults-respecto. This involves parental behavior that the children are supposed to copy to learn how to behave in the family or with the family norms. Next, let us focus on gender socialization among the Mexican Americans (Livas-Dlott, Alejandra et al 567-9).
Gender socialization among the Mexican Americans is tailored along traditional roles. Just like in most societies in the world in which gender roles are determined by one’s sex so is the Mexican American gender socialization. It is also interesting to note that in spite of changes about gender roles in the country most Mexican Americans retain their traditional view about gender expectations (Raffaelli and Ontai 288).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally the female gender roles are being submissive, dependent and chaste. On the other hand, male gender roles are independent, virile and dominant. The different ideals of gender roles thus have an impact on how boys and girls are socialized to fit in their expected gender roles.
For example, the girls were expected to maintain their virginity and thus had to be careful during dating while the boys did not have to observe any rules during dating. This means that girls are restricted from interacting with romantic partners in case they lose their virginity. Girls are also restricted in their movements and cannot go wherever they wish as their brothers can as their parents tend to be very protective with them (Raffaelli and Ontai 287-288; Englekirk and Marin 1).
The Mexican Americans parents have different child rearing habits from their African Americans and Anglo Americans. “The Mexican Americans place greater emphasis on the development of proper demeanor and a sense of dignity than on early achievement or attainment of developmental milestones” (Kolobe 440). The Mexican American families are nurturing, indulgent and egalitarian. This leads to different outcomes of their children’s behavior and that of children from other cultural backgrounds in the United States.
It is also important to note that the among the Mexican Americans there are different child rearing practices depending on the origin of parents for example parents who are USA born and speak English tend to allow their daughters to play like boys and are less protective. On the contrary, parents who emphasized on traditional femininity roles have lower levels of education.
In addition, fathers who encourage their sons to get involved with roles traditionally set out for girls and restrict their sons movement have higher education levels(Raffaelli and Ontai 294-295).
Mexican Americans even in the 21st century are still considered as foreigners by the other members of the society (Englekirk and Marin 1). Many of them have complained about discrimination and especially about police profiling. The Mexican American youths face problems concerning identity as they try to maintain their cultural identity as socialized and being acculturated into the Anglo American culture fully due to the benefits that come with it such as speaking English.
The youths also face the challenge of a segregated educational, system and the schools they attend lack all the necessary facilities and many students drop up thus reducing their employability (Chavkin195). It is important for the problems that Mexican Americans face to be addressed well to reduce the feelings of anti-Americanism by the Mexican Americans, as America is their country too.
We will write a custom Essay on Mexican American/Chicano/Latino/Hispanic Cultural Variations in Childrearing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Chavkin, Nancy Feyl. “Joining forces: Education for a changing population.” Educational Horizons 68.4 (1990): 190-196
Englekirk and Marin. Mexican Americans. 2010. 12 May 2010. https://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.html
Kolobe, Thubi. “Childrearing Practices and Developmental Expectations for Mexican-American Mothers and the Developmental Status of Their Infants.” Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association 84. 5 (2004): 439-453.
Livas-Dlott, Alejandra, Bruce Fuller, Gabriel Stein, Margaret Bridges, Araina Figuoera and Laurie Mireles. Commands, Competence, and Carion: Maternal Socialization
Practices in Mexican American families. Developmental Psychology 46. 3(2010):566-578
Raffaelli, Marcela and Ontai, Lenna. “Gender Socialization in Latino/a families from two retrospective studies.”Sex Roles: A journal of Research 50.5 (2004): 287-299.
School Violence in the USA: Causes and Solutions Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
What is School Violence?
Why does School Violence Occur?
How to Prevent School Violence
Introduction In the recent years, there has been a marked rise in cases of juvenile violence. These cases have been highlighted by some especially tragic shootings that have taken place in school districts throughout the nation.
Owing to the high publicity that school shootings have received through the years, policy makers have engaged in the increased implementation of zero tolerance policies on violence that are meant to extinguish violence (Cornell, 2006). However, school violence has continued to take place despite the presence of these policies which were meant to ensure that schools remain safe for students.
Unlike other forms of violence, school violence is shaped by numerous factors including socioeconomic, status and cultural (UNESCO, 2007). This complexity makes school violence harder to predict or even understand. To try and shed some light on the issue, this paper shall perform a detailed research as to why school violence occurs, and the people most likely to perpetrate it. A discussion of the proposed solution to the problem of school violence shall also be undertaken.
What is School Violence? School violence is defined as “any behavior that violates a school’s educational mission or climate of respect or jeopardizes the intent of the school to be free of aggression against persons or property, drugs, weapons, disruptions and disorder” (NTAC, 2002). From this definition, it is clear that school violence entails more than just the brutal school shootings that have come to be synonymous with the term “school violence” owing to the media depiction of the same.
The definition of “school violence” also suggests that there are some behaviors which have been noted to lead to violent behavior which manifests itself in the form of school violence. A deeper understanding of these behaviors can help policy makers, school administrators and parents alike ensure that the cases of school violence are reduced.
Why does School Violence Occur? Preti suggest that school violence and in particular school shootings may be caused by “peer’s rejection, particularly bullying and victimization” (Preti, 2008). This is an opinion that is reinforced by the Center for Disease Control (2010) which affirms that according to research on youths, individuals who have a history of violent victimization have a higher risk of being involved in cases of school violence.
This is a physiologically sound reason for the cause of violence since when people feel victimized, they tend to be more prone to perform acts of violence. Cornell (2006) theorizes that victims of relentless bullying mostly respond by rejecting conventional values and becoming morbidly preoccupied with violent revenge schemes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When young people feel alienated from their peers, they end up feeling unconnected with the school community and the world around them. This may lead to them resorting to the planning and engaging in violent actions in an effort to win the attention as well as the notoriety of both their immediate community and beyond. (Gerler, 2004).
Arguably one of the factors that have led to the increase in the rates of school violence is the increased possession of firearms by school age children as well as the relative ease of access to guns. Cornel (2006) reports that “more than three-fourths of the murders committed by juveniles involved guns.” While guns by themselves do not result in youth violence, their presence plays a critical role in escalating aggressive behavior as even ordinary disputes and arguments can escalate into killings.
Depression and other mental disorders may also predispose one to violence. Most of the students who have gone on shooting rampages in the previous years have been noted to suffer from depression and suicidal behaviors (NTAC, 2002). This suggests that violence may have a more deep rooted cause than just the presence of guns or a non conducive learning environment.
The causes of depression or mental disorders are varied and they may include many factors such as economic hardships, abusive environment at home and failure at school to name but a few. Students who suffer from these psychological disorders may not be able to handle some situations as well as psychologically healthy students.
Another not so subtle cause of school violence is the media influence on children. Specifically, violent video games have been blamed for some of the worse school shootings in the country. This is because the correlation between video-game violence and increased aggression amongst the youths is unnerving.
Anderson and Bushman (2001) hypothesize that it is no coincidence that recent cases of high school and campus violence are in most cases perpetrated by individuals who habitually played violent video games. Studies indicate that the reason for increased aggression with increased exposure to violence scenes is because aggression is largely based on the learning function of the brain and as such, each violent episode is in essence one more learning trial (Dill, 2009).
While proponents of video games insist that video games cannot influence a non-violent person into violence, hundreds of scientific studies affirm that “exposure to entertainment violence increases a child’s aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and, over time, increases the risk that a child will engage in violent criminal behavior” (Cornell, 2006).
We will write a custom Research Paper on School Violence in the USA: Causes and Solutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another argument advanced as to the cause of school violence is that schools in general promote negative responses from students thus invoking violence and other anti-social behavior.
A report by UNESCO (2007) asserts that a negative perception of the school environment by students can result in active aggressive resistance. In its most extreme, this aggressive resistance can manifest itself in the form of school shootings. The report further suggests that the fact that most schools have an authoritarian system rather than a democratic model schools can indeed lead to resentment by students and therefore violence.
How to Prevent School Violence Owing to the adverse effect that violence has on both the students in school and the community at large, measures to alleviate this problem have been proposed. One of the measures proposed is the introduction of a curricular to help prevent violence. Reece, Russell and House (2001) indicate that such curriculums teach students means other than violence through which they can solve their interpersonal and personal problems.
By integrating such educational programs into the students learning, children can be empowered on how to react to situations without having to resolve to violence. Such curriculums also place an emphasis on the need to seek help if a person is troubled (Reece, Russell
The Digital Divide Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What is the Digital Divide?
Causes of the Digital divide
Reducing the Divide
Introduction The invention of the computer and the subsequent birth of the internet have been seen as the most significant advances of the 20th century.
Over the course of the past few decades, there has been a remarkable rise in the use of computers and the internet. Sahay asserts that the ability of computing technologies to traverse geographical and social barriers has resulted in the creation of a closer knit global community (36). In addition to this, the unprecedented high adoption rate of the internet has resulted in it being a necessity in the running of our day to day lives.
However, there have been concerns due to the fact that these life transforming technologies are disparately available to people in the society. People in the high-income bracket have been seen to have a higher access to computer and the internet. This paper argues that the digital divide does exist and sets out to provide a better understanding of the causes of the same. Solutions to this problem are also addressed by this paper.
