Since the ancient times, civilizations across the world have attempted to understand and separate normal behavior from what is considered as abnormal.
Up until now, it can be said without doubt that the separation has not been easy since behavior is largely viewed as cultural specific, and what may pass for an acceptable behavior in one culture may be vilified in another (Ganellen, 2007). In equal measure, behavior is also viewed as time-specific, and a behavior that was largely acceptable some few decades ago may presently be labeled as barbaric or worse still, abnormal.
This, however, does not mean that it untenable to contrast and compare normal and abnormal psychology. To the contrary, comparisons have been fronted from all quarters, occasioning a multiplicity of theoretical frameworks that attempt to offer objective explanation on the two concepts (Bennet, 2006).
In behavioral psychology, the word ‘normal’ basically means not to deviate from the standard norms, hence normal psychology entails the study of normal patterns of behavior, emotions, and mind (Bennet, 2006).
On the contrary, the word ‘abnormal’ basically means to deviate from the norm, hence abnormal psychology or psychopathology is the scientific study of unusual patterns of behavior, thought systems, and emotions that undeniably affect the way individuals feel, reason, and behave to a point of disrupting their own sense of wellbeing. Both normal and abnormal psychology are cultural and time specific as explained above.
For example, child beating may be allowed in some cultures while it may be seen as an insane behavior in other cultures. Also, both normal and abnormal psychology attempts to explain the centrality of behavior in determining mental health (Ganellen, 2007; Bennet, 2006).
Some psychopathologists argue that abnormal behavior is separated from normal behavior through set criteria which may not be necessarily correct. This therefore means that although deviant behavior may be grouped as abnormal by the criteria set by society, it does not automatically imply the incidence of a mental disorder. In equal measure, normal behavior does not necessarily mean the patterns of behavior are not without blame since the action may be stereotyped to fit the needs and demands of society (Bennet, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference List Bennet, P. (2006). Abnormal and clinical psychology: An Introductory textbook, 2nd Ed. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press
Ganellen, R.J. (2007). Assessing normal and abnormal personality functioning: Strengths and weaknesses of self-report, observer, and performance-based methods. Journal of Personality Assessment 89(1): 30-40. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database
Social Influences on Behavior: Towards understanding Depression and Alcoholism based on Social Situations Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In our daily endeavors, we go through social experiences that impact upon our behavior in major ways. The society itself is a conglomeration of many laws, moral obligations, and values that dictates how members should behave (Schueler, 1997). Though we may not agree with some laws set by society, we are forced to toe the line due to the repercussions that may follow.
Apart from societal regulations, there exist a myriad of other social experiences that affects our behavior and interaction with others. For instance, marriage as a social institution greatly influences behavior in that married men are no longer expected to behave like school boys. Behavior can also be negatively affected by social experiences (Smith
Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Team Recruitment and Association
Budget and Risk Assessment
Introduction A project was proposed by Engineering Solutions a corporation dedicated to expertise inclusion, novelty, and blueprint initiatives. In the firm’s venture to offer customers assured response to their needs, Engineering Solutions proposed a project on the development of a web linked power measuring device. Engineering Solutions intended to design an inclusive and reliable energy measuring device. The firm pioneered an energy measuring device novelty as a product for residential houses and public housing.
The power measuring device project was developed as an appliance that quantified energy utilization in homes and public lodgings. The energy quantifying device was a mechanism designed to compute operations expenses and overall or private energy consumption. Engineering Solutions project team members were scheduled to work on the energy measuring apparatus project for eleven weeks. Work on the project was planned to commence on 2nd February 2010 and end on 28th May 2010.
Prior to constructing the web linked power measuring device, the project team had to establish the energy meter specifications. The web linked energy meter was intended to have the following qualities:
Capacity to measure power voltage; a product of direct electrical energy and current built-in over a series.
Capability to transmit integrated power consumption information through a remote register in the internet.
Simple to operate from anywhere in the world and interpret power information transmitted.
Affordability of the energy meter by power consumers.
Integrated power consumption information was to be posted on to an internet site through an Ethernet intersection. The Ethernet junction innovation was anticipated to facilitate consumer assessment of power utilization in different homes and apartments. Accessibility to energy utilization information was expected to promote power conservation by the consumers. Modern societies had realized conservation requirements for energy and other resources.
Environmental temperatures had changed worldwide and resulted in damaged surroundings (Atkinson, 2009 p.1). A universal reaction to resource preservation required novel innovations that might sustain the deteriorating world reserves. Therefore, an improvement in energy utilization and preservation was a significant advancement for Engineering Solutions.
Engineering Solutions organization designed a power measuring device that was to be linked onto a website for monitoring energy consumption. Energy utilization information posted on an internet site permitted worldwide monitoring by consumers anywhere. Contrasts in energy utilization by consumers were projected to create a determined spirit that reduced individual energy consumption. In addition, a customer’s web link might also be an avenue for passing information on energy preservation.
Energy measuring devices had previously been manufactured; however, none had integrated an internet crossing point that displayed power consumption. Consequently, Engineering Solutions decided to develop a product integrated with a web link for consumers to supervise individual energy consumption.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm’s invention was developed by a competent project team. Engineering Solutions set objectives that were targeted to a realization of the energy meter project.
However, project limitations were expected, especially, on financial support and research period. Based on intensity of the project work packages, a skillful team was to be constituted by Engineering Solutions. Work packages in the project were expected to be detailed and requiring diligence from the team members. The project work packages were divided into multiple tasks in a work breakdown structure.
