Comparing Historical And Present Landscapes In The East Cascades Of The Washington State Research Paper Cheap Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Literature Cited

Introduction There are many ways to evaluate the changes within a specific ecosystem in a particular landscape. Among the most efficient methods, a comparison between the historical and the present-day landscape can be used (Hessburg, Agee

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Introduction to Acts as Background to the Life of Paul Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me

In the authorship of Acts, Luke depicts one of the most important issues being discussed by biblical analysts trying to produce critical scholarly works on the sources of the New Testament. According to the biblical traditions, the society believes that Luke who was a companion of Paul wrote the scriptures in the book of Acts.

In the We passages of Acts, Luke uses the first person plural without referring to himself as “I” or “Me.” Some biblical analysts believe that the We passages are the remains of medieval manuscript that was later integrated into the book of Acts by the author (Bleek

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Ethics in Psychology Research Studies Term Paper college essay help: college essay help

Psychology scientists often misinform participants of their research details in an attempt to mitigate placebo effects, reduce bias in self-reports and reduce risks on the safety of the researcher (Weiten, 2012).

Well documented and reported in the results of the study, deliberate deception may be admissible in scientific studies if the validity and independence value of the research result in positive outcomes.

Whereas critics fail to decipher how ‘lying’ could enhance results in a psychology study, certain subjects inevitably benefit from the inclusion of deceptive concepts.

Most defenders of deception hold the opinion that intentions of the involved ‘white lies’ causes no harm to the participants, but aid in obtaining crucial results that would otherwise not be possible to obtain.

Assessment of participants at the end of study further supports the opinion that deception does not necessarily cause harm to the participants as discussed below. However, scientific principles remain that a study must always uphold responsibility to the life and the psychological safety of the participants (Ortman, 2008).

Ethical questions arising from the Milgram’s study highlight the debate of the extent to which research must observe human dignity and respect. One of the most prominent ethical issues in research touches on the quality and nature of informed consent.

The rule of thumb in obtaining permission to conduct research on an individual requires their voluntary willingness to participate, which becomes the basis of accepting to take part in a research.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To this end, the quality of the informed consent cuts across how informed the participant gets at the end of the initial briefing (Cozby, 2012). All material information relating the studies carried out in the research must facilitate determination of quality of obtained informed consent.

This implies that the respondent must not feel coerced to participate by the slightest element of the information given to them to ask for their acceptance.

Relaying information in acquiring informed consent contributes to acceptance of the study by the participant. Withholding material information about the study compromises the ability of the participant to make an informed choice to participate.

Alternatively, withholding material information on the study subjects the participant and the image of the studies to potential harm. From Milgram’s study outcomes, the subjects seemingly experience an unpleasant and stressing handling (Cozby, 2012).

Other than exposing the participants to feelings of embarrassment and distress, studies withholding crucial information can affect participants’ relatives, friends and members of the family. The general feeling may potentially touch on the attitude that people have on the intended outcomes of psychological studies.

People may feel used and disrespected, which flouts the tenets scientific research on humans. In this regard, deception may generate resentment of future scientific studies on accusations of lack of honesty and respect for participants.

Perhaps, one of the most relieving aspects of the study by Milgram revolves around post-study assessment on the subjects. In post research assessment, Milgram found that the participants did not have regret complaints with the treatment sustained (Cozby, 2012).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Ethics in Psychology Research Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In certain study outcomes, deception may form a pivotal concept in arriving at the right results. Human beings intellect tends to stand in the way of several psychological tests, by behaving differently thereby compromising the desired results.

Withholding the material information from the participants during acquisition of informed consent may dramatically increase the independence score of the study from the reactions of the subjects (Resnik, 2011).

Done within the admissible deception mitigation measures, such studies may reduce the negative impacts associated with deceiving human subjects in studies.

Instances of human behavior compromising the outcomes of a psychological study include for instance, in testing the psychological influences of drugs done with monitored scenarios using control drug and the real drug.

Informing subjects on every detail of the study may lead to certain undesired outcomes, which makes it imperative that certain information remains withheld.

In all cases of deception that scientific studies can accommodate, potential damage must fall within the minimum possible limits allowed by the standard mitigation measures. Among the prominent measures to reduce deception impacts, standard procedures entailing pre-consent treatment must suffice.

In pre-consent procedures, subjects get informed that certain critical information on the study would remain concealed without necessarily stating its nature. In such a move, informed consent encapsulates the willingness to continue amid potential unpleasant detail of the study.

On a different level, reduction of the deception detail facilitates the mitigation of potential damage emanating from a study with deceptive elements.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Psychology Research Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In reducing deception, researchers seek to obtain informed consent using deliberate statements such as “probably” and “potentially” among others that incorporate a degree of accurate relaying of the deception element (Shuttleworth, 2008).

However, in all cases of deception, researchers must protect the life and dignity of the subjects, by ensuring that the study does not expose them to dangers prohibited under the laws of natural justice.

Ordinarily, exposing human beings to electrical shock would amount to violations involving the law of torts.1 Such an attempt subsequently raises issues of violations of duty to care for people who entrust their lives to scientists.

Some studies would involve dangerous procedures, which even if not performed on an individual, mere simulation might expose respondents to psychological distress. The law of intentional torts covers protection of individuals from not only physical, but also psychological and emotional violations.

Withholding information to the details of the nature of the distress would amount to aiding violations of human rights.2

In defending the use of misleading information, scientists must also ensure that the responsibility of safeguarding the integrity of human life remains as a critical part of the studies.

Some studies cannot continue without elements of deception to the subjects, which does not hold back scientists from exploring the scientific topics and themes in those subjects (Weiten, 2012).

As illustrated below, in a world with increasing threats from terror groups and organized crime syndicates, the life of the researcher does not only face a threat but also interest in future studies hangs in the balance.

In a deliberate deceptive design, psychology researchers can engage threatening situations and deliver valuable results that matter to the world without necessarily endangering their lives thereby preventing cutting off interest in such potentially dangerous topics.

Seemingly, a significant group of defenders of deception in psychological studies holds the opinion that the cost of potential harm to participants is worth making when considered in perspective with the importance of the subject in life saving scenarios.

The advancement of knowledge justification provides a leeway to this school of thought that deception is unavoidable in the research society.

As mentioned above, when subjects obtain certain material information with the ability to alter their reaction and affect the outcomes of the study, deception comes in handy to such studies.

Debriefing the subjects upon completion of research and obtaining their perception of the study raises the confidence of the study among the public that science guards them against harmful procedures (Resnik, 2011).

Various contentions emerge, for instance when dealing with dangerous criminal groups in psychological studies to understand their obedience defects. Perhaps studying the elements of defiance among terrorists fits well in such an illustration of ethical issues.

As an illustration, some of the most prominent questions of research on terrorist ideologies would touch on the reaction in behavior of the subjects once they realize that the study intends to unearth such a sensitive issue.

Issues of trust may emerge leading to violent reactions since the group apparently suffers from systemic defiance and violence. Potential reaction would entail taking advantage of the research to propagate terror ideologies and bias in the intentions of the defiance behavior.

Equally, the life of the researcher would face threats as the dangerous outfit could be potentially endangering the life of the researcher. In an optimized scientific approach, seeking informed consent would characterize the risks involved and incorporate safety measures to overcome harm and reduce bias (Cozby, 2012).

In conducting such potentially dangerous studies dealing with deception, security of the researcher must also form part of the preparations for the study to counter violent reactions.

The participants may take the study as a tool of governments’ intervention against terror activities thereby reducing the cooperation of researchers in future attempts to involve such respondents.

This inherent distrust of researchers by the subjects spreads across several psychology studies where respondents feel used to deliver information with damaging outcomes, either psychological or physical as the reliance on such information by third parties may expose them to the perceived risks (Resnik, 2011).

Exposure to distressing experiences makes it difficult for respondents to admit regret, in studies where the overall benefit to the person and the society may outweigh individual displeasure. Certain studies produce higher resentment than others, which characterizes the degree of regrets and resentment along subject lines.

In terms of personal justification of psychology research using deception, the benefits of the study will always act as sufficient justification of the procedures.

On a personal note, exposing participants to risks will always be justified if the deception concept does not result in a grave violation of personal and human rights upon disclosure.

Alternatively, reduction in the degree of deception during pre-consent procedures may also act in favor of deception in studies where absolute deception would lead to resentment.

Personal view also touches on the possibility of compensation and mutual settlement of disputes where deception seemingly leads to violation of personal values, even when standard human values hold true (Cozby, 2012).

In all cases of deception, personal opinion leans on the premise that the value of the results will depend on the benefits obtained for the advancement of human life.

References Cozby, P. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Ortman, A. (2008). Deception in experiments: Revisiting the arguments in its defense. Ethics and Behavior, 18(1), 59-92.

Resnik, D. B. (2011). What is ethics in research and why is it important? Web.

Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Milgram experiment ethics. Web.

Weiten, W. (2012). Psychology: Themes and variations. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Footnotes 1 Buckley, W. R.,

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TRIP Policies and Regulations Descriptive Essay essay help

The development of businesses and corporations worldwide has created a market that is property and rights oriented. There is a lot of scheming and fraud that governments and private companies have to develop protection for, in a form of copyrights and patents.

Not only are there ownership rights for products and physical property but also, for ideas and potential goals, plans and strategies. An idea is worth much more than the finished product because it is the basis for all production.

One of the regulations that protects inventions and inventors, consumers and businesses is the TRIPS Agreement- which is Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. It takes control over trading and selling privileges in the market, regulating and enforcing guidelines for fairness and honesty.

The purpose of this paper is to take a detailed look at the regulations and the process that govern transfer, sale and the general movement of products.

An important aspect related to rights for these products and issues that could come up will be closely examined, which will clarify the problems that presently exist in the market and trading industry.

The power of laws will be examined, through the example of TRIP, as it is a global agreement, which covers the whole market and is equally applicable to all people and organizations.