What is the Digital Divide? The term divide is mostly used to refer to the economic gap that exists between the poor and richer members of the society. In relation to technology, the OECD defines digital divide as ” the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities.” (5). As such, the digital divide refers to the disparities in access of communication technology experienced by people.
Causes of the Digital divide While the respective costs of computers and internet access have reduced drastically over the years, these costs still remain significantly expensive for some people in the population. As a result of this, household income is still a large determinant of whether internet access is available at a home.
Income is especially a large factor in developing countries where most people still find the cost of owning a PC prohibitive. However, income as a factor leading to the digital divide is not only confined to developing nations. A report by the NTIA indicated that across the United States, internet access in homes continued to be closely correlated with the income levels (3).
Education also plays a key role in the digital divide. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration indicates that in America, certain groups such as Whites and Asian Americans who possess higher educational levels have higher levels of both computer ownership as well as access to the internet (3). This is because the more educated members of the society are having a higher rate of increased access to computers and internet access as opposed to the less educated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A simple increase in the access to computer hardware resources through the production of low cost versions of information technology which is affordable to many does not necessarily result in a reduction in the digital divide. This is because in addition to the economic realities there are other prominent factors.
The lack of technological knowhow has been cited as further widening the digital divide. This means that even with access to technology, people might still be unable to make effective usage of the same. Sahay best expresses this problem by asserting that “just by providing people with computers and internet access, we cannot hope to devise a solution to bridge the digital divide.” (37).
Another cause of the digital divide is the social and cultural differences evident in most nations in the world. One’s race and culture have been known to have a deep effect on their adoption and use of a particular technology (Chen and Wellman 42).
This is an opinion which is shared by Sahay who notes that people with fears, assumptions or pre-conceived notions about technology may shy away from its usage (46). As such, people can have the economic means and access to computers and the internet but their culture may retard their use of the same.
Reducing the Divide The digital divide leads to a loss of the opportunity by many people to benefit from the tremendous economic and educational opportunities that the digital economy provides (NTIA 3). As such, the reduction of this divide by use of digital inclusion steps is necessary for everyone to share in the opportunities provided. As has been demonstrated above, one of the primary causes of the digital divide is the income inequality between people and nations.
Most developing countries have low income levels and their population cannot afford computers. To help alleviate this, programs have been put in place to reduce the cost of computers or even offer them for free to the developing countries. For example, a project by Quanta Computer Inc in 2007 set out to supply laptops to developing world children by having consumers in the U.S. buy 2 laptops and have one donated to Africa (Associated Press).
Studies indicate that males are more likely than females in the comparable population to have internet access at home mostly since women dismiss private computer and internet usage (Korupp and Szydlik 417). The bridging of this gender divide will therefore lead to a reduction in the digital divide that exists.
We will write a custom Essay on The Digital Divide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In recent years, there has been evidence that the gender divide is slowly closing up. This is mostly as a result of the younger generation who use the computer and internet indiscriminately therefore reducing the strong gender bias that once existed. This trend should be encouraged so as to further accelerate the bridging of the digital divide.
As has been illustrated in this paper, there exist non economic factors that may lead to people not making use of computers hence increasing the digital divide. These factors have mostly been dismissed as more attention is placed on the income related divide. However, dealing with this social and cultural related divides will also lead to a decrease in the divide. By alleviating the fears and false notions that people may have about technology, people will be more willing to use computers and the internet.
Conclusion A divide, be it digital or economic acts as a major roadblock in the way for economic and social prosperity. This paper set out to investigate the digital divide phenomena. To this end, the paper has articulated the issue of digital divide, its causes and solutions to the problem.
While some people do suggest that the digital divide will get bridged on its own as time progresses, I believe that governments should take up affirmative action and fund projects that will result in a digitally inclusive society. Bridging of the digital divide will lead to people and nations increasingly being included in knowledge based societies and economies. This will have a positive impact to every community in the entire world.
Works Cited Associated Press. Hundred-Dollar Laptop’ on Sale in Two-for-One Deal. 25 Sept 2007. Web.
Chen, Wenhong and Wellman, Barry. The Global Digital Divide- Within and Between Countries. IT
Market segmentation Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Market segmentation is the procedure of engaging products, prices, places and promotions. The process involves identifying and targeting different markets as the basis for identifying with particular marketing mixes. Proper market segmentation has to engage people, practices and different corporal substantiations.
The procedure for market segmentation involves identifying the potential customers and their needs, possible market segments and later development of profiles for identified market segments.
After the identification, the second stage involves selection of a target segment before engaging an attraction towards the particular market segment. It is equally important for a marketer to engage proper positioning by identifying the advantages of the chosen market segments. This may involve selection of a positioning concept before engaging the marketing plan for each identified segment.
Market segmentation involves division of large markets into consumer-focused subsets for the clients who have common needs or applications for services or goods on offer. Clientele subgroups are identifiable through various demographics in connection with the purpose of the market segment identification or goal of the marketer. Customers’ segmentation determines deigns and implementation procedures of the marketing campaigns.
In relation to McDonald and Dunbar (2007, p. 213) writing, marketers engage in the market segmentation in the aim of understanding the importance of finding a sufficient customer-base to cater for the needs. Categorizing various customers on a given criteria helps firms to establish a better application for the products or services. The gathered ideas of a criterion can thus be of help in identification of a larger audience within the demographics, and thus increase the profit margins due to amplification of market shares in the submarkets.
There are various characteristics of a targeted consumer base. The attributes are identifiable for a given market segment such as gender, age, location, income level or education level. The market segmentation process allows for a phenomenon where a consumer may fall upon various categories. Segmentation of the market allows the company to understand the ways of enhancing customer loyalty especially among potential long-term clients.
The marketers allow the customers to make suggestions concerning the practical means of improving product or service. The changes may be minor with little or no effect to the value of the core product, but they are vital in maintaining a strong and loyal customer base. The changes also ensure that the company is of goodwill because of the readiness to listen to its clients’ needs. Market segregation is generally for strengthening the bond between the vendors and the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of market segmentation is important because the buyers and sellers form non-homogenous groups for the reason that there are differences on needs, preferences, characters and resources. Considering the Dell Inc case study, the marketing and distribution department realizes that it not possible to cater for each of its customer’s characteristics.
Marketers are however able to accomplish some standardized measures of segmentation by grouping customers to various categories of common characteristics. The common characteristics are the basis for standardized marketing merges into segments.
The decisive factors for market segmentation involve either the consumer or the business marketers. The segmentation requirements for Dell Inc would entail the geographical segmentation. As an international and well-known company, Dell Inc would involve the regional variables in its segmentation such as the concentration of the customers, the measures of international industrial growth rates and, other microeconomic factors such as business expansion plans.
A good example of the geographical segmentation is decision to concentrate on sale of specific products to particular countries. Secondly, the company can segment markets according to the type of customers. Some of the clients are possibly big international organizations, companies, governments, or private firms. The organization’s dimensions, position in a market niche and the capacity of its value chains are the main determinants of concentration.
Thirdly, there is need for Dell Inc to consider the behavioural segmentation based on the consumer performances and behaviours such as the customization, usage, patterns, prices, benefits, competition, consumer and brand loyalty. The demographic segmentation touches on the age, ethnic setting, gender, income levels, status, or occupation, which can equally be of assistance. Lastly, the company ought to consider the psychographic segmentation to determine clients’ bases depending on the attitudes, lifestyles and values.
Integrating the marketing communication strategies Communication is a key strategy of an organization’s success. A company may be having the best and most innovative services or products, but without strong internal and external communication, then the demand may be weak. Communication of products requires the marketers to focus on the value.
The quality is of much benefit to the client than quantity. Enhancement of dialogue requires invitation of client’s thoughts to enhance a rapport in promotion of coordinated efforts. Client participation ensures timely delivery of proper information or right contents.
We will write a custom Report on Market segmentation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Doole and Lowe (2008, p. 232), the proper marketing communications tools, which promote companies products and services to its customers and the intermediaries include, the ability to ensure proper direction, precision, uniformity, appearance and timings for the targeted audiences. Marketers have to guarantee the values of proper communication to avoid confusion about branding and products recognition.
The marketing mix enables them to examine prices of products, the distribution procedures, adverting, promotion mechanisms and customer service certification. “By integrating marketing communications strategies, it is important for the marketers to define as well as conduct some research concerning… the targeted audience, objectives, budgets, competition, social effects, and cultural or other technological issues” (Doole and Lowe, 2008, p. 232) .
The final process of the strategy involves evaluation of the decided promotion strategies. Marketers can automatically acquire the customer trust and loyalty by enhancing ethical plans, right communication procedures and following the right communication guidelines such as the marketing communication tools.
Marketing communications tools Advertising
This tool requires the right medium to get the accurate messages efficiently to the right audience. The effective avenues of transmission depend on the market segments, the chosen niche, and the dynamics.
Considering the Dell Inc company that faces the challenges of international segmentation and maintaining the well-established customers’ loyalty, the advertising tools can be the product magazines, newspapers/ newsmagazines, internet, billboards and, mobile television such as the telephony advancements. The advertisement tools have to reach a wide clientele base regardless of the expenses.