Task Management Engineering Solutions project team divided the web linked power measuring device project’s tasks into five work package phases. The tasks were grouped according to the work package as follows:
Team and project development
The internet linked energy measuring device was projected to cost $250. Time frame for the project was anticipated to be one hundred and fifty eight working days. Based on projected work intensity, members of the project team were compelled to schedule the tasks to avoid confusion during project development.
Project tasks were varied in resource requirements and intensity. Nevertheless, all project tasks were considered crucial to success of the project. Project thoroughness was observed to minimize interruptions caused by lack of task synchronization. Project administration measures were instituted to ascertain successful teamwork. The project management team ensured that work packages and tasks were harmonized.
The initial work package, team and project development, tasks were prearranged in a chronological array. It was believed that at project start completion of the following tasks was necessary:
Define team roles
Searching for investors
Tasks scheduled at the initial stage of the project were critical and could not be avoided. Sequential arrangement of the tasks guaranteed that project progression was certain. Significance of the team and project development work package was stressed by the project team.
We will write a custom Report on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Important project objectives and work definitions were addressed at the team and project development phase of the project. Total steadfast commitment was expected from each project team member at this stage. Duties and tasks were allocated to project team members at the team and project development stage. Project team members were expected to confirm participation and commitment to assigned tasks.
The second segment of the project work packages was project design. Project team members were to perform investigations on advancements similar to the project already on supply. Mechanisms that performed energy meter tasks were to be researched so as to determine what has been offered in the market. Purposes for the investigations were to establish areas for product improvement. Investigation outcomes were to guide the project team members at the project design stage.
Decisions on project blueprint and requirements were to be set up at this stage. Decision making stages ought not to take a lengthy period. Complexities caused by project idea and blueprint disagreements ought to be avoided. A chronological arrangement of tasks guaranteed a prolific and stable planning procedure. The following tasks were scheduled for the project design work package:
Research Target specifications
Identifying customer needs
Concept generation process
Select product concepts
Test product concepts
Set product specifications
Benchmark competitive products
Appearance Design specification
A third stage of the work packages was the construction phase of the project. The stage was considered the most complex and lengthiest phase of the project. However, at the construction stage, project team members were at liberty to alter the progression of task administration. The construction stage involved of the following tasks:
Construction of the energy meter
Energy power measurement device
Analog input sub-system
Internet web interface.
Amalgamations were done on interdependent tasks to better manage the responsibilities. For instance, assembly of the energy meter and the analog input sub-system were performed concurrently. To make certain project tasks were well coordinated; project team members had to frequently trade facts while working independently.
Accurate tasks harmonization was highly regarded as critical to cooperation and prevention of project adjournment. Tactics applied to encourage teamwork were weekly meetings, continued vital information updates, and financial incentives. Motivation campaigns were valuable to project success based on how the project management applied them.
A fourth work package was the project assembly stage. The package consisted of four tasks as follows:
Finishing the project.
At this stage the project team was permitted to utilize numerous models of task assortment. The tasks were either joined or chronologically arranged. An example of task unity was between product assembly and testing. The two tasks were closely related and could be undertaken concurrently. Nevertheless, cooperation and accuracy was inevitable at this critical stage of the project development.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Web linked Power Measuring Device Project Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A fifth and final work package was marketing. This final stage of the project development was significant. Information on the novelty was to be passed on to end users as accurately as possible. Tasks that constituted the marketing work package were as follows:
Preparations for the trade show
Organization of the project display
Convincing potential buyers of the product benefits.
Tasks at the marketing phase of the project were performed alongside each other. Project administrators arranged the construction procedure to ensure a team member‘s working liberty. Challenges in other sections of the project were not predestined to interfere with a member’s work. Task management largely determined project accomplishment or breakdown. Project tasks were managed in accordance to resources and timelines provided in the Gantt chart figure.
Team Recruitment and Association To ascertain project success, project team members were selected from a group of highly trained and knowledgeable persons. The selected members possessed proficiency in varied technical disciplines. Areas of expertise included energy experts, planners, salespersons, economists, and administrators.
The well selected project team was expected to add to the ultimate project success. Project team selection and creation was a significant feature in development of the project. Recruited project team members required specific attributes. The group had to be well matched with visibly unwavering responsibilities. The project team members were selected from locations that were easily accessible for each member. Locations specification guaranteed convenient communication and coordination for the members.
Product Strategy Procedures for product planning and strategy consisted of numerous sections. Product examination was a major section that integrated the following stages:
Target market research
Predictable financial impact
Preferred performance levels.
Attributes of pricing, timelines, and value added to achievement of product development. Production costs of an original product were mandatory. Financial investment and machinery in put costs were computed. Product development timeline was established based on project team member’s flexibility.
End user needs were assessed to determine specification for the final energy meter product. Engineering Solutions confirmed from the onset that if the energy meter met consumer demands a reasonable product market value would be achieved.
Engineering Solutions was concerned about meeting consumer requirements. Therefore, it was beneficial to have the best team qualified to meet the customer needs. An expertise project team was expected to train product end users on how to handle the energy meter. In the process, forecast on customer approval of the product was probable. Consequently, end users of the energy meter were advantaged in saving costs and conservation of the environment.
Reaction to consumer requirements, down playing rivalry, and initiating new products were benefits accrued from swiftness. This advancement was also regarded as product planning. Swift introduction of the product into the market guaranteed income profits and prolonged market share. However, swift product improvement was monitored not to interfere with superiority of the end result.
Budget and Risk Assessment Project threats assessments were conducted to prevent potential interferences in product development. Risk analyses were performed on potential hazard areas of the project cycle. Risk management required that an initial investigation on probable threat stages be performed. Project budget was a significant aspect of the project and if not well assessed might have resulted in project failure. A sure method applied in budget risk management was the provision of budget emergency funds.