Since profits and potential future success are one of the key points in trade and businesses, the reasons for agreement such as TRIP will be analyzed. The difference between countries globally, is very noticeable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The developed countries have an established order and control of goods and intellectual property, while developing countries might have some setbacks or limitations that can be used by others to their advantage.

The agreements are also made for a purpose to treat all members equally, to the point that if a certain favor or a special condition is offered to one participating side, everyone must receive the same treatment without exceptions.

Previously, the world trade was not as regulated as it is today, which led to a number of unfair and unbalanced transactions. The transport and use of certain products might be regulated as well. For example, some products or technologies or even concepts, will not be allowed to be used in some parts of the world.

This might be due to cultural differences or specificity of a product. Some businesses would not want to suscept the market to their ideas or product or they might want to keep it exclusive for their own country.

The stability of the country, as well as relations between countries depends on governments, their communication and cooperation. The paper will also focus on the technology and information that might be taken out or taken into the country.

The intricate relationship between the government, business and the economy directly affects the trade and the criteria which set up the framework and structure of the economy.

When new countries join and become members, they are bonded by the same agreements and provisions. The governments take an active part in the enforcement and control of the established rules and regulations.

We will write a custom Essay on TRIP Policies and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The need for agreements and laws that regulate trading and property possession are a necessary attribute of the global economy and businesses. Governments, private corporations, as well as individuals, all participate in the establishment and continuation of fair and respectable trade.

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Banking Regulation and Taxation Essay essay help: essay help

Banks play a pivotal role in the financial system of any nation. Due to the scope of activities of the banking industry, it is vital for governments to regulate the industry. The global financial crisis portrayed the importance of banks in the financial system of any country.

The collapse of the banking industry led to the ultimate collapse of other industries (Ciro, 2013, p. 84). Governments use taxes as a source of revenue and for regulatory purposes. In the banking industry, governments should use taxation for regulatory purposes.

Since the global financial crisis, various governments have introduced various taxes on the financial sector. These taxes are at the domestic and international level. One of the major purposes of these taxes is to increase the Tier 1 capital of banks. This helps in solving the liquidity problems that banks may face.

In addition, increase in Tier 1 capital enables banks to support their risks (Alworth

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Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of Indigenous Movements

Major Grievances

Features of the Indigenous Movements

Strategies Employed by Indigenous Movements

Works Cited

Introduction The twentieth and the twenty-first centuries have been characterized by the emergence of indigenous movements in Latin America. Analysts and scholars have been engaging in thorough research to establish the real identity of these groups due to their demands.

These groups refuse to be included in the existing political and economic discourses, something that have given the administrations of Latin America a rough time.

Research shows that indigenous groups represent an approximated forty-five thousand people whose main objective is to institute legal and constitutional amendments that would allow their recognition in society.

These groups claim that they should be allowed to come up with their own administrative units that would govern their territories since they feel that they are misrepresented in the current governments. In other words, they push the government to grant them their rights that have been denied for years.

Just like any other freedom fighting group or a group seeking justice, indigenous groups have to go confront economic and political processes, which are the main causes of their disadvantaged position (Kearney 89).

Political and economic policies that the governments of Latin America put in place deny the indigenous people the right to own land, as well as their sovereignty. Globalization and the developments in the international system pose great challenges to the indigenous people of Latin America.

For instance, the emergence of multinational, which threaten to take away their land, is an issue of concern that forces them to form formidable social movements. These multinationals are in need of extra land for exploration of oil, gas, practice of agriculture, and acquisition of other national resources (Harvey 115).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper talks about the effects of the indigenous movements to the politics of modern Latin America. The paper discusses these effects through examining the ongoing activities of indigenous movements in Mexico.

To examine some of these effects effectively, the paper will first talk about the history of indigenous movements, the major grievances of the groups, some the basic features, and the measures that these indigenous groups have put in place to mitigate the problems affecting them.

History of Indigenous Movements Studies show that the indigenous groups started demanding for the rights in 1960s owing to the global national liberation processes that started in the United States and spread to other parts of the world.

In the African continent and the Asian region, indigenous groups started demanding for their independence in matters related to self-governance. The indigenous groups noted that their freedom had to be granted since they had the capacity to manage their affairs, including the problems affecting them.

In Africa, the indigenous movements were in the form of revolutions whereby some few individuals led the movements with the use of arms.

In early 1970s, the indigenous people in Latin America demanded for representation in government since subsequent regimes implemented policies that were detrimental to the lives of many locals (Rus and Collier 89).

The indigenous groups resorted to the formation of social movements to put pressure to the oligarchs to concede power. The main problem affecting the indigenous people was forceful evacuation from their homes since multinational corporations were in need of their natural resources.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first social movement was under the banner of worker-compesino alliance. Under such alliances, the locals demanded for cultural recognition since the government never cared for these displaced groups.

In 1980s, the demands of the indigenous people were more specific as compared to those of a number of social movements. Their main concern was the right to self-government and administration of justice.

Moreover, they wanted the government to respect their territory and allow them to exercise their democratic rights of electing their own leaders. Through this, the indigenous groups noted that they would manage their own affairs if given the chance to exercise self-rule.

This would as well allow them to own property and even engage in business. After 1980, the demands of the indigenous movements were very different from those of other social movements, which were fighting for inclusion in government.

As social movements were fighting for involvement in governmental matters, the indigenous groups were demanding for nation-states meaning that they wanted to secede from the main land. They were questioning the structure of power in the state since no indigenous group was represented in government.

Since the main government always sidelined them, they were not after forming a government of national unity, but instead they demanded to be given the power to form their own governments, which would be autonomous.

The groups were against the idea that they are the minority group, but instead argued that they were the real people of Mexico and they should have their own government.

In this regard, they should not have the same government as that of other groups because their culture and history is very different from those of other groups existing in Mexico (Santín 65).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By demanding self-government, the indigenous groups in Mexico were of the idea that they have the right to determine their own destiny meaning that they should not be given delegated authority.

Through the formation of their government, the indigenous people of Mexico would achieve their interests without necessarily bothering the national government.

In 1989, the international labor organization designed some of the policies that encouraged the indigenous people to demand for their right. Convention 169 demanded that the indigenous and tribal people were to be involved in the management of state affairs regarding employment.

The international law on labor recognizes the existence of the minorities and the indigenous people. Moreover, it also distinguishes the territories, the legal systems, and the administrative units set by the indigenous people. This law gave the indigenous people an advantage as regards to the demand for self-governance.

The locals should identify the most viable economic strategies and apply them to improve their standards of living. The law states that the central government or any other external power should not force the locals to engage in economic processes that do not support their culture.

Apart from the international law that recognizes the rights of the indigenous people, the regional laws also respect the views of the locals. The locals should not be dragged into supporting economic or political policies that do not match their socio-cultural life (Stavenhagen 81).

Major Grievances In Mexico, a number of groups including the Chiapas and Mayans have risen up to fight for their rights claiming that the government is doing little to protect their interests. In early 1990s, armed gangs confronted the government for supporting neo-liberalism.

In other parts of Latin America, such as Columbia, other indigenous groups led by U’wa people were willing to lose their lives in case the government allowed the oil companies to enter their territories without their permission.

In 2000, the indigenous groups in Bolivia lobbied the legislature to terminate the term of the sitting president since he was suspected of supporting multinational organizations, which were accused of rendering the locals landless.

This means that the grievances of the indigenous people in Latin America are concerned with resource allocation. In particular, the locals are more concerned with the activities of the multinational corporations who use the government to deprive them of their rights.

Multinational corporations are given access to exploit the forests and the local land in search of natural resources such as oil and timber. This forces the indigenous communities to seek alternative land since their ancestral land is taken away.

In 2002, the Inter-American Development Bank instituted some policies that would isolate the indigenous people economically. Plan Puebla Panamá was a free trade policy that would allow the free movement of people and goods.

This would definitely give other traders undue advantage, which would mean that the indigenous people would not have adequate opportunities in the economy (Gutmann 34).

Since the indigenous people could not allow this to happen, they organized various demonstrations to force their respective governments to withdraw their memberships in the union.

Some analysts would argue that the opposition to the FTAA came from students and professionals, but the reality is that indigenous groups were more opposed to the formation.

The argument of the indigenous people was that the trade arrangement among various regional governments would not benefit since they did not have equal opportunities in terms of academics and capital resources.

Those to benefit in the labor market under the new arrangement would be those from developed countries such as Canada and the United States. The indigenous people are mostly marginalized, impecunious, and uninformed implying that they cannot match the skills that people from North America possess.

In 2002, the CIA suggested that the influence of the indigenous groups was posing a new challenge to the stability of the region. In fact, the report noted that the activities of the indigenous groups were meant to increase owing to the global networks reinforced by international human rights groups, as well as ecologists.

One wonders why the indigenous groups are against the new trend in the international system, which is related to regionalism.

There is a popular belief that increased foreign investment encourages economic development in the country. However, foreign investments rely on exploitation of natural resources, which is highly contested by the indigenous communities (Nash 76).

Due to foreign investments, pollution in Mexico is inevitable while forests are being depleted. Indigenous communities are the only ones sitting on natural resources, which is the main target of foreign companies.

The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the IDB have always encouraged privatization of some of the communal resources owned by indigenous communities.

The Breton Hood organizations come up with some of the policies that affect the normal lives of the locals since they encourage private ownership of property. In this regard, the rights, sovereignty, and the territoriality of the indigenous people are under threats.

The locals depend on their natural resources for survival since the main economic activity is agriculture. They cannot afford to lose agricultural land to international private investors whose major aim is to expatriate resources to their home countries.

The indigenous groups have come up with some of the strongest human groups to defend what rightfully belong to them. In fact, some groups have gone a notch higher to suggest some of the economic options that would put off foreigners from admiring their natural resources.

In this regard, the sovereignty of the national government is always under threat, forcing them to adopt policies aimed at incorporating the indigenous groups into governmental decision-making processes (Leyva 78).

Features of the Indigenous Movements Even though some scholars believe that the word indigenous is misleading, it has always been used to refer to those categories that feel their culture is not respected in any political system.

