Company Division’s Analysis Analytical Essay Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents Divisions in a company

Human resource department

Finance department

The sales and marketing department

The production department

Research development department

The administration department

Works Cited

Each and every company has goals and objectives it has to achieve. However, how would one determine a company’s operations as success or failure? To do this, one has to employ analysis on the operations of the said company. To analyze is to look at a subject with a keener interest and try to evaluate it from established point of views.

In order to do this efficiently, one may be required to break the subject into various divisions or parts, then evaluate on the performance of these parts in relation to the functionality of the structure as a whole. This paper seeks to analyze a company by looking at various divisions that make it up and the roles they play towards the functionality of the company as a whole.

Divisions in a company A company is divided into various departments which play different roles in its achieving the set objectives and goals. These departments include human resource, production, marketing, finance, purchasing, research development and administration. Division in a company is essential in various ways. Akrani extensively explores the advantages of these divisions (1).

For instance, through these division , specialization is able to be achieved in that a person is able to dedicate his time in learning and mastering a specific skill in the work place instead of knowing so little about many aspects in the company operations. Through division in the company authority is also delegated hence responsibility fixed.

When a person knows that certain responsibility has been laid on his/her shoulders, one is able to dig deep to accomplish it. Control is also facilitated due to these division.Division or departmentization groups the workers into smaller manageable groups which can be handled quite easily as compared to one big group which has no sense of order. The performance of every person via these departments can be checked.

This is done through performance appraisal. This would benefit the company as every individual knows that he/she is being watched and gauged in terms of his/her productivity. The division also develops managers.

Due to the fact that authority is delegated to departmental managers, these managers are able to be trained on important skills that can make them even bigger and more productive managers. For production to be achieved, resources have to be assigned to manpower. Division therefore facilitates this by assigning each group and individual resources to work on in order to achieve maximum productivity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In trying to analyze a company’s operations it is important that the company is broken down into these departments and the roles they play in achieving company success.

Human resource department This is the department that is concerned with strategizing management of manpower in any organization. Strandberg defines HR as “the organizational function that deals with recruiting, managing, developing and motivating people” (2). It is the department that plans on the future requirements of manpower.

After establishing what job requirements the company needs ,it is the HR also which involves itself in describing these kinds of jobs in terms of their responsibilities ,required set of skills and experience as well as the qualifications of those required to do the jobs. Recruitment and selection of this manpower as well as drawing their salaries and wages falls in the hands of the human resource manager and his/her crew.

The procedure regarding the recruitment and selection of manpower is drawn and followed accordingly in this department. The work of the HR department does not end with the selection of the manpower though.In order to make sure that the company is more efficient, the workers need to be trained and equipped with various skills that they may need in their day to day activities in the company.

This is organized and carried out by this department too. On top of these, the department goes to an extra step by motivating the company work force through various ways like organizing staff parties and get-togethers once in a while in order to boost the morale of these people. In every organization there must be somebody or group that keeps an eye on the relationships between the workers. This duty also falls under HR.

The department is responsible for fostering cordial relationships among the workers as well as hearing and trying their best to settle any grievances that may arise. As earlier stated, one of the advantages of division in companies is performance appraisal.This also is performed by the HR department.

After recruiting, selecting, training and looking through the welfare of the workforce, it is only logical that their performance be evaluated so as to gauge each and every person’s level of production. Every company has its rules and regulations which must be well adhered to. The HR department is also mandated to dismiss anyone who fails to work according to the company is values or code of ethics.

We will write a custom Essay on Company division’s analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This department is therefore of such importance that the company cannot do without it. This is necessitated by the fact that every company needs manpower if its operations are to be achieved. It is important that the company also has a department that makes sure that all matters related to this labor force are well taken care i.e. from their hiring, training, motivating to some extent their remuneration.

Finance department This is the department that is involved with matters money in any company.

Kumar has extensively explored the role of this department in companies (12). Preparing the budget is one of its roles. Before a decision is reached on the planned annual operations of any company, the finance department has to draw a budget to identify the financial position of the company and the actual amount to be allocated to each department. Financial management is another function.

Each company is also required to pay its shares of taxes. The management of these taxes falls under this department.Tax laws change regularly. The finance department must also make sure that it is up to date with any medications and changes regarding tax.

A company, being its own entity, can be able to make its own investments. Its financial department is also mandated to manage and oversee these investments. Another task that the financial department has to oversee is managing financial risks.Kuimar observes for instance that,

“For reducing loss of funds due to happening liquidity, solvency or financial disaster, financial department makes a good plan and also takes the help of debt collectors, insurance and other rating agencies for reducing financial risk. (13)

Without a doubt therefore, this department is essential in that everything to do with finances is handled here. In any company which is profit oriented, this has to be one of the heartbeats as it’s in this department that all books are balanced to gauge the financial value of the company hence give the way forward regarding future operations.

For anyone seeking to analyze the success or failure of any company, this department should be the first place to evaluate.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Company division’s analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The sales and marketing department These two can work dependently or independently depending on the size of the company. The marketing department’s main role is to make sure that the company establishes a close relationship with its customers.

It makes sure that it is a step ahead of its competitors in identifying what customers’ needs are and the best way possible to meet them. It is essential that the marketing department notice that their customer is their employer, though indirectly, and therefore solely focus on the him. It should also go an extra mile in monitoring closely their competitors and make sure that it outdoes them.

To do this, the department must be creative and flexible enough to create new ideas as society is very fluid and customer tastes and preferences keep changing. The marketing department must not only establish a brand that reflects its identity and values but also work very hard to own it.

This means that the goods or services they are offering must be identified with the company’s values and beliefs and must be unique in a way from its competitors’. It must also work hand in hand with the sales department to make sure that the needs of their customers are met in the best and efficient way possible.

If the company is to benefit, the goods or services it produces must reach the customers. But how would the customers know of this product and why should they choose this particular one among the many produced by competitors? This is where the sales and marketing department comes in.

It makes sure it explores the customer needs and reacts to them. Without this division in the company therefore, the company may struggle to get its products to those who need them.

The production department Production department deals with getting the output out of the input fed into the company. Production involves converting the raw materials into finished products that are then posted to other departments like sales and marketing who then get the product to the customers. The department is also supposed to act on information fed on them regarding the tastes and preferences of products in order to come up with high quality products.

It is also responsible for modifying existing products with the change of tastes and preferences as well as carrying out tests on the newly produced goods/products. The department also makes sure it has plans in place in regard to storage of the produced goods so that a continuous and steady supply is maintained to the market.

It is therefore justifiable to stay that this department plays a very important role in achieving the goals and objectives of the company. The role of a company is to provide goods or services to customers at a profit. The department that deals with this production of goods or services plays a very integral part in company operations.

Research development department This is the department that has to be on its toes as far as researching and getting new ideas in the company is concerned. Frost outlines the various roles played by this department (11). Among these roles, new product research is on the forefront. The department has to carry out a thorough research on a prospective product regarding its specifications and the time and cost it will take the company on that production.

Updates on the existing products should also be checked by this division in the company lest the company be left lagging behind on product modification.

The department is also responsible for checking for quality in its products. Frost states that, “In many companies, the research and development team handles the quality checks on products created by the company. The department has an intimate knowledge of the requirements and specification of a particular project.” (12)

Innovation is also another important task that the department is mandated to. It consists of a think tank of specialists that observe the recent trends in the market in order to come up with an appropriate product. Every company needs a task force that ensures that research is carried out in order to stay ahead of its competitors as far as delivery of quality products or goods is concerned.

This has been made even more necessary by advancement in technology and the need for an environment friendly approach in production. This department therefore is very essential in any company or organization.

The administration department This department oversees all the operations of the company. It performs some kind of supervisory role to all departments as they get involved in their respective roles. However in many modern companies, administration department tries as much as possible not to interfere with other departments.

However this depends on the type of administration that runs a company. Being an overall watchdog in the company’s operations, the administration ensures that the set standards required by the company are maintained.

In conclusion, it is fair to note that for a company to be effective, all its departments should play their roles effectively and should it fail to reach its objectives, a keen analysis should be done in every department in order to evaluate their performance.

Works Cited Akrani, Gaurav. “What are the Advantages of Departmentization?”. Kalyan City Life.17.2(2012). Web.

Frost, Shelley. “Function Descriptions of the Research and Development Department”. Houston Chronical.13.4 (2010). Web. .

Kumar, Vinod. “Functions of Finance Department.” Accounting Education.1.5 (2010). Web.

Strandberg, Coro. “The Role of human Resource Management in Corporate Social Responsibility”. Strandberg Consulting. 1.5 (2012). Web. .


Code of Ethics for Mental Health Professions Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Codes of ethics define responsibilities in professional practices. Different professions have specific codes of ethics founded on the duties of the employees, engagements with clients, and professional standards.

In the mental health profession, codes of ethics mainly address professional responsibilities, handling of clients, storage of clients’ information, and the relationships that should exist between the clients and the mental health workers.

The following paper will analyze two codes of ethics for social workers and the Association for Addiction Professionals, to identify their significance in promoting effectiveness in care delivery process.

One of the codes of ethics among social workers is the Social Workers’ ethical responsibilities to clients. The moral responsibility addresses how social workers should be committed to serving the clients, self-determination, informed consent, competence, privacy and confidentiality, interpersonal relationships, and data access processes, among others.

Similarly, the Association for Addiction Professionals has one clause dealing with the professional responsibility of individuals working under the addiction channels. Both of these codes address the mannerisms and the expected conduct among the workers in the social sector and the addiction association, especially when conducting their professional mandates.

One of the similarities between the codes of ethics established for social workers is a commitment towards effective and efficient service delivery process. Addiction and social professionals have similar obligations of ensuring that the clients receive the best services, attention, and advocacy. In both disciplines, honesty and congruency are inevitable to promote quality services and to maintain the expected credibility.

Also, the code of ethics in the two disciplines advocate for peace and avoidance of any conflict of interest. Battles occur in any social setting due to indifferences, pressure, and incongruence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is upon the social worker and addiction professional to avoid conflicts with fellow workers, clients, and employers (National Association of Social Workers, 2012). Rationality, asceticism, and critical evaluation of ideas promote understanding and peaceful environment (The Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC), 2012).

Privacy and confidentiality are other important issues addressed in the codes of ethics for social workers and addiction professionals. In both contexts, employees and mental health professionals are mandated with the responsibility of upholding the privacy, confidentiality, and trust. Private information or any other details about clients’ health remain under the authority of the mental health workers.

Both social workers and addiction professionals, store, retrieve, and distribute clients’ information in a way that does not jeopardize the health or life of the clients. Record keeping is therefore vital and sensitive when dealing with mental patients since there are possibilities of interfering with the psychological wellness if the information lands in other hands (The Association for Addiction Professionals (NAADAC), 2012). Both codes of ethics are clear on the safekeeping process of information, access, and distribution of clients’ information.

In both disciplines, clients’ information remains private and must never be shared or discussed with other individuals, unless consented by the client, or if sharing is deemed as necessary for the wellness of the clients. Clients can access information to assess their conditions, but if the access process is perceived to have potential harm to the clients, then they should be denied access.

The two disciplines require that the workers demonstrate a high level of competence, accountability, and trust. Since most of the clients suffer from psychological and other associated mental illnesses, approach to their privacy and confidentially is a vital process to safeguard their wellness and ensure that the care administered is valid and reliable (National Association of Social Workers, 2012).

The two ethical codes are very clear about exploitation and oppression in the workplace. According to both systems, social workers and addiction professionals must not take advantage of their clients, junior workers or volunteers. Respect among the workforce is inevitable to guarantee efficiency and competence among the workforce.

The similarities notwithstanding, several differences are apparent between the two disciplines. One of the significant differences is on inter-professional relationships. While the social workers’ code of ethics bans the sharing of clients among different professionals, the addiction profession offers some conditions and exceptions under which such a process can take place.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Code of Ethics for Mental Health Professions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Addiction professionals have the responsibility of first communicating with a previous professional dealing with a client before proceeding with the treatments. However, social workers are discouraged from engaging in such practices because it is feared that such a move would jeopardize the health and lives of the clients.

The other difference is on establishing sexual relationships between the counselor and the clients. According to the social workers’ codes of ethics, sexual relations must never exist between social workers and clients. The reason given is based on potential harm to the clients, due to their psychological weakness, emotional instability, and possibilities of coercion from the social workers (National Association of Social Workers, 2012).

However, such a clause does not exist in the professional responsibility clause for the addiction professionals. The addiction professionals do not have any restrictions on engaging in sexual relationships with clients. However, their wellness is questioned in terms of their ability to offer services to addicts when they have similar problems. While the two disciplines have the responsibility of advancing their knowledge about the conditions being treated, social workers are not mandated to produce evidence-based on their educational and professional backgrounds as the addicted professional do (Calley, 2009).

However, both parties are expected to act in a professional manner when dealing with their clients. Every mental health worker must work within his or her professional capacity to avoid professional errors and to ensure that the clients receive the best medical care possible.

The addiction professionals are not required to adhere to informed consent clause, at which any information about the treatment is interpreted to the best of the clients’ understanding. However, social workers must ensure that in any service delivery process, the clients understand about the treatment option and in case the clients are illiterate, then consent must be sought from a professional third party.

This approach makes it possible for clients to participate in the service delivery process. In both parties, the workforce is expected to advance its cultural and social competence in order to understand the dynamics in the clients’ conditions. Race, ethnicity, and gender are some of the underlying factors differentiating response to treatments, therapies, and counseling (Corey, Williams,


Graduate Trends in Marketing Report college essay help

Introduction The excitement and hope that accompanied college graduation many years ago have slowly but surely faded; giving way to despair and dread. New college graduates face a bleak future riddled with unemployment, underemployment, and huge student loans on their shoulders. Success in this type of environment requires “self branding” and excellence in almost all spheres.

Many jobs were lost during the economic depression of 2008/2009. Today, many countries are yet to find a balance between existing jobs and the influx of new graduates into the job market. In reality, new graduates face the most daunting and competitive job environment ever witnessed in the world. This situation is the same in all fields.

Graduate Trends in Marketing Over the years, marketing job market has changed significantly. Virtually all business spheres demand marketing skills and knowledge. The roles of marketing have equally broadened to encompass product research and market analysis. Traditionally, marketing has been viewed to be principally concerned with product and company image promotion.

However, these new roles have made it integral to the business environment. Whereas many people consider marketing field too crowded with few opportunities, the reality is that it is a fast expanding filed not yet fully filled. In fact, the field has continued to open up new opportunities for job seekers, and the possibilities of its exhaustion are minimal.

Marketing graduates have a lot to offer to both employers and the society. A marketing course gives a broader view of the business environment, which makes marketing professionals stand out in the business environment.

This is because the course covers not only product promotion aspects, but also business image and the environment within which a business operates. These three aspects are the cornerstones in any business line. In this “ever-changing world of work,” marketing is very important (Andreanoff 2012, Mentoring Scheme).

What a Marketing Degree Offers A marketing degree offers numerous opportunities to graduates. According to Pride


Marketing graduate career trends Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Employability refers to the collection of personal attributes that one possesses making him/her valuable at the workplace, and in the global economy (CBI/NUS 2011). A marketing graduate must have work experience to be employed by either middle-sized companies or big companies. Employers assess knowledge, skills, and experience (Hall, 2012).

According to CBI/NUS report (2011), knowledge refers to analytical skills. Various selection tools, and procedures are used to assess the various competencies that an individual possesses. Assessment centers are recognized for their accuracy in selecting the right candidates. Some companies may use an additional selection process known as the graduate schemes.

A marketer in a big company may specialize in one line of operation such as account specialist. In a small-sized business, the various duties of marketing are carried out by a single individual. Employers around the world consider perfect academic grades may not be reflected in the actual performance.

However, graduates with good grades may be considered as having a successful past which may be repeated at work. Most employers find business and customer awareness as a rare attribute among recruits (CBI/NUS 2011).

Analysis Employability in marketing

Employability is a term used to describe personal qualities that augment the technical skills making an employee more productive. According to CBI/NUS report (2011), employability is “the set of attributes, skills and knowledge that all labor market participants should possess” (p. 12). This indicates that the attributes are shared across different sectors. The main attribute is positive thinking.

Other attributes include communication skills, business and customer awareness, team-working, and self-management among other skills. These skills make it easier for a marketing graduate to fit in the workplace easily. One is able to shift easily from sector to sector according to career preference.

CBI/NUS (2011) discusses that employability is “always in demand and is never outdated” (p. 11). However, technical skills such as marketing need to be reviewed or else they become outdated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maintaining employability requires marketing graduates to “constantly update their skills so that they are desirable to potential employers all the time and at any time” (Ridderstrale


The American Struggle for Rights and Equal Treatment Essay essay help online free

Though the Americans were not rebellious initially, there came a point when they were ready for war. They had played second fiddle for a bit too long and could not take it any more.

Slowly, the awakening call was being heeded. People were tired of the course things were taking. Time had come for the Americans to fight for their rights and equal treatment from the British. It should be noted that there are several factors that contributed to the revolution in which the Americans were successful.

To begin with, the Americans had been under the rule of the British for a very long time. During this duration, Americans were subjected to various forms of regulations some of which were against their will. As a result, the spirit of extrication was high in people’s minds.

Therefore, Americans wanted to be free from the restrictions that were imposed to them by the Britons. On the same note, the British concentrated on taxing various establishments and forgot to read the mood of the people. Meanwhile, the people were complaining about methods that were being used to rule them which they felt were not in the interest of the common Americans.

Similarly, the British’s anti-smuggling policy came too late when the culture had taken roots. Consequently, people were not ready to leave the act which had come to be part of their daily activities. To the smugglers who were at the time powerful and influential, the anti-smuggling policy was a violation of their rights. The smugglers therefore organized people to resist the anti-smuggling policy.

In addition, the proclamation Act of 1763 restricted movement of the colonists across the Appalachian Mountains. Later, the restriction was extended to include areas up to Ohio River. This was received negatively by the Americans, especially those who wanted to possess more and more Indian land.

Moreover, there were Acts implemented by the British parliament that propagated the American Revolution. The Acts include, the Townshend Act, the Stamp Act and the Tea Act and the Boston Tea party.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite facing a lot of challenges, Americans emerged successful from the revolution. The Americans employed Guerilla skills in their attacks thus getting the British troops unaware. Similarly, American solders used different colored clothing which made it a bit difficult for the British to spot them.

On the other hand, the British army attacked in straight lines and wore red uniforms which were easily recognizable from far distances. Consequently, it was very easy for the continental Army to lay ambushes for British Armies. On the same note, the continental army highly benefited from the home advantage.

While the British troops had to travel over very long distances sometimes taking months, the American troops were composed of the locals who were readily available.

Furthermore, the locals understood well the battle ground while the British were new and had little knowledge of the place. Additionally, supplies and other requirements were easily available for the continental army which highly motivated them as opposed to the British army.

Another factor that highly boosted the Americans during the revolution was the support they received from the French. Though initially they had shown no intention of joining the Americans, the French troops joined towards the end of the war.

The French navy helped in detaining General Cornwallis thus further weakening the British. Other than France, extra countries for example, Spain also joined in the war thus ensuring that Americans were successful.


The effect of Social Media on today’s youth Quantitative Research Essay essay help

Abstract Social media has become a part of the daily patterns of most individuals, forming a link between their online and offline experiences. This has made it the most common tool for communication and interaction among both individuals and businesses. Social media has been used in various ways in the Arab region. For instance, social media has also been used to elicit change in Yemen, Jordan and Morocco.

The protestors in these countries have made note of the significance of social media in addressing their issues that concern corruption and other disparities that oppress most of the population. Besides rallying people around social causes and political campaigns, social media in the Arab region has also been used to enhance citizen journalism and civic participation (Turkle, 2011).

This paper looks at the role of social media in the UAE, and its impact on the youth. In order to achieve this, this paper looks at various social media that are used by the youth in the UAE, what he youth see as the main benefits of social media, level of trust in social media, and the limitations that they face with regard to social media.

Introduction Social networking has become the easiest way for individuals to communicate, whether they live in the same country, or across the world from each other.

Social networking refers to the “network of social interactions and personal relationships” that consists of devoted websites or applications, which permit users to communicate with each other through posting messages, pictures, and sharing comments, among others (Oxford Dictionaries, 2010).

The drastic impact that various social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace have on people’s lives, and the way they communicate with one another, has made this topic relatively crucial.

People who are often addicted to such networks get fairly attached to it, causing them to communicate less with their families and replace the need for face-to-face interaction with their friends. This paper examines the effect of social media on the youth of the United Arab Emirates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review Studies show that the media is used for three primary reasons. First, it is used to bring meaning of the social world. Second, it informs people on how to act within a society. And third, it promotes pleasure and entertainment (Lenhardt


Media Ethics Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The author of the case study discusses a popular television series Beavis and Butthead. In particular, the writer examines the possible influence of this behavior of children and adolescents. For instance, one can mention that this show has affected the language of many Americans because it gave rise many new words that can be viewed as obscene or at least very vulgar.

Secondly, the creators of this cartoon have often been accused of promoting deviant behavior among adolescents. For example, media reporters have found connection between this television series and the dangerous actions of some underage viewers such as Aaron Messner who set his family’s trailer on fire. It is believed that his behavior is directly influenced by this animation series.

Moreover, reporters believe that there are other violent incidents that can also be attributed to Beavis and Butthead. This is why the cartoon was criticized by the press. Currently, this show continues to be aired on MTV; however, it is no longer broadcast at 7 p. m. Moreover, MTV is obliged to warn viewers that the behavior of Beavis and Butthead should not be emulated in any way.

Overall, this case raises several ethical questions that are related to the education of children as well as the role of media in the modern society. The most important issue is the responsibility of the mass media and those people who work in this area. Certainly, it is not possible to prove that Beavis and Butthead should be blamed for every form of misconduct among children or adolescents.

However, this show may promote deviancy and it can make dangerous behavior more acceptable. Thus, one has to determine whether the activities of mass media should be regulated in any way.

The second issue that can be even more important is the responsibility of parents who often accuse mass media of corrupting their children, but very often they do not do anything to minimize the negative influence of such cartoons as Beavis and Butthead. For instance, Aaron Messner could be watching MTV alone and one can reasonably ask why parents did not ask what he had been watching.

There are other questions that can be strongly connected to the case. One of them is the role that media and art play in the modern community. Very often, films, cartoons and video clips are aimed at highlighting the negative aspects of the society, but the creators can unwillingly glorify violence, especially when viewers cannot see the irony that of the film-makers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, some attention should be paid to the role of government that should be more concerned with moral and intellectual education of the new generation. These are the main issues that one can identify in this case study.

The issues mentioned in the case study called for some actions. First of all, one can that mass media companies were declared to be responsible for the misbehavior of children or teenagers. Therefore, these organizations had to address these issues. As it has been said before, MTV changed the time when the controversial cartoon was aired.

Moreover, this organization issued a disclaimer according to which Beavis and Butthead had to be viewed only as a parody, and the main characters should not be regarded as role models. Overall, one can say that MTV took this decision in order to avoid public criticism, but they did not fully acknowledge the link between violence and the cartoon Beavis and Butthead.

This approach to the moral education of children has several limitations. In particular, little attention is paid to the role of parents who are responsible for the education of children. Certainly, it is possible to move Beavis and Butthead from 7.00 p.m. to 11 p.m. but it does not mean that children will not be able to view the show.

They can easily watch this cartoon on the Internet. So, the negative effects of this show cannot be reduced if parents do not take any action. One can overlook the role of teachers who must raise parents’ awareness about the influence of television or Internet on underage people. This is why it is not permissible to blame only mass media.

It is possible to offer several recommendations to people who have to deal with the problems described in the case. First of all, teachers should inform parents about the consequences of watching television series like Beavis and Butthead or South Park. These shows are parodies of the contemporary society, but they will be misinterpreted by underage people.

Finally, parents should monitor what their children watch and learn more about these programs, films, or television series. In some cases, parents may limit their children’s access to television or Internet and explain why some of the television series are not appropriate at a certain age.

We will write a custom Essay on Media Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It seems that such a solution is quite ethical. Again, it is necessary to stress the point that one should not accuse television or Internet for every problem that modern society faces.


Cultural Diffusion Expository Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors influencing Cultural Diffusion

Effects of Cultural Diffusion

Example of Cultural Diffusion

Works Cited

Introduction In all parts of the world, people interact and in one way or the other share their ways of life. On the same note, people are curious about how others carry out their life which makes them learn different methods of accomplishing tasks.

The process by which cultural traits and items are spread from one individual to another, either within a particular cultural setting or from one culture to another is known as cultural diffusion (Blij, Peter and Jan 250). In many instances, cultural diffusion leads to change in the way different activities are accomplished. It is important to note that cultural diffusion is influenced by various factors and has several effects.

Factors influencing Cultural Diffusion Interaction between individuals leads to increased chances of people learning how others carry out their activities. As a result, cultural diffusion takes place at different rates in various parts. Consequently, increased interactions between people increase the rate of cultural diffusion (Zeder 8). Unfortunately, other parts are far apart and interaction does not easily occur.

Therefore, travelling plays a crucial role in cultural diffusion for places that are geographically far apart. People moving from one place to settle in other places or just for leisure, are always fascinated by the different ways in which things are done. Subsequently, they learn the new ways and also pick some other cultural items which they take back to their homes.

On the same note, people have come to embrace the need to accommodate cultural diversity that is present in our society. As a result, they have found it worthwhile to learn other people’s cultural traits to enhance harmonious living. As a result, culture has been spread even faster in recent times than it was anciently.

Effects of Cultural Diffusion Cultural diffusion has very many effects which are both positive and negative. To begin with, cultural diffusion leads to the spread of new and sometimes easier ways of accomplishing tasks (Blij, Peter and Jan 277). It is important to note that cultural diffusion has lead to enrichment of cultures. Similarly, cultural diffusion enhances peace by improving understanding and interaction between people.

On the other hand, cultural diffusion has led to loss of some ancient items and ways of life. Similarly, people have assimilated cultural traits from others making cultures increasingly similar. As a result, there has been cases of misinterpretation and misunderstanding of other cultures thus leading to prejudices and even stereotyping (Blij, Peter and Jan 280).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Example of Cultural Diffusion North Africa is located near Southwest Asia and Europe. Consequently, there is transmission of cultural artifacts between these regions especially through trade. The larger part of North Africa and southwest Asia is dry. However, Egypt has been practicing irrigation since time immemorial, which has lead to availability of a variety of agricultural products (Zeder, 13).

Due to travelling and interactions, people from Southwest Asia have also learned the art of irrigation and they have substituted their nomadic way of life with agriculture. Nowadays, some countries of southwest Asia have many agricultural products to the extent that they can afford to export. Countries like Israel have highly invested in agriculture which contributes significantly to their gross domestic product.

It is important to note that cultural diffusion does not necessarily mean complete replacement of cultural elements (Zeder 19). This can be seen from countries of southwest Asia where cattle keeping persist, even after the countries embracing cultivation. However, it is important to note that cultural diffusion occurs everywhere and has increased nowadays due to globalization, social networking and increased travelling.

Works Cited Blij, Henry J., Peter O. Muller and Jan Nijman. The World today: Concepts and Religions in Geography. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.

Zeder, Melinda A. Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archeological Paradigms. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. Print.


Business strategies – Apple Inc Analytical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The business strategies used by Apple Inc. are evident and considerable. They have helped the company to remain competitive in the market and enhance its competitive advantages in the electronics industry. Through the use of “Bowman’s Strategy Clock”, various business and marketing provisions emerge in regard to Apple inc.

Bowman’s Strategy Clock refers to a scheme used in marketing to explore the competitive position of an organisation. This must be compared to the competitive abilities of other business rivals.

The model was established by Cliff Bowman and David Faulkner to elaborate on the 3 Porter standard strategies, which consider competitive advantages of an organisation in relation to cost advantage/differentiation advantage. Business strategies refer to how an organisation analyses, understands, and meets the needs of its respective customers (Pride


Inventory Management Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Inventory management is a very critical component of the operations of any business. The importance of effective inventory management increases in significance when the business in question is a retail chain. A significant portion of the competitive advantage of a supermarket comes from effective inventory management.

This essay relates to inventory management of a large retail supermarket in Singapore faced with general inventory management problems. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues that are causing inventory management problems, and to consider the potential solutions. The company operates more than fifty stores across the country.

The inventory is large because of the nature of retail business. In addition, most of the products are fast moving consumer goods. This means that at any moment, the supermarket is under pressure to avail products in line with consumer demand.

At the same time, the movement of goods must ensure that perishable goods leave the supply chain in time. Otherwise, the company can make losses on damaged products. The paper has two main parts. The first part is a brief examination of the specific problems affecting the inventory management system in the company. The second part of the essay considers the potential solutions to these problems.

Inventory Problems The company is dealing with three problems related to inventory management. The three problems are stock-outs, excessive inventory, and poor inventory visibility. This section looks at the nature of these three problems in more detail.


A stock-out refers to stock exhaustion, which can occur at any point in the supply chain. The main result of a stock-out is lack of goods on the shelves. This leads to loss of sales and can lead to the erosion of the brand image of the store. This situation can occur because of various reasons. These reasons include unavailability of supplies or transport bottlenecks. It can also emerge because of poor shelf replenishment practices in the store.

Excessive Inventory

Excessive inventory occurs whenever the supply chain delivers more goods than a store can offload to consumers. A situation of excessive inventory may occur if the store orders for more goods than it can sell. This situation can occur in case there is a rapid shift in demand patterns.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It can also occur if there is poor communication between the purchasing section and the shop floor. Excessive inventory increases warehousing costs. It also increases the risks associated with dead stock.

Lack of Inventory Visibility

In some cases, inventory may exist in the supply chain without records showing their location. This situation results in artificial shortages and serious accounting difficulties.

Lack of inventory visibility arises from various situations. For instance, an organization that uses continuous ordering process may fail to account for existing stock if it only accounts for stock received and stock released. The general cause of the problem of inventory invisibility is poor inventory management between the warehouse and the store shelves

Methods and Techniques of Handling Inventory Problems It is possible to solve the problems in the supermarket by using the correct combination of the inventory management methods and techniques. The following section covers certain options that can help the supermarket to increase the efficiency of its inventory management system.

POS Data and Replenishment

The use of Point of Sale (POS) data can help to reduce inventory inefficiencies. The supermarket already has modern POS hardware. These systems work based on the use of barcodes. As the sales clerks charge the clients, the system collects the data relating to goods sold. It is possible to develop a general plan for the replenishing of goods using the data collected from the POS terminals in conjunction with predictive techniques.

The data can tell how fast a certain product is moving, thereby giving signals to the staff to replenish the shelves. This will take care of internal inefficiencies that lead to stock-outs. At the same time, the data can provide information, which the procurement department can use to know when to reorder stock from external suppliers.

ABC Analysis and Inventory Management

The ABC analysis is the second technique the supermarket can use to improve its inventory management. This technique works by helping in the identification of goods that have a high value in the inventory. Thereafter, the company commits more resources towards the management of the inventory of these goods. The product categories that have a lower value should attract fewer inventory management resources.

We will write a custom Case Study on Inventory Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three letters of the ABC analysis correspond to the three levels of value each item in the supply chain brings. The ABC analysis shares a philosophy with the PARETO Principle. The PARETO Principle states that twenty percent of all efforts result in eighty percent of the value created.

Therefore, it is sensible to concentrate more resources in the optimization of the efforts needed to yield eighty percent of the value. In the case of the supermarket, there is a need to identify the goods of top value in the inventory and to concentrate on the application of inventory management techniques to them.

RFID Improve Visibility

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags can also help to improve inventory management. The main advantage of RFID tags is that they do not need line-of-sight visibility in the same manner as the barcode readers to function.

RFID readers rely on radio frequencies, which require a receiver, and not an optical scanner. High frequency RFID readers are useful for tracking goods in transit. This can help with external bottlenecks. Within the supermarket, the use of RFID tags will help to track any products within the warehouse. This will help to eliminate problems of excessive inventory, and lack of inventory visibility.


The supermarket can also improve its supply chain management efforts with the use of Efficient Customer Response (ECR) and by the use of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR). These two approaches came about as retailers realized that they could improve their bottom lines by working in collaboration with all the parties in the supply chain.

These approaches were the result of the realization that what happened in the supply chain affected the ability of retailers to offer good services to the customers competitively. The supermarket already utilizes a bit of ECR and CPFR. The use of ECR and CPFR can improve the problems of excessive inventory and stock-outs.


The supermarket can also improve its inventory management system by installing a Distribution Center Management Systems (DCMS) and a Warehouse Management System (WMS). A DCMS is very important for managing inbound and outbound inventory while a WMS helps to manage the inventory in the store. The supermarket moves a large quantity of inventory every day.

Therefore, any lapse in the inbound and outbound inventory can result in the twin problem of stock-outs and excess inventory. The warehouse works as a bin holding the inventory. If no way of tracking the goods that went to the bin exists, then stock can be lost in the system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Inventory Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Drop Shipping and Order Cycle

Two more options available for improving inventory management at the supermarket include drop shipping for large purchases, and the review of order cycles to ensure that the cycles conform to the most efficient models for the supermarket’s operations. Drop shipping can help the supermarket to reduce the quantity of inventory it handles by routing large orders directly to consumers.

This can work for consumers who buy large quantities of products and those who buy large items such as large household furniture. The supermarket can organize for their delivery straight to the customer thereby elimination the cost of warehousing and the cost of inventory management. In addition, the documentation on demand and supply patterns can help to develop a realistic order cycle for all groups of products.

Conclusions There are many potential solutions to the current problems facing the inventory management efforts in use in the supermarket. The supermarket already has some of these systems installed. The existence of these problems means that there is need to optimize the application of the inventory management systems.

The supermarket can eliminate most of the inventory management problems by using a combination of methods such as the ABC analysis and RFID systems.

The supermarket can also benefit from the use WMS and DCMS systems to ensure that no stock goes bad because of lack of visibility. It is impossible to eliminate all inventory related problems. However, the application of the inventory management methods discussed above have the potential of reducing the impact of these problems.

Reference List Kopezak, L


Website for a Guitar Shop Problem Solution Essay best college essay help

The business environment has transformed considerably since the introduction of web technologies. Electronic commerce (E-commerce) refers to the process of buying and selling of products, services of information via the internet. It is a fast growing facet of the internet that has changed the focus of businesses from manufacturing to customization in order to meet the diverse needs of consumers.

E-commerce has also influenced the manner in which businesses relate to their customers, suppliers and rivals. It has allowed businesses of all sizes to overcome geographical and financial barriers to reaching a broad market across the globe. Conversely, consumers are able to conduct business with companies that were previously inaccessible to them.

The current nature of an international marketplace requires businesses to have access to fast and reliable information in order to gain an advantage over competitors. This paper examines the various factors that a major high street guitar shop should consider when opening an e—commerce website in order to exploit its popularity over a wider audience, online.

Website design strategy Most of the current designs employ dynamic multimedia, and database application servers, unlike previous versions that used static hypertext. Commercial website design considers various elements including increased revenues, enhanced customer relations, and profitability. The two common website design strategies are informational strategy, transactional strategy.

Informational strategy This strategy is also referred to as the communicational strategy. The e-commerce website is designed to complement the company’s primary business activities, but not to replace them. The informational strategy requires the business to consider both modern and conventional means of advertising and marketing in order to meet the company goals and objectives.

This strategy is common among many businesses since it considers marketing on the web as an additional tool for reaching the target market. According to a study by Wen, Chen and Hwang (7), over 905 of the Fortune 500 companies have publicly accessible websites; however, less than a quarter of these websites support transactions.

On the other hand, studies show that the communicational strategy can attract new customers by marketing through the website. The forms of promotion involved in this design include placing the catalog online, enhancing brand awareness, and augmenting core products by providing related information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the benefits of the informational strategy include the provision of large amounts relevant product information to potential customers, building the company’s global image and presence, and the development of new communication channels to enhance customer relations. A business can attain all these benefits at a reasonable cost. The informational strategy also has a few disadvantages.

First, the promotion of sales may lead to a saturation of the market with advertisements. This may, in turn, lead to ineffective advertising and damage the reputation of the brand. Second, sharing organizational and product information on an open website limits the ability of the business to control the information. As such, the information is open for interpretation in any manner, which may cause it to be used in a harmful manner.

Any new information may also be stolen by rival companies causing the business to lose its competitive edge. Third, there is increased possibility of miscommunication due to the release of too much information. This may harm the public relations of the company, and damage its reputation (Wen, Chen and Hwang 9).

Transactional strategy It is also referred to as the on-line strategy, and involves the invariable provision of an electronic catalog of products that are available for sale. This design allows consumers to go through a catalog and order products that they prefer through the website.

