Introduction Research shows that performance management is one key function of management through which companies seek to attain a highly competitive position within industries and in the larger market. Most companies are shifting attention from personnel management, which embraces centralized structures of organizations, to strategic human resource management which centers on processes and systems of managing people and other organizational resources for the sake of improved organizational performance.
Performance management is a comprehensive exercise that involves the alignment of the needs and demands of organizational employees to their delivery and organizational performance. Employee compensation, which often goes hand in hand with benefits, is one of the critical functions that are rooted in performance management.
One way through which the needs and demands of the employees can be managed is through the paying of attention to the monetary and other benefits. Employee work because of the monetary benefits, thus organizations that pay a considerable amount of attention to crafting an environment that embraces compensation are bound to attain a higher level of competitiveness in the market.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company is one of the most competitive companies in the United Arab Emirates. The company manages to thrive in a competitive oil and gas industry through the embrace of best practices of performance management. This paper argues that the intense focus of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company on catering for the needs of its employee through intense benefits and allowances helps the company to motivate and retain its employees.
This paper is divided into four main parts. This part begins by presenting the company. Here, the paper puts the company into the picture by expounding on the history and background of the company. The second part of the paper presents an overview of the human resource policies and practices in the company. This part is critical in bringing out the pointers of best practices in the management of the employees of the company.
This is followed by the second and, perhaps, the most critical part, which is the exploration of the best practices of compensation in the company, is how they contribute to the high level of employee motivation and retentions. Here, the paper expounds on the wide range of compensation schemes in the company and links each to the sustainability of a favorable work environment in the company and the retention of employees.
The fourth part of the paper focuses on the negative attributes of employee compensation in the company and how they impact negatively on the attributes of employee compensation and motivation. Of greater essence in this part is the presentation of policies and restrictions that makes it hard for Abu Dhabi National Oil Company to embrace the best practices of employee compensation and the remedy to the situation that is presented by such policies and practices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historical overview and background of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company ADNOC is a government owned corporation that is headquartered in Abu Dhabi. The company began its operations back in 1971 and has managed to expand its operations in the United Arab Emirates and abroad. ADNOC operates in the oil and gas industry and deals specifically in the exploitation of oil and gas reserves in the UNITED Arab Emirates, especially the Emirate of Abu Dhabi that is rich in oil and gas.
Approximately 90 percent of the oil and gas reserves in the United Arab Emirates are exploited by the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, making the company to be listed among the largest companies in the oil industry across the world. ADNOC is classified as the leading company in the oil and gas industry within the United Arab Emirates and the fourth when placed in the global oil and gas industry.
The company operates two main oil refineries in the United Arab Emirates. These are Umm Al Nar and Ruwais. The company has kept growing courtesy of technology, which enables it to produce more than 3.5 billion barrels of oil in a single day, besides the production of over 2 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. The company has established approximately 150 petrol stations across the United Arab Emirates (“ADNOC and its group of companies”1-2).
The other important thing to note about the company is that it has expanded its operations at a highly accelerated pace. This has been enabled by the expansion through the subsidiaries that carry out specific functions for the company. As of now, the company has a total of 14 subsidiary companies that operate in the downstream and upstream. The company keeps working on the development of offshore and onshore field of gas.
The fourteen subsidiary companies that operate under ADNOC are important in that the company is considered to be a fully integrated gas and oil industry; therefore, the fulfillment of all aspects of exploitation and the supply of oil and gas in the United Arab Emirates are only enabled by the fourteen subsidiaries that are specialized in certain aspects of exploitation and distribution.
The subsidiaries of the company also enable the company to be a strong player in the petrochemical industry, which is one of the periphery industries within the larger oil and gas industry (“ADNOC and its group of companies” 1-5).
In a bid to increase its presence across the world, the company keeps engaging in strategic business talks with other companies in the world, aspects that result in strategic agreements with a substantial number of large oil and gas companies across the world.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Compensation and Employee Motivation and Retention in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the company fosters talks with governments around the world appertaining to the supply of oil and gas because more than 70 percent of the total annual production of the refined products of the company are consumed in the international market. This reiterates the importance of the international market to the company and the extension of the human resource potential for the company (ADNOC 44).
The human resource environment in the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company As observed in the introduction, the key to the better management of the employees in the contemporary organizational environment is the embrace of strategic practices in human resource management. Therefore, it is important to explore the human resource environment in the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company to link the best practice of employee compensation to the best practices of human resource management in the organization.
First of all, it is critical to observe that the Dhabi National Oil Company employs approximately 20, 000 employees. Contrary to many other companies, approximately 50 percent of the employees of ADNOC are expatriates. Therefore, the company has as a large number of multinational technical and administration staff. The company has a department that deals with the management of the organizational employees (The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC, 1).
According to The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC (1), the main considerations in the human resource department of the company deal in three critical aspects of employee development.
These include the recruitment, checking on the turnover of employees in the company, and the management the prevailing manpower in the company. Thus, it can be said that all the efforts of human resource practices in ADNOC are geared towards developing a favorable environment for the employees, which is key in the motivation and retention of the employees.
The department of human resource in ADNOC continuously works towards enhancing the perspective of job planning and delivery by all the employees of the company. Other important aspects of employee management in the company include job planning, job design, career development, performance appraisal, work measurement, and the training and development of organizational employees.
The director of Human Resources and Administration is Mr. Saeed bin Saif bin Butti Al Qamzi. The company has another department known as the Employee Development Department. This department works in unison with the human resource department. The directorate of human resource plays the role of ensuring that the employees of the company are provided with a set of unique services that are critical for their delivery (“The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC” 1).
Aspects of human resource planning in the company centers on the recruitment of employees based on the internal and external needs, as well as the development of the capacity and potential of the employees to deliver through paying attention to their needs and demands.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compensation and Employee Motivation and Retention in Abu Dhabi National Oil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is another pointer to the enhancement of performance management, especially the function of compensation and benefits for all the employees of the company. The company has crafted human resource practices that encourage the participation of the employees in the key human resource decisions.
The employees of the company are allowed to develop groups in which they discuss their affairs. These groups send their representatives to the board meeting of the company where they air the needs and demands of the employees. This is a kind of a vertical structure of management that enhances the level at which the employees of the company directly contribute to their well being (“The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC” 1).
Best practices of employee compensation in the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Perspectives of employee compensation in the company
According to Pantin (para. 1), ADNOC raised the salary of its employees by 20 percent in the year 2008. A 20 percent increment of salary at this period depicts an amount that was far much higher than the high rate of inflation that was being experienced during that time. The move to increase the salary was also seen as a means of positioning the company both at the local level and at the regional level (Pantin par. 1).
Performance appraisals are done by the company at the end of every financial year. The results of these appraisals act as the basis on which the company makes key decisions related to incentives, promotions, and rewards, adjustment of salaries, succession planning, and career development. Performance appraisal is a key parameter of measuring the level of commitment of organizational employees and the best framework for implementing compensation (FERTIL Employee Handbook 48).
According to the 2009 sustainability report of the company, the entry level package of compensation is quite high and more competitive. The total manpower costs for the company in 2009 stood at 10 billion AED, a figure that denotes competitive rates of compensation for the company’s employees.
The standard benefits that are offered to the company’s employees include healthcare, life insurance, maternity leave, and disability coverage. The company provides housing for its workers through the direct provision of the housing facilities or a stipend.
Also, all employees of the company, both local and expatriates, are entitled to pensions from the company. The pensions for the local employees are offered based on the rules that have been laid down in the statutory pension scheme. For the local employees belonging to all pay grades, ADNOC contributes to the pension scheme that is overseen by the government. For the expatriates, they receive what is referred to as end of service benefits.
This is an amount that is equivalent to one month of salary for every year the employee renders his or her services to the company for up to three years. For expatriates who work for the company for more than three years, the end of service benefit is equivalent to one and a half months of salary for each year that the employee renders services to the company (ADNOC 43).
Benefits and allowances IN ADNOC
As observed earlier, the term and the meaning of compensation when applied to human resource management has the same meaning with benefits and it is mostly viewed in terms of monetary benefits to the employees.
Taking an example from one of the subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company to reflect the entire practices of compensation in the company, it can be noted that the company offers a wide range of benefits and allowances to their employees, a factor that promotes that high rate of employee retention compared to other companies in the United Arab Emirates.
Beginning with allowances, it can be observed that the company offers a wide range of allowances to their employees. The wider the range of allowances in a company, the higher the chances of the company to meet most of the financial needs of the employees.
Borrowing from this statement, it can be argued that the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company fulfills most of the financial needs of their employees by virtue of providing a wide range of allowances, which go deeper into meeting the expenditure of the employees. This acts as a motivating factor for the employees. It is important to enlist the benefits to understand the depth that these allowances go in meeting the costs and expenditures of the employees.
The allowances in ADNOC include housing allowance, which is offered to both the expatriates and the local employees. There is also the general allowance. This allowance was introduced by the company to help its employees to offset the electricity and water costs, as well as coverage for annual leave and annual vacation for local employees and expatriates respectively. Also, there is the supplemental allowance, which is dependent on the grade of individual employees and their nationality.
Depending on the nature of work schedules, the company offers a disturbance allowance to the employees. This is closely related to the shift allowance that is paid to the employees who work on 24-hours per day operation owing to personal disruptions that force them to work at irregular work intervals. There is the car allowance. Employees who are entitled to this allowance are those who often use their cars to discharge the organization’s work.
Depending on the nature of work, some employees are forced to travel in their personal cars when conducting the work of the company. Such employees are entitled to a monthly allowance of AED 500. Apart from the car allowance, the employees of ADNOC are as well entitled to duty travel allowance. This allowance is offered to employees who travel to attend the company’s business both within the United Arab Emirates and outside the UAE (FERTIL Employee Handbook 49-54).
Other allowances that are given to ADNOC employees include leisure allowance, remote area allowance, child allowance, social allowance, transportation allowance, meal and laundry allowances, furniture purchase and furniture maintenance allowances, hardship allowance, car maintenance allowance, and mobile phone purchase and mobile phone charges allowances. A look at these allowances shows that they cover almost all the basic areas of expenditure for employees (FERTIL Employee Handbook 54-60).
Apart from the allowances, the employees of the company are additionally entitled to a number of benefits, which also go deeper into covering their expenditure. These include educational assistance and support, medical benefits where the employees and their families are covered, housing, car purchase loan, and travel arrangements, especially for the expatriates.
The expatriates are also entitled to resident visas, where all the visa costs are offset by the company. There are also other extended forms of compensation that are stipulated in the human resource manual of the company (FERTIL Employee Handbook 61-84).
Negative attributes of performance management in ADNOC and how they impede employee motivation and retention
According to the, “The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC” (1), the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company has for a long time depended on cheap labor from India and of late cheap labor from the influx of people in the country from other developing regions of the world. This is an undesirable practice and a factor that portrays the company negatively in the eyes of the public.
Dependence on cheap labor by the company portrays a certain level of irresponsibility on the side of the company. In other words, the company is not willing to strike a balance between its input and output. Paying the employees less for a company that makes huge profits is an implication of the embrace of unsustainable practices.
Any company that does not embrace best practices in performance management often shows the unwillingness to fully compensate employees for the services that they render to the organization.
This aspect of management also denies the company a chance of being competitive in the global labor industry, which points to the search and competition for highly skilled employees. Highly skilled employees are only attracted to a company that has favorable structures of employee compensation, which is the key motivating factor for most employees.
However, it is important to observe that the company has been reducing the aspect of dependence on cheap labor. Instead, it has been developing improved structures of human resource management. Among the new structures is the revision of the compensation and benefits schemes in the company. It is vital for the company to keep embracing the best practices of compensation and benefits to attract a highly skilled workforce from the labor industry (The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC” 1).
The recent times have also seen the push by the government of UAE to enhance the enforcement of the policy of emiritization by companies in all the emirates. The pressure to enforce the policy of emiritization in the United Arab Emirates comes from the National Human Resource Development and Employment Authority.
The policy highly advocates for the prioritization of local employees in the companies than their expatriate counterparts (Budhwar and Mellahi 12). Amidst the pressure to enforce the policy or emiritization, ADNOC has come in the limelight for designing totally different structures of compensation for the local employees and for the expatriates (The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC” 1).
However, what is evident in the policy is that it does not put specific targets for companies when it comes to compensation and benefits for employees. As ADNOC seeks to fully enforce the policy of emiritization. It should pay attention to the issue of compensation in the company considering the fact that a considerable percentage of the employees of the company are expatriates.
Emiritization has seen the increase in the rate of employee turnover in the company because of the growth in the gap between the rates of compensation and benefits between the local employees and the expatriates (“Emiritization and Impact on Compensation in Abu Dhabi Private Sector” 1).
Instead of the company compromising the level of quality due to the enforcement of the policy, a number of experts in human resource management suggest that the company should seek to retain the best talent and skills from the expatriates through the bridging of the large gap in employee compensation between the local workers and the expatriates. This way, the company will be able to motivate the expatriates and enhance an inclusive working environment, which will promote employee delivery in the long run.
Conclusion The research conducted in the paper presents a number of critical issues about the best practices of managing compensation in the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company. The first important point to note is that the company has an active human resource department.
According to the information presented in the paper, it can be concluded that the human resource department of the company has been up to task when it comes to the development and implementation of strategic practices of employee management. Notable is the structure of employee management that puts the employees at the center of the department. This is an important factor that enables the organization to identify and iron out issues of compensation for all the employees.
The compensation function is deeply entrenched in the human resource practices of the company. More often than not, compensation is linked to benefits and is often looked at in terms of the financial gains that are made by the employees for committing their time in discharging their services to an organization. The company offers an outstanding range of benefits to its employee more than most companies in the United Arab Emirates and across the globe.
Besides the benefits, the company offers its employees a wide range of benefits, apart from the fact that its salary scale is far much higher than the salary scales of most other companies in the industry and market. The company also remunerates its employees for the extra hours and time committed to the discharge of the organization’s work. This is seen in terms of the overtime compensation and the compensation of the employees for working during holidays.
An analysis of the benefits brings out a positive picture of the company in the labor industry by reiterating the commitment of the company in meeting most of the financial needs of its employees. Therefore, it can be confidently argued that the compensation function in the company is the reason why the company remains attractive to most people in the job market, besides playing a great role in motivating and retaining employees.
However, it is also important to note that there are a number of hitches in the company when it comes to the development and enforcement of best practices for meeting the needs and demands of employees.
Two main things came out in the paper: the policy of emiritization and the elongated dependence of the company on cheap labor from India and other developing countries around the globe. The continued dependence of the company on cheap labor has worked negatively on the company operations now that the company has to spend more on its employees as a way of embracing performance management.
Also, the policy of emiritization has worked negatively, especially for the expatriates. However, as observed in the recent times, the company is making efforts to maintain best practices of human resource management, including reducing the gap between the rates of compensation for the local employees and the rates of compensation for the expatriates.
Works Cited ADNOC and its group of companies. Web.
ADNOC. Sustainability Report 2009, 2010. Web.
Budhwar, Pawan S., and Kamel Mellahi. Managing Human Resources in the Middle East. New York, NY: Routledge.
Emiritization and Impact on Compensation in Abu Dhabi Private Sector. Web.
FERTIL Employee Handbook. Web.
Pantin, Travis. ADNOC bumps employee wages 20%. Web.
The Human Resource Planning at ADNOC. Web.
Culture in the UAE Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Behavior of women in UAE
Behavior of men
Behavior between men and women
Introduction Culture is one aspect of business that is ignored by many people wishing to conduct business on the international scene. Studying and understanding the cultures of various nations would be beneficial to international business people since they can compare opportunities and make informed choices.
This paper will conduct a review to provide an insight into the culture of the United Arab Emirates and how it impacts the local and international business. Various dimensions and elements of behavior will be discussed. Specifically, the behavior elements such as communication, dressing patterns, personal grooming, and expression of emotions will be reviewed.
Behavior of women in UAE Dress code is an important custom in the UAE. Women need to have a head scarf, especially when visiting rural areas. Shorts, tight pants, sleeveless and short sleeved tops should be avoided. Women should try and dress as close as possible to the locals. The locals value marriage greatly and it is important for married women to travel with their rings on or for the single to have some form of wedding band to avoid stingy questions.
Before taking photographs, it is important to ask for permission. Same group of religious women believes that taking their photo is taking their soul. The UAE is characterized by women street vendors and to avoid being harassed or embarrassed, individuals should speak as few words as possible such as “no, thank you”.
In some regions, men and women interact from a distance and hence foreign females should be cautious about touching their UAE male business partners unless they stretch their hand first. Women are well groomed and very polite to strangers in the streets and other social places. Women rarely talk in the company of a man.
Behavior of men Men in the UAE dress in long robes and wear the Arafat garment around their necks. Men are also permitted to wear trousers and not cover their faces. Married men are expected to speak first and his position of authority cannot be challenged. Men in the UAE are more dominating and have the responsibility of taking care of their families.
Basically, men in the UAE often greet people with a handshake and are expected to look into the eyes of the person they are interacting with. Besides, men use commanding voice when communicating and are very physical in displaying dissatisfaction.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Behavior between men and women During an invitation in the UAE, it is important to note that nothing is expected of the guest. It is the responsibility of the host to foot all the bills for drinks, snacks and meals that may be offered (Culture of the United Arab Emirates, 2013). In the UAE, handshake and smile depend on one’s religion. For the residents of the UAE, it is dependent on whether they are secularists, traditionalists or religious. A pat on the back from a native of the UAE during conversations or negotiations may mean waiting for a while.
A misplaced eye contact and grins on strangers may provoke some natives of the UAE who may then ask who you are instead of saying “hi”. Religious neighborhoods in the UAE call for respectable dress codes. Individuals should be ready to adjust their dress codes depending on where they visit. In addition, religious neighborhoods have strict gender interaction rules. For instance, the most common sight is minimal contact between the two sexes (Morrison, 2003).
For more local and less exposed UAE business people, they will stand in close proximity to their business partner and are generally less formal. They may take a phone call during serious business meetings, are emotional and may shout during negotiations. The UAE residents are also known for asking very personal questions such as marital status, income earned or age.
Such queries may easily offend sensitive business partners. The UAE residents are also known to be less strict time keepers. The arrival of a foreign business person on time is a sign of respect but a UAE partner would be allowed 15-20 minutes after the starting time.
In the UAE, religion is greatly valued and individuals are so attached and loyal to their various religious affiliations. The UAE is, therefore, an Arabic nation whence most operations are conducted based on Arabic values and beliefs. It is also interesting to note that religion connects individuals with the legal system. Various laws that govern social structures such as marriage and divorce are defined based on the religious affiliation (Morrison, 2003).
Apart from the laws, religion plays a great role in defining social cohesion in the UAE. There is a noticeable separateness between the majority Islamic group and the minority groups such as Christians. The majority group centers its affairs around Islamic faith while the minority groups seem to be detached from the state (United Arab Emirates: Countries and cultures, 2012). There is a need to be highly innovative so as to obtain customers based on competitiveness.
Conclusion Conclusively, a foreign business person has to familiarize himself and respect local practices such as dress code and other mannerisms. There can be incidences of discrimination based on behavior; hence, one should be ready to encounter such.
We will write a custom Essay on Culture in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Culture of the United Arab Emirates. (2013). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/exploringtheuae/presentation/culture
Morrison, T. (2003). Doing business in the Middle East: Customs and culture. Web.
United Arab Emirates: Countries and cultures. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/United-Arab-Emirates.html
Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Experiences of Slaves
Portraits of Escaping Slaves and Heroic Fugitives
Family and Christianity
Introduction The institution of slavery that existed in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries brought great changes to the American culture. The colonialists imported slaves from Africa and used them in their agricultural plantations. Since slavery was a political, social, and economic issue, it gained significant attention among the writers.
Many great writers tried to present the issue of slavery in literature by creating different fictional stories. The fictional stories portray experiences that slaves underwent in their struggle to overcome slavery and become heroic fugitives. Since slavery was common in both the South and North, slaves struggled to escape to Canada using different routes.
While some travelled on foot, others navigated their way using a ship. Great literary writers in the 18th and 19th centuries dwelled on the issue of slavery as they tried to depict the experiences of slaves in a comprehensive manner. In this view, the essay examines literary portraits of escaping slaves depicted as heroic fugitives by comparing the portraits of Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs.
The Experiences of Slaves The slaves went through traumatic experiences when they were under the control of their masters. The experiences compelled slaves to seek ways of escaping and attaining freedom. Since many slaves tried to escape, most of them did not manage to survive because their masters were ready to torture or kill them whenever they caught them. In this view, escaping was a heroic act, as many fugitives who dared to escape did not survive.
In her fictional book, Harriet Stowe portrays the experiences that slaves went through and refers to them as the lowest, vilest, and filthiest form of human nature. According to Stowe, slavery shows us “human nature in its lowest debasement, the slave degraded, and his owner degrading himself” (2). In her depiction, Harriet Stowe illustrates how slave masters degrade humanity in the manner they treat slaves who are under their care. Hence, slaves experienced a great ordeal, which made them to become heroic fugitives.
Like Harriet Stowe, Fredrick Douglass is another literary writer who depicts the experiences that slaves underwent during the period of slavery in the United States. Fredrick Douglass concurs with Harriet Stowe that the institution of slavery degrades humanity. Douglass asserts that slaves lived an aimless and worthless life in that their deaths during escape were better than their lives in slavery (6). This implies that the nature of suffering that slaves endured was appalling and dreadful to humanity.
Owing to such experiences, slaves decided to devise ways of escaping. To attain freedom, slaves helped one another. In some instances, they fought their masters, hid in bushes, escaped in the darkness, battled with hunting dogs, sustained gunshots, died during the escape, and eventually managed to escape as heroic slaves. While most died during the escape, those who managed to escape became heroic fugitives because they were able to overcome their powerful masters.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Harriet Stowe and Frederick Douglass who wrote fictional stories about the slavery experiences, Harriet Jacobs presents her own experiences as she worked for twenty-seven years in slavery conditions. Harriet Jacobs refers to slavery as dark, deep, and foul form of persecution and the abomination that slaves endured. In explanation of her life as a slave girl, Harriet Jacobs highlights traumatic experiences that she experienced under the hands of her master.
According to Jacobs, her life was an ordeal one because she saw her parents die in slavery when she was barely six years old, experienced sexual abuse, got married in slavery, became disabled, and ran away (150). Harriet Jacobs endured the horrendous acts because she was a young girl who was unable to defend herself. Eventually, Harriet Jacobs portrays the life of a heroic girl who managed to survive the awful experiences of slavery.
Portraits of Escaping Slaves and Heroic Fugitives Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs portray heroic slaves in their literary works who manage to escape from slavery to safe places in search of freedom. Harriet Stowe uses Uncle Tom as character to portray the struggles underwent by slaves. Uncle Tom is a black man who lives in slavery conditions with his family.
His master dictates what to do with his children and wife, and thus he has no authority over his family (Ammons 11). When he overhears that the master is planning to sell his children to other masters, Uncle Tom decides to escape with his family. On the day of the escape, Uncle Tom makes his wife escape with his son and they manage to survive cold night, avoid hunting dogs, and eventually reach Canada, a safe haven.
On the other hand, Simon Legree, a slave owner, buys Uncle Tom and uses him in his plantation as other slaves. However, when Simon Legree commands Uncle Tom to whip his colleagues in the plantation, he refuses. As he loves fellows more than himself, Uncle Tom plans the escape of Cassy and Emmline, and agrees to die for their sake (Stowe 354). Therefore, the escape of Cassy and Emmline makes Uncle Tom a heroic slave who gives his life for the sake of freedom of fellow slaves.
Comparatively, Frederick Douglas portrays a fictional character, Madison Washington, a cook, who rescues fellow slaves. In the book, Frederick Douglass portrays how Madison Washington manages to rescue 19 slaves and make them attain freedom.
Madison Washington endures slavery to the point where he decides to escape to Canada in search of freedom. Since his friendly master enables him to escape alone from slavery, leaving his family behind, Madison Washington starts missing his family when he arrives in Canada. As he comes home to sneak his family, the master notes them escaping, and thus kills his wife. The master then sells Madison Washington to traders who took him to the South.
We will write a custom Essay on Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the ship, Madison Washington meets other nineteen slaves and plans their escape. Madison Washington leads a rebellion on the ship, takes control of the ship, and thus sets nineteen slaves who are on board free. In this view, Washington becomes a heroic slave as he manages to rescue nineteen slaves.
As Harriet Stow and Frederick Douglass portrays the heroic acts of their fictional characters, Harriet Jacobs portrays her own experiences, which depict her as a heroine and fugitive slave who manages to escape slavery and attain freedom despite all odds. Linda (Harriet Jacobs) is born and grows in a slavery conditions and experiences many hardships, which range from child abuse to human sufferings in adulthood (Lyons 5).
Since her parents die when she is six, she relies on mistress as her mother. In the hands of her mistress, Linda grows while enduring slavery experiences in her life and in the lives of other slaves. Given that the master (Dr. Flint) compels her to engage in sex, Linda decides to date a neighbor (Mr. Sands), who eventually impregnates her and makes her give birth to two children (Jacobs 207). Hence, by outwitting her master, Linda becomes a heroine for she has the power to determine the father of her children and secures their posterity.
When Linda falls out with his master, she plans to escape with her children to prevent his master from avenging on them. Fortunately, a slave trader who happens to be a friend to Mr. Sands arrives and requests Dr. Flint to sell him the two children, which he consents (Jacobs 24).
However, Mr. Sands takes the children and brings them up under slavery conditions, and thus annoys Linda. To rescue her children, Linda plans to escape into New York City where she finds a caring family, which accepts her kids. Ultimately, Linda becomes a heroine because she manages not only to secure her freedom, but also the freedom of her children.