Others view it as an ethnic group with distinct culture. Indigenous movements are characterized by two major themes, including political consciousness and political actions aimed at liberation.

The indigenous groups have developed unique identify mainly because of subordination and subjugation as witnessed in the political systems. Therefore, they aspire to force the government to listen to their grievances through application of force.

Another feature that distinguishes indigenous groups is the application of Marxist ideas in interpreting their situation. Marx noted that the interest of the rich in society is to acquire governmental power and subjugate the poor.

Indigenous movements concur with the ideas of Marx since the central government has never provided equal opportunities that would uplift the standards of the locals. Therefore, they aim at restructuring the existing social structure to reflect the interests of all, including the minority (Lynn 80).

According to indigenous groups, globalization serves to extend the interests of the ruling class because it does not provide chances for the poor. Multinational organizations engage in massive production without considering the plight of the poor.

Based on Marx’s class analysis, the indigenous people will one day form a movement that would overthrow the existing status quo and institute a social structure that caters for the interests of all people. The capitalists are represented in central government meaning that the indigenous people cannot rely on the state for solutions.

In other words, they believe that the state is a property of the ruling class because state machineries are always used to intimidate the indigenous groups. For instance, the locals are often harassed when they attempt to demonstrate against the idea of exploiting the natural resources.

The elected leaders in government do not represent the interests of the people, but instead they represent the wishes of foreigners and multinational corporations.

Based on this idea, the indigenous can determine their own destiny by uniting against the common enemy, which include the central government (Van der Haar 112). This idea encourages the indigenous groups to engage the government in constant conflicts.

Studies show that indigenous groups have regained their power as far as the management of state affairs is concerned. They are now considered the major state actors before they force the government to change its domestic and foreign policy.

Indigenous groups are against globalization, even though the government of Mexico supports it. Indigenous groups are always the leading opponents of status quo whereby they demand for an economically just society. Indigenous movements are known for demanding a number of changes.

One of the demands is that the international law should be adjusted to reflect the wishes of the poor. All laws related to global trade should be reviewed because they do not benefit the poor in the global society.

In this regard, they support convention 169, which states that the poor locals have the right of determining how their resources would be used. Domestically, they demand that the state should design policies aiming at liberating the indigenous people from the ongoing problems brought about by globalization (Martínez 21).

Multinational corporations are polluting the environment yet the government is doing nothing to stop them.

A law should be designed, which prohibits foreigners from exploiting the local people.

The third demand is that the indigenous people should be granted their rights regarding sovereignty and territoriality meaning that they should be allowed to form their own governments that would oversee the exploration and distribution of natural resources.

The fifth demand of all indigenous groups is that the central government should withdraw the military from the zones they occupy and ensure that peace prevails. This would allow the locals to engage in commerce and other economic activities (Lynn 826).

The presence of the military in their zones is an economic impediment to the realization of their goals. Since the central government has always advocated for policies aiming at displacing the locals, a law should be designed, which would illegalize displacement of people.

Moreover, the central government should stop threatening the indigenous people with military attacks and fumigation.

Finally, the government of Mexico should respect the UN declarations giving the indigenous people the right to coexist. These are the major concerns of the indigenous people, which have always brewed controversies over years (Vlachova 98).

Strategies Employed by Indigenous Movements Indigenous movements have ensured that the locals are sensitized to form strong local councils, which oversees the exploration processes. These councils force the government to consult the locals before implementing some of the policies.

In Mexico, there are various groups including the Council of Nahua Peoples of the Alto Balsas, the Council of Tlapaneco Peoples of the Guerrero Mountains, the Union of Indigenous Communities of the Isthmus (UCIRI), the Chinanteco Indigenous Council, and the Traditional Council of Indigenous Peoples of the state of Sonora.

All these groups aim at safeguarding the interests of the locals in Mexico at the council level. At the provincial level, indigenous movements have ensured that the interests of the locals are also well catered for.

Indigenous groups are able to influence the national politics through provincial councils because they are more diversified (Lee 30).

Through the provincial councils, a number of national councils have been formed, which are mostly the result of the mergers between provincial councils. In Mexico, National Indigenous Plural Assembly for Autonomy (ANIPA) is one of the national bodies in charge of overseeing the interests of the indigenous communities.

It has achieved a lot, even though it experiences a number of challenges. Other groups fighting for the rights of the indigenous in Mexico include the human rights groups, which operate globally and regionally.

Studies show that feminist organizations have also contributed a lot in ensuring that the indigenous people achieve their objectives (Puechguirbal 15). However, feminist groups are not yet well developed. The formation of the production associations is viewed as landmark in the fight for independence.

The associations are determined to ensure that the indigenous people improve their economic standards in order to catch up with the rest of the world.

Works Cited Gutmann, Matthew. The Romance of Democracy: Compliant Defiance in Contemporary Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Print.

Harvey, Neil. The Chiapas Rebellion: The Struggle for Land and Democracy. London: Duke University Press, 1998. Print.

Kearney, Michael. Regional Impacts of U.S.-Mexican Relations. La Jolla: University of California. Print.

Lee, Van., “Understanding Ethnic Politics: The Role of External Variables in Brazil and Colombia,” Airpower Journal, 3.1 (1998): 30-89. Print.

Leyva, Solano, and Ascencio, Franco. Lacandonia al filo del agua. Mexico City: Fondo de la Cultura Económica, 1996. Print.

Lynn, Stephen. “Redefined Nationalism in Building a Movement for Indigenous Autonomy in Mexico.” Journal of Latin American Anthropology, 3.1 (1997): 72–101. Print.

Lynn, Stephen. “The Construction of Indigenous Suspects: Militarization and the Gendered and Ethnic Dynamics of Human Rights Abuse in Southern Mexico.” American Ethnologist, 26.4 (2000): 822–842. Print.

Martínez, Carmen. “The Making of Vulnerabilities: Indigenous Day Labourers in Mexico’s Neoliberal Agriculture.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 11 (2004): 215-239. Print.

Nash, June. Mayan Visions: The Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization. London: Routledge, 2001.

Puechguirbal, Nancy. Women and War in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Signs. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28.4 (2003):1273-1290. Print.

Rus, Jan, and Collier, george. Mayan Lives, Mayan Utopias: The Indigenous Peoples of Chiapas and the Zapatista Rebellion. New York: Rowman

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Parking Solution in Driving Report custom essay help

Driving to the necessary destination is pleasant and convenient. People manage their time and get to their destinations on time. However, this pleasant experience is often overshadowed by the chase after a parking lot. Parking has become a burning issue nationwide. Notably, representatives of parking businesses gathered earlier this year to discuss the most topical issues in the sphere (Malone, 2013).

Notably, numerous solutions were suggested. These solutions can be applicable in different areas. One of the areas that require special attention is parking spaces at schools. Students have to face a lot of troubles due to the lack of parking lots. The present research is aimed at developing effective solutions to address the parking issue at the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT).

In the first place, it is necessary to note that the lack of parking spaces in FIT is really pressing. Being students of FIT, we understand that and are committed to help the school solve the issue. I have been in the school since 2011 and I have spent a lot of time looking for a parking lot. My major is electrical engineering and this will help me contribute to the development of the necessary strategy.

Thus, the number of students enrolled has been increasing steadily (Targeting the top ten, 2012). Many of these students use cars to get to their classes. At the same time, the parking area has not been expanded significantly. Though, it is necessary to note that some parking areas have been increased and new facilities are built with parking lots (Targeting the top ten, 2012). Nonetheless, these measures do not suffice. Malone (2013) stresses that t is a frustrating experience to look for a free parking lot. When it comes to students and campus area, this experience is also associated with more serious issues.

As has been mentioned above, students of FIT have to spend a lot of their time looking for a parking space. Even though student try to manage their time properly, it is difficult to calculate the time necessary for getting a parking lot. This leads to increased rates of tardiness and can have detrimental effects on the students’ academic performance. Besides, the lack of parking lots is hazardous for safety as heavy traffic is often associated with accidents.

Importantly, construction of a trolley line within the campus area is a good incentive and it can help significantly as students will be able to access distant facilities without using their cars (Targeting the top ten, 2012). At present, students need cars to access different facilities during a day. Nonetheless, the construction of the line will not address another aspect of the problem, i.e. off-campus students will still need their cars to get to the school.

The purpose of the present research is to consider the issue and come up with effective solutions to address the lack of parking spaces at FIT. The target audience of the present research is rather wide as students as well as faculty and administrators can be regarded as stakeholders. All these groups will be interested in the results provided as it can help the school achieve its strategic plan. To achieve the major goal of this research, it is possible to consider solutions exploited at other schools. University of Central Florida and University of South Florida have developed quite efficient policies to address the issues associated with parking. It is possible to analyze these solutions to ensure their efficiency when exploited at FIT.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observations from the two schools mentioned above enabled the group come up with a number of efficient solutions. The present research will include a detailed description of the use of parking companies at UCF. The paper will include an analysis of the use of the company ZimRide at UCF. The research will also contain an in-depth analysis of possible use of parking companies (e.g. ZimRide) at FIT. The paper will include advantages as well as possible downsides of the cooperation with such businesses.

The research will also contain analysis of another option, i.e. launching shuttles. Students living off-campus will definitely benefit from this incentive as they will be able to access the necessary facilities without spending time on the search of a parking lot. Notably, this is a usual practice at USF and student benefit from it (Parking general guidelines, 2013). The present research will include an analysis of possible use of shuttles at FIT.

Finally, the present paper will also contain suggestions on constructing parking areas at FIT. Being students of this school, we understand students’ needs and know areas where parking spaces are especially needed. Besides, the school has a considerable amount of grass area which can be used more efficiently. Importantly, the present research will take into account environmental issues and the school’s plan to have green open spaces for recreation. After the analysis of the solutions mentioned above, we will provide a brief strategic plan to implement the solutions in the most effective way.

Reference List Malone, K. (2013). Parking industry tries to make your life easier. Web.