Allocated finances for the project were estimated and probability of budget deficiencies was noted in the risk assessment. Budget risks were managed by integrating investors into the project. Potential buyers of the end product were expected to cushion project budget deficits. Alternatively, costs were slashed from tasks at the preliminary project phase.
Project interruptions were probable threats. The danger of project disruption was anticipated at any phase of the project cycle. Nonetheless, critical phases that were vulnerable to disruption threats were the design and construction stages of the project. Project team members were also prone to disagreements.
To manage the threats, project administration established a logical mental picture from the beginning. Project team member dependence on each other was set from the project onset. However, reliance by team members was only considered for tasks that occurred simultaneously.
Project administrators concentrated on task supervision, team structure, and threat analysis when creating the energy meter project. However, it was recognized that at emergencies were likely to occur based on unexpected expenses and probable setbacks. Proper management of project threats were measures constituted to reduce risks. The web linked power measuring device project had prolonged ability based on its demand. Power consumers required a formula where they could measure power utilization.
The consumer trend ensured that projects like the energy meter were to have protracted existence (Violino, 2009 p. 1). Equipments that met consumer demands were destined to have a prolonged demand. Parts utilized in the energy project were available locally. However, further research was required for product superiority. Continued need for power utilization information and resource conservation ensured that the web linked energy measuring device was valid for consumers.
Conclusion A project plan plainly detailed the project from the beginning. Project tasks requirements were defined and conformity arrived at. Project work packages were initially constituted and further divided into tasks. Resource allocation and monitoring were made possible by splitting of tasks.
Advantages of the project plan were numerous from management and ease of contribution by project team members. The project plan guaranteed that confusions were avoided, realistic facts were revealed, and analyses were made possible. The web linked power measuring device project required an elaborate plan. Information on parts, budget, and scheduling of activities was important to project success. Therefore, a project plan was inevitable for the project.
Works Cited Violino, Bob. Smart Meter Made. Information Week. 2009.
Apple’s Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Measuring Capability Performance
Options, Recommendations and Implementations
List of References
Executive Summary Since Apple was established in mid 1970s, its popularity has become immense especially in computer technology industry. Its full potential was realised when it shifted its focus from marketing and promotion of computer products to development of innovative industrial design in modern electronics, unique hardwares, operation system and application softwares and services. It provides customers with new products and solutions that are easy to use and seamless integration.
The relevant competitive models chosen for this assessment includes the Michael Porte’s five forces such as entry of competition, threats to substitutes, bargaining power, power of suppliers and rivalry, SWOT and Industrial analysis as well as micro analysis in order to assess Apple Inc. strategic capabilities and suggest future directions for the business. Apple assessment also analyses the results of a study presented to examine how it utilises customer satisfaction data obtained from formal feedback mechanism.
Introduction Company background
Apple was founded in 1970s by Steven Jobs who then became the company CEO. Apple first started as a computer company in 1976 and was fast recognised for its intuitive adaptation approach of graphical user interface that saw the adoption of the first mouse and first onscreen windows.
Steven Job innovative approach focused more on specialised products and by 2001, its full inventions came into play with the introduction of iPod, a product that ranked top in the market leader in music players. Eventually, iPhone came into play in 2008, followed by iMac, iPad and iTunes which have also been widely successful. This meant that electronic products combined with eminent good customer support throughout its product base were slowly becoming the company’s primary objectives.
Summary of Macro Analysis
Macro analysis also known as PESTLE is an analysis of the external macro environment in which a business operates. PESTEL analysis includes factors such as political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental issues. For a detailed analysis, the following table illustrates the macro environment of Apple Inc:
Factor Implications Political factor Apple’s operations in the United States were not affected by political regimes as the government was open to technological advancements. The company also tried to apart from politics
Queensland Health Case Study best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Power in Organizations
Decision Making In Organizations
Queensland Case Crisis
Introduction This paper provides a critical analysis of power and Decision making at Queensland Health. This research paper first provides an overview of power and decision making in organizations. The concept of power is demystified i.e. the negative connotations associated with the word are discussed and dispelled.
The paper then looks critically into the exercise of power in the Queensland Health case and how the same influences or directs decision making. Based on the analysis, recommendations are made in terms of how to improve power structure in the organization thus improve decision making efficiency and effectiveness.
Power in Organizations In often cases, the mention of the word ‘power’ makes individuals think dictatorship, bullying, cruelty, manipulation, lording over others and general unjustified social inequality. It is latently believed or subconsciously held, in many cultures around the world, that power makes individuals exploit, mistreat malign and even enslave others (Clegg et al, 2006, p. 40). It is for this reason that many find the saying “power corrupts but absolute power corrupts absolutely” to be an unchallengeable truth.
However, on thinking about it, it should occur to individuals that power in itself is an admirable thing or quality. Each individual has some form of power or capacity within himself (Thomas, 2003, p. 7). Power in itself is not a negative word. The word refers to or is synonymous to authority, influence, clout and control.
Having power over others does not mean having lee way to coerce, manipulate and dominate. In the real sense, power only means one has capacity, a talent, a skill, knowledge that others can rely on. Therefore, the individual can provide direction or influence others positively towards a goal.
The basic roles of managers in an organization are planning, controlling, organizing or coordination and directing or supervising operations (DuBrin, 2008, p 112). Managers rely on different management skills to instate plans, control measures, organizational structures and directions that are accommodative of all. The control measures are very vital as they reinforce a power balance in the organization.