This is a marketing communications tool involving the public perception of the products or services on offer. For a marketer to be in a position of enhancing excellent public appearance for an organization there is need to engage sponsorship vents in the aim of building good customer trust and goodwill. The product or service has to give a positive perspective.
Mostly, the sales promotion is a marketing strategy that involves the media, for instance, advertising contests, sales of coupons through the media, provision of prototypes/sample products, sales of premiums, displays, demonstrations and engaging incentives. Promotion of sales accelerates the short-term sales by enhancing brand awareness campaigns, and creating or encouraging a repetitive buying procedure.
Direct involvement is a strong marketing strategic tool that involves responses to specific individual emails, telephone calls, inquiry catalogues or mails of customers. The marketers have to respond directly to inquiries made through the media such as television or radio. The responses cater for targeted audience to increase sales and introduce new products as a different option for marketing approaches.
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This marketing tool involves direct interaction where the marketing team must set sales appointments to selected clientele. It involves making direct presentations such as one-on-one communication to attract a strong clientele base and strengthen their relationships or loyalty to the firm.
Before selection of a particular marketing tool, the marketing managers and representatives must analyze the “social, competitive, legal, regulatory, ethics, cultural and technological” effects to avoid inappropriateness, controversies and illegal encounters (Shimp, 2008, p. 8).
Analysis of Dell’s decision to enter into relationship with distributing retailers Since its initiation, the marketing strategy of Dell Inc involved a direct client-server interaction. Its engagement of a retailers’ involvement such as, Wal-Mart is a significant change of marketing strategy. Some well established retailer stores like the Wal-Mart are internationally preferences to most customers and therefore an advantage to Dell in its global retailing strategy.
The shift from strict direct selling to incorporate indirect selling by external retailers is definitely a simpler choice for the marketing team, but equally a difficult cultural move in its marketing strategies. The move is currently still on its underway and it may be difficult to determine. Is it a strategic move to avoid disastrous snarl-ups considering the competition or are the challenges bonds to increase?
Losing its leadership mantle to the rival group Hewlett Packard (HP), Dell may be making the move due to pressure. On the other hand, the establishment in the market may be an indication that the need to emphasize on direct sales is not necessary the attraction to its products among most clients.
Selling through the well-established retailer stores is an excellent move for the Dell Company because of the benefits of exposure especially in different market niches. The company also considers the safety of its products by starting mainly with the low-end products.
The progressive changeover on the marketing strategies enhances performance and ensures provisions of extended commitment in cases of needs. It is usually safe to change from one strategy to another slowly while keenly monitoring the effects as opposed to the direct changeover.
Involving the retailers is a great strategy of testing how well the company would work with the retailer stores especially on the up-coming products. How well would the company be able to handle the sales of its products by third parties especially stores that the company can barely be in a position to control? The experience is worthwhile for Dell Inc future marketing decisions.
The move will automatically affect Dells procedures of engaging customers such as the advertisement strategies and, the supply chain management. The move ensures that Dell Inc is able to develop a record of accomplishment from involvement with the retailers. The record of performance such as, the rate at which the products sell would enable the marketers to decide on the possibility of engaging the more vibrant retailers.
The records provide Dell’s ability to retail from various sublets in the diverse retail channels. According to Cranfield School of Management (2000, p.5), the ability to form relationship with retailers is also a greater chance for other interested parties to channel their interests and form new links since this assists the retailers on their establishments.
The well-established retail markets have the advantage of moving their products very fast and this can turn to be a huge benefit to the Dell Company. The question many marketers would arguably pose is, how well can computer products sell like the other products in the stores? Selling a computer is similar to selling any other product, but the clients want to know how to deal with the product such as the procedure for setting it up.
How many retailers have the workmanship to withstand the long hours of user explanations and education? The arguments may fall upon the earnings of the marketer. The pay scale of Wal-Mart sellers may be quite different from that of Dell, thus Dell’s move to engage outside retailers may seem like a huge bargain over sales.
Conclusion The main marketing strategy is the need to enhance proper customer relationship. Dell Inc has all along emphasized on the need to focus attention on the clients’ needs and demands. Companies need to find various methods of getting closer to the client for success thus the reason why dell is focusing on diversification into the retail markets. The Dell Company detached the partnership functions to emphasize on the need for it responsibility of customer relationship.
From the case analysis, it is evident that Dell categorizes its business transactions in various customer segments for instance the recent retail stores relationship, which involves the public and private sectors. It also includes the direct customer relationship and lastly the home or public medium or small business sectors.
Such a company need to approach various segments carefully and differently in the aim of customizing to fit specific needs. Arguably, the most viable communication tools for Dell’s marketing strategy would include the internet and call centres considering the diversification of the products and market competitiveness.
References Cranfield School of Management (2000). Marketing Management: a Relationship Marketing Perspective, Macmillan Business, Basingstoke
Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” Essay scholarship essay help
Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” is a rather untypical sort of stories. Having a generally light-hearted character, the story appears to be extremely educational. It amazes, entertains, and sometimes even terrifies the readers with its main character, Bartleby, and his behavior, which the author often calls “unaccountable” (Melville, 8).
Undoubtedly, the man appeals to its readers in some inexplicable way, and gives new lessons to them. However, an interesting point to explore is not the interrelations between the reader and the character, but between the narrator and Bartleby.
The story is told from the first person singular, thus giving the readers a chance to see everything with the eyes of the narrator. He often tells about his feelings, emotions, and thoughts, which he has in the course of communication with Bartleby. As it may first appear to the readers, the narrator does not understand anything about the man’s behavior. Bartleby’s origin, interests, character, preferences – everything is covered with a thick fog of mystery, and there seems to be no chance to ever approach to his thoughts or feelings.
In addition, a vivid contrast of their perceptions of different situations is presented. Indeed, while the narrator expresses such feelings towards Bartleby, as being “disconcerted”, “consternated”, “perplexed”, “irritated”, and so on, the man remained “oblivious” and “dimly calm”, sticking to his “steadiness” and “unalterableness of demeanor” (Melville, 31).
All the mentioned emotions or their absence proved that the relations between the narrator and the scrivener seem to be rather one-sided. Bartleby is not by any means rude, or impolite; he is simply passive. At the same time, the narrator does not give up his idea to break the ice and become friends with the worker.
This purpose seems unjustified, when at the end of the story Bartleby dies, despite all the attempts of the narrator to help him. However, these one-sided relations implied something more than unsuccessful tries. Despite the fact that Bartleby was not eager to communicate, he helped the narrator to learn a lot of things. Even though the author does not name these things directly, they can be seen in some details of the story.
Indeed, the changes in narrator’s character are obvious throughout the story. Indisputably, these changes were caused by his communication with the scrivener. One of the basic changes is his attitude to life. At the beginning of the story, the narrator mentions: “though I belong to a profession proverbially energetic and nervous, even to turbulence, at times, yet nothing of that sort have I ever suffered to invade my peace” (Melville, 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this quote we can see, that the narrator is obviously a rather calm man, who does not let his emotions out, if he ever has any. However, after getting acquainted with Bartleby, the narrator has become rather emotional, and sometimes too expressive. At first sight it may appear that the range of emotions felt by narrator are caused by anger. Indeed, he was treated with disrespect by one of his employees, who only answered to all of his asks: “I prefer not to” (Melville, 15).
However, in case the basic feeling was anger, the narrator could have been more abrupt, or even cruel to the scrivener. But the more reservation Bartleby carried, the more interest he caused in his chief. This proves that the narrator cared for him. Undoubtedly, the narrator felt much of compassion, which testifies his human qualities.
It should be noted though, that these human qualities were revealed by Bartleby alone, as far as before communication with him the narrator never showed them. Therefore, it can be stated that communication with Bartleby made the narrator more open; he did not only try to help, but he was eager to understand the scrivener, indefatigably analyzing his behavior and trying to justify it.
What is more, the narrator admits the above stated idea himself: “I trembled to think that my contact with the scrivener had already and seriously affected me in a mental way” (Melville, 19).
As we can see, the narrator changed not only his behavior, but also his way of thinking. It was a great surprise for the readers to discover that a man, who was described to be a “perpetual sentry in the corner” (Melville, 8), and who barely said a word to one of his colleagues, was eventually admitted by the narrator to have “in some degree turned the tongues, if not the heads of myself and clerks” (Melville, 20).
All the workers of the office gave up the idea to change Bartleby and accepted him as he was. This is probably the greatest lesson the narrator learned from this scrivener: to take things as they come, not trying to adapt them to his subjective views.
At the end of the story, when the narrator attends Bartleby in the Tombs, he seems to have a completely different perception of the man, comparing to the one that was at the very beginning. When the grub-man calls Bartleby “odd”, the narrator answers that he would rather call him “deranged” (Melville, 46).
We will write a custom Essay on Herman Melville’s “Bartleby the Scrivener” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is where we see, that the narrator does not see Bartleby as a demented man anymore, but treats the specific features of his character with respect. What is more, he showed a disinterested will to help, when offering money to the grub-man, in order to keep Bartleby fed well. Such an unselfish devotion to a person, whom he barely knows, attests the deepest changes in the narrator’s consciousness.