Parking general guidelines, registration, penalties,

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Process Involved in Choosing a Measurement Tool for Variables in Research Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

According to Santayana (2008, p.1), “measurement is at the core of doing research”. Generally, after conducting research, researchers have to reduce their finding to numbers in order for people to understand their study findings. Such measurements are exceptionally essential in the measurement of hypotheses. Researchers therefore must come up with sound measurement tools for both independent and dependent variables.

Measurement is not as easy as it sounds. It is composed of four basic principles. The first two, conceptualization and operationalization are a bit simple. The other two are more advanced and complicated. They include determining the levels of measurement and measuring validity and reliability. Conceptualization involves defining a concept.

Thus, researchers must define that particular concept in a manner that is understandable by the scientific community. Researchers are allowed to borrow conceptualization from their predecessors and other researchers. On the other hand, operationalization involves making the conceptual definition more precise. This often involves linking the conceptual definition to one or more indicators.

The indicators chosen must reflect observable reality in numbers. For example, in the parent involvement study, the conceptual definition is ‘parents’ involvement’. However, the operational definition is ‘parents’ role construction’. It is also important when giving an operational definition to establish the unit of analysis.

In addition, a researcher needs to evaluate the level of measurement. Santayana (2008, p.1) indicates that “the level of measurement is the precision by which a variable is measured and there are four levels of measurement namely nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio”. The four levels are named from the lowest to the highest. On the other hand, Stevens (1951, p. 1) states that “everything that can be measured falls in the aforementioned levels and the higher the type, the more the precision in measurement”.

Variables that are categorical in nature usually fall in the nominal level while those that have significant importance fall in the ordinal level. Variables that have significant distances between their ranks fall in the interval level. On the other hand, variables that have fixed intervals and a fixed reference point are grouped in the ratio level.

It is for these reasons that Creswell (2011) holds the opinion that researchers must define their variables conceptually and operationally while putting into account the levels of measurement since these factors eventually determine how the data collected is analyzed. In the parent involvement study, ‘parents’ involvement’ falls in the ordinal level.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creswell (2011) also notes that accurate researches are accurate and valid. Validity can be measured using four methods namely face, content, criterion and construct. On the other hand, reliability can be estimated using the following methods test retest, multiple forms, inter rater, and split half.

Therefore, in order to locate an instrument that is to be used to measure a given variable, a researcher must put into account a number of factors. First and foremost, according to Slavin (1984), the researcher must define his concept conceptually and operationally. After that, the researcher must establish the level of measurement in which his or her variable falls.

In addition, the researcher must detect the rationales he or she will use to estimate validity and reliability. The achievement of this goal relies on having proper conceptual and operational definition and the establishment of the level of measurement of the variable.

References Cresewell, J. (2011). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson.

Santayana, G. (2008). Measurement, Reliability, and Validity. Web.

Slavin, R. (1984). Research Methods in Education: A Practical Guide. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stevens, S. (1951). Handbook of Experimental Psycholog. New York: Weley.

We will write a custom Essay on Process Involved in Choosing a Measurement Tool for Variables in Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Solid Waste Management Case Study college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument on Privatization of Solid Waste Management

Privatization and Improvement of Service Quality

The Community and Management of Solid Waste

References

Introduction Solid waste management has significantly gained attention in the present century. With the impacts of globalization, there is a persistent need for transformative mechanisms of solid waste management. Evidently, most nations continue to experience challenges in solid waste management. Particularly, the developing nations are the highly affected (Singh

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The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? Cause and Effect Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Mangroves are woody plants that thrive in shallow seawater in coastlines and estuaries. The plants are salt tolerant and only within the last decade did scientists acknowledge their significance towards the marine environment. For instance, a Florida survey in the 1970s referred to the mangroves as “…freaks of nature… and a form of wasteland…” (Anon 2011 p. 1).

The mangroves have been in danger from human destruction and their global distributions have been on the decline. During the past fifty years, mangrove distributions have been on the decline across the globe (Valiela, Bowen and York 2001). Experts predict that by 2025 mangrove distributions will be lost by twenty-five percent in the developing countries.

The paradox of mangrove loss is that the mangrove ecosystems provide human beings and other species with many benefits yet the ecosystems continue to experience destruction year in year out. Human activities account and will continue to account for the largest reasons for mangrove loss in the world. In addition, climate change will also contribute to the loss of mangrove distribution.

The essay paper is organized into four sections. The first section is the introduction and the causes of mangrove ecosystems loss in the world. The second section looks at the mangrove ecosystem benefits, the third section looks at the consequences of mangrove ecosystem losses, and the final part looks at the reaction to mangrove ecosystem conversion. The implications of the loss of the mangrove ecosystem such as food insecurity, loss of human life are discussed. The loss of mangroves has dire global implications.

Disappearance of Mangrove ecosystems in the world The Mangrove ecosystems in the world are declining even though the rate has been on the decline lately. The coastal wetlands are disappearing due to anthropogenic reasons and the climate change and natural disasters. The statistics on mangrove losses are not conclusive but the available data shows that close to thirty-five percent of the mangrove forests have disappeared.

The annual lose of the mangrove forests is estimated at 2.1 per cent annually and the highest lose is reported in the Americas at 3.6 per cent annually as shown in Table 1. The mangrove forests are the most threatened habitats in the world (Valiela et al. 2001).

Table 1: Current mangrove swamp areas, per cent loss, annual loss rate, and percent of original area lost per year, for the mangroves of the continents and the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current mangrove area (Km2) % loss of mangrove forest area Annual rate of loss (Km2y-1) % of original area lost per year Asia 77, 169 36 628 1.52 Africa 36, 529 32 274 1.25 Australasia 10, 287 14 231 1.99 Americas 43, 161 38 2,251 3.62 World 166,876 35 2, 834 2.07 Source: Valiela et al. 2001.

Causes of mangrove distributions decline Communities from all over the world have had a negative perception towards the mangroves. They have undervalued the mangroves and seen them as useless plants that take up land that they would otherwise use for agricultural activities. The perception of the people towards the mangroves is caused by lack of knowledge about the usefulness of the plants (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008 ).

The only communities that knew about the significance of the mangroves were the scientific communities that had not shared the knowledge with the wider society hence the negative attitude towards the mangroves. Moreover, many governments had also been ignorant as the rest of the communities and thus did not protect the mangroves from destruction earlier on, as they should have done.

Mangrove ecosystems are not easy to protect because they are a shared resource. However, recently there has been a change of the negative perception of the mangroves by the people and governments as they have learnt about the usefulness of the mangroves. The change in the perception has led to a decline in the loss rate of the mangroves since 2000.

The proof of the change in the perception is the mangrove conservation projects that have come up across the globe. Furthermore, legislation regarding the protection of the mangroves has also been enacted in many areas. However, in spite of the change in perception mangrove ecosystems are still at risk of extinction (Valiela et al 2009).

Population increase Population increase is the other cause of the declining mangrove distributions. It is estimated that about thirty-five percent of the mangrove forests are lost through deforestation by humans since 1980. The loss of the mangrove forests has been due to the increase of people living at the coastal areas. The pressure of high population density causes destruction of mangroves for human settlement.

Moreover, due the increase in human population more mangroves are lost as large portions of mangrove forests are cleared to create agricultural land so that people can grow food for consumption. Tracts of land are cleared to grow crops such as rice or for other economic activities such as salt production (FAO 2007). Once land is reclaimed for agricultural use, rainwater is used to reduce the salt content and embankments created to prevent seawater from accessing the reclaimed land.

We will write a custom Essay on The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to population increment, more land is required for urbanization as well as industrialization hence tracts of mangroves are destroyed. Urbanization has also contributed to the loss of mangrove forests in place of urban areas. Mumbai is an urban area that shows how destructive urbanization can be to the mangroves as all its islands were once mangrove ecosystems. Other urban areas created from the destruction of mangroves include, Jakarta, Lagos, Bangkok, Doula and Singapore among others (kathiresan n.d.).

Human beings also destroy the mangroves for firewood and charcoal and timber. Large tracts of mangroves are cleared to provide fuel for the people living around the coastlines and as the wood is very rich in calorific vales hence forms very good source of firewood.

Paper millers and chipboard makers prefer to use mangrove trees in manufacturing their products as the tree gives out quality products. Thus, many paper-milling factories have been opened around the mangrove ecosystems. For example in Indonesia, many such paper companies have contributed to destruction of about 1, 37, 000 ha of mangrove area in a period of two years (kathiresan n.d.).

Oil spillage Oil pollution is another human factor that contributes to the loss of mangroves in the world. Through gas and oil explorations, mangroves are cleared to create space for the production such in Nigeria where many oil wells are located in areas that were once mangrove forests. Oil spillage in the sea through accidents also devastates mangrove forests.

The oil covers the mangroves trees and causes them to die, as they cannot carry out photosynthesis. Furthermore, the other species living in the ecosystems also die. It is difficult to recover from the destruction caused from oil spillage as it takes a minimum of ten years to grow back the mangroves although full recovery cannot be attained.

Mangroves also destroyed through pollution. The industrial companies near the coastline dump their wastes into the mangrove ecosystems. For instance, mangroves in Panama have been affected negatively by pollution (Duke, Pinzon and Prada 1997).

Wars Other human activities such as wars lead to destruction of mangroves significantly. The Vietnam War between 1962 and 1971 is a good example of how wars lead to mangrove destruction. Many litres of chemicals destroyed large tracts of the mangrove ecosystem during the Vietnam War (Ross 1974).

Tourism Tourism activities also lead to the loss of mangrove distributions across the world. Tourism is a great earner of foreign exchange for many countries and thus tourism development is vital in order to attract more visitors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tourism development especially in Africa leads to the loss of the mangroves as land is cleared to build infrastructure such as beach resorts, hotels. Mangroves also cleared to create boat ways for the tourists. Tourism is a major economic activity but it also contributes greatly to the loss of mangroves (Valiela et al. 2009).

Aquaculture Aquaculture contributes greatly towards the loss of mangroves worldwide. Shrimp aquaculture since the 1980s rose and hence more land was required to build ponds to grow the shrimps. The ponds created for shrimp rearing also leads to pollution of the surrounding areas.