Organizations cannot survive without control. Control, which is one of the fundamental functions of management, ensures everything in an organization is done in an orderly way. It is only through managing power in organizations that control is achieved. Proper management of power in organizations means that each employee understands his or her position in the organization. Therefore, power distribution largely depends on the organizational structure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational structure adopted by an organization is largely dependent on what the management believes about employees. Traditionally, scientific managers focused on providing controlled measures to maximize output (Koontz
Concept of Hyperventilation Anomaly in Medicine Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Hyperventilation is a breathing anomaly that makes the body’s ventilation to go beyond the required optimal metabolic demand. This condition makes individuals to over-breath, leading to many physiological changes associated with the normal functioning of the body. In most cases, it can cause giddiness, unsteadiness muscle spasms, and quivering of fingers and sections surrounding the mouth.
Medically, such effects result because of carbon dioxide deficiencies in the body, as most individuals who suffer this condition will exhale more carbon dioxide quantities, which exceed the produced amounts from the body’s metabolic activities. It is important to note that, although most individuals may associate hyperventilation to panic attacks medically, these are two distinct health complications, although they share some symptoms (Vorvick, 2010, p.1 and Fenner, 2000, pp. 287-288).
Causes Hyperventilation occurs in specific medical conditions, for example, heart attack and metabolic acidosis; a health complication characterized by increased blood acid levels, caused by increased hydrogen ions amount in the blood. Primary causes of this problem are either diseases or physiological anomalies, which include anaphylaxis, chest injuries, chronic obstructive pulmonary ailments, anxiety, Pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, heart ailments, stress, and psychological stress (Medicine Net, 2010, p.1 and WebMD, 2010, pp.1-5).
Symptoms Medically, there exist two types of hyperventilation namely sudden and everyday. In the former case, detection is easy, because it has intense symptoms. The case is very different in the latter type, because it is a continuous occurrence, making it to lack a detecting criterion. Common symptoms associated with this complication include dry mouth, hyperpnea, belching, dizziness, irritable bowel syndrome wheezing, sleep anomalies, muscle spasms, and suffocation feelings (Rosh
Modern Political Thought Essay essay help: essay help
The “after seventeenth century modernity spectaculum” The global development in the sense of modernization as per seventeenth century has given the world no more than decaying senses which has been accompanied by perverted human roles, with concentration of hatred and aversion between human kind and between them and the environment.
The known good deeds were integrated into intensive definitions incorporated in evil, human contempt, vile as well as inconsiderable. Despite this, the irony is that what used to be good became shunned while the scramble of the vices introduce, became significantly rampant. Long-living practices began to be viewed as being mundane and the short-lived practices accompanied by threats and fears completely replaced the good-old world.
As the sense of independent and development sunk in peoples mind, the aspect of communism disintegrated and in its place individualism and the sense of “I” was adopted that is embraced world-wide. As a result, man’s life was affected, as the bond between people gradually melted and in its place a trench evolved.
This has put man’s life in a solitary situation, bringing with it massive poverty, nasty living style, brutish undertakings whose combination has shortened the life of human being. This has made the man race to indulge into daily conflicting activities, pertaining competition, diffidence and glory as state of nature. This has created one of man’s rule which entails that Thomas Hobbes (215) states that “every man has to endeavor peace, as far as he has hopes for obtaining it. If he cannot obtain it, he can use all helps and advantage of war.”
In addition, human beings have been assumed as having right of everything even to one another’s body. What does this bring to the race of human being? It only gives a room to the stronger in having their ways right which means that the life of the majority-minorities depend on the mercy of the few powerful. In other words, it became the survival for the fittest. This has contributed to excessive injustice between individuals as well as in the governmental law bodies (Hobbes, 113)
Moreover, the introduced civil society had brought separation of power that initially was not there. This has been met by rejection from individual and parties affected by this power division. Consequently, civil war has been a major occurrence in many nations as they tend to fight against the abuse of power by the acting government or other nations that creates an effect or pressure to them.
This has expanded gaps existing between parties and every party is seeking its own way of dealing with any threat that can be imposed to it by the other parties. However, instead of this being a channel of peace and comfort within the societies involved, fear concerning the massive destructing weapons manufactured by the name of defense, such as atomic weapons, has taken over the climate and the element of peace has scrambled off (Hobbes p.131).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, people’s perspectives have been readjusted and believe that people can’t function without a powerful body over them, which creates fear and suppression had settled in people minds, and as a result oppression and dictatorship has based people’s ways of living (Machiavelli, 57).
Religious perspective has also been altered. For instance, the scripture has been reinterpreted in a materialistic assumption. For example, Hobbes has tried to bring out the contradiction concerning incorporeal entities, claiming that both Heaven and Hell were in this world, as well as opposing some of sync which are incorporated in church teachings. Thus, morality has acquired a definition as an “acceptable cruel action”, which involves decisiveness and swiftness in dealing with material matters.
For instance, according to Niccolo Machiavelli, it is ironically that good result comes out of evil actions. In addition, the philosophy in the middle age was primarily based on Christian philosophy. However, different lines of philosophical argument came up, with one bringing a sense of nationalism threatening the position of church-men, by introducing a powerful secular based perspective.
The other one widely secularized the knowledge reducing the control of ecclesiastical elite and in its place introducing, what Descartes (102) describes as “philosophical classics of Greece and Rome.” As time goes by, the power of a single religious authority was gradually effaced giving power of vernacular tongues by the influence of protestant ethics which resulted to philosophers becoming less recognized in their ecclesiastical hierarchy but instead their recognition was shifted to their national origin (Descartes, 77-8).
In studying the way people live, Machiavelli (312) agrees that the way people lived traditionally was a true way of living. Everyone was required to live virtuously and this was clearly observed. However, living virtuously didn’t mean that people could live happily. The adaptation to the modernized ways pushed the leader to try making people to both fear them as well as love them.