The primary difference between this strategy and the informational/communication strategy is that the latter only provides a catalog and contact details if one chooses to order, while the online/transactional strategy supports online transactions. The online ordering web database allows businesses to exploit the potential of the Web as an interactive platform and significantly increase the overall sales of the company.

The creation of a virtual business on the web allows businesses to have an online presence that is much larger than a physical store. The virtual business can also provide consumers with numerous benefits that physical stores cannot provide due to the reduced marketing costs and convenience of shopping (Haryati 214).

Some of the benefits of the online/transactional strategy include the ability for businesses to provide a larger variety of products than competitors with physical stores, the existence of a sense of community between the business and the consumers, and the provision of economic benefits, better quality information, and enhanced convenience, compared to rival businesses.

We will write a custom Essay on Website for a Guitar Shop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The key advantage for transactional websites is their ability to display their products to a global market with fewer costs and enhanced accessibility at any time of day. However, transactional websites also have a few challenges including the loss of business or trade in the event of computer crashes or network problems.

Consumers may also face challenges getting through to the business personnel in the event of a breach in security. Another key shortcoming of transactional e-commerce websites is their focus on transactions such as online payments, which reduces their emphasis on ensuring that consumers get the right product (Haryati 216).

Recommendation for preferred strategy The best option for the owner of the major high street guitar shop in setting up an e-commerce website is the information/communication strategy. This strategy will enable the business to focus on its strength, which are high quality guitars, competitive prices, and proficient staff who are capable of providing consumers with high level guidance and advice.

The content of the website can include a catalog of some of the products offered, such as the various kinds of guitars and amplifiers, without providing browsers with an option to make a purchase.

However, the website can also contain information about the location and address of the business in order for consumers to reach them when they choose to make a purchase. The website can also contain some information about selecting the right guitar, provided by the professional staff.

The construction of the website should be outsourced, as opposed to constructing it in-house. Outsourcing has numerous benefits including saving costs involved in hiring a web designer to do it in-house, and getting the best possible design from a wide pool of creative designers and companies, at an affordable price.

Outsourcing will also allow the business to focus on its core operations, which are selling high quality guitars and guiding their consumers to the right instrument. Once the website is ready, the designer can provide a manual or train the in-house IT personnel on how to make entries or any other necessary adjustments to the content of the website.

Key E-commerce security threats E-commerce security involves integrity of the content provided, non-repudiation, authenticity of individuals using the platform, confidentiality of personal information, privacy control, and availability through continued provision of service.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Website for a Guitar Shop by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Security threats in e-commerce can arise on the communication channel, in the server, or on the client side. The threats may be in the form of spoofing, malicious code, hacking, sniffing, or denial of service attacks.

Phishing One of the common types of attacks on shoppers is based on tricking the shopper. This technique involves surveillance on the shopper in order to acquire personal information. The attacker may place a phone call to the shopper pretending to be security personnel and asking them to input their log in details in a phony website, thereby acquiring their private information.

Alternatively, a hacker may employ a phishing scheme, which involves the attacker laying traps on popular websites in order to acquire authentication and registration information. This form of attack can be stopped by educating the shopper and other users on internet safety.

Education involves informing users of the possible phishing schemes, as well as, the various kinds of social engineering attacks in order for them to enhance their judgment regarding irregularities in provision of personal information.

Snooping Another form of attack involves snooping the shopper’s computer using various tools or software to penetrate the user’s personal computer. Such an application can be in the form of tool that scans a computer searching for personal information.

Such snooping tools can be avoided by installing firewalls and other kinds of software and hardware security features that are provided by the operating system manufacturers. Anti-virus companies also provide tools that can block the entry of malicious applications.

Sniffing a network The third popular form of attack involves sniffing the network, whereby the attacker surveys the data being communicated between the shopper’s computer and the server. These attacks occur when the attacker is close to either the attacker or the server, where they can access personal information such as credit card numbers, whereby the information is in full packets.

Such attacks are common in wireless hubs since their security features are often disabled. Users can protect themselves from attackers who snoop the network by using the Secure socket Layer (SSL) protocol to encrypt data being sent over the network.

The server identifies SSL protected pages, and encrypts any vital information during a session, which implies that the attacker cannot access the content. Examples of such pages start with the prefix ‘https://…’ (Khusial 9).

Denial of service Denial of service (DoS) attacks influence the availability of a website by sending the server numerous ordinary tasks that cause it to exceed the capacity to handle other tasks. The attacker makes the server to utilize more computational resources in processing the request than other users do in sending their commands.

Infected computers can be manipulated by an attacker at any time by sending resource consuming requests to the target server, thereby, making the target website to experience problems, as well as, the entire internet network. The effect of these attacks can be minimized by using external security audit, server firewalls, and password policies.

Server firewalls ensure that the requests accepted by a server are from authorized ports or machines. This involves setting up a demilitarized zone (DMZ) with double firewalls. The first one is located on the periphery and allows the user to access the server.

The inner firewall is heavily fortified to safeguard the e-commerce firewall, and permits only specific ports to go through. Security audits help to detect intrusions in order to stop them from occurring using security logs. For instance, a user can be locked out after several wrong attempts at accessing an account (Khusial 11).

Password policies also help to safeguard from DoS attacks, and should be enforced by all users including shoppers and in-house users. These policies involve the setting of limits for various entries in authentication. For instance, the threshold for account lockout can be set to six attempts, with a consecutive unsuccessful login delay of ten seconds.

Other policies involve the number of instances of any character, inclusion of numeric character, minimum length of password, and lifetime of password, among others. The settings can be varied for shoppers and internal users, whereby administrators are locked out after three failed login attempts, or the requirement for symbols in a password. Lockouts prevent hackers from guessing login details (Khusial 14).

Types of online auctions Online auctions are also referred to as online marketplaces that require participants to bid for products and services over the internet. Some online auctions serve as facilitators and provide the framework for bidding and transacting on listed items. The three types of online auctions in use are the Dutch auction, the English auction, and treasury bills.

English auctions involve a low initial price that gradually rises with each successive bidder. The Dutch auction system involves the presentation of two or more items for auction, whereby the highest price is the winning price at which all items are sold.

Treasury bills employ the Dutch auction method whereby the largest bidding amount is used for all. The English auction system is preferable for the sale of guitars due to the diverse variety, which implies that each product has a unique overhead cost (Hernández, Jiménez and Martín 361).

Online auction models have unique advantages over other e-commerce websites. For instance, the auction process is exciting to consumers, which encourages them to buy more, and also motivates seller to sell more items. Secondly, the time for online auctions is synchronized, which allows any person from any time zone to participate.

Online auctions also provide sellers with a cost-effective, convenient and open means of marketing their products or services due to the high volume of traffic that they attract. Lastly, auctions provide an informal setting for making sales, which attracts feedback and develops a global community with common interests (Hernández, Jiménez and Martín 365).

Works Cited Haryati, Tri. “Use OsCommerce in Online Stores Linux.” Open Source 32(17), (2011): 213-224. Print.

Hernández, Blanca., Julio. Jiménez and José Martín. “Key website factors in e-business strategy.” International Journal of Information Management 29(5), (2009): 363-371. Print.

Khusial, Darshanand. e-Commerce security: Attacks and preventive strategies. 2005. Web.

Wen, H. Joseph, Houn-Gee’ Chen and Hsin-Ginn Hwang. “E-commerce Web site design: strategies and models.” Information Management


Marketing Сommunication – Sizzling International Ltd Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction This is a marketing communication brief for ‘Marcomms Suppliers/Service Providers’ on a brand new product that aims at competing with the market leaders in the world of bathing soaps and detergents.

Apart from highlighting the benefits that are certain to be realized through every bit of this strategic intervention, the brief is based on establishing the most relevant communications that will definitely help the product achieve the intended corporate objectives in the market.

In this communication brief, objectives have been implemented through strategic focus and planning only to be strengthened and brought forward through the best perceived communication strategies.

Marketing communication plays a critical role in brand development and a briefing which has been made to reach all major contacts in business are most likely to bear the right message on any product in the market (Brown and Hayes 2008). All the basic fundamentals of a perfect communication strategy are applied in this brief to achieve the right strategic message of the new brand to the desired target audiences.

This being a ground-up brand development project would aim at establishing a strong starting point that involves all marketing strategies in the book, to make it easy for relevant players in the business channel to take the brand across-the-board.

The 8 credos discussed in Morgan’s book, ‘Eating the Big Fish’ are applied in this brief as profound ideas to give the new product the qualities of a challenger brand, thus helping to establish an emotional relationship between the product’s manufacturers and the consumers.

Executive Summary Description of the Product

This is a communication brief aimed at marketing a new brand by the cosmetics giant, Sizzling International Ltd, widely reputed for their exclusive body and health care products. The Monalisa Soap, which is the latest release of the company, was launched towards the end of last year and it is yet to make a venture in the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main aim of this intervention is to establish the right communication strategy that would help in publicity of the product. The main target audiences for this intervention would be the core links that exist between the producer and the end-users.

This intervention also aims in motivating the target users to make use of the new soap product and try to convince them into accepting the brand as the preferred choice as far as their body hygiene is concerned.

What makes Monalisa soap exclusive compared to other rival products is the fact that, it comes at a fair cost regardless of it containing nearly all qualities associated with the best bathing soaps that have ever been produced anywhere in this world.

Product’s Market Position

Sizzling International Ltd is a household name when it comes to Cosmetic Products and this gives the new product a strong marketing platform among its competitors. The main target market for this product would include the shareholders in the business, marketers of the product across all commercial segments and the overall consumers or end-users.

With the current attitude towards Cosmetic Products and other Personal Care Brands witnessed all over the globe, it leaves no doubt that Monalisa Soap is likely to receive a universal acceptance from fans of similar products once its features as well as the benefits have been communicated to the masses.

The product’s unique features and qualities ranging from its manufacture to packaging are likely to trigger a romantic touch to people from all geographical locations. Just like all other products by the mother company, Monalisa is certain to make a positive venture into the market as one of the most valued toilet soaps in the country.

There is no doubt about that, considering the product’s exclusive qualities that lack in most of the big competitors in the field. Monalisa soap may be the latest cosmetic product in the country, but its outstanding qualities and health benefits have already placed it ahead of competitors’ products in the market.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Сommunication – Sizzling International Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first positive response on the product would be observed in a pilot project which had been conducted by the manufacturer shortly after the soap’s release. However, even though Monalisa is far from matching the status enjoyed by some similar products in the market, things are expected to take a different course soon, perhaps after this communication intervention has been passed to the target audiences.

Nature of Competitors in the Market

Apart from the medical qualities associated with the soap, what makes it more unique is its multi-purpose nature, the one characteristic which sets it high above its competitors.

According to studies conducted on possible major competitors and their market value, it was observed that, strong and unique communication strategies should be applied to ensure that sizzling’s new product matches the position of the giants in industry. In fact, most similar products may not be smarter than Monalisa, but their success in the market largely depends on how they are presented to the masses.

Most of these similar products are observed to target the local populations via various communication channels and even though they sometimes appear to utilize up-to-date methods such as the internet to popularize their products, their advertisement messages are seemingly less effective and would reach only a bisection of the population.

However, even though the target market for the competitors is just the same as those of Sizzling International Ltd, there are notable aspects that could apply in enlarging the target market for Monalisa.

One way to achieve this is by taking the product to the international scenes rather than having to concentrate on the local markets where competition is ever high. Another effective approach here would involve the idea of using advertisement or publicity as an asset of high-leverage.

Objective of the Marketing Communication Plan

The main objective of this plan is to motivate the target audiences to try the new product and try to make it their most preference. To meet this goal, the 8 credos in Morgan’s book, which provides an in-depth insight of how challenger brands can go about competing against leading brands are applied to make the new product the ‘big fish’ of its category in the market.

In broad terms, measurable and quantifiable measures are also used to explain the actions taken in ensuring that the necessary corporate objectives were achieved. Key to these interventions is to see that the relevant approaches are used to form a direct linkage between the manufacturer and the end users, through interactive ways of brand awareness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Сommunication – Sizzling International Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To achieve this mission, innovative marketing strategies and tools such as the internet and other consistent media would apply to advertise the products. Use of various mediums is beneficial in ensuring that, the right intervention is applied for the right target or audience (Foss and Stone 2009).

However, the type of media to be used depended on a number of aspects such as customer needs and their access to those particular media forms.

More significantly, constant application of key aspects such as product’s positioning and benefits came first in the list of priorities used to make an outstanding distinction of the new product. To crown it all, all the necessary steps certain to bear effective brand development also applied in this business intervention.

Campaign and Advertising Budget

In the contemporary world, things are changing with times and in this regard, product competitors are angling to apply the newest technology to reach the consumers and enhance the sales of their products. According to Timmons and Spinelli (2004), relevant, motivating and inspiring tools and strategies are the winning tricks here, and just what every farsighted marketer will bear in mind while advertising their products.

Advertising strategies such as sales presentations, promotions, direct marketing and online marketing are some of the proposed interventions here, considered to be effective ways of meeting the communication objective behind this plan. The use of consistent communication strategies and decisions will certainly promote cohesive image of products to the strategic target audiences (Rajagopal 1999, p. 135).

However, the planning, staging, merchandising and execution of these communications activity can be complex and costly. This is likely to involve a lot of effort, time and even money. To be able to achieve our goal, an approximate value of not less than $ 10 billion was proposed to set all the parameters in motion.

If well-implemented, these strategies would be certain to promote Monalisa Soap in the global market and by thus, both the business objectives and the communication goals would have been successfully attained.

Brief of the Product Monalisa soap, manufactured and marketed by United Kingdom’s Sizzling International Ltd is the new product here. Sizzling is a household name in the manufacture of natural Cosmetic Products consisting of a wide range of personal care brands such as body care products, health care products, herbal hair care products and other many Cosmetic Products in the market.

As observed in the above description, Sizzling produces a variety of cosmetic products and Monalisa soap is the more recently acquired product in the list, ready to trigger wonderful consumer insights.

Nature of the Product

Monalisa is a scented multipurpose laundry and bathing soap which comes in both solid and liquid forms to accord a romantic and enjoyable touch for every bath taken. The soap is rich in form and it comes with a variety of perfumes such as flower, natural, fruit and milk, thus giving the end users a charming taste of variety in their choice preferences on the product (Ferrara and Dalby 1996).

Aloe Vera, Avocado, Olive oil among other essential oils are some of the key ingredients used in the manufacture of this great soap. Apart from having a beautifying quality for the scalp, skin and hair, Monalisa also softens and nourishes the skin all day long. Its soothing property makes it incomparable to competitors.

Thanks to the properties of anti-bacterial components plus pure olive oil, Monalisa soap protects the skin in a soft manner (Bobo 1996). The product keeps all germs at bay and can be used in curing a variety of common skin problems such as pimples, blackheads and itches.

To crown it all, Monalisa can be applied to relief body and muscular pains among other health ailments. The solid soap is supplied in impressive packages wrapped with preservative films and would range from 15grams to 200grams. The liquid form is supplied in plastic containers ranging from 125 ml to 1000 ml.

Marketing of the Product: Strengths and Weaknesses The marketing of this new product can’t be expected to be a smooth exercise after all, considering the availability of numerous similar products in the market. According to Percy (2007), key business aspects such as availability, price, brand elements and competitions applies largely in determining the marketing of the product.

Having this in mind, it would be easy to identify some of the key Strengths and Weaknesses that are likely to impact the overall marketing of Monalisa Soap. The following is a listing of some of the strengths and weaknesses observed to be impacting the marketing of this product.


Strong brand elements

Fair price

Quality acceptability

Availability in both solid and liquid forms


Not well established

Availability of strong competitors

Lack of a strong brand name

Principal Competitors in the market According to Butler and Poucher (2000), United Kingdom is one of the major manufacturers of body and healthcare products in the world and in that case, it is expected to produce a variety of bath and toilet soaps. The following table shows some of the key competitors in the market along with their manufacturing companies.

Competitor Product Manufacturer Vatika Dermoviva Naturals Trading Company Patchouli


Managing cultures and influencing people Report college application essay help

Culture can be defined as the socially transmitted behavior patterns, norms, beliefs and values of a given community (Vance and Yongsun 2010, p.43). Culture influences how individuals interact with one another in society. It shapes the behavior and thinking of people and can be transmitted or even lost. Different aspects of culture can be adopted or rejected by society depending on their impact on society as a whole.

People tend to be comfortable interacting with individuals with similar cultural backgrounds where there is interaction predictability. This is mainly because they share similar characteristics and traits such as language and traditions.

Similarity in culture produces feelings of inclusion while feelings of exclusion are experienced by people who do not share the same culture. Individuals who find themselves in situations where their culture is not similar will stand out and interaction uncertainty will occur. This article will discuss ways of managing culture and ways of influencing people (Deardorff 2009, p. 56).

Culture is not confined to national or societal areas but can also be found in organizations. Each organization has its own unique culture in terms of management, rules and even code of conduct. Culture varies and can be influenced by different factors. Globalization has meant that organizations increasingly interact with markets that are culturally different from their countries of origin.

This has introduced a new dimension in leadership whereby leaders are tasked with finding innovative ways to manage different markets with different needs influenced mainly by culture. Culture is not static and is constantly changing; sometimes at fast pace and other times it may take a long time.

One way culture can be viewed is either tight or loose. Tight culture describes culture where society largely agrees on what is acceptable while in loose culture society is more liberal and tolerant of different views (Vance 2010, p. 49).

Organizations have to view culture as an important factor to consider when making decisions. Globalization has caused inter-cultural convergence which in turn means organizations have to understand the culture of the markets they are involved in if they intend to remain profitable. Different cultures demand different management styles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An example is countries in the East like Japan putting a high value on their employees and seeking to develop their potential while countries in the West such the USA view employees merely as workers, there to deliver on their contractual obligations. The difference in the cultural attitudes of the two regions means that different approaches to management are required.

Organizations working in different countries will also encounter a difference in the way business agreements and contracts are arrived at. It is necessary for organizations to familiarize themselves with regional cultures so as to avoid mistakes that may affect their businesses negatively (Vance 2010, p. 49).

Culture in organizations has been the focus of different studies by various experts. Different kinds of organizational cultures have been found to exist in different organizations. There are three theories that have been created to describe organization culture. They are theories X, J and Z. These theories were proposed in 1978 by Ouchi and Jaeger.

Theory X describes the primarily bureaucratic culture that was found mainly in organizations in the West. Bureaucratic culture focuses on productivity and tends to ignore developing communication between management and workers.

In theory J which was mainly found in organizations in Asia the organizations management allow a worker to have a participatory role in decision making and there is greater communication between upper management and employees. The culture in the organizations encourages employees to develop skills for the benefit of the organization. Theory Z combines the best aspects of X and J (Fitzgerald 2002.p. 51).

Geert Hofstede through research came up with four dimensions that can be used to evaluate the kind of culture found in an organization. Power distance describes the relationship between superiors and subordinates, the acceptable inequality in terms of power between the two groups. The second dimension was uncertainty avoidance which describes the degree of risk that is acceptable.

Individualism and collectivism describe the social structure in the organization, whether it is loose or tight. Lastly masculinity and femininity describe the part gender plays in the cultural dynamics of the organization.

We will write a custom Report on Managing cultures and influencing people specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These elements were then used to create different models that describe the organizational culture found in organizations around the world. Market model are organizations with small power distance and weal uncertainty avoidance, they are decentralized and informal. Family models are centralized and informal with large power distances and weak uncertainty avoidance.

Machine models are decentralized with small power distances and strong uncertainty avoidance while pyramid models are both informal and decentralized. They have large power distances and high uncertainty avoidance (Fitzgerald 2002, p.51).

Events management is an industry that deals with people of different cultural background on a day to day basis. In this industry organizing and managing people is key for success to be achieved. Events management is a business that requires a strong leader to navigate and drive the business down a successful road.

There are very many challenges that arise when managing events and being prepared for any and all eventualities is very important. Events by their nature bring together people with different cultural backgrounds. These businesses require a work force that is highly dynamic and culturally sensitive in order to remain competitive.

Events management businesses should be highly organized to deliver on client expectations. Events usually involve various other groups such as security, promoters and caterers; this means that leaders should be able to manage their own groups as well as other teams involved.

Events management leaders must be able to delegate duties to various subordinates as the business involves different groups all working to achieve a common goal. The leaders must be tolerant of others but remain in a position of authority to be able to hold successful events (Bowdin 2010, p. 279).

In managing organizations, leaders need to factor in different cultural influences. Leaders need to understand the cultures of the people they need to influence and proceed to use both formal and informal skills to achieve their goals. To be effective managers, leaders need to understand different cultures and be sensitive to the differences.

Leaders need to have an open-minded approach to be able to embrace the uniqueness of different cultures. Leaders must also be aware of different cultures and seek to understand them which in turn lead to professional development.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing cultures and influencing people by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Being sensitive to culture and cultural differences leads to organizational effectiveness and during interaction with new cultural markets business can navigate easily by avoiding making cultural mistakes that may offend the new markets.

In events management there is great interaction with different cultures both in terms of employees and in business. Leaders who are sensitive to culture can communicate with employees and clients effectively leading to successful events (Moran et al 2010, p. 25).

Another way to effectively manage cultures is through cross-cultural learning. This may involve educating the employees on cultural practices of the clients they are to interacting with. Cross-cultural learning can be done through training and education. The training of employees promotes cross cultural communication. When employees communicate with clients effectively there is bound to be an increase in business and profits.

People tend to respond to the familiar and through cross-cultural learning employees can promote the building of relationships with clients. In the events management industry understanding the culture of clients is important in staging successful events. Cross-cultural learning promotes effective communication which is important to avoid offending any cultural aspects of clients (Moran et al 2010, p. 25).

For a business to succeed, it needs to embrace global transformation. As businesses move into new markets they bring on work forces that have different cultures and consumers with different cultures. To be successful in these markets the organizations need to globally transform by going global.

This means the businesses need to learn the new markets prevailing cultures and transform into companies and organizations that are acceptable in the new markets. Events management industries are not an exception. Events attract different people with different cultural backgrounds.

Holding an event that caters to the cultural needs of the clients is part of the job description for events management companies. The companies must be aware of any cultural aspects that are unique and ensure that the event is in line with the cultural needs (Moran et al 2010, p. 25).

The type of leadership plays a central role in managing cultures and influencing people in an organization. Leaders must be well informed on the type of culture that an organization has adopted.

The leaders must then take advantage of existing organization cultures and keeping the strong points while doing away with the weak aspects of the organizational cultures. Leaders should then proceed to teach organizational culture through socializing. In this way employees can pass on the knowledge to fellow employees. Socializing may involve the introduction of new culture into the organization.

There are various methods that can be used to pass on culture in an organization. It may involve the use of symbols which is one of the most effective ways of communicating culture. Introduction of new culture might be met with resistance and leaders must be ready to tackle such a situation. A positive, patient and understanding approach is best suited for such an eventuality (Griffin and Moorhead 2011, p. 515).

In my work as an events manager, I have found that theory Z works the best. Theory Z describes an organization that is decentralized, formal and practices collectivism. As an events manger I have come to appreciate the advantages that come with having a strong team. I have used theory Z which has meant encouraging my juniors to give in ideas on how to better service delivery to the clients.

I have seen the benefit of using tools such as in house training and team building activities to improve the skill level of employees. I have an open door policy where anyone of the staff can approach me with ideas or problems. I have developed a culture of accountability in the work place where employees are encouraged to make independent decisions when they can which they are accountable for.

This has created a feeling of ownership in the staff and by encouraging employees to be creative and innovative the company has attracted more clients in areas it was not traditionally catering to. I still maintain overall authority but delegating duties has meant that I have more time to concentrate primarily on managerial duties instead of losing time on putting out small fires.

Having a culture that allows greater freedom for ideas to flow is the best for any organization. In events management it is best to always be prepared and having a staff that is capable and empowered to handle different situations has been invaluable.

Adopting a culture that rewards the effort of staff has also helped to improve the business. Adopting an organizational culture that acknowledges the value of employees and allows me to assert my authority has contributed to my professional development as an events manger.

Leadership is vital in the management of culture in an organization. The type of leader reflects in the overall culture of an organization. Culture is dynamic and leaders should be prepared to change organizational culture when necessary.

Leaders greatly influence the people they interact with, whether they are clients or employees. Leaders should strive to influence employees and even clients in constructive ways that have positive results on the bottom line of an organization. In the events management industry culture plays an important role.

Successful events take into consideration the cultural background of the attendants and ensure that cultural biases and norms are respected. In an event the food and entertainment should cater to the cultural demands of the guests. The workforce in events management companies should be trained on handling people with different cultural backgrounds and not discriminate on any cultural aspects of the guests.

A leader in an events management company should be always alert and aware of various cultural aspects of different people and work to ensure the events are catered with the highest level of professionalism. Events usually involve other institutions such as the police force leaders must ensure the various groups involved all work in harmony (Moran et al 2010, p. 25).

In conclusion leaders are responsible for the culture and the cultural trends in an organization. The leaders should establish a culture that allows harmony is achieved in all aspects of the organization as far as culture is concerned. The culture in the organization should be all inclusive and not seek to discriminate anyone. Leaders are tasked to lead by example and adopt flexible approaches when cultural matters arise.

The leaders should seek to learn about the cultures of different potential and existing clients. The leaders should establish a culture that allows all employees to interact with one another which allows information to flow easily in the organization.

With the change in global trends the organization should adopt new technology. The use of social networking site is an example of new global culture that companies can use to their advantage. Leaders should have the vision and insight to lead organizations and companies into new markets even if they are culturally different.

Reference List Bowdin, G., 2010. Events Management. Burlington: Routledge.

Deardorff, D. K., 2009. The Sage handbook of intercultural competence.Carlifornia: SAGE.

Fitzgerald, S. P., 2002. Organizational Models. Oxford: John Wiley


The Scar of Colonialism and Ongoing Post-Colonialism Essay college application essay help

Introduction Colonialism is something that has left scars and continues to build negative emotions amongst the colonies. Kincaid uses her two novels ‘Lucy’ and ‘On Seeing England for the First Time’ to show the effects of imperialism, which represses the culture of the locals/colonies. Lucy is a powerful novel that captures the transcendent possibility over the heroine’s colonial and post-colonial plight.

Lucy is shown not to appreciate the fact that the British have invaded her hometown and imposed their foreign culture on them. Kincaid is also shown to be sceptical about the praises accorded to England. In both novels, the woman is shown as a marginalized identity of her own self, and that of others.

Desai’s story is not any different, and inferring to her text, Kincaid, and her character in Lucy are expatriates in a tug of war between love and hate for their lands of adoption. Their unconscious and subconscious soul exudes nausea, nostalgia and longing for the native land.

Sissie, in Aidoo’s novel, has also left for England to advance her education, and it is obvious that she is not happy with England, and this is manifested after she visits the Bavarian town and river. This paper aims at discussing the events associated with colonial and post-colonial times with reference to travel, self-hood and encounters with others.

The self is a great determinant of encounters with the other in all the texts because, based on the self; an individual is able to transcend the obstacles and barriers that come along.

Crossing borders is considered to be an “antidote to the paralysis of oppression and depression referred to as Coatlicue state” by Anzaldua since the home-place is termed as a site of resistance (Davies 11). This paper will also delineate the position of the woman within her gendered identity and racial difference, as well as within her racial identity and gendered difference.

Discussion Travel

The travel denoted in all the three works of Kincaid, and Desai, are typical of expatriation where the two women in Kincaid’s texts travel to foreign lands as a result of heightened resistance to imperialism of the ruling nation’s culture, whereas the men in Desai’s travel to London is search for a perfect life, away from the imperialists in their homeland.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This imperialism continues to be felt in contemporary times through post-colonization. Travelling, in these texts is presented as a way of getting rid of oppression, colonization and imperialism by the characters.

It is through travel that a wave of writers emerged from the emigrants, most of whom had left their homelands for further studies in metropolitan centres (Massey, et al. 53-57). However, this was not applicable for Kincaid because, her travel was purposed for a better life and the need to fill in the space created by colonialism and imperialism.

According to Boehmer (232-233), the 1990s was anticipated as a period when the generic postcolonial writer would actually become a cultural traveller, or an extra-territorial, than a national writer. The writer therefore would be ex-colonial by birth, his/her cultural interest would stem from the Third World, and would be cosmopolitan in virtually every other way.

The writer would simultaneously work within the precincts of the Western metropolis while maintaining thematic and/or political linkages with a national background. As noted by James Baldwin, language is the most evident form through which post-colonization perpetuates (Baldwin and Quinn 2-3).

In Lucy, Lucy: the protagonist leaves her home for adventure and due to the harsh and intolerable conditions by the British colonial rule and the strained relationship with her mother. The advent of colonial empires was characterized by travel of white adventurers and conquistadors, who were later followed by the settlers. Later, it was the forced transportation of African slaves into the white foreign lands.

Kincaid’s two novels indicate emigration of women from the native lands in search for that one thing that will fill in the space within. Lucy travels from her native home, the West Indies, to become an immigrant in the United States. She seeks to fill in the void of liberation.

Far from her thinking, she faces a worse encounter in her new land, where she is actually referred to as a visitor “just passing through, just saying one long Hallo” (Kincaid 4). In Aidoo’s novel, Sissie is a Ghanaian, who is neither naïve nor innocent. She travels to a foreign land to fill in the void in education. She makes herself comfortable in the foreign land despite the prevailing disparity with regard to skin colour.

We will write a custom Essay on The Scar of Colonialism and Ongoing Post-Colonialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She is very adventurous, and surpasses boundaries of racially and culturally different space, compared with the other foreigners staying with her. She encounters a minute dissection first of Germany, and then England, from a Black and feminine eye.

It is in England that Sissie reminiscence about the British colonial encounter in Ghana. Sissie’s exploration is compared to that of the Western traveller, bestowed with a more honoured position. In the same light, Sissie is metaphorically bestowed such a similar position, ‘the round sentry post’ that makes it possible for her to evaluate the German landscape.


Lucy seeks to be independent and inter alia the reason why she becomes an immigrant of the U.S. She seeks to be an artist of herself (Kincaid 67). She does not want anyone to control her life; she desires to be a full grown adult responsible for her own actions.

This is made evident when she says ‘I had come to feel that my mother’s love for me was designed solely to make me into an echo of her; and I didn’t know why, but I felt that I would rather be dead than become just an echo of someone’ (Kincaid 36). Lucy seeks to satisfy her personal desires of rising above British colonialism through self-imposed detachment from her family.

Her actions thereby grant her, her yearned for independence and freedom that enables her to be in a position characterized by control and power that subsequently permits her to redesign herself and invent a new future. Despite her pangs of homesick, her determination of making sense of herself for herself was stronger.

The character: Lucy represents the marginalized black woman who is plagued by depression and rage against societal rules. The black woman suffers from stigmatization just like Lucy, who is very sensitive to the events going on around her unlike the white women colleagues, making inferences to Mariah.

She is able to distinguish between reality and ideology, and this can be considered as a step towards her personal liberation and following self-invention. The following reflection of Lucy on her arrival to America illustrates this distinction:

In a daydream I used to have, all these places (that she passes on her way from the airport) were points of happiness to me; all these places were lifeboats to my small drowning soul…Now that I saw these places, they looked ordinary, dirty, worn down by so many people entering and leaving them in real life…It was not my first bout with the disappointment of reality and it would not be my last (Kincaid 3-4).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Scar of Colonialism and Ongoing Post-Colonialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kincaid, in ‘On Seeing England for the first time’ expresses her thoughts about England. She is against the fact that everything in their native land is attributed to England. She yearns to see England and fill in the void created by maps and omnipresent England.

In Aidoo’s novel, Marijah is presented as a lonely being, who is easily fascinated by the exotic other ‘the black-eyed squint’. Marijah intends to gain power over Sissie and make her, her own creation but Sissie rejects such influence. This is an indication that the two figures are engraved in their-selves thus; it is not easy to influence either one of them.

Marijah thinks that just because she is a native and showers Sissie with gifts, she can lure her to her side. On the other hand, Sissie is able to realize Marijah’s intentions and despite being a Black, strongly refuses to be lured into what she does not morally approve. It is because of the egocentric and independent nature of Sissie that Marijah is not able to do so and ends up being disappointed and bored (Aidoo 40-61).

Sissie is so full of herself and to assert her position in her foreign land, she creates a range of anticipation that enables her to tour the Bavarian town and river where she sees violence, ignorance, savagery, and lust in the entire Europe (Aidoo 19-25).

The two women in the two novels by Kincaid represent the feminine self, vehemently fighting to gain recognition and position in the society she lives in. Mohanty is a feminist whose work gained international recognition via her text, ‘Under the Western eyes’. She claims that her subtle and complex argument is correct and therefore, white feminism is absolutely wrong.

She is determined to deconstruct the situated knowledge of the white Western feminism through the power of argument (Walby 199). Mohanty’s notion, gains support from Walby not only as a means to critique the aftermath of Western feminist scholarship on Third World feminists but also as that which falls within a framework characterized by solidarity and shared values.

Mohanty’s premonition is based on feminist equality across borders. She strongly believes in solidarity across races that she helped in the organization of the ‘Common Difference: Third World Woman and Feminist Perspectives’, which became a huge success in allowing for a possible decolonized, cross-border feminist community (Mohanty 503).

Despite the deeply-seated effects that range from being cast as the non-dutiful daughter of white feminists to being deemed as a mentor for the Third World women; from being regarded as a great feminist theorist to being regarded as an early childhood educator who should not get involved in affairs not related to her profession, she is adamant that writing ‘Under Western Eyes’ was a personal fulfilling exercise that she does not regret.

Both Kincaid’s novels represent the marginalized black woman who has been discounted by her cultural tradition and that of the whites’. However, her determination has given her the will to fight and it is only more recently that the black women have gained tokens of recognition as women in feminist critique and as blacks in the racial critique.

The effect of colonialism and its aftermath have been an aggravating factor for the position of the black woman in culture of the blacks, women, American literature, and contemporary literary-critical dialogue (Henderson 1).

The gendered and racial meanings derived from the literal works of the black women authors are a presentation of strong and revisionary methods of readings that focus on literary discourses deemed marginal, as opposed to the dominant literary-critical tradition (Narain 123-7; Said 64-71).

However, the critical insights of a particular reading can become the blind spots of another reading thus exhibiting what Fredric Jameson refers to ‘strategies of containment’ that repress variant readings.

According to a description by Nancy Fraser, blindness to both gender and racial subtexts can result into a strategy (exclusion at the extreme negative end, and reading a text in its entirety at best) that has a likelihood of re-reification, fought against in life and literature by the black women.

Simultaneity of discourse as inspired by Barbara Smith is a concept that introduces a mode of reading whose focus is on the perspectives of race and gender and their interactions, and how these make contribution to structuring the discourse of black women writers.

It is because of this that the limitations created by assumptions of internal homogeneity and restriction of internal differences evident in the racial and gendered readings by black women writers are surpassed. This is therefore a representation of efforts that eradicate presumed ‘absolute and self-sufficient’ otherness and simultaneously allow the comprehensive representation ‘of black women writers’ (Henderson 2).

The self of the black woman has had to deal with great oppression, which has been encoded as a discursive dilemma in their literary works. The writing by black women presents an interlocutory approach that not only reflects on the encounter with the other but also on an internal dialogue with the self in its pluralistic form constituting the matrix of black female subjectivity.

Therefore, the black women are not only faced with the challenge of the “external manifestations of racism and sexism, but also with the results of the internalized distortions created by these external factors which are within their consciousness” (Henderson 3). The self of the black women with regard to subjectivity is fundamental in structuring black women’s discourse.

As such, the black woman has had no say in spite of having many things to say. In addition, this self is also the colonized nation, from which national identity is lost and the culture of the colonial power is adopted.

This creates a lot of confusion and resentment within the natives as is the case with Lucy such that, moving into another country is a kind of liberation for her because it is better to become a subject in a foreign land than in one’s own country. Lucy likens her mother to the colonizers because of betraying her own sex.

The self in Desai’s novel is not one-sided due to her use of two characters: Adit and Dev. Both are Indians, who seek perfectionism away from their homeland that had been invaded, trampled on and suppressed by the British.

As a result, the self within Dev is defined by hatred, while Adit holds all praise for the foreign land: London, which denotes as a ‘land of opportunities’ (Desai 19). However, at the close of the story, the self in both characters dies off as the converse is taken up thus an ironical twist of the story. Dev remains behind as Adit decides to go back home and embrace his real life (Desai 204).

In Mr. Potter, the self is presented as a powerful being that is confined a rigid and unforgiving environment and their inability to neither read nor write makes their situation worse. All the characters in these novel seek to derive meaning and when it becomes too much to bear, they escape through suicide.

A lack of self-awareness, language, and understanding is associated with hopelessness and silence hence a truth that remains hidden due to inability of Mr. Potter to read and write. As a result, the self within the narrator endures the consequences, trying to make connections and ensuring that past mistakes are not repeated.