The aquaculture has led to dramatic loss of mangroves for instance in Asia about fifty to eighty percent of the mangroves have been lost to aquaculture. Other regions greatly affected by aquaculture are Latin America and the Caribbean (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Climate change Climate change in addition to human activities is a major future long-term threat of the mangroves. The change in the climate poses various threats to the mangrove distributions. The change in climate leads to sea level rise, which is the major change that poses a major threat to the mangroves. The rising sea level leads to increased water levels that decreases the land available for human beings hence they clear mangrove forests in such of land.

The success of mangroves depends on adequate sediment accretion that can counter the rising water hence the rise in sea levels is the greatest threat to the survival of mangroves as at one point they may not cope with the rising water levels hence they may die back. The other threat of climate change is atmospheric and ocean warming. The rise of temperatures leads to the expansion of mangroves in the poles.

Precipitation is a form of climate change because when it reduces the mangroves do not grow properly and their overall survival is threatened. The precipitation changes also leads to a change in the composition of the mangroves. Extreme reduction in precipitation can also lead to extermination of the mangroves (Valiela and York, 2001).

Diseases Diseases cause devastating loss of mangroves. One of the diseases has led to the damage of about 45 million Huritiers fomes species of the mangrove trees. The disease destroyed about twenty percent of mangrove forests in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya 1994). Mangrove diseases are caused by salinity, which occurs when the flow of water to the mangroves is reduced.

Sedimentation also causes diseases to the mangroves. Parasites and pests affect mangrove ecosystems. For example, certain caterpillars may eat the mangrove fruits. The caterpillars hinder the mangrove seeds from germinating. The mangrove species affected by the caterpillars is the Rhizophora.

Animals such as sheep, camels, and buffaloes affect the mangroves when they graze in the mangrove ecosystems. Other organisms such as the crabs feed on the leaves of the young mangrove plants hence destroy the mangrove ecosystems.

Benefits of mangroves Mangroves are very important to the community because they help in biodiversity, economic activities because they are productive ecosystems and coastal protection. The mangroves act as coastline protection. The mangrove trees protect the coastlines against hurricane and storms hence save lives.

Mangroves have other benefits such as soil formation, habitat for marine life and filters of upland runoff. The mangrove trees stores up the sun energy and nutrients carried by silt in their leaves. The mangroves shed their leaves and grow new ones continually throughout the year. The falling leaves forms a foundation for food chain for the surrounding terrestrial and marine life.

Due to the huge constant foods, supply by the mangroves, many commercial and fishes thrive very well in the mangroves ecosystems. In addition, about $ 1.6 billion is generated from the mangrove ecosystems globally (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Implications of global loss of mangrove ecosystems The loss of mangrove ecosystems has negative effects and communities yet the communities continue engaging in activities that threaten the mangroves. The continued destruction of mangroves occurs because the communities are more concerned about their current economical survival and even though they may know about the future dangers of their activities in the mangrove ecosystems they have no choice but to think of today. The mangrove ecosystems have an estimated economic value of $ 1.6 billion per year worldwide (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Loss of fisheries One of the implications of mangrove ecosystems loss is the loss of fisheries. Mangroves ecosystems provide nurseries and breeding habitats for fish and other species. The community depends on the marine life such as fish, which they sell and make a living. Thus, the destruction of the mangroves affects lives of the people who depend on the economic activities that are related to the mangroves such as loss of fish.

The decline in the numbers of fish and prawns has had a negative impact in El Salvador (Daugherty 1975). Other fisheries in Venezuela also reported a decline in fisheries related to the mangroves in spite of the efforts put in increasing the fishing sector since the 1980s. Thus, loss of mangrove ecosystems leads to a decline in the fishing sector and loss of income.

Climate change The loss of mangrove ecosystems leads to changes in the climate. The change in the climate is severe and affects even the shrimp aquaculture that is responsible for the destruction of large tracts of mangrove forests for conversion to shrimp ponds such as in Bangladesh where the total mangrove forest today is less than half of its original size about two decades ago.

Shrimp growing is very uneconomical because it requires farmers to utilize extensive operations that hurt the mangrove ecosystems further. The farmers result to methods that are unethical as they aim to make a profit at the expense of climate. The shrimp ponds put environmental pressures on the land beyond the farms.

According to studies, one hectare of shrimp pond which produces an estimate of four thousand kilos of shrimp annually “requires the productive and assimilative capacity of between 38 and 289 hectares of natural ecosystem per year” (Islam and Wahab 2005 p. 175). The fore mentioned shrimp farming is semi-intensive that means intensive shrimp farming requires even greater land.

Furthermore, shrimp farming relies on shrimp fry. The shrimp fry is fed to the shrimps. The impact of the shrimp fry is felt because many people along the coastline who do not have another source of income engage in shrimp fry catching and during the process, they catch fish and shrimps, which are destroyed in the process before catching the required shrimp fry.

The exploitation of the marine ecosystem for the shrimp fry leads to a decline in the number of shrimps harvested every year. The decline in shrimp has to be recovered hence more dangerous methods are employed that pose a threat to commercial fishers and artisanal. Moreover, the shrimps grown in semi-intensive methods require to be fed on fishmeal-based pelleted feeds.

The feeds puts more pressure on fishing as people look for the fishmeal feeds all over the world as more fishing and shrimp growing area becomes necessary putting more mangroves at risk of destruction. The pressure further leads to a decline in the coastlines. The pressure in the fishing areas occurs because only a small portion of the total catch constitutes the required tiger shrimp.

Hence, other species die in the process of catching the tiger shrimps. A report shows that about 12 to 551 post larvae of other shrimp species and 5 to 152 macrozooplankton finfish larvae are lost during the catching of one tiger shrimp (Hoq et al. 2001). In other words, the people involved in catching the tiger shrimp only have a success rate of one percent and a failure rate of ninety nine percent.

The report urges that a hundred thousand tiger shrimp collectors contributed to a loss of an estimate of one hundred and eighty thousand other aquatic species (Kamal 2000). Thus, the shrimp fry fishing posed a threat not only to the other fish species, but also to the other aquatic organisms through reduction of their food for instance, the reptiles and birds.

Destruction of marine species Harvesting of shrimps leads to destruction of marine species. Reports say that the shrimp trawlers represent wastefulness in fishing. The shrimps caught by the trawlers represent less than two percent of the global seafood yet during their catch about a third of fish are wasted as by catch. The shrimp anglers have to destroy fourteen pounds of fish plus other organisms to get a pound of the prized shrimp.

Turtles are the biggest casualties of the shrimp trawlers that kill them more than any other human activity (Rodriguez 2001). The shrimps need to be fed continually to grow and their food is thrown into the ponds. They also require to be sprayed with antibiotics, chemicals to prevent diseases. The ponds are washed using detergents and all the things added to the ponds contaminate them and must be removed.

However, it is difficult to remove all the accumulated wastes from the ponds and the wastes spread to the adjacent marine ecosystem and leads to their degradation. The adjacent ecosystems are degraded and the species that inhabit them put at risk as the degradation is irreversible (Anon 2001). Thus, the destruction of the mangrove ecosystems have short term benefits to the commercial companies that grow shrimps but long term disadvantages to the communities and the entire countries’ economies.

Destruction of biodiversity Besides, shrimp farming leads to a negative effect on the biodiversity. Mangrove ecosystems create unique biodiversities that are very productive. The biodiversities acts as a habitat for various species such as birds, marine creatures and flora. The mangroves’ aerial roots harbour a host of creatures and acts as breeding and refuge for many species such as crustaceans and fish.

Some of the species that breed and thrive in the mangrove ecosystems are a source of food for the communities living around the coastlines as well for economic activities. Birds such as the kingfishers, herons and eagles find their food in the mangroves. The mangroves hence benefit both animals and human beings who live in their surroundings.

Once the biodiversities are destroyed, they cannot be reclaimed and the community that depends on them suffers in the process. The communities living near the mangrove ecosystems feel the implications of destruction of mangrove ecosystems firsthand, as they no longer have a source of livelihood once the mangroves disappear under the hands of commercial growers of shrimps.

The communities come together and try to stop the invasion of the mangroves as their lives are affected greatly by the destruction as the artisan fisheries loss their way of life. In the fight for the mangroves, some members of the community have lost their precious lives in regions such as Mexico, and Honduras (Rodriguez 2001). The communities also lose their source of firewood and building materials (Anon 2001).

In addition, countries also lose because the benefit from the mangrove ecosystems (Rodriguez 2001). The shrimp ponds that lead to destruction of thousands of mangrove hectares are consequently abandoned once their usefulness has been exploited.

The people leave behind an impoverished mangrove ecosystem and communities (Anon 2001). The loss of mangrove ecosystems affects the whole society as all economic activities supported by the mangroves are lost by the destruction of the mangrove forests for other activities.

Change in coastline Destroying the mangroves contributes to changes in the coastlines such as coastal erosion. The rapid destruction of the mangrove forests for economic activities leads to the increase in the sediment load in the water that leads to the increase in siltation. The surrounding land becomes useless for any other useful activities leaving the locals in problems.

The locals may be forced to migrate and look for other places to settle because they need to live in a place that is economically viable for their basic survival. Another reason that may force the locals to migrate is the danger posed by storms and they have to move to safer grounds. Thus, the lives of the people are disrupted as they start life all over again in the new places.

Loss of mangrove ecosystems exposes the coastline to storms and hurricanes, which causes loss of life and property. The roots of the mangrove trees are massive as seen in Figure 1 and very effective in dispersing wave energy away from the shorelines (Massel, Furukawa and Brinkman 1999).

Fig. 1. Photograph Theo Allofs/Corbis.

The mangroves roots silt the sediments hence create a fertile environment suitable for the aquatic marine. They also reduce the accumulation of sediments in the surrounding marine environments in addition to the protection of the coastal shoreline. Thus, the destruction of the mangroves ecosystem puts human beings at the risk of death from tsunamis, hurricanes and storms due to lack of a barrier.