Family and Christianity Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs also portray escaping slaves as people who have great responsibilities in serving their masters and their families. Harriet Stowe portrays Uncle Tom as a man with a wife and children, which means he has a great responsibility of providing their needs.
When his master wants to sell his son, Uncle Tom decides to escape with his family. Although his wife manages to escape, Uncle Tom dies after rescuing his colleagues from slavery. Comparatively, Frederick Douglas portrays Madison Washington as a man who loves his family very much. Although he manages to escape into Canada, the love for his family prompts him to come back home and rescue his wife and children from slavery.
Likewise, Linda is a girl who fights slavery throughout her life. At the tender age, Linda is wise enough to choose the father of her kids, as she prefers Mr. Sands to his master, Dr. Flint. When the children grew up, Dr. Flint decides to sell them to another owner, but Linda is smart enough because she asks a friend to their father to buy them. Eventually, Linda manages to save her children from the bondage of slavery, which portrays her as a loving and caring mother.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Portraits of Escaping Slaves Portrayed as Heroic Fugitives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Harriet Stowe portrays Uncle Tom as a Christian who believes in God. In his Christian belief, Uncle Tom is determined that God is there to see him through the tribulations that he undergoes during slavery. As Uncle Tom struggles to attain freedom, he hopes that God is guiding him safely (Stowe 382).
Hence, his faith in God sustains him to overcome numerous challenges. Frederick Douglass portrays Madison Washington as a man who also believes in God because he encourages his fellow slaves to trust in God. Madison Washington attributes his successful escape with friends to the plan of God. Similarly, Harriet Jacobs portrays Linda as a woman who fears God in all what she does and believes.
Conclusion Slavery was a social, political, and economic issue that the Americans grappled with during the 18th and 19th centuries. Literary writers such as Harriet Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Jacobs wrote books, which portray escaping slaves as heroic fugitives who looked for freedom using all means.
The writers present experiences of slaves, describes their heroic activities, and their convictions. Overall, the literary works portray slaves as heroic fugitives who did not only battle for their own freedom, but also freedom of their families and fellows.
Works Cited Ammons, Elizabeth. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin: A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Douglass, Frederick. The Heroic Slave: A Thrilling Narrative of the Adventures of Madison Washington, in Pursuit of Liberty. New York: Wildside Press, 2012. Print.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Harvard University, 1861. Print.
Lyons, Mary. Letters from a Slave Girl: The Story of Harriet Jacobs. New York: Simon Pulse, 2007. Print.
Stowe, Harriet. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. London: John Cassel, 1852. Print.
Analyzing the Logic of an Article: Cultural Authenticity and Recovery Maintenance in a Rural First Nation Community Essay best college essay help
What is the Main Purpose of the Article? The article focuses on how the concept of “culture” (i.e. societal upbringing, traditions, etc.) acts as a potential means for helping a person recover from substance abuse. The article implies that “everyday cultural experiences can act as an important source of healing in communities” (Nygaard, 2012).
It shows the importance of such experience by showing that there is an insufficient level of integration of cultural mechanisms as a form of supportive recovery maintenance. Lastly, it shows how culture has a means of enabling people to “kick the habit” so to speak by creating a more accepting and familiar environment where the process of healing can begin. However, the article concludes by stating that at the present, there is still a limited understanding of how culture can act as a social support for recovery.
What is the Key Question of the Article?
The key question of the article is how culture may bolster resilience in substance abuse recovery as well as what constitutes “cultural authenticity” for both indigenous and non-indigenous residents of a remote community.
Most Important Information from the Article
When examining the article, the most important information that was shown was how culture based treatment actually enabled the creation of a positive sense of recovery among indigenous populations which helped significantly with their recovery from the substance abuse.
Nygaard (2012) presents the notion that it was the cultural devastation on local indigenous populations brought on through politics, economics and the modern world that created a loss of a sense of “self” among members of “first people” populations resulting in them turning towards destructive patterns of substance abuse.
The end result was as traditional cultural values continued to be eroded as a result of the encroachment of economic and political interests, the more likely these populations would turn towards substance abuse as a means of escape. By implementing methods of positive cultural experiences and the creation of a better sense of “self”, this helped to create a better means of recovery for indigenous populations.
Main Inference from the Article
While the author concluded that utilizing culture as a means of enabling substance abuse recovery is still in doubt given the lack of sufficient understanding behind the proper establishment of standard practices, the fact remains that despite whatever power culture may have in terms of enabling patient recovery, socio-economic factors still play a crucial role in either leading indigenous people towards substance abuse or out of it (Nygaard, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem really is that indigenous populations are continuously experiencing a level of “culture shock” so to speak wherein traditional practices are simply not in harmony with modern day practices. Aspects related to modern conveniences in communication, entertainment and travel are at odds with the way in which indigenous people used to live their lives resulting in a slow erosion of traditional cultural identities which leads people towards substance abuse.
Taking the line of reasoning of the author into consideration, it can be stated that should the use of culture as a means of building up the concept of the “self” be integrated into standard recovery processes, it is likely that greater levels of government intervention into cultural preservation may be enabled.
On the other end of the spectrum, if the line of reasoning of the author is ignored, one of the possible implications is that a viable means of preventing substance abuse among indigenous populations could be lost resulting in higher numbers of patients for recovery centers in Canada in the coming years.
Main Points of View
Overall, the main points of view of the article is the potential that culture holds as a means of enabling substance abusers to recover, however, so long as socio-economic problems exist, it is likely that even culture would be insufficient in preventing relapses.
Reference List Nygaard, A. (2012). Cultural authenticity and recovery maintenance in a rural first nation community. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 10, 162–173.
Are there Occasions in the Delivery of Health Care when Deception is Warranted? Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Physicians have the responsibility of providing patients with the most appropriate medical care. Prior to the last three decades, the relationship between physicians and patients was paternalistic. They acted in the best interest of their patients.
This also means the professionals used deception, including prescribing inactive treatments, to try to meet their clients’ needs. In the contemporary society, however, deception is largely not tolerable. Cooperation between physicians and patients to enable everyone get the information for making informed decisions is an extensively accepted model today.
Nonetheless, there is a need for balancing hope with realism. Since deception deprive patients their right to information regarding their health, physicians should avoid it; however, deception is warranted if honesty would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship or lead to severe medical problems.
When delivering health care services, physicians can use deception to embrace good bedside manner, compassion, and balance hope with realism, which is part of their work. One of the most common occasions when doctors and nurses should use deception is when seeking the consent of the patient to undergo surgery or receive a risky but extremely necessary treatment. When seeking the consent, the physician should not release every piece of information about the cure of the disease to the patient.
According to Bersoff (2003), it is not realistic for physicians to discuss with the patient every possible effect of the treatment before initiating the treatment. Going over every side effect that rarely occurs is not useful and, therefore, the physician should not involve the patient on the issue. These experts should exercise rational judgment in determining the most appropriate information to present to the patient. Discussions on the risks or weakness of the treatment can scare the patient and is, therefore, not necessary.
Another occasion when deception can be medically helpful for a patient is when honesty would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship (Helbert, 2009). Patients with certain emotional disorders need special care to enable them to get the best treatment. When dealing with the individuals, physicians need to take a gentler approach.
They need to tell the patient with symptoms of stress about the cause of the symptoms in a gentle manner and explain that the symptoms would naturally disappear. Using this approach is more effective than giving brutal, judgmental, and honest statements. However, the physician should guide the patient to overcome the stress if the root cause of the stress remains unresolved.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The morality of using deception in medical practice has biblical support. Generally, the Bible teaches against deception and other vices. However, a close study of the Bible reveals that every human being should be each other’s keeper. The Bible says that irrespective of individuals’ scope of service in the church, they must love their neighbors to qualify for God’s crowning (Galatians 6: 2, The Holy Bible: King James Version, 2004).
Christian physicians should therefore make decisions that demonstrate care and love for their patients. The biblical teaching on love implies that providing information that may scare a patient from undergoing a risky treatment when there is no alternative remedy is inappropriate.
In addition, physicians should not provide information that would sacrifice the therapeutic relationship. Such pieces of information are not helpful for the client healing. The Bible requires physicians to disclose pieces of information that have clinical benefits, but hold back those that are none essential.
Outstandingly, there are scenarios when clinical deception is never justified. For instance, when a patient is encountering a scenario requiring them to make a difficult health decision, such as whether or not to have a risky treatment, the physician should provide all facts that would aid the patient to make an appropriate decision.
The physician may embrace certain moral believes, but the facts may come in handy in reaching the best conclusion. The physician should objectively present the facts to help the patient make a decision that offers the best benefits. It is mistaken to deceive patients that their condition would go away without getting further treatment if the assertion has no scientific backing, but the physician intends to gratify the sick person (Helbert, 2009).
Another common scenario that requires information disclosure after a diagnosis reveals that the patient is not suffering from a physical health condition.
This requires the physician to give an honest opinion. Hanson, Kerkhoff,
Steve Jobs Commencement Speech Analysis. Rhetorical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Is it necessary to follow passions or reasons while choosing the career? What effects can losses and failures have on the person’s life? In spite of the complex character and deep ethical, philosophical, and psychological meanings hidden in these questions, they are answered completely in Steve Jobs’ commencement speech at Stanford University in 2005.
Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple, Inc., is known as one of the world famous and successful entrepreneurs whose unique approaches to business and marketing provoked the great public’s interest. That is why, Jobs’ speech on the importance of finding the interesting and loved job drew the attention and gained the recognition of the graduates during the Commencement Day at Stanford University in 2005.
The goal of Steve Jobs’ speech is to persuade the graduates to find the jobs that they can truly love because of their passion for the definite activities. Thus, Jobs is successful in achieving his goal because of his exclusive approach to structuring the speech and to blending the rhetoric appeals in order to discuss well-known concepts and ideas of love, loss, and death in a unique form; that is why, it is appropriate to examine Jobs’ manipulation of methods of persuasion in detail.
In his speech, Jobs demonstrates the virtuous use of the rhetoric appeals in the development and presentation of one of the most persuasive commencement speeches in order to draw the students’ attention to the significant questions which can contribute to changing the person’s life.
The strategies used in developing the structure of the speech and the rhetorical strategies are closely connected. Jobs’ speech can be divided into five parts which are the introductory part to evoke the graduates’ interest regarding the topic discussed, the three life anecdotes, and the concluding part which restates and supports the author’s arguments presented in the main part of the speech.
It is important to note that each of three stories told by Jobs is also developed according to the definite structure pattern where the first sentences of the stories can be referred to the pathos, the personal experience can be discussed with references to the ethos, and the final parts of the stories are organized as the logical conclusions, using the logos.
The first reference to the ethos is observed in the introductory part when Jobs states, “I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation” (Jobs).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The uniqueness of Jobs’ approach is in the use of the reverse variant of the ethos as the rhetorical appeal because Jobs has no credibility to discuss the importance of the university education, but he has the credibility to discuss the points necessary for the professional success because of stating his position as the co-founder of Apple, Inc., NeXT, and Pixar.
The next three stories presented in the speech are used to develop Jobs’ argument about the necessity to do what a person loves and the importance of finding these things and activities. This argument is developed with references to the concluding or logical parts of the author’s stories which are also highly emotional in their character. Steve Jobs uses the pathos in the first sentences while telling his stories.
Thus, the discussion of the details of the child adoption in the first story, the reflection on the happiness of building the first company, and the mentioning of the main question in the life, “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?”, contribute to the audience’s emotional reaction because of describing the author’s own feelings and emotions (Jobs).
The credibility of Jobs’ considerations depends on the presentation of his own personal and life background and experiences to support his ideas. The use of the pathos in the speech is observed when the author concludes about the results of his experience: “If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do” (Jobs).
Discussing the near death experience, the author uses the sentence “About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer” which combines the ethos and pathos strategies (Jobs). Thus, Jobs can use more than one rhetorical appeal in a sentence.
Nevertheless, Jobs’ goal is to persuade the graduates to act and find the things that they love to do, and the focus on the logos is observed in the stories’ concluding sentences when Jobs provides the logical argument: “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work” (Jobs). These concluding remarks are based on the logical rethinking of the evidences and facts presented as the examples from the author’s experience.
The repetition of such phrase as “Don’t settle” and the final phrase “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish” contributes to drawing the audience’s interest to the presented facts and ideas (Jobs). The effectiveness of using the rhetorical appeals depends on the author’s style and his use of repetitive structures and imperative sentences which sound persuasively.
We will write a custom Essay on Steve Jobs Commencement Speech Analysis. Rhetorical Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his speech, Steve Jobs achieves the main goals of the speech with focusing on the ethos, logos, and pathos, and with using the author’s unique style. Jobs presents his developed vision of the career and passions in life with references to the ideas of love and death and supports considerations with the autobiographical facts.
Works Cited Jobs, Steve. ‘You’ve Got to Find What You Love,’ Jobs Says: Text of the Address. 2005. Web.
Xtra Mile: Roles of Medical Directors Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
The case study concentrates on the roles of medical directors in giant HMO companies and insurers. The case study specifically focuses on gatekeeper contracts in HMO. Dr. Bethe is one of the medical directors in Xtra Mile firm. The case study informs that all the directors in the firm report to different levels in the organization.
The case also provides information on the criteria used by the firm in hiring its medical directors. In addition, the case study contains the firm’s database and information on the approaches it uses to motivate quality performance among physicians providing healthcare within the network (McLaughlin, Johnson
Indian Custom and Culture Community Essay essay help: essay help
The Indian culture, which reaches back about 5,000 years, is arguably one of the oldest and most varied in the world. The Indian culture is formed by customs and traditions that would tend to differ greatly from region to region.
However, many of the Indian customs and traditions are said to be common, and in that case, are integral part of the country’s unique cultural beauty. India has a wide range of cultural diversity, and for that reason, there are numerous culture-affiliated ceremonies that are celebrated each year to mark diverse customs and traditions of the Hindu.
This clearly explains the multitude festivals marked by different communities in the country all year round. Some of the common aspects of the varied Indian culture include language, religion and the arts. Other common aspects that have been used to define the Indian culture are things such as cuisines, theatre, music, and festivals, to name but a few. Rites of passage form an integral part of the Indian custom and cultural activities.
This paper examines the marriage rite of passage as it is practiced by the Hindu in India. In this particular case, the observations of various activities which are undertaken by the Hindu while marking this particular passage of rite are mainly based on Indian custom and culture, rather than on religion.
I have personally had the opportunity to participate directly in various celebrations intended to mark specific rites of passage in India. Through these celebrations, I have come to gain a better understanding of the colorful and unique culture of India.
As it would be observed, Hindus have come out clearly as the only religious group that has meaningfully celebrated the ideal stages of life as they are perceived by different cultures in India. One of my most memorable custom and culture celebrations of the Hindu was a rite of passage that took place some months ago in Guntur district, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The main transition that was being marked here was marriage.
As it was clearly manifested in this traditional event, Hindus have their own special way of celebrating marriage ceremonies. For example, there were various activities used to illustrate this marking, and these would include invitation and welcoming of the bridegroom, exchange of flower garlands, presentation of the would-be wife, the ceremony of the sacred fire, holding of hands, taking of the seven steps, sacred fire circumambulation, the use of ‘kum-kum’ to mark the hair parting of the bride, viewing of the sun and the pole star, exchange of presents, tying of the knot whereby the garments of the groom and the bride are tied together to symbolize union, and then the blessings from the officiating priest and the elders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditional Hindu marriage celebrations are highly regarded among other custom and culture celebrations in the Indian society, owing to their colorful decorations which are usually expensive (Dubois, 2007).
More importantly, the celebrations are momentous occasions that are characterized with great joy and rich food cuisines, among other distinguished aspects of celebration. All these aspects were evident in this big event that would extend for nearly three days. For instance, the wedding venue was decorated with fascinating, beautiful colors that symbolized love and affection.
The other eye-catching aspect was the dressing code of the bride. She wore two dresses; a red one and a white one. It later occurred to me that the colors carried significant meanings in connection to the ceremony. The white one was a symbol of purity, and it showed just how pure the bride was.
The red color, on the other hand, was a symbol of her fertility. I came to realize that a couple of other small, but meaningful activities had preceded the big event over the last few days. One event which had caught my attention was one in which the bridegroom had to break a clay pot by stepping on it to symbolize his strength, just before he walked into the marriage ceremony.
Numerous processes took place in the course of the ceremony and following is a brief description of the main rituals. Invitation of the groom and his people was the first ritual to be conducted as the ceremony unfolded, and this happened at the boundary of the compound where the celebrations were to take place.
This was followed shortly by the application of ‘kum-kum’ powder on the foreheads of the bridegroom and his companions. Formal introductions of family members from both sides taking part in this big occasion were then conducted, indicating the birth of a new reunion between the two sides. It was then time for the bridegroom and the bride to exchange garlands or ‘Jayamaala’ as they are commonly called.
The second ritual of the Hindu marriage ceremony is ‘Madhu-Parka’, and this was another impressive moment, especially for the bridegroom, who was escorted to a well-decorated altar where he was welcomed with a drink. This particular drink, as I would come to learn afterwards, was a thick fluid comprising of a mixture of honey, yoghurt and sugar, among other things.
We will write a custom Essay on Indian Custom and Culture Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next ritual was ‘Gau Daan’ and ‘Kanya Pratigrahan’, and here, a cow was donated to the bride’s family by the bridegroom. There was also a symbolic exchange of presents such as clothes, cosmetics and ornaments, among other things. Afterwards, a special necklace which is the emblem of an Indian woman’s marital status was presented to the bride by her would-be mother in law.
In Hindu, this necklace is known as ‘mangala sootra’, and it means that the bridegroom family has accepted to welcome the bride to be part of them. At this point, the proud father to the bride stood up in front of the couple where he loudly proclaimed that the bride together with her people have conceded to the bridegroom’s plea to marry their daughter, and that there was no other option, but for the other family to take her as their own from that time henceforth.
The above main parts of the marriage ceremony were followed closely by a couple of other rituals that included Vivaha-homa, Paanigrahan, Shilarohan and Laaja Homa, Sapta-Padi , and then Ashirvada. ‘Vivaya-homa’ entails the lighting of the sacred fire which is used to manifest the presence of god ‘Agni’ in the ceremony.
Meanwhile, the just married couple was surrounded by their families and friends, among other people who had attended the ceremony, as the priest started to chant the holy mantras. After he had recited the sacred mantras in the presence of everyone who was in attendance, the priest then embarked in another mission of leading the couple around the fire.
At some point, the sounds of a ringing bell suddenly greeted the air, symbolizing the beginning of just another significant moment of the ceremony. Here, a wide array of offerings was showered onto the fire, with some words representing the virtue of selflessness being uttered by the multitude to escort the gifts. The main theme behind this practice was to remind the newly-wed couple about the importance of the virtue of selflessness as it applies in modern families, and especially the new ones.
‘Paanigrahan’ or the ceremony of vows was the next ritual, and here, the gentleman, while holding his wife by the hand, would make his long-waited proclamation that he and his love were now husband and wife. All these happened as the couple made rounds around the sacred flame, where the main section of the celebrations was centered.
‘Shilarohan’ and ‘Laaja Homa’ were the next rituals. In the course of this part of the ceremony, the woman would systematically jump onto the surrounding stones and stand on them briefly as she and her husband continued to dance around the fire. This was a way of affirming her strength in marriage and loyalty to her husband in the course of her marital period.
There was then the last part of the fire-side activities, where the couple was required to go round the sacred flame in a gentle pace for at least four times. Here, the bride would lead her husband for the better part of the exercise, while the husband led her in the final lap. The main aim of this exercise was to remind the man of his duties and responsibilities as the head of the family.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indian Custom and Culture Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Then, the bride and the groom held up their hands together above the burning flames into which barley grains were directly sacrificed by the bride’s male relatives and companions. This, however, was a symbol of unity amongst themselves for the welfare of the entire society. It was then time for the ‘kumkum’ powder to be applied on the woman’s head, and this was done by none other, but the groom himself. This is known as the ‘sindoor’, and it serves as a characteristic feature for married Hindu women.
Finally, there was ‘Sapta-Padi’, which is regarded as the legal section of the event. During this stage, the newly-wed couple was required to take about seven steps around the sacred flame in a clockwise manner.
The seven steps have significant meanings in the following order, starting from the first to the last one: food, strength, prosperity, wisdom, progeny, health, and friendship. The Hindus attach a lot of significance at this stage, since it is here where it is announced officially that a wedding ceremony has successfully come to an end, and that the union between husband and wife has been sanctified.
A matrimonial knot was eventually tied to unite the couple, after which they took a glance at the sun and another one at the polar star to seek blessings and resolve to remain unshaken, respectively. ‘Ashirvada’ was the last part of the colorful matrimonial ceremony, and here, the couple received immense blessings and best wish greetings in their married life, from the priest and the elders from both sides.
As it would be observed, rites of marriage are conducted for a common goal of marking a transition in people’s lives from adolescence to adulthood (Bell, 2003). Different communities and societies across the world would tend to mark these celebrations in different ways, due to the aspect of cultural diversity.
This, however, does not imply that there are no similarities at all in the manner by which these celebrations are carried out across different cultures. For instance, there are both similarities and differences between Hindu traditional rites of marriage as observed from this case, and the ways in which my folkgroup carry out the ceremonies.
Starting with the similarities, there are several ways in which Hindu rites of marriage match with those of my own folkgroup. For instance, there is the presence of priest in both situations, to officiate the sacred part of the ceremony. Another similarity is observable from the point where the bridegroom is joyously welcomed into the ceremony to meet the bride, before they are bonded for life by the priest.
Another way by which the Hindu rite of marriage matches with the way marriage ceremonies are conducted in my own culture is the exaggerated decoration of the venue where the ceremony is to take place. In both situations, different types of colors are combined to symbolize peace and happiness.
Another similarity with the two is that, a cow is given during the wedding ceremony as part of the dowry payment, and also as a present to the bride’s family for giving out their daughter to the bridegroom and his people. Blessings and best wish greetings from the officiating priest and the elders from both sides are also common features with the two cultures.
Apart from the above similarities, the Hindu rites of marriage also differ greatly with the practices of my own culture as far as this particular rite of passage is concerned. For example, unlike in my own culture, where at least a day is spared for the ceremony, Hindu marriage ceremonies normally comprise of numerous conservative rituals that would see the occasions being extended up to three days or even longer.
Another obvious difference is that, the Hindu tie couples’ garments together into a knot to symbolize matrimonial bonding, while in my culture, both the groom and the bride exchange wedding rings to symbolize that they have accepted each other as husband and wife.
The other common differences would be in the symbols used in Hindu marriage ceremonies, which are not applied in my own folkgroup when similar celebrations are being conducted. For instance, there is the use of sacred fire in Hindu marriage ceremonies, a practice that does not apply in my culture.
Brides in Hindu wear garments with symbolic colors such as white and red, while in my culture only white is the acceptable color for brides’ wedding garments. The other observable difference here is that, the hair parting of Hindu women is marked with colored ‘kumkum’ powder as a symbol of their marital status, a practice that does not apply in my own culture.
There are also differences in the manner by which these two different cultures conduct themselves before and after marriage ceremonies. For example, bridegrooms in my own culture are not required to step on any clay pot to prove their strength, as it is in the case with the Hindu. More importantly, there is nothing like dancing around a burning fire, stepping on bricks around the fire, taking seven steps, and viewing of the sun and the pole star in my own culture, as it applies in Hindu marriage ceremonies.
References Bell, B. (2003). The rites of passage and outdoor education: Critical concerns for effective programming. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26(1), 41-50.
Dubois, A. (2007). Hindu manners, customs and ceremonies. New York: Cosimo, Inc.
Cracking Knuckles Problem Solution Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why People Crack Their Knuckles
The Cause of the Cracking Sound
Health Implications of Knuckle Cracking
Introduction Knuckle cracking (or snapping of joints) is a type of joint osteopathy that generates a cracking noise. Most people possess the ability to pop a number of joints such as jaws or elbows. Going by my experiences with a colleague who works as a lab technician, the sound of cracking knuckles is annoying especially in a formal setting.
It is also speculated to have health side-effects. Speculations about its relationship to arthritis and other joint complications have for a long time dominated the field of medicine and physiology. This paper looks at the causes of the popping sound generated when cracking knuckles, the benefits as well as health complications associated with the practice in response to my lab technician’s behavior.
Why People Crack Their Knuckles The main reason why most people cracktheir knuckles is the mobility it generates for a short period after cracking. It is also a habit people form as children when they see others crack their knuckles. The popping sound is often funny and interesting to children who carry this practice into adulthood. Though most knuckle crackers are oblivious to this, the popping sound produced during this exercise can be quite irritating to some people.
The Cause of the Cracking Sound There are several hypotheses that explain the sound generated when cracking knuckles. Some scientists associate this sound with escaping gases. This explanation asserts that the synovial fluid that exists in human joints functions as a lubricant. The synovial fluid consists of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide. When a person snaps a knuckle, he enlarges the joint capsule. This leads to a swift discharge of the gases.
The release of these gases leads to the formation of bubbles in the capsule. This is probably why one has to wait for a while before cracking the same knuckle again. When a person pops a joint, the extending of the capsule reduces the pressure forming a vacuum (Clough, 2006). This vacuum is then filled by the gases. It is this process that causes the snapping sound when the gas bubbles rupture.
Patients of arthritis often feel snapping sounds made by their joints due to the damage caused by the condition on the even cartilage. This is quite different from the voluntary snapping of joints often witnessed in knuckle cracking.