The fact that Mr. Potter is able to produce someone who expresses complex ideas is a sign of the possibility of language and articulation (Kincaid 55). Mr. Potter is a representation of the Antiguan population, which is silenced through ignorance. The lack of a voice results in Kincaid: the daughter, speaking on behalf of his father.

This is the same way that a nation that is overwhelmed with ignorance is replaced with the voice and meanings of the invading culture hence imperialism and post-colonization. The daughter fills in the blank spaces of her father’s mind and inscribes emotions, histories and emotions , the same way that colonial powers inscribe their language, art, culture and demeanour to its colonies such that every event derives meaning from the colonizers.

It is such ignorance that Lucy, Sissie, Kincaid, Adit, and Dev sought to transcend and fill in the blank spaces between inscribed meanings and reality. Adit’s encounter in the foreign land that makes him realize that his real life is back in his homeland is similar to Ralph’s encounter when he learns that gaining independence does not free a nation from colonial yoke (Naipaul 75).

Aisha is a short story that also portrays the zealous self in overcoming institutional oppression in the face of male indifference. Aisha fights to define a position for herself in a male-dominated society.

As a result, she leaves her marriage, husband and country for England. When she goes back home, she goes back as a university teacher and does not fail to notice the veiled women, presented as a symbol of subjugation to the Islamic religion that Aisha subtly rejects (Soueif 5-13).

Encounter with Others

Kincaid’s and Desai’s works represent a colonizer, colonized relationship with the other. In this case, the other is the colonizer while the self is the colonized and marginalized individual. The other in Kincaids novels refers to two identities: gendered self and racial self. The white women and the entire masculine fraternity act as the other with regard to Kincaid’s novels while in Desai’s novel, the other is the white man.

The novel ‘Lucy’ depicts a strained and tensional kind of relationship with others. Lucy is a representation of subjugation to show how colonialism prevailed. Her homeland is a British colony as is apparent from the novel.

The first two chapters of the novel therefore seek to delineate how Lucy abrogates the heartfelt colonialism in her native land. As usual the relationship between the colonizer and colonized is never a mutual one but instead resentment, dictatorship, power and control, and rebellion are its characteristics.

She relates with the ‘others’ by her role as an aupair. Despite the tension between Lucy and her mother, once she is far away, she misses her greatly as indicated by her pangs of homesickness and unresolved feelings about her mother (Kincaid 13-17). On the hand, she does not harbour similar sentiments for her childhood and homeland due to the characteristics toxic and oppressive British and family influences.

This is actualized by Lucy’s description of a scenario in her previous school when she forcefully had to memorize a poem on daffodils. Yet, she does not know these daffodis and fails to appreciate the beauty associated with them according to the poem because she had never seen them before. She is therefore alienated from her education as symbolized by the daffodis.

Lucy dislikes dictation on what to do as is the case with the British culture, her mother and at her current moment, Mariah (her boss). Her relationship with her mother is used to portray a mother-daughter relationship.

On the other hand, Kincaid uses this relationship to represent the relationship often characterized by tension and strain between imperial nations and their colonies. Lucy’s homeland is a colony of the British and the power of the British culture is synonymous to the Mariah’s power as Lucy’s employer.

Lucy is a representation of the colonized nations that ferociously fought to become independent and free from colonial rule. The reality of colonialism is still evident even after she leaves her homeland. Lucy gets caught up between two cultures (the American culture, and her own West Indian culture).

In the new land, Mariah replaces the maternal figure previously occupied by Lucy’s mother. Lucy becomes the marginalized ‘other’ in her own homeland as well as her new home. Such a definition deems Lucy as nation in its post-colonial era, when it is faced with the predicament of self-destruction and self-renewal.

In West India, it is clear that the British colonizers were able to silence this colony through brain washing. More often than not, colonial power is associated with destruction and victimization of the colonies. However, it is worth noting that local culture aggravates colonization through heinous practices such as immolation in India.

Therefore, the combined effect of colonialism and patriarchy has led to inability of the subaltern to speak or be heard. Masculinity has been pointed out as an object for criticism in the view of sati. The burning of widows on their husbands’ pyres deemed such women to be absent as subjects.

According to Spivak, this absence symbolized the hardships involved in the gaining back the voice of the oppressed subject. It was also evidence that ‘there is no space from where the subaltern subject can speak’ (Spivak 271-317). Spivak thereby challenges the trivial division between colonizers and the colonized when she compares this division with the division between both groups and the woman.

In Aidoo’s novel, the Europeans, and especially the Germans, are the other for Sissie’s deeply-rooted, African Self. Sissie’s position marked by subjective centrality is an affirmation of the unique perception held by her back-eyed squint contrary to what is universally held to be true, where the West is regarded as the ‘great family of man’ (Aidoo 67).

Aidoo uses the protagonist’s journey to change the direction of the rhetorical ‘Self’ and ‘Other’ by resisting, twisting, and subverting the mindsets of the Europeans towards the Africans. In addition, Aidoo unveils the deeply-seated ideology of the Orientalists that has been a fuelling factor for European thoughts, as well as, reversing the already laid down means by which the different groups of people are represented.

In her short story, ‘On Seeing England for the First Time’, Kincaid brings out a similar delineation of the other, which is England, ‘a special jewel that only special people: the English, got to wear it’ (Kincaid 22). This statement alone denotes the honour and orientalism accorded to England.

In both Kincaid’s texts, Lucy and On Seeing England for the first time, the other here is America and England respectively and both are credited for enabling the self to give meaning to their lives.

Even though they were not under the British rule any more, it is clear that the Antiguans had not yet obtained total freedom from the ‘other’ because they still adopted the ways of the English people without understanding the meanings associated with these ways.

In her ‘On Seeing England for the First Time’, Kincaid uses her father to illustrate this when she says that her father wore a hat made from felt, which apparently he had seen an Englishman wearing it, to supposedly provide him shade from the hot sun yet, the material felt was not the ideal one for hats serving such function (Simmons 37-51).

Kincaid uses this to show the effects of colonialism in post-colonial era and how the Antiguans were still grappling with its effects.

In her book, ‘Under Western Eyes’, Mohanty says that she is both politically and personally committed to establishing a non-colonizing feminist solidarity across regions (Mohanty 502). She aims at building a self-less and integral relationship with the other, who were the dominant Euro-American feminist scholars in the U.S academy.

When she obtained a new teaching position at a predominantly white U.S. academic institution, she was determined to fill in the space between the Third World, immigrant, alongside other marginalized scholars by opening an intellectual space to Third World/immigrant women scholars (Olinder 37-43).

Can the Subaltern Speak?” is a provocative essay by Gayatri Spivak that shows the subjectivity associated with the subaltern woman. The subaltern woman is conceived as absent, spoken for, and not listened to in her variety of discourses.

Spivak’s statements and meanings became verified and active after witnessing the mischaracterization, distortion, and ignored speech by Anita Hill, and Lani Guiner’s writings (Black women speakers) (Spivak 313-315). The man, the other, does not hold any regard for the woman but instead, the woman is treated as a mere subject for masculine dominance.

In Davies 11, Anzaldua presents the encounter of the woman with the other: her own culture, the white culture, and the males of all races.

Similar to other texts presented above, the woman faces intense marginalization from all races, and thus having a stronger impact than mere marginalization of the Third World individuals by the First World imperialists. The writings of the various feminists theorists enable one to create the pictorial alienation of woman from both others, and herself, giving rise to a more forceful and intense level of marginalization against the woman.

Hurston delineates the picture of masculinity in her Their Eyes Were Watching God, where the white men who predominantly make up both the jury and the judge, and the fact that they have control of power and discourse, the life the black woman is in their hands (Davies 15-21). In Desai’s novel, ‘Bye-Bye Blackbird’, the relationship with the other takes two different forms, the hospitable form and the hostile one.

The fact that Adit is able to lure and conquer the love of a shy and rectitude English girl Sarah, indicates the power of masculinity regardless of racial colour (Desai 73). The English women are described as manageable and hardworking as long as they are treated well, a typical phenomenon of every woman whether black or white.

This clearly indicates that the woman despite the racial orientation is under the masculine rule (black or white) (Desai 109). The woman in relation to the other, the man depicts a submissive and subjugated kind of demeanour towards the other, just like a colony towards its colonizer.

The reification of the woman is evident in Kincaid’s novel, ‘Mr. Potter’. This story shows how men, in this case Kincaid’s father, shuns his fatherly responsibility leaving the woman and her child impoverished, with no means to fend for themselves.

Lack of knowing oneself, as is presented in Mr. Potter, makes it impossible for one to make their selves known to others and thus becomes trapped in a cocoon of his own schizophrenic environment. The woman becomes a victim for his lack of self-awareness and as a result, he is a father to many fatherless babies, which the author is part.

This is because, due to lack of self-awareness, Mr. Potter fails to understand his role and thereby just as he was abandoned by his mother, he repeats the same mistakes. This is because he lacks his own self and that of others.

Conclusion Pressures of colonialism, imperialism and orientalism within one’s homeland due to invasion by an external culture builds up a self that is angered, bitter, shameful and full of a rage that s not easily altered by the other (Coetzee 43-55).

Lucy had to move from her homeland to a foreign land in search of a better life: financially and socially. She was forced into doing what she did not want and as such, the fact that she emigrated from her home country brings out the element of travel in the text.

Travel in this text is triggered by external forces; otherwise, Lucy would have preferred to remain in her home town without facing imposition from the British rule. Upon moving to the U. S., Lucy vis a vis foreign culture does not change her thinking and therefore her level of self-hood is unaltered by the other. When Mariah tells her about daffodis; she reminiscence the life back home and is not amused by them.

Kincaid is not amused by the fact that everything in her hometown is attributed to England. Her teachers paint a grandiose image of England and after she finally travels to England where she saw it for her first time. Kincaid’s self-hood is dominant because she does not change her opinion about England and in fact, its elegance and majestic look aggravates her negative opinion about England.

The self in these texts is a fundamental element in relating to others. The woman not only struggles against masculinity, but also with her racial self, hence this aggravates the situation for a mere African woman. Literary works by Aidoo, and related black women feminist theorists, clearly indicate this.

The woman in Lucy is so hard not only on the other, but also on herself because she refuses to be emotionally attached to a man. This leads to what Kincaid philosophically asks whether joy is evident in sorrow.

Works Cited Aidoo, Ama Ata. Our Sister Killjoy. New York: Longman, 1977

Baldwin, Dean, and Patrick Quinn. An Anthology of Colonial and Post-Colonial Short Fiction. Boston. Houghton Mifflin, 2007.

Boehmer, Elleke. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature: Migrant Metaphors. Oxford UP, 1995.

Coetzee, J. In the Heart of the Country: A Novel. New York: Penguin Group.1982

Davies, C. Black Women, Writing and Identity: Migrations of the Subject. London. Routledge, 1994.

Desai, Anita. Bye Bye Blackbird. Delhi: Hind Pocket Books Ltd, 1971.

Henderson, Mae G. Speaking in Tongues: Dialogics, Dialectics and the Black Woman Writer’s Literary Tradition. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Kincaid, Jamaica. Lucy. New York: Penguin Books, 1991. Kincaid, Jamaica. “On Seeing England for the First Time.” Transition. 51 (1991): 32- 40.

Kincaid, Jamaica. Mr. Potter. London: Vintage, 2002.

Mohanty, Chandra T. “Under Western Eyes Revisited: Feminist Solidarity through Anticapitalist Struggles.” Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28.2 (2002): 499-535.

Massey, D., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kououci , A. Pellegrino, and J.Taylor. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Narain, D. Affiliating Edward Said Closer to Home: Reading Post-Colonial Woman’s Texts. 2002. Web.

Naipaul, V. The Mimic Men. London: Penguin Books Limited, 1967.

Olinder, Britta. A Sense of Place: Essays in Post-Colonial Literatures. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University, 1984.

Saïd, Edward. Orientalism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1978.

Simmons, Diane. Jamaica Kincaid. New York: Twayne Publishers / Macmillan, 1994.

Soueif, Ahdaf. Aisha. London: Cape, 1983; rpt. London: Bloomsbury, 1995.

Spivak, G.1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds.). Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Walby, Sylvia. “Beyond the Politics of Location: The Power of Argument.” Feminist Theory 1.2 (2000): 109–207.


Training Transfer: Design, Characteristics and Job Environment Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction The traditional and formal employee training comprises the acquisition of new skills and knowledge. The people, who acquire these skills and knowledge, utilize them in different fields of gainful employment. This means that gainful skills acquired in training, should be applied in employment.

Formal training programs are meant to enlighten, but not to be applied in employment. Only a tenth of the knowledge gained from training is taken back to the office. The expenses incurred during training are extremely high, and there is need for the employers to maximize on the knowledge gained. The non-transfer of training can amount to billions being wasted annually.

Transfer of training means that the skills and knowledge gained by trainees should be applied throughout in their jobs. Cognitive strategies and behavior should also be transferred. The primary factor for the transfer and its aspects of success are a query of debate.

The process of training transfer has challenges involved in its progression. After assessments, training and application, transfer of training should be planned. The design, characteristics and job environment are key aspects depicting transfer of training.

The primary factors that play a role in the success of transfer of training process A positive transfer of training is the level at which the trainees apply gains from the training context to their work experience. The laxity in the linkage between performance and training defines the problem in the transfer of training. The transfer of training can be termed as near or far to situation. This is determined by the similarity and dissimilarity in training conditions respectively.

The stakes of transfer of training are high. Considering these facts, it is necessary to improve the outcome from all training programs while minimizing losses in transfer. The knowledge of this concept can be traced to the 1990’s, but the implementation of transfer of training in formal organization emerged in the 1970’s.

The transfer of training holds that the generalization and maintenance are both utilized. Generalization incorporates application of learnt capabilities, while maintenance involves the use of the material for a period.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers and supervisors need to adopt competences in order to improve transfer agents. These competences are grouped into two categories. The first is influence and transfer support. Here, the managers establish transfer goals, challenges, and offer incentives to encourage transfer.

The managers are also entitled to offer training to their employees. The second one is the result-oriented transfer. Here, results are analyzed, transfer issues diagnosed, and learning transfer process improved by managing its elements.

Challenges of the aspects of the transfer of training The methods of evaluating transfer of training are numerous, and they vary. These methods also require intensive labor. The methods of improving entry level for motivation are also vast and numerous. Relationship between transfer climate and transfer preparation are influenced by the trainee motivation. Behavior change, if not detected and rectified, is an enormous obstacle.

This will in turn affect the transfer of the training process. Another challenging aspect of transfer training includes the application of e-learning systems on the transfer of training. Without e-learning, the future of transfer training is inhibited.

Pre-training impacts on the transfer of training process are challenging factors to the activities of transfer. Free will on attendance gives the employee an edge in acquiring more knowledge. It improves the learning process during training and the motivation to transfer training.

Many organizations hinder this option as they make it mandatory for the attendance of the training. This will in turn affect the transfer in training. A new edge should be considered in the sense that the introduction of realistic training preview is implemented.

Early managerial briefs will encourage the managers to brief their employees and encourage them to willingly attend the training. The managerial support is vital in the transfer of training. Remedial training is deemed to produce better motivation.

We will write a custom Essay on Training Transfer: Design, Characteristics and Job Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The motivation of the program will be influenced by program reputation. Perceived results and value of training will also affect the job performance and in turn affect transfer in training. Therefore, preparation of the trainee for training ensures optimum results in transfer of training. Improved entry motivation leads to comprehensive learning that enables improved transfer of training.

Sustaining applications of the training objectives Factors that affects transfer of training includes the training design, training motivation, and workplace conditions. Application of these factors to the required standards will sustain the application of the training process effectively. The motivating factor on the transfer of training has since been utilized to improve the job condition through the learning process.

Self-efficacy directly affects the will and motivation to learn. Furthermore, impact on motivation directly affects the transfer of training. Self-efficacy should be aligned according to scenario, as it is amenable making it easy to alter.

Design of transfer can be done in many different ways in order to promote transfer of training. Active participation and learning to the maximum are types of designs of transfer of training and all contribute to the transfer process.

The trainees can also use another design of transfer of training known as relapse control. This affects the transfer of training. Feedback coupled with goal setting in work performance improvement also directly impact on application of the training objectives sustained and on transfer of training.


The Business Plan Idea and Outline Essay essay help site:edu

Executive Summary Remix will be a fast food restaurant. The restaurant will offer food such as pizzas, fried chicken, Doughnuts as well as chips. Similarly, the restaurants will also sell soft drinks such as sodas as well as fruit juice to its customers. The restaurant will be located in one of the city in United Arabs Emirates. The restaurant will be started as in form of a partnership between Ahmed and Ishmael.

After establishing the restaurant in one of the major cities in United Arabs Emirates, the restaurant is expected to expand as a chain of fast food restaurants to other parts of United Arabs Emirates as well as across the border. The restaurant will be started using the money that Ahmed and Ishmael will raise from their saving as well as from a loan they intend to apply from a bank.

The money raised will be used to refurbish the premises they intend to rent to run their business. In addition, the money will be used to buy appropriate stock that is needed to start the restaurant. The money will help in making the restaurant appear appealing in order to attract prospective customers in large numbers.

General Description of the Business We intend to venture into restaurant industry. I will act as the operational director, whereby I will use my vast acquired management skills to organize my skilled workforce to work as a team.

Vision Statement The vision of Remix is to become the leading fast food chain of restaurants in United Arab Emirates.


Remix restaurant will embark in offering fast foods to tourists as well as to those people that live in United Arab Emirates. The restaurant will provide foods such as chips, fried chicken, Doughnuts as well as soft drinks such as sodas and fruit juices.

Business Philosophy

Remix restaurant philosophy will be ‘Eat Healthy at an affordable price.’

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The restaurant industry is still very young in United Arab Emirates. Initially, we will open a restaurant in one major city in United Arab Emirates and then extend our restaurants to other cities of United Arabs Emirates as well as across the border.

SWOT Analysis The Strength of the restaurant will be based on its very competent workforce. Having worked for McDonald chain of restaurants at management level, I have acquired relevant experience that I will use to help Remix compete well with other restaurants in United Arab Emirates.

The restaurant will initially operate in form of partnership. I opted for this form of ownership in order for the two of us to combine our financial as well as professional resources to maximize our chances of excelling in our new venture.


Remix restaurant will specialize in offering its customers fast foods such as chips, fried chicken, Doughnuts as well as soft drinks and other foods. Remix will try to diversify its menu in order to cater for all its customers.


Remix will use its competent marketing as well as sales team to market its products. The marketing team will conduct a primary as well as a secondary research in order to determine the tastes as well as the preferences of its customers in order to advice the production department accordingly.

The primary research will entail collecting appropriate data from its customers. On the other hand, the secondary research will entail the marketing team conducting a review of available literature about the strategies that other successful restaurants such as McDonald have adopted in order to succeed in the restaurant industry.


Remix restaurant will start as a fast food restaurant in the city of United Arab Emirates. The demand for fast food is very high within the United Arab Emirates. Remix restaurant will start as a partnership, but will expand later and transform into a public ownership enterprise through privatization. Through this process, the restaurant will get enough capital to expand its operations through mergers and acquisition.

We will write a custom Essay on The Business Plan Idea and Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Customers

Remix customers will be mainly the rich residents of United Arab Emirates as well as those tourists who have visited UAE. Conversely, there are some of Remix customers who will belong to the middle class. Thus, Remix management will consider all these factors and designed appropriate menu for all categories of the anticipated customers.

Advertisement and Promotion

Remix will use its website to market its brand online. Similarly, the restaurant will use ads from the local TV to enhance the awareness of its brand within the United Arab Emirates.


The first Remix restaurant will be located in the one city of United Arab Emirate and afterwards other Remix restaurants will be started in other parts of the country.


Remix restaurant will get chickens, fruits, milk as well as vegetables from farmers in the United Arab Emirates. Other raw materials that will be needed will be bought from super markets that are nearby the restaurant.


The restaurant will have two directors Ahmed and Ishmael. Remix restaurant will also have an accountant who will manage the financial aspects of the restaurant.


The Restaurant will require approximately $ 50, 000 to start its operation. The directors will raise $ 20,000 while the remaining $ 30,000 will be raised from a from a bank loan.


Appraisal and Evaluation Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Scales of measurements

Nominal Scale of Measurement

Normal distribution

The relevance of studying normal distribution


Scales of measurements Normally, scales of measurement are used to denote the manner in which numbers or variables are categorized, quantified and defined. Each measurement scale has particular properties that sequentially define the relevance of its usage under statistical analysis.

For instance, in statistical analysis, the commonly used scales of measurements are the ordinal, ratio, nominal and interval scales (Gravetter


Human computer interface Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Human computer interface development has brought considerable change in many sectors such as political, social, cultural and economically. Some of these changes have affected the community either positively or negatively. The continuous evolving of human interface computer highlights substantial changes that are certain to happen in the future.

In entertainment one can do a lot in images when they are digital because computer interface has enabled users to produce digital images in many times as one wishes and broadcast to a lot of people around the world through the use of websites (Schindler, 2002). It is highly possible to take and share a photo to millions of people, a thing that was not there before.

Socially the world becomes like a small village whereby it is possible to communicate to people in different geographical regions. This will make the world unite more and have a rich culture due to cultural exchange. People will exchange, share and discuss ideas thus solving world problems easily.

Some human computer interface such as brain computer interfaces’ helps disabled persons use their brain waves to control digital movies, switches the lights and turn on the music. Entertainment would be less cumbersome as it provides clear and fast devices to carry out some entertaining tasks.

These human interfaces include the use of hot hand device which is a wing worn by electric guitarist, which uses wireless, transmitter to come up with various sounds effects by a different hand gestures (Mills, 2010). Socially ones movements will be remarkably safe as ones locations will be easy to be monitored. This is possible through the use of GPS as well as capturing ones locomotion by use of CCTV cameras.

This will ensure the cases of insecurity have reduced drastically. People in the future will be making their office be at home, the spacious offices can be discarded as workers will not be required to travel to work.

The conferences will not require members to be there in person as the events can be transmitted to people in their homes and they can make suggestions too (Bushnell, 2008). Families will be stronger since they will communicate to one another through computer-based video connection.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aged will benefit more as they will use computers and contribute to the economy. They will continue working using computers and these will change the way people view aged members in the society. Some people will use computes to spy others.

Parents will be in able to monitor their children activities even when they are not together. This will also apply to other people such as policemen as well as thieves. Future automotive will have an apartment for computer games whereby commuters will be able to keep themselves busy along the way.

Person’s centralized information can be accessed by many individuals without the owner’s permission. All additional software and cables will not be needed to synchronize ones laptop and palmtop a thing that will lead to more social connections (Atkin, 2007).

The cost of entertainment will reduce as one will only buy the song he wants instead of buying the CD. This will make many individuals afford and access only what they want. There will be no much digital divide in the computer use as many people will already have used them before. The aged have used the computer in one stage during their lifetime making them adopt new development easily.

References Atkin, D. ,2007, Communication technology and social change:theory and implication. Chicago: Lawrence Erlboum press.

Bushnell, D. ,2008, The role of computer in future instruction system. London: University of Michigan.

Mills, C. ,2010, Computer-based testing:building the foundation for future assessment. Mahwah: Tayler


Faust Character Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Faust as a Positive Figure

Faust as a negative Figure

Faust in the Dungeon scene

Destro’s Take

Works Cited

Introduction The character of Faust is a complex one. For this reason, evidence will be found throughout the text that can be appropriated to paint him either as a hero or a villain. This is, however, the result of divergent conceptualization of morality and of the heroic character.

In this paper, I will provide evidence to show that, in consideration of the whole text, Faust can be understood as either hero or villain and that a deep analysis of the Dungeon scene will give credit to Dante’s claim that Faust cannot be morally classified as a positive figure.

Faust as a Positive Figure Faust is a seeker of knowledge. He is driven by a great need to understand the nature of things, thereby, studying a number of disciplines including law, medicine, philosophy and theology (Goethe). This quest for knowledge occupies his whole life. This trait of persistence in seeking something one believes in is an integral part of the hero archetype.

In striving to arrive at the truth, he makes an error of judgment by getting into a wager with Mephistopheles. He does not believe in hell and, therefore, thinks he has outwitted Mephistopheles. In the end, he does make it to heaven after supplication, showing that he isn’t responsible for the errors of judgment he made earlier in his life.

A second argument supporting Faust’s place among heroes would be if he is regarded as a victim. Goethe’s plot alludes, to a great extent to the book of Job in the Bible. Job is the victim of a wager between God and Satan; Satan thinks he can corrupt Job’s moral standing but God knows otherwise. They make a wager and Job becomes the victim of endless misery as Satan seeks to make him deny God’s greatness.

In the end, Job upholds his faith on God and, for this reason, he is greatly rewarded. Faust’s experiences can be viewed this way. His eventual remorse for all he has done in search of knowledge and his quest to conquer death serve as the ultimate proof of his heroism.

Even after the witnessing the power of Satan, he still has a capacity for remorse. When looking at this way, Faust can be painted as a hero even if taking into account just a concept of a belief.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Faust as a negative Figure Faust is given an avid need for humanly pleasures. He disregards all consequences in getting into a wager with Mephistopheles. He portrays little responsibility in giving into the desires of the flesh, a case in point being his lust for Gretchen. He has his way with her and later leaves her that leads to her eventual death.

He shows a great vanity when he accepts Mephistopheles’s offer to restore his youthfulness. On not finding any value in life after a spirit rejects his assertion that he and it are one, he considers committing suicide and it is only Easter bell that distracts him.

Faust in the Dungeon scene An analysis of the dungeon scene can lead one to characterize Faust as a hero. The scene begins with Faust bearing the keys to the dungeon where Gretchen is imprisoned (Goethe). The motivation behind Faust’s action is admirable. He goes to rescue Gretchen from the jailers since he feels guilty for having deserted her. It is at a great personal risk to his person that he is undertaking this rescue (Goethe).

This act of heroism may also be interpreted as a sign of his love for Gretchen. He declares: “a lover lies at your feet/ who’ll end your painful slavery” (Goethe). It could also be argued that at Mephistopheles’s prompting.

Faust does not leave Gretchen until a voice comes from above declaring that she has been forgiven (Goethe). It can be argued that Faust’s action to redeem Gretchen are noble and that their significance is magnified by the lengths he goes to, even risking harm to himself just to save her.

The same scene can be used to provide proof for the argument that Faust is indeed a negative figure. Foremost, Faust’s rescue plan is motivated by the wrong impetus: his remorse and not necessarily his concern for Gretchen. This can be interpreted as proof of his egoistic nature.

When he opens Gretchen’s cell, she thinks that time of her execution has come. She rues her death and her lover’s absence: “I’m still so young, so young! / And yet I’ll die!/I was lovely too, that was my Ruin/ My love was near, now he’s gone /The garland’s torn: the flowers are done” (Goethe). To this lament, Faust declares: “How shall I endure this misery, say!” (Goethe).

We will write a custom Essay on Faust Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This declaration is an evidence of his inner guilt and anguish, the feeling that he seeks to assuage by freeing Gretchen. More profoundly, though, Faust’s attempt to save Gretchen is a sign of a much grave flaw in him and Faust is obviously quite disinclined towards penance.

Gretchen’s being in prison is partly his fault. Had he pursued love rather than lust when he first sought to woo Gretchen, she would not have been facing death. He is willing to disregard the past as evidenced by his saying: “Let past be past I say! / You’re destroying me!” (Goethe). It shows that he is ready to face the future and forget about everything that has happened.

Destro’s Take Destro’s take on Faust is that it is completely impossible to find a positive side to his character. Drawing from contemporary ideas of morality, he argues that Faust’s obsession with finding the truth presents a flaw since he is unable to come to terms with his own salvation (

He uses Kantian view of morality to argue that Faust lacks the capacity for responsibility towards others and instead applies “the immoral “morality” of the Superman, for whom the supreme law is self-realization” (

This is a reference to Faust’s incapacity to face penance for deserting Gretchen and choosing the relatively easier route of appropriating Mephistopheles’ powers to save her. Dante contrasts Faust’s behavior with Gretchen’s who is ready to face death rather than escape from prison in the company of Faust and Mephistopheles.

It is clear that Dante bases his evaluation of Faust’s morality on Kantian inspired standpoint that scoffs at the idea of egoism. The author’s eventual decision to save Faust does seem, in Destro’s words, a “mockery of any kind of ethical judgment on him” ( He sacrifices the interest of others for the sake of bodily pleasure. It is his preference of lust over love that leads to the death of both Gretchen and their child.

For these deaths, he is not willing or ready to face the appropriate consequences. Thus, he presents a typical case of a narcissistic hedonist. Little moral ground can be found to defend hedonism whether by consideration of the moral concept of his time or in the contemporary understanding of the term. Similarly, little basis exists for his eventual salvation from the story.

Consideration of the whole text leads one to arrive at the same conclusion. The argument that Faust is a victim of the spiritual machinations of the bet between God and Satan can not be further removed from the truth. While Job’s case to which Goethe alludes clearly shows the basis for Job’s salvation, Faust’s does not. He willingly gets into a wager with Mephistopheles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Faust Character by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His intentions in doing so are in no way noble since what he seeks is his involvement on pure bodily pleasure. He, therefore, can not be objectively argued to be a victim. From a moral point of view, he is responsible for his actions and would be expected to atone for them in a morally apt way. This, he does not do.

On analyzing Faust, as a whole, and later particularly focusing on the dungeon scene, I do agree with Destro’s assertion that it would be practically impossible to find any moral or heroic merits to the character of Faust (

This is particularly so if one were to base their argument on the contemporary understanding of morality. It would still be problematic for one to apply the philosophical notion of morality during the Goethe’s time. To find him heroic would be evidence of a complete misunderstanding of the idea of heroism, the concept of morality or both.

Works Cited “Goethe’s Faust.” 2012. 25 Jan, 2012. .

Goethe. V. W. “Faust.” Poetry Translation. 2012. 25 Jan, 2012 .


Energy Consumption: The State of Maryland as the Residential Region Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The main economical forces of the State of Maryland are the informational technology, telecommunications, scientific research, aircraft development and security. Maryland keeps the leading position in the biotechnology area, providing the multiply researchers of the human genome. The state has a high position in a sector of computer system design and technical consulting.

The domestic household of Maryland is the wealthiest in the country: about $69,272 in 2009 (Maryland State Archives). Although the State is small, its geographical location provides a number of facilities that add money to the State’s economy. The transportation sector provides a wide range of facilities due to the location and a good infrastructure.

The Port of Baltimore serves as a very important link of the import receiving such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar and fertilizers. The agriculture is a significant part of the State’s economy. More than 2 million acres among the total land are used as farmlands and in 2007 the total farm production benefit exceeded $2,38 billion (Maryland State Archives).

Maryland’s economy includes the benefit of the commercial fishing in the Chesapeake Bay. In 2006 the value of fisheries exceeded $53,5. Another important issue of the State’s economy is the educational sector. Maryland ranks second in the list of professionals and workers of the technical industry. The main fields are the medical research, aircraft investigation and security service.

The state of Maryland has a small number of the energy resources, exploiting the minor coal reserves in the Appalachian Mountains. The coal producing of the State is small: it is only about 0,8% of the total U.S. average. The hydroelectric power is produced from the Susquehanna River in the north of the State.

Maryland distributes converted natural gas from Cove Point liquefied gas throughout the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast of the country. It is one of the nine U.S. liquefied natural gas resources. The State has several pipelines that supply natural gas from the Gulf Coast to Maryland’s markets.

The dual-unit Calvert Cliffs facility is the only one State’s nuclear plant; however, this sector supplies one-fourth of the electricity produced in the State. Maryland provides the high average of the households, including 51,2% of natural gas and 30,3% of electricity of the total U.S. average.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current data provided by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides the following list of consumptions:

Reference List Maryland State Archives. (2011). Maryland at a Glance. Retrieved from:

U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2012). Maryland. Retrieved from:


Implications of the Austar-Foxtel Merger Case Study college essay help near me

Introduction Foxtel is a vibrant and fast growing pay TV service provider in Australia that offers cable, IPTV as well as direct broadcast satellite services.

Over the years, the company has been making milestones in the industry that includes, among others, the delivery of up to 20 channels over Telstra’s Hybrid Fibre Coaxial network, the acquisition of Galaxy satellite television in 1998 as well as the imminent take over of Austar, formerly one of Foxtel’s fiercest competitors, set to be finalised in 2012 (Foxtel, 2012).

This merger will have far reaching consequences in terms of business performance of other players in the same media industry. These implications are identified and explained in detail below.

Issues Resulting from the Merger Weakening or killing competition

Austar and Foxtel intended merger will see the companies spend a hefty combined budget of $500 million each year on content originating from Australia. Apart from content, the company will also be bidding for technology as well as conducting national campaigns. $500 million is a huge amount of money that can hardly be raised by other players in this same industry due to their capacity in terms of market share.

In essence, Austar and Foxtel could be creating some sort of monopoly by virtue of their sheer expenditure value (Goldenberg, 1973). They will be able to acquire the best and most expensive technology and buy almost the entire TV programs prepared in Australia. Even if the competitors would, somehow, acquire rights for other local contents, it would most likely be less lucrative and less attractive.

Ethically, content producers may deny other TV companies like SWM the chance and opportunity to acquire their content simply because they will be anticipating for better prices offered by Austar and Foxtel. This ‘hoarding’ is not healthy for any business environment as it favours only one side or player at the behest of the others.

Similarly, all top cream broadcasters and other professionals will be lured by the handsome sums dangled by these two companies right at their faces. However, Foxtel and Austar’s rush to self-imposition as the market leader could open up many gaps that competitors could use against them with much success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It will require some time before their internal working structures and systems are fully merged before producing as expected (Ferguson, 2011).

Untenable prices

The merger between Foxtel and Austar, if unchecked, could easily force other players in the market into folding up and quitting altogether. This is due to a number of factors which would work against other players while largely favouring Foxter and Austar. For instance, with a huge combined spending of $500 million per year, the margin of economies of scale that these companies will be enjoying will be enormous (Anderson, 1917).

Users will literally desert other pay TV service providers, including SWM, in favour of Foxtel and Austar because of their reduced prices. The only way that the competitors can match their prices to coincide with Foxtel and Austar’s prices would be to reduce theirs as well.

However, that would be suicidal given their size of revenue (Kimmons, n.d). Reduction in prices will mean little or zero revenues at the end of the day and therefore there will be no funds to run the enterprise (Biyalogorsky


Human Resource Management Strategy Essay best essay help

Although it is presumed that Human Resource Management (HRM) strategy is determined by the internal environment of a particular organization, one should not underestimate the influence of external factors. Thus, successful HRM planning is nowadays impossible without taking into consideration the current political, economic, and technological conditions.

To begin with, one is to note that political and economic background defines all the levels of the corporate strategy of any company. Even though HRM aspect might seem less susceptible to the external changes than, for example, financial or partnership fields, HR policies are still adapted according to the latest economic trends. The most vivid evidence of the economic factor’s influence on the HR targeting is the increase or the fall of the domestic market’s demand.

This factor may lead either to the reduction or the rise of the unemployment level. Moreover, national economic policy, along with the international commercial conditions can largely define the type of labour required – the high demand for higher-skilled employees is apt to have a significant impact on the company’s HR strategy, particularly its training issue (Sparrow 2010). While analyzing the influence of the economic environment on the HR strategy, one can turn to the example of the European Union’s (EU) economic structure.

The single market and the free money turnover within the EU’s borders permit professionals to get occupied in any country that belongs to the union, and all the European companies have necessarily adjusted their HR policy to this condition. According to the latest research, the shared market has contributed to the general improvement of the employment environment by creating several million workplaces in a relatively short period (Perkins


Importance of Online Negotiations in Organizations Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The realization of successful transactions among people and/or institutions involves a negotiation process that leads to mutually accepted solutions. Negotiation can be understood as a process that involves two parties with different goals or needs based on a common issue. These two parties find a way of reaching an agreement. People conduct negotiations either face-to-face or through virtual means in business transactions, agreements, and court proceedings among others.

One of the main conditions that must be realized is the acceptance of a win-win situation for the parties involved. In the absence of such conditions, concessions, goodwill, agreement, and better relationship can never be achieved. In the wake of increasing globalization and technological shifts, online negotiation has become an integral part of many businesses. In this case, the two parties meet virtually to reach a consensus.

Under such environments, trust is a key ingredient for the successfulness of the negotiation process. The essay presents a detailed discussion on online negotiation. The first discussion will provide an overview of the definition of the negotiation process. It will also provide insight into the approaches to dialogue theories with a view of discussing how such concepts are important for the success of negotiations. Primarily, the essay will focus on online negotiation, its benefits, challenges, and ways of overcoming them.