Several storms have led to loss of lives in many parts of the world such as in Australia where mangroves have been cleared due to urbanization. Furthermore, destroying the mangroves also means a threat to the aquatic life that depend on the ecosystem such as fish, some reptiles, birds, insects and amphibians among others.

The people who depend on fishing suffer as the fish declines hence they lose their source of livelihood. For instance, communities in West Africa depend on the mangrove ecosystem to earn their livelihoods. They fish and sell the fish found in the mangrove and sell the salt they collect in the mangroves. To extract the salt they use mangrove woods to heat it and in the process contribute to the destruction of the mangroves.

If the destruction trend continues, it means they will destroy their source of livelihood and find themselves in deep poverty. Fortunately, conservation projects are underway and the community is being taught the importance of the mangroves and ways of protecting the valuable resource (Mintzer 2010).

Destroying mangrove ecosystems indiscriminately affects the environment negatively because the mangroves act as the balancing tool. They balance the environment by absorbing the excess nutrients together with pollutants and prevent them from entering into the seawater. Moreover, the mangroves help to transport organic matter through the tidal current to the adjacent marine environment in the form of detritus and increase the productivity of the areas.

The mangroves serve as a sewerage plant that treats the water and improves its quality. However, when the mangroves are destroyed their natural processes of silting the sediments and only realising important nutrients into the water is compromised. In addition, the mangroves also help in oxygen and carbon release and fixation and if cut down the process is interfered with and carbon dioxide is not fixated through the photosynthesis process, yet it is not necessary for the marine life and human beings.

The mangrove forests are very efficient in sequestering carbon more than tropical forests hence cutting down the mangrove forests increases the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that leads to global warming. Therefore, cutting down mangrove ecosystems leads to loss of an opportunity to address the issue of greenhouse gases (Mintzer 2010).

Destroying the mangroves interferes with the process of soil formation because as the mangroves decompose its biomass improves the soil matter and helps in improving aeration (Hazarika 2000).

Decline in tourism The tourism sector is also affected by the global loss of mangroves ecosystems. The ecosystem acts as habitats for some unique species that can only survive in the mangroves. The species attract tourists who come to view the fauna and the birds that live in the mangroves and once the ecosystems are destroyed, the species perish.

Besides, the mangrove ecosystems form beautiful sceneries that tourists enjoying watching and riding boats along the waterways but once the mangroves are destroyed, the tourists have nothing more to watch as the sceneries are taken over by shrimp ponds or urban areas and an area loses its ecotourism potential (Valiela et al. 2009).

The people who had been employed by the tourism sector in such areas risk losing their jobs as visitor turnover declines. The lost job opportunities lead to problems to the dependants of the workers and the people are left unable to meet their basic needs. The loss of employments leads to many other related problems hence the whole community suffers.

Food insecurity Destruction of mangrove ecosystems leads to the problem of food insecurity. The locals living along the mangrove ecosystems depend on the food they get acquire from the ecosystem in terms of fish. Others buy their food from engaging in economic activities related to the ecosystem. Hence, a whole community has a source of food.

Conversely, the food security of the community is threatened when mangrove ecosystems are destroyed to pave way for shrimp ponds. The owners sell the shrimps harvested, the locals are left without food, and even if they could afford to buy the shrimp, it could not sustain them as the shrimp makes up a small percentage of the total seafoods.

The money made from the sell of the shrimp may not go back to the community. On the other hand, animals that depend on the mangrove ecosystems also face food insecurity because their source of foliage is destroyed (Valiela et al. 2009). The animals die due to lack of food and those that can are forced to go and look for food elsewhere but those that only survive in wetlands perish together with their habitats.

The animals that inhabit the mangrove ecosystems acts as a source of food for the locals and once they lack food they cannot continue being a source of food for the people and the threat of food insecurity heightens. Thus, the global loss of mangrove ecosystems has far-reaching implication such as food insecurity.

Social effects The other implication of the global loss of mangroves ecosystem is social effects. Mangrove destruction leads to lack of employment. Unemployed people may result to criminal activities because they do not have food. The rise of crimes in an area lead to many other negative effects such as use of violence by the gangs and people are injured.

The injured people require medical attention and the cost maybe unaffordable because of lack of finances. It is also important to note that the local people derive medicines from some of the plants that grow in the mangrove ecosystem. For example, the mangrove species called Bruguiera gymnorrhiza is used to treat blood pressure and diarrhoea, the Acantanthus ilicifolius treats rheumatism and asthma, Excoecaria agallocha treats leprosy, Lumnitzera racemosa treats itches and herpes (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

The mangrove species also treat other ailments such as skin, headaches and abdominal pains. The plants disappear as the ecosystems are cleared for other uses. Businesses in such areas are affected because investors lack faith in such environments and pullout their investments. Investors who may want to come to such places fear because of the bad reputation associated with the area due to crime.

When businesses close down people who had found employment in the closed firms, lose their jobs. Such an area suffers from lack of development because people are not able to send their kids to school hence they never learn any skills that can make them employable in the future. The future of a whole generation can be affected by the loss of mangrove ecosystems.

Mangrove conservation The effects of the loss of mangrove ecosystems around the world have been negative and thus action has been taken to try to reserve the loss trend by mangrove expansion and protection. Awareness about the significance of the mangrove ecosystems has increased and people realise the economic and social value of the mangrove ecosystems.

Moreover, they are now aware of the ecological values of the mangroves and are willing to protect them. However, it is important to note that recourse action to protect the mangroves is still outweighed by the rate of mangrove loss due to various human activities, the cost of mangrove reforestation is high, and some rare species cannot be replaced.

Various governments have started reforestation programs for the mangroves. For example, in Bangladesh extensive reforestation of the mangroves along the coastal area began from 1966, many mangrove plants have been planted, and the area under mangroves has increased significantly (Alongi 2002). In other countries such as Senegal in West Africa, conservation groups have been established to educate the locals about the importance of the mangroves and the ways of conserving them so that they can continue reaping the benefits of the mangrove for a long time.

The group provides the locals with stoves that do not require the use of firewood in their salt extraction activities to save the mangroves that are used as firewood. In Australia, the people have learnt about the value of the mangroves and reforestation has been done increasing the area under the mangroves as shown in table 2 below.

Table 2: Area of mangrove forest, 2003 and 2008 (’000 hectares)

2003 2008 difference Difference % Mangrove forest 749 980 231 31 Source: NFI (2003).

Most countries active legislation regarding the protection of the mangrove ecosystems such as in Asia and Australia but in Africa there is little legislation. Thus, there is a big challenge regarding the conservation and protection of the mangroves in various parts of the world as the mangroves continue to decline in spite of the knowledge about their values.

Conclusion Mangrove ecosystems are under threat of disappearing if the human anthropogenic activities continue to destroy them at the rate the destruction is occurring. The importance of the mangroves ecosystems cannot be over emphasised because they are vital for the biodiversity they create and benefits to adjacent environments. The loss of the mangroves have been massive the world over in the last fifty years and more than half of the total mangrove area has already been destroyed.

The implications for the global loss of mangrove ecosystems are huge as they affect the communities and animals living along the coastlines greatly by disrupting their normal lives. All the stakeholders need to be involved in the mangrove conservation and protection efforts so that the level of awareness about the value of mangrove ecosystem can translate into equal level of conservation and protection of the invaluable trees.

In addition, there is the need of getting accurate statistics on the global distributions of mangroves so that people can get a clear and real picture of the extent of mangrove destruction. Hence, the urgency of their conservation and protection to try to curb the already negative implications that communities are experiencing because of clearing mangrove ecosystems for other activities.

People need to learn how their activities affects the mangroves now and in the future so that they can know the possible behaviour of the mangroves in the future and take corrective measures now before it is too late. The current expansion of the mangroves is a step in the right direction that may allow even the tomorrow’s generations to enjoy and reap the vast benefits of the mangrove ecosystems.

Therefore, all must join hands in protecting and conserving the mangrove ecosystems because failure to do so is declaring a blink future for the current and future generations. Mangrove ecosystems are very important and as Rodriguez puts it “Mangroves are life, long live mangroves” (2001p. 1).

References Alongi, D. M. 2002. Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation, 29, pp. 331-349.

Anon. 2011. Mangrove Conservation through Education. Web.

Anon, 2001. Mangroves and their uncertain future. Web.

Daugherty, H. E., 1975. Human impact on the mangrove forests of El Salvador. In G. E. Walsh, S. C. Snedaker and H. J. Teas (Eds.). Proceedings of the International symposium on biology and management of mangroves pp. 816-824. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Duke, NC Pinzon, ZS and Prada, MCT., 1997. Large scale damage to mangrove forest following two large oil spills in Panama. Biotropica, 29, pp. 2-14.

FAO 2007. The World’s Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) no.153

Hazarika, M. K., 2000. Monitoring and impact assessment of shrimp farming in the East Coast of Thailand using remote sensing and gigs. International Archives of Photogrammetry and remote sensing, 33 pp. 504-510.

Hoq, M. E., Islam, M. N., Kamal, M. and Wahab, M. A., 2001. Abundance and seasonal distribution of penaeus monodon post larvae in the Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh, Hydrobiologia, 457pp. 97-104.

Hussain, Z., and Acharya, G. (Eds.)., 1994. Mangroves of the Sundarbans, Volume 2: Bangladesh”. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 257 pp.

Islam, S. and Wahab, A., 2005. A review on the present status and management of mangrove wetland habitat in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove fisheries and aquaculture. Hydrobiologia, 542 pp.165-190.

Kamal, M., 2000. Assistance to fisheries research Institute- A report prepared for the Assistance to Fisheries research Institute. Consultancy report on Marine Fisheries resource Management. BGD/89/012. FRIGOB/UNDP/FAO.

Kathiresan, K. Threats to mangroves. Web.

Massel, S. R.; Furukawa, K., and Brinkman R. M., 1999. Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests. Fluid Dynamics Research 24(4), pp. 219–249.