Health Implications of Knuckle Cracking Pain, when cracking a knuckle (or any other joint), is a sufficient reason to seek medical attention. Most health professionals believe that knuckle snapping does not have any detrimental health implications (Weil, 2004). However, some studies suggest that persistent knuckle cracking can cause feebleness in a person’s grip or swelling of the person’s hands (Weil, 2004). In case the lab technician persists with the knuckle cracking habit, he may soon be unable to perform simple procedures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, there is no evidence to suggest that knuckle popping triggers arthritis or any major complications. The two major types of arthritis are rheumatoid and osteoarthritis (Allan, 2011).
The causes of both categories of arthritis are not well documented and most scientific research concentrates on revealing events leading to the complications. Most cases of arthritis are genetically transmitted although aging and physical stresses also play a major role. For people already suffering from arthritis, persistent knuckle cracking can cause ligament injury.
Conclusion The popping sounds made when cracking knuckles do not need to be distinctively treated since there are no major implications of knuckle cracking. Therefore, there is no reason for alarm concerning the link between the habit and arthritis. The only concern is if the cracking of knuckles or other joints is accompanied by pain or swelling.
So far, the technician and other habitual knuckle crackers have no cause for alarm. However, the technician should try to control the habit and seek medical attention if he feels any pain or notices swellings. He should also consider the mental disturbances his actions cause to other workmates.
References Allan, D. B. (2011). Conquering arthritis. Phoenix, AZ: SPFP, Inc.
Clough, D. J. (2006). Arthritis. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic Press.
Weil, T. A. (2004). Health and healing: The philosophy of integrative medicine and optimum health. USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
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Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Origin of Property in the State of Nature
Legitimization of Private Property
Legitimacy of Government
Introduction One of the most confounding concepts on the discipline of political theory is the issue of property. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle dedicate a large part of their work to speculations about the state of nature and property ownership. However, a comprehensive theoretical exploration of the concept of private property ownership is credited to relatively modern philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
The writings of Locke and Rousseau on property ownership are quite fascinating to compare. Both philosophers portray the early stages of man in what they refer to as the state of nature. This paper takes a critical look at Rousseau’s conceptualization of private property and the state in relation to Locke’s work on the subject.
Origin of Property in the State of Nature According to Locke, man is driven out of his primitive state by his desire to satisfy his needs. He believes that man is able to acquire only the basic essentials while in the primitive state. John Locke perceives the issue of property acquisition from the standpoint of land. He asserts that land increases in value and productivity due to cultivation. Therefore, labor is the foundation on which one can claim property ownership.
If a person works tilling land, then the land belongs to him while the one who constructs a house owns the house. Locke proposes certain principles, which must be adhered to for ownership of land and property to be permissible. He asserts that man must not harvest from nature in excess of what he can use. When accumulating property, man must ensure that there is enough left to satisfy the needs of others.
In an apparent response to Locke’s ideas on the origin of private property, Rousseau maintains that man is completely solitary in the unadulterated state of events. He believes that, in this state, man is only motivated by individual desires and procreates only during accidental encounters with the other sex (Rousseau 63). He is deeply opposed to Locke’s idea of man as a sociable being. In his state of nature, man lacks the ability to identify even their own offspring.
In the state of nature, Locke and Rousseau seem to agree on several issues especially the theoretical nature of their conceptualization. Rousseau concurs that the state of nature is a largely nonviolent period. However, his revelation of the state of nature is much more appealing. While Locke appears to insinuate that man has progressed out of this state of nature, Rousseau praises it as a period of harmony and virtue.
In addition, Rousseau does not simply take the contemporary man and place him in the state of nature. Instead, he makes a convincing argument of a relatively different and primitive man who slowly evolves into a modern version.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Locke’s version does not explain the evolution of man until the state of nature. Rousseau’s argument seems more convincing since the facts that corroborate the evolution theory have been unearthed. Therefore, Rousseau’s theory appears entirely reasonable in allocating diverse attributes to ancient man and contemporary man.
However, some of the attributes Rousseau’s gives to ancient man and his life in the state of nature are questionable. One these attributes is that man’s basic desires are mostly satisfied in the state of nature.
Rousseau’s idea of a man relaxing while eating fruits off a tree and sleeping under the same tree is more idealistic than realistic. Another concern is that since Rousseau believes that man is solitary as a primitive being, dismissing the threat from wild animals is not very rational. The life of ancient man is perhaps not as peaceful as Rousseau proposes.
Legitimization of Private Property Private property ownership is a substitution to communal and collective property ownership. In a private arrangement, property ownership guidelines are established around the concept that several disputed resources are delegated to the decision making power of certain individuals or groups. The individual to whom a certain entity is allotted or the person who discovers or constructs it has dominion over the entity. That person holds the decision on what can be or cannot be done with the entity.
Rousseau appears to agree with Locke concerning the disparities that ensue from the inequitable allocation of property. Nevertheless, for Rousseau, personal property and its effect on the human race is a key source of inequality and repression among humans, and not the solution.
Rousseau maintains that the route that leads to privatization of property is the same route that turns humans away from civilization to their model pre-civilized communal society. However, Rousseau believes that private property is introduced long after man abandons the natural state. Unlike Locke, he believes that private property does not exist in the classical state of nature.
I agree with Rousseau on the concept that the privatization of property comes with advancement in civilization. However, I prefer the state of affairs in the private property civilization. Due to the unpredictable nature of climate and the subsequent scarcity of resources, it is only wise that man accumulates property in preparation for a rainy day. The inequalities therein are the consequences of poor management of the privatization process by the authorities trusted with the distribution of property.
We will write a custom Essay on Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legitimacy of Government In his second treatise of government, Locke asserts that the state of nature is of absolute freedom and equivalence and believes that man should strive to imitate the state of nature. In Locke’s perception, the authority of the state is dependent on its capability to make laws and protect each member’s rights (Locke 22).
The state must also protect individual rights to private property. Locke holds that the authority of the government rests on the consent of the governed. This is the most important element in Locke’s conceptualization of government as it recognizes the role of the government in protecting the rights of the governed. This is the underlying principle behind the formulation of human rights legislation throughout the world.
Rousseau, on the other hand, does not perceive the social contract as the stage where state of nature ends and an ordered society commences. His philosophy does not speculate a specific point where man suddenly transitions from a primitive life to civilization. Instead, Rousseau postulates a progressive transition through evolution (Rousseau 22).
The crucial part of Rousseau’s theory lies in his perception of government. He argues from an assumption that there is a ‘general will’ that profits everybody. His ‘general will’ seems to be a contrast to ‘the will of all’ where citizens pursue their individual interests. In my opinion, the collective good is a collection of individual interests.
A society cannot claim true freedom if the competing interests of its members are not met. In his conception of the ‘general will,’ Rousseau fails to distinguish utility from the will. Instead, he says that the general will is interested in the good of all.
In the state of nature, Rousseau argues that man functions effectively in his pre-civilized state where there is no inequality (Rousseau 19). However, in the social contract, he argues that man can only function effectively under the supervision of the sovereign state. This may seem like a contradiction since his proper functioning of the state of nature envisions man as independent. However, a further reading of his ideology presents a clear understanding of this concept.
He believes that, with the inequality that arises from privatization of property, man requires supervision to prevent chaos. Rousseau asserts that the sovereign is useless without a proper relationship with the governed. Without the general will (and outside the state of nature), a leader only serves his private interests and not the interests of the people he claims to serve.
Rousseau portrays the general will as a technique of legitimizing the power of government. General will also serves as a way of limiting the use of this power by those in authority. It is an integral part of the social contract that unites the citizens under one political sovereign and guarantees protection of the citizens. It is also a way to minimize corruption in government. However, Locke believes that the government has little to do with ensuring the functionality of the state. Locke does not perceive the government as requiring public participation like Rousseau does.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rousseau’s Discussion of Private Property as a Politically Cynical Reinterpretation of Locke by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though contradictory on many fronts, the perspectives of Locke and Rousseau can be reconciled on several aspects such as their joint opposition to dictatorship. In both postulations of government, the legitimacy of government lies in the will of the people.
Conclusion The conception of private property as envisioned in most modern legislation can be traced to early philosophic deliberations on the origin of government. A comparison between these two theories of government reveals the related nature of their premises as well as their points of divergence. Their views on private property lead us to the relationship between property ownership and the legitimacy of government. From the above arguments, it is evident that Rousseau’s theory is in response to Locke’s theory.
Works Cited Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government, USA: Maestro Reprints, 2012. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse On the Origin of Inequality, Minneapolis: Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. Print.
Social and Political Theory Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of political and social theory. It focuses on the origins of legitimate governments based on the arguments of three philosophers namely Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Plato’s Socratic dialogues (Apology and Crito). The paper pays special attention to the main views and values of each author as to what constitutes legitimate governments, the power of such governments and the limitations of the power and authority of legitimate governments.
Thesis Statement Rousseau’s arguments on the origin of legitimate governments are more compelling than those of Hobbes and Plato. This is because he traces the development of legitimate governments to the emergence of private property which came as a result of increase in human population. Private property pushed man to form governments so that he could enjoy his natural rights and run away from the state of nature, which the three theorists described as brutal, nasty and harsh.
Plato was one of the first philosophers to put into writings the works of Socrates. In two of his dialogues (the Apology and Crito) Plato constructs the views of Socrates in a manner which resembles the social contract theory by Hobbes and Rousseau. According to Plato and as presented in the Apology and Crito, the main value which led to the emergence of legitimate government is the value of justice (Emery 46).
In the Apology and Crito, Plato portrays Socrates as a person who stands by his beliefs and words. He also portrays him as a hardliner who would not be moved by anything to change his philosophy on any issue. On the issue of fear of death, Socrates is presented as a fearless person, who would not be intimidated by anybody or anything to change his philosophy. He is not afraid of death and goes ahead to state that the fear of death is illogical because no one knows what happens after death.
When he is brought before the jury to answer charges of atheism and corrupting the youth, he says that he prefers death sentence because it would reprieve him of the burden of living a life which is full of contradictions and biases. He blames the jury for being ignorant of his arguments and for agreeing with the charges brought by Meletus, who is not able to substantiate his arguments.
In the apology, Plato argues that Socrates was not afraid of death because he was ready to obey the laws of Athens, which according to Socrates enabled his parents to give birth and take care of him. According to Socrates, men are naturally inclined to do injustice to each other, that is, each man would like to do injustice to the other man. Men also fear the effects of doing injustice to others and thus, in a state of nature, each man would like to do harm to others and be spared of any punishment for doing so.
Accordingly, this state of nature does not allow any man to survive and that is the reason why men agree to make laws to regulate their behavior. The laws result into establishment of a legitimate government which is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that all men are able to access justice. The same government is responsible for ensuring that those who do injustice to others are punished for doing so.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The limitation of the power and authority of such governments is that all men are not naturally equal. Some are influential than others and therefore, some may do injustice to others and manage to escape the effects of doing so through what Socrates calls mistakes by the jury or government.
For instance, even though Socrates accepts death sentence, he faults the decision by the jury to sentence him to death as a result of false and inconsistent arguments by his accuser Meletus. The value of justice is therefore very central in Plato’s arguments about the origin of a legitimate government.
Just like Plato and Rousseau, Hobbes described the state of nature as almost impossible to allow for the existence of humanity. His main value in the explanation of the emergence of legitimate governments was the value of rationality. According to him, men are naturally driven by their self interest which pushes them to meet as many selfish needs as possible irrespective of how they meet those needs.
Since it is practically impossible for every man to meet his selfish and personal interests, men through the value of rationality and the ability to reason established a society. It was within this society that men were able to pursue their selfish interests. Men therefore agreed to surrender part of their natural rights and in return get protection, order and norms within their societies.
The value of rationality enabled men to realize that they could not simply go about meeting their selfish and individual interests because each man had different selfish and personal interests and therefore, if they all met their selfish interests, life would have been like the hypothetical state of nature (Hobbes 19).
Accordingly, governments were established to regulate the behavior and contact of men in the society. The governments were supposed to enforce the laws and regulations which men agreed to govern their contact. Such laws include laws governing human rights, natural rights among other aspects of human life and society. The government was therefore supposed to ensure each man not only got his rights but was also provided with an environment to pursue the same rights and self interests.
The key limitation of the power and authority of such a government is that Hobbes suggested that the government has a super authority and is not subject to questioning by any other authority. This form of government as postulated by Hobbes has the effect of creating monarchies and dictatorships; which eventually can prevent man from pursuing his selfish and individual interests. Such authority and power are therefore limited in that there would be the need of creating another authority to check the excesses of the governments.
We will write a custom Essay on Social and Political Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jean-Jacques Rousseau
In his discourse on the origin of inequality, Rousseau puts forward a logical explanation of how men progressively moved from the state of nature to form legitimate governments. According to him, the state of nature was both good and bad. It was good because men were born free and were very few at the beginning.
Consequently, they were naturally able to meet their needs and self interests because nature was able to provide for everything that man wanted. It was bad because the same man, with the abundance provided by nature still had the ability and desire to harm and do injustice to other men.
As the population of men grew, they started living in communities. What followed was division of labor among families which eventually led to the emergence inventions and innovations thus making life easier. As a result of division of labor, men had some hours left for leisure which they used to compare themselves with others leading to competition which later led to the emergence of private property (Rousseau 56).
Private property was therefore Rousseau’s main value which led to the emergence of legitimate governments. Since division of labor and specialization led to the increase of inequalities, the emergence of private property further appeared to reinforce those inequalities within communities.
It also led to the emergence of social classes within communities. According to Rousseau, it was the few men who had acquired enough property who came up with the idea of forming a government with a sole aim of protecting their property from those who had not acquired it but would have wanted to acquire it by force.
Accordingly, governments were formed to provide equality and protection for all people and enable every one to have a good environment to acquire property.
However, Rousseau pointed out that the formation of governments was a conspiracy of the rich to govern and exploit the poor in the disguise of offering protection and equality for all. This is the limitation of such power and authority because sometimes the poor may rebel against the governments through revolutions and overthrow the governments and return the society to its state of nature.
Conclusion I find Rousseau’s arguments on the emergence of legitimate governments more compelling. This is because he provides a logical and progressive account of how man has evolved from the state of nature to form a government; and how the same man can destroy the government and revert back to the state of nature.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social and Political Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Emery, Watson. Plato’s Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito: arranged for dramatic presentation from the Jowett translation with choruses, Lanham: Md Univ. Press of America, 1996. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, London: Continuum, 2005. Print.
Rousseau, Jacques. Discourse on Inequality: On the Origin and Basis of Inequality among Men, Auckland: Floating Press, 1910. Print.
Humanitarian Intervention: Views of Richard Falk and Michael Walzer Essay best essay help
Identifying the central argument of the two articles Richard Falk and Michael Walzer present varying views as regards to the reason why state and non-state actors intervene in the international system whenever a crisis emerges. The two analysts differ over a number of fundamental issues, but they seem to agree about the nature of the international system, as they both observe that actors do not intervene to fulfil the interests of the affected individuals, but instead they aim at realizing their national interests.
Falk notes that powerful states intervene militarily to realize their ambitions and objectives in any conflict. He analyzes the effects of intervention whereby he comes up with two sets of reactions that intrusion seems to generate as far as legal, ethical, and political issues are concerned. In the first response, Falk observes that commissions are set up within the state to investigate the consequences of interference where eminent persons are appointed to serve in such committees.
The second response to intervention is criticisms from civil societies and human groups. The analyst tends to disapprove the behaviour of powerful states and other units that rush into conclusion without seeking the approval of the world governing body, which is the United Nations. For him, the advice of the Security Council should always be relied upon before coming with a decision to intervene militarily in a war-tone region.
Falk accuses the role of non-official bodies, such as NATO, which are often used in restoring peace without the approval of the world governing bodies. States should embark on strengthening the legally and ethically accepted institutions, such as the regional blocs since they represent the interests of the majority.
Non-official organizations, including NATO, only represent the interests of the powerful states, such as the United States, France, Britain, and other US allies. Whenever intervention is undertaken, Falk suggests that the UN objectives under the responsibility to protect clause ought to be followed closely.
In this regard, the rules of engagement should be clear meaning that actors should determine when to intervene, the mode of intervention, and must give a genuine reason for intervening. Additionally, military involvement should be employed as a last resort meaning that other options should be explored. If military action is adopted, approval should be sought from the UN to make it legitimate.
Michael Walzer approves intervention if it is felt that human life is in danger. In fact, he claims that actors should make an attempt of intervening as soon as possible to prevent human suffering. In his view, it is difficult to commit crimes against humanity without being noticed in the modern international system because of the development of information communication techniques.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his attempt to justify intervention, he analyzes four major themes that actors have to consider, which include the nature of occasion, the agents to be used in intervention, the techniques of engaging the aggressor or the belligerent state, and the best time to end or terminate intervention. Regarding occasion, the international community should only interfere with state sovereignty if the condition is extreme.
Issues, such as violation of human rights and authoritarian regimes do not call for intrusion since they have to be dealt with locally. Only issues related to genocide and mass murder call for intervention. When engaging the aggressive party or state in the international system, only the United Nations should be given the mandate of doing so. The use of force is justifiable, but only if other means have failed. Once the situation is restored back to normal, the intervening state should withdraw, as soon as possible.
Identifying the points of agreement and disagreement between the tow scholars The two analysts agree at some point while in other instances they differ. On the issue of intervention, Falk observes that regional organizations and internationally recognized bodies, mainly the United Nation, should be left with the mandate of resolving conflicts and force should never be applied.
Walzer takes a different stand, as he suggests that only the United Nations should be given the mandate of intervening and force might be used to restore the situation back to normal. Walzer is of the view actors in the international system should not intervene over minor issues. For him, only genocide should attract intervention, as other issues ought to be resolved locally. Falk differs slightly with this idea, as he suggests that actors have the right of intervening whenever deemed necessary.
The two analysts agree that intervention is necessary and should always be undertaken whenever human life is in danger. While Falk underscores the that powerful states intervene to salvage their interests, Walzer has a different view, as he observes that intervention is undertaken to prevent the hostile actor from harming human life. They both give examples of intervention in India, Kosovo, and Rwanda, but their accounts are different.
Critical evaluation of the two positions It is noted that Falk is a realist while Walzer is a liberalist. Realists believe that any state would have an interest of preserving its political autonomy, as well as territorial integrity.
Regarding the intervention of powerful states, the main objective is to maintain the global power, which is defined in terms of military power, political domination, diplomatic power, and cultural power. Based on this view, realists believe that the international system is anarchic, brutal, and life is short-lived as an actor engage in a zero-sum game whereby a loss on the side of one actor is the gain of the other.
We will write a custom Essay on Humanitarian Intervention: Views of Richard Falk and Michael Walzer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the global system, there is no Leviathan, which is charged with the responsibility of overseeing the affairs of all actors, instead the vacuum left is filled by the powerful states. In this regard, the international system exists based on the Hobbestian state of nature where life is short-lived and highly calculative. Peace in the international system is maintained by balance of power.
Liberalism is one of the dominant theories in the study of international relations stating that world peace and security could be achieved through cooperation. The theory tends to suggest that regime types, existence of international organizations, and the nature of domestic politics affect the decisions that foreign policy makers formulate at the international political arena.
The commercial interests of various actors force them to implement free trade policies, which have the role to play in the relations among states. Through the theory, other related theories have been formulated, including globalization and interdependence. Walzer notes that agents of globalization, including the media, play a role in exposing the actions of the aggressive actor.
For peace to be maintained globally, actors should think of institutionalizing peace, which would definitely facilitate cooperation. Walzer observes that the United Nations is competent in maintaining peace and security. Therefore, the theory does not encourage actors to come up with short-time peace solutions, but instead they should aim at formulating lasting peace strategies. In this regard, international law, norms, and formation of alliances ought to be stressed if lasting peace and security is to be achieved.
Works Cited Falk, Richard. “Humanitarian Intervention: Elite and Critical Perspectives”. Global Dialogue, 7.1 (2005): 1-7. Print.
Walzer, Michael. “The Argument about Humanitarian Intervention”. Forum for Intercultural Philosophy, 5.1 (2004): 1-8. Print.
Establish and adjust the marketing mix Report essay help: essay help
Introduction The retail industry is a battlefield for a wide range of goods essential for daily use. There is stiff competition in the industry as giant retailers and emerging retailers seek to gain competitive advantage over each other (Pesendorfer 34). Companies that wish to survive must make regular but necessary adjustments in the marketing mix to stay ahead of competition.
Wal-Mart products and services market
Wal-Mart is an American Corporation existing in approximately thirty nation states. The firm has an average sales record of one hundred and forty US dollars in these countries. The United States-based company provides the enormous retail programs all over the world.
However, as the world’s leading retailer Wal-Mart does not have market stores in certain global leading marketplaces. For instance, the corporation does not conduct business in India, Russia, South Korea and Germany. The realization and establishment of extra supercenters in India is hampered.
The aspiration to operate cannot succeed following the recent breakdown of Indian partnership with the company. The problem of poor conditions of investment culminated in the 9th Oct, 2013 termination of partnership with Bharti Enterprises. The sticking point emerges from the demand by the Indian administration that the overseas traders must resource more than thirty percent from the merchandise they vend from Indian SME’s.
The inquiries whether or not Wal-Mart Corporation is probing any violation of laws of anti corruption of the United States is unclear. The head of Wal-Mart Asia in his interview never mentioned if any investigations on the alleged violation of foreign retail investment rules by Wal-Mart were underway.
Conversely, the corporation is yet to figure the means of entering the Russian marketplaces. In the fiscal 2010, Wal-Mart closed down the offices in Moscow following an aborted deal with the Kopeyka that was a potential partner. The price discrepancy caused the plan of attainment to subsist. Nevertheless, in the year 2006 Wal-Mart terminated its businesses in South Korea and Germany.
The German populace pitied the way the grocery handlers executed their work at the line of check. As such, many consumers chose to purchase from the local bazaars in doubt of the ever-smiling clerks whom they thought were flirting. Wal-Mart failed in South Korea owing to the adherence of US stratagems of marketing of clothing and electronics rather than considering beverage and food as a big market in S. Korea.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Key features and influence of products and significance to the market
Wal-Mart offers the customer a wide range of goods and services. The products that the company manufactures in the local and international plants have the company logo. The products that are outsourced to other manufacturers also carry a specific logo. This means that the company consumers can easily identify the brand. Items such as apparel and toys are renown by the consumers worldwide. The company advertises the products as possessing high quality compared to those provided by competitors.
This coupled with the lower price attracts many existing and prospective customers. The company products including those produced offshore are of high quality. The company has bargaining power over manufacturers hence has the power to give the manufacturer the standards of products to be produced without increasing the buying price. As such, the retailer is able to influence the market by making competitors produce items of similar or better quality.
Wal-Mart’s pricing policy is based on the ‘Everyday low price’. This means that the products must cost less to enable the retailer to sell at lower prices. All the products provided by the company meet the ‘low price’ criteria.
Whenever customers feel that any of Wal-Mart’s competitors are providing goods at a lower price, the company gives them the opportunity to report and the company makes the necessary price adjustments based on Wal-Mart Price Match Policy. The customers do not require providing such an advertisement to prove that indeed the competitor is offering lower or matching prices.
Significant market outcomes
The promotional methods and distribution channels utilized by the company are significant in determining the effectiveness of the marketing mix (Soonhong, Min
Analysis Chipotle Mexico Grill Company Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Vision and Mission Chipotle Mexico Grill’s vision aims at serving high quality food that is prepared deliciously. The high quality food is obtained from classic cooking techniques, as well as sophisticated recipes. The company’s idea is to fulfill the promise of a full-service restaurant that values speed and convenience.
The ambition of the restaurant is to offer an extra special dining atmosphere that succeeds in redefining the fast food knowledge and enjoyment for everybody at inexpensive prices. Part of the vision says: “Food with Integrity”. This is a critical aspect that also forms part of the mission statement. It further declares the organization’s purpose of identifying the products and customers who are unique. This distinguishes it from the rest of the competitors (Jones
Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction Psychotherapists have always preferred using placebos as a way of making their patients develop positive attitude towards a given medication. According to Harrington (1999), placebos are inert drugs given to patients in order to improve their psychological conditions while in the process of receiving physiological attention.
Given that the drug is inert, it does not have any physiological effect on the patient. However, the patient will believe that the drug is functional, and they will develop a feeling that their physical condition is improving.
This condition has always been described as placebo effect. Clinicians often use it as part of improving the psychological state of their patients. However, there has been need to find real solutions to patients who need physiological and psychological attention. For this reason, Perfect Sponsor has come up with a Wonder Drug that would be able to offer these patients real solution other than basing the treatment on false beliefs. This therapeutic agent will be able to help patients who have physiological problems that need therapeutic attention.
Super CRO has been contracted to conduct Phase III North American registration trial in order to determine the safety and efficiency of this wonder drug. It is important to develop a clear plan of the activities that would be carried out before the project can commence. The plan must specify individuals who will be participating in various activities, and the time each activity is estimated to take. The project will target adults aged from 18 to 75 years.
Site Selection Site selection will be the first activity that would be undertaken by the project members. Perfect Sponsor has stated that it desires to have 20 sites in Canada and another 20 sites in the United States. This means that the project will cover 40 locations in total. The first activity would be to select 20 individuals who live in the United States and another 20 in Canada.
These forty individuals must be clinicians who have some administrative experience. They will be selected from the hospitals that have been sampled to participate in this project. In Canada, the participating hospitals will be Bassano Health Center, Oilfield General Hospital, Boyle Health Center, St. Mary’s Hospital, Our Lady of the Rosary Hospital, and Cochrane Community Health Center.