Works Cited Melville, Herman. Bartleby the Scrivener. NY: Kessinger Publishing Co, 2004.
Hotel Cavendish Company Analysis Report essay help online: essay help online
Hotel Cavendish is located in the dynamic center of Bloomsbury in UK. A PESTEL examination is an essential tool which helps in analyzing the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative pressures which may affect an institution (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). These external pressures that have an effect on Hotel Cavendish ought to be vigilantly taken into account by the hotel administration.
The hotel’s strategic fundamental position in the capital makes it susceptible to PESTEL pressures. This is evident in the existence of new rules in the city that need acquiescence. Demographic changes may lead to the diminution of market size and a fresh technology may be introduced (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23). This requires new advertising and end user approval alternatives that need clear exemplification.
In a social context, London has an assortment of religion and cultures. Hundreds of languages are spoken in its environs and the employment of more trained staff that is multi-lingual is necessary for the 4-star hotel. Around 2 million visitors from all over the globe visit the center every month either for business purposes or leisurely as tourists.
Demographic trends evident in the changes in the populace age, composition along with the entry of new cultures and race in the area make it appropriate for the hotel to identify its potential clients.
The capital is an economic center and countless intercontinental businesses are carried out here. Large business moguls arrive in the city of London to transact huge business deals. There ought to be additional options of spacious conference rooms for delegates, aside from the present ones which host 2-80 people (Cavendish hotel, 2010).
The hotel administration should endeavor to sustain regular businessmen who may want urgent accommodation in the hotel or referred to alternative areas. Even though it is required to reserve in advance, there can be exceptional reservations for a number of regulars.
There are hundreds of overseas banks and offices for thousands of companies in London, and the employees and officials may need making urgent reservations. The effect of recession and change in stock exchange market fluctuations must be strictly monitored. Trends in economic indicators like the cost of raw materials and the level of income of its clients are essential information in knowing the visiting trends of clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental issues from time to time control the social decisions and purchasing options that clients make in the selection of new services being offered in the hotel. Use of solar technology to produce energy and having breezy areas of shady plants are a benefit in selection of whether one will make reservations for the hotel or select a different option.
Out-of-doors landscaping with appropriate foliage at the lounge and entrance can take account of areas for dining. The hotel is a non-smoking zone. This course of action will successfully draw more non-smokers (Cavendish hotel, 2010). Those who smoke have to use alternative hotels, hence loss of clients. An effective way of pleasing both is by having rooms in a section for smokers. Some delegates may either be smokers or non-smokers and may desire to be accommodated in the same place.
It is not forgotten that technology is intensifying at an extraordinarily rapid pace. Sources of power and information systems are undergoing modification thus the need for the hotel to be very adaptive to these changes. Available options for publicity should be employed in an aggressive edge (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23).
The government on numerous occasions initiates changes in bylaws and rules which may stabilize or weaken the hotels functionality. Such changes are directly related to politics consequently affecting the number of visitors into the country and the hotel. The operations in Cavendish hotel is affected by different forms of pressure that are best illustrated by the Pestle criterion.
It is imperative to acknowledge that the success of the venture is wholly reliant on the manner in which it manipulates the environment as portrayed by the political, economic, social, technical, environmental and legislative concepts (Institute of leadership and management 2007, p. 23)
Reference List Cavendish hotel, 2010, Hotel Cavendish, 12th may 2010,
Institute of leadership and management, 2007, marketing for managers, Massachusetts, Elsevier. Pp. 23
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Social Influences on Behavior: Towards understanding Depression and Alcoholism based on Social Situations Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In our daily endeavors, we go through social experiences that impact upon our behavior in major ways. The society itself is a conglomeration of many laws, moral obligations, and values that dictates how members should behave (Schueler, 1997). Though we may not agree with some laws set by society, we are forced to toe the line due to the repercussions that may follow.
Apart from societal regulations, there exist a myriad of other social experiences that affects our behavior and interaction with others. For instance, marriage as a social institution greatly influences behavior in that married men are no longer expected to behave like school boys. Behavior can also be negatively affected by social experiences (Smith
Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Team Recruitment and Association
Budget and Risk Assessment
Introduction A project was proposed by Engineering Solutions a corporation dedicated to expertise inclusion, novelty, and blueprint initiatives. In the firm’s venture to offer customers assured response to their needs, Engineering Solutions proposed a project on the development of a web linked power measuring device. Engineering Solutions intended to design an inclusive and reliable energy measuring device. The firm pioneered an energy measuring device novelty as a product for residential houses and public housing.
The power measuring device project was developed as an appliance that quantified energy utilization in homes and public lodgings. The energy quantifying device was a mechanism designed to compute operations expenses and overall or private energy consumption. Engineering Solutions project team members were scheduled to work on the energy measuring apparatus project for eleven weeks. Work on the project was planned to commence on 2nd February 2010 and end on 28th May 2010.
Prior to constructing the web linked power measuring device, the project team had to establish the energy meter specifications. The web linked energy meter was intended to have the following qualities:
Capacity to measure power voltage; a product of direct electrical energy and current built-in over a series.
Capability to transmit integrated power consumption information through a remote register in the internet.
Simple to operate from anywhere in the world and interpret power information transmitted.
Affordability of the energy meter by power consumers.
Integrated power consumption information was to be posted on to an internet site through an Ethernet intersection. The Ethernet junction innovation was anticipated to facilitate consumer assessment of power utilization in different homes and apartments. Accessibility to energy utilization information was expected to promote power conservation by the consumers. Modern societies had realized conservation requirements for energy and other resources.
Environmental temperatures had changed worldwide and resulted in damaged surroundings (Atkinson, 2009 p.1). A universal reaction to resource preservation required novel innovations that might sustain the deteriorating world reserves. Therefore, an improvement in energy utilization and preservation was a significant advancement for Engineering Solutions.
Engineering Solutions organization designed a power measuring device that was to be linked onto a website for monitoring energy consumption. Energy utilization information posted on an internet site permitted worldwide monitoring by consumers anywhere. Contrasts in energy utilization by consumers were projected to create a determined spirit that reduced individual energy consumption. In addition, a customer’s web link might also be an avenue for passing information on energy preservation.
Energy measuring devices had previously been manufactured; however, none had integrated an internet crossing point that displayed power consumption. Consequently, Engineering Solutions decided to develop a product integrated with a web link for consumers to supervise individual energy consumption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm’s invention was developed by a competent project team. Engineering Solutions set objectives that were targeted to a realization of the energy meter project.
However, project limitations were expected, especially, on financial support and research period. Based on intensity of the project work packages, a skillful team was to be constituted by Engineering Solutions. Work packages in the project were expected to be detailed and requiring diligence from the team members. The project work packages were divided into multiple tasks in a work breakdown structure.
Task Management Engineering Solutions project team divided the web linked power measuring device project’s tasks into five work package phases. The tasks were grouped according to the work package as follows:
Team and project development
The internet linked energy measuring device was projected to cost $250. Time frame for the project was anticipated to be one hundred and fifty eight working days. Based on projected work intensity, members of the project team were compelled to schedule the tasks to avoid confusion during project development.
Project tasks were varied in resource requirements and intensity. Nevertheless, all project tasks were considered crucial to success of the project. Project thoroughness was observed to minimize interruptions caused by lack of task synchronization. Project administration measures were instituted to ascertain successful teamwork. The project management team ensured that work packages and tasks were harmonized.
The initial work package, team and project development, tasks were prearranged in a chronological array. It was believed that at project start completion of the following tasks was necessary:
Define team roles
Searching for investors
Tasks scheduled at the initial stage of the project were critical and could not be avoided. Sequential arrangement of the tasks guaranteed that project progression was certain. Significance of the team and project development work package was stressed by the project team.
We will write a custom Report on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Important project objectives and work definitions were addressed at the team and project development phase of the project. Total steadfast commitment was expected from each project team member at this stage. Duties and tasks were allocated to project team members at the team and project development stage. Project team members were expected to confirm participation and commitment to assigned tasks.
The second segment of the project work packages was project design. Project team members were to perform investigations on advancements similar to the project already on supply. Mechanisms that performed energy meter tasks were to be researched so as to determine what has been offered in the market. Purposes for the investigations were to establish areas for product improvement. Investigation outcomes were to guide the project team members at the project design stage.
Decisions on project blueprint and requirements were to be set up at this stage. Decision making stages ought not to take a lengthy period. Complexities caused by project idea and blueprint disagreements ought to be avoided. A chronological arrangement of tasks guaranteed a prolific and stable planning procedure. The following tasks were scheduled for the project design work package:
Research Target specifications
Identifying customer needs
Concept generation process
Select product concepts
Test product concepts
Set product specifications
Benchmark competitive products
Appearance Design specification
A third stage of the work packages was the construction phase of the project. The stage was considered the most complex and lengthiest phase of the project. However, at the construction stage, project team members were at liberty to alter the progression of task administration. The construction stage involved of the following tasks:
Construction of the energy meter
Energy power measurement device
Analog input sub-system
Internet web interface.