Mintzer, R., 2010. Destroying mangroves in West Africa detrimental to people, climate, and wildlife. Web.

NFI (National Forest Inventory). 2003. Australia’s State of the Forests Report 2003, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Rodriguez, E. L., 2001. Mangroves are life, long live mangroves. Web.

Ross, P., (1974). The mangrove of South Vietnam; the impact of military use of herbicides. In: Walsh, G.E., Snedaker, S.C. and Teas, H.J. (Eds.), Proceeding of International Symposium on Biology and Management of Mangroves, 8‐11 Oct. 1974, Hawaii, Gainsville, Unit. of Florida, pp. 126‐136.

Valiela, I., Kinney, E., Culbertson, J., Peacock, E., and Smith, S., 2009. Global losses of mangroves and salt marshes. Web.

Valiela, I., Bowen, J. L.

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Osteoporosis Treatment. Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Being that the patient is 60 years old, she is past menopause. Menopause is a time when women lose their bone density very fast. This leaves them at risk of developing osteoporosis within 5 years of reaching menopause. The best advice after bone density tests is to encourage the patient to take up care for the prevention of extension of her bone loss.

When the bone density of a woman gets low, it is appropriate to start treatment to avoid any further risks that the situation may cause later in life (Moen and Keam, 2011). At the age of 60, treating the woman is a convenient move and that leaves her with little risk exposure for bone fractures. It is important to encourage the onset for treatment instead of waiting for her years to advance.

Such a patient needs encouragement and enlightening about the commonality of suffering hip fractures in old age. It is a good time for introducing the woman to the necessity of having adequate calcium in her diet (Banu, Varela and Fernandes, 2012).

Since her T-scores show osteoporosis, it is necessary to let her know that it simply means that the tests she went through showed her bone mass. T-scores give indications about the variations of one’s bone mass through averaging it against the bone mass of a healthy person. Testing bone density is relevant just like any other biologic test.

The average score determines the level of a healthy person’s bone density. The testing of osteoporosis shows in a T-score point of deviation from normal mean for bone density. That helps in doing a mathematical calculation for the determination of the degree of deviation of bone mass from the mean of normal bone density.

The results that a bone mass density test provides is the extent of deviation from the mean and that is referred to as the T-score. When the T-scores deviate from the mean, to a point below -2.5, it means that there is a loss of bone mass. In her case, the woman is already in post menopause and there is a need for treatment or else, there could be risk of developing secondary bone loss conditions as well as risking fractures.

Since one of the main risk factors of having, untreated osteoporosis is suffering hip fractures. She will need to use medications with calcium supplements to help her in the reduction of bone mass loss and for strengthening her bones. It is advisable to take them at night to allow for effective absorption and they are effective for those whose intestinal absorption of calcium is efficient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oestrogens are also effective for woman past menopause like the patient in this case. Their administration requires some care to avoid chances of developing other complications such as breast cancer. Some of the medications used in the treatment of osteoporosis are such as Conjugated equine oestrogen, oestradiol valerate (Progynova) and piperazine oestrone sulphate.

The available medications support patients differentlywith the main responsibility being the reduction of fractures (Laliberté, Perreault, Jouini, Shea and Lalonde, 2011).There are injections, which help in the minimization of pain. For example, Strontium ranelate is a compound currently used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in places such as Australia.

It helps in the reduction of cases of vertebral fractures. After commencement of therapy, it is important for a patient to ensure that she is consistent with medication for the management of bone loss. This also requires timed density measurement, so that any cases of declines can be effectively intervened upon (Sanford and McCormack, 2011).

References Banu, J., Varela, E.

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Organizational Learning in Management Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free

Organizational learning Work force within an organization needs to be developed, sharpened and its skills improved with time; organizational learning is a strategic managing tool that is used to nature, tap, develop, and utilize human resources potential. The main aim of organizational learning is to improve employees’ skills and expertise (Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003). This paper discusses how managers can use organizational learning to improve their organizational performance.

How managers utilize organizational learning and knowledge to construct better work systems

Organizational learning takes the form of three main forms, training, mentorship, and coaching; different situations calls for different systems and approaches, when new systems have been adopted, then an organization needs to inform their staffs and train them on how they will utilize the new ways of doing business for the good of the company.

For example at John Hospkins Hospital, after the facility adopted a health Record Management System (HRMS), the management had to organize some training lessons to ensure that employees use the system as expected. At this point, organizational learning is seen to facilitate change (Dulewicz and Malcolm, 2003).

Organizational learning is also used for strategic movements within an organization; this move was used by Barclays Bank in United states in 2008, were they embarked on training their human force on the effects that globalization has on the banking industry; they then asked employees to think of policies that could see the company through the hard economic time successfully.

With time, the company came up with stringent lending policies, embarked on debt collection and mobilized sales a move that saw the company succeed. Organizational learning has been used as a tool to nature creativity, invention and innovativeness.

Apple inc. used this approach in 2007 when it trained and mentored their staffs on the developments in the industry; with time, staffs were able to come-up with cost management policies, new products were developed and saw the development of a positive working environment (Parker, 2009).

Organizational learning frameworks

Human resources department assisted with line managers should be responsible of enacting appropriate policies that enhance learning within an organization (Schilling and Kluge, 2009). Learning should be a continuous process that occurs formally and informally, the following are the main forms that an effective organizational learning should have:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training: when developing something new in an organization or there is a change in the business environment, management should ensure that its human capital are well trained on the new processes, for example Mitsubishi Motor Company has embarked on massive staff training on the need to conserve the environment.

Mentorship: this takes the form of guidance and instructing was leaders offer intellectual and technical assistance to their employees; this means that an organization should have leaders and supervisors who can mentor and show their subordinates the right pathway and direction to follow. It helps to share experiences and grow knowledge of both the leader and the employee.

Coaching: coaching mostly comes with something special with an employee or a certain point of strength that a company adopts; it calls for employees to be shown the right way to operate and undertake functions. For example, new entrants at Starbucks are trained on how to operate a fair business trading policy to ensure the company remains respected for its ethical business approach (Hornsby and Warkeoczeski, 2000).

Conclusion Organizational learning is a strategic management tool that assists managers to improve their business through human force; it takes the form of training, mentorship, coaching, and sometimes counseling. When well managed, it offers an organization some competitive advantage.

References Dulewicz, V. and Malcolm, H. ,2003.Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 11(3),pp. 193-210.

Hornsby, T. and Warkeoczeski, L. 2000. New roles for leaders: A step-by-step guide to competitive advantage. Franklin: Hillsboro Press.

Meinolf, D., Ariane, A., John, C. and Ikujiro, N.,2003. Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Organizational Learning in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parker, G. ,2009.Team Leadership: 20 Proven Tools for Success. New Jersey: Human Resource Development Press.

Schilling, J. and Kluge, A.,2009. Barriers to organizational learning: An integration of theory and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(3), pp. 337–360

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Writer’s Choice Essay essay help: essay help

Assessment 3 Instructions: Course Evaluation Template
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Develop a standardized template for evaluating courses in a selected program. Include a 2-3 page executive summary containing the rationale and justification for the methods selected.

Introduction
The purpose of a course evaluation is to ensure that your course is, in fact, serving the intended purpose and assessing the learning outcomes and instructional content. Standardized templates are useful for learners, faculty, and the organization because they allow you to establish expectations and ensure data collected give you the right kind of information upon which to make evidence-based decisions related to meeting learners’ and the organization’s needs and goals.

Overview
This is a two-part assessment. The first part is the development of a standardized course evaluation template. The second part is an executive summary addressed to a workplace supervisor.

Preparation
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

What are the key components of an end-of-course evaluation?
How can you determine if educational outcomes meet the needs and goals of a health care setting?
What are examples of alternative evaluation methods for learning outcomes in nursing education?
What types of questions should be included in a clinical evaluation questionnaire?
Use the Capella University Library and the Internet to ensure you are familiar with the following:

Explore a variety of methods that can be used to evaluate the achievement of the learning objectives as well as program outcomes.
Understand the steps in assembling and administering the tests for learning outcomes.
Examine how validity and reliability of evaluation methods for courses and program outcomes are measured and established.
Find examples of course evaluations. If you choose to incorporate ideas from other examples, you must provide proper APA citations and format.
The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

Assessment Formatting Guidelines [DOCX].
Part One – Standardized Course Evaluation Template
Determine the best approach for evaluating whether the learning objectives and program outcomes are being assessed adequately in your course. Make use of your work from the previous assessments in the creation of your standardized course assessment template.

Create a standardized template that clearly measures the course’s ability to achieve the learning objectives and outcomes stated in your earlier assessments in this course.
There is no page limit for this template. Page length should be appropriate to the context.
Note: You are encouraged to integrate feedback received for your earlier assessments to continue tweaking your application of the concepts in this course.

Part Two – Executive Summary
Once you have completed your standardized template, construct an executive summary to discuss the rationale for it.

In the executive summary, include the following critical elements that align with the grading criteria:

A summary of how the course evaluation aligns with the stated learning objectives and program outcomes.
A justification for the methods chosen to evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes.
A description of how validity and reliability of evaluation methods will be established.
Additional Requirements
Follow the Assessment Formatting Guidelines [DOCX]. In addition, your assessment should meet the following requirements:

APA format: Use correct APA style and formatting for the executive summary, paying particular attention to citations and references.
Document format: Include a cover page and a properly formatted APA style reference list.
References: Include at least five peer-reviewed scholarly resources from the last 5 years to support your rationale.
Length:
Executive summary: 1–2 double-spaced pages (excluding cover page and reference list).
Evaluation template: No page limit.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Competencies Measured
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 2: Apply a variety of strategies to assess learning in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains.
Ensure that the appropriate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains have been addressed in a course evaluation.
Competency 3: Engage in the development of a classroom examination.
Select an evaluation format that adequately assesses learning and program outcomes.
Competency 4: Evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes.
Create a standardized course evaluation template that can be used to evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes in a program offering.
Support the validity and reliability of evaluation methods used in a course evaluation form.
Competency 6: Communicate as a practitioner-scholar, consistent with the expectations for a health care professional.
Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Correctly format the assessment, citations, and references using APA style.
SCORING GUIDE
Use the scoring guide to understand how your assessment will be evaluated.