Others include Daysland Health Center, High River General Hospital, Hinton General Hospital, Sacred Heart Community Health Center, Medicine Hat Regional Hospital, Milk River Hospital, Big Country Health Center, Raymond Hospital, St. Paul Health Care Center, Taber Hospital, Three Hills Health Center, St. Joseph General Hospital, Viking Health Center, and West Lock Health Center. In the United States, the participating hospitals will include St. Mary’s Hospital, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Duke University Hospital, Johns Hopkins Hospital, UCFS Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Indiana University Health Center.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others include University Hospital of Cleveland, University of Michigan Health System, Vanderbit University Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, Yale New Haven Hospital, University of Iowa Hospital, Ohsu Hospitals, UPMC Presbyterian Shadyside, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Shands Hospital, and University of Wi Hospital.
The administrators at these selected sites will be the project team leaders at these sites. They will be working directly with the project coordinators. There will be two project coordinators. One will be in charge of the operations in the United States while the other will monitor operations in Canada. The entire process is expected to take two months, from January 1 to February 28.
Investigator meeting When the above forty team leaders have been confirmed, a meeting will be held at the head offices of Super CRO in the United States. The two regional project coordinators will also accompany these team leaders. The project coordinator will chair the meeting that will also be attended by selected officials from the Perfect Sponsor.
Given that the Perfect Sponsor is the owner of this project, it is important to ensure that its officials are present during the induction process. The fact that these team leaders will be responsible for all the activities taking place at their assigned sites, it is necessary to conduct the induction process with a lot of precision.
The induction will be conducted by doctors from the Perfect Sponsor in close coordination with clinicians of Super CRO. This process is estimated to take a period of one month, from first to thirty-first of March. The team leaders will be guided on what to do while at the site. It is believed that one month is enough to make them be able to participate in this project successfully.
Master File set-up and Regulatory Document Collection When the induction process is completed, the next activity will be setting up of master file, and development of regulatory document collection (Tonnquist, 2009). As mentioned, this project will take place in two different countries at forty locations.
The geographical locations of these places are far apart, and it is necessary to ensure that data collection process is done properly to make this project successful. It means that the documentation must follow a given pattern that is clear and easy to follow-up. For this reason, the project manager will develop an online filing system. The two regional coordinators will be assigned twenty team leaders as per the country of participation.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The regional coordinator in the United States will be given a code name of US, while that in Canada will be given the code CD. Each of the forty-team leaders will be assigned code numbers based on the codes of their regional leaders. This means that those from the United States will have their codes starting from US1 to US20.
Those in Canada will have their codes starting from CD1 to CD20. This way, it will be easier to determine the regions where each participant is coming from, and the particular participant based on the code they have. All the team leaders, the regional coordinators, the officials from the Perfect Sponsor, and the project manager will be present in order to make it possible to understand the identity of the participants. An online database will then be developed, and each of the codes entered.
The team leaders will be expected to identify themselves using the codes. However, their names will be reflected on the codes to enhance clarity. However, the names will not be released to the public during the final release of the report. The report will only identify them using these codes. This process is expected to take two days.
Protocol Development The next stage will be the development of protocol. In every project, it is always important to develop a clear protocol that would be used to guide all the activities that will be conducted. In the development of protocol, there will be need to have all the participants in this project. At this stage, the officials of the Perfect Sponsor may not be needed. This does not mean that they are restricted from attending these sessions.
However, their role may be of limited use at this stage. The reporting protocol must be made clear to all the participants. The information on what should be conducted and any necessary adjustments will be coming from the sponsor to the project manager. The project manager would then pass this information to the two coordinators. These coordinators will be expected to communicate directly to the team leaders. The team leaders can then direct the individual participants at their sites as may be necessary.
The order of seniority will follow this channel. This means that at no stage will any information be passed without following the correct path to the head office. The team leaders will collect information from the field and pass it to the regional coordinator. The regional coordinator will pass this information to the project manager who will then be able to inform the sponsor of the progress being made in the project.
However, the officials of the Perfect Sponsor are allowed to intercept this information at any point in this channel. When this happens, the officer responsible at that stage must inform the superior that the officials of the sponsor had intercepted some information. This information must reach the project manager so that he can determine how to inform the sponsor on the progress. This is expected to take one day. The team leaders, project coordinators, and project manager must be present at this stage.
Case Report Form Development The next stage will involve case report form development. The forty-team leaders must have a clear common method of reporting their findings to their superiors. It is important to ensure that the manner in which the team leaders in different regions in the United States report is similar to the way team leaders in Canada report.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization and Monitoring of Clinical Trials by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that it is necessary to develop a universal case report form that would be used by all the team leaders. This must be done when all the relevant officers are present. In fact they would be involved in coming up with the right format. The two regional coordinators will head the process of developing case report form in presence of the project manager. The regional coordinators will engage the team leaders in coming up with the most appropriate report form.
The process would involve comparing some of the previously used case report forms. The team will develop a form that meets the present needs in the best manner. When this is completed, the project manager will engage the two regional coordinators in developing another case report form that the two will use to compile reports from the team leaders and then report to the project manager.
The project manager will also involve the two officers in developing a form that he will use to compile the two reports into one document that shall be sent to the Perfect Sponsor. This process is expected to take one week. The officials of the Perfect Sponsor will be expected to attend the meeting so that they may understand the way the report will be made.
Study Drug Management The next activity will be the study drug management. This very sensitive area will need total concentration of the members involved. This is because it involves development of a prototype that will be used in the field. The special doctors from the Super CRO who were involved in the development of the wonder drug will head the process.
They will be responsible for the induction process that will take place at this stage. The members needed at this stage include the project manager, the regional coordinators, the team leaders, officials from the Perfect Sponsor and the special doctors.
The doctors will head all the sessions at this stage. They will start by explaining the way placebo drugs have been used and their impact in enhancing the conditions of patients. They will explain how psychologists have used these drugs to improve conditions of their patients. They will then explain to the team members some of the special features of the new wonder drugs. They will inform the team members the history of this drug, some of the success stories it has, and any other special characteristics that makes it superior to the placebo drugs.
The specialists will try to compare the two drugs, identifying some of the benefits of the new wonder drug to the patients and medics. The project manager and the two regional coordinators will act as secretaries at this stage. They will take notes on all the proceedings at this stage. The team leaders are expected to be very active during this process. They are expected to pose any relevant questions to the specialist because they will be at the field.
They may face challenges in the field, and therefore, must attempt to ensure that they are fully equipped for the activities ahead. The specialists will make all the demonstrations needed in this research. They will respond to all the questions posed. In essence, they will be trying to ensure that the participants will be able to handle all the needed issues in the field. This process is expected to take a period of two weeks. It may be extended to one month or more based on the prevailing conditions.
Regulatory document checklist It is important to understand that this is a new drug that is being introduced for the first time. It is necessary to have clear documents that will support the drug release.
As Böttcher (2003) notes, this is a legal requirements that must be observed during this project. The team leaders will need this document when they are in the field to validate their activities. They will need to present the document to various regulatory authorities in their respective regions. The most important document at this stage will be the Medical Release Form that will be used to grant consent to introduce this new drug.
All the scientists who were involved in the development of form must sign. In the form, they must state the entire process that led to the development of the drug, and all the elements in it. The document must state some of the side effect that comes with the use of the drug. The document must also state how the side effects can be managed. The project manager must sign the document as an indication that he has approved the project.
Site feasibility assessment The feasibility assessment will be conducted in two regions in Canada and another two regions in the United States. The two regional coordinators and the financial officers in this project will conduct this activity. The choice of the two hospitals will be made randomly. These officers will determine if there is need for the project, and the costs it will take. They will then determine the benefits of the project. They will finally make a conclusion as to the advantages of using this new drug.
Agenda for Investigator Meeting In a meeting, there must be a clear agenda explaining some of the activities that will be carried out (Nagarajan, 2005). It helps in guiding such meetings. The following is the agenda of the final meeting that will be carried before the team members are sent to the field.
Agenda 1: The project manager making official opening remarks and welcoming all members to the meeting
Agenda 2: Activities to be undertaken in the field by project members and the desired duration
Agenda 3: Some of the challenges that the project members will face in the field and how to mitigate them
Agenda 4: Meeting government officials in relevant offices to explain this project
Agenda 5: Any other business
Conclusion This project is expected to bring a complete change in the medical field. Placebo drugs have been used for a long time to treat patients. However, recent reports have shown that the placebo drugs are not ethical because they give patients false impression that they have been treated. This wonder drug is expected to introduce an efficient and effective way of phasing out placebo drugs.
References Böttcher, H. M. (2003). Wonder drugs: A history of antibiotics. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Harrington, A. (1999). The placebo effect: An interdisciplinary exploration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nagarajan, K. (2005). Project management. New Delhi: New Age International.
Tonnquist, B. (2009). Project management: A complete guide. Aarhus: Academica.
Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Andrew Warhola, better known as Andy Warhol, was born on August 1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During his lifetime, Andy Warhol aroused much controversy and struggled for acceptance by the art world. However, the evidence of his achievement is that he is one of the rare artists, especially in the USA, to have had a whole museum devoted to their work.
He produced works in a variety of media, cutting across many artistic disciplines, including: fashion illustration, painting, printmaking, sculpture, magazine publishing, filmmaking, photography, writing, and chronicling the underground art scene. He also generated, from his own life activities and the documentation of his relationships with friends, celebrities, and collaborators, what might be termed early performance art.
He is instantly associated with the movement called Pop Art, short for ‘popular’, and according to Osterwold, inextricably tied to Western industrialized society (Osterwold 4). Anecdotally, Warhol is often the only artist of this style that non-art-history students can name without prompting.
This style followed Abstract Expressionism in time and in approach, moving the art world farther away from the old idea that, for example, a painting is ‘about’ anything, or that works of art are special and one of a kind. Pop Art, and especially Warhol’s work, often featured mass-production techniques (such as silk-screening) and irreverent choice of subject matter (such as soup cans) (Bockris 210).
This movement thereby broke down even further the progressively unraveling classical ideas and limitations on what constitutes high art, or real art, or art of any kind. Besides being an innovative artist, Warhol was notable for his flamboyant apparent homosexuality in a much more repressive decade.
He was both a product of, and an element of change in, the 1960s and 1970s. This was a time characterized by a push to liberalize behavioral norms, in dress, hair styles, sexuality, and use of mind altering substances. His prodigious output and provocative personality and lifestyle still rouse controversy, and discussion (Columbia University).
Two works that reflect both his commentary on the state of society and his reaction to current events are Campbell’s soup cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963. The Camphell’s Soup Cans 11, produced in 1962, depicts an array of 32 seemingly identical cans arranged in a grid of rows (Warhol). Though initially not recognized as actual art, the exhibition of the piece marked the beginning of a public debate that provided Warhol with much-needed publicity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although students and fans may argue endlessly over the significance of this work, it retains its ability to delight and surprise the viewer and trigger questions about what constitutes real art. The group of pieces titled Flash-November 22, 1963 was also a major work by Warhol. Warhol made this work at a time when the country was still obsessed by the media-hyped spectacle of Kennedy’s assassination. It includes an array of 11 screenshots, supposedly taken from the newswires from the time of his shooting and shortly thereafter.
Warhol was struck and disheartened by the four years of persistent media emphasis on the assassination. Thus, this piece of art work is highly relevant to events and trends of its time. It is also prescient in its acknowledgment of the increasing power of media to whip up public feeling, even very cynically and artificially. This paper will endeavor to describe these two pieces of art as art, and suggest meanings.
Camphell’s Soup Cans 11
Camphell’s Soup Cans 11 is a series of thirty two separate 20X16 inch canvases screen printed with synthetic polymer, and hand-stenciled with the names of the 1962 range of Campbell flavors. Thus, Warhol embodied several of what would become key characteristics of Pop Art: appropriation of a pre-existing image and well-known brand name, repetition by nearly mechanical means, removal from its usual context (the grocery shelf), and confusion between hand work and use of technology (silk screening plus hand stenciling).
Regarding appropriation of images, Warhol himself said,“Pop artists did images that anyone walking down the street would recognize in a split second—comics, picnic tables, men’s pants, celebrities, refrigerators, Coke bottles.” (MOMA)
This use of recognizable commercial images simplified many of the choices that artists previously had to make. The basic elements of art were rather predetermined. In the case of Campbell’s Soup Cans 11, Warhol preserved the color values of the actual can labels, offering a sharp contrast between the red, white, and black. The line is very clear cut, and regular, moving up, across and down again around the can’s silhouette.
The shape is also pre-selected, and decidedly geometric rather than organic. The texture is difficult to tell without being in the same room, but if other silk-screened works are any indicator, then the texture, both visual and tactile, is likely to be smooth and unobtrusive. Warhol permits the mass of the cans to be suggested by the viewer’s familiarity with the apparent subject – a cylinder – as well as his competent use of perspective.
In elevating a humble soup can to the level of the Mona Lisa, Warhol was reflecting his own love of soup as a child, but he was also saying that art does not need to depict angels and kings to be art (Stinespring) (MOMA). There was also perhaps a critique of the world around him. John Stinespring characterizes the evolving criticism of Warhol as increasingly attributing to the artist a commentary on, “commercial, mass-produced, and somewhat sleazy nature of modern American society” (Stinespring).
We will write a custom Essay on Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He also pioneered a way of being a brand himself as an artist, because he could produce many nearly identical copies of his art (Schroeder). Other variations on the soup can theme showed damaged or torn labels. These works could be interpreted as commentary on the superficialities of American society, or simply a joke. The painted label is coming off in some of these, showing only another surface underneath, not the soup itself (Stich 91).
Flash-November 22 1963
Flash-November 22 1963 is a part of a portfolio of images exploring the period from the Kennedy campaign to the capture of Lee Harvey Oswald (Telfair Museum) . Warhol used cropping, alteration of color, and massively increasing the contrast of news photographs (the news flash of the title) and posters (Moorhead 92) to suggest the ways he felt that the media manipulated the public (Stich 182). As such, their color palette is limited.
The example picked for this paper shows a high contrast shot of Jackie Kennedy grieving, duplicated twice. The color values are fairly intense. There are only two colors: purple evoking both royal garb (which seems appropriate for the residents of ‘Camelot’) as well as priestly vestments, and black evoking death and finality.
There is the shape of her face, suggested by the sketchiness of the grainy photograph enlarged many times. The duplication gives rhythm to the composition. The lines of Jackie’s face: her brows, her hairline, her chin, are all round and echo one another. The overall shape of her face is a rough oval, evoking classical ideals of feminine beauty.
However the high contrast of the screen prints make the organic forms of her features seem like marks on a map or mountains on the moon. Although, as with the Campbell’s Soup Cans, there is probably little texture from the silk screening, the illusion of texture arises from the graininess of the much-enlarged newsprint. When viewed as a woman’s face, the pictures give the impression of real-life mass, but if viewed as simply shapes of black on a purple background, they dissolve into abstraction.
This work, as with Warhol’s other images of celebrities, calls on the viewer to consider the nature of fame. Here is a beautiful woman grieving for her lost husband – the painting raises the question; is it worth it to have been the most powerful woman in the free world if she is robbed of her mate as a result of that power and fame?
Conclusion These two works of Warhol’s embody several aspects of Pop Art, which was, “popular, transient, expendable, low cost, mass-produced, young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous, big business.” to use a description by Richard Hamilton (Biography.com). Warhol’s soup cans transform every package into a potential masterpiece. The nearly hieratic image of a weeping Jackie forces the viewer to recall the assassination differently, and is particularly significant right now at the 50th anniversary of that event.
Warhol is quoted as describing the movement that he helped to propel into the national consciousness as follows,” Once you ‘got’ pop, you could never see a sign the same way again. And once you thought pop, you could never see America the same way again.” (Biography.com) These two pieces of art have helped this student ‘get’ Pop, and perhaps even ‘think’ Pop, and look at America and at art differently ever hereafter.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans 11 and the Flash-November 22, 1963 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The art critics in Europe and eventually those in the USA accepted his substitution of advertising icons for those of the past, and his use of pre-existing images, among many other innovations, and art thereby moved beyond Abstract Expressionism decisively. (Fallon 18) (Danto xi).
Works Cited Biography.com. “Andy Warhol” 2013. Biography.com. Web.
Bockris, Victor. Warhol: The Biography. Cambridge: De Capo Press, 2003. Web.
Columbia University. Andy Warhol. 2013. Web.
Danto, Arthur. Andy Warhol. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. Web.
Fallon, Michael. How to Analyze the Works of Andy Warhol. Edina: ABDO, 2010. Web.
MOMA. “Appropriation” 2013. MOMA. Web.
—. “Campbell’s Soup Cans: Andy Warhol” 2013. MOMA. Web.
Moorhead, Jasmine. Pop Impressions Europe/USA: Prints and Multiples from the Museum of Modern Art. New York: MOMA, 1999. Web.
Osterwold, Tilman. Pop Art. Cologne: Taschen, 2003. Web.
Schroeder, Jonathan E. “The Artist and the Brand.” European Journal of Marketing 39.11/12 (2005). Web.
SOLOMON, DEBORAH. “For Individual Artists, Museums All Their Own.” 28 March 1999. New York Times. Web.
Stich, Sidra. Made in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. Web.
Stinespring, John. “The Critical Response to Andy Warhol – Review.” Studies in Art Education 40.1 (1998). Web.
Telfair Museum. “Warhol/JFK: November 22, 1963 A Selection of Andy Warhol Prints from the Herbert Brito Collection.” 2013. Telfair Museum. Web.
Warhol, Andy. Campbell’s Soup Cans: 1962. MOMA. The Collection. New York: MOMA, 1962. Web.
Footnotes The Norman Rockwell Museum was founded a year or so earlier, in 1993 (SOLOMON).
Elie Saab: Growth of a Global Luxury Brand Case Study online essay help
What is Elie Saab’s core business? Describe its product in terms of the three levels of a product; core, actual and augmented product
The three product/service levels include the core, the actual, and the augment level. These levels are closely connected with one another. Elie Saab employs branding and designing to gain a competitive edge in the market place. These two are at the level of actual product. They support the core level to influence customers to purchase a product or service. For instance, through branding and designing, the company influences customers to gain confidence and trust in consuming Elie Saab’s products.
The augmented level of a product is when companies offer after sales services, customer relationship management activities, and warranties among others.
In this level, the marketers of this company research on the potential consumers of its offers. This helps it to design the actual product by employing augmenting strategies with an aim of meeting the needs of consumers. Elie Saab offers its customers all these to make them loyal to the brand, and hence increase sales, profits, and revenues. This makes the company gain a competitive edge.
Conduct a brief SWOT analysis, and identify Elie Saab’s competitive advantage based on your SWOT findings
Strengths Elie Saab is a member of the Chambre Syndicale de la couture
The company owns its own stores except the one in Dubai, which is left for local expertise
Has consumer trust and loyalty due to its branding and designing (stars and royalty)
The company is among the few that are certified, and hence gains a competitive edge.
Third party distributions
Weaknesses The company is not well represented in multi-brand shops
The brand is diluted due to its involvement in different activities such as hotels and yachts among others
Elie Saab has low sales in Asia, USA and Russia, and hence poor performance.
Opportunities The increase in wealth and number of the World’s High-net-worth Individuals, especially in Asian countries
The emerging markets, for instance, the Asian market
Huge potential in Asian markets that need to be fulfilled
Threats Reverse trends, whereby organizations mix luxury and affordability
People switching to casual wear
Party ladies switching from high class aristocracy to new world billionaires
Aging consumers in Europe, Japan and USA
In what stage of the life cycle is Elie Saab located? What is your evidence for your selection?
The company is in maturity phase, the third stage of product life cycle. This is because the sales have reached their peak, and the market for its products is saturated. The company is also facing other challenges such as a decrease in market share and profits (Shuayto
PLEASE RESPOND TO POST INCLUDE REFERENCES Osteoporosis is a skeleton disorder where the bone strength becomes abnormally weak; the writing essay help
PLEASE RESPOND TO POST INCLUDE REFERENCES
Osteoporosis is a skeleton disorder where the bone strength becomes abnormally weak; the bone’s weakening results in an increased risk of bone structure. As discussed by Sozen et al. (2017), it is estimated that over 10 million individuals have osteoporosis in the U.S. One of the variables that raise the risk of the disease including females of Asian or Caucasian race, with thin or more petite body frame with a family history of osteoporotic. According to Porter et al. (2021), between 4 to 6 Caucasian women have osteoporosis, and 13 to 17 million white women will have low hipbone density in their lifetime. Also, those who smoke cigarettes, use alcohol excessively and lead sedentary lifestyles are at a higher risk of the disease. Sozen et al. (2017) cited poor nutrition, low estrogen levels, and malabsorption as other osteoporosis risk factors.
Nurses play a significant role in disease management in today’s healthcare. In promoting bone health, they take the lead in increasing awareness and promoting healthy lifestyles among all patients. The management of osteoporosis to minimize fracture risks incorporate both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. To maximize bone health, nurses can educate patients and give them information on positive lifestyle changes. Nurses can administer drug treatments to minimize fragility structures.
Similarly, nurses can help patients develop diets that enhance their bones (Porter et al., 2021). A diet rich in Vitamin D and calcium throughout life protects against skeletal demineralization. Patients also need to participate in frequent physical activity, avoid smoking, and reduce their alcohol consumption. Park et al. (2017) assert that muscle-strengthening resistance exercise for the disease can promote better bone health and reduce the risk of fractures. If successfully managed, it may aid in reducing pain and symptoms associated with structures of the vertebra.
Park, C.-H., Lee, Y.-K.,
History of Balinese Dancing Art Essay essay help free: essay help free
Music and dance were known to people for a long time. At first, dance would be used in religious ceremonies and rituals, for example, to call out the rain in the dry season and in some instances, before going hunting, to bring good luck and a rich catch. Our ancestors believed that they would please the spirits and the higher forces of nature, thus they will be sent whatever it is they needed in abundance.
Balinese dancing is one of the oldest types of dancing. Bali, an Indonesian island, has become a tourist attraction where people from all over the world come to see the unique dance. It is very influential on a person and there is no other medium quite like it that can have such a significant effect on a person. Especially, Balinese dance is meant to touch the deepest parts of the human soul. It can raise the mood and make it light or depress it and have a negative influence on the psyche of a person.
Comparing to other types of art, which can be made and put on a wall or stored in a museum, a dance only exists while it is made. To make it even more unique, Balinese dancers incorporate a lot of hand gestures and movements of the legs and body.
Every part of a person seems to be doing its separate dance but altogether, it creates a unit where the center is the emotion and connection to a higher force (Spies 2001). Balinese dancing is learned from a very early age. Children start learning within a family by first observing their parents and mimicking the movements. As it is a traditional dance of the culture, a lot of Indonesians are well aware of the dance and its importance.
The learning process is one of the unique features of the whole dance. It is not done in private, on the contrary, the practices take place in a public place where neighbors, friends and people from the community come and watch. Their views are an important part of the learning process, and if there is a mistake made, they will point it out. This teaches the student to be used to an audience but also, to the criticism of the profession.
It is interesting that the Balinese dancing culture understands that only through humiliation and public display students can reach perfection. Another significant teaching technique is that students learn by observing their teacher. There are no mirrors, so the only way for them to learn proper movements is the close interaction with the teacher. At first, a student stands behind their teacher and repeats the moves.
Then, the teacher will go behind the student and make physical contact. In this way, the teacher moves the student’s arms and legs making sure of the correct placement. It is important to mention that each teacher has their original way of style and movements. As such, some teachers become more demanded than others, and people come from distant locations to be taught by a particular teacher (Gold 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Balinese dancing is a form of theatre that comes to life through dancing. It is a show between the certain music style, illusory dancing and acting. The gestures and the emotion on the dancer’s face are authentic to the culture and the rituals that have existed for centuries.
The unique musical instruments add to the traditional dancing and are also considered a part of the ritual to the Gods. Religion has always been an intricate part of the Bali culture where a person’s life is a battle between the good and evil spirits. This means that a person becomes connected with their dance and costume in the closest way.
The representation of the spirit must be emotional and heartfelt. When an individual is doing the dance, they must feel the energy that is radiating through their body and so, transfer it to the surrounding people and nature. For each particular type of activity there is a specific dance. Religious dance greatly differs from a dance before a hunt or the calling out of weather (Ness 1992).
Even though a single person can perform a dance and hypnotize the audience, a large group of people performing the same moves is even more enchanting. Due to the fact that the dance is learned from such a young age, dancers become extremely experienced in the movements and the synchronization becomes almost perfect. As a matter of fact, it is one of the key characteristics of the dance.
Even when dancers turn away from each other, they are able to perform the exact same movements, with a specific height of an elbow, foot extension or finger movement. The music that is played helps in a great way because it contains sound cues that allow people to quickly and unnoticeably adjust in case they lost the rhythm (Merkle 2012).
Another form of Balinese dancing is called “Topeng”. This is when a dancer or several are wearing special masks. Usually, these are of different types and have many kinds of emotions expressed on the mask. It is never taken off during a performance, and it is meant to symbolize ancestral roots and rituals.
The general theme of the masked dancing is connected to the kings that ruled a long time ago. It is very closely linked with the history of the people, and this is why it is appreciated even more than other types of Balinese dancing. Humor is often involved as one of the key aspects of the performance.
We will write a custom Essay on History of Balinese Dancing Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though some events that are acted out relate to the ancient past, humor is still incorporated. This type of mixing of time and cultures adds greater uniqueness to the dance and the people performing and watching. The dancers have different roles within the setting, some are wise and philosophize about life while others are clowns who run around the stage and contrast the other characters.
The masks are made from wood, and the process is considered an art form in and of itself. Painting the masks and applying specific emotions is a very long process which requires high level of skill. It is rather interesting to note that the paint is made from all natural products, which adds even more connection to the nature and the spiritual world (Gold 2004). As such, Balinese dancing is one of the most original ones in the world.