Overview of Negotiation Negotiation is a word derived from the Latin term ‘Negotiationem’ that means to bargain. The term is related to the needs of people who coexist in a particular region. In ancient ages, men used to negotiate their ways of possessing items or sharing their ideologies among families and clans (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 14). Since people required peaceful coexistence in the wake of civilization, powerful negotiations were initiated to ensure that harmony and cooperation prevailed.

Consultative bargaining soon erupted in the process with increased democracy and freedom of communication. In the business fields, negotiations have played major roles in the interventions of buyers and sellers (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 14).

In a political dimension, leaders strive to demark their territories through negotiations, especially in cases that involve the sharing of powers. In the society, social gatherings have been facilitated through negations. Events such as social celebrations where people from different backgrounds meet are normally realized through negotiation processes (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 14).

Approaches to Negotiation Theory Prescriptive, normative, or descriptive characteristics distinguish various categories of the negotiation theories. The nature of the theories has been based on various disciplines or perspectives in which they originate. From such disciplines, a discussion of negotiation definition can either be reflective on functional, disciplinary, or conceptual characteristics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Politicians see negotiation as a process used to bring the conflicting parties together based on the decision of unanimity rule. Other people have also viewed negotiation as diplomatic, mechanical, weighted interactions, or relative power that is mutually shared (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

All theories of negotiation have a common base where the parties must have an agreement. At the outset, the party must be contented that their purpose will be served in a better way if the negotiation results are acceptable. These two parties at the opposite ends always have a profound belief that their interests must be considered first. Initially, the two sides have no interest in reaching the agreement. The perceived opinions amongst the involved parties lead to the negotiation process (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8).

William Zartman, a negotiation researcher, came up with five different levels of approaches that included structural, strategic, procedural, behavioral, and integrative arbitration tactics (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8). Structural approaches initiate a negotiation event as a conflict between two opposing parties who have visions that can never be compact.

Theorists who use this approach emphasize the means that are brought on board by the two parties to the negotiation. These theorists outline that the main factor that determines a breakthrough in the negotiation process is power. Each party strives to exercise their powers at individual levels in the negotiation process to achieve their goals (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8).

The power of individual party can be examined in terms of their convincing ability to win in addition to the available resources that are brought onboard. This approach derives its route from the political theory that lays emphasis on survival. The strong characters survive by doing what they can while the weak must suffer (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8).

Although the application of the political theory to the negotiation process is significant, its outcome is not guaranteed to either the strong or weak. This approach has a game changer where properties such as those of symmetry-asymmetry balances must be considered to ensure the strong groups or individuals do not have absolute control (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 12).

A major drawback of this approach is that it omits the skills used in negotiations that are essential in shaping the outcome. In addition, there is also emphasis on the placement of negotiation positions. Besides, this approach sometimes leads to the loss of opportunities due to the tendency to hold back positions (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 14).

We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Online Negotiations in Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strategic approach is coined from both decision and rational choice theories. This approach emphasizes the role played by the goals of the parties in the determination of the negotiation outcome (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8). Under this approach, the negotiators must always be guided by their mathematical maneuvers and options that leads to greater benefits for them.

The players are also allowed to select the appropriate actions that can lead to the formulation of a concrete decision. This approach always picks a normative negotiation theory based on the best available solution in negotiating issues. Therefore, it is deemed a bargaining technique (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8).

The framework for this approach is based on the game theories. The game concept focuses on certain mathematical models to define and foretell feasible choices that can lead to the optimization of the negotiation process. Another aspect is the consequences of the actions that are based on the decisions of other parties. The approach also borrows some ideas from the critical risk theory that lays emphasis on the use of cardinal numbers to elaborate the behaviors exhibited in decision-making (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8).

This theory uses probability estimations when making decisions by conceding defeat in the process of negotiation. In this case, the players must derive their critical risks that are used to initiate the probable solutions. The limitations of the strategic approaches include the omission of the use of power by the undifferentiated parties involved in the conflict. However, the assumption is seen as a win-lose available solutions that are optional based on the rationales adopted by the parties (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 7).

The behavioral approaches lay emphasis on the personalities of the negotiators. The behavior of the negotiators either can be seen as either ruthless or conceding diplomatically to ensure peace (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 8). Online negotiators who use this approach tend to have a dilemma.

These people are observed to be more demanding to ensure that a solution is reached; hence, their approaches are unlikely to succeed. This approach is based on the psychological traditions that have perspectives that all negotiations are about the individuals involved in the process (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 10).

The behavioral models tend to lean on the emotions, skills, and conducts of people. They emphasize on attitudes, persuasion skills, trust, perceptions, and motivation factors that affect the negotiation results. The result of this approach is a win-lose scenario (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 17). These factors significantly influence the nature of online negotiation processes.

The concession approach is centered on learning. The negotiation is viewed as a learning process whereby the parties must reach one another’s concession behaviors. The interests of the individual parties play a crucial role in the determination of the outcome of the negotiation process. The main limitation of the approach is that it emphasizes the positions of parties and absence of predictability (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 15).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Online Negotiations in Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, the integrative approaches pose negotiations as interactions that have win-win potential. This theory finds a way of creating value to ensure that wider varieties of ideas are available for the parties involved in the negotiation process. This approach uses a criterion that is objective to ensure that mutual gains are created (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 23). It also ensures the sharing of information during the formulation of solutions.

It supports cooperation, joint decision-making and mutual gain among the parties. This state of affairs compels the parties to uncover their interests, generate options, and look for common solutions that are mutually beneficial.

This approach is derived from the political, international relations, and social decision-making approaches. The assumption in this approach is a win-win potential with limitations being seen in terms of time consumption and unaddressed barriers that can break the negotiation process (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 26).

Online Negotiations The use of information technology in negotiation has been increased in the line of businesses such as those involving emails among others. Online negotiations borrow ideas and knowledge of communication and technology in place. In the current world scenario, globalization has ensured business transactions across borders with long distances (Lelieveld et al. 635). Communication plays a crucial role in ensuring that successful negotiations are conducted.

Online negotiations range from organization functions such as harmonization of employee payments, working conditions, and business deals that are conducted at the local and international levels. Besides, online negotiations can be conducted on acquisitions, mergers of businesses, political negotiations, and court proceedings among others (Lelieveld et al. 635).

Anonymity and Affective Display in Online Negotiation Personal connections to both parties play a critical role in online negotiation. These connections can either be in terms of friendship and acquaintanceships and must be considered as the basis of the negotiations. The degree of similarity as per the judgment of the two parties will determine the success of the online negotiation.

This state of events can be based on the identity of an individual in the negotiation environment that also influences the outcome of the process (Olekalns and Druckman 455). For example, online negotiating parties normally include their pictures when responding to emails emphasize on their commitments to the process of negotiation. It is evident that online negotiations are successful if the parties know each other through initial face-to-face meeting, photographs, and/or video conferencing.

The initial meeting between parties has been identified to yield fruits in their cooperation and relationships due to the effect of limiting the anonymity perspective. Researchers have noted that individuals who have been in negotiation before seeing one another normally have difficulty in cooperating as well as developing a rapport with either negotiators or other party.

Experiments on the visual access have also been identified to boost cooperation whether the negotiations are realized through face-to-face, video conferencing, or pictures (Olekalns and Druckman 455). The affective display is termed as a normal state of physical arousal that is always displayed when one is communicating. This state sometimes varies in intensity; hence, it can lead to changes in mood and emotion among others.

In the negotiation processes, unpleasant or high-intensity anger can be portrayed as negative arousal while happiness can be seen as positive arousal (Belkin, Kurtzberg, and Naquin 28). These factors are highly influenced by the language of communication in negotiation.

Affective display of an individual in a negotiation process must always be considered since it influences people to change their judgments. Positive arousal ensures the enhancement of cognitive flexibility that leads to attention improvement while the negative arousal leads to reduced cooperation. However, a detailed cognitive orientation processing is gained (Belkin, Kurtzberg, and Naquin 28).

Most studies have outlined the importance of the affective displays of other parties on negotiation especially those at the receiving end. The affective displays that tend to be negative as being indicated by the opponents can be observed by the indicators to be their source of power in online negotiations.

A research conducted by Lelieveld et al. (2011) indicates anger directed by one party may be used by a negotiator to obtain a more concession from the opponent (Lelieveld et al. 635; Belkin, Kurtzberg, and Naquin 28). Sometimes, the expression of anger among the players in the conciliation process can bring about a distributive gain. This situation implies that people with higher powers in the negotiation processes express anger in most cases (Lelieveld et al. 635).

When too much anger is expressed, it can inspire the opponent to be deceptive for the scale to balance (Lelieveld et al. 635). Online negotiation whereby one party portrays overblown anger may lead to a reverse impact where the sender is perceived to be weaker. A research conducted by Sinaceur et al. (2011) demonstrated the use of threat in negotiation. The negative consequences were stated to be results of not complying with one party’s request.

It revealed one of the most efficient means of expressing concessions by the other party in negotiation process. It is more productive than anger expression when communicating (Sinaceur et al. 1018).

This is because individuals with more powers in negotiation in most cases tend to have control on their feelings and decisions while the opponents imply traits of weakness such as losing control among others (Sinaceur et al. 1018). Therefore, it can be noted that the receivers secure their positions of power in most cases. As a result, the negotiator must ensure that the content of negotiation is the most important aspect or else the parties will portray negative tactics (Sinaceur et al. 1018).

A conclusion can be made that negative effects indicate signals that show dominance that can then be used to change one’s perceived opinion or behavior in the negotiation process especially in uncertainty conditions especially on the online negotiation where judging one’s power is difficult (Sinaceur et al. 1018).

Other researchers have also indicated that positive expressions such as being happy when communicating always result in opposite effects on the negative displays of other party especially when online negotiations are being carried out. Take for example if a person sends a message that clearly portrays his anger, such can be analyzed by the receiver as a stronger position in negotiation; hence, the receiver can perceive that there is no concessions(Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

When the information is conveyed well, the receiver tends to think that the source is less powerful. It is indicated that people with lower power always are appreciative, grateful and admire when responding to positive messages while they feel guilty when responding to negative messages (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

People of higher powers are always portrayed to have dominance and are independent while lower power people are fond of warm and are communal. It can be concluded that positive effects are associated with people of lower powers while negative effects are associated with people of high powers especially the senders of information.

Negotiators who intervene on online negotiation normally perceive that messages with positive effects portray the senders as being in possession of lower powers (Van Beest and Scheepers 50). They tend to be submissive and desperate. This situation is perceived as an advantage to the opponent.

However, the approach is different from that adopted by the sender who uses anger as an expression when sending e-mails. As a result, it is deemed more powerful. Some people who pose anger in the end always demand higher value and expect more out of the deal. The positive effects lead to an individual getting less gain at the outcome of negotiation (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

In ensuring negotiation outcome to be in one’s favor, the parties always strive to receive positive messages. This situation puts them in a position to feel that they are powerful due to their perception of the weaker end as portrayed by the other party who sends information that is more powerful. This set of circumstances influences the results of the negotiation process (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

Expectations of Negotiator in Online Negotiation Some aspects of the relationship lead to the optimism of the negotiator on outcome. The negotiator can easily ensure that parties arrive at fruitful conclusions if they are known to each other. Most of the legal negotiations have been fruitful in situations where two parties have met face to face prior to the negotiation dates (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

The communication medium used in the negotiation process plays a critical role in ensuring that negotiator is optimistic about the positive outcome in the negotiation process. The voice of participants in the negotiation process can also make the negotiator be optimistic about the outcome of the process.

A research conducted by Lelieveld et al. indicated that parties who meet face-to-face are more likely to trust one another than those who meet virtually during negotiation (635). It is important for the representatives to ensure that such parties meet prior to online negotiation. In such cases, the negotiator is likely to be optimistic about the positive outcome. In incidences where distances are barriers to negotiation, the negotiator must strive to ensure that video conferencing is used in the process (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

Importance of Online Negotiations Online negotiations have been noted to possess various benefits. At the outset, there is a physical absence of the parties involved in the negotiation. The use of body language can therefore not be used to posse judgment on one party to be more superior or inferior. The virtual environment provides an equal ground thus party who tends to be shy may take the virtual nature of the environment as an advantage (Lelieveld et al. 635).

The second advantage is that virtual negotiations eliminate the aspect of physical advantage in cases whereby the room being used can enable one party to feel more comfortable than the other party. Virtual negotiations do not have a physical selection of location. The opponents chose only when they are comfortable to negotiate and the favorable time for such activities to take place (Van Beest and Scheepers 50).

Another advantage is seen in terms of enhanced flexibility. There is no time wastage since the negotiators can easily schedule an impromptu meeting or follow-up to close the deal quickly. Issues of expenses in transportation are also omitted; hence, the problem of distance as a barrier is solved (Van Beest and Scheepers 50). Online negotiations provide more information, especially where facts are required.

One can easily search for more information on the internet quickly and at a lower cost. This state of events can be helpful especially when the other party tries to discredit various alternatives that one might bring on board during the negotiation process. Furthermore, they have been deemed quicker in the realization of concession and problem solving. Besides, online negotiation ensures that hostility is observed in face-to-face negotiations is reduced (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 15).

The absence of non-verbal cues normally ensures the reduction of hostility and conflict in the negotiation process. This type of negotiation also guarantees the effective elimination of status differences between parties that negotiate. As a result, the parties treat themselves as equal. Communication under such circumstances is done without bias (Daniels, Walker, and Emborg 15).

Challenges of Online Negotiation Negotiations that are conducted via emails are prone to challenges due to virtual contact of the two parties. Most people always perceive the responses of the other parties as rude owing to the lack sincerity on the negotiation processes. Situations that require immediate responses via emails sometimes take time due to network issues.

In such circumstances, other parties can perceive such situations as negative tactics that are used to delay the process. If the problem being solved touches the emotions of the parties, the absence of the other party hinders aspects of facial expressions. As a result, negative results can arise (Olekalns and Druckman 455).

Most negotiators who are based internationally have problems of cultural barriers to communication processes. Issues that surround social norms, body languages, physical appearances, and manners are excluded from the communication process. This state of events can derail the understanding amongst the involved parties (Olekalns and Druckman 455).

The parties only rely on the sound intensity, speed, and reflections to get useful information. This situation leads to low social awareness and instability as well as the lack of cooperation when interactions are conducted online. Most negotiators who solve issues virtually at the first step bring both parties face-to-face. The process is aimed at building rapport to create social awareness of the negotiation with a view of conducting the process successfully.

Those who fail to meet face to face, a video supported conferencing technique is used to aid in negotiation process. In this case, both parties get along each other by introducing themselves, setting up individual goals, and acquaint themselves with the issue at hand (Olekalns and Druckman 455).

Management of trust is quite hectic in online negotiation. Most people are honest when delivering information in person. In some cases, parties hold back private information thereby posing a challenge to the online negotiation process.

Most researchers who have indicated that most information given online tends to be full of lies, mostly irrelevant and ambiguous thus clarity is always minimal have confirmed this situation. The provision of inadequate information is also noted in emails and phone calls, especially when strangers are involved in the negotiation process (Olekalns and Druckman 455).

Proper Way of Managing Online Negotiations The first step in making online negotiation requires prior knowledge of the parties involved in the negotiation process. The negotiator must ensure that both parties are first brought together for face-to-face meeting. This step is specifically done to ensure the creation of social awareness. The meeting of such individuals can also be done through video conferencing in cases where transportation costs are high.

The parties must introduce themselves and provide information about their concerns. The next step entails vigilance. At the beginning of negotiation, both parties have high mutual trusts; hence, they can communicate information via any means that are readily available. The negotiators must be attentive to the language of communication. They must constantly monitor the whole process and correct misunderstandings that can arise. The close monitoring process must also embrace social awareness of both parties.

Conclusion Negotiation is mostly conducted on a face-to-face basis with emphasis on the personal contact. The expression of personal behavior by the other party portrays the sincerity of the negotiation process. Although such aspects are observed in negotiations, online negotiations have been noted to increase in the current world due to increased technology and globalization. People tend to be occupied on many occasions.

This situation makes face-to-face meeting a waste of time and other resources. As a result, people have embraced online negotiation as a way of solving conflicts and striking deals among activities. This new way of negotiation has been found to come with its pros and cons as has been elaborated in the essay.

Therefore, its choice mainly depends on the two parties’ relationship prior to the ongoing deals. The familiarity of the parties to the issue at hand is essential in ensuring trust that is a key in making such negotiations successful. Therefore, it is recommended that online negotiation should be implemented only if a rapport has been well established between the parties involved.

Works Cited Belkin, Liuba, Terri Kurtzberg and Charles Naquin. “Signaling dominance in online negotiations: The role of affective tone.” Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 6.4 (2013): 285-304.

Daniels, Steven, Gregg Walker and Jens Emborg. “The unifying negotiation framework: A model of policy discourse.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly 30.1 (2012): 3-31.

Lelieveld, Gert-Jan, Eric Van Dijk, Ilja Van Beest, Wolfgang Steinel and Gerben Van Kleef. “Disappointed in you, angry about your offer: Distinct negative emotions induce concessions via different mechanisms.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47.3 (2011): 635-641.

Olekalns, Mara and Daniel Druckman. “With feeling: how emotions shape negotiation.” Negotiation Journal 30.4 (2014): 455-478.

Sinaceur, Marwan, Gerben Van Kleef, Margaret Neale, Hajo Adam and Christophe Haag. “Hot or cold: Is communicating anger or threats more effective in negotiation?” Journal of Applied Psychology 96.5 (2011): 1018.

Van Beest, Ilja and Daan Scheepers. “Challenge and threat responses to anger communication in coalition formation.” Journal of Economic Psychology 38.1 (2013): 50-57.


The Economic Impact of Adopting Bitcoin as an Alternative for Goods and Services Coursework best essay help

The question of what effects bitcoin would have when it becomes a widely adopted form of payment for goods and services globally leads to highly speculative answers. There are positive and negative outcomes that can arise from the adoption. To understand the eventual outcomes, it is also important to have a general view of bitcoin’s journey to becoming a relatively popular alternative payment option. A general verdict of the digital currency’s outlook is that it is graduating to become similar to traditional currencies.

The current difference is that bitcoin is not yet dispensable by retail bank institutions or businesses, but there are establishments that are supporting such functions in some non-formalized ways. People can bank their bitcoins or even invest them. Another similarity that is developing is in exchange forums.

The normal currencies have forex services that allow people to change one currency to another. As bitcoin becomes popular, its value is also becoming predictable and people can use the coin base to make exchanges. There are payment processors serving the bitcoin network too.

According to a report by Jessop, bitcoin’s rise in popularity since 2007 has been due to convenience for particular types of transactions online (1-7). The alleged originator of Bitcoin was Satoshi Nakamoto in 2007, but the formal journey as a payment option began in August 2008 when three individuals, Neal Kin, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry, opted to seek a patent that would protect the encryption application they had developed.

The individuals also registered a domain name that would help to coin the name of the alternative payment option. They registered the domain on a website that allowed anonymous registrations. By that time, the alleged founder had released a white paper report explaining the idea of a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash that could be used in every part of the world for transactions.

Important features of bitcoin Bitcoin is a digital currency that is generated with encryption techniques that regulate its availability and verify transfers. The currency operates without a central bank. Bitcoin is the name for a single unit while many units of the digital currency are called bitcoins. Bitcoin comes from the encryption processes of a specialized application that requires significant computing power to accomplish.

People and businesses around the world generate Bitcoins by running computers in different parts of the world to solve mathematical problems using a type of software. No one, in particular, develops or prints a bitcoin currency. Without a central bank, there is no way to create more bitcoins deliberately as other currencies currently do in central banks around the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The creation of Bitcoin is known as a mining activity because computers work constantly to solve the mathematical problems, and the result is the presentation of encrypted keys that are used as coins. Overall, the computers work in a networked environment. The distributed network forms the bitcoin exchange platform, thereby allowing individuals and businesses to process transactions in bulk or singles that are made using bitcoin.

A conventional currency is based on promissory notes, where a person knows that depositing the currency is equivalent to getting a promise of payback in the future. Payback can be in gold or other accepted valuables, as well as in notes and coins of money. For bitcoin, the foundation is mathematical.

Therefore, there is no way of having custody of bitcoins in the physical sense. Besides, a bitcoin is a record that exists on a distributed ledger. The ledger is the block chain, which consists of all bitcoins mined. Volunteer networks of computers that are operated by real people share the block chain. Therefore, ownership of bitcoin implies that one has rights to transfer the control of a record. The rights move to another person as indicated in the block chain after the transaction.

Bitcoin uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm. It is a way that allows third-party verification of the authenticity of every signature. On the other hand, the signer retains the exclusive ability for coming up with a signature and the data being signed is the transaction that transfers ownership. These features happen automatically in the program development for facilitating easy usage. End users only need to press on transfer buttons and sign in or out, similar to the way they would do on secure websites like PayPal. The framework ensures that no direct manipulation of transactions by a single party is possible. It also maintains the integrity of the block chain (Rykwalder par. 3-4).

Advantages and disadvantages of Bitcoin when adopted as an alternative payment for goods and services Bitcoins work electronically when buying goods and services. Anyone who has the implementation of Bitcoin wallets can accept or issue payment with bitcoin. Therefore, allowing many people to have bitcoin wallets is the only requirement for ensuring smooth transactions from the consumer’s side. They can be implemented in many payment methods, such as mobile payments and wireless payments.

Bitcoins cannot be manipulated in their generation method because the authentication and generation frameworks for mathematics rely on detached processes that have to coordinate results in a way that would be impossible for a single entity to control. The Bitcoin software is open source, thereby allowing people to examine and correct flaws, as well as create applications that enhance its capabilities. Therefore, different governments and businesses can find better ways of enhancing the convenience of paying through bitcoins.

Setting up a bank account is difficult compared to how easy it is to come up with a bitcoin address. Besides, the process does not include any fees. Therefore, bitcoin payment can significantly increase the uptake of formal payment. A user can have as many addresses to use for payment, and there is no use of names as identities. Besides, the payment process is transparent because every transaction that ever happened in the network is on record in the block chain.

We will write a custom Coursework on The Economic Impact of Adopting Bitcoin as an Alternative for Goods and Services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Government entities can make their addresses public so that anyone can tell how many coins they have. Private individuals can see all coins at a particular address, but they cannot tell its owner. The biggest advantage is that transferring bitcoin is free, irrespective of the amount and the distance. Besides, as an electronic transaction, the transaction reflects instantly in the networks that process Bitcoin payments.

Some of the disadvantages of bitcoins are just the advantages flipped. For example, the anonymity makes it hard for governments to track laundering activities and proceeds of bitcoins can be from many illegal activities. It is not easy to freeze bitcoin addresses, as it is to freeze bank accounts.

Another problem that comes with anonymity is that if someone gains access to a bitcoin address and steals the bitcoins by transferring them, then the money cannot be recovered. However, the culprit can be found using investigative techniques and be compelled to issue a refund (Sparkes par. 10). Bitcoins are finite in number, which makes them valuable with every increase in demand.

Economic Impact of Adopting Bitcoin Bitcoin is currently valued at about US $340, and the price has been increasing. It is, therefore, the strongest currency in the world. Adoption of Bitcoin would mean that all countries in the world have a chance to have strong currencies without having to pay heavily for pegging costs.

Currently, countries like the UAE peg the value of their currency to the US dollar to maintain balance of trade and improve the attractiveness of their economies. Pegging allows investors to enjoy similar monetary environments like the United States. Bitcoin adoption would mean that even third world countries that lack that ability would still enjoy the benefits of a strong currency whose value relates to global economic conditions (Carmody par. 5-6).

Transaction volumes for bitcoin picked up in 2011 after being relatively minimal since formation in 2008. At the time, the average monthly figure was less than 1 million dollars. By 2013, transaction values had reached figures ranging from 20 million dollars to 54 million dollars. The highest recorded transaction volume of all time is about 570 million dollars. The graph below shows the value of bitcoin transactions (Carmody par. 2-8).

Figure 1: Estimated USD transaction volume. Web.

There are several exchanges tracking the price of bitcoin with other currencies. The notable ones are Bitmap, Bitfinex, Coinbase, itBit, Mt.Gox, and CoinDesk BPI. The graph below shows the fluctuation of exchange ranges since tracking began.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Impact of Adopting Bitcoin as an Alternative for Goods and Services by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 2: Bitcoin price index chart. Web.

Continued mining of bitcoins implies that soon the real value of the currency will be apparent. Given that bitcoin is the only cryptographically based currency to achieve mass adoption, its real value is significant for its adoption. It is like cash because individuals do not have to sign their names or transaction records when making payments. It is also like credit cards that facilitate convenient wireless payments.

Bitcoin adoption will eliminate rent-seeking intermediaries that currently work with money transfer transactions. Moreover, bitcoin will not succumb to barriers of national borders. The next effect is that the costs of transactions will reduce significantly, leading to the affordability of goods and services (Carmody par. 5-8).

In Africa, Latin American, and South Asia, many people have no access to credit and cannot use digital payments like PayPal. Thus, they are technically shut from online transactions. On the other hand, the world is moving fast toward electronic commerce that relies on digital payment platforms. Bitcoins will be a solution to the millions of people locked out of the formal system.

It will allow the people to exchange coins for cash that they receive as payment in their localities. Another tremendous impact will be on cash remittances. People will no longer have to rely on cash transfer services like the Western Union to send remittances back home. They will just transfer bitcoins and the recipients will walk to exchange centers or convert the bitcoins online into local currencies at the prevailing rate (Carmody par. 7-18).

Bitcoins show the potential of moving the unbanked directly into the digital currency platform, where they can store money in phones in digital form. The efficiency and security of the bitcoin network will increase value for everyone and force governments and other tax taking entities to change their tracking systems for collecting taxes, given that all transactions are similar to cash, where there is no evidence left other than the value exchange.

Overall, the economy will be very simplified as people will be able to tell the value of anything based on bitcoins and, therefore, get the true value of goods and services (Carmody par. 18-20).

Current trends in bitcoin adoption Bitcoins are decentralizing payment systems across the world. As they become popular due to increased media focus, bitcoins will also have significant impacts on economies. For example, the ability of central banks to manage monetary policies and the overall value of money in circulation will be hampered when a significant part of the population will accept and hold bitcoins (Sparkes par. 4). Already, enthusiasts around the world are making it a personal initiative to encourage the adoption of bitcoin.

As a result, some impacts that would materialize fully when bitcoin is an official currency are being felt. Many people are using bitcoins to obtain other investment vehicles like precious stones contrary to the expectations of many that e-commerce would be the number one reason for taking up bitcoin. The travel industry is also showing signs of success as several companies start accepting bitcoins as payment. Those booking with bitcoins can avoid hefty currency transfer charges and, therefore, get more value for the same price (Fargo par. 10).

Charities are now accepting bitcoin donations, similar to the way they accept cash. Bitcoins are helping the charities reach new audiences that would be hindered by credit card and other forms of payments. Bitcoin does not require the transfer of value from one currency of the giver to the currency of the receiver. It allows unrestricted access to donate using bitcoin from anywhere in the world and by anybody.

Those implementing the system to accept bitcoins note that it is a simple as setting up conventional digital payment platforms. Once donated, bitcoins can be transferred to other currencies, used to shop online and in particular locations offline in some cases. With widespread adoptions, there will be no risk of failing to have a place to spend bitcoins and the conversion fees to local currencies will no longer be a factor (Cahalane par. 6-7).

Conclusion In the end, bitcoin will open up international money transfers, which will limit governments’ ability to manage monetary policies. The adoption of bitcoin will also erode a significant source of income for middlemen in forex trades. Nevertheless, the positive impacts are notable.

Many people who do not have worthy credit or other means of getting into formal banking systems can use bitcoin when it is implemented in mobile money solutions and other forms of conveniences. The reduction in transaction charges overall and the simplicity of bitcoin as it functions similar to cash are the most attractive features to look out when it becomes a recognized currency. Besides, the possible applications are infinite, especially for people in poor economies currently locked out of ways of participating in the global economy.

Works Cited Cahalane, Claudia. “Bitcoin: How The Charity RNLI is Using The Digital Currency.” The Guardian. 2014. Web.

Carmody, Tomothy. “Money 3.0: How Bitcoins May Change The Global Economy.” Geographic. 2013. Web.

Fargo, Scott. “BitPay Study: Bitcoin is Now an Every-Day Currency.” Inside BitCoins. 2015. Web.

Jessop, Nathan. “A Brief History of Bitcoin – And Where It Is Going Next.” The Next Web 29 Mar. 2015. Web.

Rykwalder, Eric. “The Math Behind Bitcoin.” Coin Desk. 2014. Web.

Sparkes, Mathew. “Bitcoin ‘Could Pose Risk To UK Economy.’” The Telegraph. 2014. Web.


HRM Management: Harrod’s Program Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Training and Development

Importance of Developing Employees

Recruiting and Retaining Employees at Harrods

Training, Development, and Career Progression

Works Cited

Training and Development Training entails gaining the skills and competencies needed to do a job, while development is much more personalized as it focuses on the individual employee with the view to making him or her more efficient at a job or capable of dealing with diverse responsibilities and challenges (“Harrods” 1).

Importance of Developing Employees The development of employees is important as it not only improves their performance by making them more efficient, but also enables the company to meet its business objectives and targets (“Harrods” 1). Additionally, developing employees ensures that they internalize the broader skills that are applicable to a wider variety of situations and enables them to make informed decisions, think creatively, improve their skills, and make a positive impact on others (Goodman 62; Pino and Cox 146).

Recruiting and Retaining Employees at Harrods Available literature demonstrates that the effective recruitment and retention of employees are core business strategies since they drive competitiveness by having the right people with the right skill mix, keep recruitment costs down through low employee turnover, and ensure a skilled and experienced workforce (Mohamed et al. 2055).

The methods used by Harrods to recruit and retain the best talent include (1) identifying key competencies required in retail and incorporating them in the recruitment process, (2) exposing employees to different workshops aimed at improving their competencies and skills, (3) supporting the business competencies learned through self-help guides, (4) exposing employees to cultural awareness training programs to arm them with the skills needed to respond to shifting customer needs, and (5) providing a wide variety of development opportunities for all employees including managers (“Harrods” 1-2).

Other methods used by Harrods to retain the best talent include undertaking appraisals aimed at ensuring that employees identify their personal development targets, providing a multiplicity of sales and service programs (e.g., Your Theatre Program, Harrods Fashion Program, and Communication Program) to provide essential training for new employees, and ensuring that employees are exposed to opportunities for career progression and personal growth (“Harrods” 1-2).

Employee retention at Harrods is also achieved through putting in place a responsive management structure, improving employee pay packages and other benefits, and ensuring favorable work environments with improved work schedules to give employees a superior work-life balance (“Harrods” 3).

Training, Development, and Career Progression The training and development initiatives at Harrods lead to career progression as employees feel more comfortable in their work roles due to the internalization of the right mix of skills and abilities. Available literature demonstrates that only a few employees may be willing to leave their jobs if they are facilitated by management to do them more productively and comfortably through continuous training and development (Hunt 39).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the training and development initiatives undertaken by Harrods provide employees with the opportunities to move up the career ladder and assume senior management positions. It is documented that employees are likely to stay on their jobs and progress their careers further if they are given the opportunity to climb the career ladder (Dewhurst et al. 93).

The training and development initiatives undertaken by Harrods have serve an important role in opening employees’ career paths as they make the workers to believe in their skills and competencies. This leads to career progression as employees are well aware of the fact that more training and development will translate to well-paid, respectable positions at the company.

What’s more, the company is able to support its retention strategies by providing opportunities for its employees to gain new skills, expertise and qualifications through training and development. Such a retention strategy is able to support employees’ career progression and increase their motivation to work more for the company.

The Harrod’s management program and other related high-potential programs offered by the company aim to train and develop ambitious and career-focused employees into management role, hence ensuring the availability of a strong pipeline of potential senior managers. Lastly, the training and development programs at Harrods enhance employee loyalty and increase their transferrable skills, leading to entrenched employee commitment and involvement.

Works Cited Dewhurst, Martin, Mathew Pettigrew, Ramesh Srinivasan and Vimal Choudhary. “How Multinationals can attract the Talent they need.” McKinsey Quarterly. 56.3 (2012): 92-99. Business Source Premier. Web.

Goodman, Neal. “The Role of the Future in Training and Development Today.” Training. 52.3 (2015): 62-63. Business Source Premier. Web.

Harrods: Developing a Career Path in Retail, n.d., Web.

We will write a custom Essay on HRM Management: Harrod’s Program specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hunt, Eleanor. “An HR Conundrum: Talent Attraction and Retention Abroad.” Baylor Business Review. 32.2 (2014): 38-43. Business Source Premier. Web.

Mohamed, Abdul Fattaah, Satwinder Singh, Zahir Irani and Khahl Tamer Darwish. “An Analysis of Recruitment, Training and Retention Practices in Domestic and International Enterprises in Brunei Darussalam.” International Journal of Human Resource Management. 24.10 (2013): 2054-2081. Business Source Premier. Web.

Pino, Nicolas Didier and Juan Cox. “International Briefing 25: Training and Development in Chile.” International Journal of Training


Foreign Markets as Means of Expansion and Globalization Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Consumer Markets

Industrial Markets

Government Market



Introduction Today the businesses are aimed at expansion and globalization, so they are to examine foreign countries and their markets to select those that are likely to bring the most benefit. Companies gather lots of various information to make sure that the market segments they chose are decent targets. To do this, they consider the peculiarities of consumer, industrial and government markets (Gaspar et al., 2013).

Consumer Markets Consumer markets are the markets that provide the general public with various products and services. The companies that refer to these markets often need to deal with the problems that occur due to the alterations in clients’ loyalty and the lack of certainty when anticipating what will be preferred by the customers.

These markets are segmented considering the main customer groups in regard to “various demographic, psychographic, behavioristic and geographic traits” (Suttle, 2015, para. 1). These markets include fast-moving consumer goods that are not very valuable but are needed in everyday life and can be repurchased very quickly, for example, packed meals and newspapers, etc.

Consumer durables are markets that present low volume goods that are relatively costly, such as refrigerators and personal computers, etc. Consumer markets usually consider a particular population and provide aggressive advertising. The companies that are operating in it are focused on innovation, as they need to attract the customer’s attention to their products when there are lots of similar to them. An example of these markets can be ready meals.

Industrial Markets Industrial markets are also known as business ones. They are different from the consumer markets, as they do not provide the customers with their products directly. Industrial markets sell goods and services to other businesses that are more tightly connected to clients. That is why these markets are not targeted at the general public and have a small number of buyers.

There are three types of industrial markets. The first one is focused on selling finished products. It can provide furniture or some technological systems. Another example includes such markets as the metal industry. They deal with raw materials and parts of the products.

The third type of industrial market focuses on selling services to other businesses. It can be the market that provides legal services, disposes waste, etc. As a rule, industrial markets are characterized by long-term relations and large amounts of the products that are purchased (Riley, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Government Market Government market also differs from the previous ones in terms of its customers. These are local, state and federal authorities. They buy the products offered by the private sector to produce and transfer them to the public sector. The variety of goods and services is very large; it includes good, medicine, computer equipment, etc. The market is characterized by political sensitivity and bureaucratic barriers.

It is also limited in finances and is to create numerous reports, which presupposes lots of paperwork (Government market, n.d.). Government market utilizes the products that are purchased in the industrial market to construct roads or clean the water. It considers military operations as well. Postal services can be an example of government market (Gaspar et al., 2013).

Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that the businesses that want to expand abroad are to investigate consumer, industrial and government markets. Utilizing gained information, they can define the potential customers and their needs and to target the products at the particular population.

References Gaspar, J., Arreola-Risa, A., Bierman, L., Hise, R.,


The Rising Production of Oil by Non-OPEC Countries is the Biggest Threat to OPEC’s Power Research Paper writing essay help

Introduction Since its establishment in 1960, the Organization of Oil Exporting Countries (OPEC) has dominated the global oil markets and prices. However, the rising production of oil by non-OPEC countries has become the biggest threat to OPEC’s power. The powerful OPEC was established to safeguard the interest of member oil exporters, a role that the organization had managed to sustain until recently when its market share declined from over 50% to 40%.

Oil extraction by non-OPEC countries has been on the rise until the recent mid-2014 fall in oil prices. Countries such as the US have intensified their oil extraction in the shale fields. Russia has also increased its oil extraction to the extent of becoming a major non-OPEC oil producer.

As the paper confirms, the increase in oil production by non-OPEC countries has led to the witnessed non-cooperation among OPEC members, disparity in technology and innovation between OPEC and non-OPEC countries, and the issue of non-OPEC countries taking over the role of swing oil producer and price marker, and hence the biggest threat to the power of OPEC.

Non-cooperation among OPEC Members The increased production of oil by non-OPEC countries has resulted in reduced oil prices across the globe. According to Yergin (2006), the power of OPEC has been sourced from its ability to regulate oil prices in the world markets by managing the supply and access of oil by other countries.