VIEW SCORING GUIDE Click for more options

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Reducing Cyber Bullying Evaluation Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Information Dispersion

Materials Distribution

Initial Assessment

Reception and Provision of Materials

Conclusion

References

Introduction Strategic implementation of the processes that aim at reducing cyber bullying relies on proper arrangement of the activities. When we identify concise activities, we improve the chances of evaluating the constituents without leaving some unattended. It is, therefore, necessary to identify what should be performed to support the system effectively. McDavid and Hawthorn (2006) postulated that proper organization is the stem of high performance.

For this reason, program constituents must be organized to warrant successful results. Identifying and planning the activities are ways of ensuring program organization. Therefore, I will evaluate the program to determine the areas that require establishment of activities. In a bid to show this, I will table and describe the activities expected in reduction of cyber bullying.

Table of Activities

Activity Significance Assembling parents/guardians, students and teachers to announce and explain the program in the institution To enlighten parents/guardians, students and teachers about the rules and regulation enacted due to the threat of cyber bullying Distribution of the regulation materials To provide regulation reference documents to the students Assessing cyber bullying at the initial stages of the program by use of questionnaires To determine the level of cyber bullying in the institution so that the administrator can determine the strategies of acting. Reception of cyber bullying reports and provision of the reporting documents To collect reports and ensure that students have efficient access to reporting materials/documents Information Dispersion It is crucial to create awareness and a strong foundation when the program initiates. Otherwise, if the pace of the program seems weak at the initial stages, the students might assume or ignore the seriousness of the issue. The administration must be ready to enforce the program into action.

Probably, it can arrange for a meeting with parents/guardians, students and the staff. This meeting could target on enlightening them about the program, and warning those who bully others about the impacts of their actions.

Materials Distribution Implementation of the program must consider planning how program materials will reach the people. Information about the program will be published and provided to all involved parties. One way of distributing the materials is by supplying them during the meeting mentioned in the previous paragraph. In this way, parents/guardians will, also, have copies of the program details.

The students can, also, receive copies of the materials in classes. This activity of distributing the materials will warrant that the entire school is aware about the restriction made by the administration. Awareness will lead to low cases of cyber bullying and high performance in the school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initial Assessment The other activity will involve assessing the level of cyber bullying in the school. It could be done by using questionnaires to assess bullying incidences. The questionnaires can be presented to students during class proceedings. This step will assist the administrator to identify the strategies of responding to cases of cyber bullying at the initial stages. The school management has to evaluate its steps and actions to prevent the rise fatal consequences (Andras, 2011). It is, therefore, vital to evaluate its status before handling new cases.

Reception and Provision of Materials Once the three steps are performed, materials that will be used to report new cases can be made available to students. The materials could be statement forms that students will fill information of bullying experienced. After filling, students will return the forms to a discipline department where appropriate measures will be enacted.

Conclusion Learning institutions must take the role of reducing cyber bullying at all cost in the institutions (Hunter, 2012). They must determine the factors that fit in the fight against cyber bullying. Clear and concise determination of activities to be performed in the program will mark the credibility of the results. This activity will, therefore, mark the beginning of success in the program.

References Andras, P 2011, ‘Research: metrics, quality, and management implications’, Research Evaluation, vol. 14 no. 3, pp. 90-106.

Hunter, N. (2012). Cyber bullying. Chicago, Ill.: Heinemann Library.

McDavid, J. C.

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Strategic plan. Tiffany and Co Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help

Executive summary Strategic planning involves the analysis of changes in the environment, formulating objectives of the organization. It also involves establishing activities to allocate resources. The strategic planning framework includes an organizing team of management, planning staff, and auditing the environment or situation. Brand names used by companies place them above their competitors in the global markets.

A unique brand name is very influential especially in expansion of businesses both locally and internationally. Focusing on strategies that put the organization in a competitive position is a key to success for all organizations. Organizations that employ strategic planning in their operations are ever in a better position to do or perform well.

It is easy for them to introduce new products to the market as well as to expand their business both locally and globally. Setting strong goals, vision and mission that direct them in achieving the set goals is critical for all organizations’ performance. Consequently the value statements are crucial in motivating the workforce and the organization at large.

Environmental scanning provides analyses of the internal and external environment. It involves owning and using information about occurrences within the environment. Environmental scan aids managers in making decisions regarding their company. In the internal environment, the scanning lingers the trends to be followed to make the internal operations a success.

It also determines how the trends should affect the work and the workforce. In the external environment, the scanning is done in the immediate, national and broad socioeconomic environment. It can be also done on the macro environment. In cases of economic recession, companies should implement plans to stay in the market. In such a scenario, it is also preferable that they seek new markets for their products.

Setting strong objectives is very critical in implementing plans. Companies should employ functional tactics to ensure good performance. The tactics include the adoption of lean administration concept and proper market segmentation. In this case, they are instrumental in ensuring effective management of resources, product design, and development of new business units.

Success factors for implementation are essential elements that aid execution of tasks. They ensure that key activities within the implementation process are executed with limited complications. Action plans are critical to strategic planning. They break strategic plans into noticeable steps. Each step is given to performers, and it is suggested when each step should be accomplished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the implementation plan, a timeline for implementation is determined, service providers are trained and educated, their roles and responsibilities are defined, written protocols for referrals are developed, as well as policies and procedures. The company has an obligation to implement key action items that hold the ability of sustaining its performance capacity.

Managers in any institution should adopt effective techniques of resource management and allocation as these are key drivers for strategic planning. Risk management plans are important for companies when they are faced with severe risks that are caused by hostile environmental conditions.

A reliable and effective management plan is vital for an organization to overcome workplace resistance at a time when changes or adjustments take place. Change of a management strategy helps in presenting a new way of doing business. In this context, the analysis is focused on how Tiffany

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Explanation of Nuremberg Defense Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Nuremberg Defense

New Working and the Enhancement of the Ethics Code

Socially improving society or a socially declining society?

Reference List

Nuremberg Defense Murdough (2010) explains that the Nuremberg Defense is a means by which individuals pass on the culpability (i.e. the responsibility) of a particular act to their superiors under the concept of them merely “following orders” (Murdough, 2010).

This particular terminology developed as a direct result of the Nazi war crimes trials that were held in Nuremberg during World War 2 wherein actions related to mass murder, genocide, violations of human rights and other related atrocities were charged to numerous Nazi military officials yet many claimed that they did such actions under duress or obligation due to fear of persecution on the part of their superior officers.

As such, the Nuremberg Defense can be stated as an appeal that defends a person’s innocence on the grounds that it was the organization and not necessarily them on a personal level that is ultimately responsible for a heinous act that occurred. This means of “passing the buck” so to speak is not limited to cases such as the Nuremberg trials; in fact the Nuremberg defense became one of the primary reasons behind changes in the Ethics code of the APA.

The primary reason behind such a decision was that the Council of Representatives noted that the language present in the iteration of the Ethics code prior to their February 2010 possessed a means by which the responsibility of a psychologist towards acts violating human rights could be passed along in a “robotic” fashion due to the psychologist in question following the letter of the law rather the intended spirit of the law as embodied by the APA code of ethics (American Psychological Association, 2009).

In fact the differential association theory created by Sutherland states that “crime does not originate from individual traits or a person’s socio-economic position rather it is a type of behavior that is created through a learning process” (Siegel, 2011). Thus, from a certain perspective, it can be assumed that violation of human rights in the case of psychologists would not be viewed as distinctly “unethical” since for them if an organization condones such acts due to war or testimony in a criminal act this would make certain violations acceptable, this is the primary situation that the APA Council is attempting to prevent from developing among members of the general population of psychologists.

In this regard, the Council focused on amendments which impacted “Conflicts between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority” as well as amendments concerning “Conflicts between Ethics and Organizational Demands”. Through the work of Knapp

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Working Across Boundaries Analysis Exploratory Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

What is Outsourcing?

Cost Savings

Problems with Distance

A Diversified Workforce

Disadvantages of Workforce Diversity

Benefits of Workforce Diversity

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Companies often encounter boundaries when it comes to creating efficient business processes whether in the form of distance or differences in business culture, however, by overcoming such boundaries better business operations can be attained.

As indicated by Piercy (2006) in order for any company to continue to be competitive within the present day global market place it is necessary for it to be highly responsive to changes, receptive to new developments within its market, highly creative as well as espouses actions of innovation and continued increases in efficiency (ex: Six Sigma) (Piercy, 2006: 3).

Such aspects though are dependent on the employees of a company wherein through the use of proper management practices a company is able to create stable internal procedures to ensure proper operations and product development which would inevitably result in a successful company.

The purpose of this project is to explain the advantages and disadvantages to working across boundaries, in this case distance and a diversified workforce. Through such a method of examination, it is expected that a greater understanding of today’s globalized business environment will be developed resulting in the promotion of the appropriate management practices to overcome such boundaries.

This paper is divided into 2 primary sections; the first section discusses the boundary of distance as exemplified by the outsourcing industry. The second section deals primarily with the diversified workforces that have come about as a direct result of the present day orientation of multinational companies to expand into different markets.

Through both sections, a clear idea can be developed regarding both the advantages and disadvantages of working across boundaries. It is the assumption of the researcher that, proper management practices can help to overcome boundaries such as distance and a diverse workforce thereby creating effective business operations.

What is Outsourcing? As explained by Marchington et al. (2005), corporate executives are under pressure to improve the competitiveness of their companies through cost reduction, increased efficiency as well as the improvement of various services. It is due to this that they have been turning towards outsourcing as of late in order to resolve such issues (Marchington et al., 2005: 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The term “outsourcing” actually refers to the practice wherein a company contracts another company to perform a particular business function for them at a reduced cost as compared to the main company doing it themselves (Young Bong

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