Indonesian Balinese dancers have kept their popularity to the modern day. It stays an important part of the culture as the future generations continue to respect and transfer the legacy of the ancestors.
Works Cited Gold, Lisa. Music in Bali. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Merkle, Margarete. Bali: Magical Dances. Berlin, Germany: Epubli, 2012. Print.
Ness, Sally. Body, Movement, and Culture. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. Print.
Spies, Walter. Dance
Consulting in the Corporate World Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The skills of a consultant cannot be taught in a classroom
The role of mentorship in the development of consulting skills
Skills of an effective consultant
The skills of a consultant cannot be taught in a classroom Consultants are professionals who have a great deal of experience and expertise in a particular career field. Much of their knowledge is acquired through informal interactions with their colleagues and contacts in the same career field (Goodyear, 2006).
In the case study, Manchester Business School has recognized the need to involve consultant mentors to guide their MBA students so that they could become specialists in their fields of interest. The interaction that the students could have with their mentors could be essential in the future when they plan to start offering consulting services to their clients.
Classroom teachings and curricula are so inflexible that they do not allow much interaction between a student and the outside world (Goodyear, 2006). Consulting skills cannot be acquired in such settings. Classroom teachings equip students with the communication strategies to use when forming networks with colleagues and other contacts who could be vital in their career progression (Barker, 2006).
The role of mentorship in the development of consulting skills Excellent consulting skills are required by consultants so that they could offer quality consulting services to their clients (Allen, Eby
Gay Marriage Laws Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Views of Religion
Ethnicity and Same Sex Marriage
Views of People from Different Age Groups
Introduction In the recent past, people have stood up to fight for various rights which they deem are vital for them. Various civil rights groups have been formed to enhance the fight for human rights. Among the rights that people want is the freedom to marry a person of their choice. As a result, same sex marriages are increasingly becoming the order of the day.
These discussions have found their way to the politics of various states in the US. Consequently, gay marriages have been legalized by various state governments. However, gay marriage rights have elicited furious debates among various groups of people. Some people were supporting the rights while others were critically opposing the idea.
Views of Religion Religious groups are among the groups that oppose gay marriages to the latter. It should be noted that religious groups base their teachings on the readings of the holy book. According to many versions of the modern Bible, Christians are only allowed to marry people from the opposite sex.
Same sex marriages are thus a sin and one cannot be allowed to continue being a member of the church after engaging himself in same sex marriage (Donovan
Globalization and Its Discontents Essay college essay help: college essay help
This paper will establish that globalization is unnecessary. The paper will examine some of the discontents making globalization unacceptable today
First, I will describe the issue of globalization as used today. This will include how economists and entrepreneurs consider globalization as a necessary force towards economic development. Next, the paper will use a moral theory to explain why globalization is not the best today.
The next thing is to apply the moral theory (utilitarianism) to establish the reason why globalization is bad. The discussion will explore the current definitions and ideas about globalization and explain how they have prevented many people from realizing their potentials. Finally, I will use the theory to justify why globalization is wrong. I will conclude the paper by welcoming the idea of “internationalization”.
Globalization refers to “the integration of global societies and nations”. On the other hand, “internationalization is the process of promoting relations among societies and nations”
One weakness of globalization is that it has killed national boundaries. This has affected the establishment of sovereign states. Globalization also favors free trade and treaties. This has resulted in uncontrolled movement of goods and citizens thus affecting the stability of nations. The idea of globalization has made it impossible for people to make the best decisions regarding fiscal policies and wages. Globalization has also resulted in mergers and establishment of monopoles in different societies.
As a result, this has led to the establishment of giant corporations thus affecting emerging businesses. Globalization encourages monopolies, something that affects growing economies. Globalization forces countries to “specialize” their services and goods. This results in dependency thus affecting the lives of the citizens. The idea to enforce property rights and trade-related legislations affects “knowledge sharing”. This has affected the performance of different economies.
In order to understand the evils of globalization, it is necessary to apply the ideas of utilitarianism
According to the theory, “actions and behaviors are permissible (and right) if they produce the greatest happiness to many people”. According to utilitarianism, “morality and ethics should be impartial and therefore decisions should consider the welfare of the society”.
Impartiality calls for the continued involvement of all people and nations. As well, the theory claims that decisions and actions should present happiness to every individual. That being the case, the theory recommends the best ideas and decisions that will help reduce pain and bring happiness to the majority.
From the above justification, the utilitarian theory supports the idea that globalization is bad
That being the case, societies should promote the idea of “internationalization”. Utilitarianism does not permit globalization because it kills boundaries and increases monopoly. Utilitarianism is opposed to actions that kill economies or promote dependency. The theory argues that more people will suffer due to lack of appropriate goods and services. Globalization also restricts “knowledge sharing” thus affecting the performance of small economies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, the moral theory encourages human beings to consider the best practices and actions that will provide happiness to the greatest majority
Kantianism is another moral theory. The theory claims that “actions should be undertaken depending on an underlying principle (maxim)”. This theory would support globalization because it results in economic development and establishment of major corporations. This becomes “the maxim” thus making globalization good.
However, utilitarianism considers globalization as evil because it fails to address the needs of many nations and their citizens. Instead, it supports monopoly thus resulting in economic imbalances. Therefore, utilitarianism requires global leaders and decision-makers to move fast and promote “internationalization” rather than globalization.
A college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Summary of the Plot
Introduction The world of literature is the source of new ideas, thoughts and inspirations. The authors make us think over our life. Undoubtedly, everyone has the right to have their own opinion and the literature encourages us being open-minded and independent in our judgments. The novel A
The Boeing Ethical Policy Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the case
The ethical issues
Why they are ethical issues
Who is affected and how
Leadership issue to be addressed
Summary of the case Michael Sears was the chief financial officer at Boeing and Darleen Druyun was the vice president of the missile defense systems in 2002 when the unethical issue occurred. Sears offered Druyun a job at Boeing that made her influence the outcome of a large contract bid. Druyun’s daughter was working with Boeing. Druyun was seeking a job after her retirement.
The daughter’s fiancée was seeking a job position at Boeing. The favor of offering the fiancée a position had also been considered. There was a violation of the Boeing ethical policy and the Procurement Integrity Act. Sears and Druyun tried to cover up their unethical behavior.
Druyun lobbied politicians in Congress to ensure that Boeing was granted the contract. Congress awarded the contract to Boeing without any publicly presented contests from other bidders. The contract gave Boeing triple the usual amount charged as profit margin. Later, Druyun admitted having influenced the high price given to Boeing.
Boeing was also found in other unethical activities. Boeing was in possession of a 35,000-page document taken from Lockheed Martin. Accessing trade secrets of a competitor that could reduce their advantage in bidding a contract is unethical. Boeing had also used proprietary information from Raytheon on its missile defense system.
Boeing used program accounting system for its financial statements which makes it impossible for auditors to see the exact amount of the actual transactions. The company used financial misappropriation to look attractive to McDonnell Douglas investors when they sought a merger.
The company was accused of discriminating against women, blacks, and Asians in offering salaries. Two top managers at Boeing had romantic relationships with their employees.
The company settled the lawsuit pertaining to program accounting at $92.5 million. The company allocated $10 million to adjust the women pay rates. The company paid the Office of Federal Contract compliance (OFCCP) to settle its salary discrimination case.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company paid $615 million to settle its unethical behavior cases including Druyun’s case and Lockheed Martin stolen documents. In the workers’ case and Lockheed Martin case, Boeing settled with the Department of Justice without having to admit guilt to avoid new litigation from the aggrieved parties.
The ethical issues One of the unethical behaviors involves Boeing possessing a proprietary document that belonged to Lockheed Martin without their consent.
In another unethical behavior, Stonecipher had extra-marital affairs with an employee even after signing a code of conduct agreement with the company.
Why they are ethical issues It is unethical to be in possession of a competitor’s proprietary information that could reduce their advantage during a contract review.
The code of conduct agreement is used to prevent employees behaving in a manner that may be considered as employee mistreatment or that may weaken the brand.
Who is affected and how Lockheed Martin could have lost its competitive advantage by having its trade secrets exposed to a competitor. Boeing paid millions of dollars to the Justice Department to settle the case.
Debra Peabody resigned after 20 years working at Boeing. Joan Stonecipher filed for divorce after 50 years of marriage. Harry Stonecipher resigned after holding the CEO position for about a year.
We will write a custom Essay on The Boeing Ethical Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leadership issue to be addressed Boeing should strengthen its research and development department to avoid relying on stealing competitors’ information to gain competitive advantage as in the case of Raytheon and Lockheed Martin.
Dubai Financial Market Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
History of establishment of DFM
Objectives and functions
The growth of companies listed on DFM
Growth of trading in DFM
Abstract Financial markets are important entities in the economy. They have a significant effect on the performance of the national economy, as well as the performance of companies whose shares are listed.
Financial markets are places where stocks are traded. Stocks may include company shares, government bonds, and other securities. Foreign currencies are also traded here. In Dubai, the major financial market is referred to as the Dubai Financial Market. It is among the largest financial markets in the UAE region. This article will focus the various aspects of the Dubai Financial Market.
Introduction Financial markets are popular economic entities in every nation. These are markets where securities, fungible items, as well as commodities are traded. The prices at which these securities are traded are guided by the laws of demand and supply. Financial markets could either be general or specialized.
There is more than one item traded in the general market, unlike the specialized market that deals in a single commodity. Participants in these markets include individuals, companies, as well as government agencies. Financial markets are beneficial in a number of aspects. For instance, they help the organizations raise capital to expand their operations. Financial markets also facilitate risk transfer in what is referred to as derivative markets.
Almost each country has its own financial market. In Dubai, there is the Dubai Financial Market (DFM) that was founded in the year 2000 on March 26th. It is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Since its inception, there are over 60 companies that have been listed on the Dubai Financial Market. Most of these companies are domestic, with only a few foreign companies if any. It is important to note that most of the foreign companies listed on Dubai Financial Market are from the MENA region.
They are from countries such as Kuwait, Sudan, Oman, and Bahrain. However, most of these companies have foreign shareholders, among other domestic shareholders. The information regarding Dubai Financial Market will be focused on in this research paper. The history of Dubai Financial Market will be outlined, its functions and objectives, the requirements that a company should meet to be listed here, as well as the growth of companies listed on the market and growth of trading in Dubai Financial Market.
History of establishment of DFM Dubai Financial Market was established on the 26th day of March the year 2000. This is the same day when the operations commenced in the market. However, trading of shares did not commence until Wednesday 7th March 2007. It was established as a public institution and it was to function as an independent corporate body. The financial market was established through a resolution that was passed by the Ministry of Economy of Dubai in the year 2000.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The resolution that led to the formation of Dubai Financial Market was referred to as the Resolution No. 14 of 2000. The organization operates as a secondary market where shares and other securities that have been issued by the public companies are traded. Federal government bonds are also traded here. In addition, the local government, as well as any other public institution has the right to trade its securities in the Dubai Financial Market (Dubai Financial Market, 2013).
Financial instruments, as well as local and foreign currencies are also traded. In the year 2005, the Executive Council Decree set up Dubai Financial Market as a Public Joint Company in the United Arab Emirates. The paid up capital for the company was AED 8billion. This amount was to be allotted over 8 billion shares.
The par value for every share was to be AED 1.6. Twenty per cent of the shares were issued to the public for public subscription. The response to this public initial offer was too positive, which led to a high level of oversubscription. The amount generated added up to AED 201billion, an amount well over the 8billion target. Since it was established, Dubai Financial Market has continued to grow and expand, as well as improve on its performance and services offering.
During its first year of operation, the organization had less than 20 listed companies. Some of the companies that were listed by the end of the year 2000 include: Dubai Islamic, Dubai National Insurance and Reinsurance, Emirates Bank, Mashreq, Dubai Insurance, Union Insurance, Union Properties and Agico (Arabian General Investment Corp, or Shuaa), Emaar, Dubai Investment, as well as Tabreed also known as the National General Cooling Company.
The company further had a total of 12 brokers who were accredited by the end of 2000. They included: “Al Sharhan, Commercial Bank International, Dubai International Securities, Dubai Islamic Bank, Dubex Securities International, Emirates Bank International, Emirates Commercial Centre, Mashreq, National Bank of Abu Dhabi, National Bank of Dubai, Shurooq, and Union National” (Gulfnews.com, 2001).
However, it recorded a consistent growth in its first three quarters of the year 2000. It started with 7.17 million shares, which then increased to 7.57 million shares in the second quarter and third quarters. By the fourth quarter, the company had about 9.15 million shares. The growth rate of Dubai Financial Market followed the same pattern as more shares continued to be listed and more companies joined the market.
Objectives and functions Every successful organization should have objectives that are well stipulated in a clear and precise manner. All the activities carried out within an organization must be in line with its objectives. Dubai Financial Market was formed with the major aim of offering securities trading services.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Dubai Financial Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization aims at providing innovative services in the securities market. It aims at increasing the level of efficiency and effectiveness in the market, as well as enhancing transparency. Creating a liquid environment is another objective of the organization. The financial markets usually have a significant effect on the general economy of the country in which they are operated. A good performance in the financial market is an indicator of a well performing economy (Dubai Financial Market, 2013).
On the other hand, if the financial market is performing poorly, then this will be an indicator of a poorly performing national economy. The leaders and managers of Dubai Financial Market are aware of the importance of security markets in an economy, thus they ensure maximum efficiency in the organization. Dubai Financial Market tries to enhance the utilization of the available resources to create an efficient marketplace for securities.
The company attempts to utilize the resources as effectively and efficiently as possible (Dubai Financial Market, 2013). Efficiency can also be enhanced by ensuring that investors are well armed with relevant information that will facilitate their decision making. Investors need to make decisions that are well informed; otherwise, they might end up losing their fortunes. Dubai Financial Market ensures that investors have the right and sufficient information to help them in their decision making.
In addition, the organization also tries to prevent investors from any form of unfair treatment or improper practices that might discourage them. In doing so, the Dubai Financial Market regulates all the activities that take place in the trading of securities. It ensures that the prices of securities are controlled by the forces of demand and supply and not by individuals or entities.
There is a possibility for individuals or entities that have large numbers of shares to control the market and become unfair to the rest of the investors. The Dubai Financial Market management ensures that this does not happen to ensure fairness and attract more investors.
The company offers investment opportunities to potential investors, a function that is said to have a positive influence on the growth of the national economy. People can save through the financial market and trade securities where they make profits. Dubai Financial Market also makes arrangements for the purchase and sale of securities. In doing so, it ensures that the investors are treated in a fair manner. The market further facilitates transfer of securities from one owner to another.
In doing so, it establishes a center where deposits transfer and settlements can be conducted. This is done in a system that is highly integrated to make the process speedy and accurate (Dubai Financial Market, 2013). It also ensures a high level of integrity among members and security brokers through establishment of a code of ethics. It provides training to its members to enhance integrity. The company has accredited brokers who help investors in conducting the securities trade.
There are some people who may not be aware of the processes and procedures followed in the market securities, thus they can get help from these brokers. Finally, Dubai Financial Market gathers any relevant data, as well as statistics regarding securities and prepares reports that are presented to its stakeholders. These reports are important in that they facilitate accurate and relevant decision making by the investors.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dubai Financial Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Listing requirements The term listing refers to the shares of a company being traded on a stock exchange or others on the list of the shares to be traded. For the shares of a company to be listed, it has to apply for listing. However, there are some countries whereby the financial market or the stock exchanges can just list the shares of a company. For a company’s shares to be listed in the market without applying, the shares have to be traded through informal channels actively. The following are the requirements before listing on the Dubai Financial Market.
The company is required to give a brief description of its history and operations. The financial markets aim at listing companies that have a good performance to boost its chances of success. Investors will only want to buy shares of a company that have a healthy performance. Attracting more investors will increase the profitability of the Dubai Financial Market. It is for this reason that it only lists well performing companies.
The company is expected to show its financial statements for the past few years prior to its application (Aljifri
Information system Essay college application essay help
Implementation challenges in the case Children’s Health Fund (CHF) is a very ambitious initiative that will help ensure that the poor in this society get access to quality healthcare facilities. Its Mobile Medical Clinic (MMC) will enable the team of doctors to move from one location to another. However, it is important to appreciate some of the challenges that this project face during its implementation. One of the main challenges that come out from this case is the source of funding.
Well-wishers fund this project. This means that the capacity of this program to meet the medical demand is limited to the amount of funds it receives from this group. Another problem is that the medical officers can only be found at one location at a time using their blue van. This makes their service unreliable, especially in cases of emergency. Given that the service is offered in several states, the service offered by this firm will make minimal impact.
Some of the above problems can be addressed using technology. Health information technology (HIF) can be used to enhance information management. The management team of this firm can develop programs that will help process and store clients’ information in a protected database.
The database manager should be responsible for the management of client’s data to ensure that this firm is in line with the laws governing this sector. In order to have access to vital data while in the field, the mobile van should have a wireless communication system that will link the MMC’s database with the firm’s central database at the headquarters.
In order to enhance management consistency, MMC should develop decision support system (DSS) that will guide management officers while in the field. Their decision will be based on information available in the database of the firm. DSS can also help the medics determine what the patient could be suffering from, by comparing the current symptoms of the patient and available data on similar symptoms and the conclusions previously made (Brown, DeHayes, Hoffer, Martin,
Medical Office Management Expository Essay college essay help: college essay help
To be a Medical Records and Health Information Technician (MRHIT) requires a postsecondary non-degree education. This means one must undergo high school education and relevant education training in clerical work and language. An education in computer and electronic use is relevant in the mentioned profession. However, having a bachelor’s degree in a medical office management is highly recommended.
At Iowa, the state and national requirements for the profession are a high school diploma, an associate degree, and a bachelor’s degree. Additional certificates are a master or doctoral degree in a medical office management. According to Skurka (2012), these certificates must be issued from accredited institution or medical training facilities under the supervision of American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA).
State and national requirements for MRHIT certificate at Iowa include are certificate in computer technologies, medical insurance and coding. Others include a certificate in health information and medical records and basic knowledge in accounting.
The median salary for MRHIT in Iowa is at $14.71 compared to a national median salary of $16.42 per hour (U.S Department of Labor, 2013). In the same context, the annual median salary in the state is at $30,600 compared to $34,200 at the national level (U.S Department of Labor, 2013).
The fact that the American aging population is increasing, demand for MRHITs is also increasing. It is estimated that the job opportunities for MRHITs will increase by 21% in every 10 years (Mertz
Divorce through a child’s eye Term Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye
Family system theory and divorce
Attachment theory and divorce
Divorce and the social exchange theory
Introduction Children who are born and brought up in a family setup develop a special relationship with their parents. Each member of the family plays a critical role and a gap is recognized any time a certain member of the family is absent.
Depending on the relationship agreements, the parents divide roles amongst themselves and children learn to live within the social class of their parents. Obviously, each of the family members would wish that the life trend continues forever, but sometimes, that may not be the case. A time may come when the behaviors of either of the parents change completely.
The father, for example, may decide to become depressive and abscond from his duties. In such a case, the mother takes on the burden of caring for the whole family. If the father continues with the unimpressive behaviors, the mother would become tired and seek for a divorce. Some cases have happened where the mother turns to live a reckless life that forces the man to resolve to divorce. The later is a rare occurrence; however, regardless of the cause of divorce, the children are the immensely affected victims.
Children, especially those in their tender ages fail to understand why they can no longer live with both parents (Eisenhard, 2012). In this case, we have an interviewee who was a victim of divorced parents at the age of sixteen. The teenager was in denial since she could not believe or understand how she could just stop seeing her beloved dad. This paper will base its discussion on the interviewee’s answers to address the issue of divorce through the child’s eye.
First impression of divorce in a child’s eye When life begins taking the other side of the coin, there is a lot of confusion. The interviewee started experiencing many unexplainable ill signs. The parents began trash talking each other, and each side of the family despised the other. The family members from the mothers said ill things about their father and the father’s family that despised her mother.
The teenager was caught in confusion; she could not understand what was going on, neither could she tell whom to believe. At one point, the child watches his father sleeping with a cigarette in his mouth. This is a clear sign that her father was extremely depressed. On reporting the incidence to the mother, the innocent child gets blows the following morning.
Her father is extremely mad such that he throws his shoe on her. This is a very disgusting scene and the interviewee indicates that the confusion affected her grades. Her grades dropped drastically during this period, and her emotions changed instantly. She could get mad at people easily and start quarrels with her siblings for no tangible reason. Form this point of view, it is evident that divorce is a scenario that brings in a lot of confusion, disbelieve and denial of the whole truth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Family system theory and divorce The family system theory tries to bring out the exact relationship that exists between the family members. Each of the family members develops an interdependent relationship with the other. The relationships formed are so strong such that breaking the bonds proves to be very difficult (Bell, 2010).
The interviewee indicates that she could have her mother’s family members talking ill of her father. Whether whatever the family members said was true or not, she could not believe them. The interviewee started seeing her father less often, and they could only meet in special places for some limited time.
The divorce robbed the teenager of her beloved father. She really hoped that things would work out for her parents and they would get along. The innocent teenager could not comprehend the fact that divorce meant total splitting of the family. However, despite the immerse interaction patterns that had formed between the family members, the mother could not settle for less. She could not get along with the infidelity of her partner, and she opted for a split family rather than a family of distress and agony.
The interviewee mentioned that immediately after knowing that her parents were divorcing, she could not absorb the fact, and she kept on pushing the thought at the back of her mind. Her parents would fight at her sight and she kept on disbelieving what she saw. Although the interviewee found it difficult at first, she understood everything later on. After the divorce, each of the parents owned the teenager an explanation.
The father had a story that defended him, and the mother had her side of the story. Finally, she had to settle on one truth, infidelity is what made her parents divorce. She is currently twenty years, and she can understand the agony that her mother underwent to seek refuge in divorce. Despite the fact that her parents divorced, she is happy for them because there is a lot of calmness and everyone is happy.
Attachment theory and divorce As a family develops, strong emotional attachments form between the family members. Healthy emotional attachments between the family members enable the family to live happily. Parents who have a strong attachment to their families will work tirelessly to ensure they offer the best for the family.
The children develop strong attachments with their parents, and as they grow, strong emotional relationships occur (Mercer, 2006). After the age of six months, children are able to identify and sensitively respond to their caregivers. As children grow, they seek protection from the people around them and thus build a special attachment with their caretakers. The children grow up believing in their parents, thinking about them, and expecting a lot from them.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Divorce through a child’s eye specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The divorce scenario caught the teenager in surprise. Throughout her life, she had developed a strong attachment with both parents. The teenager developed a separation anxiety because she actually lost a special attachment figure. At first, the interviewee could not believe that she could be a victim of divorced parents, but it really happened. With disbelieve, the interviewee’s grades dropped at first as her mind was preoccupied with the thought of her divorced parents.
The interviewee had to develop an adaptive response, and she slowly gained back her confidence and developed increased strength that enabled her to score higher grades than before. The social life slowly changed and the interviewee felt like she would address her issues to her pals. As she grew, she developed a different perspective of life. She grew up knowing that a marriage commitment ought to be taken seriously.
From experience, the interviewee testified that individuals should understand that family splitting affects the entire life of the children. The interviewee was sixteen when the fateful incident happened, and four years down the line, she could comprehend everything. However, for her siblings who were very young when her parents divorced, it could take quite some time to comprehend everything that happened.
Divorce and the social exchange theory The social exchange theory is very interesting as it explains the individuals’ interest in a family. The exchange theory states that individuals enter into relationships to reap maximum benefit and minimize the costs (Miller, 2005). In a family setup, the exchanges between the parties involved ought to be fair and balanced, thus enabling the involved parties to reap mutual benefits. The individuals in a family express behaviors that generate the greatest reward.
According to behavioral psychologists, family members will repeat the gainful behaviors provided they reap the required fruits. The Unitarian economists state that human beings will research on the necessary information, and employ all behaviors needed to make rational decisions that would reap maximum benefit. However, in some cases, the more the individuals in a family receive the reward, the more the reward loses its value, and that is when relationships start becoming sour.
The interviewee’s parents stated losing value of their relationship benefits when she was sixteen years old. The father could no longer find value in the intimate relationship with his wife, and thus he decided to become unfaithful. On the other hand, the mother weighed the benefits and costs associated with an unfaithful marriage, and of course, the costs outweighed the benefits.
Probably, the father could no longer provide for the family as he did before. The attachment between the father, children, and his wife was lessened as compared to the early days when the father did not have a third party to attend. The woman could also encounter the risks and costs associated with contacting sexually transmitted infections if she continued to cling to the marriage.
There being no more benefits of confiding in the marriage, she opted for divorce. It took the teenager some time to comprehend the cost benefit analysis that made her mother settle for a divorce. It is after she reached her twenties that she understood the emotional sufferings that her mother underwent during those tough family moments. She is now contended and happy because regardless of the split family, everybody is living happily.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Divorce through a child’s eye by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the discussions, it is evident that children are greatly affected by their parents’ decision to divorce. However, it is necessary for people to take a stringent analysis of the underlying issue that forced one to seek for divorce before making judgments. Clinging to an unfaithful marriage would pave way to many life problems than resolving for a divorce.
However, if possible, parents should always try as much as possible to keep their marriages. They should try to apply the utilitarian theory that requires couples to find out the necessary information of the behaviors that reap maximum benefits in the family union. Each of the family members should take actions that benefit the entire union.
Divorce should be the last thing couples should settle for as it adversely affects the children as well as the parent who will be separated from their kids. As the interviewee stated, people who make marriage commitments should stick with the commitments since bridging the commitments affects the children as well as the entire community.