Amalgamations were done on interdependent tasks to better manage the responsibilities. For instance, assembly of the energy meter and the analog input sub-system were performed concurrently. To make certain project tasks were well coordinated; project team members had to frequently trade facts while working independently.
Accurate tasks harmonization was highly regarded as critical to cooperation and prevention of project adjournment. Tactics applied to encourage teamwork were weekly meetings, continued vital information updates, and financial incentives. Motivation campaigns were valuable to project success based on how the project management applied them.
A fourth work package was the project assembly stage. The package consisted of four tasks as follows:
Finishing the project.
At this stage the project team was permitted to utilize numerous models of task assortment. The tasks were either joined or chronologically arranged. An example of task unity was between product assembly and testing. The two tasks were closely related and could be undertaken concurrently. Nevertheless, cooperation and accuracy was inevitable at this critical stage of the project development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A fifth and final work package was marketing. This final stage of the project development was significant. Information on the novelty was to be passed on to end users as accurately as possible. Tasks that constituted the marketing work package were as follows:
Preparations for the trade show
Organization of the project display
Convincing potential buyers of the product benefits.
Tasks at the marketing phase of the project were performed alongside each other. Project administrators arranged the construction procedure to ensure a team member‘s working liberty. Challenges in other sections of the project were not predestined to interfere with a member’s work. Task management largely determined project accomplishment or breakdown. Project tasks were managed in accordance to resources and timelines provided in the Gantt chart figure.
Team Recruitment and Association To ascertain project success, project team members were selected from a group of highly trained and knowledgeable persons. The selected members possessed proficiency in varied technical disciplines. Areas of expertise included energy experts, planners, salespersons, economists, and administrators.
The well selected project team was expected to add to the ultimate project success. Project team selection and creation was a significant feature in development of the project. Recruited project team members required specific attributes. The group had to be well matched with visibly unwavering responsibilities. The project team members were selected from locations that were easily accessible for each member. Locations specification guaranteed convenient communication and coordination for the members.
Product Strategy Procedures for product planning and strategy consisted of numerous sections. Product examination was a major section that integrated the following stages:
Target market research
Predictable financial impact
Preferred performance levels.
Attributes of pricing, timelines, and value added to achievement of product development. Production costs of an original product were mandatory. Financial investment and machinery in put costs were computed. Product development timeline was established based on project team member’s flexibility.
End user needs were assessed to determine specification for the final energy meter product. Engineering Solutions confirmed from the onset that if the energy meter met consumer demands a reasonable product market value would be achieved.
Engineering Solutions was concerned about meeting consumer requirements. Therefore, it was beneficial to have the best team qualified to meet the customer needs. An expertise project team was expected to train product end users on how to handle the energy meter. In the process, forecast on customer approval of the product was probable. Consequently, end users of the energy meter were advantaged in saving costs and conservation of the environment.
Reaction to consumer requirements, down playing rivalry, and initiating new products were benefits accrued from swiftness. This advancement was also regarded as product planning. Swift introduction of the product into the market guaranteed income profits and prolonged market share. However, swift product improvement was monitored not to interfere with superiority of the end result.
Budget and Risk Assessment Project threats assessments were conducted to prevent potential interferences in product development. Risk analyses were performed on potential hazard areas of the project cycle. Risk management required that an initial investigation on probable threat stages be performed. Project budget was a significant aspect of the project and if not well assessed might have resulted in project failure. A sure method applied in budget risk management was the provision of budget emergency funds.
Allocated finances for the project were estimated and probability of budget deficiencies was noted in the risk assessment. Budget risks were managed by integrating investors into the project. Potential buyers of the end product were expected to cushion project budget deficits. Alternatively, costs were slashed from tasks at the preliminary project phase.
Project interruptions were probable threats. The danger of project disruption was anticipated at any phase of the project cycle. Nonetheless, critical phases that were vulnerable to disruption threats were the design and construction stages of the project. Project team members were also prone to disagreements.
To manage the threats, project administration established a logical mental picture from the beginning. Project team member dependence on each other was set from the project onset. However, reliance by team members was only considered for tasks that occurred simultaneously.
Project administrators concentrated on task supervision, team structure, and threat analysis when creating the energy meter project. However, it was recognized that at emergencies were likely to occur based on unexpected expenses and probable setbacks. Proper management of project threats were measures constituted to reduce risks. The web linked power measuring device project had prolonged ability based on its demand. Power consumers required a formula where they could measure power utilization.
The consumer trend ensured that projects like the energy meter were to have protracted existence (Violino, 2009 p. 1). Equipments that met consumer demands were destined to have a prolonged demand. Parts utilized in the energy project were available locally. However, further research was required for product superiority. Continued need for power utilization information and resource conservation ensured that the web linked energy measuring device was valid for consumers.
Conclusion A project plan plainly detailed the project from the beginning. Project tasks requirements were defined and conformity arrived at. Project work packages were initially constituted and further divided into tasks. Resource allocation and monitoring were made possible by splitting of tasks.
Advantages of the project plan were numerous from management and ease of contribution by project team members. The project plan guaranteed that confusions were avoided, realistic facts were revealed, and analyses were made possible. The web linked power measuring device project required an elaborate plan. Information on parts, budget, and scheduling of activities was important to project success. Therefore, a project plan was inevitable for the project.
Works Cited Violino, Bob. Smart Meter Made. Information Week. 2009.
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Table of Contents Executive Summary
Measuring Capability Performance
Options, Recommendations and Implementations
List of References
Executive Summary Since Apple was established in mid 1970s, its popularity has become immense especially in computer technology industry. Its full potential was realised when it shifted its focus from marketing and promotion of computer products to development of innovative industrial design in modern electronics, unique hardwares, operation system and application softwares and services. It provides customers with new products and solutions that are easy to use and seamless integration.
The relevant competitive models chosen for this assessment includes the Michael Porte’s five forces such as entry of competition, threats to substitutes, bargaining power, power of suppliers and rivalry, SWOT and Industrial analysis as well as micro analysis in order to assess Apple Inc. strategic capabilities and suggest future directions for the business. Apple assessment also analyses the results of a study presented to examine how it utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism.
Introduction Company background
Apple was founded in 1970s by Steven Jobs who then became the company CEO. Apple first started as a computer company in 1976 and was fast recognised for its intuitive adaptation approach of graphical user interface that saw the adoption of the first mouse and first onscreen windows.
Steven Job innovative approach focused more on specialised products and by 2001, its full inventions came into play with the introduction of iPod, a product that ranked top in the market leader in music players. Eventually, iPhone came into play in 2008, followed by iMac, iPad and iTunes which have also been widely successful. This meant that electronic products combined with eminent good customer support throughout its product base were slowly becoming the company’s primary objectives.
Summary of Macro Analysis
Macro analysis also known as PESTLE is an analysis of the external macro environment in which a business operates. PESTEL analysis includes factors such as political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental issues. For a detailed analysis, the following table illustrates the macro environment of Apple Inc:
Factor Implications Political factor Apple’s operations in the United States were not affected by political regimes as the government was open to technological advancements. The company also tried to apart from politics
Queensland Health Case Study best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Power in Organizations
Decision Making In Organizations
Queensland Case Crisis
Introduction This paper provides a critical analysis of power and Decision making at Queensland Health. This research paper first provides an overview of power and decision making in organizations. The concept of power is demystified i.e. the negative connotations associated with the word are discussed and dispelled.
The paper then looks critically into the exercise of power in the Queensland Health case and how the same influences or directs decision making. Based on the analysis, recommendations are made in terms of how to improve power structure in the organization thus improve decision making efficiency and effectiveness.
Power in Organizations In often cases, the mention of the word ‘power’ makes individuals think dictatorship, bullying, cruelty, manipulation, lording over others and general unjustified social inequality. It is latently believed or subconsciously held, in many cultures around the world, that power makes individuals exploit, mistreat malign and even enslave others (Clegg et al, 2006, p. 40). It is for this reason that many find the saying “power corrupts but absolute power corrupts absolutely” to be an unchallengeable truth.
However, on thinking about it, it should occur to individuals that power in itself is an admirable thing or quality. Each individual has some form of power or capacity within himself (Thomas, 2003, p. 7). Power in itself is not a negative word. The word refers to or is synonymous to authority, influence, clout and control.
Having power over others does not mean having lee way to coerce, manipulate and dominate. In the real sense, power only means one has capacity, a talent, a skill, knowledge that others can rely on. Therefore, the individual can provide direction or influence others positively towards a goal.
The basic roles of managers in an organization are planning, controlling, organizing or coordination and directing or supervising operations (DuBrin, 2008, p 112). Managers rely on different management skills to instate plans, control measures, organizational structures and directions that are accommodative of all. The control measures are very vital as they reinforce a power balance in the organization.
Organizations cannot survive without control. Control, which is one of the fundamental functions of management, ensures everything in an organization is done in an orderly way. It is only through managing power in organizations that control is achieved. Proper management of power in organizations means that each employee understands his or her position in the organization. Therefore, power distribution largely depends on the organizational structure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational structure adopted by an organization is largely dependent on what the management believes about employees. Traditionally, scientific managers focused on providing controlled measures to maximize output (Koontz
Concept of Hyperventilation Anomaly in Medicine Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Hyperventilation is a breathing anomaly that makes the body’s ventilation to go beyond the required optimal metabolic demand. This condition makes individuals to over-breath, leading to many physiological changes associated with the normal functioning of the body. In most cases, it can cause giddiness, unsteadiness muscle spasms, and quivering of fingers and sections surrounding the mouth.