But since these two factors couldn’t go hand in hand, they saw that significant security would be obtained in making people to fear them. This was associated with suspicious from other opposing parties concerning any acts of insecurities that can be thrown toward the leader in question. As a result, any action to suppress the other party or individual was seen as a gateway to remain feared and recognized (Rousseau, 37).
According to Rousseau (87), civil society has introduced inequalities in human kind which mostly concerning moral inequality, whose relation is in power and wealth. This has been attributed to man’s act of straying out of the natural state and stepping in his own cocoon of individual need and desire. As a result, those who first took the advantage of people’s naivety and grabbed shares of the available properties moved up the ladder where they perpetrate the weak so that they can maintain their wealth and power.
We will write a custom Essay on Modern Political Thought specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the beginning of evil, where unlike the early man who was strong, fast and in prime condition and who only killed for his self prevention, the civil man started using all means, including killing his fellow to maintain what he has obtained. (Rousseau, 62).
In conclusion, modernization has accompanied its countable good aspect with uncountable vices which has greatly eroded natural state of human being’s moral in relation to other and environment and in place redefined these moral in a self centered perspective, attributed with a lot of evils.
Works Cited Descartes, Rene. The principal of philosophy. Kessinger Publishing, 2004. Print.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Johnston: Norton, 1997. Print.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The prince and the discourses. Modern library, 1950. Print.
Rousseau, Jean. Discourse on the origin of Inequality. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007. Print.
Learning Styles argumentative essay help
Various seminal studies in the field of educational psychology have illuminated fundamental components on the learning process that could be used for effective communication and collaboration either at the classroom level or in the social context.
These studies have demonstrated that students are not only inclined to learn in divergent ways, but they also favor different instruction methodologies and materials for teaching (Franzoni
Psychoanalytic Personality Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Various psychologists find a wide engagement in different theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, there are various proposals of personality components such as ego, id, and superego, proposed for introversion and extraversion of character. Each of the proposed components forms part of the psychological functionality and therefore the need for combining the parts into a single unit.
However, it is not possible to combine the elements into a single unit because of the differences on the interpretation, but analysis of various theories assist in organizing the components into an interrelated nature without a regard to their originality. The aim of the theories is to define personality using a set of components functioning as a unit. Various theories have therefore emerged in support of the psychic personality appraisal.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic assessment of personality as presented by Freud’s influential work indicates that there are there main components namely the identity, ego and superego. The identity is a force that naturally and unconsciously expresses within a human being as either a love feeling/instinct or a destructive feeling.
The superego is also an instinctive personality vigour that is associable with the manipulation of superlative being of an individual. The superego is a tremendous conscious and is an extreme feeling as the identity. The ego on the other hand is a personality trait that maintains a balance between the two natural forces of personality identity and the superego. Freud presents the human being as a personality in crisis due to the different components.
Freud approach to development of personality indicates that there are five stages in the formation of personal traits. The development stages begin in the early phases of human maturity towards various fixations and life encounters.
According to Freud theory, failure of psychological completion and release can lead to defence mechanism due to conflicts associable with the anxiety of progressing from a stage to another in the development lifecycle (Cotton, 1995). Freud presents five stages of personality development in the psychoanalytic theory.
The stage mainly affects the infants up to two years of age. The child faces the world and is eager to explore nature. The exploring process takes place using the mouth. Therefore, they develop a personality linked to oral perspective and are often pre-occupied with eating, drinking, and biting objects in the aim of reducing the tension.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By having this personality trait, the child is therefore needy, passive and very sensitive to any form of rejection. Various ideas and actions easily carry away the conscious mind of the toddlers. The opposite to this form of personality is the orally aggressive trait. The child becomes hostile, often aggressive and possibly abusive. During this stage, the child tries out the oral fixations to acquire satisfaction. They feel that life is not complete and thus a lot is not yet met, thus the urge for exploration.
Behaviours training or ‘Anal/ Potty’ Training
In the second stage, the child undoes training to control the natural body functions such as training of the toilet procedures. The child can easily develop trauma in case of mishandling, thus becoming retentive and rigid to changes. The opposite to these results of mistreatment is development of a personality devoted to obsessive behaviours that are irrational to the norm.
The stage is associable to scenarios of being out of control or obsessively working hard to maintain order. The child may therefore develop a retentive personality that is stingy. Such children are obsessive to tidiness, but arguably stubborn due to their need for perfectionism. They may also become expulsive and will often lack control and end up being careless or messy.
The stage is associable to children between the age of four and five. The child recognizes the gender differences. Full development of personality occurs at this stage. According to Freud’s theory, the stage is classifiable through the “Oedipus and Electra Complexes (Cotton, 1995). The Oedipus represents a male child’s love for his mother and the fear/jealousy towards his father. The Electra is the female version where the female child has anger or envy toward her mother” (Cotton, 1995).
During the puberty or adolescent stage, there are very little observable personality developments because the teenagers sublimate their discoveries and urges into their hobbies or favourite sports/activities. The friends from the same gender also assist in avoiding the vibrant sexual differences and eminent need for observing the impulsive growth.
The stage begins from the age of 12 years and lasts to the climax of the puberty stage. The phase is associable to the reawakening of the sexual interests especially among opposite sexes.
Comparison of the Psychoanalytical theories Freud’s theory specifies the stages of personality formation but faces a lot of challenges and critics. The argument basis indicates that the outline lacks substantial evidence and corroborative data (Jonson and Jonson, 1997). People still utilize the indications metaphorically to explain the observable behaviours especially in the human development phases. Evidently, I highly agree with the facts that in his psychoanalytic theory,
We will write a custom Assessment on Psychoanalytic Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freud believes in the motivational forces of a dream in the personal wish to fulfil goals. The theory portrays power, control and love as issues that can manifest in people’s dreams as they advocate for satisfaction. From the conflicting point of view, the theory presents the manifestation of the imagery and symbols in the dreams as aspects that have sexual connotation.