References Bell, D.C. (2010). The dynamics of connection: How evolution and biology create care giving and attachment. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Eisenhard, T. (2012). The D-Word: Divorce through a child’s eyes. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
Mercer, J. (2006). Understanding attachment: Parenting, childcare, and emotional development. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Miller, K. (2005). Communication theories. New York: McGraw Hill.
Jazz Music Report Report best college essay help: best college essay help
The day when I told myself that it had been a while since I last attended a jazz concert happened to be the pivoting point in my vision of New Jazz music. The concert featured the compositions that had been around for quite a while and seemingly had no surprises.
Nevertheless, because of a new and imaginative way to interpret the compositions known by millions of people for quite a while, the concert left a huge impact on me and changed my perception of the concept of the New Jazz music in general and the works of some New Jazz musicians in particular.
The impact that the songs left with me is very hard to nail down. On the one hand, the unique interpretations of the songs were a fresh breeze in the range of traditional reiterations of the already existing versions. On the other hand, some of the interpretations rubbed me the wrong way, perhaps, only because I was so much used to the traditional versions of these songs. Anyway, it was rather engaging to listen to the new ways of singing old time classics.
The shift from Fender Rhodes solo to saxophones trio in Gaviota might be considered too much of a risk for the band to take. Seeing how the song clearly sounded very differently from the traditional performance, the audience might have easily refused to accept the version suggested by the band. However, much to my surprise, the new vision of the composition did not cause any misconceptions or unwillingness to see Clare Fischer’s creation in the new light.
The change in the choice of the instrument, however, did lend the song a more lounge-like sound, which seems to go against the author’s intent. While Fischer’s original version chimed in with the charm of the Girl from Ipanema with its bossa nova style, the concert interpretation was clearly aimed at triggering associations with the style preferred in the XXI century, which blends the influences of the mellow, classic and lounge jazz.
The same cannot be said, however, about the interpretation of Joseph Kosma’s Autumn Leaves played during the concert; an obvious homage to the composer, the given version did not deviate from the one that was introduced initially. At some point, however, the idea of replacing the flugelhorn with a more upbeat trumpet can be considered a rather risky choice; because of comparatively higher range, the cheerfulness of the composition might be seen as somewhat out of place.
Michael Franks’s Tell Me about It was revamped rather successfully, too. Originally quite boring, for my taste, song that every single jazz musician needs to come up with at some point in his/her life for some reason, it gained a new meaning as it was performed by a female artist. Perhaps, owing to the fact that the performer’s voice did not match Franks’s pitch and let the song sink into a lower tone, the composition sounded more sincere and refined.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast to Franks’s performance, the interpretation provided by the female singer actually helped understand the lyrics better and feel the light sadness that the entire song was shot through. It was not that Franks could not perform his own song the right way – it was just that the new performer added another shade of meaning to Tell Me about It, and I happened to like that new meaning better.
The same cannot be said, however, about the next song that I was offered to listen to, Dizzy Gillespie’s Soul Sauce (Sutro 169). In contrast to the performances that came previously, it was rather jumbled. In contrast to the traditional version, which had a weird yet appealing rhythm to it, the concert version, which was clearly going for a much smoother version, yet tried to retain the original sound, was all over the place.
Palmer’s Leapfrog to Harlem, along with George Stone’s I’m out of Time, Too, was performed rather nicely, yet it clearly lacked the sound of trumpet, which help the original composition together and made it unique. By replacing the trumpet with the saxophone, the performers managed to add the composition a distinct scent of the “big city lights,” yet the replacement was deadly to the originality of the composition, turning it into another lounge jazz piece.
Arguably, the musicians were in a no-win situation – there was nothing that they could have done to revamp the song and leave it recognizable. If they had made too many changes to make it more palatable, the audience would have said that the new song sounded nothing like the old one; if the musicians left it intact, the audience would have argued that this was another pointless recycling of the “old gold.” Anyway, the rest of the concert was quite decent and even had a few pearls to be discovered ahead.
Abstract Image, a composition written by Fred Sturm, did not have any major surprises for me in terms of the choice of the instruments; however, the performance was rather neat, and the saxophone that replaced the original penny whistle was quite clever. Unless the musicians had made the given change to the song, the latter would have been completely out of place in the realm of the XXI century smooth jazz that the concert offered its visitors to plunge into.
For me, the given interpretation of Sturm’s most famous composition was, actually, a chance to take a new and unbiased look at the whole New Jazz concept (Clark 8). Previously believing that it was nothing but consistent attempts to bring postmodern chaos into the music that was not supposed to be orderly and follow strict rules by default, in contrast to, say, the classical music, I finally realized that the New Jazz era is a means to breathe new life into the genre that has so much potential in it and yet is forgotten so shamelessly.
Speaking of New Jazz, the interpretation of Matt Harris’s Snap Crackle snatched me out of the gloomily thoughtful mood. While the performers clearly made it sound more smoothly, it still created a charming atmosphere of carelessness. Followed by James Miley’s Three-Fingered Jack, it served as a means to switch from the process of quiet meditation to the state of musical delight.
We will write a custom Report on Jazz Music Report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sammy Nestico’s Mind Machine added more whimsy to the concert. Actually, at this point, I felt the idea of introducing more whimsy to the concert rather redundant, since the atmosphere created by the musicians needed a heartfelt moment rather than a moment of vivacity; however, at this point, the idea of changing the tone of the concert was a rather welcome change of pace.
Horace Silver’s Peace was a logical solution to link the previous part of the concert to the point at which it was going to end. Sophisticated and slow, it led to Tony Martinez’s famous Pa’lo Latino, which was a perfect way to end a fairly good performance.
The concert definitely left me in a completely different mood from the one that I was when I arrived there. While I could not say that I liked every single interpretation of the compositions that had already become household classics by the beginning of the XXI century, they definitely offered a lot of food for thoughts and even more for aesthetic savoring of the moment.
Works Cited Clark, Andrew. Riffs
Trolley Problems Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
There are two cases presented for analysis in this essay; Trolley Problem I and Trolley Problem II. In the first case, a runway trolley would kill five people on its pathway. These persons can only be saved by pulling the switch in the train. However, pulling the switch would kill one person.
The dilemma is whether to pull the switch or not. In trolley problem II, a runaway trolley would kill five people on the pathway if it stays on its course. Again, pushing a stranger to the track is the only way to save these persons. The body of the stranger would prevent the train from hitting the five people. Nevertheless, the train would kill him. Again the dilemma is whether to push him or not. In both cases, the response is yes because in either way there would be loss of life. Therefore, it is better to save many lives at the cost of a single life.
Immanuel Kant was one of the most prominent philosophers. He is widely regarded as a key figure of the present philosophy. Kant argued that human beings should act in a way that upholds humanity as an end but not to meet certain goals.
According to him, rational beings should never be treated simply as tools for achieving certain ends. Instead, they are regarded as an end in themselves and their rational motives must be respected. Kant argued that there are some kinds of actions, such as murder, stealing, and dishonesty, which are totally forbidden, even if they would result into more joy. In applying Kant’s ethics to the trolley problem I and II, there are two queries that must be taken into consideration.
First is whether it is rationally justifiable for every person to act in a similar way. Second is whether the action upholds humanity and not simply using beings to meet certain goals. If the answer to both questions is no, then the action should be avoided. Apparently, in both trolley problems I and II, the act of pulling the switch and pushing a stranger to the train pathway would kill them and save the lives of five other people.
These acts would mean using human beings to make an end, preventing the death of five people. Per se, these actions would not be accepted by Kant. A reasoning being cannot sensibly accept being treated simply as an object to make an end; they are regarded as an end in themselves. The two acts contravene Kant’s ethics and are not acceptable. In addition, Kant would refute such acts if adopted by everybody.
Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill were the two philosophers who developed utilitarian ethics. Utilitarianism stresses on the outcome of actions, which are either pain or pleasure. According to the theory, the right action is that which results into greatest pleasure over pain. However, the consequences of an action are not considered only to a person but for everyone.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the consequences of an action are analyzed based on its long-term effects. Utilitarian ethics claim that in any particular dilemma, the right decision to make must result into more joy and least sadness for most people (O’Donohue
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world
Future pointers to the contemporary developments in the world
Introduction The different schools of thought in the field of political science denote that the world is a global stage on which the actors advance their activities. It is important to note that the world is not merely a stage, but a complex stage that is marked by complex actions from the states who are the major actors in the global stage, as well as other players.
This paper explores the critical developments that have taken place in the world over the past few years. Of greater essence in the paper is bringing out the factors that have shaped these developments and the use of theoretical foundations in the field of political science to paint a picture of the future developments and incidences in the global stage.
Overview of the recent historical incidences in the world The developments at the global stage from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time depict critical developments in the political and economic realms.
The past five years have seen the rise in the scale of global trade, growth in the issue of democracy and human rights that features in the global political uprisings across the Arab region, the increased scale of competition in national politics based on the dimensions of opinions on the events taking place on the global stage, the expansion of individual country capacities in technology, and the widening debate about the issue of economic development relative to the subject of environmental sustainability.
These developments are still eminent in the contemporary globalized political environment and they continue to influence the course of events in the modern globalized society.
Critical analysis of the recent developments in the world As observed in the introductory note, the developments in the world largely denote aspects of competition, as well as the aspects of cooperation in dealing with the emerging issues at the global stage. The recent developments in the world are a pointer to the fact that both the tendencies of realism and idealism are evident in the interaction within and among the players on the global stage. However, the most important thing to note is that the world is confronted with a lot of political and economic issues.
The past five years have seen a heightened scale of restlessness across the Arab Region. Beginning with the revolution in Libya, followed by the revolution in Egypt, Libya and the recent developments in Syria, it is evident that concerns about democracy and the reconsideration of the systems and forms of governance have taken root in global politics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the Arab region has been marked with conflicts for a long time. However, the series of revolts in the Arab region and the resultant ousting of the longstanding political leaders and governments in the countries that witnessed the revolution is an important marker when it comes to the issues of democracy and the increase in the demand for political participation (Doyle, 2013).
A close observation of the revolutions that have been taking place in the Arab region reveals a similarity of a number of revolutionary features. The first feature revolves around the issue of autocracy and the elongated period of political leadership by a single individual.
The second thing about the political unrest in the Arab world is the limited space for political participation and the question of human rights and democracy. The third aspect of similarity, which largely features in the grievances of the rebels, is the deterioration of the standards of life due to the interconnectedness of the economic policies and political decisions (Twair
Christian Theological Entities Essay essay help: essay help
Is Catholicism a Unique Religion? Catholicism refers to various doctrinal and theological traditions that characterize Christian entities in contemporary society. It embodies practices that define beliefs and ethical conduct with regard to Christians. Despite its general disposition, most people construe it as an embodiment of the Roman Catholic Church.
In certain instances, people view Catholicism as a description of Christian theological entities that bear witness to the teachings of Jesus Christ (Barron 11). In other aspects, the term describes a community of protestant churches whose hallmark lies in their contrarian approach to theological and doctrinal interpretation of scriptures and Christian beliefs (Barron 11).
There are experts who believe that Catholicism refers to the institution of the Roman Catholic Church that receives guidance and tutelage from church leadership in Rome, Italy.
According to this school of thought, Catholicism is distinct for its stringent adherence to institutional practices that promote retention of traditional practices with regard to functions within its jurisdiction. Due to its conservative nature, Catholicism enjoys exclusivity and ability to control various undertakings that define its essence in contemporary society (Barron 13).
Catholicism also asserts the essence of sacraments and their role in entrenching and upholding Christian values. Mediation and intercession is a key feature in Catholicism. Believers depend on mediation whenever there is need for divine intervention. Such practices explain the relevance of saints among Catholics. Saints act as intermediaries between believers and God, especially during moments of hardship and suffering (Barron 16).
Other important aspects of Catholicism include Holy Communion and the Holy See in Rome. Catholicism embodies various belief systems that define core values and practices. For instance, it supports celibacy and dedication to Christianity through prayer and service to humanity. Through such practices, the church endeavors to spread Christianity and demonstrate how God’s love serves as a unifying factor for individuals in different societies.
In light of the above submissions, it is important to note that Catholicism does not suffice in the context of a single denomination or theological entity (Barron 17). It should reflect the essence of universal Christianity as opposed to a specific reference to the Roman Catholic Church. Viewing Catholicism in a subjective fashion does not satisfy the desire to comprehend and articulate issues that relate to Christianity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Catholicism refers to a community of believers who owe allegiance to teachings of Jesus Christ. In a broader sense, Catholicism covers institutions and denominations that practice Christian values and beliefs (Barron 21). The principle of Catholicism denotes universal Christianity and all aspects of its practice and propagation. It encompasses differences and similarities that manifest in universal Christianity.
It is difficult for anyone to define Catholicism as a unique religion because it represents numerous theological and religious outfits. The religious outfits that characterize Catholicism have divergent views and interpretations with regard to doctrinal and theological principles. Despite such differences, they profess Christian faith as their sole motivation and impetus for religious practice (Barron 24).
Is There a Single Universal Christianity or Several Universal Christianities? As earlier mentioned, Catholicism refers to religious groups that profess faith in the divine teachings of Jesus Christ. This definition exhibits contradiction that arises in reference to Catholicism as a unique religion. It is important to understand the essence of various outfits that profess belief in teachings of Jesus Christ.
Such outfits portend fundamental discrepancies in their interpretation and understanding with regard to religious and theological tenets. Doctrinal and theological differences do not affect their ability to connect and address believers whose concern revolves around Christian values (Barron 31). A single universal Christianity is nonexistent because there are numerous groups that suffice as catholic. For instance, there is a catholic church that that pledges allegiance to the Bishop of Rome.
Indeed, this practice is a key element among those who profess Catholicism. It comprises Eastern and Western divisions that serve as its core support base. This strain of Catholicism believes in the essence and rationale of apostolic succession. Apostolic leadership and guidance is an integral reality among Catholic believers (Barron 34). The Eastern and Western divisions cover different areas of command but claim allegiance to the church leadership in Rome.
Another group abides to orthodox beliefs and teachings. This outfit believes in apostolic leadership and guidance with regard to leadership on religious matters. They trace their religious foundations to ancient Christian practices and subscribe to early Christian beliefs. The Orthodox Church claims its allegiance to teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Two major outfits manifest with regard to orthodox beliefs and teachings (Barron, 35).
They include Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western wing that has slight alterations to basic doctrinal interpretation. Both orthodox churches differ on fundamental areas of interest with regard to religion and interpretation of scriptures. Other protestant and evangelical churches broke away from the original Catholic Church because of differences in doctrine and interpretation of scriptures. Examples of such religions include Anglican Church, Lutheran, and Reformed Catholic Church.
We will write a custom Essay on Christian Theological Entities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They all believe in the concept of apostolic succession and swear allegiance to the Bishop of Rome. However, they harbor major differences with regarding to traditional practices within the church (Barron 39). Most of their practices are identical to those of the Catholic Church but differ in certain areas such as celibacy and family issues. Other Christian entities believe and practice apostolic leadership but have no historical or documented link to apostolic tutelage, as evidenced in the early Christian community (Barron 43).
Due to this reality, the Catholic Church does not recognize their union and fellowship with regard to religious practices. However, it is important to note that such religious outfits are valid because they have members who subscribe to their teachings and practices. Other groups do not practice apostolic leadership but profess its essence in order to retain fellowship with Catholic leadership in Rome. Both religious entities have close relations with the Catholic Church, whose leadership emanates from Rome (Hellwig 21).
These complexities affect overall perception of universal Christianity because they present contradictions and anomalies that do not promote its image. For instance, universal Christianity presents gross disunity and inability to compromise on basic and fundamental areas of concern. Observers find it difficult to understand how religious entities fail to foster unity of purpose, yet they purport to represent similar interests.
Universal Christian entities fail to inspire confidence and trust because they seem to promote and articulate personal interests (Hellwig 23). Their areas of contention border on theological and doctrinal interpretations that do not have any significant impact on the overall disposition of the church. History shows that there have been numerous instances of disagreement among universal Christian entities. Such differences are responsible for current divisions and disharmony among universal Christians.
Whenever there are differences and misunderstandings, it is important for all parties to initiate dialogue in order to find lasting solutions (Hellwig 25). On the contrary, universal Christian entities are usually quick to break away and establish new frontiers for religious practice. Other religious groups are skeptical of universal Christian entities because they project an image of greed and inability to tackle important issues among themselves.
This reality does not promote positivity and hope with regard to these religious outfits (Hellwig 27). Therefore, most observers have negative perceptions regarding the role of universal Christians in promoting religious harmony in contemporary society. In absence of such efforts, universal Christian entities cannot achieve harmony and unity of purpose. It is important to note that Christianity has spread to various places across the world (Hellwig, 34).
In ancient days, Christianity was prevalent in Europe and other surrounding areas. Currently, Christianity thrives in continents such as Africa and Asia. Due to this fact, there has been emergence of religious factions that incorporate local values and patterns of behavior. For instance, Christianity in Africa derives influence from African beliefs and traditions. This scenario replicates in other areas that embrace Christianity (Hellwig 39).
Is Catholicism Compatible With Other Religions? In contemporary society, there is need for ecumenical cooperation between religious groups in order to ensure and guarantee appropriate dissemination of positive ideals and principles. All religious outfits have unique attributes and values that define their essence with regard to fostering positivity among its adherents. Religious groups are responsible not only to their members but also to society. This makes it necessary for various religious groups to cooperate in order to ensure realization of individual and collective objectives (Hellwig 41).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Christian Theological Entities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Universal Christianity should seek indulgence of other religious groups towards creation of positive values amongst individuals in society. Catholicism promotes morality and rational thinking with regard to various undertakings in society. In fact, it seeks to encourage positive thinking that ultimately influences human relations in society. In order to achieve this noble agenda, universal Christians should foster interdenominational cooperation.
After honing unity among various Christian factions, they should extend this to cover other religions such as Islam, Buddhism, and religious Jews (Hellwig 43). Although there are fundamental differences between doctrinal and theological interpretations, all religious groups can fuse specific positive values that promote societal wellbeing. For instance, Islam promotes communal values that seek to enhance interdependence amongst its members (Hellwig 44).
Islam requires its wealthy members to assist those who do not have a material endowment. Such values are important because they encourage rationality and pragmatic behavior patterns. Muslims are very dedicated to requisite religious practices that embody their doctrine and theological inclination.
They endeavor to follow religious teachings and practices that characterize the Islamic conviction. Their dedication to serving humanity is legendary because it forms a basis for religious practice (Hellwig 54). The aforementioned values are relevant and applicable to universal Christians because they promote positivity in society. Universal Christians should emulate such Islamic values because they serve as a guide for upright human living.
Religious Jews also have social values that seek to promote upright living in society. Jewish traditions and practices are proactive and mindful of individuals in social contexts. Jewish religious principles promote unity and cohesion in society (Hellwig, 57). Through various undertakings, the Jewish community supports humanitarian efforts in different parts of the world. Such efforts are similar to those undertaken by universal Christians around the world. Buddhism also supports peaceful coexistence in society.
Its religious principles revolve around non-violence and peaceful resolution of conflicts in contemporary society. These values are very important, especially because society continues to witness violence and upheaval. Catholicism should learn and appreciate the importance of ecumenical cooperation in order to foster positive engagements in society (Hellwig 57).
In order to promote its universality, Catholicism should embrace other religious groups that have similar objectives and motivations. By cooperating with other religious outfits, universal Christianity could expand its influence across the world. It is notable that certain observers argue against such cooperation. They fear that ecumenism could jeopardize values and belief systems within Catholicism (Hellwig 65). On the contrary, cooperation shall strengthen and entrench positive human values in society.
It is necessary for universal Christians to embrace other denominational entities in order to guarantee unity and ability to conquer negativity in society. By incorporating other cultural and religious belief systems, Catholicism strengthens its ability to promote positive action in society. Therefore, it is necessary for universal Christians to devise structural frameworks that support realization of such ideals and aspirations (Hellwig 69).
What is the Future of Catholicism? For a long time, Catholicism has had immense influence on societal existence and propagation of various undertakings. During early days of its inception, Catholicism had influence on society because it changed human understanding and approach to challenges that were present in communal settings (Rausch 44). Universal Christianity sought to overhaul and eradicate traditional forms of worship. In certain ways, proponents of universal Christianity succeeded in achieving their objectives.
The Christian influence in society continued to manifest in numerous engagements that characterized human existence in society. After entrenching Catholicism in Europe, proponents sought to spread its influence to other parts of the world (Rausch 44). This endeavor materialized after they managed to spread the gospel to far-flung areas such as Asia and Africa. Though Christian missionaries encountered hostility in areas such as Africa, they struggled to introduce and entrench their message to the local inhabitants.
Generally, this mission was successful because the missionaries overturned local worship systems in favor of Catholicism. Several decades after introduction of Catholicism in areas such as Africa and Asia, there is immense influence on their religious systems (Rausch 47). Such systems are predominantly Christian. However, the future of Catholicism is uncertain in areas such as Europe.
It is evident that people in European societies are increasingly shedding their Christian beliefs. Most people in these communities argue that Catholicism is not dynamic. Its conservative nature makes it impossible for members to adjust to modern developments that emanate from technological advancements and innovations (Rausch 49).
Due to its stringent nature and inability to accommodate change, Catholicism risks losing influence and support in Europe and other parts of the world. People find it difficult to conform to Christianity because of its inability to recognize and appreciate changes that are currently evident in society. Catholicism should embrace change in order to foster and enhance self-preservation (Rausch 54). In my opinion, Catholicism could fade and disappear because it fails to incorporate modernity into its belief system.
For instance, it should ensure and support revision of canonical statutes that do not reflect realities in modern societies. In absence of such undertakings, it will be difficult for Catholicism to foster relevance and hegemony in highly dynamic social contexts. The future of Catholicism depends on realignments and changes within its leadership ranks in order to support and appreciate change in society (Rausch 67).
Works Cited Barron, Robert. Catholicism: A Journey to the Heart of Faith. Newyork: Doubleday Religious Publishing Group, 2011. Print.
Hellwig, Monika. Understanding Catholicism. Chicago: Paulist Press, 2002. Print.
Rausch, Thomas. Catholicism in the Third Millennium. London: Liturgical Press, 2003. Print.
Gender Socialization Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Lorber on Gender Socialization
Introduction Feminists and gender experts generally agree that, at birth, there is no femininity or masculinity. It is through early gender socialization that infants become engendered according to their sex (Scott and Jackson 41). Gender is defined as “a social symbolic construction that expresses the meaning a society confers on biological sex” (Wood 320). From an early age, boys and girls learn different gender-specific roles in their environment as taught by parents, siblings or caregivers.
Lorber observes that “parents produce gendered children through the toys they buy… they also encourage them to play in a gender-appropriate way – girls with dolls, boys with action figures” (61). Thus, parents influence early gender socialization by controlling “the patterns of gendered behavior, which, not only become part of a child’s identity as a boy or a girl but also become embodied” (Lorber 63). Besides, parents, the media, peers and school also influence early gender socialization.
It is evident that gender socialization is intertwined with culture. In patriarchal societies, “society is organized around certain kinds of social relationships and ideas” (Johnson 78) that seem to favor men. However, this “does not mean that all men – each and every one of them – are oppressive people” (Johnson 76).
Rather, it is the social system that breeds social oppression and male dominance that characterize patriarchy. It is through understanding the larger social system that society can identify the positive gender roles that can promote gender equity and reduce oppression. This paper reviews the arguments for and against early gender socialization, patriarchy and its effects, and the effect of engendered society on gender roles and performance.
Patriarchy Gender identity plays a big role in social stratification in many cultures including the American society. Typically, a patriarchal ‘system’ assigns males and females distinct heterosexual roles, a practice, which serves to perpetuate male dominance.
However, Johnson holds a different view; he views patriarchy as a system that “includes cultural ideas about men and women, the web of relationships that structure social life, and the unequal distribution of rewards and resources that underlies oppression” (84). He encourages society to view patriarchy as a system that all people participate in, not as an embodiment of masculinity.
From an early age children are taught, via explicit or subtle means, to conform to societal gender constructs (either feminine or masculine) in their behavior, looks and actions. Dworkin views this as a cultural product where “women live in fairy tales as magical figures, as beauty, danger, innocence, malice, and greed” (32). Culture creates distinctive and appealing identities through fairy tales – the wicked witch, the beautiful princess, the heroic prince – to define who we are” (Dworkin 32).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, patriarchy is intertwined with cultural norms, gender roles and identities in a given society. In many societies, social inequalities are attributed to patriarchy. This implies that, in such societies, more men than women occupy powerful positions and well-paying jobs in business, law and government. In light of this, Johnson defines patriarchy as “male-dominated, male-centered, and male-identified” (84).
A male dominated society places men in dominant and influential positions, a practice that increases social inequality in the society. Such a society is often organized around social control, with men, through oppression and threats of violence, exerting control over women, who need male protection and supervision. A patriarchal society is male identified when most socially valued attributes and personal qualities are associated with men while devalued qualities and roles are associated with women.
This explains why patriarchies feel threatened by movements related to class, race or sexuality/gender. A patriarchal society is also male-centered. In such a society, men and boys are the center of attention while women are pushed to the periphery. Moreover, men and masculine roles are the center of focus or public attention in patriarchal societies.
Allan Johnson’s definition of the term patriarchy dispels common misconceptions surrounding oppression. He contends that society erroneously associates patriarchy with males, which often leads to the conclusion that men are oppressive. However, he argues that patriarchy is “about standards of feminine beauty and masculine toughness, images of feminine vulnerability and masculine protectiveness, of older men coupled with young women, of elderly women alone” (84).