Birol (2007) affirms that the mechanism that OPEC used to cling to this power as a cartel was the cutback in oil production by the dominant Saudi Arabia if oil prices went down. According to Guidi, Russell, and Tarbert (2006), Saudi Arabia accounts for approximately a fifth of all the oil reserves in the world.

A cut down in its oil production means low supply in the market. Hence, the demand for oil goes up, followed by price increment, which in turn results in high asset prices in the US and other OPEC countries (Ahmadian, Hassan,


The Grizzley Bear Lodge Case Study best college essay help: best college essay help

Case Summary The case study shows how Diane and Rudy Conrad have managed to establish a successful lodge. The small lodge serves breakfast to different clients. The Grizzley Bear Lodge has a small number of workers. The lodge provides personalized breakfast especially to individuals with special dietary needs. The lodge has become profitable. The partners are therefore focusing on the best strategies to expand the business.

They want to purchase new properties. The move will ensure the business increases its rooms from 15 to 35. New employees will also be hired to support the lodge’s goals (Bateman


Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai: Internal Communication Report college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Activity in the Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign

Estee Lauder Companies’ Past Communications

Estee Lauder Companies’ Current Communications


Internal Communications Results and Analysis


Introduction The first Breast Cancer Awareness (BCA) Campaign was initiated in 1992 by Mrs. Evelyn Lauder. With the focus on the BCA Campaign activities, Mrs. Lauder shared the vision that the females and males from all over the world can unite in order to cope with the threat of the breast cancer, and each person can have the unique contribution to these activities.

Mrs. Lauder proposed to use the Pink Ribbon as a symbol for depicting the women’s breast health. The symbol became universal, and today it is associated with the global activities of the BCA Campaign launched by Estee Lauder Companies. It is important to state that the BCA Campaign activities are oriented to increasing the public awareness of the breast health and collecting the resources for the research and medical assistance.

The purpose of this report is to present the evaluation of the Pink Thursday Competition as one of the BCA Campaign internal activities implemented by Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, with the focus on providing recommendations for the company’s Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer regarding the further improvement of the internal communications.

Activity in the Breast Cancer Awareness Campaign The Pink Thursday Competition is launched in the context of the BCA Campaign in order to enhance the awareness of the breast cancer among the Estee Lauder Companies’ employees in Dubai. The activity is held annually, and it lasts four weeks in October, during which employees are encouraged to demonstrate their pink outfits on four Thursdays.

The activity’s purpose is to involve the Estee Lauder Companies’ employees in the BCA Campaign, share the values and vision proclaimed by Mrs. Lauder, and support the global BCA Campaign movement. The winners are determined each week, based on the photographs made during Pink Thursdays by the Internal Communications (IC) team. The pink outfits of employees are evaluated in terms of their creativity and unique style.

The winners of the Pink Thursday Competition are awarded Pink Ribbon products, as well as spa and fitness vouchers. The percentage received from selling Pink Ribbon products is sent to the BCA Campaign charity activities. It is expected that a large number of employees of Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai can be encouraged to participate in the Pink Thursday Competition, supporting the BCA Campaign and developing the internal communication and culture within the organization.

Estee Lauder Companies’ Past Communications In 2014, the BCA Campaign was based on the idea of sharing the personal experience of surviving from the breast cancer. The communication sources used for the 2014 BCA Campaign included press releases, press books, letters and notifications on the website, news articles, and articles in women’s magazines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the sources for communicating the internal Pink Thursday Competition for Estee Lauder Companies’ employees were not so various, they included e-mails and the information about the activity were shared with the help of informal communication among employees.

As a result, the external BCA Campaign communications oriented to the global audience, women suffering from breast cancer, celebrities, and charity organizations worked effectively when the messages to support the internal activities were not as effective because of lacking the use of formal channels of communication such as face-to-face meetings and informal channels of communication such as social media.

It would be more effective to use social media and internal newsletters to communicate the Pink Thursday event because it was held during the month, and it had the high potential of attracting employees to participate in it. Having analyzed the past year internal communications regarding the BCA Campaign and the Pink Thursday Competition, it is possible to compose the Practice Maturity Scale (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Practice Maturity Scale for External and Internal Communications of 2014

Figure 1 indicates that the external communications associated with the activities in the context of the 2014 BCA Campaign are rather effective, demonstrating the evaluated and even optimized levels of maturity. On the contrary, the maturity of the internal communications and the Pink Thursday Competition is rather low, with the focus on ad hoc, planned, and institutionalized activities.

Estee Lauder Companies’ Current Communications The analysis of the communication practices typical of the 2015 Pink Thursday Competition is based on two audit methods in order to conduct the effective assessment of the internal communications approaches used in Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai.

Methodology The network analysis and document review were used in order to collect the data on the internal communications used to inform about and encourage the participation in the 2015 Pink Thursday Competition in Dubai. The network analysis allows understanding what channels of information are used by the IC team in order to address different employees. The document review allows focusing on the available examples of the internal communications to conclude about the effectiveness of shared messages.

We will write a custom Report on Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai: Internal Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internal Communications Results and Analysis The results of the network analysis indicate that in 2015, the IC team of Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai used only one channel to communicate the purpose and aspects of the Pink Thursday Competition for the employees. The IC team used the option of sending two variants of standard e-mails to all employees.

In spite of the fact that the practice of sending e-mails is institutionalized (Figure 2), it is possible to state that this practice works effectively only to communicate the goals, vision, and aspects of the Pink Thursday Competition and announce winners, but it is not appropriate to encourage the high rate of participation in the Pink Thursday event. Thus, the integrated communications are not promoted in the company.

Sending standard e-mails to inform about starting the Pink Thursday Competition, the IC team does not use opportunities to examine and compare the employees’ reactions to the informative messages and encourage their participation in the events. This approach is typical of the ad hoc stage.

According to the collected data, despite being the institutionalized practices, the informative e-mails sent at the beginning of October of 2015 are regarded as non-appealing, boring in spite of being written in the informal language, including long messages, and non-encouraging participation.

On the contrary, the e-mails sent after each week’s end and announcing the winners are appealing, including the photographs of winners and their pink outfits, and having the higher potential to attract the event participants among the employees. From this perspective, the network analysis demonstrates that the IC team effectively communicates winners of the Pink Thursday Competition, but it can fail to communicate all employees before the event is started.

The integrated communications, the involvement and encouragement of the staff to participate in the Pink Thursday Competition are planned activities, but they are not performed effectively because of relying only on one channel of communication and use of standardized messages.

Figure 2. Practice Maturity Scale for Internal Communications regarding 2015 Pink Thursday Competition

The review of documents regarding the IC team activities indicates the actual numbers of the employees’ participation in the Pink Thursday Competition in October of 2015. The data is related to different departments of Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai, employing 150 individuals. Figure 3 demonstrates the proportion of employees participating in the Pink Thursday Competition in 2015 with the focus on analyzing the number of participants from different departments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai: Internal Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 3. Percentage of Employees Participating in the 2015 Pink Thursday Competition

According to the data, all employees from the Human Resources and Internal Communications Departments participated in the event; 82% of employees from the Public Relations and Communication Department and 71% of employees working in the Marketing Department also participated in the Pink Thursday Competition.

Almost half of the staff in the Finance Department was also involved in the event. However, the percentage of participants working in the IT Department and the Sales Department was only about 25%. It is possible to state that the participation rate of the Human Resources and Internal Communications Departments is significantly higher than this rate in the IT and Sales Departments because of the informal communications between employees.

It can be assumed that the Human Resources and Internal Communications Departments shared the responsibility to informing the employees about the activity, and the employees from the Public Relations and Communication Department were also involved in the process as the event administrators.

The employees from other Departments did not react to the e-mail because they were not informed additionally about the Pink Thursday Competition, the level of their interest in the activity was minimal, and it is associated with the undeveloped relations between the employees from different departments.

Figure 4 demonstrates the percentage of males and females among the participants. The majority of participants were females who demonstrated their pink outfits each Thursday during October of 2015.

Figure 4. Percentage of Female and Male Employees Participating in the 2015 Pink Thursday Competition

The question about the lack of motivation in males to participate in the event is rather difficult to answer as the cause can be in the color of the proposed outfits that is traditionally associated with the feminine nature, as well as in the topic of the activity because the target audience of BCA Campaign is females who need to increase their awareness of the breast health. Therefore, it is possible to note that these two aspects could become the causes of the low percentage of involved males.

The analysis of the data indicates that the use of one channel of communication is not appropriate in order to guarantee the integrated communications and involve all participants in the activities that serve for raising the awareness regarding the BCA Campaign’s vision and overall culture of Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai. It is possible to assume that the IC team used only e-mails to communicate the employees because this approach was institutionalized and adopted previously.

However, it did not have the expected effect on the employees because the message to address the diverse audience from different departments was standardized and lacking details, images, photographs, and information rewards to stimulate the interest to the activity.

As a result, the activities remained to be at the planned level in spite of being used previously, as there were no improvements in the participation rates. It is possible to state that the employees of both genders from different departments were not reached with the effective messages to increase the interest of males and the personnel from the IT and Sales Departments.

The primary strengths of the current IC program are its annual character and the possibility to improve used approaches to reach the evaluated and optimized levels in communications. However, in spite of being launched every year, the Pink Thursday Competition is not communicated effectively to illustrate all advantages of participation for employees.

At the current stage, although the BCA Campaign is successful, and all employees know about the associated activities, including the Pink Thursday Competition, the participation rate is low as employees decide to participate mainly referring to the examples of their colleagues, as it is in case of Human Resources, Internal Communications, as well as Public Relations and Communication Departments.

The employees of other departments do not perceive the event as important. The cause is the lack of communication between employees from different departments, the lack of the important information about fun activities on the website, and the lack of the CEO’s example of participating in the event to stimulate the interest. The direct involvement of CEO in the Pink Thursday Competition can be discussed as an effective approach to increase the participation rates.

The activities of the BCA Campaign are effective when they are oriented to the external audience and customers because they involve the use of different channels of communication, print and online sources of information, messengers, and role models. The focus is on involving each female and her families’ members in participation in the BCA Campaign. Still, this approach is weak in relation to organizing the internal communications.

The information regarding the Pink Thursday Competition is not provided to the diverse personnel using different channels; as a result, the communications plan for this concrete activity does not work effectively. The present issues are caused by the problems observed for the year of 2014 when the IC team also paid little attention to varying the communication channels and increasing the engagement of employees.

Recommendations The employee engagement plays an important role in affecting the overall performance of the organization and the reputation regarding the company’s activities among shareholders. The BCA Campaign launched by Mrs. Lauder in 1992 aims at attracting many messengers and donators to support the activities to improve the women’s breast health.

Therefore, the number of donations, the effectiveness of charity activities, and the popularity of the BCA Campaign depend on the employees’ involvement or engagement in the activities associated with the campaign. The low engagement of the Estee Lauder Companies’ employees in Dubai in the Pink Thursday Competition can influence the overall public interest to the BCA Campaign in the United Arab Emirates.

The shareholders and potential donators are inclined to assess the credibility and effectiveness of the campaign referring to the observed employees’ behaviors. While referring to the results of the analysis, it is possible to identify the following areas for the improvement: number of communication channels; use of directed messages; use of graphics and illustrative materials; and use of encouraging techniques.

In order to enhance the internal communications approaches that are observed in Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai, it is necessary to propose the prioritized recommendations to address the identified areas of weaknesses:

The IC team used only one communication channel while ignoring the opportunities to use the social media and other online resources to address the employees effectively. To increase the number of participants in the next year Pink Thursday Competition, it is necessary to use social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and Pinterest, to inform about the start of the event and update on its progress. In addition to the informal e-mails, the employees working in different departments should be communicated with the help of newsletters, face-to-face meetings, booklets, and posters in offices. The benefits of this approach are in the larger number of informed and interested employees.

Managers from all departments of Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai should be informed about the Pink Thursday Competition additionally, with the help of the face-to-face meeting, and they should have the responsibility for organizing their employees’ participation in the event. The managers are expected to participate in the event and wear the pink outfits or elements of the clothes in spite of their gender, and they expected to encourage employees to join the activity. The benefits are in using directed messages, improving the integrated communication, and increasing engagement.

The IC team should enhance the attractiveness of used communication sources and apply the use of info-graphics, images, visuals, video messages, posters, and podcasts to make the message more appealing and appropriate for understanding. The benefits of this approach are in the employees’ increased motivation.

The IC team should choose the formal and informal language to communicate depending on the message and channel. The informative messages can be written or spoken using the formal language when posters, newsletters, and videos can utilize the informal language.

Storytelling in newsletters or booklets is one more approach to making the message more directed and audience-oriented, and it can be used as an encouraging technique to motivate employees to tell their personal story related to breast cancer.

The IC team can improve the communication with male employees and enhancing their participation in the Pink Thursday Competition while proposing the male-oriented messages in e-mails and posters to support the family support in fighting with cancer.

The managers of departments should be encouraged to inform employees about possibilities to propose their improvements for the Pink Thursday Competition in e-mails to the IC team to make it more appealing for employees.

The IC team should guarantee the sending of notification messages with the help of applications and mobile devices.

The IC team working for Estee Lauder Companies in Dubai missed several opportunities to increase the rate of participation in the Pink Thursday Competition, as well as the employee engagement. The involvement of the Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer in deciding on the activity planning and the implementation of the proposed recommendations can contribute to improving the internal communications in the organization.


Influence of the Fashion Attributes on the Social Status and Personal Identity Synthesis Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review


Reference List

Introduction The fashion industry is always under high attention and the vehement discussion due to its changing and unpredictable nature and sometimes-scandalous outfits. Moreover, fashion has a high influence on the various aspects of everyday life such as the cities’ development (Pandolfi 2015). Furthermore, fashion is often associated with luxury, underlines one’s social status, and emphasizes the particular lifestyle (Calefato 2014).

Nonetheless, the fashion industry is also related to the mass-market production and such phenomenon as the fast-fashion industry. In this case, the couture designs are adapted to the public and rapidly released for sales (Shaw


The World of Apple Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Foundations of Global Business

Global Business Environment

Global Business Strategy and Organization

Managing Global Business



Introduction We are living in the world of rapid changes and innovations. Different companies are fighting for a place in the sun and trying to expand globally to win the customers’ attention, remain competitive and achieve success. The markets are full of various businesses, and it is critical for them to show their advantages and supremacy.

Realizing this, I decided to choose a prosperous company, which is known to everyone, to find out what makes it so unique and attractive. When searching for the companies with the best performance in the world market, I understood that Apple Inc. perfectly meets my demands.

This organization manages its operations in the market of digital devices, which is very broad. Moreover, the models of its products are alike so that it seems to be strange that the crowds of people are gathering near the stores when they are emerging. Thus, the fact that Apple Inc. became an extremely popular company in a relatively short period of time attracted my attention and made me select this company for the project.

Apple Inc. is a well-known and successful company that is focused on technologies. The company bases its operations on the production of “personal computers, mobile communication devices, and portable digital music and video players and sell a variety of related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions” (Annual Report 2009, 2009, para. 4).

These products are sold worldwide so they can be seen not only in domestic market but also in 80 foreign ones. The official headquarter of the company is located in Cupertino, CA in the US. Here the majority of products are designed, constructed and then spread to different locations. The organization is known for its innovations, such as iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, etc.

Foundations of Global Business The majority of big businesses use their best practices to globalize successfully. In this way, they gain an opportunity to get in the larger market and increase their profit. Apple Inc. is not an exception. According to the report, which was made several years ago, its products can be found in 80 countries all over the world (Annual Report 2009, 2009).

Today, Apple operates mainly in the US, UK, Canada and China. These countries are located in Europe, the continent of North America and Asia, which allows the company to reach various destinations easily and become popular in the countries with a large population. Needless to say, that such approach increases the profit, but it also requires efficient cooperation among the personnel who has different nationalities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company operates in these countries also because they are the members of WTO for many years already as well as of the World Bank and IMF. As they act according to the guidelines of these facilities for more than a decade, Apple Inc. can be sure that its business is safe. If these countries failed to follow the guidelines, the company might never increase the number of operations in them and could manage only online selling.

Except for that, the fact that the countries have a transparent political institution and their judiciary systems establish justice makes them more attractive for businesses. Moreover, they promote globalization. The US had even implemented a global democratic reform some years ago. The UK, in its turn, has less experience of globalization, but it practices the economic expansion even though many institutions left non-global.

Canada is closer to the US in its operations. The country follows the Transparency International and promotes globalization. Except for that, it is one of the best-governed countries. China is known today as the country that gathers different businesses and has cheap labor. Such features along with particular rules of operating make the country preferable for many companies.

The US, UK, Canada and China utilize practice policies that promote globalization. Moreover, these countries implement lots of changes to support and spread the idea of globalization. As a result, a range of alterations aimed at the enhancing of business procedures abroad were made, which influenced the government, promoted steps to avoid corruption and emphasized democracy.

Apple Inc. creates innovative products, so the property rights are very important to it, as, being supported by the law, they ensure the success of operations. So the organization can implement its best practices to expand globally and remain competitive without facing any difficulties. As Apple’s products avoid tariff barriers, the company has an opportunity to create many stores abroad and produce its devices in lots of places.

The company operates on the geographic basis and its trading bloc consists of America, Europe, Asia and Retail segment (Apple Stores). The majority of the operations are held in the US, which allows the company to keep a huge amount of income in its native country. As a result, Apple Inc. has an opportunity to remain competitive even if in the countries where it operates political, economic or other conditions turn out to become adverse.

Thus, local business ensures the safety of the business; Asia provides cheap labor, and Europe promotes expansion for the organization. As Apple is already a well-known company that is appreciated worldwide, there is a possibility that it would perform better under the WTO or other systems like it. In this way, the company would have an opportunity to enter a bigger market and avoid many trade barriers. It would also be supported by various experts so that there would be fewer disputes.

We will write a custom Assessment on The World of Apple specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Global Business Environment Apple Inc. is an extended company that operates in many countries and is known worldwide. It means that rather often the employees need to communicate with their colleagues from abroad. To interact successfully and avoid possible misunderstanding, the workers from the US need to modify their behavior.

In Asian countries, for example, people have different beliefs and views on some things. That is why the personnel that works with the representatives of other nations receives training beforehand. As the company is multinational, people can easily get familiar with the features that are peculiar to German or British people, etc. When communicating with associates from China, American representatives of Apple Inc. take into account that they are very collective, which is not peculiar for the US, where individualism is more valued.

Moreover, their power distance is high. Japan is less individualistic than the US but more than China. As a result, the US employees show that they are a part of a collective and cooperate with associates tightly but maintain distance. They also consider the long-term orientation instead for the short-term one till they return home. Some people claim that Apple Inc. made a mistake when decided to create a huge amount of its products in China because it is politically risky, as its court depends on the government greatly.

However, the company assessed the situation and came up to the decision that the profit gained due to the cooperation is higher than the risks of the government interference in commercial and other disputes. Apple even operates in India, which is a developing and economically risky country that does not have a stable economy, as distributors allow it to expand without serious adverse outcomes.

Apple operates in both civil law and common law countries. Still, the majority of the firms are found in the common law countries, which are similar to the native one and make it easier to manage the business, as the organization is familiar with the case law. However, the number of firms in civil law countries is not much lower in total, which proves that Apple does not consider such differences to be critical.

The innovations made by Apple Inc. are claimed to be its key intellectual property. To protect it, the company trademarks the products, refers to patents and copyrights as well as licenses. However, Apple seems to have no insurance from the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation.

Corruption is the issue that is discussed widely today. The countries where Apple operates have different corruption perceptions indexes, which proves that this criterion was not the main one when deciding where to expand. Still, Apple Inc. is aware of the high risks of corruption in China and keeps a close eye on the employees.

Sometimes the organization is reported to confront with other companies in the market and produce the products using almost economic slave labor in China. But, generally, Apple’s global operations are ethical, as they take care of the employees, teach them and award, promote trust and openness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World of Apple by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Global Business Strategy and Organization When operating worldwide, the company is to control its global business and adjust to it at the organizational level. That is why Apple Inc. has a particular structure and maintains strategies that enhance its performance.

Mainly, the company enters new countries with the help of distributors, who sell its products with the similar ones that belong to other firms. In this way, Apple checks how the population reacts to the products (apps and online stores also show this). Seeing that they are in demand, Apple opens its own retail store in the country. Unfortunately, less attention is paid to the exit strategy, which might be a mistake. However, creating the products in the countries with cheap labor, it benefits greatly and has no reasons to exit.

Apple is an innovative company, and its corporate mission statement deals with the creation of change. Creative ideas and unique design of the products allow the company to develop and operate successfully all over the world, which proves that the chosen strategy is working. Apple is interested in the total performance of the company but not just the stock, which allows categorizing it as a stakeholder orientation.

Being mainly focused on the US, it occurs to be not a stateless corporation. Apple’s organizational structure allows the company to increase its benefit and become more and more popular every year, which proves that it is really successful. Having collaborative structure with command and control hierarchies, Apple makes the employees close to each other, creates a supporting environment and enhances the process of achieving common goals.

With the help of collaboration, people design more effective innovative ideas, which allows the company to act according to its mission statement. Apple may also utilize matrix structure as it can be advantageous due to its flexibility and absence of isolation. As the communication among the personnel with different views is motivated, more new ideas will occur.

Managing Global Business When globalizing, companies are to make sure that their personnel can manage all expected activities. The employees receive special training; the organization refers to other businesses to create its products, etc. Apple also manages the global business in a particular way, which differs from the one implemented by small organizations.

The company has numerous employees that work in various locations. However, they are not the members of labor unions and are not covered by collective bargaining agreements as many others. It may happen because the company disregards such approach, considering it to be unfavorable. Still, the employees are looking for changes that will let them benefit.

As the company operates in different countries, it needs some staff members to work outside of the United States at least for some time. So Apple refers to expatriates when it expands to make sure that the operations are managed appropriately. Like all other workers, they are trained regarding their future duties.

Except for that, expatriates receive additional training and support before moving. As the products that are sold by Apple in the international markets are the same that can be seen in the US, expatriates do not need to learn additional information about them. But they need to know the peculiarities of formal communication that are accepted in the country as well as main values and beliefs.

Such information is gained not only during training but also when communicating with people who live in that country (online, for example) and by surfing the Internet (read articles, books, and people’s comments). It is not considered to be extraordinary, as Apple operates in a digital world and uses the Internet and Intranet to train the personnel. Moreover, the majority of processes related to employee training and development are held in this way, as such approach streamlines them.

The products made by Apple Inc. reach remote destinations through different distribution channels in local and international markets. The company refers to its own retail stores that are available in several countries, online store, which allows attracting more clients worldwide and, of course, to the wholesalers even though they place its products along with others. Apple tends to emphasize that its devices are different from the others in the market.

To do this, it promotes the products with the help of unique advertisements that can be found in different places. The ads are printed, viewed on TV and outdoors. Of course, the promotion in the international markets differs to some degree from the local because of the cultural peculiarities of the targeted audience.

Apple devices are made not only in the US, and the company is practicing global procurement. The majority of the vital components come from China, which is not a surprise, as the company has a large business in it and a huge amount of devices are made there. Moreover, the country has cheap labor and often provides efficient innovations, which streamlines the process of achieving success and reduces expenditures.

Thus, it can be said that Apple is practicing global production. The company is producing the majority of its devices in China. The US is at the second place. It produces more than 5 million tons while the rest of products are made in “Italy, France, Germany and Poland” (World Apple production, n.d., para. 1). Mainly, Apple refers to outsourced goods and services to save the money needed for production but it also has insourced products.

The supply chain is very important for any organization, as it allows the company to export its products successfully. So it is of advantage that Apple has its supply chain, which includes such companies as “BYD Company, Compal Electronics Inc., Flextronics, Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. LTD., Pegatron Corporation, Quanta Computer Inc., and Wistron Corporation” (Supplier responsibility, 2015).

Apple import goods from China, as a rule. It exports them to Africa, Middle East and Europe (including Germany, Spain, Ireland, Italy, France, and others) (Annual report 2009, 2009).

Conclusion Taking everything mentioned into consideration, it can be concluded that Apple Inc. is a successful company, which operates worldwide. It enters new markets being not afraid of potential risks that exist in some countries. The company has an advantageous business strategy, which allows it to manage decent performance.

The employees are trained in local and foreign locations. They are targeted at cooperation and creation of innovative ideas, as they make Apple popular. The organization produces its devices in the US and abroad and spreads its products through retail stores, online store and with the help of wholesalers to reach a large audience. Globalization is extremely important for Apple Inc., as it provides the company with an opportunity to gain more profit and remain competitive.

References Annual report 2009. (2009). Web.

Supplier responsibility. (2015). Web.

World Apple production. (n.d.). Web.


Oil in the Middle East Critical Essay argumentative essay help

The chapter The Political Economy of Middle Eastern Oil written by Mary Ann Tetreault is focused on the issue concerning the transportation, development, improvement of the oil industry and controversial nature of the Middle East conflicts over the oil and natural gas sources.

The author of the chapter claims that the hydrocarbons can be considered as the benefit and failure for countries that export oil. To get deeper involved in the issue and understand the significance of the oil industry for the Middle East the author takes a closer attention to the following aspects, namely the structure and the system of the oil industry, the politics in oil’s political economy, the oil revolution, and oil politics in the Middle East. Mary Ann Tetreault points out the causes of the Iraq war and the connection between money and oil in the Middle East countries.

According to the information provided in the chapter, the country that has mineral sources dictates the rules and establishes the access regulation (Schwedler, 2013, p. 261). The oil industry used to be monopolized; however, when the organization has a high level of the profit, new competitors appear on the market and cause the profit reduction.

The oil price is significantly connected to the amount of extracted oil as the overproduction causes the decrease in price (Jones, 2012, p. 209). The creation of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries aimed to control the oil price and stabilize the situation with the oil and gas extraction.

The ownership of the oil faced dramatic changes after the oil revolution; however, it should be stated that the great majority of experts argues the decisions made by IOC, stressing that the main concern was to collect taxes (Schwedler, 2013, p. 268). The consequences of the oil revolution were the following, namely the real cost for the crude oil and the impressive level of the profit.

The high prices on oil made this industry involved in politics and cause a lot of misunderstandings and confrontations between the OPEC countries (Schwedler, 2013, p. 270).

The revolution in Iran contributed to the development of the conflict based on oil price and the way the industry should be organized. The war between Iraq and Iran over the oil exporting caused the inability of the OPEC to minimize the drawbacks of the price system. Struggling with the challenges within the organization, the countries of the Middle East let the Soviet Union to enter the market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should be pointed out that the race for the geopolitical domination using the oil as the tool of influence was not beneficial for the countries of the Middle East and the Soviet Union as well. The efforts put in the conflict did not result in the achievement of the goals. The oil industry provided the countries with the false power and was the reason for numerous victims of the military conflicts and political confrontations.

In conclusion, it should be stated that the oil industry allowed the countries of the Middle East to become economically independent and receive a chance to substitute the military approach with the economic influence. The question concerning whether the oil industry is beneficial or not to the countries of the Middle East seems to be unanswered. Although, the industry offers a lot of possibilities to the countries, it caused political, social, and economic strife.

References Jones, T. (2012). America, Oil, and War in the Middle East. Journal of American History, 99(1), 208-218.

Schwedler, J. (2013). Understanding the Contemporary Middle East (4th ed.). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.


Performance Measurement for WWP Proposal essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Need For Performance Measurement

Stakeholder Analysis and Recommendation for Participation

SWOC analysis of WWP

Performance Measurement

Indicators of the Achievement for the Projected Outcomes

Conclusion and Recommendations


Introduction Performance measurement has been described as a key tool in the achievement of TQM (Total Quality Management) in all types of organizations. The traditional approach to performance measurement has been focused on the examination of financial performance of an organization. This has mainly focused on a performance indicator that is available through changes in either profits or losses.

However, researchers who work in this area indicate that cost accounting information does not avail a complete bundle of information to support quality journeys. This is because they do not consider a contingent of issues, such as improvements, seen by the customer.

Furthermore, they focus on the examination of a stakeholder from the view of an investor or shareholder. This has presented a number of challenges for non-profit organizations with the main aim to serve a specific segment of the society. Furthermore, performance is best measured through an examination of all perspectives of an organization.

Regardless of the industry, organizations have the responsibility to come up with strategies that make it easy for customers to not only know about their goods and services, but also have the desire to provide assistance with them (Armstrong, 2007). This feat is not easy to accomplish because of challenges businesses have to face.

There is the issue of stiff competition from other businesses in the same industry, economic problems that hinder the customers’ willingness to buy some products, and the presence of several distractions, which have the potential to come in between the customer and the company’s products. These are just some of the challenges that managers have to deal with in their bid to reach out to the intended audience.

Need For Performance Measurement Many organizations in the today’s business world recognize that there is the need to capture a complete picture of organizational performance. This has led to the incorporation of a whole cocktail of performance measurement tools in attempts to capture their organizations’ performances.

It is within this perspective that the need to institute effective performance measurement mechanisms has attracted a host of organizations and researchers. General understanding is that through the entrenchment of a culture that takes cognizance of organizational objectives, a cocktail of benefits and efforts focused on better organizational performance can be implemented.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Kaplan and Norton (1992), the focus of these performance measurement initiatives should revolve around finances, internal processes, learning, growth and, of course, customers.

In fact, empirical research on performance measurement shows that undertaking this process can help management with implementing the process that supports process improvement and development of a cost-effective product design (Turney, 1991), and avail managers with an integrative framework to manage organizational activities.

WWP (Wounded Warrior Project) stands at a vantage position to meet the expectations of the stakeholders by examining the performance of the four major organizational perspectives i.e., learning and growth, customers, internal business processes and finances.

The learning and growth perspectives “will be viewed as an attempt at promoting growth and development by creating an enabling atmosphere that supports change and innovation” (Amstrong, 2007). According to Armstrong’s opinion (2007), this strategy should be boned in mind of any Chief Executive Officer of the organization in order to ensure an overall efficiency of the business process.

This may be implemented through the modernization of the services or goods, especially through the employment of modern technology and replacement of obsolete equipments in order to cultivate and enhance better quality of services to clients’ satisfaction. Focus on infrastructure improvement should be paid cognizance to.

The development of staff should also be carried out through creation of a learning organization and where organizational learning takes place at the same time as advocated for by Armstrong (2007). This should be carried out through the provision of avenues that promote learning, training, and development. It should be understood that while technology, products, and services can be replicated, knowledge cannot.

In the global competition today, attention to the human capital has grown in bounds. To move forward and drive successful business, staff focus, engagement and involvement should be paid cognizance. Subsequent benefits would include better quality of services to achieve total customer satisfaction, increase business, obtain lesser complaints, and a train a fully engaged workforce that is fully committed to its responsibilities.

We will write a custom Proposal on Performance Measurement for WWP specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The internal business perspective, on the other hand, addresses issues related to how business processes are adopted to the needs of the customers and shareholders. This should be implemented through the creation of an internal infrastructure that supports high quality of services in time at a cost effective manner with registered benefits in overall businesses performance.

Clients’ focus should ideally center on better service delivery and should reflect the company’s value attached to the customers (Armstrong, 2007). This should be applied through improvement of service delivery and creation of better efficiency in the delivery of services to the clients. Essentially, this should be geared towards timely and efficient services delivery to clients in a cost effective manner that ensures for sustained competitiveness.

Ideally, the management should embrace strategies that ensure the delivery of high quality service and integrity, development of products that really match with the needs of the clients, ensure value for money spent and devise mechanisms that make it easier to do business with the clients.

Finally, the financial perspective addresses how WWP wishes to be viewed by the stakeholders. The management can implement this though several initiatives. The first one would be the establishment of a price control that would allow for significant improvements in investment in the services that ensure better advantage. WWP will create strategy maps highlighting the areas it want to measure.

This will act as the overall architectural framework specifying the critical elements and associated linkages for the overall strategy. This, in essence, acts as a universal message presentation forum for the top executives towards specification and subsequent presentation of the envisaged destination, mapping of the route to be followed and communication mechanisms.

Stakeholder Analysis and Recommendation for Participation With the mission to honor and empower wounded soldiers, WWP consists of a number of stakeholders whose interests and views must be given cognizance in performance measurement program.

These include the wounded soldiers, donors, families of the wounded soldiers, the government, and social welfare organizations. This is because for WWP to achieve its objectives, it must develop links with other industry players and enlist the support of its stakeholders.

Ideally, the focus on well defined performance dimensions should require that the development of specific measures to be done, that helps to effectively monitor and progress in the articulated dimensions (Armstrong, 2007). As Kanji (1997) has noted, the dynamics of the operational environments dictates that the changing needs of all the stakeholders be captured in the performance measures.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Performance Measurement for WWP by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, it is important for WWP to examine performance from an internal as well as external perspectives, listen to customers, suppliers and other stakeholders, and not fall into the trap of building a self-centered performance measurement system.

It is therefore necessary that WWP develop an ideal system that leads to the development, which supports learning and innovation. This should be the essential and final aim of a good performance measurement system that captures the interests and expectations of the stakeholders (Kanji, 1997).

The complexity of an organizational management entails the need for managers to view performance in a holistic manner, where several areas are captured simultaneously (Kanji, 1997). This should be structured around the tenets of several factors that provide performance of a multi and interrelated perspective, and is linked to organizations’ values and strategies.

Furthermore, WWP’s performance measurement should be based on critical success factors or performance driver, valid, reliable, and easy to use, one that facilitates comparisons to be made and progress to be monitored, that is linked to the rewards system and encourages the appropriate behaviors and finally, one that highlights the improvement areas or recognizes the opportunities and suggests improvement strategies.

As it can be deduced form the above presentations, it appears that the approach to performance management needs to be holistic, inclusive, and systematic. Essentially, a good performance system should present the combined effect of measuring different aspects or dimensions that are interacting or interrelating with each other.

SWOC analysis of WWP A SWOC analysis is a major way to examine the position of a business and examine areas of weaknesses and challenges it needs to focus on and areas of strengths and opportunities it needs to explore. A SWOT analysis simply means looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges to the business in order to achieve its strategic intents (Hill and Westbrook,1997).

WWP has several strengths, a couple of weaknesses, several opportunities, and a small number of challenges. For example, WWP has the capacity to attract highly trained personnel from a large pool of wounded soldiers it seeks to serve. Furthermore, WWP has a well-established knowledge base, makes use of technology in its programs, and has extensive contacts with its clients.

However, it is encompassed by a number of weaknesses that hinder to strive towards meeting its objectives. These include possible lack of motivation and low reputation. This because WWP is still in its formative years and as such, has not developed extensive networks and attain reputation of high status.

On the other hand, WWP has a number of opportunities, thus it can ensure that it lives up to the expectations of the stakeholders. These include availability of technological innovations to reach larger donor bases and increasing levels of understanding and empathy shown towards wounded soldiers.

A number of challenges that reduce its capacity for competence can also be pointed out. WWP relies on donors for support and as such may suffer from the challenge of adequate resources to undertake its programs. Furthermore, it must be subjected to a number of government regulations that may limit its scope in soliciting funds and operations.

Performance Measurement Performance management (PM) refers to the assessment of progress at different organizational levels, toward achieving predetermined goals, as well as communication and action in response to actual progress (Bourne, 2003). Within this perspective, it is fundamental to recognize that PM is not merely a tool for operational management.

On the contrary, it is, at its best, an overall, integrative approach, linking operational activities to strategic outcomes. Organizations in the business world employ some type of strategic planning in the development of objectives or initiatives.

It has been advanced that the key to achieving success in the organization’s performance is an accurate and insightful linkage of the organizational visions and daily activities within the organization.

Empirical evidence would however paint the picture that is not always easy or attainable (Armstrong, 2007). One of the chief bottlenecks has been cited as the use of poor performance measures (Kaplan and Norton, 2007).

Several researchers have buttressed this point and pointed out that the lack of appropriate measurement tools as positively correlated to organization’s failure to attain envisaged goals (Kaplan, 2007). For example, Armstrong (2007) in his study on organization’s use of performance measures has concluded that a majority of organizations fail to link their firms’ strategies with the performance measures.

In the opinion of Kaplan (2007), the failure to encapsulate the strategic intents in performance measures has proved to be a major headache to many managers.

This is particularly worrying when an effective measurement system provides the managers with an ample tool that can be employed in the assessment of whether activities occurring within a facility, division or department are in support of the attainment of the firms overall objectives as stipulated in the vision and missions of the firm.

Brotherton and Hacker (2006) have pointed out that what is missing out in most management strategies may not be the planning aspect but rather the implementation. In their opinions, the implementation should encapsulate an effective measurement system in order that the actions and plans are appropriately linked and are in tandem with the envisaged corporate objectives.