Jung presents the analytical psychology or the ‘Jungian’ analysis that conflict with Freud’s psychoanalysis approach of harmonizing the conscious and the unconscious elements. Jung presents a scenario where the patient works with the analyst with the aim of increasing the patient’s conscious in a move to liberate him/her from the psychological suffering.
The theory shows the current treatment setting of finding meaning and relief form common emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety. I highly agree with Jung’s presentation of enhancing the relationship between the unconscious and conscious self, with emphasis on the supporting the continual development of the psychic self. It also presents the human urge to become unique and discover the potentials for development.
Adler’s presentation of personality assessment indicates that every person has a unique personality. I highly concur with the presentation made by Adler that the there is need to ensure consistency over character, with the aim of a achieving the set goals.
However, I disagree with the notion that unpredictable or inconsistent character traits of an individual are because people act from the unconscious mind in the aim of confusing others. Alder presents an important factor of social interest as a fundamental aspect of enhancing unity within the community. He also confers the aspect of social interest as an important measure for the psychological health, and an important factor for building a strong bond among people for sustenance.
Freudian Defence Mechanism Although the presentation of human personality by Freud fails to address factors that link to the education sector, there are various principals from the psychological analysis utilized by other philosophers for education and training. Some of the good examples of the application include the influential approach provided by Freud towards group interaction. He assists in understanding how groups function within the context of education and training.
His analysis also forms the basis for presenting the two levels of operations; the “work group” that performs unconcealed or detailed tasks and the “basic assumption group,” which behaves in a way that indicates that people share various approaches or intentions to solve problems such as dependency, sharing or defence (Bion, 1961).
Conclusion Current psychoanalytic assessment of personality points outs the need to emphasize on the power of classifying or relating to personality components. It is wise to find the differences and similarities between the affective and cognitive components.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personality is the power to determine the personal components or trait that defines and highly affects an individual. Various theories have enormous definitions of personality and the changes involved over time. Only some of the personality components change over time, therefore it is crucial to identify important components that are more prone to change of personality.
References Bion, W. R. (1961) Experiences in Groups, London, Tavistock
Cotton, J. (1995). The theory of Learning: an Introduction, London, Kogan Page
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
One of the most influential ideas offered by liberalists in their time is connected to money and its role in human life. The representatives of liberalism truly believe that money can make people free. Taking into account this assertion, it is possible to admit that money can also make people happier because freedom and happiness are the concepts which are usually connected to each other.
However, there are a number of philosophers and great thinkers who cannot agree to this idea and believed that money should never be regarded as a means of freedom and happiness but vice versa as a source of inequality, poverty, and disappointments.
Such brilliant modern philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx introduce captivating approaches which help to realize a true essence of money and to get a clear idea about what can make people free and happy. On the one hand, it is difficult to imagine that ideas of Rousseau and Marx may have a lot in common; however, on the other hand, their attitudes to money value deserve attention.
Marx and Rousseau were eager to improve the society they lived in and make people free; to achieve these purposes, it is necessary to prove that money does not have such power to provide all people with necessary freedom and happiness because their main purpose is to create inequality and to divide people into groups in accordance with demands and possibilities.
Almost the whole century divides such brilliant and educative philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. However, time is not the only factor according to which these men and their ideas have to be compared.
They are the representatives of different countries, traditions, and beliefs, and still their works and ideas are characterized by a peculiar similarity that is connected to the value of money and its power over people. Rousseau and Marx defined the power of money that was inherent to any type of society; however, this identification was not the symbol of money as something emancipative.
They spoke about the power of private property and the necessity to make some changes because rights people maintained had nothing in common with equality; Rousseau underlined the idea of people freedoms but under such condition which could promote orderly society, however, he could not decrease the necessity level of rights of property. The ideas of these two philosophers demonstrate that private property made people isolated and self-interested but still dependent on each other and unequal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having such attitudes to money, human freedoms, and rights, Rousseau and Marx could easily create a kind of powerful opposition to the representatives of liberalism who strongly believed that money was one of the most crucial sources of human freedoms and happiness. However, the idea of relations between money and freedom has faced a number of philosophical difficulties.
Liberalists made numerous attempts to prove that freedom and money had a close connection to each other because a person without money cannot become free. According to the liberalistic point of view, freedom has to be economically defined. A person has money, and this is why he/she is able to buy freedom and to be happy.
Such weak and sometimes even humiliating ideas made the vast majority of philosopher develop their own strategies and theories in order to prove that such money dependence should influence human freedoms. Rousseau admitted that he “should wished to live and dies free” (Rousseau 2) and he did not underline the necessity of money for this freedom; and Marx believed that “man (a worker) only feels himself freely active in his animal functions” (Marx, Estranged Labor 74).
Can money make people free and happy? Hardly! If you have money, it is impossible to say that sometimes you may have enough money to be satisfied and enjoy this life. When a person gets an access to money, this person is enslaved by it. This is why it is possible to say that people are not free especially when they have money.
And what is more important if people are enslaved by other people, they can easily recognize this dependence and its power. And when people are enslaved by money, they are not able to define this dependence and continue living under this invisible but still crucial dependence.
The desire to get more money leads to inequality between people. And if so many people are eager to destroy all features of inequality, why do they continue supporting the idea of having money and making money powerful? In other words, it is possible to say that money can make people happier for a while but never free; and when the moment of happiness passes, the long-lasting period begins that makes people work for money, think about money, and live for money.