It is the patriarchal “system that encourages men to value women primarily in terms of their ability to meet men’s needs and desires and to support men’s self-images as potent and in control” (96). Thus, people should learn to distinguish between the individual male and the patriarchal system.
It is by recognizing this difference that people can begin to address the actual causes of gender violence and social inequality. In view of this, bias based on gender, race or social class is not oppression per se, but “the sum of individual failings on the part of blacks, women, and the poor, who lack the right stuff to compete successfully with whites, men, and others who know how to make something of themselves” (76).
Thus, to eliminate social inequality, it is important that people understand the misconceptions surrounding patriarchy. Patriarchy revolves around social relationships and structures, which may limit an individual to some extent. It is worth noting that, through his argument, Johnson’s gives a new perspective on patriarchy, whereby he portrays men not as villainous as commonly portrayed by gender many movements.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender Socialization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The social norms define how people act or behave, which explains why people make the decisions they make in a patriarchal context. Johnson observes that the symbols in our culture “make up the patriarchal culture” (84), which, in turn, “affect the structure of social life” (87). Thus, it is our culture that creates power relations and gender roles, which then shape people’s behavior and values in patriarchal societies.
Collins/Anderson Today’s dynamic society requires people to recognize that gender is closely intertwined with other social aspects in “a matrix” of social domination. In modern societies, gender, race and economic class shape the issues of inequality and power relations. Also, social identity is largely organized around social domination, stratification and oppression. Therefore, in order to reconstruct the role of race, class and gender in society, it is important to examine them in the context of power relations.
Sociologists, Andersen and Collins, have developed a framework for understanding these social categories. First, they propose that the three categories are not absolute as they are constructs of social interaction (76). Second, the social categories create binary social groups, not social identities. This means that individuals can either be male or female, poor or wealthy, etc. It is through these power-based groupings that power relations are played out in the society.
A third concept in Andersen and Collins’ framework is that the three categories, besides directly defining group identities, their effects result in distinct social structures in the society. In this way, they contribute indirectly to identity formation. The fourth element of this framework relates to the fact that the three categories affect social interactions, social institutions and each group’s consciousness in the society. Based on this framework, it is easier for people to understand the significance of the three categories on gender socialization.
In the modern American society, it is often thought that people are no longer classist, racist and/or feminist. It is generally believed that a person’s gender, class or race does not disadvantage him or her in the society. However, Andersen and Collins argue that these social groupings are still significant as “the system of privilege and inequality (by race, class and gender) is less visible to those who are more privileged” (78).
That is why women complain about male dominance while men believe that patriarchy does not exist. It shows that the American society tends towards the status quo, which favors the groups in power. In contrast, the other groups/categories are marginalized, making them victims of social injustice.
The dominant forms of knowledge help perpetuate this trend by stating that racism, sexism and classism does not exist in the modern society (Scott and Jackson 67). It is no wonder social inequality continues to persist in modern societies. Therefore, an understanding the role of gender, class and race in power relations would help unravel the issue of social domination.
Andersen and Collins note that the three categories affect social domination, which then influence “social interactions, access to power and group consciousness” (77). It is clear that the individual categories do not work in isolation, but rather their combined effects help define an individual’s social experience. Therefore, oppression, in power relations, is a product of the interconnections between the social groups in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Socialization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On her part, Dworkin, unlike other sociologists and gender experts, criticizes female oppression, pornography and sexual violence in her analysis of fiction books. In her work, entitled “Woman Hating”, she explores gender socialization in fairy tales and sexist writings.
She argues that cultural symbols and images are some of the way power-based gender relations are established and maintained in the society. To illustrate how cultural stereotypes are created, Dworkin writes that fairy tale characters “Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Snow-white and Rapunzel – all are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence and victimization… they never think, act, initiate, confront, resist, challenge, feel, care, or question” (42).
From a social perspective, only good women have these attributes. Also, in fairy tales, females “are characterized by passivity, beauty, innocence, and victimization” (42). The same trend occurs in gender roles, whereby from an early age “culture predetermines who we are, how we behave, what we are willing to know, what we are able to feel” (35). Thus, culture has shaped women’s behavior and actions to conform to ‘acceptable’ social standards. They have to do what is deemed ‘good’ in the eyes of men and society.
Because of this, “women strive for passivity, because they want to be good” (48). It is the same ingrained mentality that “convinces women that they are bad, the bad need to be punished and destroyed, so that they become good” (48). The women, therefore, view oppression and male dominance as acceptable in the society. Dworkin’s arguments echo similar arguments made in many masculinity and feminine studies.
Scott and Jackson state that, in most societies, gender roles are fixed right from birth with each role viewed as a discrete and pure trait (51). People create a set of masculine and feminine traits, which they attribute to a particular gender (male or female trait). For example, being tough is considered a male trait, whereas being sensitive or caring is a female trait. In this regard, the traits or values are portrayed as mutually exclusive and nobody can possess both the male and female traits.
Lorber on Gender Socialization Lorber holds the view that gender is a construct of human interaction, hence, like culture, relies on sustained social interactions. Lorber notes that gender socialization is created early in life.
From birth, children’s perceptions regarding masculinity and femininity are largely shaped by the body images they see. Even at birth, infants are perceived differently: “little boys have strong grips and hearty howls… and little girls have dainty fingers and gentle cries” (61). According to Lorber, parents create socially gendered children through the play toys they give them.
Parents buy action figures and Barbie dolls for their boys and girls respectively. They even encourage the kids to use the toys in ways they consider to be socially acceptable. In this way, younger children learn to act and behave in gender-appropriate ways. It also plays a role in shaping the children’s gender identity early in life. Lorber argues that parents influence early gender socialization through the naming of their newborn baby, mode of care and dress.
The children’s interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex siblings and relatives shape their self-identity in the context of gender. It is their cognitive development that allows children to identify and apply their actions in gender-specific ways and avoid inappropriate behaviors.
With regard to early gender roles, Lorber observes that the young children “perform of gender roles in ways that constitute them as two separate, opposed groups” (67), a trend, which is reinforced by “the adults’ approval of children’s performance of difference” (68).
The children interpret the adults’ approval of their gender-specific actions as an inherent difference that exists between male and female. Referring to the gendered roles he observed in children’s games, “Barbie Girls vs. Sea Monsters” Lorber observes that, in gender relations, the gender boundaries are clearly marked such that children have to “affirm their commitment to difference” (68) from an early age in their personal interactions.
Lorber regards gender as a social platform for assigning social statuses, responsibilities and behaviors. It is through early gender socialization that a social stratification system is created resulting to social inequalities that continues throughout one’s life. The gender socialization process creates distinct ways of differentiating a “male” from a “female”.
The early social interactions, children learn roles and behaviors expected of their gender, a trend that continues well into their adulthood. It is through social encounters that human beings learn to behave and act in a gender-appropriate manner and to object to differing gender norms.
Gender-based expectations or behaviors are enforced by peers, the media and other social platforms. Lorber notes that, “in sports, extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle masses” (72) is a common trend among the youth because this action is considered a standard of excellence in sports. Thus, daily human interactions in sports build gender-based expectations for both male and female bodies.
The gender socialization process institutionalizes gender roles creating gender-stratified relations. Lorber’s argument that early gender socialization through play toys and body modification emphasizes the need for people to realize that gender constructs are products of human interactions shaped by culture and individual perceptions.
Boys and girls usually engage “in sports to emulate professional athletes who use extreme body modification, in particular, steroid use to build muscle mass” (71). Therefore, coaches and parents should focus on improving the children’s behavior patterns, taking into account their personality differences, rather than creating distinct gender roles and behaviors for their children.
Works Cited Andersen, Margaret and Collins, Patricia. Race, Class,
“Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell Analytical Essay online essay help
The book “Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell is story on heroism. The author begins by explaining how he became the commander of the infantry platoon at the age of twenty-four. This paper explores how Sean Parnell lived and displayed three army values as he describes in the book. The three values identified from the book include “duty, respect, and personal courage”.
From the book, it is notable that the author displayed and lived most of the army values. The first value that comes out clearly from the book is that of “duty”. After the platoon arrived at their base in Afghanistan, “the insurgents attacked them with rocket fire” (Sean 12). The fire killed and even wounded several children. As a soldier, Parnell ran into the village to help one of the little girls. He grabbed the girl and sprinted towards the First Aid Station.
The girl was bleeding in his arms. Afterwards, “the image of the bleeding girl came back to him when he was in bed” (Sean 15). Parnell had to accept the situation and move on with his life. As well, he believed that the other soldiers in the platoon must have had experienced a similar scene. This shows clearly how the soldier lived the value of duty. It is also a sign of commitment towards helping civilians and children. The value of “duty” requires that the soldiers do more than what is required of them.
The other value that is evident from the book is that of “respect”. According to this army value, soldiers are supposed to treat other people well and with respect. Through respect, soldiers are able to appreciate the best in all the other people. During the 16 months in Afghanistan, the author explains how he encountered the noblest attributes of human spirit. Through respect, the soldiers were able to develop the best bonds amongst themselves.
Although this was the only way for the men to survive, Parnell upheld the value of “respect” thus developing the best relationships with the soldiers. The author goes further to explain how they worked as a team. Parnell clearly understood that every individual had something to contribute towards the success of the operation (Sean 104).
The book goes further to present the value of “personal courage”. Personal courage is one of the oldest values associated with the American army. During the 16 months, Parnell was always ready to face adversity and danger. The team endured physical challenges and risked their safety in order to help others.
The approach made it easier for them to attack the insurgents. According to the author, the platoon was fighting a strong infantry. The insurgents were seasoned and properly armed. It was only through courage that they would survive and win the fight. For instance, Parnell describes how he courageously helped one of the solders by the name Garvin after an attack (Sean 182).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The insurgents had no mercy because their objective was to “behead the American soldiers” (Sean 128). Although the insurgents did their very best to overrun the American soldiers, Parnell explains how their team remained strong in order to survive and go back home alive.
This is a sign of personal courage. With courage, faith, and love for each other, most of the soldiers were able to return home alive. Together with the soldiers, Parnell displayed and lived most of the army values thus making the infantry platoon successful despite the challenges and obstacles encountered (Sean 126). In conclusion, Parnell’s book is a story of courage and selfless commitment.
Works Cited Parnell, Sean. Outlaw Platoon: Heroes, Renegades, Infidels, and the Brotherhood of War in Afghanistan. New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 2013. Print.
Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The History of Narrative Film The history of narrative film is traced back to more than 100 years ago in the late 1800s. Simple basic filming devices were invented and were used during this period. Narrative films spread to all parts of the world within twenty years. The spread led to the development of complex technologies and the rise of a major industry.
The industry became widely accepted as a form of entertainment. It attracted numerous artists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and scientists (Cook, 2004). However, the film industry has constantly been dependent on factors beyond its control. The dependency raises important questions, which include: What are the effects of technology on the filmmaking industry? How has industrialization affected the creation of narrative film?
According to Gunning (1991), the narrative of the film was the most important aspect of this art. Editing, composition, and lighting were all designed to assist the audience in understanding the story in the late 1910s. The characters in these stories were created through increased editing. In addition, performance and dialogue subtitles helped the audience in relating the images to the scenes.
Editing was increased and the distance between the cameras and the actors decreased. The change contributed to the development of the star system due to recognition of actors and the emphasis on facial expressions. Editing was used to display the internal thoughts and emotions of a character, as well as to clearly show instances of psychological intensity.
The filmmaking industry experienced a rapid growth and expansion during the first thirty years of its operation. The then unfamiliar experience quickly spread across the globe, attracting an ever growing audience in all the places it was introduced. The growth made it a very popular form of entertainment, displacing other forms of entertainment.
The rapid growth in audience led to an increase in the number of locations where films were shown, competing with opera-houses and theatres for excellence and opulence. The length of the films increased from a few minutes to hours, which controlled the world’s screens for a long time (Cook, 2004).
Among the countries credited with the invention and development of filmmaking are French, America, Germany, and British. The French and the Americans played a major role in the distribution of filmmaking in other parts of the world. They led in the development of artists and talents. Russia, Italy, and Denmark also played a role in developing filmmaking before World War I. By following a strong export policy and advancing its markets, the US became the largest consumer of films (Gunning, 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Americans dominated the world’s film market by the beginning of the First World War. The American filmmaking industry continued to grow during the war, developing new technologies and strengthening its control. The US filmmaking industry moved to Hollywood and films from the new studios filled the world’s market after the First World War. Hollywood led the filmmaking industry artistically and industrially (Liesegang, 1986).
Factors Contributing to Creation of Narrative Film Technology
The history of filmmaking began with devices and experiments designed to present images in a sequence. The earliest technology in filmmaking involved producing an illusion of continuous movement. The illusion was achieved by passing a series of pictures in quick succession in front of a light source.
Later, the moving pictures were projected on a screen. Each picture was briefly held in front of the light source and replaced by the next one. If the process was quick enough, it provided an illusion of movement, where the discontinuous pictures are perceived as continuous (Elsaesser, 1990).
Various experiments seeking to analyze the movement of pictures and their reproduction were performed. The experiments were aimed at naturally reproducing movement by showing pictures at the same speed used to take them. A mechanism was developed to allow the pictures to be displayed in the camera in quick succession.
The pictures were projected in a similar manner. The technology resulted in the development of film rolls. The roll was placed in the camera and quickly moved down while holding it very still. The process had to be repeated when the film was being shown. The process was enhanced by the development of a loop placed in the threading of the film. The loop was situated where the film passed in front of the lens (Liesegang, 1986).
The film was developed and spread in a material invented by Henry M. Reichenbach. The material was made up of a semitransparent and flexible celluloid base. It was divided into strips that were 35mm wide. The material was first adopted by Thomas Edison in 1892 for his Kinetoscope.
Kinetoscope was a device that allowed one person at a time to view brief segments of a film. Riding on the success of the Kinetoscope, other machines developed to reproduce pictures in movement employed the 35mm technology. The Eastman Company supported this process even though their photographic films were 70mm wide. To produce films of the required width, the company had to cut the photographic films lengthwise (Abramson, 1987).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the late 1800s, colored films came into existence. They were created by delicately hand-coloring the frames using very fine brushes. The resultant film was spectacular due to the glow of the pictures (Cook, 2004). However, these films had a limitation since the colors occupying a particular place could spread to other areas of the frame.
The problem was addressed by giving each frame a uniform color. Uniformity of frames was achieved by tinting, toning, or a combination of both. Eastman Kodak invented the first color-sensitive emulsion around 1915. His invention was promoted by the trademark ‘Kodachrome’. Although Kodachrome was still a two-color system, it provided a basis for remarkable developments (Gunning, 1991).
Most early narrative films were accompanied by some kind of sound. The films had lecturers who commented on the pictures shown on the screen, expounding on their material and meaning for the spectators. In addition to the speech, most films were accompanied by music. Accompanying music was produced from a piano or specifically commissioned for the film. At times, music was used together with noise effects.
Noise effects were usually produced by performers using a large display of objects that reproduced natural and artificial sounds. Inventors of moving image desired to synchronize films and discs to print sound directly on the film. It was not until 1926, however, that Warner Bros., a Hollywood Company, presented a film using sound synchronization (Elsaesser, 1990). The film was produced by Don Juan and John Barrymore.
Though it had started as a mere novelty, filmmaking turned into an established industry by 1913. The earliest films evolved from moving snapshots, about a minute long, to about five to ten minutes long by 1905 (Cook, 2004). The films also used change of camera position and change of scenes to convey a message or to show different themes. With the development of longer displays, a new set of methods for making complex narrative films emerged in the 1910s.
By this time, large-scale businesses had come up to offer services of making and showing films. The companies acquired specialized venues exclusively used for showing films. The venues were supplied with films by various production and distribution companies. Such companies started by selling the films to the exhibitors, but later started renting them out. In the late 1910s, Hollywood became the most important supplier of films (Abramson, 1987).
A number of countries claim that they were the ones who invented the moving pictures. However, filmmaking cannot be traced to any of these countries. The reason is because, like many technologies, filmmaking cannot be traced to any particular moment. In addition, the birth of filmmaking cannot be credited to any particular country or person. In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs strongly pursued avenues to project pictures that continuously moved on a screen.
Such ventures led to the presentation of moving pictures to a marveled audience in various parts of the world (Gunning, 1991). Although filmmaking had spread to different parts of the world, some European countries and the United States retained their dominance over film production and exhibition. The French, however, were the first to dominate local and international markets. In addition, they were arguably the best in stylistic innovations, though they competed with the United States and Britain on this front.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among the initial innovators in France were the Lumie’re brothers. They are said to be the first to show moving pictures to an audience for a fee. The brothers operated a photographic equipment factory where they experimented with a camera design called the cinematographe. However, depending on how one looks at it, the first show of moving pictures can be traced to Edison when he developed the Kinetoscope.
The Lumie’re brothers faced competition from other film makers, such as Georges Melielis. Since the brothers primarily dealt with documentary material, Melielis became the leader in the production of fiction films. However, due to competition, Melielis was forced into bankruptcy in 1913. One of the major competitors at this time was the Pathe Company, which outlived the Lumie’re and the Melielis (Abramson, 1987).
According to Cook (2004), the film industry in some European countries and the United States began coalescing into industrial capitalist enterprises in the early 1910s. Specialization and division of labor was established in the industry by separating exhibition, distribution, and production sectors. Films became longer in size and exhibitors demanded a regular supply of new items. The development led to increased demand for production of high standard films.
Such production required increased division of labor, specialization, and standardized practices. The emergence of permanent exhibition venues also contributed to the rationalization of separating exhibition from the other areas of filmmaking. Specialization and division of labor enabled the industry to maximize profits, making it more stable. Since profits depended on the turnout at exhibitions, producers in most countries were forced to make short films to accommodate the different tastes of the audience (Gunning, 1991).
The attempt to rationalize distribution of films resulted in maximization of profits. As a result, US manufacturers who had initially concentrated on the domestic market only began expanding into international markets. According to Elsaesser (1990), Vitagraph was the first company to establish a distribution office in Europe in 1907. Other major companies followed by establishing distribution agencies in Britain. They became America’s distribution centers in Europe.
On its part, British filmmakers mainly concentrated on the distribution and exhibition of films, rather than on production. Half of the films showing in Britain were American, with French and Italy films constituting a significant portion of the remaining 50 percent. Germany also benefitted from the distribution of American films. The US replaced the Europeans as leaders in the film industry in 1914. At this time, the Europeans were reeling from the effects of World War I (Liesegang, 1986).
By 1908, the film industry was well established and flourishing like never before. However, the industry was still very disorganized. Neighboring exhibition venues competed for similar films or rented similar items, which forced them to compete for the same audience. Some distributors supplied exhibitors with films that had been shown for so long that they contained scratches that obscured the image.
The new developments created the need for film censorship and regulation (Cook, 2004). The Edison and Biograph companies helped the producers to form the Motion Picture Patents Company in late 1908. The MPPC was formed in an effort to stabilize the industry and look after the producer’s interests. In addition to the producers, the MPPC incorporated foreign distributors in the US. It later agreed to regularize the issue of new films and to standardize the price per foot for their films (Elsaesser, 1990).
The production of films in major countries was characterized by specialization and division of labor. The sector changed from a collaborative enterprise to a specialized field with the emergence of specialists. Such specialists included property men, script-writers, and wardrobe mistresses. All of them worked under the director. The director was required to make one reel per week using their own cast and crew.
The requirement led to the emergence of a new category of producer who was charged with overseeing the whole process (Elsaesser, 1990). At the time, the film industry put emphasis on speed and quantity of films. However, a few films, especially those made to promote cultural values, were exempt from the rule. According to Gunning (1991), Vitagraph, the largest American studio, hired G. W. Griffith as its sole director. The director was hired in 1918. However, by the time he left in 1913, there were six directors under his supervision.
Conclusion By mid 1910s, the American film industry had improved in terms of better and permanent exhibitions, internal censorships, and the production of respectable forms of entertainment.
Conditions had improved from the early 1900s when the industry was in a crisis. A large audience could now comfortably enjoy watching films in an elaborate movie exhibition venue. The films produced during this period were different as well. Narrative emerged as an important aspect of the films at the time. Such factors as technology improved editing, composition, and lighting in the production of films.
Specialization and division of labor also impacted on the production, distribution, and exhibition of narrative films at the time. In addition, specialization and division of labor maximized profits in the filmmaking industry, leading to its stability. However, the distribution and exhibition sectors in the US hindered the process of changing the industry to multi-reel film producer.
The reason is that most exhibition venues had a small seating capacity. In turn, limited seating capacity led to the exhibition of short films featuring a wide array of subjects to attract more audience and increase profits. Due to this, the impetus to shift the focus of the industry to the production of multi-reel films came from Europe. The reason is that the distribution of imported films was not subject to MPPC controls.
References Abramson, A. (1987). The history of television, 1880 to 1941. Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Cook, D. A. (2004). A history of narrative film (4th ed.). Virginia: W W Norton
The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Articles Analysis
Introduction Nowadays, we have the opportunities to be the active participants of the social problems solving. In the past, people struggled for gaining these opportunities. However, it does not mean that the nature of social issues changed dramatically. Quite the opposite, the nature is, essentially, the same but the methods of their solving and the attitude of public towards them have undergone changes.
The aim of this essay is to analyze the newspaper and magazine articles devoted to the problem of social inequality and economic welfare.
The Articles Analysis The first article, which I am going to present, is The Future of Fair Labor by Jefferson Cowie. The author gives the overview of the historic process of the labor legislation reforming. Cowie emphasizes the importance of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s legislative act addressed to the employers and workers.
The President’s initiative laid the foundation of the modern employment legislation. “It outlawed child labor, guaranteed a minimum wage, established the official length of the workweek at 40 hours, and required overtime pay for anything more” (Cowie n.pag.).
However, the author of the article states that the current situation in the field of employment regulation and legislation is rather vulnerable. It seems that the current legislation is too flexible in the sense that it gives to the employers the opportunity to find the loopholes. As a result, the substantial part of employees works the abnormal hours and does not obtain the appropriate remuneration. The author claims that it is the role of the government to ensure the efficiency of the current employment legislation.
The second article is The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem by Timothy Noah. The economic inequality is the major theme of the article. The author touches upon the problem of social stratification based on the differences in the economic welfare of the American population.
Although he indicates to the significant gap between the wealthy individuals, whose weight in the total population accounts for only 1%, and the other part of the population, the weight of which is 99%, he argues that the problem should not be considered only in the context of the average income.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Noah claims that the access to education is the crucial factor of the social and economic welfare. The rise of the educated class should be taken into consideration (Noah n.pag.). The problem is twofold: on the one hand, the gap caused by the income inequality narrows, and, on the other hand, the educational gap widens.
The Cuts that Keeps Bleeding is the third source, which deserves the special attention. It presents the statistical information on the dynamics in government spending on education. According to the data presented in the article, the funding of the education has been reduced by 28% since 2008 (“The Cuts that Keeps” 11).
It is clear that the decrease in financing affects the quality of education. The statistics shows that the number of course offerings has decreased by 15% since 2008. The data support the opinion regarding the educational gap increase. It is not surprising as the cuts in spending limit the access of people to the higher education and they contribute to the social and economic inequality.
Conclusion In summary, the analyzed articles are devoted to the problem of social and economic inequality. The authors emphasize the role of government regulation. Although the situation improves in certain areas, there are still the urgent problems requiring the legislative changes and government initiatives.
Works Cited Cowie, Jefferson. “The Future of Fair Labor.” The New York Times. 24 June 2013. Nytimes.com. Web.
Noah, Timothy. “The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem”. The New York Times. 18 May 2013. Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com. Web.
“The Cuts that Keep Bleeding.” By the Numbers, 30 (2013): 3. Print
We will write a custom Essay on The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Eyes on the Prize Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Roles of Civil Rights Movement
Change and Civil Rights Movement
Racial discrimination has been the most contentious issue in America. The issue has been highlighted by various tools of communications such as books, movies, articles, and periodicals. One of the remarkable communication tools on this subject is ‘Eyes on the Prize’ movie. The movie brings into perspective the topic of racial discrimination and roles of civil rights movements in attaining equality in America (Hampton, 1986). This study seeks to highlight the issue of racial discrimination in reference to the above mentioned movie
Roles of Civil Rights Movement To achieve the desired transformation towards equal treatment of all races, America needed civil rights movement. The movement not only played the role of communicating information on racial discrimination, but also changed the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of all Americans towards the issue.
From the movement, Americans were able to embrace tolerance. For instance, in volume 2 of the movie, the African-Americans were ready to endure the mistreatments in the jails while most of the whites were ready to accommodate them in the community (Hampton, 1986).
Change and Civil Rights Movement Civil rights movement was the major element that facilitated change in America. Without the movement, change could have been difficult to attain. The movement not only prompted the government to take actions, but also cultivated the sense of responsibility among Americans (Hampton, 1986).
Racism Discrimination is a common problem in America. Racial discrimination dominates the list of discriminating practices. However, it is cognizant to note that the magnitude of racial discrimination in America has greatly reduced. This can be attributed to the roles of civil rights movements and affirmative actions taken by the government to promote racial equality (Hampton, 1986).
Reference Hampton, H. (Executive Producer). (1986). Eyes on the Prize: Ain’t scared of your jails, 1954 to 1956. Boston: Blackside Inc.
Atrophy of the Muscles Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Atrophy of the muscles is a condition that occurs when the muscles have been in an inactive condition for a long period of time. The cast on the leg is the major cause of muscle atrophy. It reduces muscle activity and causes loss of the tissues. The major effect of the cast as indicated in this case is weakening of the leg muscles and reduced level of activity.