This should ideally present an accurate presentation of where WWP is now and where it intends to be. A salient limitation has conversely been cited as the failure to link other aspects of organizational activities such as internal business organization, employees’ development, learning and organizational growth and customer relations in performance measures and the sole reliant on financial assessments of organizational performance.

As Kaplan (2007) has pointed out, “over 70% of CEO failures came, not as a result of poor strategy, but the inability to execute.” Indeed, the departure from traditional financial measures as the anchorage on which organizational wellbeing is grounded has been pointed out as the reason for the invention of the Balanced Score Cards (Kaplan, 2007).

According to Brotherton and Hacker (2006), putting the organization vision and linking this to the strategy of organizations is the key ingredient to success in performance measurements, and thus, the strategic planning process should ideally encapsulate the strategic intents of the organization. This, to the author’s opinion should be the starting point in effective measurement system.

Essentially, the vision of the organization needs to be translated into specific, measurable objectives or initiatives. This is because by quantifying the vision through measurable objectives, an organization is able to determine whether it is on the right track.

This will enable WWP to assess the rate of progress towards the attainment of the stipulated objectives. Unfortunately, majority of organizations appears not to pay heed to these sentiments (Armstrong, 2007).

Armstrong (2007) has pointed out that performance measurements at their broadest forms that should involve the setting up of performance goals and the subsequent measurements of the organization’s attainment or lack of such goals against a set criteria (Brotherton


International Legal System as Initiatives to Enhance the Umm Qasr Port Security Critical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The article under discussion is called “International Legal System as Initiatives to Enhance the Umm Qasr Port Security”; it represents a study report prepared by Iranian researchers Hassan Jafari and Somayeh Dehdari. The paper under discussion is devoted to the examination of the port security problem in the framework of the Umm Qasr Port.

The authors put a particular emphasis on the problem of the International legal system’s implementation and the efficiency of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code (Jafari


How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? Proposal writing essay help

Table of Contents Reasons for the suggestion as the best option

How can this be done and what is needed?

Would Russia accept this approach?

Possible trade-offs



The ongoing conflict in some GCC is unsettling. It calls for the UAE to take a defensive position and at the same time seek to provide alternatives that help to bring and sustain peace in the region. A close relationship will Russia is critical to diffusing threats from Iran for the UAE and the region.

Russia is the biggest notable player in the Middle East, regarding its involvement in direct economic activity alongside political power in the region. It is keen on other countries reciprocating its stance. Russia can negotiate with parties involved in the Syrian conflict and provide a channel for reaching to Iran. Another conflict hotbed is Iraq, where both Russia and the UAE are undertaking efforts to boost the governance capacity of the officially recognized government as they help to fight terrorism.1

Reasons for the suggestion as the best option First, the UAE must continue to invest in Russia then allow Russia to invest in the UAE economic and social projects. The continuing bilateral relations will be strengthened where there is continued mutual interest with economic gains. Both countries are looking for outlets of their financial resources and capital.

The UAE continues to expand its investment opportunities, and it should continue asking Russia to assist. It should invest in the Russian industries, and projects around the world. The recent established of the Russian Direct Investment Fund by Abu Dhabi and the plan for Russia to build an air hub in the UAE to deliver aid and knowledge to Africa is a great example of the potentials that lie ahead.2

Not only does this position the UAE as an ally of Russia, but it also shows that the country is willing to access win-win relationships as part of its foreign policy.

How can this be done and what is needed? Investing in Russia provides an alternative to Western reliance for economic growth and development. It presents an alternative financial market that helps to strengthen the economy of Russia. The current pledges and actual investments are about 6 billion dollars and an increase of the funds to about 10 billion dollars should help cement the trade and investment relationship and intentions of the UAE.3

In addition to general infrastructure investments, the two countries should cooperate on energy-related investments because of their capacities as suppliers and consumers of nuclear technology and natural gas. Besides, a bilateral tax treaty also makes it easy for investors from both countries to work together in either country. Dubai offers room for growth in its real estate and tourism as well as sports industry while Russia has excellent opportunities for infrastructure development in global projects for energy, transport and tourism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Would Russia accept this approach? Both the UAE and Russia see the Gulf region as a viable outlet for their excess capital gained from trade in natural resources. They are geared towards protecting this investment opportunity and will be willing to fight off any negative power. However, the UAE needs Russia because the latter has military might and economic power.4

The U.S. has been less elaborate in its participation in trade and investment in the region and has concentrated much on political power expressions. The use of direct military action has only been successful in isolated incidences, and there is an increased need to focus on economic development to counter the social pressures that lead to armed conflicts. Thus, investment and trade are the right opportunities for the UAE-Russia relations to follow.

After Russia annexed Crimea, the EU and the U.S. put sanctions on it and this have affected economic prosperity in the country. Russia was predicted to go into a recession as early as 2014 but it has somehow managed to avoid the threat of economic stagnation. Nevertheless, the threat looms. The major banks in Russia are operating under difficult circumstances because they have been blacklisted and cannot get credit from EU and U.S banks and other financial institutions.

On the other hand, small and medium sized enterprises in Russia have started to fill the heat of a tightening credit market and the number of loan defaults is increasing. Russian state banks have to look elsewhere other than the EU for raising long-term loans. Russian cannot also export dual-use equipment for military use to the EU.5 Notably, Russia is one of the largest weapon manufacturers in the world.

Reports show that sanctions could cause the Russian economy to shrink by as much as 9%.6 Other factors contributing to the shrinkage include the collapsing oil prices. This trend began in 2014 and seems not to have reached an end. Thus, the incentives for Russia agreeing to increased economic cooperation with the UAE are massive.

The country is desperate for alternative sources of capital. The response by Russia to the economic crisis caused by sanctions has been to increase interest rates and to sell dollars and euros to improve the value of the rouble. It has also cut government spending, but this move can only work in the short-run. Eventually, there will be need for infusing more capital and that is where the increased investments from the UAE will be critical.

The Tehran issue arises because Russia and Iran have an alliance of convenience. Iran is interested in getting technologies for building its military facilities and equipment. It has even procured several ships from Russia. In addition, many Russian firms are invested in Iran’s technology sectors given that Iran too is a recipient of Western sanctions because of its nuclear programs.

We will write a custom Proposal on How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Meanwhile, on the Syrian conflict, both Iran and Russia are interested in protecting President Assad’s rule.7 Russian influence led to the inclusion of Iran in the talks to end the Syrian war.8 However, their long-term interests are divergent. Russian military power and support of Syrian president as well as its investments in Iran give it power over Iran.

Possible trade-offs One complexity of the UAE-Russia relationships will be the trade-offs in the current US-UAE relationships. The U.S. has been making inroads into Iran, seeking to lift restrictions on its nuclear program. This was in exchange for cooperation for its interests in the region. It will be upset by UAE for going against its interests to support Russia, which is under sanctions from the U.S. There is no likelihood of U.S. sanctions against UAE but deteriorating diplomatic conditions may reduce the incentives of U.S.-backed investments in the UAE.

The lack of U.S. backed investment in the interest areas of both Russia and the UAE will ensure that trade and investment relations are not affected and that the UAE does not have to make any trade-offs. However, given the position of the U.S. as the world’s superpower, the political hegemony in the region will be threatened and this will lead to political foreign policy conflicts between the U.S. and the UAE.

Currently, the U.S. considers the UAE as an ally in its fight against global terrorism. However, the moves by the UAE to go on an express its voice against the manner that the U.S. is handling the terror threat will create additional political tension. Therefore, the UAE needs to be ready to bear the political heat. However, the non-membership status of the UAE in NATO will help to cushion it against adverse effects of its siding with Russia when stating its support for peace and reconstruction in Gulf countries like Syria that are affected by war.9

Bibliography BBC. “How Far do EU-US Sanctions on Russia Go?” BBC News, September 15, 2014. Web.

Issa, Antoun. “Russia-Iran Ties Warm Over Syria: Marriage of Convenience or Lasting Alliance?” The National UAE, 015. Web.

Karasik, Theodore. “People and Politics: UAE and Russia have a Bond that will Only Grow Stronger.” The National UAE, 2015. Web.

Pizzi, Michael. “Iran Involvement in Syria Talks Reflects Russia’s Growing Influence.” Aljazeera America, 2015. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smyth, Phillip. “Tehran, Washington and the UAE’s New Terror List.” The National Interest, 2014. Web.

Thompson, Mark. “How Badly have Sanctions Hit Russia?” CNN, 2015. Web.

Timmons, Heather. “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally.” Quartz, 2014. Web.

Footnotes 1. Theodore Karasik, “People and Politics: UAE and Russia have a Bond that will only Grow Stronger”, The National UAE.

2. Heather Timmons, “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally”, Quartz.

3. Ibid.

4 Phillip Smyth, “Tehran, Washington and the UAE’s New Terror List”, The National Interest.

5. BBC, “How Far Do EU-US Sanctions on Russia Go?” BBC News, September 15, 2014.

6. Mark Thompson, “How Badly have Sanctions Hit Russia?” CNN.

7. Antoun Issa, “Russia-Iran Ties Warm Over Syria: Marriage of Convenience or Lasting Alliance?” The National UAE, 2015.

8. Michael Pizzi, “Iran Involvement in Syria Talks Reflects Russia’s Growing Influence,” Aljazeera America, 2015.

9. Heather Timmons, “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally.” Quartz.


International Legal System as Initiatives to Enhance the Umm Qasr Port Security Critical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The article under discussion is called “International Legal System as Initiatives to Enhance the Umm Qasr Port Security”; it represents a study report prepared by Iranian researchers Hassan Jafari and Somayeh Dehdari. The paper under discussion is devoted to the examination of the port security problem in the framework of the Umm Qasr Port.

The authors put a particular emphasis on the problem of the International legal system’s implementation and the efficiency of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code (Jafari


How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? Proposal argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Reasons for the suggestion as the best option

How can this be done and what is needed?

Would Russia accept this approach?

Possible trade-offs



The ongoing conflict in some GCC is unsettling. It calls for the UAE to take a defensive position and at the same time seek to provide alternatives that help to bring and sustain peace in the region. A close relationship will Russia is critical to diffusing threats from Iran for the UAE and the region.

Russia is the biggest notable player in the Middle East, regarding its involvement in direct economic activity alongside political power in the region. It is keen on other countries reciprocating its stance. Russia can negotiate with parties involved in the Syrian conflict and provide a channel for reaching to Iran. Another conflict hotbed is Iraq, where both Russia and the UAE are undertaking efforts to boost the governance capacity of the officially recognized government as they help to fight terrorism.1

Reasons for the suggestion as the best option First, the UAE must continue to invest in Russia then allow Russia to invest in the UAE economic and social projects. The continuing bilateral relations will be strengthened where there is continued mutual interest with economic gains. Both countries are looking for outlets of their financial resources and capital.

The UAE continues to expand its investment opportunities, and it should continue asking Russia to assist. It should invest in the Russian industries, and projects around the world. The recent established of the Russian Direct Investment Fund by Abu Dhabi and the plan for Russia to build an air hub in the UAE to deliver aid and knowledge to Africa is a great example of the potentials that lie ahead.2

Not only does this position the UAE as an ally of Russia, but it also shows that the country is willing to access win-win relationships as part of its foreign policy.

How can this be done and what is needed? Investing in Russia provides an alternative to Western reliance for economic growth and development. It presents an alternative financial market that helps to strengthen the economy of Russia. The current pledges and actual investments are about 6 billion dollars and an increase of the funds to about 10 billion dollars should help cement the trade and investment relationship and intentions of the UAE.3

In addition to general infrastructure investments, the two countries should cooperate on energy-related investments because of their capacities as suppliers and consumers of nuclear technology and natural gas. Besides, a bilateral tax treaty also makes it easy for investors from both countries to work together in either country. Dubai offers room for growth in its real estate and tourism as well as sports industry while Russia has excellent opportunities for infrastructure development in global projects for energy, transport and tourism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Would Russia accept this approach? Both the UAE and Russia see the Gulf region as a viable outlet for their excess capital gained from trade in natural resources. They are geared towards protecting this investment opportunity and will be willing to fight off any negative power. However, the UAE needs Russia because the latter has military might and economic power.4

The U.S. has been less elaborate in its participation in trade and investment in the region and has concentrated much on political power expressions. The use of direct military action has only been successful in isolated incidences, and there is an increased need to focus on economic development to counter the social pressures that lead to armed conflicts. Thus, investment and trade are the right opportunities for the UAE-Russia relations to follow.

After Russia annexed Crimea, the EU and the U.S. put sanctions on it and this have affected economic prosperity in the country. Russia was predicted to go into a recession as early as 2014 but it has somehow managed to avoid the threat of economic stagnation. Nevertheless, the threat looms. The major banks in Russia are operating under difficult circumstances because they have been blacklisted and cannot get credit from EU and U.S banks and other financial institutions.

On the other hand, small and medium sized enterprises in Russia have started to fill the heat of a tightening credit market and the number of loan defaults is increasing. Russian state banks have to look elsewhere other than the EU for raising long-term loans. Russian cannot also export dual-use equipment for military use to the EU.5 Notably, Russia is one of the largest weapon manufacturers in the world.

Reports show that sanctions could cause the Russian economy to shrink by as much as 9%.6 Other factors contributing to the shrinkage include the collapsing oil prices. This trend began in 2014 and seems not to have reached an end. Thus, the incentives for Russia agreeing to increased economic cooperation with the UAE are massive.

The country is desperate for alternative sources of capital. The response by Russia to the economic crisis caused by sanctions has been to increase interest rates and to sell dollars and euros to improve the value of the rouble. It has also cut government spending, but this move can only work in the short-run. Eventually, there will be need for infusing more capital and that is where the increased investments from the UAE will be critical.

The Tehran issue arises because Russia and Iran have an alliance of convenience. Iran is interested in getting technologies for building its military facilities and equipment. It has even procured several ships from Russia. In addition, many Russian firms are invested in Iran’s technology sectors given that Iran too is a recipient of Western sanctions because of its nuclear programs.

We will write a custom Proposal on How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Meanwhile, on the Syrian conflict, both Iran and Russia are interested in protecting President Assad’s rule.7 Russian influence led to the inclusion of Iran in the talks to end the Syrian war.8 However, their long-term interests are divergent. Russian military power and support of Syrian president as well as its investments in Iran give it power over Iran.

Possible trade-offs One complexity of the UAE-Russia relationships will be the trade-offs in the current US-UAE relationships. The U.S. has been making inroads into Iran, seeking to lift restrictions on its nuclear program. This was in exchange for cooperation for its interests in the region. It will be upset by UAE for going against its interests to support Russia, which is under sanctions from the U.S. There is no likelihood of U.S. sanctions against UAE but deteriorating diplomatic conditions may reduce the incentives of U.S.-backed investments in the UAE.

The lack of U.S. backed investment in the interest areas of both Russia and the UAE will ensure that trade and investment relations are not affected and that the UAE does not have to make any trade-offs. However, given the position of the U.S. as the world’s superpower, the political hegemony in the region will be threatened and this will lead to political foreign policy conflicts between the U.S. and the UAE.

Currently, the U.S. considers the UAE as an ally in its fight against global terrorism. However, the moves by the UAE to go on an express its voice against the manner that the U.S. is handling the terror threat will create additional political tension. Therefore, the UAE needs to be ready to bear the political heat. However, the non-membership status of the UAE in NATO will help to cushion it against adverse effects of its siding with Russia when stating its support for peace and reconstruction in Gulf countries like Syria that are affected by war.9

Bibliography BBC. “How Far do EU-US Sanctions on Russia Go?” BBC News, September 15, 2014. Web.

Issa, Antoun. “Russia-Iran Ties Warm Over Syria: Marriage of Convenience or Lasting Alliance?” The National UAE, 015. Web.

Karasik, Theodore. “People and Politics: UAE and Russia have a Bond that will Only Grow Stronger.” The National UAE, 2015. Web.

Pizzi, Michael. “Iran Involvement in Syria Talks Reflects Russia’s Growing Influence.” Aljazeera America, 2015. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Can the UAE Eliminate Threats from Iran through Trade and Investment in Russia? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smyth, Phillip. “Tehran, Washington and the UAE’s New Terror List.” The National Interest, 2014. Web.

Thompson, Mark. “How Badly have Sanctions Hit Russia?” CNN, 2015. Web.

Timmons, Heather. “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally.” Quartz, 2014. Web.

Footnotes 1. Theodore Karasik, “People and Politics: UAE and Russia have a Bond that will only Grow Stronger”, The National UAE.

2. Heather Timmons, “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally”, Quartz.

3. Ibid.

4 Phillip Smyth, “Tehran, Washington and the UAE’s New Terror List”, The National Interest.

5. BBC, “How Far Do EU-US Sanctions on Russia Go?” BBC News, September 15, 2014.

6. Mark Thompson, “How Badly have Sanctions Hit Russia?” CNN.

7. Antoun Issa, “Russia-Iran Ties Warm Over Syria: Marriage of Convenience or Lasting Alliance?” The National UAE, 2015.

8. Michael Pizzi, “Iran Involvement in Syria Talks Reflects Russia’s Growing Influence,” Aljazeera America, 2015.

9. Heather Timmons, “Russia has a Deep-pocketed Economic Supporter that is also a Staunch US Ally.” Quartz.


Advocacy Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theoretical interpretations

Resource mobilization theory

Social movements

Factors that influence causes and strategies in advocacy

Factors that influence success or failure of advocacy


Reference List

Introduction Debates are emerging over the current status of the current activism. People begin to wonder whether or not the street rallies, demonstration, blockades and sit-ins are now things of the past. Activists such as John Maynard and Fred Maynard, among others activists have noticed changes taking place in advocacy in the recent years. These scholars have noticed that advocacy and its causes, strategies and tactics have changed.

This essay shall present the changing landscape of advocacy using theoretical approaches, factors that influence causes and strategies of advocacy, and factors that influence the success or failure of advocacy.

Scholars note that advocacy is the basic root of modern, independent advocacy organisations that started from the US and Canada in 960’s. The proponents of advocacy works on normalisation included John O’Brien’s, Bengt Nigre, and Wolf Wolfensberger’s.

Charities of today developed from advocacy. For instance, they rose from the need to recognise basic rights such as the need for education, medical care, and fair treatment particularly among the disabled and prisoners. Strong advocacy has transformed the landscape of advocacy.

The basic human rights of disadvantaged groups are now parts of legislation across the world. In Britain advocacy has grown in the last few decades in response to the needs of the people and to create independent institutions.

However, some few aspects of advocacy have not changed. These include advocacy core values, and some principles of independent advocacy. These include respect, identity, self-awareness, equality, openness, person centred, and stereotyping.

On the other hand, advocacy principles related to business planning, equal opportunities, community development, effective use of resources, evaluation procedures, equalities and diversity strategies have undergone significant changes over time due to developments in the community.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical interpretations Rational choice theory provides a system of understanding social and economic behaviour among individuals. Olson notes that both material and non-materials incentives lead people to involve in collective action. People will consider increased rewards and engage in collective action, and sanctioning of those who do not want to take part in collective actions i.e. free-riders (Olson, 1965).

The concept of a free-rider makes no reference to some viewpoint of a person’s mental processes. It reflects different presentations of incentives. The structure of free-rider concept makes a rational, or reasonable, or normal individual surrenders to others actions that give social advantages to both self and others if the action is costly.

These factors may explain why advocacy landscape is changing. For instance, ties of friendship or the desire to be thought of well by others under collective action from the perspective of rational choice theory explain the changing aspects of advocacy (Coleman and Fararo, 1992).

Individuals act in order to satisfy self-regarding preferences or utilities. In other words, people take self satisfaction indifferently to the welfare or utility of others. Self-regard is naturally occurring phenomenon in people.

Resource mobilization theory Theorists like McCarthy and Zald, Gamson, and Oberschall developed resource mobilisation theory to reflect the concept of going beyond the focus of an individual actor in an advocacy. McCarthy and Zald noticed that the phenomenon of free-riding provided an opportunity for people to join social movements because of incentives, cost benefits, and career benefits (Gamson, 1990).

Therefore, people join social movements for resource gain rather than a collective end goal. Further researches by other scholars established that resources contributed greatly to social movements. Strong leadership and a highly integrated community of people who share an activist orientation have contributed to the rise of social movements (Zald, 1970).

According to Beuchler, new social movements have become decentralised. Some studies indicate that resource mobilisation theory fails to provide an explanation why individuals become a part of social movements.

We will write a custom Essay on Advocacy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Studies by Tilly, Marwell and Oliver indicate that resources are catalysts for mobilisation than events. Groups rise without resources other than a public advantage in mind, and with supporters willing to protest. However, if such beginnings are successful, they generate patron support or even state positions.

In the absence of resources, dissident leaders lack the means to provide selective advantages or merely provide means of transportation for their supporters to carry out demonstrations, street rallies, blockades, and sit-ins.

This explains why Marwell and Oliver insist that resources are mandatory in collective action so as to facilitate movements. The two scholars further highlight that most protests do not take place because of resources or failure to amass resources (Oliver, 1990).

Sometimes, interest exists, but resources are not available. In this case, recruitment of protesters is not possible. Likewise, a number of studies stress the importance of patrons in securing monetary resources and widening the scope of the public interest itself.

We can demonstrate the importance of resources through a dissident who wants to organise an economic sabotage as a means of protest. The dissident needs both the people and their resources (purchasing power) in order for the protest to be a success.

A low cost of protest leads to a higher mobilisation. However, as the costs and technical resources needed to facilitate protests increase, ordinary solidarity members provide too little value to facilitate protests.

Social movements Habermas notes that social movements rely on unconventional and radical movement strategies in promoting autonomy and self-determination (Habermas, 1990). This observation is also evident in the works of Rucht as Melucci notes that social movements are varieties of submerged networks i.e. they do not have a centralised form of organisation (Melucci, 1996; Rutch, 1998).

The main reasons for the rise of social movements are because of their focus on realising change in daily life, raise conscious of society, reinforce identity, and transform social relations in society. Klandermans identifies these observations in his work (Klandermans, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advocacy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Social movements are subsets of community organisations, as practices and strategies to change community relations and behaviour patterns in order to promote development, allocation, redistribution, and control of community statuses and resources, including social power.

Therefore, social movements rise as a collective endeavour aiming at promoting a cause or making a social change in the face of the opposition. Social movement brings together people with similar grievances in order to take similar direct action. The fundamental point of social movement lies in the aggrieved feelings.

Social movement aims at promoting change, ranging from reformist, incremental change to radical, fundamental change. Advocates who use social movements are mainly reactionaries and progressive. Their aims are to redistribute community resources, particularly social power, and social relationships.

Some of the tactics and strategies advocates in social movement use include social marketing campaigns to educate and create awareness about social conditions. Advocates in this movement also use coalition building and networking, direct action of coalitions, and political actions. These include public demonstrations, disruption, and nonviolent civil disobedient.

Scholars who have concentrated on New Social Movements argue that social movement emanates out of the need for both a challenge and an alternative to the conservative labour movement.

Social movement concentrates with new issues in society, such as peace (protest against nuclear weapons), the environment and advocacy for the rights of women and children. Scholars note that social movement groups transcend materialism and distinction between left and right i.e. the concept of value shift hypothesis.

Inglehart notes that society is undergoing intense changes in terms of social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions (Inglehart, 1990). Occasionally, leaders may ignore the effects and resultant transformations in the face of these changes. Instead, they should be ready to evaluate the direction, intensity and nature of these changes in society.

When such leaders fail to take action, social movement emerges in order to assess the effects of these changes on public values. Cohen sees social movement as a macro-context of mobilisation and a symbolic action in the state or political sphere (Cohen, 2009).

The modern explanation of value, shift hypothesis lies with a model of society e.g. post-industrial society, information society, and advanced capitalism, among others. In order to understand the hypothesis of value shift, its concepts must focus on the agents of change, such as social, political, and economical which have taken place within a given period of time.

Once the dissidents realise that changes have occurred in society, they begin to find out the extent and direction of these changes. The advocates measure these changes with regard to materialist or post-materialist aspects.

When scholars approach social movements using Marxist theory, they note that collective actions have their roots in economic logic of the capitalist production and class reductionism. In other words, class relations rooted in the process of production define most of the significant participants in social movements.

This mainly refers to marginalised collective action outside revolution. However, new social movements focus on politics, ideology, cultural, identity e.g. sex, gender and gender, among others spheres as the basis of most collective action.

Factors that influence causes and strategies in advocacy Strategies are long term, multifaceted and generally incorporate a variety of tactics that activists consider appropriate to the context, objectives and available resources. Moyer argues that many advocates tend to focus primarily on tactics, which render them less likely to achieve their goals than activists (Moyer, 1990).

This is because tactics approaches make use of regular press releases with the hope that the media will report their grievances to decision-makers, and preferred actions and policies will follow.

Consequently, there are a number of strategies and factors influencing the choice of advocacy strategies. The traditional models and strategies of advocacy came in two forms. These included self advocacy and one to one advocacy. They were all equal in value and served specific needs.

These traditional approaches included group or collective advocacy, self advocacy, and issue-based advocacy. There were other forms of advocacy, such as peer advocacy where all the parties share similar experiences, citizen advocacy where individuals fight for the rights of the disadvantaged citizens, non instructed advocacy where individuals think that they are free to communicate their ideas.

In recent time, other forms of advocacy have emerged such as the works of lawyers, self-help groups, religious groups, and work groups, among others. However, these groups do not fully adopt the title of advocacy.

Group advocacy as a strategy can come from case advocacy. Group advocacy can be part of a certain effort, or an ongoing community activity or a social movement. This strategy helps society to develop consciousness, collective consciousness, knowledge and skills for self-advocacy.

When advocates assess a situation in society, they may start with an individual, and end up advocating for a group. For instance, in a regime of dictatorship the problem may start with an individual, political detainee and end up affecting the rest of other detainees.

Community advocacy has multiple facets and acts as a bridge between the micro and macro advocacy modalities. This strategy requires community consciousness raising and education about tactics challenging the status quo. Most community advocacies occur as a result of disheartening situations, conditions that cause disadvantages, aggravate or harm a segment or the whole community.

According to Butcher, the strategy of internal change creates empowerment and capacity for new social constructions. However, patterns and constructions of reality in advocacy can discourage involvement of people in advocacy. The role of social action is to raise consciousness for possible action systems (Butcher, 2007).

According to Gamson, there are three collective action frames that facilitate social action (Gamson, 1990). These are the frames advocates use to justify their social actions. The author argues that injustice component consists of moral indignation that occur has a part of a political process.

Gamson states that agencies believe that they can take action through collective social action. Social changes in society may affect people and the advocates must prevail over such effects (Hardcastle, 2011).

Scholars in this field indicate that social actions main concern is to challenge people who hold power. This is because social actions promote insurgency, reform movements, reforms, and third-party traditions.

They recognise that social action of today uses media events, such as Tea Bagger, internets and, social network sites, other campaigns aimed for reforms unlike in the past where inadequate resources and technology affected the works of advocates.

Activists use social action internationally with strategies of demonstrations and protests for a number of reasons. For instance, in Palestine activists use social action to fight for liberation whereas in developed nations, they use social action to condemn unfriendly corporate and political globalisation actions. We can recognise social action on the streets, traditional media, and social media.

This strategy works best to promote changes and reforms, such as radical, incremental, and fundamental changes in society (Hardcastle, 2011). These changes aim to distribute, redistribute community resources and social powers. This strategy has worked well developed nations such as the US and emerging economies like South Africa.

Factors that influence success or failure of advocacy Researchers note that activists who primarily focus on tactics rarely achieve their end goals. Activists must possess sufficient information on the relevant campaign issue.

At the same time, they must also possess both practical and technical skill in order to do the job well. Advocacy also depends on interpersonal relationship skills. This is necessary in organising advocacy for political and philosophical framework for action (Shields, 2009).

Advocacy may fail because of the opposition’s deceptive messages, propaganda, and unethical financial investments in the campaign i.e. bribes. Under such circumstances, challenges may rise because of working with people who have conditions that restrain or prevent their desires or abilities to act.

These groups will provide clients with advocacy, emotional support, recognition of support, and protect clients against individual retribution from the target groups (Freddolino and Moxley, 1994).

The traditional community and labour movements failed to build a base of people with the broad range of interests, and achieve results beyond the local level. Instead, they concentrated on issues that individuals found easy to defend.

These leaders also chose to ignore the main problems their constituents experienced. At this time, society concerns were mainly the issues of priorities, such as affirmative action, gay rights, reproductive issues, and immigrants.

Another reason that contributes to the failure of advocacy is progressive strategies. They lack skills and abilities instead of being complex and extensive to contend with oppositions. Therefore, we can say that advocacies fail because they do not take past mistakes as learning points.

Lastly, advocacies also experience the problem of inability or unwillingness to address ideologies. These tendencies have weakened several progressive activists, such as community organisations, labour rights, feminism, civil rights, and identity politics. These factors undermine initiation of any movement to create a change in society because of disfranchised communities.

Conclusion This study confirms that advocacy landscape is changing, and new forms of advocacies are emerging. However, vigorous activities that characterised earlier advocacies are becoming irrelevant in modern society. Activists are engaging new forms of media and tactics to convey their messages.

These scholars also note that advocacy takes time depending on socioeconomic, political, and cultural impacts of changes in society. Depending on the impacts of these factors, advocates will react in a certain manner in order to improve social condition of society.

Reference List Butcher, H 2007, Critical community practice. The Policy Press, Bristol, UK.

Cohen, M 2009, The field of social work, Holt, Rinehart


Maintaining Ethical Standards in Business Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical behavior in business

Overview of ethical business behavior


Enforcing ethical behavior




Introduction Ethical behavior in business has remained a major subject of discussion in almost every business environment and company boardroom. Many company managers and businessmen invest heavily in programs that are aimed at instilling and nurturing reputable business behavior to augment good business performance, image and winning the loyalty of customers.

Despite these efforts, cases of unethical behavior are frequently reported in countless companies around the world (Ronald, 1992). For instance, former chairman of NASDAQ, Bernie Madoff was arrested in Namibia for unethical conduct. Hewlett Packard, a respected company in the world found Patricia Dunn to be the mastermind of several unethical scandals in the company.

The list for companies that have had to suspend managers and employers for unethical behavior is endless and grows daily. In every direction we face in the business world, we encounter an array of ethical scandals affecting companies, individuals and businesses.

Is it possible to maintain ethical behavior? Maintaining ethical standards is possible and crucial for every business through corporate efforts and holistic management approach. This research paper critically analyses ethical behavior in business, how it can be realized and nurtured among other issues commonly discussed in the context of the topic.

Ethical behavior in business The concept of ethics is well described with reference to philosophical approach of thinking and defining human behavior and how we make decisions based on what we believe and accept to be morally right. Although such decisions may be made independently, they may have far-reaching impact on individuals or the entire group of people involved.

Importantly, decisions in business are not only governed by rules and regulations but also by ethical practices that may have been nurtured for years by an organization or business (Boatright, 2009). This is usually aimed at promoting fairness and equity in ensuring that business activities are carried out within the confines of moral standards.

In defining business ethics, many analysts concur that they are usually professional regulations adopted and observed by a company or business organization and play a major role in decision-making especially during management crises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business ethics therefore refer to general aspects that define business conduct and are essential in shaping the behavior of not only individual employees but also the entire business organization (Boatright, 2009). Additionally, business ethics is associated by both descriptive and normative dimensions.

The field is commonly referred to as normative due to its core role in career specialization. On other hand, business ethics are well understood by academicians form a descriptive point of view.

Overview of ethical business behavior In appreciating the role of ethical business behavior, it is imperative to underscore the fact that these moral standards may vary from one organization to another and from period to period. This to say that ethical issues being faced by one company may not be similar to those being experienced by another.

Nevertheless, the common issues experienced may have certain similarities in terms of how they are handled by people in-charge. By the fact that the history of business dates back several centuries, it can further be argued that ethical issues in business have a deep and wide history (Boatright, 2009).

This is because business is governed by morals and standards that ensure pinnacle performance and competitiveness in any performance context. Business was common during colonialism, slavery and Cold War. This implies that it is an issue that has continuously haunted business owners and organizations around the world.

By the fact that business ethics encompasses the entire behavior that a company or organization adheres to, there is no doubt that attaining these standards is quite important in any form of business management.

This ethical behavior further shapes the interaction between businesses and the world through service delivery (Ronald, 1992). On the other hand, ethical behavior may define the interplay between a company and its individual customers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maintaining Ethical Standards in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, the reputation of any business solely depends on the way it upholds business ethics for the interests of the parties involved and the world at large. While most businesses are highly driven by the desire to make money through profit maximization and practicing of pure capitalism, good conduct cannot be traded for anything if good business reputation is to be maintained (Lattal


Sartre’s Bad Faith Case Study online essay help

Table of Contents Everyone Lies

Sartre’s Philosophical Notion

Sartre’s Example

The Woman Is in Bad Faith

People Live in Bad Faith

Works Cited

Everyone Lies Many people have acknowledged that they have to tackle with liars. More so, one of the latest trends of the modern society is the notion popularized by the famous Dr. House: everybody lies. It goes without saying that the essence of lying has been considered by many renowned thinkers.

Sartre reveals a very interesting facet of lying introducing his idea of bad faith. He also provides precise examples to explain his theory. Obviously, Sartre’s ideas can be applicable in real life as it is possible to find numerous examples even in one’s everyday life.

Sartre’s Philosophical Notion According to Sartre lying presupposes complete possession of the truth (48). In other words, the liar knows exactly certain facts and tries to hide them changing them or withholding them. Therefore, deceit is a process which consists of two stages: knowing the truth and withholding it.

Sartre calls this pattern the “ideal” lie (48). However, he also claims that people often deny the truth instead of simply substituting facts. For instance, people may (or may not) know the complete truth, and they do not try to substitute facts to deceive anyone. People’s consciousness often tries to deceive itself.

In simple terms, even though people know the truth they tend to forget about it or pay no attention to it focusing on certain desirable points (Sartre 49). Sartre calls this state of negation of the truth the state of bad faith. Thus, when people are in bad faith, they focus on desirable information (though it can be untrue) denying (or simply ignoring) the truth (Sartre 49).

This does not mean that people are deliberately cynical and hypocritical. Sometimes they do not notice that they are in bad faith. Sartre mentions that people often feel guilty when they acknowledge that they were in bad faith in this or that situation. Interestingly, Sartre also points out that sometimes people try not to acknowledge the truth at all.

The philosopher states that psychoanalysis can unveil the truth, but patients often refuse to acknowledge it and even remove themselves from the psychoanalytical treatment (Sartre 52). Admittedly, people try to remain in their comfort zones. Therefore, there can be no surprise that many people lie to themselves, i.e. they are in bad faith.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of bad faith can be also explained with the help of such notions as facticity and transcendence. More so, it is possible to claim that these three notions are closely connected. Thus, facticity is the number of external factors that influences people, i.e. it is people’s background. Admittedly, people’s backgrounds do affect their perception of the world.

Thus, if it had been a norm for hotel receptionists to be impolite and indifferent, the majority of these people would not have pretended to be that careful to details and that attentive to clients. However, there are norms that limit people’s freedom to certain extent. These limits are the necessary background for the development of bad faith in people.

As for the concept of transcendence, Sartre also utilizes it. The concept of transcendence helps Sartre to explain people’s attitude towards each other. Sartre introduces the notion of for-itself which stands for people’s desire to reach the truth, to acknowledge some responsibilities to interact with others.

Sartre notes that for-itself often tries to understand subjectivity of others. Of course, this peculiarity of human beings contributes to the development of bad faith as people (for many reasons, consciously or subconsciously) may try to fit other people’s world.

Sartre’s Example Sartre claims that it is possible to find many examples of people in bad faith in everyday life. For instance, he provides an example of a woman who is having her first date with a man (Sartre 55). The woman is in bad faith as she tries to focus on desirable points ignoring the truth. Thus, she tries not to think of the major aim of the date, i.e. the necessity to make her decision whether there will be other dates with the man.

She focuses on having a good time enjoying complements and interesting conversation. The woman tries not to think (she is quite successful in that) that the man is attracted by her body. Instead, the woman tries to think the man is attracted by her personality.

More so, Sartre observes the behavior of the woman and assumes that she is eager to postpone the time of decision making ignoring the man’s overt signals. For instance, when the man puts his hand on the woman’s hand, she distracts her attention (and the man’s attention) from her body speaking of some abstract things. Thus, the woman escapes the necessity to vividly accept or refuse the man’s offer, so to speak.

We will write a custom Case Study on Sartre’s Bad Faith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Woman Is in Bad Faith Admittedly, in the situation described the woman is in bad faith as she denies the truth focusing on something desirable. Of course, the woman understands possible outcomes of the date, i.e. either this will be the first and the last date or there will be more dates. The woman also understands that the man pays much attention to her physical appearance. Finally, she understands that there can be physical contact with the man in future.