Medically, such effects result because of carbon dioxide deficiencies in the body, as most individuals who suffer this condition will exhale more carbon dioxide quantities, which exceed the produced amounts from the body’s metabolic activities. It is important to note that, although most individuals may associate hyperventilation to panic attacks medically, these are two distinct health complications, although they share some symptoms (Vorvick, 2010, p.1 and Fenner, 2000, pp. 287-288).
Causes Hyperventilation occurs in specific medical conditions, for example, heart attack and metabolic acidosis; a health complication characterized by increased blood acid levels, caused by increased hydrogen ions amount in the blood. Primary causes of this problem are either diseases or physiological anomalies, which include anaphylaxis, chest injuries, chronic obstructive pulmonary ailments, anxiety, Pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, heart ailments, stress, and psychological stress (Medicine Net, 2010, p.1 and WebMD, 2010, pp.1-5).
Symptoms Medically, there exist two types of hyperventilation namely sudden and everyday. In the former case, detection is easy, because it has intense symptoms. The case is very different in the latter type, because it is a continuous occurrence, making it to lack a detecting criterion. Common symptoms associated with this complication include dry mouth, hyperpnea, belching, dizziness, irritable bowel syndrome wheezing, sleep anomalies, muscle spasms, and suffocation feelings (Rosh
Modern Political Thought Essay essay help: essay help
The “after seventeenth century modernity spectaculum” The global development in the sense of modernization as per seventeenth century has given the world no more than decaying senses which has been accompanied by perverted human roles, with concentration of hatred and aversion between human kind and between them and the environment.
The known good deeds were integrated into intensive definitions incorporated in evil, human contempt, vile as well as inconsiderable. Despite this, the irony is that what used to be good became shunned while the scramble of the vices introduce, became significantly rampant. Long-living practices began to be viewed as being mundane and the short-lived practices accompanied by threats and fears completely replaced the good-old world.
As the sense of independent and development sunk in peoples mind, the aspect of communism disintegrated and in its place individualism and the sense of “I” was adopted that is embraced world-wide. As a result, man’s life was affected, as the bond between people gradually melted and in its place a trench evolved.
This has put man’s life in a solitary situation, bringing with it massive poverty, nasty living style, brutish undertakings whose combination has shortened the life of human being. This has made the man race to indulge into daily conflicting activities, pertaining competition, diffidence and glory as state of nature. This has created one of man’s rule which entails that Thomas Hobbes (215) states that “every man has to endeavor peace, as far as he has hopes for obtaining it. If he cannot obtain it, he can use all helps and advantage of war.”
In addition, human beings have been assumed as having right of everything even to one another’s body. What does this bring to the race of human being? It only gives a room to the stronger in having their ways right which means that the life of the majority-minorities depend on the mercy of the few powerful. In other words, it became the survival for the fittest. This has contributed to excessive injustice between individuals as well as in the governmental law bodies (Hobbes, 113)
Moreover, the introduced civil society had brought separation of power that initially was not there. This has been met by rejection from individual and parties affected by this power division. Consequently, civil war has been a major occurrence in many nations as they tend to fight against the abuse of power by the acting government or other nations that creates an effect or pressure to them.
This has expanded gaps existing between parties and every party is seeking its own way of dealing with any threat that can be imposed to it by the other parties. However, instead of this being a channel of peace and comfort within the societies involved, fear concerning the massive destructing weapons manufactured by the name of defense, such as atomic weapons, has taken over the climate and the element of peace has scrambled off (Hobbes p.131).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, people’s perspectives have been readjusted and believe that people can’t function without a powerful body over them, which creates fear and suppression had settled in people minds, and as a result oppression and dictatorship has based people’s ways of living (Machiavelli, 57).
Religious perspective has also been altered. For instance, the scripture has been reinterpreted in a materialistic assumption. For example, Hobbes has tried to bring out the contradiction concerning incorporeal entities, claiming that both Heaven and Hell were in this world, as well as opposing some of sync which are incorporated in church teachings. Thus, morality has acquired a definition as an “acceptable cruel action”, which involves decisiveness and swiftness in dealing with material matters.
For instance, according to Niccolo Machiavelli, it is ironically that good result comes out of evil actions. In addition, the philosophy in the middle age was primarily based on Christian philosophy. However, different lines of philosophical argument came up, with one bringing a sense of nationalism threatening the position of church-men, by introducing a powerful secular based perspective.
The other one widely secularized the knowledge reducing the control of ecclesiastical elite and in its place introducing, what Descartes (102) describes as “philosophical classics of Greece and Rome.” As time goes by, the power of a single religious authority was gradually effaced giving power of vernacular tongues by the influence of protestant ethics which resulted to philosophers becoming less recognized in their ecclesiastical hierarchy but instead their recognition was shifted to their national origin (Descartes, 77-8).
In studying the way people live, Machiavelli (312) agrees that the way people lived traditionally was a true way of living. Everyone was required to live virtuously and this was clearly observed. However, living virtuously didn’t mean that people could live happily. The adaptation to the modernized ways pushed the leader to try making people to both fear them as well as love them.
But since these two factors couldn’t go hand in hand, they saw that significant security would be obtained in making people to fear them. This was associated with suspicious from other opposing parties concerning any acts of insecurities that can be thrown toward the leader in question. As a result, any action to suppress the other party or individual was seen as a gateway to remain feared and recognized (Rousseau, 37).
According to Rousseau (87), civil society has introduced inequalities in human kind which mostly concerning moral inequality, whose relation is in power and wealth. This has been attributed to man’s act of straying out of the natural state and stepping in his own cocoon of individual need and desire. As a result, those who first took the advantage of people’s naivety and grabbed shares of the available properties moved up the ladder where they perpetrate the weak so that they can maintain their wealth and power.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Political Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the beginning of evil, where unlike the early man who was strong, fast and in prime condition and who only killed for his self prevention, the civil man started using all means, including killing his fellow to maintain what he has obtained. (Rousseau, 62).
In conclusion, modernization has accompanied its countable good aspect with uncountable vices which has greatly eroded natural state of human being’s moral in relation to other and environment and in place redefined these moral in a self centered perspective, attributed with a lot of evils.
Works Cited Descartes, Rene. The principal of philosophy. Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Johnston: Norton, 1997. Print.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The prince and the discourses. Modern library, 1950. Print.
Rousseau, Jean. Discourse on the origin of Inequality. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. Print.
Learning Styles argumentative essay help
Various seminal studies in the field of educational psychology have illuminated fundamental components on the learning process that could be used for effective communication and collaboration either at the classroom level or in the social context.
These studies have demonstrated that students are not only inclined to learn in divergent ways, but they also favor different instruction methodologies and materials for teaching (Franzoni
Psychoanalytic Personality Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Various psychologists find a wide engagement in different theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, there are various proposals of personality components such as ego, id, and superego, proposed for introversion and extraversion of character. Each of the proposed components forms part of the psychological functionality and therefore the need for combining the parts into a single unit.
However, it is not possible to combine the elements into a single unit because of the differences on the interpretation, but analysis of various theories assist in organizing the components into an interrelated nature without a regard to their originality. The aim of the theories is to define personality using a set of components functioning as a unit. Various theories have therefore emerged in support of the psychic personality appraisal.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic assessment of personality as presented by Freud’s influential work indicates that there are there main components namely the identity, ego and superego. The identity is a force that naturally and unconsciously expresses within a human being as either a love feeling/instinct or a destructive feeling.
The superego is also an instinctive personality vigour that is associable with the manipulation of superlative being of an individual. The superego is a tremendous conscious and is an extreme feeling as the identity. The ego on the other hand is a personality trait that maintains a balance between the two natural forces of personality identity and the superego. Freud presents the human being as a personality in crisis due to the different components.
Freud approach to development of personality indicates that there are five stages in the formation of personal traits. The development stages begin in the early phases of human maturity towards various fixations and life encounters.
According to Freud theory, failure of psychological completion and release can lead to defence mechanism due to conflicts associable with the anxiety of progressing from a stage to another in the development lifecycle (Cotton, 1995). Freud presents five stages of personality development in the psychoanalytic theory.
The stage mainly affects the infants up to two years of age. The child faces the world and is eager to explore nature. The exploring process takes place using the mouth. Therefore, they develop a personality linked to oral perspective and are often pre-occupied with eating, drinking, and biting objects in the aim of reducing the tension.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By having this personality trait, the child is therefore needy, passive and very sensitive to any form of rejection. Various ideas and actions easily carry away the conscious mind of the toddlers. The opposite to this form of personality is the orally aggressive trait. The child becomes hostile, often aggressive and possibly abusive. During this stage, the child tries out the oral fixations to acquire satisfaction. They feel that life is not complete and thus a lot is not yet met, thus the urge for exploration.