The cast restricts the movement of the muscles (Sandri, 2008). Restricted movement of the muscles leads to reduced muscle tone. The patient therefore develops movement difficulties, which may exacerbate the condition (Hannah, Andrew
The American Way of Dining Out Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure
Is Eating Out Healthy?
The Economics of Eating Out
Introduction For most Americans, dining out is a favorite pastime. Americans dine out when celebrating an event, when on a date or just to have a new dining experience. But, in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 economic downturn, people are dining out less often, instead preferring to eat at home to save money. This trend is already having a toll on hotels and restaurants. Nevertheless, on average, American’s prefer eating out to eating at home.
A survey by the United States Department of Labor [DoL] found interesting facts about the American’s way of dining out. A significant proportion of the respondents (63 percent) reported having dined out at least once the previous month with 53 percent of them dining out in fast food restaurants, 18 percent in full-service restaurants and 9 percent in other food restaurants (DoL Para. 2).
What is worrying, however, is that most of the foods consumed away from home tend to be energy rich but less nutritional compared to home prepared foods.
Though patrons may not like to eat unhealthy foods, they opt to eat out due to convenience, diverse meals on offer or simply for entertainment reasons. The argument presented in this paper is that, when it comes to eating out, Americans neither base their dietary choices on nutritional quality of the meals nor do they consider their budgetary constraints. Their restaurant choice and frequency of dining out is based on the prospects of entertainment, convenience and a variety of dishes on offer.
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure Nutritionists advise people to adopt healthy eating habits, which, along with physical exercises guarantee a healthy and quality life. However, it is not clear whether this message and the consumers’ desire for a healthy life influence their eating behavior or dietary choices when eating out.
The Department of Labor reports that, on average, the daily energy intake of an American when eating out rose from 18 percent in 1994 to 32 percent in 1996 (Para. 3). This indicates that eating out increases one’s caloric intake significantly. The same survey established that consumer spending on restaurant foods had increased with consumers, in 1996, spending over half of their dietary expenditure on restaurant foods. The rise in the number of consumers eating out implies that dining out is a preferred pastime for most Americans.
With regard to food expenditure, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that, on average, in 2010, restaurant spending by each American stood at $2,505 (DoL Para. 5). In comparison, in the previous years, 2009 and 2008, the average restaurant spending was $2,619 and $2,698 respectively (Para. 7). The drop in consumer spending in 2010 is attributed to the 2007/08 economic downturn. Nevertheless, Americans enjoy dining out often as opposed to eating home-cooked meals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers attribute their eating out habits to public suitability, entertainment value and availability of many dishes in restaurants. However, from the DoL statistics, eating out increases the consumers’ calorie intake, as restaurant foods tend to be calorie-rich but nutritionally deficient. Eating out more often increases one’s body fat level in adults leading to elevated body mass index. It is no wonder eating out has been associated with obesity and overweight especially in adolescents.
A survey by Technomic Inc. that interviewed a number of restaurant owners found that most restaurants are not keen on providing healthy foods for their patrons. They do not feel that providing healthy meals would increase the number of customers visiting their establishments. Some held the opinion that “most customers’ attitude is ‘when I go out to eat, I want to eat what I want’” (33). Nevertheless, the hotel executives felt that creating consumer awareness about eating healthy would help in the management of obesity.
To manage obesity, which has become an epidemic, nutrition educators have employed a number of approaches to promote healthy eating out habits. They educate consumers on nutrition and healthful diets that one can get in restaurants when eating out.
They sometimes incorporate aspects of consumers’ preferences, convenience and entertainment when providing the nutrition information to influence their eating behavior. One such campaign technique is the “5 A Day” program that encourages Americans to eat a minimum of five servings of vegetables/fruits daily (Stewart et al. 522).
The “Power of Choice” program is another example of these programs that aims at educating adolescents to eat healthy and engage in physical activities to stay healthy (Stewart et al. 522). Although these nutrition-education programs have the potential of promoting healthy eating habits among Americans, their impact largely depends on the patrons’ own knowledge on nutrition and whether they apply it when making choices on the type of restaurant or food to eat.
Is Eating Out Healthy? The statistics given by the United States Department of Labor show that more Americans prefer eating out to eating at home despite the low nutritional quality of restaurant foods. But, what factors influence Americans to continue to eat out despite the increased health risks associated with fast-foods?
From an economic perspective, a consumer’s preference and nutrition knowledge would affect his or her dietary choices. Thus, consumers who have knowledge on the nutritional value of foods would be expected to evaluate restaurant foods before placing an order. Food prices also influence the consumers’ dietary choices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Way of Dining Out specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides income and food prices, the consumers’ demographic characteristics can be used to explain the trends in consumer behavior. In the American context, psychological factors such as attitudes, information, perceptions shape consumer behavior, and by extension, the demand for restaurant foods.
In light of this, it is clear that the Americans’ rising demand for restaurant foods is shaped by the desire to eat healthy in a convenient location that provides entertainment value. Thus, when choosing among eating in a restaurant, eating at home and eating in a fast-food café, an individual will often consider each option’s entertainment value and convenience. Consumers with limited funds and/or time will tend to choose the option that is cheap but offers greater pleasure.
The Americans’ way of eating out can be explained using the traditional economic theory. This theory describes how consumers make decisions when they have limited product information at their disposal. The FDA specifies that “if a restaurant claims that a particular menu item is ‘low in fat’… then this requirement is satisfied by adding: ‘low fat – provides less than 3 grams of fat per serving” (Technomic 8). However, the FDA does not require restaurants to disclose a meal’s specific nutrient content.
Therefore, restaurants can choose to give the complete nutrient content of the foods sold or simply provide the mandated information. Nevertheless, if the majority of consumers want menu items with healthy nutrient content, the hotels/restaurants may give the complete nutrition information of the foods sold.
As restaurants always compete for customers, marketing themselves as providing healthful foods can give them a competitive advantage. Some popular restaurants voluntarily give complete nutrition information of the foods they sell.
A good example is the Subway restaurant, which supplies the caloric content of its popular sandwiches and compares them with the sandwiches sold by the other restaurants such as McDonald’s and Burger King. McDonald’s and Burger King, on the other hand, give pamphlets containing the details of the nutrient content of foods sold. However, other restaurants provide no such information making healthful eating away from home almost impossible for Americans.
The incomplete nutrition information provided by most restaurants can be attributed to the need to retain consumers as knowledge of a meal’s dietary composition may affect demand for foods with undesirable nutrient content. Thus, when little information is provided, the consumers cannot make an informed choice when eating out.
However, those who have nutrition knowledge can assess the nutritional quality of the products sold by restaurants. Even for those who prefer to eat at home, they are motivated by the need to save money, not to eat healthy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Way of Dining Out by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it can be argued that, most Americans’ eating out choices (where to eat, what to eat and how frequently to eat out) are largely dependent on entertainment and convenience, not on the nutritional value of the foods. In view of this, people with a good understanding of nutrition can effectively determine the restaurant food types that are healthful compared to those with little or no nutrition knowledge.
The Economics of Eating Out Although a third of Americans report reducing how often they eat out, 1 in every 10 people in America dine out more often (DoL Para. 4). A further 70 percent of Americans cook at home to cut down their food expenditure while another 57 percent believe that eating out is an unnecessary expense.
Interestingly, about 29 percent of Americans claim to have reduced their expenses in other areas to sustain their eating out habits (Para. 6). These statistics imply that Americans’ restaurant spending has, to some extent, been affected by the sluggish economy. Therefore, Americans have not changed their dining out habits; they have only reduced how often they eat out. The economic downturn has seen more Americans eat out less often with some shifting from eating in major establishments to casual food outlets.
Now with constrained budgets, many Americans have resorted to eating at home and when eating out, price consideration takes the center stage. They prefer casual restaurants when eating out because their prices are often low. This explains why popular casual restaurants have gained in profits over the past few years while the profits of full-service eateries have declined. For instance, The Cheesecake Factory gained 2.44 percent in profits while the McDonald’s profits declined by 12 percent in 2010 (Technomic 9).
The implication here is that consumers are increasingly becoming selective with regard to where to eat out due to budget constraints. But, what drives eating out habits besides prices? It is evident that cravings for exotic and foreign cuisines, restaurant location, entertainment value, healthy dishes offered and variety of food choices motivate Americans to eat out as opposed to cooking at home.
This indicates that the American way of eating out is not influenced by the need to eat healthy. Rather, entertainment value, convenience and variety of dishes available in restaurants drive many Americans to dine out in restaurants.
Conclusion Dining out in restaurants is a favorite pastime for most Americans. Most Americans prefer to eat out to eating at home because restaurants offer convenience, in terms of location, they offer a variety of meals/dishes and most offer entertainment for patrons.
Despite the recent economic downturn and the poor nutritional quality of fast-foods, most Americans still enjoy dining out. Therefore, until Americans recognize the high nutritional value of home cooked meals, eating out will continue to be the norm, as fast-food restaurants continue to rake in profits.
Works Cited Stewart, Hayden, Blisard, Noel, Jolliffe, Dean and Bhuyan, Sanjib. “The Demand for Food-Away-From Home: Do Other Preferences Compete with Our Desire to Eat Healthfully?” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30.3 (2005): 520-536. Print.
Technomic, Inc. Trends in Healthier Eating and Fruit and Vegetable Usage in Chain Restaurants. Wilmington, DE: Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2006. Print.
United States Department of Labor [DoL]. Economic News Release: Consumer Expenditures– 2012. Web. .
Chinas History and Relations Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations
How China Affected the Asian Countries
Spread of Buddhism
How Asian countries influenced China
China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations The Yuan Dynasty was one of the most influential authorities that reigned over the Chinese territory and preceded other dynasties which included the Song and Ming. The Yuan dynasty used Marc Polo to communicate with other countries. In regard to the relationship between the Yuan dynasty and its neighbors, it incurred a lot of rebellion from its rivals such as the Mongols.
During this struggle, the rebels could terrorize the allies of Yuan Dynasty and free them to China (Ebrey et al. 179). In the same light, the author reveals that the continuous rebellion by the neighboring countries led to the formation of anti-Yuan dynasty which aimed at conquering it (179).
The dynasty did not only solve its conflicts through war but also using diplomatic means. In this regard, they could use travelers to communicate with the European countries such as Italy. For instance, they sent Mac Polo to deliver a letter to Italy in order to create ties with the dynasty. The dynasty could also receive visitors such as John of Montecorvino who was a missionary from Italy (Sen and Victor 75).
Ebrey revealed that the Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who had experienced the plight of poverty during the Yuan Dynasty which had imposed a lot of disorders in China (227). In fact, Ebrey stated that Zhu had started his life from the bottom of society (228).
The author further states that the founder’s attempts to bring order on the society of the Chinese people were mostly considered as a draconian act (227). However, although the people were not always positive towards his acts, the author elaborates that 30 years of the Ming dynasty transformed China in a great way (227). This achievement was attained against many odds including intensive rebellion from the royalists of the Yuan government (Ebrey et al. 228).
During one of the struggle for power, the Yuan government troops burnt down the temple of Zhu showing disrespect (Ebrey et al. 228). The continuous military attacks show that the Chinese territories were not used to solving their difference in a diplomatic manner. Instead they used their power to outdo, conquer, and colonize other territories.
The song formed a separate and critical dynasty in the Chinese history. The dynasty was founded between 860 and 960 when the forces were devolved to deal with the local issues (Ebrey et al. 91). The author reveals that during this period any local man who was capable of organizing defense teams against the rebels could be declared as the king (91). This defense was quite crucial considering the strong rivals of the song dynasty who included Liao and others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How China Affected the Asian Countries China had profound effect on the various aspects of Asia countries including culture, religion, and political factors. For example, Ebrey stated that the expansion of Han dynasty in China incorporated the Peninsula’s north western part.
This expansion increased the interaction among Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese people leading to spread to Chinese culture and technology (Ebrey et al. 98). In this regard, the Korean gradually embraced the Chinese ideologies such as Buddhism, writing skills, and Confucianism as a result of the increased interaction.
The author then stated that in the fourteenth century, the outpost fell of Chinese dynasties evoked the creation of three different states of the Korean territory which was established in China (98). However, Ebrey elaborated that the domestic production of silver in China decreased significantly in 1430 requiring them to acquire it from the neighboring countries which produced the metal.
As a result, they bought about 50 percent of the Japanese silver as well as the one transported by the Portuguese ships in order to satisfy the demand (Ebrey et al. 267). In the same light, they also relied on Russia, which is one of the Asian countries, for silver that was mined in Mexico. It is thus evident that the Chinese influenced the Russian economy profoundly owing to silver trade that took place between the two nations.
Additionally, China affected the economic development of Japan following the trade between the two countries. In this regard, the Chinese monetary system used to sliver to make currency making it an important commodity in China (Ebrey et al. 267). The Chinese trading experience is revisited by Lockard when he stated that Chinese and Arabs were quite skillful in the technology of sea transport which enabled them to become active in the Southeast Asian trade (63).
He then stated that the trade between China and other countries continued to grow during the 700 to1500 era. While elaborating the role of China towards economic development of South Asia, he revealed that the Chinese were the main people who captained the ships which sailed to Japan and China (90).
This implies that the Chinese were probably the drivers of economic development in this region owing to the early technological knowledge. The author further focused on the spread of Chinese trade to the Arabian countries. In this case, the authors revealed that in 1296, Angkor conducted active trade with the Chinese merchants owing to the support provided by the Chinese ambassador in Angkor (39).
We will write a custom Essay on Chinas History and Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ambassador then left a detailed description concerning the society’s conduct as well as its authorities in order to create way for the future unions between China and Angkor (39). Further, Lockard described China as a country that inspired the development of trade in other countries. Between 1400 and 1650, the author revealed that China entered into an age of commerce where they practiced trade across the Indian Ocean (64).
This initiative increased the demand of the Southern Asian demands which probably inspired other Asian countries to enter participate in this trade. It is thus evident that China a perfect example of a country that motivated others Asian Countries to adopt trade. Moreover, China was a major threat to Vietnam especially when considering the political stability of this country. In this regard, Lockard pointed out that since the Chinese authorities frequently sent their forces to Vietnam, the Vietnamese could not ignore their sporadic attacks (62).
Spread of Buddhism Buddhism has already existed in the world for approximately 2500 years, and it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who was a prince of a tiny Indian realm (Lockard 22). Siddhartha was also well known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”) (Lockard 22). According to historical records, Buddhism had been highly praised during the time of India’s Mauryan empire by its third king Ashoka who himself devoutly believed in Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
During the period of Ashoka’s governing, Buddhism carried forward and flourished extensively (Ebrey et al. 57). According to historians, king Ashoka took advantage of the mechanism of his kingdom to widely promote Buddhism within India (Ebrey et al. 57). As a devote Buddhist, he banned animal sacrifices, and made an approximately one-year long pilgrimage to all the holy places of Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
Nevertheless Buddhism declined after 1200 C.E., it spread to the neighboring world due to Ashoka’s dispatch of Buddhist missionaries to the rest of Eurasia (Ebrey et al. 57-58). Thus, India established relationships with its neighboring world on military, trade, religion, and culture. Due to the fact that it is the birth land of two religions: Buddhism, which spread to Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia ((Trautmann 8).
For East Asia, one propagation path was northwest through Central Asia to China, which explains why the first Buddhist text was translated in the language from Central Asia rather than the language from India (Ebrey et al. 58). For Southeast Asia, the route started from east to Sri Lanka and then to most of the Southeast Asia (Ebrey et al. 58).
Though language diversity occurred along the path of the dissemination of the Buddhism, some translators like Kumarajiva made huge contributions to unify the language of Buddhist text and thus made the spreading of Buddhism more smooth (Ebrey et al. 59-60).
According to the research of some scholars, it was during the Han Dynasty that Buddhism was initially brought into China by the Buddhist monks travelling from the outside world with the development of diplomacy and trade. However, the development of Buddhism was quite limited due to the prosperity of Confucianism in Han times. After the decline of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., Buddhism started to flourish in 300 C.E. (Ebrey et al. 70).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinas History and Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhist emphasized that the quality of “kindness, charity, the preservation of life, and prospect of salvation” was significantly important (Ebrey et al. 70). Such emphasises attracted not only male followers but also female followers since becoming a nun emancipated women from being repressed in their traditional role in the ancient Chinese society (Ebrey et al. 70-71).
How Asian countries influenced China The Korean states appeared in China through the Tang Dynasties from Han such that they were in close contact with the people of China (Ebrey et al. 98). The author then stated that since the Tang and Sui authorities attempted to sabotage the Koreans, they developed a lot of resistance against the two governments in order to secure their livelihood in China (98). This evoked a lot of competition against the expansion of the two Chinese territories considering that the three territories wanted to expand geographically.
Additionally, the Manchurian were one of the most important dynasties which sahped the history of China and its culture. In this regard, the Manchus fought against the Chinese Ming dynasty so that they could rule China (Ebrey et al., 255).
Ebrey argued that conquering China was one of the Manchus’ priorities since they considered it as resourceful country as compared to its counterparts including Korea (255). After the conquest of China by the Manchus Qing reigned over the land Chinese territory seeking political ties with Joseon who helped them to extend their campaign in China.
Following the weakening of security in China, Qing expanded it by conquering other territories around the Chinese vicinity. This obviously led to the geographical expansion of China leading to the increased security. However, Ebrey pointed out that during an attempted conquest of Joseon, the Korean state proved it strength by portraying its resolve as a nonthreatening territory which could remain autonomous (255).
Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia, Anne Walthall, and James Palais. East Asia: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.
Lockard, Craig. Southeast Asia in world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sen, Tansen, and Victor Mair. Traditional China in Asian and world history. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Trautmann, Thomas. India: brief history of a civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The Eighteenth Amendment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The United States common tradition did not rule out the use or acquisition of any alcoholic drink. However, the Eighteenth Amendment proscribed the shipping, rummage sale, and production of alcohol. The devoted faction strived to support the control of alcohol purchase and consumption based on several reasons. In fact, the group discerned the direct association amid the inconsiderate social conducts and alcohol.
The faction believed that domestic violence and child abuse transpired from the uncontrolled alcohol consumption. According to Shay (2004), the pessimistic crash on the US labor output resulted from hysterical alcoholism (p.67). The dilemma of alcoholism was thus tossed into an act following the emotion of Anti-German. This occurred during the Second World War. This paper describes and analyzes the account of the eighteenth amendment.
Main Body The asylum seekers from Germany alias alien enemies controlled most of the United States breweries. The feeling of the Anti-German was not to manufacture alcohol but to feed the military using fashioned grain. Conversely, some other groups such as the NPR (National Prohibition Reforms) and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment) battled the growth of this project.
At the onset of the fiscal 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment got ratification from the Congress in spite of the attempts of anti-Prohibition factions. The prohibition of transporting, importing, exporting, selling, and manufacturing alcoholic drinks came into effect in the year 1920. The Amendment augmented when nearly twenty nations (65%) countrywide had banished alcohol.
The already stored wine cellar had to bother less since the Amendment had put a stop to the crouch of individual exploitation and ownership of alcohol. Therefore, the US central government grabbed the aptitude to enforce the ban through the Act of National Prohibition. The vital Amendment delineated the extent of intoxicating alcohol, usage exceptions, and penalties against the violation of law. The officially authorized and utmost value of alcohol in any drink was 0.50% percent (Shay 61).
Ratification of the 18th Amendment
The achievement of the Eighteenth Amendment approval occurred in early January of the fiscal 1919. The ratification cropped up after three hundred and ninety four days in over three quarters of the US nations. Ten days prior to the ratification, a formal certification by the stand-in Secretary of State ensued.
Besides, there was a time limit for the ratification following the necessitated number of states by the 18th Amendment. The Amendment could not come into effect provided few nations had ratified the Act in a period of seven years. Historically, there was a challenge on the legality of the Act with the inclusion of time bounds in the proposed constitutional amendment for the first time. In the mid 1921, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment (Wheeler 91).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 18th Amendment had three sections with the first and second sections proving to be the relevant part for the implementation and proscription of alcohol. The first section prohibited the exportation, importation, transportation, and production of alcohol for drinking purpose in the US or any territory under jurisdiction.
In order to enforce the Amendment through suitable legislation, the second section provided for the states and Congress to possess powers that concurred. In the last section, the editorial provided that if the parliament endorsed the revision in seven years founded on the legal requirements form, the submission date by the senate would make it out of order. Thus far, the specificity of the amendment and its enforcement did not come clear in the statements of this article (Blocker 1237).
The enabling legislation (1919 Act of National Prohibition) provided a resolution to the itching issues of alcoholism. According to Wheeler (1919), the Act was famous as Volstead Andrew who sponsored the legislation and chaired the committee on Senate Judiciary (p.45). Besides, the Congress superseded the President’s veto after he alluded to the constitutional and moral objections in October 1919.
The official entitlement of the Volstead Act strived to endorse scientific research and indemnify abundant supply and usage of alcohol in industries, drying, and energy growth. The Act aspired to control the sale and usage of high proof alcohol, production, and manufacture of spirits. The Amendment commonly aimed at forbidding the intoxicating drinks. Even though the 18th Amendment seemed short, its implementation was not easy as it was confusing and intricate in interpretation.
The effects of 18th Amendment
The implementation of the Amendment under certain exemptions existed as unlawful. In fact, particular illegitimate alcohol production industry substituted the legal businesses. Violence and murder engulfed between criminal gangs, organized criminals, and minor marketplace operators in rivalry over market rheostat. The consumers succumbed to painful fatalities, sightlessness, and paralysis given the haphazardly prepared bootleg drinks that contained creosote.
In effect, the Prohibition made consumers to switch to unsafe stuffs like liquid heat, hair tonic, cocaine, and opium that had adverse effects on their lives. Similarly, the prohibition led to dishonesty as bootleggers and moonshiners paid off the custodians of Prohibition Bureau, sheriffs, and police in order to carry out shoddy business (Blocker 1237). The spread of corruption in most cities and towns generally facilitated disrespect for the rule of law. Further, assassination and hostility transpired given the failure to use bribes.
On the other hand, the Amendment forced individuals to gulp alcohol given the obnoxious, intense, and infrequent consumption. The proscription saddled the taxpayer and depressed the returns generated by the government due to elevated confinement, courtyard, and decree enforcement operating costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Eighteenth Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The involvement of prohibition touched almost 70% of the entire expenses of national government. Taft asserted that the disenchantment came with Prohibition over a period of five years (p. 55). Actually, he wrote that reverence for the law had shrunk instead of intensifying and the government expenditure was higher. Moreover, journalist engraved that there was no condensed amount of mental illness, transgression, and drunkenness in the entire nation given that they were even more.
The Repeal of 18th Amendment
The United States continually suffered from the bottlenecks of the Eighteenth Amendment with threats evident in welfare, financial system, ethics, security, and health sector. The prohibitionists emphasized on the possibilities of repealing the Amendment despite its ratification. Over the years, the tribulation of Prohibition augmented to increase antagonism from the populace. A call for the Repeal of this article ultimately came from the diverse supporters of the Act.
Interestingly, a longevity abstainer called Rockefeller John felt the effect and consequences of the prohibition and supported the Repeal of this Amendment (Taft 61). The WTCU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) was essential in national Prohibition since they coveted to guard kids, women, and families from the cruel consequences of alcoholism. Women supported the Repeal owing to the fact that Prohibition did not meet their endeavors.
The command for Repeal from numerous organizations increased attributable to the discontent and disenchantment in the US. These associations encompassed VCL (Voluntary Committee of Lawyers), WMU (Women’s Modernization Union), URC (United Repeal Union), and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment). Nevertheless, specific organizations that supported the Prohibition were against the upsurge of Repeal.
These included, the Temperance Strategy Board, World League against Alcoholism, and Methodist Board of Temperance. The plank of anti-Prohibition along with the year 1932 election guaranteed by President Roosevelt of the Democratic Party came from such prohibitions (Barry 72). Merely a solitary US nation opposed the Repeal while the citizens casted off the Prohibition by seventy four percent of the ballots in favor of Repeal against the opposing twenty six percent.
In the year 1933, Repeal of the 18th Amendment occurred in December with the 21st Amendment. The Congress Act in the late 1935 saw the Repeal of the first and second sections of the Volstead Act. Separate Repeal of the laws of federal Prohibition took place in different provinces and localities.
The Volstead Act reprieved the influential funding of the Congress by the 18th Amendment. As such, the Act turned out to be unenforceable and illogical according to the Supreme Court in the US. In general, discharge emerged from the infringement of the Volstead Act pending the verdict of certainty before the Repeal date (Barry 54).
Conclusion After the Second World War, the temperance progress (neo-Prohibition) was latent and surfaced with fresh and customized ideologies as well as characteristics. Indeed, over the last quarter of the 20th century the consumption of spirits, wines and beer has radically begged off.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Eighteenth Amendment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The supposition that people are not trustworthy when making suitable choices in their lives cuts across the rehabilitated progress. The government is likely to employ legislations that impose restrictions on the liberty of an individual to safeguard the public or citizens from their ingestion actions. Instead of ascertaining strict legal prohibition, the administration ought to exercise tactics such as marginalizing the alcohol consumers and making liquor less communally allowable. This is what the eighteenth amendment is intended to do.
Works Cited Barry, James. The Noble Experiment, 1919-1933: The Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits Liquor in America, New York, Florida: Watts Press, 1972. Print.
Blocker, Jack. “Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment.” Journal of American History, 82.3(1995): 1235-37.
Shay, Gene. Amendment 18, Prohibition: Amendment 21, Repeal of Prohibition, Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004. Print.
Taft, William. The 18th Amendment, Detroit, MI: Henry Joy Press, 1930. Print.
Wheeler, Wayne. The Eighteenth Amendment, Chicago, IL: National Conference of Social Work, 1919. Print.