Karl Marx said that “free development of each is the condition for the free development of all” (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 12). This person truly believed that it is possible to achieve freedom and happiness only by means of properly arranged order. According to him, money is condition for development but still not its result. If a person has money, he is eager to be identified among the rest. If this identification takes place, the process of inequality begins.
We will write a custom Essay on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And if inequality continues its development, there is no chance for people to have freedom. Almost the same attitude to freedom and money was represented by Rousseau. He underlines a chance of any person to be born free. Of course, much should depend on the conditions under which people live; however, they should not forget their true human nature that explains the only “free men” may be involved “in search of the truth” (Rousseau 15).
In comparison to Marx, Rousseau seems to be more pessimistic to the idea of money. If Marx believed that the value of money was crucial for inequality that develops within a society under specific conditions, then Rousseau identified money as the reason to start fights, develop discontents, and increase the desire to have more and break the already established norms.
Though money plays such a significant role in this life, it cannot make people free from all things and conditions inherent to this world. People are not as strong as it may seem because they may become blind in respect to the requirements and peculiarities of their life. Money may promote survival, prosperity, and success but such concepts as freedom or happiness should have nothing in common with money.
So, if the answer to the question whether money makes people free and happy is a certain NO, another question should appear. What can make people free and happy if money cannot? In fact, it is very difficult to give one clear answer to such philosophical question. Rousseau as one of the most sophisticated and polite philosopher suggests paying more attention to human lives and the ways people prefer to choose.
For example, he underlined “either desire or an opportunity of emerging from it” (Rousseau 31) as the most powerful components of human happiness. If a person believes that his /her desires as well as his/her faculties are equal, he/she may become happy.
As for freedom, Rousseau believed that there were different types of freedom that could be achieved by means of human participation in processes required from community. And Marx in his turn evaluated freedom as freedom from interference in people’s education, communication, evaluation, and realization (Marx, The Communist Manifesto 40). And human happiness is closely connected to human needs, labor, and ownership.
In general, the idea of human happiness and freedom may be regarded from many different sides. First, each person has his/her own demands, needs, and interests. Of course, much depends on the community a person lives in.
This is why it is possible to believe that human freedoms come from human faith and desire: if you want to become free, you are welcome to use your skills, knowledge, and faculties to achieve the desirable aim. As for human happiness, it is more personal issue: friends, food, health, knowledge, etc. When a person knows what makes him/her happy, achieves purposes, and enjoy the feeling of satisfaction, this person may be called happy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The works by Rousseau and Marx help to define that much about happiness and freedom depends on human surroundings. It is useless to represent some definite claims and prove their correctness. Constant development of this society requires considerable changes and new requirements for freedom and happiness. It is difficult for one person to define what makes other people happy, and this is why it is better to be responsible and confident in personal happiness and personal freedoms.
Works Cited Marx, Karl. “Estranged Labor.” In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Marx-Engels Reader. 2 ed. New York: W.W. Norton
Fashion and Appearance Essay essay help site:edu
Fashion is transitional rather than static, it is this dynamism in its nature that makes it difficult to comprehend and study as a concept in isolation. This is mainly because fashion is interwoven into culture, music, personalities, the economy and a number of other social barometers. Fashion in itself is the custom style and form of appearance that prevails over a specified period of time.
In essence, this means that fashion is short lived and usually acquires manifestation and common usage in the form of dressing and costumes. All that form of fancy attire that acquires a social place and is popular at a given point is what constitutes fashion; this might not however just be limited to dress and costumes but also encompasses other elements within a social perspective such as walking style and even talking and body language.
A number of different world civilizations have diverse cultures and fashion trends and this has been unparalleled not just in recent times but from time immemorial. The West has probably had the greatest influence on the fashion that is currently in the world at any given time (Kitwana, 2000).
The Hip hop fashion and appearance for instance, is western and has constructed a strong social identity that has come to be associated with the youth. Hip hop fashion has a distinctive style of appearance and dress code that is Afro American in descent. This has strongly impacted the social fabric of the youths for instance in major American cities like Philadelphia, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Jersey, Chicago and Miami.
All the above cities have a special contribution to the type of hip hop culture seen in the universe today. This type of pop culture and mode of dressing basically compliments and deeply expresses the attitudes of the people and their form of musical conduct. Various diverse ethnicities around the world have now formally accepted this culture and appearance and indeed mimic these western antics; this is largely seen in Africa and Latin America.
The hip hop fashion has probably created booming business for sportswear and jeans clothing manufacturers around the world, such include Levis Strauss, Kangol, adidas, kappa and sportif. This is because the youthful generation has embraced these designs in society and has come to be associated with these forms of baggy and flashy dressing with sagging outfits.
Over time, the world has witnessed a number of hip hop icons wearing tracksuits, bomber jackets, sneakers shoes and bandanas. Because such icons command a lot of authority among the youthful generation, they are seen as pace setters and role models by many. This can now explain the reason behind the creation of a thick social fabric that regulates social behavior and conduct hinged on this hip hop culture (Grammer, 1996).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1980s for instance, popular accessories ruled the atmosphere of pop culture including elements such as Clark shoes and adidas shelties these were often adorned with laces that were considered “phat” or oversized. A number of hair cuts and hair do’s were also made famous by strategic musical icons like Will Smith who popularized the “hi top fade” and Christopher Reid of Kid n Play who popularized the Jheri curl among others.
From this it can be observed that a variety of fashion and appearance designs usually have fashion ambassadors, these are social icons who find acceptance and command respect from society, because their conduct is admired by a majority of dwellers in these setting, their ideas are bought without question and hesitation, they thus help to play a significant role in moderating social conduct and creating identities.