However, the woman subconsciously ignores these facts she, undoubtedly, know. She focuses on desirable points. She deceives herself trying to think of the nice conversation they are having, instead of directly responding to the man’s signal (touching the man’s hand or taking her hand away).

When the man pays her compliments she tries to think they are addressed to her personal qualities rather than her appearance. Apparently, the woman is not that cynical, but she does not want to leave her comfort zone. The woman’s actions can be regarded as subconscious as she does not act in that way deliberately. Her consciousness chooses to deceive itself to remain in the comfort zone. This state is what Sartre calls bad faith.

It is important to note that the example is a bright illustration of Sartre’s concept of bad faith which is explained as the extreme freedom of choice. Thus, Sartre claims that people are always free to choose. Of course, there are certain limits.

However, people (or rather people’s consciousness and subconsciousness) still have options. It is up to an individual to decide. Bad faith is one of the manifestations of this freedom. Thus, people know the truth but make their choice and deceit others and themselves. This is the choice people are ‘doomed’ to make. This is the kind of freedom people enjoy.

People Live in Bad Faith To sum up, Sartre’s notion of bad faith is manifested in real life settings. People tend to deceive themselves not to leave their comfort zones. Sartre’s theory fits the modern life perfectly. It is also possible to say that it advocates people’s hypocrisy to certain extent. Sartre claims that people often live in bad faith not because they are so cynical, but because this is the very nature of the human being.

Works Cited Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology. London: Taylor


Wal-Mart Sustainability and Responsible Reflective Essay online essay help: online essay help

Sustainability and responsible practices have been gaining more and more popularity over the last years. They are especially popular in the sphere of business. Today, sustainable business making is embraced and by all large corporations who regularly emphasize and comment on their innovative approach towards waste, eco-friendly production, closed-loop supply chain and sustainable distribution.

The importance of sustainability is often discussed within food and beverage, packaging and delivery, transportation and digital technology industries. Sustainability used to be ignored in the past as a costly practice, but the contemporary business makers have learned how to turn it into an advantage. Closed-loop supply chain focuses on the life cycle of a product and maximization of the created value (“The Evolution” 10).

The sustainability of closed-loop supply chains are in the integration of all activities and accurate management of operations (“The Challenge” 3). In my opinion, closed-loop supply chain does not create much value, yet, as shown by Guide and Van Wassenhove, it allows attracting two types of customers (those who purchase new product and the remanufacturing clients) and making a business profitable for a larger number of consumers (Business Aspects 19-23).

Collaboration contributes significantly to sustainable and responsible supply chain activities. For example, as discussed by Plambeck and Denend, in order to “green” its supply chain Wal-Mart collaborates with several environmental organizations and suppliers regarding seafood production (21). I noticed that this collaboration is also beneficial for the consumers who have become more interested in the way a product travels before getting to their tables.

To provide the consumers with such information many stores and restaurants have started to add the information about the sources of food products to the menus, labels and packaging. Responsibility does not only concern the relationships between the vendors and the consumers; it also includes the interactions between the suppliers and their peers. This is why fair trade movement has entered the world of business relations.

Fair trade has a goal to provide equal benefits for workers, farmers, advantages for the environment and for business makers (McKone-Sweet 51. Today there are more and more concerns about the changes within fair trade that start to be more money-oriented forcing smaller farms and producers out of the chain and including large plantations with doubtful approaches towards sustainability.

Another approach towards sustainability in business is based on the creation of lean supply chains. Such chains are focused on process optimization and the reduction of waste in operations and products (Vitasek et al. 40). In my opinion, the lean supply chain approach carries many positive aspects. I believe that if my organization adopted lean strategies this would reduce the rates of turnover and burnout among the employee, because the managers would start to treat workers as a valuable resource and engage in more responsible hiring and retention practices.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, when it comes to my organization, the adoption green and sustainable supply chain activities would lead to massive re-organization of the whole business process, and this is why the leaders are reluctant to start such a huge change that needs to affect some of the core business practices. In general, I think that the responsible attitude towards sustainability among the contemporary businesses will result in a variety of positive effects such as preservation of natural resources, optimization of business practices and time management, collaboration and integration of all stages of the supply chain.

Works Cited Guide, V. Daniel R., and Luk N. Van Wassenhove. Business Aspects of Closed-Loop Supply Chains. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Mellon University Press, 2003. Print

Guide, V. Daniel R., and Luk N. Van Wassenhove. “OR FORUM—The Evolution Of Closed-Loop Supply Chain Research.” Operations Research 57.1 (2009): 10-18. Print.

Guide, V. Daniel R., Terry P. Harrison, and Luk N. Van Wassenhove. “The Challenge of Closed-Loop Supply Chains.” Interfaces 33.6 (2003): 3-6. Print.

McKone-Sweet, Kathleen E. “Lessons from a coffee supply chain.” Supply Chain Management Review 8.7 (2004): 52-50. Print.

Plambeck, E. and Lyn Denend. “The Greening of Wal-Mart’s Supply Chain.” Supply Chain Management Review 11.5 (2007): 18-25.

Vitasek, Kate, Karl B. Manrodt, and Jeff Abbott. What Makes a Lean Supply Chain. Supply Chain Management Review 10.1 (2005): 39-45.

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Assessing Project Management Skills in the UAE Contracting Industry Proposal scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

History of Changes The impressive development of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the non-oil segment results in the improvement of the construction activity (Haddad 2014). The discovering of the oil resources contributed to the dramatic transformation of the country in the sphere of industry and economics. The willingness of the government to reduce the oil dependence consequently led to the investments into the non-oil sector (Haddad 2014).

The constructing industry received the priority and became the significant part of the UAE economics. Being the engine of the economic development of the country, constructing industry enjoys incredible popularity over the last decades (Gorgenlander 2011).

Since project management is an essential element in construction, employees engaged in these positions need to build up the skills corresponding to the high level of the industry development (Ochieng, Price


Is Britain a Meritocratic Society? Opinion Essay argumentative essay help

It was determined by history that people need a belief based upon which they would build their present and future. Here is where the need for formulating various concepts of society derives from. One of the popular approaches to defining society is that of the meritocratic society.

First coined by Michael Young in his 1958 book named The Rise of Meritocracy, this conception is a combination of merit and aristocracy. Merit, broadly speaking, is a prominent value distinguishing one between the others and a will and hard work to use them as a tool for achieving success in life, and aristocracy is the upper class of the society who are the most privileged. In general, meritocracy is an aristocracy based on merit and ignoring kinship1.

That said, meritocracy or a meritocratic society is a type of society in which those who have talents and extraordinary intellectual abilities and skills will achieve success in life and, what is more, reach the leading and ruling positions in their community regardless of their family ties and background2.

According to the postulates of this approach to defining society, those who are the brightest and the most hard-working and persistent will occupy the highest positions in the society whether it be ruling a little group of people, an organization or a whole country. Generally speaking, meritocracy is:

A principle of allocation of people to positions in the socio-economic hierarchy, typically jobs. … The theory is that meritocracy offers a ‘ladder of opportunity’, on which everyone has an equal chance to climb as far as their ‘merit’ permits.3

Meritocratic society operates based on several principles, as initially defined by Michael Young in his book. First of all, meritocracy requires administrative tool controlling the redistribution of human talent. That means that there should be specially authorised organization testing people’s unique abilities and skills before they occupy their positions in the society.

Generally speaking, it means that there should be a special network of examinations and that certain position requires a certain set of skills, so prior to entering it, the potential occupant should be tested for having such skills. Second, the skills mentioned above should be fixed and unchangeable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It does not mean that they remain the same over centuries; instead, they change once in a while so that they correspond to the needs of certain historical epoch but what remains unchangeable is the high level of knowledge and talent required for taking up higher appointments.

Third, there is no place for competition in a perfect meritocracy. This principle may sound a little weird if thinking about the very essence of the meritocratic approach but it is believed that administrative procedures have no defects thus eradicating competition as such. It may be explained by the fact that people are redistributed according to their abilities and talents so that they believe that they are exactly where they deserve to be thus there is no need to compete with others and prove that they are better than others4.

Such a conception of society is a source of particular problems. First and foremost, meritocracy as such leads to socio-economic inequality in the society. From the theoretical perspective, it is viewed as the path towards equal opportunities but the practice has proven that society cannot operate when based on merit.

Instead, family ties and the background, not intellectual abilities or unique skills, are the criteria for determining chances for success. It may be easily explained by one simple fact – those who have already occupied high positions in the society do not want their children to hold lower ones thus blocking access to the talented people without the similar background5.

The second challenge is the problem of defining the merit as such. As the times have changed, one new element was added to the concept of merit. It is that of kinship as it was already mentioned above. That said, as long as society values prestige and family ties instead of creative and intellectual potential, it cannot function and develop as a meritocracy in its traditional sense.

The third problem of such a conception of the society is that living in the meritocratic conditions people are taught that inequality is justifiable. The reason for this belief lies in the definition of merit as such6. As long as people believe that they do not have the opportunity to obtain certain positions without certain skills or talents and that they deserve to be exactly where they are, they do not have the desire to change this reality, self-evolve, and reach new horizons.

Many may believe that meritocracies are as dead as Julius Caesar but, in fact, they are not the tales of the past. Nowadays most developed societies consider themselves to be meritocratic, as they believe that there are equal opportunities to succeed in life for everyone who has talent and works hard.

We will write a custom Essay on Is Britain a Meritocratic Society? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, they claim that the harder you work, the higher you get, and, of course, your talent and intellectual and creative potential are the only things that limit you in climbing the ladder. Together with that, people in the developed societies stress that they totally ignore the person’s background and family ties if he or she demonstrates yearning to succeed in life and has unique skills.

Britain in this sense is not an exception, and it is a meritocratic society. In general, most people stick to a concept of merit. What is more, today, it almost does not matter what class you come from or what your ethnic background is because if you are talented and persistent, the possibility of achieving success is high. More than that, you are most likely to achieve the position your skills allow you to, so everyone in the society occupies exactly the right place.

What is more prominent is that there have been many positive shifts in the movement towards perfect meritocratic society such as elevating a barrier of class. That means that birth in a working-class family, for example, does not preclude a talented person from gaining higher education and becoming a citizen of high-status.

Regardless of the positive developments mentioned above class still matters in the overall setting of one’s life. It originates from the parents’ love and their desire to help their children find the best possible place in life not from stressing that class is a barrier to intellectual and creative development.

That said, parents might want to let their kids attend the most prestigious schools they can afford thus granting them certain merits in life7 as education has become one of them. What is more, they may help their children occupy particular positions thus inverting the natural course of meritocracy.

Parents’ interference with their children’s lives is what is one of the main preclusions to perfect meritocracy. It should be said, however, that this statement is only fair in the case of high-status families, especially those occupying the highest ruling positions in the society. In most cases today, those who hold them cannot make a boast of their social status as they have it due to their background.

It does not mean that they do not have any merits at all; it only means that, in the case they had not had the status of their family, they would not have been where they currently are since their skills and talents do not correspond to it. That said, the desire of the parents especially those who are involved in politics and ruling the country to prevent their children from falling is what keeps British society from achieving a state of perfect meritocracy.

Together with that, universal access to education including school and higher education is what is often viewed as a preclusion to build a perfect meritocratic society in its traditional sense. There is a point of view that the ability to obtain education should not be universal, as it inverts the natural course of the development of meritocracy because it is a primary source of inequality in the society8.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Britain a Meritocratic Society? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main argument in favour of this statement is that there is inequality in the ability of families to help their children with gaining the education and that the one with more prestigious education occupies better positions of higher status regardless of the level of knowledge, skills, and talent.

I am strongly inclined to believe that even though there are many problems deriving from the meritocratic concept of society, there is one promising opportunity of the present times that can help return to the meritocratic society in its traditional sense. With the outburst of information and communication technologies and the overall shift to the knowledge-driven world, those without family ties with the highest circles of the community have gotten their chance to succeed in life with the help of their skills and talents.

Since higher education has become available to nearly anyone and is no longer a prerogative of the privileged ones, the educational system has become that administratively authorised unit that can control the redistribution of talent. I do believe in it because education leads to inequality in society not in the case of different level of the college prestige but in the case if some people had the opportunity to obtain the higher education because of their family’s status in the society, and others had not.

When everyone is equal in access to education, even though the level of prestige differs, there emerges the possibility of equality because all that as the end results matters is not the name of the college indicated on the diploma but the level of knowledge and whether a person has skills needed for feeling the position.

That said, the level of education has become one more merit. Of course, those enjoying the advantage of kinship will occupy most ruling positions but people with high intellectual abilities and robust creative potential will find their way to attaining a high place.

One more argument in favour of the meritocracy of British society is the Queen’s Honour system9. It may be considered to be out in the left field but, in fact, meritocracy is about being rewarded for unique skills and persistent work.

With this in mind, Queen’s system of Honours proves that there is some other way to reward people rather than the career, power, and money and that those who work for the good of their country should be titled and remembered. Together with the system of rewards, it also demonstrates the hierarchy in the society with being knighted as a symbol of reaching the highest ladder of it or the highest rank possible.

So, British society is just one little step away from becoming a perfect meritocracy. Since the end of World War II, there have been many positive shifts in achieving social justice and equality such as carrying out various reforms aimed at eradicating barriers keeping talented and skilled people away from becoming successful and obtaining high status in society.

It should be said that taking one last step towards transforming in a perfectly meritocratic society may be even harder than all those previous ones that have already been taken, as it would mean that those occupying the highest ruling positions would let their children live their lives by means of their own unique character traits, knowledge, and persistence, i.e. their merits.

Bearing in mind everything that was mentioned above building a society based on meritocratic approach is only possible in the case if every next generation forgets about the success and status of the current generation and starts its way from the very beginning with their intellectual and creative potential as the only criteria for achieving set objectives. It, to my mind, is impossible due to the human’s nature, as the parents always want their children to have the best conditions for living their lives.

The only option that might be possible in such case is creating conditions for fair competition in the society even though it is contrary to the postulates of the meritocratic society. I can explain it by providing the statement that without the competition there is no opportunity for achieving equality, as there are people who might have similar skills and talents so there should be a way of choosing it.

So, developing competitive atmosphere together with education may become that administrative tool for redistributing human talent that is necessary for meritocratic society in it traditional sense.

Reference List Allen, Ansgar, ‘Michael Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy: A Philosophical Critique’, British Journal of Educational Studies, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 367-382.

Bloodworth, James, ‘Meritocracy is a Myth‘, Independent (2014). Web.

Duru-Bellat, Marie., Tenret, Elise., ‘Who’s for Meritocracy? Individual and Contextual Variations in the Faith’, Comparative Education Review, vol. 56, no. 2, p. 223-247.

Gelman, Andrew, “Meritocracy Won’t Happen: The Problem with the ‘Ocracy’”, Washington Post (2014). Web.

Lister, Ruth, ‘Ladder of Opportunity of Engine of Inequality?’, The Political Quarterly, vol. 77, no. 1, 2006, pp. 232-234.

Saunders, Peter, ‘Meritocracy and Popular Legitimacy’, The Political Quarterly, vol. 77, no. 1, 2006, pp. 183-194.

Strong, Roy, ‘England’s Class System is a Meritocracy‘, The Telegraph (2014). Web.

Wooldridge, Adrian, Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England C. 1860-c.1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Footnotes 1 Adrian Wooldridge, Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England C.1860-c.1990, p. 166.

2 Peter Saunders, ‘Meritocracy and Popular Legitimacy’, The Political Quarterly, vol. 77, no. 1, 2006, p. 183.

3 Ruth Lister, ‘Ladder of Opportunity of Engine of Inequality?’ The Political Quarterly, vol. 77, no. 1, 2006, p. 232.

4 Ansgar Allen, ‘Michael Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy: A Philosophical Critique’, British Journal of Educational Studies, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 370-374.

5 Andrew Gelman, ”Meritocracy Won’t Happen: The Problem with the ‘Ocracy’”, Washington Post.

6 Marie Duru-Bellat


Components of Project Portfolio Management Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help

Project portfolio management can be discussed as a process of conducting and coordinating several projects combined in a portfolio in order to achieve the certain strategic goals. Therefore, there are two perspectives, from which it is possible to discuss the components of project portfolio management.

On the one hand, it is important to concentrate on the components of the portfolio as a set of projects and programs (Stretton 2012). On the other hand, the purpose is to discuss the components of the framework related to the project portfolio management (Petit


Heathrow Terminal 5 Project Evaluation Essay a level english language essay help

Critical Analysis of the Heathrow Terminal 5 Project Terminal 5 (T5) was officially opened in the London’s Heathrow Airport in 2008 with an objective to increase the airport’s capacity up to 95 million passengers annually (Chan 2012). At that, the intended capacity of T5 was 30 million passengers each year (Towards a sustainable Heathrow 2011). The key challenges of the project during the initial stage were insuring the timely delivery of investment and balanced distribution of risk among the suppliers (Kerzner 2014). During the midpoint, the timely delivery of funds through investment continued to be the major complexity due to the existing uncertainty in the global economy drawing at this point to the upcoming economic crisis (Kerzner 2014).

Another remarkable challenge at this stage of the project completion was insuring that all stakeholders engaging in this megaproject would finish their work on budget and on time (Boardman


US National Security Policy Research Paper college admission essay help

Topic What are the challenges USA faces when developing a coherent US National Security Policy inside the four-year presidential cycle and the failing role of ‘think-tanks’ in National Security Policies affect national policy-making?

Hypothesis/Thesis The working thesis statement for this research is that, numerous challenges have been witnessed when developing National Security Policies and the challenges are more complex in the four-year presidential cycle. This situation or scenario is likely to affect the National Security Policy-making process and in the end, developed security policy may not be effective.

The situation is made more difficulty by presence of many think-tanks or group-tanks who for a long time tend to fail in their policy-making security strategies, a situation that later affect the entire national policy-making process. The four-year presidential cycle is largely limited in terms of time to enable the development of a coherent national security policy.

Given the nature of USA security needs and priorities that have persisted for many decades, the process of security policy-making requires enough time. For example, it is impossible and always difficulty to capture the multiple elements of security priorities in the four-year presidential cycle.

Security priorities for the USA are dynamic, fluid and changing everyday and this situation makes the process of making coherent national security policy a flexible one.

Moreover, the role of think-tanks and group-think tanks for a long time has been presented to be neutral. But in nature, think-tanks tend to have political leaning in their process of policy advice, a situation likely to make the entire process more difficult and challenging. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that,

Since the national security policy-making process is likely to take place in a four-year presidential period, numerous challenges are likely to emerge which will affect the functionability of the national security policy.

Think-tanks and Group think-tanks have for a long time been involved in national security policy-making process and majority tend to take partisan position, a situation that has in the past and in future it is likely to results into failure of national security policies.

Purpose Statement The US is a country that has experienced and continues to experience both sides of positive and negative history1. The positive side is fostered by economic, political, social, and cultural development of the country, which is also accompanied by unequivocal freedom and rights. Moreover, the US has become victim to terrorism activities, frequently aided by rogue states, and failed democracies2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the security needs of the country have been compromised, provoked, and abused by terrorists. Unlike in the past, the issue of terrorism is no longer a complacent concept for ignorance as far as security needs, and a safe environment remains priority.

There is a need to improve the overall security requirements and, at the same time, actively participate in international activities that aim to promote and establish worldwide peace3. In all these circumstances, the US has a huge role to play in the international arena and at home as well.

The country has the duty to defend the nation, its states, territories, and boundaries in a way that breeds confidence and trust among its citizens. At the same time, the country has to inspire a sense of international security, calmness, and peace by actively pursuing security goals that aim at eliminating all possible sources of threats and, at the same time, creating an environment for democracy and security to thrive.

All these aspects have to be fulfilled, but when one analyzes the uncertain nature of the international environment, it becomes clear that more efforts are required, especially in developing a national security policy that addresses these multiple needs and concerns in a precise and satisfying manner.

The role played by different players who in one way or the other participants in the development of national security policy is critical. From the role the president and the administration play, to the role Congress plays, to the role of think tanks, and the public play, it can be seen clearly that coordinated efforts and abilities are required to ensure the security policy achieves its goals.

In other words, it can be said that the US well being depends a lot on foreign defense and national security policies that are developed and implemented in such a way that aspects of organization, coordination, and articulation are not absent4. Developing a national security policy in four years is not an easy task given such a policy has to operate on a long-term basis.

Therefore, it can be suggested that transforming the current situation of developing a US national security policy is necessary. There is a great need to have elements of national security dedicate their efforts in developing and implementing a policy that is long term irrespective of political and administration change.

We will write a custom Research Paper on US National Security Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, it can be observed that the role that has been played by think tanks in the entire process of national security policy development has been diluting, confusing and at times conflicting. As a result, there should be clear established guidelines in which the participation and contribution of think tanks in the development of national security policy are clearly outlined and communicated.

Given that international and national security needs to remain paramount for the progress of American society and the international community at large, it is necessary to have national security policies that are effective and address the needs holistically. Research in this area is therefore appropriate and can be utilized in the decision-making processes.

Furthermore, the large amount of available literature concentrates on national security policy development without adequately exploring the role of think tanks and the challenges posed in developing policy inside the four-year presidential cycle. These two critical aspects cannot be ignored or underestimated as far as formulation and implementation of national security policy are concerned.

In other words, it can be observed that for the national security policy to be effective and functional, it has to reflect multi-dimensional approach input, which does not only regard and perceive security policy in a singular dimension but also in a holistic dimension. Lack of adequate literature can, therefore, is associated with the inadequacies and difficulties reflected and experienced in national security policy development.

As a result, this research paper aims at generating information that is objective in nature and relatively complete in spectrum, which, in turn, can be used by various stakeholders involved in the process of developing and implementing national security policy.

This research project is significant in many. For instance, the research project is premised on the need to evaluate the challenges likely to impact the process of developing a national security policy in the four-year presidential cycle. This four-year cycle is perceived to be a relatively short time for any genuine security policy to develop strengths and thereafter, be able to achieve its goals.

Security issues facing the US today are long-term and transcend many structures, systems and institutions, and therefore, cannot be addressed comprehensively in a four-year term. As a result, it has been established that the domestic, inactive, and sometimes dysfunctional nature of a US national security policy is likely to arise from the four-year presidential cycle, which is likely to partially impact the policy.

At the same time, new administrations come in with new policy-makers and create a situation likely to witness constant change. As a result, the entire process of security policy-making is likely to be affected by these changes and political dynamics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US National Security Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a need to identify how well a national security policy can be formulated and developed amidst these challenges. Formulating an effective national policy needs to be everyone’s concern, especially that of stakeholders close to making or influencing security policy.

Other key players, such as the public and academic scholars need to have knowledge of how the challenges in the security policy development process can be dealt with in a more productive manner. This knowledge cannot be attained by using current literature or information, but by undertaking objective research projects.

Research is likely to lead to the generation of more appropriate information and is likely to answer the pertinent research questions in the most concise way that addresses the needs of new challenges of developing national security policy.

At the end of this research, an adequate knowledge base will be developed from the findings and analysis of key aspects, which will be vital to a number of stakeholders involved in developing and implementing policy. This knowledge base will also be crucial and inevitably important in future research processes as it will provide necessary and critical secondary information resources.

Significance of research can only be achieved when there are specific set objectives. The primary objective of the research project is to establish and ascertain challenges that impact or are experienced in developing a coherent US national security policy inside the four-year presidency cycle.

A related objective will be to ascertain how the issue of ‘Think Tanks’ or ‘Group Think Tanks’ impact and results in the failure of national security policies and the policy-making process.

As a result, through the research, it will be possible to establish how the four-year presidential cycle is a relatively short period to put in place a concrete national security policy. Moreover, the role of think tanks will be established as well as how they may fail the policy-making process. More importantly, research objectives are realized through research questions that a researcher would want to answer.

In this case, research questions, unlike ordinary questions, are somehow more inquisitorial in that they expect an answer5. Moreover, research questions must be answerable in that they should have some achievable objectives in form of answers. In this regard, this research project will be premised on the following research questions:

How does the nation security policy-making process take place?

What factors influence the national security policy-making process?

How does the four-year presidential cycle impact the national security policy process?

What role do ‘think tanks’ play in the national security policy process?

In which ways may ‘think tanks’ fail the national security policy process?

The USA is faced with numerous challenges in the 21st century. Some of these challenges have increased the security needs of the country, a situation that has forced security requirements to become one of the more critical priorities the US passionately pursues. These issues are further made complex by increased technology and communication, globalization, economic interdependence, and more.

At the same time, it has been established that in order to effectively address the security issues the country faces, there is a need to develop and implement an effective national security policy.

An effective national security policy is one that is seen as addressing the diverse and multiple needs of various stakeholders both at local and international levels, whose security needs, affect or influence the US directly or indirectly. However, it has been established that this process of developing an effective security policy is a difficult one that faces numerous challenges.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Achieving success in any research work process requires appropriate development or analysis of theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Research work constitutes investigation of variables and the relationship among the variables. As a result, theoretical framework provides a clear way to conceptualize and analyze the relationship between variables where in most cases, there are independent and dependent variables.

Independent variables are autonomous in that, they are not affected or influenced in any way, but dependent variables are constantly affected by influencing factors. National security of the USA is affected and influenced by many factors. The factors are both internal and external and influence the national security policy process in diverse ways.

As a result, developing a coherent national security policy is likely to be affected by numerous factors and actors. In one way or the other, the factors and actors tend to influence the policy in profound ways. In most cases, there are three main influences to national security policy, which are, international political and military developments, domestic priorities, and technological advancement6.

Therefore, the current research fit in this model since, the four-year presidential period and role of think tanks can be categorized under domestic priorities. The figure below shows the interaction of national security policy process variables, which have been identified as international political and military developments, domestic priorities, and technological advancement.

As it can be seen from the model, the three groups of variables are interrelated; hence, each one influences and is likely to affect the other. As a result, the process of developing national security policy is likely to be influenced by these groups of variables.

Background The United States is regarded as the only country in the world that possesses unprecedented and unequaled strength and influence. The US is a world superpower, a fact that the country itself and outside nations acknowledge easily and reluctantly. The position the country holds in the world today is largely sustained by faith in the principles of liberty and the need to have a free society.

As a result, the US has found itself bestowed with numerous responsibilities, obligations, and opportunities that have invited security threats to the country as it tries to execute its role. In an attempt to play its role, the US has largely come out as a country interested in promoting a balance of power that favors and accommodates freedom.

The 21st century presents the US with numerous challenges that require balanced, timely, and objective response. There are numerous forces shaping the national and international front, which can be described to be complex and contradictory.

Today the world is seen to be characterized by numerous turmoil; increasing changing patterns of state-to-state relationships; and increased intra-national conflicts fueled by ethnic, religious and nationalistic differences7.

At the same time, the world is confronting issues addressing aspects of international terrorism, drug trade, and threats arising of information-age technology. Prior to the turn of the century, these issues were invisible and no one thought they would evolve in to the major threats they are today. The world was perceived to be peaceful and this sense of optimism changed drastically after the events of September 11, 2001 by terrorists.

From that time, the US was abruptly awakened and things could no longer be assumed. The country came face to face with reality, obligating the country to devise new security strategies to confront and respond to terrorists activities.

Even as the reality dawned on the country to have superb security strategies in place both internal and external, it has become clear that war against security threats is influenced and intermixed with globalization, economic expansion, homeland security and the need for the US to pursue its strategies in a more peaceful manner8.

Given that the US has established itself as a world superpower, there exists an obligation the country has to assume in the global governance environment, it is imperative to state that in order to safeguard its security needs, the country has an effective security policy.

All attempts need to be directed at developing an effective and comprehensive national security policy that addresses the multiple needs of the country. However, developing such a policy has proved to be challenging, especially in a four-year presidential term. As previously highlighted, there are many reasons for this therefore; it becomes increasingly difficult to create an effective long-term policy strategy.

The issue at hand which this paper is interested in researching revolves around identifying and analyzing the challenges presented in development of a comprehensive national security policy and the role ‘think-tanks’ play in accelerating these challenges.

As it has already been established, think tanks constitute interest groups, who in one way or the other would want to influence national security policy and, in the process, become active players in influencing the origination, development and implementation of the same.

As a result, there is need to investigate and analyze how domestic priorities in terms of key players, institutional arrangement and policy structures are likely to affect formulation of a coherent national security policy.

Analysis This section will involve analyzing into deeper perspectives the basic facts that have been highlighted in the backgrounds section.

National Security Strategy National Security Strategy (NSS) constitutes the collection of security, economic and political strategies enacted to enhance and devise how best to pursue national security and create an international order as far as security matters is concerned9.

This process involves both aspects of planning that incorporates the use of various implements of state power and primary focus is directed to the domestic policies needed to produce and maintain them over a relatively long period of time. As a result, in order to attain consensus, the National Security Strategy is likely to reflect a mixture of governmental and administrative pursuance of policies and strategies10.

It has been hypothesized that the dysfunction of some of the previous National Security Strategy policy framework has emanated from the perception that the policy framework is formulated in a rational and systematic process.

A fact that has been observed before in the majority of National Security Strategies is that the processes of security policy formulation, emerges from both within the executive branch and Congress 11. The entire process is characterized by intense political maneuvering, compromise, and frequent bargaining.

After the Second World War (WWII), many changes were witnessed across different nations especially with regards to security matters. Nations prioritized security as a vital and primary concern for both domestic and international relations. The US was one of the nations that after WWII identified security as a critical and basic consideration requiring a concise approach and strategic consideration.

However, one characteristic that has defined US policy-making is that each administration that has come to power has endeavored in developing appropriate and reliable institutions that have the ability and capacity to manage national security policy12.

One of the evident characteristics of US presidents is that each one that has assumed power has tried to develop individual policies that are totally different from that of their predecessor with the aim to pursue policies devoid of problems and deficiencies of previous administrations13.

In the end, the president in office comes up with a national security policy-making and coordination system that in large measure reflects his personal and individualized management style. The national security policy-making process is spearheaded by the National Security Council, which has been the primary organization bestowed with the responsibility of formulating national security policy for the country.

The composition of the council is a process that the incumbent president undertakes and, as a result, the members have changed many times in order to conform to the needs and inclinations of the new political administration in place.

As it can be seen in the USA, the president as the head of the National Security Council has the power to influence and possibly direct the National Security Policy process. Even as the position of the president becomes more pronounced in the national security process, it has been observed that the role of the president is regarded as fluid and least predictable as compared to other primary actors involved14.

In both the constitution and institutional understanding, the president is the pivotal point of the national security policy process and assumes a critical role. However, as it has been observed, the patterns of presidential involvement have varied in accordance to the style and experience of each president, a situation that has further dictated the way national security policy is developed and implemented15.

In some cases, the president may decide to be personally intertwined in the details of policy-making and in the implementation process. In such cases, the president becomes an active player or participant in the entire process.

On the other hand, presidents in the past have also tried to play a more passive role while deferring a more active one to senior officials. Regardless of the case or circumstances, what remains clear is that US presidents have and are likely to continue impacting the national security policy-making process in one way or the other16.

However, the president’s role has been limited through time in the past. This time is reflected in the minimal time the president has to carry out massive national security policy structuring and re-structuring in the presidential cycle. Given the nature of national security policy and its diverse elements it has to contain for it to be successful, it can be said that a four-year period is short to initiate any long-term security policy.

The difficulty of this situation becomes more problematic when it becomes clear that the security policy initiated by the previous administration has to continue into the period of the new administration since eliminating it may detrimentally affect national security. Take, for example, the case of President Barrack Obama’s ascension to the White House.

When his administration assumed power, the Bush administration had put in place some specific national security policy initiatives as a result of the events of 9/11. In their nature, President George Bush’s national security policies were premised on the relatively long-term understanding of fighting terrorism and rogue states perceived to support terrorism.

It is clear that Obama’s effort to establish and implement a concrete national security policy is likely to be delayed by these events. Therefore, in the four-year period, it is possible to find that the role that the incumbent president has played on the development of national security policy is minimal and even if that were possible, the implementation process for such policy is likely to be hampered by many factors and is likely to be delayed.

In other words, during the four-year presidential cycle, presidents are often constrained in implementing a major national security policy since the time required to study and analyze the existing policies as well as to implement new ones is limited.

Think- Tanks in National Security Strategy Richard N. Haass observes that many aspects contribute and influence the formulation and development of the US policy process17. One of the influential elements the author outlines is the role of think tanks in the entire process of policy formulation. According to the author, think tanks provide five critical benefits to the process of policy formulation, development, and implementation.

Some of these critical benefits include generating and fostering ‘new thinking’ among the various persons involved in the decision-making process.

Specifically, those actively involved in providing expert guidance that serves and helps the administration and Congress create opportunities for policy-makers to build and share an understanding concerning policy option and development while providing a critical mediating role in policy development18.

The rise of think tanks in the US has a parallel with the rise of US position in global leadership and, for many years, think tanks have executed their mandate as avowed apolitical groups that are determined to advance public interest by largely providing government officials with unbiased and balanced positions as far as matters of policy formulation are concerned.

Think tanks in the US, especially their role in national policy formulation process can be seen to play a critical role. For example, think tanks possess the ability to participate both directly and indirectly in the policy-making process and many policy-makers in the country turn to think tanks for policy advice.

As a result, think tanks today in the larger American society and world at large have become avenues and instruments of shaping public policy.

The role and broad impact of think tanks in the process of policy formulation is likely to be affected by the political and philosophical orientation of the think tank19. It has been observed that although many think tanks differ in terms of organizational structures and other aspects, almost all think tanks can be classified into categories of conservative, libertarian, centrist and progressive20.

There have been instances when think tanks have assumed and propagated a liberal or conservative position and no ideological ground has been spearheaded. As a result, it can be said that the political and philosophical basis of a majority of think tanks does not only affect the perspective from which the wider research of national security policy is conducted but also its overall outcome21.

In some cases, some think tanks have provided the larger public with reasons as to why ‘ideological bent’ occur but, in other cases, think tanks have appeared to have no particular political orientation.

In formulating national security policy, think tanks can either assume a conservative or progressive position and the activities of each of these positions are likely to have a significant impact.

In the past, non-performance or missed opportunities in national security processes have resulted largely from divergent positions; these two categories have undertaken the national security policy process of implementation whereby, with a new president coming to power, security policy orientation seems to change.

This, in turn, has led to a scenario, whereby the majority of national security policies lack a firm and permanent foundation upon which they can be built and implemented for an unforeseeable amount of time.

A conservative administration is likely to adopt a policy formulation structure that leans greatly to conservative views and, as a result, the security policy is likely to ignore new developments and dynamics, which may be explained to be critical in understanding and explaining the security scenario.

This position is again likely to be replicated by the progressive-leaning government and its president who upon assuming power is likely to do away with the conservative-based national security policy and adopt a progressive-based national security policy.

In this entire process, it has to be recognized that major critical developments are likely to be limited by time since the period the president and his administration are in office is likely to be inadequate to put in place a more permanent and long-term policy.

How to Establish a Long-term National Security Policy The process of developing national security policy is not an easy task that should be left to an individual or one group of decision-makers. The process should incorporate diverse input of expertise and interests groups22.

For example, national security policy cannot be regarded to be only a set of well-integrated subject matters arranged in a long, single and consistent policy continuum but rather, should be viewed to be a complex set of diverse subject matters that cross many different policy lines.

This scenario further raises the different issues and concerns that have to be factored in the entire process of policy formulation and such factors include institutional interests and costs of such policies.

Leadership from the president is seen to be critical in developing and implementing a successful national security policy23.

The president, unlike other institutions like Congress, heads a unitary hierarchical system that has less divergent opinions and interests and it is from this basic fact that, as the head of the National Security Council, the president has an opportunity to provide necessary leadership to foster the national security policy-making process. Meanwhile, the president should not ignore other related agencies and institutions.

In establishing a good relationship with key institutions and agencies, the president has to employ different styles of leadership and approaches that have the ability and capacity to garner formidable support for the national security policy process24.

In this way, the president has to build and develop relationships that support, encourage, and foster trust and confidence. In doing so, the president should be in a position to organize the National Security Council in a manner that convinces Congress it has the ability, knowledge, skills, and critical support in matters of national security policy25.

On the other hand, there should also be mutual trust and confidence among the president and the national security staff, the military and intelligence bodies that have great ability in influencing national security policy development and implementation.

In addition, in building a strong relationship with Congress, the president has the duty to execute his leadership and inspire confidence and trust among the diverse members of Congress 26. As a result, the president has to consult Congress frequently in developing or modifying national security policy and in doing so; the president should invite the contribution, opinions and suggestions of the members of Congress.

Conclusion The above-described environment has had great impact on US national security policy and priorities, which have become complicated, ambiguous, and inconsistent. At the same time, developing and implementing national security policy and priorities have largely been dictated by the incumbent presidential administration, a situation that has led to constant changes.