Behaviours training or ‘Anal/ Potty’ Training
In the second stage, the child undoes training to control the natural body functions such as training of the toilet procedures. The child can easily develop trauma in case of mishandling, thus becoming retentive and rigid to changes. The opposite to these results of mistreatment is development of a personality devoted to obsessive behaviours that are irrational to the norm.
The stage is associable to scenarios of being out of control or obsessively working hard to maintain order. The child may therefore develop a retentive personality that is stingy. Such children are obsessive to tidiness, but arguably stubborn due to their need for perfectionism. They may also become expulsive and will often lack control and end up being careless or messy.
The stage is associable to children between the age of four and five. The child recognizes the gender differences. Full development of personality occurs at this stage. According to Freud’s theory, the stage is classifiable through the “Oedipus and Electra Complexes (Cotton, 1995). The Oedipus represents a male child’s love for his mother and the fear/jealousy towards his father. The Electra is the female version where the female child has anger or envy toward her mother” (Cotton, 1995).
During the puberty or adolescent stage, there are very little observable personality developments because the teenagers sublimate their discoveries and urges into their hobbies or favourite sports/activities. The friends from the same gender also assist in avoiding the vibrant sexual differences and eminent need for observing the impulsive growth.
The stage begins from the age of 12 years and lasts to the climax of the puberty stage. The phase is associable to the reawakening of the sexual interests especially among opposite sexes.
Comparison of the Psychoanalytical theories Freud’s theory specifies the stages of personality formation but faces a lot of challenges and critics. The argument basis indicates that the outline lacks substantial evidence and corroborative data (Jonson and Jonson, 1997). People still utilize the indications metaphorically to explain the observable behaviours especially in the human development phases. Evidently, I highly agree with the facts that in his psychoanalytic theory,
We will write a custom Assessment on Psychoanalytic Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freud believes in the motivational forces of a dream in the personal wish to fulfil goals. The theory portrays power, control and love as issues that can manifest in people’s dreams as they advocate for satisfaction. From the conflicting point of view, the theory presents the manifestation of the imagery and symbols in the dreams as aspects that have sexual connotation.
Jung presents the analytical psychology or the ‘Jungian’ analysis that conflict with Freud’s psychoanalysis approach of harmonizing the conscious and the unconscious elements. Jung presents a scenario where the patient works with the analyst with the aim of increasing the patient’s conscious in a move to liberate him/her from the psychological suffering.
The theory shows the current treatment setting of finding meaning and relief form common emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety. I highly agree with Jung’s presentation of enhancing the relationship between the unconscious and conscious self, with emphasis on the supporting the continual development of the psychic self. It also presents the human urge to become unique and discover the potentials for development.
Adler’s presentation of personality assessment indicates that every person has a unique personality. I highly concur with the presentation made by Adler that the there is need to ensure consistency over character, with the aim of a achieving the set goals.
However, I disagree with the notion that unpredictable or inconsistent character traits of an individual are because people act from the unconscious mind in the aim of confusing others. Alder presents an important factor of social interest as a fundamental aspect of enhancing unity within the community. He also confers the aspect of social interest as an important measure for the psychological health, and an important factor for building a strong bond among people for sustenance.
Freudian Defence Mechanism Although the presentation of human personality by Freud fails to address factors that link to the education sector, there are various principals from the psychological analysis utilized by other philosophers for education and training. Some of the good examples of the application include the influential approach provided by Freud towards group interaction. He assists in understanding how groups function within the context of education and training.
His analysis also forms the basis for presenting the two levels of operations; the “work group” that performs unconcealed or detailed tasks and the “basic assumption group,” which behaves in a way that indicates that people share various approaches or intentions to solve problems such as dependency, sharing or defence (Bion, 1961).
Conclusion Current psychoanalytic assessment of personality points outs the need to emphasize on the power of classifying or relating to personality components. It is wise to find the differences and similarities between the affective and cognitive components.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personality is the power to determine the personal components or trait that defines and highly affects an individual. Various theories have enormous definitions of personality and the changes involved over time. Only some of the personality components change over time, therefore it is crucial to identify important components that are more prone to change of personality.
References Bion, W. R. (1961) Experiences in Groups, London, Tavistock
Cotton, J. (1995). The theory of Learning: an Introduction, London, Kogan Page
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
One of the most influential ideas offered by liberalists in their time is connected to money and its role in human life. The representatives of liberalism truly believe that money can make people free. Taking into account this assertion, it is possible to admit that money can also make people happier because freedom and happiness are the concepts which are usually connected to each other.
However, there are a number of philosophers and great thinkers who cannot agree to this idea and believed that money should never be regarded as a means of freedom and happiness but vice versa as a source of inequality, poverty, and disappointments.
Such brilliant modern philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx introduce captivating approaches which help to realize a true essence of money and to get a clear idea about what can make people free and happy. On the one hand, it is difficult to imagine that ideas of Rousseau and Marx may have a lot in common; however, on the other hand, their attitudes to money value deserve attention.
Marx and Rousseau were eager to improve the society they lived in and make people free; to achieve these purposes, it is necessary to prove that money does not have such power to provide all people with necessary freedom and happiness because their main purpose is to create inequality and to divide people into groups in accordance with demands and possibilities.
Almost the whole century divides such brilliant and educative philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. However, time is not the only factor according to which these men and their ideas have to be compared.
They are the representatives of different countries, traditions, and beliefs, and still their works and ideas are characterized by a peculiar similarity that is connected to the value of money and its power over people. Rousseau and Marx defined the power of money that was inherent to any type of society; however, this identification was not the symbol of money as something emancipative.
They spoke about the power of private property and the necessity to make some changes because rights people maintained had nothing in common with equality; Rousseau underlined the idea of people freedoms but under such condition which could promote orderly society, however, he could not decrease the necessity level of rights of property. The ideas of these two philosophers demonstrate that private property made people isolated and self-interested but still dependent on each other and unequal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having such attitudes to money, human freedoms, and rights, Rousseau and Marx could easily create a kind of powerful opposition to the representatives of liberalism who strongly believed that money was one of the most crucial sources of human freedoms and happiness. However, the idea of relations between money and freedom has faced a number of philosophical difficulties.
Liberalists made numerous attempts to prove that freedom and money had a close connection to each other because a person without money cannot become free. According to the liberalistic point of view, freedom has to be economically defined. A person has money, and this is why he/she is able to buy freedom and to be happy.
Such weak and sometimes even humiliating ideas made the vast majority of philosopher develop their own strategies and theories in order to prove that such money dependence should influence human freedoms. Rousseau admitted that he “should wished to live and dies free” (Rousseau 2) and he did not underline the necessity of money for this freedom; and Marx believed that “man (a worker) only feels himself freely active in his animal functions” (Marx, Estranged Labor 74).
Can money make people free and happy? Hardly! If you have money, it is impossible to say that sometimes you may have enough money to be satisfied and enjoy this life. When a person gets an access to money, this person is enslaved by it. This is why it is possible to say that people are not free especially when they have money.
And what is more important if people are enslaved by other people, they can easily recognize this dependence and its power. And when people are enslaved by money, they are not able to define this dependence and continue living under this invisible but still crucial dependence.
The desire to get more money leads to inequality between people. And if so many people are eager to destroy all features of inequality, why do they continue supporting the idea of having money and making money powerful? In other words, it is possible to say that money can make people happier for a while but never free; and when the moment of happiness passes, the long-lasting period begins that makes people work for money, think about money, and live for money.
Karl Marx said that “free development of each is the condition for the free development of all” (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 12). This person truly believed that it is possible to achieve freedom and happiness only by means of properly arranged order. According to him, money is condition for development but still not its result. If a person has money, he is eager to be identified among the rest. If this identification takes place, the process of inequality begins.
We will write a custom Essay on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And if inequality continues its development, there is no chance for people to have freedom. Almost the same attitude to freedom and money was represented by Rousseau. He underlines a chance of any person to be born free. Of course, much should depend on the conditions under which people live; however, they should not forget their true human nature that explains the only “free men” may be involved “in search of the truth” (Rousseau 15).
In comparison to Marx, Rousseau seems to be more pessimistic to the idea of money. If Marx believed that the value of money was crucial for inequality that develops within a society under specific conditions, then Rousseau identified money as the reason to start fights, develop discontents, and increase the desire to have more and break the already established norms.
Though money plays such a significant role in this life, it cannot make people free from all things and conditions inherent to this world. People are not as strong as it may seem because they may become blind in respect to the requirements and peculiarities of their life. Money may promote survival, prosperity, and success but such concepts as freedom or happiness should have nothing in common with money.
So, if the answer to the question whether money makes people free and happy is a certain NO, another question should appear. What can make people free and happy if money cannot? In fact, it is very difficult to give one clear answer to such philosophical question. Rousseau as one of the most sophisticated and polite philosopher suggests paying more attention to human lives and the ways people prefer to choose.
For example, he underlined “either desire or an opportunity of emerging from it” (Rousseau 31) as the most powerful components of human happiness. If a person believes that his /her desires as well as his/her faculties are equal, he/she may become happy.