Tommy Hilfiger became a fashion icon especially on the late 90s as a preferred sportswear. There was however significant levels of competition from other trendy fashion brands like DKNY and Calvin Klein. To illustrate the interrelationship between the media (publicity) and social icons, an incident that occurred in New York City can be useful.
Snoop Doggy Dogg (an afro American rap icon) was once invited to appear in the popular television show “Saturday Night Live” this show usually interviews celebrities, top politicians and famous businessmen, in this particular television talk show, Snoop appeared wearing a sweatshirt with the Tommy Hilfiger label, the next morning this brand made many sales in all the New York clothing stores.
This trend has indeed made a number of clothing labels to be associated or linked with popular musical and media personalities as this is on the surest ways to guarantee increased sales volumes (Wilbekin, 1999).
After the 90s and presently, a number of business executives and artists established their own designer and fashion labels. The following are examples of such designs by prominent artists and designers of fashion in the west: Phat Farm (Russell Simmons), Sean John (Puff Daddy), Roca wear (Jay Z), Shady Limited (Eminem), Akoo (TI), Makaveli
WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction Cause and Effect Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The WWI-War was influenced by conflicts among military groups from countries known as world’s supreme powers. It was a four year war i.e. from 1914 to 1918, centered between two disputed allies’, central powers and the triple entente. Sources indicate that close to seventy million soldiers were deployed with fifteen million people perishing as a consequence of the fateful period (Caddick-adams).
In as much as soldiers and civilians garnered experience during WWI, it is imperative to acknowledge that the unsuitable environment at the forefront led to deterioration of health standards; furthermore, civilians were forced to live with minimal supplies and restricted space for operations.
Soldiers serving in the frontline during the First World War faced a lot of challenges and difficulties when fighting for their own countries. As a way of hiding from ruthless enemies they had to live in unhealthy trenches at the expense of their health.
Due to this fact they faced frequent deaths as a result of attacks by dreadful diseases and unpredictable enemies who attacked via gunfire or bayonet (Caddick-adams). Though living in the trenches could keep them safe from the enemy that was not so in the case of attacks by frogs, rats and lice. Furthermore, trenches provided conducive environment for their multiplication hence a big threat to the health of soldiers.
Regardless of a conducive environment or not, lice could still multiply fast due to their short breeding periods and caused painful itches which led to high fever followed by severe headaches. In the filthy trenches they were expected to be on high alert and constantly having their weapons ready at any moment just in case the enemy attacks.
In addition, movement was minimized and attending to any personal issue was scheduled after fully completing assigned duties. Such kind of life was boring consequently leading to deterioration in the quality of life.
Sources indicate that bodies were left lying and rotting on the ground or buried in shallow graves. As a result the entire battle field was clouded with a stinking smell that was a disguise to the dedicated soldiers. Overflowing shallow latrines, also contributed to the disguise by its stinking smell. In addition, sometime the soldiers fell short of adequate water supply which forced them to go weeks and sometimes even months without taking bath (Caddick-adams).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The newly introduced soldier in the frontline had difficulties in adapting with the situation on the ground but with no option of turning back they had to adjust for the sake of their survival. Most of the frontline soldier suffered a disease known as shell shock, a mental illness that eventually leads to mental breakdown.
The First World War significantly affected the civilians or persons at home front, forcing them to adjust and adapt by the situation. Rationing was not only done on luxurious commodities but also on the basic ones such as food supply, attires and many more household materials (Caddick-adams).
As a result, various households had to adapt to the situation by venturing in home gardening to act as a substitute for the missing diets. Fortunately, to the civilians who lived in countryside were not greatly affected since most of their home use products were locally supplied. Many home use equipments were eventually turned into weapons to act as protection devices against enemies.
The First World War was characterized by displacement of people so as to create room for battlefields. Once an area was declared a battlefield by the government it had to be evacuated no matter what, hence civilians had no option but to comply. Furthermore, who would want to stay close to battlefields with an ongoing war at place?
Women also had to take great responsibilities due to the fact that men were sent to war. They had act as the sole breadwinners by ensuring each member of their family was quite comfortable as far as provision is concerned. Sometimes they could go the great extents by carrying the entire burden left by the absence of men for the well being of their families.
In some instances women were also expected to frequently supply food to their husbands when fighting in battlefields. Education and formal job were left at stand still due to insecurity was a big threat to future of civilians as they could not study or make a living.
The impacts of the WW1-war were felt by both persons at fore front and home front. Soldiers at the fore front suffered from diseases and poor living conditions that accelerated their deaths. Not forgetting persons at the home front who were displaced, unemployed and had to work extra hard to meet their needs. As noted from the findings the WW1-war was characterized by negative impacts both to civilians and soldiers whether at home or at fore front.
We will write a custom Essay on WWI-War: Revolution, and Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Peter, Caddick-adams. The home front in world war one. BBC. March 14 2005. Web. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/wars_conflict/home_front/the_home_front_01.shtml
Business Issues: Vodafone Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Power, Politics and Conflict in Organizations
Organizational structure and Goals
Introduction This essay analyses Vodafone Group in relation to work motivation, power, politics and conflicts in the organization and finally organizational structure and organizational goals. Basically, management approach to employees determines how well they take to their work. Defining power balance in the organization, in the way organizational structure is set; helps focus resources on organizational goals as opposed to power struggles and derailing conflicts.
Work Motivation Human behavior unlike animal behavior often has a rationale behind it. It is widely accepted that even our instincts are based on a belief system or collective thoughts that inform our interpretation of situations. Vodafone appreciates that workers are intelligent beings out to self actualize through their every day work endeavors.