As for freedom, Rousseau believed that there were different types of freedom that could be achieved by means of human participation in processes required from community. And Marx in his turn evaluated freedom as freedom from interference in people’s education, communication, evaluation, and realization (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 40). And human happiness is closely connected to human needs, labor, and ownership.
In general, the idea of human happiness and freedom may be regarded from many different sides. First, each person has his/her own demands, needs, and interests. Of course, much depends on the community a person lives in.
This is why it is possible to believe that human freedoms come from human faith and desire: if you want to become free, you are welcome to use your skills, knowledge, and faculties to achieve the desirable aim. As for human happiness, it is more personal issue: friends, food, health, knowledge, etc. When a person knows what makes him/her happy, achieves purposes, and enjoy the feeling of satisfaction, this person may be called happy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The works by Rousseau and Marx help to define that much about happiness and freedom depends on human surroundings. It is useless to represent some definite claims and prove their correctness. Constant development of this society requires considerable changes and new requirements for freedom and happiness. It is difficult for one person to define what makes other people happy, and this is why it is better to be responsible and confident in personal happiness and personal freedoms.
Works Cited Marx, Karl. “Estranged Labor.” In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Marx-Engels Reader. 2 ed. New York: W.W. Norton
Fashion and Appearance Essay essay help site:edu
Fashion is transitional rather than static, it is this dynamism in its nature that makes it difficult to comprehend and study as a concept in isolation. This is mainly because fashion is interwoven into culture, music, personalities, the economy and a number of other social barometers. Fashion in itself is the custom style and form of appearance that prevails over a specified period of time.
In essence, this means that fashion is short lived and usually acquires manifestation and common usage in the form of dressing and costumes. All that form of fancy attire that acquires a social place and is popular at a given point is what constitutes fashion; this might not however just be limited to dress and costumes but also encompasses other elements within a social perspective such as walking style and even talking and body language.
A number of different world civilizations have diverse cultures and fashion trends and this has been unparalleled not just in recent times but from time immemorial. The West has probably had the greatest influence on the fashion that is currently in the world at any given time (Kitwana, 2000).
The Hip hop fashion and appearance for instance, is western and has constructed a strong social identity that has come to be associated with the youth. Hip hop fashion has a distinctive style of appearance and dress code that is Afro American in descent. This has strongly impacted the social fabric of the youths for instance in major American cities like Philadelphia, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Jersey, Chicago and Miami.
All the above cities have a special contribution to the type of hip hop culture seen in the universe today. This type of pop culture and mode of dressing basically compliments and deeply expresses the attitudes of the people and their form of musical conduct. Various diverse ethnicities around the world have now formally accepted this culture and appearance and indeed mimic these western antics; this is largely seen in Africa and Latin America.
The hip hop fashion has probably created booming business for sportswear and jeans clothing manufacturers around the world, such include Levis Strauss, Kangol, adidas, kappa and sportif. This is because the youthful generation has embraced these designs in society and has come to be associated with these forms of baggy and flashy dressing with sagging outfits.
Over time, the world has witnessed a number of hip hop icons wearing tracksuits, bomber jackets, sneakers shoes and bandanas. Because such icons command a lot of authority among the youthful generation, they are seen as pace setters and role models by many. This can now explain the reason behind the creation of a thick social fabric that regulates social behavior and conduct hinged on this hip hop culture (Grammer, 1996).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1980s for instance, popular accessories ruled the atmosphere of pop culture including elements such as Clark shoes and adidas shelties these were often adorned with laces that were considered “phat” or oversized. A number of hair cuts and hair do’s were also made famous by strategic musical icons like Will Smith who popularized the “hi top fade” and Christopher Reid of Kid n Play who popularized the Jheri curl among others.
From this it can be observed that a variety of fashion and appearance designs usually have fashion ambassadors, these are social icons who find acceptance and command respect from society, because their conduct is admired by a majority of dwellers in these setting, their ideas are bought without question and hesitation, they thus help to play a significant role in moderating social conduct and creating identities.
Tommy Hilfiger became a fashion icon especially on the late 90s as a preferred sportswear. There was however significant levels of competition from other trendy fashion brands like DKNY and Calvin Klein. To illustrate the interrelationship between the media (publicity) and social icons, an incident that occurred in New York City can be useful.
Snoop Doggy Dogg (an afro American rap icon) was once invited to appear in the popular television show “Saturday Night Live” this show usually interviews celebrities, top politicians and famous businessmen, in this particular television talk show, Snoop appeared wearing a sweatshirt with the Tommy Hilfiger label, the next morning this brand made many sales in all the New York clothing stores.
This trend has indeed made a number of clothing labels to be associated or linked with popular musical and media personalities as this is on the surest ways to guarantee increased sales volumes (Wilbekin, 1999).
After the 90s and presently, a number of business executives and artists established their own designer and fashion labels. The following are examples of such designs by prominent artists and designers of fashion in the west: Phat Farm (Russell Simmons), Sean John (Puff Daddy), Roca wear (Jay Z), Shady Limited (Eminem), Akoo (TI), Makaveli
WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The WWI-War was influenced by conflicts among military groups from countries known as world’s supreme powers. It was a four year war i.e. from 1914 to 1918, centered between two disputed allies’, central powers and the triple entente. Sources indicate that close to seventy million soldiers were deployed with fifteen million people perishing as a consequence of the fateful period (Caddick-adams).
In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live with minimal supplies and restricted space for operations.
Soldiers serving in the frontline during the First World War faced a lot of challenges and difficulties when fighting for their own countries. As a way of hiding from ruthless enemies they had to live in unhealthy trenches at the expense of their health.
Due to this fact they faced frequent deaths as a result of attacks by dreadful diseases and unpredictable enemies who attacked via gunfire or bayonet (Caddick-adams). Though living in the trenches could keep them safe from the enemy that was not so in the case of attacks by frogs, rats and lice. Furthermore, trenches provided conducive environment for their multiplication hence a big threat to the health of soldiers.
Regardless of a conducive environment or not, lice could still multiply fast due to their short breeding periods and caused painful itches which led to high fever followed by severe headaches. In the filthy trenches they were expected to be on high alert and constantly having their weapons ready at any moment just in case the enemy attacks.
In addition, movement was minimized and attending to any personal issue was scheduled after fully completing assigned duties. Such kind of life was boring consequently leading to deterioration in the quality of life.
Sources indicate that bodies were left lying and rotting on the ground or buried in shallow graves. As a result the entire battle field was clouded with a stinking smell that was a disguise to the dedicated soldiers. Overflowing shallow latrines, also contributed to the disguise by its stinking smell. In addition, sometime the soldiers fell short of adequate water supply which forced them to go weeks and sometimes even months without taking bath (Caddick-adams).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly introduced soldier in the frontline had difficulties in adapting with the situation on the ground but with no option of turning back they had to adjust for the sake of their survival. Most of the frontline soldier suffered a disease known as shell shock, a mental illness that eventually leads to mental breakdown.
The First World War significantly affected the civilians or persons at home front, forcing them to adjust and adapt by the situation. Rationing was not only done on luxurious commodities but also on the basic ones such as food supply, attires and many more household materials (Caddick-adams).
As a result, various households had to adapt to the situation by venturing in home gardening to act as a substitute for the missing diets. Fortunately, to the civilians who lived in countryside were not greatly affected since most of their home use products were locally supplied. Many home use equipments were eventually turned into weapons to act as protection devices against enemies.
The First World War was characterized by displacement of people so as to create room for battlefields. Once an area was declared a battlefield by the government it had to be evacuated no matter what, hence civilians had no option but to comply. Furthermore, who would want to stay close to battlefields with an ongoing war at place?
Women also had to take great responsibilities due to the fact that men were sent to war. They had act as the sole breadwinners by ensuring each member of their family was quite comfortable as far as provision is concerned. Sometimes they could go the great extents by carrying the entire burden left by the absence of men for the well being of their families.
In some instances women were also expected to frequently supply food to their husbands when fighting in battlefields. Education and formal job were left at stand still due to insecurity was a big threat to future of civilians as they could not study or make a living.
The impacts of the WW1-war were felt by both persons at fore front and home front. Soldiers at the fore front suffered from diseases and poor living conditions that accelerated their deaths. Not forgetting persons at the home front who were displaced, unemployed and had to work extra hard to meet their needs. As noted from the findings the WW1-war was characterized by negative impacts both to civilians and soldiers whether at home or at fore front.
We will write a custom Essay on WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Peter, Caddick-adams. The home front in world war one. BBC. March 14 2005. Web. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/wars_conflict/home_front/the_home_front_01.shtml
Business Issues: Vodafone Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Power, Politics and Conflict in Organizations
Organizational structure and Goals
Introduction This essay analyses Vodafone Group in relation to work motivation, power, politics and conflicts in the organization and finally organizational structure and organizational goals. Basically, management approach to employees determines how well they take to their work. Defining power balance in the organization, in the way organizational structure is set; helps focus resources on organizational goals as opposed to power struggles and derailing conflicts.
Work Motivation Human behavior unlike animal behavior often has a rationale behind it. It is widely accepted that even our instincts are based on a belief system or collective thoughts that inform our interpretation of situations. Vodafone appreciates that workers are intelligent beings out to self actualize through their every day work endeavors.