In this situation, each president prefers, and would want to pursue a unique policy strategy, perceived appropriate among the various interests groups of his administration. It is known, however, that developing a US national security policy and priorities is not an easy task.

It constitutes a process that is road-blocked and derailed by the existence of unpredictable, uncertain, and confusing characteristics in the international arena, disagreements and frequent disputes within the national security establishment, Congress, and the public at large, and the evolving political environment in the country.

The international political environment remains fluid and uncertain and the situation has greatly complicated the process of national security policy-making. For instance, the concerns of the US in Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, and North Korea, remain and reflect how the US faces challenges in developing a comprehensive and effective national security policy.

At the same time, the role of ‘think-tanks’ or ‘group think-tanks’ in the entire process of national security policy-making has been established as another source that compounds the process of developing an effective policy as well.

Regardless, the US will be able to develop an effective and workable national security policy that reflects its capacity and ability to address the pertinent issues such as US national interests, national security concerns and needs, US’s role in global matters, terrorism threats, and the increased availability of nuclear weapons technology.

Bibliography Andrews, Richard. 2003. Research Questions. NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Bartolotto, John, K. 2004. The Origin and Developmental Process of the National Security Strategy. NY: USA Army War College.

Bolt, Paul, J., Coletta, Damon, V.


Cognitive Errors and their Impact on Research Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Impact of Cognitive Biases on Research Process Cognitive bias refers to in-built mistakes in persons’ thinking processes committed while processing data (Pereyra, 2000). Such mistakes make humans unable to form the correct view of reality despite the availability of all the data necessary to form such a view and all human thoughts are subject to systematic faults (Mineka, 1992).

Theories of Cognitive Biases There have been formulated various theories which attempt to explain human cognitive biases.

The Fundamental Attribution Error Theory

According to this theory, cognitive biases result from human over reliance on inherent characteristics of a person to explain his/her behavior while failing to consider the situation in which the behavior took place (Mellers, Hertwig and Kahneman, 2001).

On the flip side, cognitive biases may also arise from placing too much reliance on the event situation in explaining behavior and failing to consider behavior associated characteristics of the person.

Therefore, according to the theory of fundamental attribution, cognitive errors can be avoided by considering both personality characteristics and the environment when explaining certain behavior. In the case of research, fundamental attribution error may be seen where a researcher attributes certain behavior of subjects to the environmental situation without considering their personality characteristics, and vice versa.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

The theory was advanced by Leon Festinger in 1957 and it relates to the association between the sets of knowledge in a person’s mind. According to this theory, people always strive to avoid cognitive dissonance, which is a conflict between cognitions held in mind (Nesse and Williams, 1998).

Thus, a person will try to avoid any piece of information from the environment which is inconsistent with his existing set of knowledge in order to reduce cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance has a great influence on research as researchers tend to select only that information that is consistent with their background knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Heuristics Theory

This theory is based on the notion of judgmental probability. In making decisions or judgments, people apply judgmental probability most of the time, failing to consider all the available pieces of data.

Application of judgmental probability in decision making may be attributed to the shortcomings of the mind’s information processing ability as well as the time limitations that individuals face (Nisbett and Ross, 1980). In research, a researcher may also apply judgmental probability in making conclusions instead of relying on all the available set of data relevant to the making of such conclusions.

Forms of Cognitive Biases and their Impact on Research Anchoring

Anchoring involves relying on a single characteristic or piece of evidence to form a conclusion during the decision making process (Piatteli-Palmarini, 1994). This characteristic or piece of evidence acts as the point of reference for the decision being made. Anchoring leads to the disregard of other traits or pieces of evidence that may be relevant to the particular decision making situation.

Selective Perception

Selective perception relates to the researcher’s expectations. Before carrying out a research, a researcher usually has some expectations regarding the research outcomes (Pinker and Bloom, 1992). Therefore, while conducting the actual research, he/she may gather the information that supports the prior expectations disregarding other important information in the process. This obviously leads to inaccurate research results.

Information Bias

It refers to the inclination to search for data including that which has no relevance to the research. When gathering research data, researchers face the risk of gathering too much information on the research subject such that the objective of the research becomes obscured (Real, 1997).

To avoid information bias, therefore, it is necessary that a researcher gathers only that information that is relevant to the research topic and which helps to solve the research questions at hand.

Self-serving Bias

In real life, people are attracted to information that supports their interests and are more likely to discounts information that is contrary to their interests (Pinker, 1997).

We will write a custom Essay on Cognitive Errors and their Impact on Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, a researcher conducting a research on the relationship between smoking and lung cancer may be prejudiced to consider the information that connects smoking to lung cancer if he or she is a non-smoker. On the other hand, if the researcher is a cigarette smoker, he or she may choose those pieces of evidence which disassociate smoking from lung cancer.

Illusory Correlation

Sometimes researchers are led by personal bias to conclude that a relationship exists between variables where none exists. Such a conclusion is often based on inaccurate evidence and results from a prior belief by the researcher that an association exists between the variables under investigation (Ross and Sicoly, 1979).

Conclusion Cognitive errors are real; they are usually the cause of inaccurate results in research. This form of errors is difficult for researchers to control since they are inherent in the mind of a researcher. Thus, they are systematic in nature. However, attempts should be made to reduce these errors during research mainly by applying scientific methods.

References Mellers, B, Hertwig, R


CVP Analysis and Pro forma Statement for Prime Component Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Cost-Volume-Profit

Fixed cost and variable cost

CVP for Compnet/Prime Compnet



Cost-Volume-Profit Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis refers to financial management tool used to predict and determine the level of production, sales and profitability of the business. In essence, the tool enables corporate managers to ascertain the probable changes in profit with respect to variations in sales price, fixed cost or variable cost. As such, these changes directly affect the contribution margin of a firm in pursuit of the targeted sales volume.

On the other hand, the knowledge of CVP is crucial in computing the expected break-even point with critical considerations of the market forces such as competition, technological advancement as well as the market and product mix (Cunningham, Nickola


Organizational Learning and Decision Making Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Decision Making Models

Efficiency of the Model

Explorative and Exploitative Learning

Levels of Involvement

Knowledge Management System

Cognitive Structures and Biases



Introduction This paper covers an organizational analysis focusing on organization’s decision-making process, learning methods and knowledge management systems. The cognitive structure and biases that affect the decision-making process is also analyzed.

The analysis took place with the organization’s director and SV supervisor, who participated in an interview. The interview was well organized and structured following the professional interview rules and regulations.

Organizational learning and decision-making are different aspects that complement each other and necessary for growth and competence of a company. For organizations to achieve the objectives that they desire, proper decision-making is essential. In most cases, decision-making becomes a difficulty because it involves multiple organizational divisions. This makes it have varied implications for every division.

Obtaining an agreement from all stakeholders is also a challenge. The organization’s overall support is always critical when the organization’s overall strategy relies on the support of all divisions. Because decision-making is strategic and crucial, together with the complexities associated with the process, there are various models that assist managers to aid in the decision making process.

Decision Making Models A proficient decision-making process includes a series of steps that need contributions from different people, at different stages, as well as a feedback process. A good decision making model allows the decision maker to explore alternatives, review solutions, consider inputs and permits implementation and evaluation of the desired option.

In the rational models, the decision maker relies on cognitive processes, involving a sequence of steps. These models consist of five common steps including definition of the decision, identification of criteria for the process, consideration of possible solutions, calculations of the consequences associated with the proposed solutions and selecting the best option (Jennex, 2007).

The models under the rational model include Vroom-Jago model and bounded rational model. In this organization, the directors use an ideal decision making process with eight distinct processes. The first step is problem definition. The director or manager receives notification of an existing problem in the organization and investigates it, before declaring it a problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once the director categorizes the issue as a true problem, he defines it by stating the nature of the problem, departments and publics affected and its perceived origin. The second step is determining the problem’s requirements that would later assist in formulating solutions. In this step, the manager considers the requirements that he needs to establish an ideal solution.

These include conducting a research or proposing discussions with the affected divisions. Once this is done, the manager informs those involved in the process, of goals that their solutions should accomplish. The following step identifies alternatives that enable them solve the issue.

After this, the manager, with the help of the decision making team develop a criteria relying on the goals that they had earlier set. In the sixth step, they select a tool for making the right decision, after which they apply the tool in selecting a decision (Picot, 2008).

Efficiency of the Model The director claims that this model is remarkably efficient because it makes it possible for them to reflect on all possible options as well as comprehend future consequences of all solutions, by negating emotions in the process. The only disadvantage with it is that the decision maker’s cognitive abilities limit the outcome of the decision. In most cases, the decision maker’s memory and imagination affects the outcome of the decision.

In addition to this, model requires a lot of information and time in order to remain effective. The supervisor also argues that because their decision making process involves all departments and the appropriate publics. Because of this, the decisions that they make are always effective in problem solving.

By involving many people into the process, they usually gather superior facts and solutions. The process is also efficient in enhancing communication among participants hence preventing the possibility that employees would reject the decisions.

Explorative and Exploitative Learning Organizational learning is a strategy that both the director and the SV president are passionate. This is because it is enables employees to work efficiently in order to improve productivity. Because of this, implementing change and decisions also becomes easy. Improving employees’ knowhow benefits the organization in various ways especially as a retention strategy.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Learning and Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The SV president emphasizes on exploitative learning rather than explorative learning. The organization provides specific and detailed information about tasks that it needs employees to learn. The director and managers break down these tasks into for ease of management and allocates resources for all the goals appropriately. This makes it easy for employees to learn faster hence improving their overall production.

The director provides explicit rules, which disciplines everyone involved in staying focused, utilize resources well and help maximize the prospective learning process. In addition to this, the director claims that the learning process enables them achieve a setting where employees adhere to rules, bringing improvements by structuring desire, trust and mutual understanding.

However, the director emphasizes the importance of explorative learning too. He claims that the organization can only grow and posse innovations through explorative learning. Because of this, the organization invests in explorative learning by encouraging employees to undertake research and take risks (Ferrell, Fraedrich


Competitive advantage and relationship marketing-Cirque du Soleil Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The ability of an organization to generate and maintain a competitive advantage forms one of the most critical elements in supporting its internal and external mechanisms for further growth and expansion. Benderly posits that high market competitiveness acts as an indicator of an organization’s progress and assessment in comparison to others dealing with the same products (30).

Besides, as this paper analyzes using Cirque du Soleil, relationship marketing is an effective means of maintaining, developing and establishing market relationship with consumers. It has been hailed as one of the most effective ways through which businesses can achieve and sustain competitive advantage.

Competitive advantage The concept of competitive advantage has its roots well entrenched in the historical era of industrial revolution when demand for markets and increasing focus on quality became critical.

However, Suliyanto and Rahab indicate that the concept became more profound with the development of globalization and intensification of international trade which further diversified its overall scope in view of production and consumption of different products and services (136).

The concept of market competitiveness has further been intensified by the onset of information technology which strongly links market with the management and production units in the society.

In his article Anatomy of competitive advantage: a select framework, Ma points out that “competitive advantage arises from the differential among firms along any dimension of firm attributes and characteristics that allows one firm to better create customer value than do others” (709).

His argument hinges on the view that consistent provision of superior value and high-quality products to consumers is an attribute determined by a firm’s ability to establish strategic business decisions as well as strategic capabilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to intensive competition and increasing uncertainty, companies that have sustainable advantage make tremendous gains because they have competencies and resources that are non-substitutable and unique that their competitors lack.

Agha, Alrubaiee and Jamhour concur with Ma’s argument and posits that through these, successful organizations have maintained customer satisfaction, achieved overall strategic goals and increased their production processes (200).

Additionally, capabilities have these companies have been witnessed in the manner in which they have combined organizational knowledge, integrated technology and coordinated production skills in provision of value.

Aremu and Bamiduro point out that the affect of relationship marketing in developing and sustaining competitive edge has from ancient times grown to become hyper-competitive through established relationships between suppliers, buyers and sellers (211).

Different businesses have for along period of time developed unique and different customer relationship capabilities that have aided them in gaining a competitive edge over their competitors. This relates with Ma’s argument in the sense that the uniqueness of a firm in carrying out relationship marketing is an attribute which adds customer value.

However, it is imperative to note that an inception of great directional change has been witnessed in the past decade in both marketing practice and theory.

David and Motamedi point out that this genuine paradigm shift has been termed by marketing analysts as a move towards relationship marketing which as a concept encompasses relational marketing, working partnerships, relational contracting, co-marketing alliances, strategic alliances, symbiotic marketing and internal marketing (369).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Competitive advantage and relationship marketing-Cirque du Soleil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their argument, which adds another angle to Ma’s position, indicates that competitive edge can also be attained through partnerships. In fact, currently in global business, the practice of predatory and flat out competition is over and has been replaced by collaboration between companies both at local and multinational level as gaining a favorable competitive edge requires that businesses cooperate.

Lyndall Urwick, an influential thinker and consultant in business management argued from the business reengineering theory’s perspective that relationship marketing is a shift adopted by businesses intending to establish long-term relationships that are mutually satisfying with key-parties such as distributors, suppliers and customers for mutual gain and to retain them in their businesses.

His argument echoes Ma’s argument on competitive advantage in the sense that relationship marketing creates a mutual bond that connects a company with suppliers, distributors and customers while ensuring that they all benefit.

However, the uniqueness of attributes and characteristics must not be different for a company to gain a competitive edge because relationship marketing also extends to partnerships with other business to gain resources and boost performance.

Gilaninia, Shahi and Mousavian point out that effective relationship marketing companies have arisen within functionally specialized organizations, and have networks whose interrelationships are not only driven by norms but are coordinated and held together by organizations whose marketing methods are based on trust, commitment and sharing.

Cirque du Soleil Cirque du Soleil is one of the fastest-growing entertainment companies in Canada based in Quebec (David


Prevention Science: Substance Abuse Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents The Role of Prevention Science

Cause and Impact of Substance Abuse

Prevention Strategies/Programs to Combat Substance Abuse


The need for successful mental, emotional and behavioral (MEB) health services for children cannot be overemphasized. According to the recent studies carried out in the United States, one of the major health dilemmas that families and children are grappling with is substance abuse.

It is important to note that the prevalence of substance abuse in the US is on a steady rise. However, only a privileged few can afford effective mental health services to address the problem (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

The Role of Prevention Science In light of the proposals of the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, there is an urgent need to create and sustain practices and services that lend credence to early identification, prevention and interventions for health promotion. It is against this backdrop that prevention science fits the bill.

Clinicians not only strive to reduce the occurrence and relapse of substance abuse but also encourage positive change and adaption for the population at risk.

Some of the salient aspects of an effective prevention program include: designing an all-inclusive conceptual model to spot etiology of substance abuse, malleable risk and protective factors that contribute to this behavioral problem; devising trials to control assumed risk and protective factors to ascertain their causal role; choosing causal factors and carrying out efficiency trials; and ensuring continuity of successful programs (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

Cause and Impact of Substance Abuse According to Hosman et al., over 400 million people worldwide are victims of some form of mental and behavioral disorders, including substance abuse (2005, p.13). Some of the causes of substance abuse include peer pressure, lack of parental guidance, school violence and inadequate educational achievement (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

Substance abuse not only increases the risk of physical illness but also represents a massive socio-economical and psychological burden to the families as well as the society at large. In light of the abovementioned risks and consequences, prevention science is the only effective and sustainable way for alleviating the burden brought about by substance abuse (Hosman et al., 2005, p.13).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prevention Strategies/Programs to Combat Substance Abuse There is an urgent need for the adoption of effective prevention strategies to combat substance abuse among children. This calls for a closer collaboration between families, school management and community leaders since the impact of substance abuse is not only felt by the affected family but also friends and the society in general.

There have been extensive studies carried out in the last two decades to ascertain prevention strategies that can effectively minimize substance abuse. These strategies have common benchmarks: enhancing protective factors, for example, strong family unions, acute social skills and attachment to school (Reno et al., 2000, p.1).

Caring School Community Program (CSCP) is an example of research-based intervention program. It is a universal program that entails closer collaboration between family and school to alleviate risk of substance abuse and promote protective factors among school-going children. This program gives priority on bolstering students’ connection or sense of community to school.

Studies have found that this sense of community has turned out to be a critical aspect in alleviating substance abuse among children at the same time promoting academic achievement. This program comprises of a set of mutually supporting school, classroom, as well as family participation strategies. Consequently, this program encourages positive student-teacher, peer, and home-school affiliations.

It also fosters the development of emotional, social and behavior-related skills among children. What’s more, it provides comprehensive guidelines and implementation instruments as well as staff development (Bierman et al., 2003, p.26).

Previous studies have emphasized on the importance of applying research-based intervention strategies to reduce substance abuse among children. Future studies need to provide a clear direction with respect to the adoption of effective interventions. They must also design novel prevention and promotion strategies that make constructive link between research and policy.

References Agarwal et al. (n.d.). The Role of Prevention Science in Promoting Children’s Mental Health: A Model for School Psychologists. Columbia: University of Missouri.

We will write a custom Essay on Prevention Science: Substance Abuse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bierman et al. (Eds.). (2003). Preventing Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescent: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hosman et al. (Eds.). (2005). Prevention of Mental Disorders: Effective Interventions and Policy Options. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reno et al. (2000). Promising Strategies to Reduce Substance Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.


Apple Inc.: Customer service Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Customer service is referred to as the overall activity in identifying customer needs and satisfying customers in terms of such needs (“Operations Theory” par. 1). It plays an important role in the profitability of a business. The quality of products and services is directly related to the satisfaction level of customers.

When customers are satisfied with the products and services offered by a firm, customer loyalty is born. Profitability comes from such because customers are willing to pay for good quality products and services. This paper aims to better understand the relationship between customer service and customer satisfaction. I have chosen Apple Inc. to be the subject of evaluation in this paper.

In the highly competitive and innovative world of the IT industry, the value of customer service can be seen in the after sales support companies provide their clients.

Among its competitors, the products of Apple Inc. have been the most expensive with the resistance of the company to release low-end product lines. Satisfied customer and blogger Jon Buys defended Apple’s positioning of expensive product lines by pointing out the quality customers enjoy when buying Apple products.

“It’s not that Apple doesn’t have an interest in the low-budget market, it’s that Apple refuses to create a product that doesn’t live up to their expectations of what a Mac should be” (Buys).

Unlike its competitors that market products’ functionality and specifications, Apple’s marketing strategies involve promoting their computers and gadgets in terms of the Apple experience customers will receive when choosing the company’s products. This experience is “something that encompasses every part of owning an Apple product” (Buys).

The company ensures customers that by owning their products; customers havethe best products in the market with top of the line quality and superior customer service and support. The Mac experience is known to be something different and is more than just owning a PC. Apple’s commitment to quality is evident with its latest gadgets namely the iPad and iPhone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The iPhone for example was praised by John Gruber despite it being more expensive compared to its competitors from brands such as Nokia, Samsung, HTC, and Black Berry.

“There is no better phone, at any price” (Gruber). Apple is different from its competitors namely Lenovo, Dell, HP, Acer and/ or Asus because most of the said brands have the same basic components, run on the same software, and are powered by only one company, Microsoft. Apple products on the other hand have precision engineered products and run on Mac OS which was developed by the company themselves.

Throughout the years, Apple has developed a legion of loyal customers with its somewhat radical innovations and campaigns. Most believe that the company provides a breath of fresh air from the typical PC most brands in the market provide. The continuous innovation of the company has led to its capture of the music industry with the creation of iTunes and the Apple Store.

The birth of gadgets such as the iPod, iPhone and iPad has revolutionized the electronics and communications industry where everything is now functioning on wireless internet. The proliferation of touch screen technologies was due to Apple’s revolutionary innovation of creating products without the use of traditional keyboards and keypads. Apple’s technical support department, Apple Care, provides excellent support.

The customer service attendants and engineers are willing to repair customers’ Mac computers, provide sufficient answers to customers’ inquiries regarding hardware and software problems and immediately change defective parts.

Apple Care is also easily reachable via phone or the internet around the world. The customer service attendants of the company can easily walk customers through from setting up their Macs to troubleshooting at the comforts of their home.

“Apple’s stigma cannot be explained by generous return policies or coverage. Both Dell andHP offer more lenient return policies, each allowing 21 days to return the product compared with Apple’s 14 days. HP and Dell also offer accidental damage protection, something lacking from the otherwise excellent AppleCare“(Buys)

We will write a custom Essay on Apple Inc.: Customer service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Buying a Mac or any product from Apple is more expensive than getting a regular PC by Dell, an MP3 player from Sony or a phone from Nokia but the company was able to pull through because of the superior quality of the products they provide and the top of the line after sales support customers receive. Once an individual purchases a certain product of the company, they are welcomed into a club of exclusivity.

For a high price in availing products of Apple Inc. customers can upgrade their entire experience rather than just upgrading their computers and gadgets. In terms of buying a computer, Apple has cited several reasons why it is beneficial to get a Mac over a regular PC (“Why you’ll love a Mac”). Below are the reasons cited by the company:

It’s designed to be a better computer.

It goes with software you’ll definitely enjoy using.

It comes with the OS which is considered to be the most advanced one.

It comes with “award-winning support”.

It runs Office as well as works with PC files.

It’s “compatible with your stuff”.

It doesn’t get PC viruses.

It has the latest technology incorporated.

It runs Windows and Windows applications.

Customers expect to receive all the following advantages and benefits Apple declares in promoting their products. The most crucial claim in the following privileges stated in the company’s official website is their award-winning support system.

Every claim stated in their website is considered tangible except for the quality of their after sales services. Apple’s award-winning support includes the moving of files from the customers’ old PC to their new Mac computers by specialists.

By purchasing a One to One membership, customers can avail a year’s worth of one-on-one training sessions with a specialist to help them get a head start with his computer (“Why you’ll love a Mac”). Contacting Apple’s technical support team has been made convenient for customers because an Apple specialist can be reached via phone, live chat or in person at an authorized Apple retail store.

In any Apple retail store, a Genius Bar is present to accommodate customers on their technical questions about their Mac. The place gives out free advice and insights to customers who wish to troubleshoot their Macs and improve their computers’ performances. Appointments at the Genius Bar can be scheduled online at the convenience of the customers’ homes.

Apple’s technical support team also conducts complementary workshops where first time Mac users are taught by experts. Beginners learn the basics of operating Mac computers at the same time discover how applications work. Experts also provide tips and tricks to workshop attendees who make their Mac experiences enjoyable and worthwhile. Customers can also learn about operating their Mac computers online by watching video tutorials via iPhoto, iMovie, GarageBand, Mac OS X and/ or via the internet(“Why you’ll love a Mac”).

Apple Inc. is one of the leading technological American multinational companies founded by three college drop outs in the summer of 1976. The company was formerly known as Apple Computer Inc.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc.: Customer service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It designs and markets personal computers, consumer electronics and software with its popular product lines include the Macintosh personal computers, MP3 players called the iPod, iPhone mobile phone device and its recently launched tablet line, iPad. Apple Inc. software line include the Mac OS X for personal computers’ operating systems, iTunes which is a media browser that enables users to download, listen and transfer music files, iLife suite for multimedia and creative works, iWork suite for office work functions, Aperture for professional photographers who wish to edit and manipulate their photos, Final Cut Studio suite for people who are involved in the professional audio and film industry, Logic Studio suite for music production enthusiasts, the Safari web browser for surfing experience and iOS as the iPhone’s operating system.

Apple Inc. operates over 357 retail stores worldwide as of October 2011 in 10 countries (“Apple Store”). The company has also developed an online store where products and services can be bought at the convenience of the customers (“Apple Store”).

In September 2011, Poornima Gupta and Rodrigo Campos cited that Apple Inc. has become the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization (Poornima and Campos). Its market value as of August 9, 2011 is $341.5 billion (Poornima and Campos).

Apple Inc. was founded on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve, Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. The company’s headquarters is based on Cupertino, California.

It was incorporated on January 3, 1977. On January 9, 2007 (US SEC) after 30 years of being known as Apple Computer Inc. the company decided to remove “Computer” to be in line with the company’s expansion strategy in the electronics market in addition to its primary focus on the personal computers industry (Markoff).

According to the United States Security and Exchange commission “As of September 25, 2010, the Company had approximately 46,600 full-time equivalent employees and an additional 2,800 full-time equivalent temporary employees and contractors and annual sales worldwide is $65.23 billion” (US SEC).

Over the years Apple has developed an exceptional reputation in the consumer electronics and mobile technology industry due to its broad artistic design philosophy and unique advertising campaigns.

The company has established a devoted and loyal customer based especially in the United States which patronizes the company and its brand ( Among the numerous achievements of Apple Inc. is being named the most admired company from years 2008 – 2011 and was branded as the most valuable public limited company by Fortune magazine (Fisher 65-67).

Apple Inc.’s product strategy for the past years has always involved the creation of innovative products and services which complement its digital hub strategy.

In the said method, Apple’s Macintosh products serve as digital hubs for other electronic devices such as the iPod, iPad, personal digital assistants, mobile devices, digital cameras, and video cameras to name a few. The main focus of Apple Inc.’s product strategy is the customers’ experiences with Apple products.

The company’s main competency and advantage among other companies in the industry is its ability to deliver outstanding experience to its customers through excellent user interfaces. Apple based its product strategy with the said competence they possess through its products such as iTunes, iPhone, and the Apple Apps store.

Apple focuses on the emotions and feelings of its past, present and future customers in marketing the brand. Its brand personality is all about the lifestyle it may provide to its prospects. Apple’s brand personality revolves around the notion of being imaginative, free, innovative, passionate, as well as the one having hope, dreams, passion and aspirations. The brand’s general theme is about people attaining power through technology.

“The Apple brand personality is also about simplicity and the removal of complexity from people’s lives; people-driven product design; and about being a really humanistic company with a heartfelt connection with its customers” (“Apple’s Brand Strategy”).

Apple’s primary marketing strategy is not about selling products but the provision of exclusivity among its customers. There is a sense of community among Apple users who remain loyal to the brand. The brand equity and customer franchise exemplified by the company is very strong.

Its strong customer based has been essential to the company’s success over the past decades especially during the economic crisis of the 90s and it has also helped the company maintain its premium pricing compared to its competitors. Apple’s pricing strategy on its products has enabled it to survive against the low prices brought about by other IT competitors.

The Apple brand is centralized on its promise of providing the best customer experience and satisfaction through its products and technology. In order to have more control of the brand’s image together with its product distribution and services, Apple has opened its own Apple Stores in strategic locations such as in high end malls and quality shopping venues to cater to the needs of its customers.

“Apple provides Apple Mac-expert retail floor staff to selected resellers’ stores (such as Australian department store David Jones); it has entered into strategic alliances with other companies to co-brand or distribute Apple’s products and services (for example, HP who was selling a co-branded form of iPod and pre-loading iTunes onto consumer PCs and laptops though in retrospect this may now just have been a stepping-stone).

Apple has also increased the accessibility of iPods through various resellers that do not currently carry Apple Macintosh systems (such as Harvey Norman), and has increased the reach of its online stores” (“Apple’s Brand Strategy”).

Apple Inc. has built a powerful brand with a cult of loyal followers admiring products produced by the company. The company has thrived and managed its way in becoming one of the top companies today. The company’s success lies in its powerful technical service support which was able to win customers’ loyalty. Apple promotes its company through creative branding and backs it up with a powerful support for customers.

This support can be seen through their experience walking through retail shops where customers are greeted enthusiastically with respect, prompt and accessible answers are given to their inquiries and programs are also offered to customers where they can further maximize their Mac computing experiences.

Apple should continuously provide advanced product lines and should further improve their customer service supports by providing prompt responses to customer inquiries and problems. Customers are always willing to pay for value. The company’s job is to make sure that customers feel their moneys’ worth when purchasing Apple products in order for the company to grow the number of their loyal customers.

Works Cited Apple’s Brand Strategy.n.d. Web.

Apple Store 2012. Web.

Buys, Jon. Apple Customer Satisfaction: It’s the Experience. 6 May 2009. Web.

Fisher, Anne.”America’s Most Admired Companies”. Fortune 157.5 (2008): 65–67. Print.

Gruber, John. The iPhone 3G. 2008. Web.

Markoff, John. New Mobile Phone Signals Apple’s Ambition. 2007. Web.

Operations Theory 2012. Web.

Poornima, Gupta and Campos, Rodrigo. Apple Inc. briefly edged past Exxon Mobil Corp to become the most valuable U.S company on Tuesday, displacing an old economy stalwart and heralding an era where technology holds sway. 2011. Web.

US SEC. Form 8-K SEC Filing.United States Security and Exchange Commission. 10 January 2007. Print.

Why You’ll Love a Mac 2012. Web.


Simulation and modeling Coursework essay help

Research indicates that computer simulations as opposed to other media like print, video, film or lectures have a claimed primary advantage, which is, increased transfer of learning (Allessi. Trollip1985). Transfer of learning simply means the students having the ability to apply what they have learned during instructions level, to the real performance or a new situation.

Simulations are assumed to boost transfer better than other media or books. However, this paper focuses on a particular area of simulation research, by the name fidelity, which has received a significant attention in relation to non computerized simulation.

This is a critical variable in general when it comes to design of simulations. Fidelity on the other hand, refers to how direct a simulation imitates reality. To elaborate further on this fact, transfers of learning in plane simulators have revealed that the initial training in simulators is more efficient as opposed to that of a real plane.

Many military preparation studies by means of mechanical simulators shows no difference at all, and if there is, then very little in transfer, or learning due to fidelity. Reviewed study on the motion fidelity in flight training found that it does not considerably affect learning.

While some other authors have concluded that fidelity motion was of some significance for experienced pilots and not for beginners. However, studies of fidelity in military school came to a conclusion that, there is no proof of learning discrepancy due to low fidelity.

Fidelity effects are largely dependent upon the learner’s instructional level. During the primary stages of learning, high fidelity illustration may confuse a learner due to the speedy representation of the compounded sequence.

The same circumstance may not be found challenging by the student who has advanced to a higher level of consolidated skill. Other theories for fidelity effects are related to the definition of fidelity and transfer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The complexity of explanation result to the hypothesis like relationship of fidelity and learning is non linear and depends entirely upon instructional rank of the student. For high level fidelity the quantity of learning decreases.

It appears that we are facing a predicament when we narrow it down simulation design. Increased fidelity should increase transfer theoretically; this may hinder initial learning and again in turn slows down the transfer. Consequently decreasing fidelity can enhance initial learning, but what the students have learned may not necessarily be transferred to the application scenario if proved dissimilar.

My take in this is that, the solution to this problem lies in ascertaining proper level of fidelity based on current instructional level of the student. However the question I would ask is what mechanism of simulation should vary on fidelity, and, under what circumstance should it be so.

As a conclusion we realize that whilst simulation take lead as one of the most promising in regards to computer based instruction, there is still a whole lot more we still need to learn concerning their design.

Common sense may be in appropriate concerning the high value fidelity relating to instructions simulation. Since learning differ by fidelity, like the u-shaped curve that is overturned, it applies to the new student who is just starting, and as they advance they will indeed benefit from the rising fidelity.

Reference Allessi, S. M.


Homosexuality, Religion and Atheism Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review



Introduction Homosexuality draws mixed reaction from across the globe. Issues like cultural values, religious context, atheism, political stability, and economic empowerment of the people in a particular setting would play a pivotal role in accepting this sexual orientation. These factors determine homosexual acceptability in the society, although other forces would have a significant role in the determination of its acceptance.

This topic is common in most popular cultural setting although there is little literature work on the same to dissect adverse opinion and ways of embracing diverse opinion on the same. In this context, the conservatives draw their arguments from religious teachings whereas the atheists or the liberals embrace the need to have a society of diverse cultural orientation.

The debate experiences opposing views from philosophers, most of whom are Christian and Muslims. These conclusions come from their spiritual perspective and thus do not clearly stipulate the desire to accommodate diverse religious inclinations on the same ground.

Literature review A decade ago religion was the most important predictor in defining the attitude of homosexuality in the society, Adamczyk and Pitt (2009) bring an elaborate diverse opinion on the debate. They believe that acceptance of homosexuality depends on the existing laws that regulate the same sex marriages, possible penalties when viewed as social misfit, and diversity in national or cultural orientation.

This last aspect shows the importance of religion in explaining the attitude on the debate. In fact, macro and micro support survival and personal beliefs that carry weight in defining the attitudes of homosexuality (Olson et al., 2006; Yip, 2005). It is from this context that one draws the importance of opinion as the best alternative in formulating law, shaping the direction of cultural inclination and thus religion.

Homosexuality, in respect to religion, is unnatural in the eyes of the Supreme Being; the same philosophy holds this as an impure act. The fear of divine punishment shapes the cultural orientation concerning the direction of a community. Deep rooted-ness to religion would draw disapproval attitudes as opposed to those not deeply rooted in a religion.

Muslims are the worse in making such opinions concerning the debate; they have a strong disapproval attitude, unlike members from other religions. This holds true to the cultural orientation in which atheists from this background would disapprove strongly homosexuality than atheists from other cultural background (Adamczyk


Evidence based decision making and policy making Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based Policy making

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based decision making

The Importance of Using Data



Introduction Fundamentally, evidence-based policy plays a key role in developing a holistic framework for policy and decision making. Basically, its approach is rigorous and empirical because it involves experimentation, proper data collection, qualitative and quantitative analysis.

As a result, the outcome becomes reliable. The report presents the key concepts of evidence-based decision making and policy making. It also explores the advantages of using data in both cases.

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based Policy making One of the key concepts used here is prioritization of the issues (Pawson, 2006). Since the policy affects many people, the issues to be included in the policy document have to be systematically discussed depending on their level of importance. This makes the formulated policy serve the interest of majority, thus remains uncontroversial (Webber, 2011).

According to Terry Dunworth and others (2008), data gathering is another key concept in formulating a policy. From the collected data, the policy makers can formulate objective guiding principles, which are replicable (Dunworth et al., 2008).

Neutrality is another concept of applicable in evidence-based policy making (Dunworth et al., 2008). For instance, the policy makers would turn research findings to conventional wisdom that helps in shaping the policy.

Furthermore, they would take neutral ground during policy making to understand and admit the unfairness that could have characterized data gathering (Webber, 2011). Neutrality also helps them overcome any biasness when selecting and analyzing the data (Pawson, 2006).

The concept of ideology is widely used in policy making since the process is largely political, thus there are losers and gainers (Dunworth et al., 2008). The interplay between those who support a particular political ideology, and the ones against, come out prominently during policy formulation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, even if the ideology is politically acceptable, it does not translate to being viable, affordable or effective (Dunworth et al., 2008). Therefore, policy makers should concentrate on viability, affordability and effectiveness.

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based decision making The use of appropriate methodology is another key concept in decision making (Dunworth et al., 2008). When approaching a particular problem, or analyzing the collected data for making decision, it is vital to use an appropriate method.

This is fundamental because the methodology is an agreeable form of reaching a compromise (Pawson, 2006). Therefore, decisions arrived at through consensus are more appropriate to the people.

In evidence-based decision making, affirmative action is an important concept (Webber, 2011). Essentially, the decision makers would use affirmative action to realize economic, social and institutional capability of solving the problems and making dependable decisions.

Through affirmative action, goals proliferate, promises inflated, and responsibility diffused (Dunworth et al., 2008). Therefore, the decision made using affirmative action would serve the majority.

Objectivity is another concept of evidence-based decision making (Dunworth et al., 2008). Through objective measurement and data collection, the decision makers would consider the impacts, effectiveness, cost, and unprecedented effects. This enables decision makers make informed and reliable choices, which appeal to the affected people (Pawson, 2006).

Notably, some decisions are costly, forcing the concerned parties to review the data and negotiate on better compromise so that the decision does not affect the vulnerable people. Therefore, such decisions have to be based on evidence, social and ethical considerations (Webber, 2011).

We will write a custom Report on Evidence based decision making and policy making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Importance of Using Data In both cases, using data is important because it makes the decision objective, appropriate and reliable (Dunworth et al., 2008). Indeed, the data provide adequate information for making proper statistical inferences about the policy issue or decision to be made.

The data also add value and evidence that the decision is made through analytical process and informed consent (Pawson, 2006). In fact, such decisions are largely empirical and non-controversial, thus acceptable to the public. Often, the policy makers and other decision makers do whatever would ensure public confidence so that they could eliminate unnecessary distrust (Pawson, 2006).

Conclusion Evidence-based decision making and policy making should be all inclusive and rely on experimentation and empirical data. This would be a sure way of creating confidence among the public who stand affected by the policies and decisions.

References Dunworth, T., et al., (2008). The Case for Evidence-Based Policy, (Revised Edition). Web.

Pawson, R. (2006). Evidence-Based Policy, (A Realist Perspective). London: Sage Publications.

Webber, M. (2011). Evidence-based Policy and Practice in Mental Health Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters Publishers.


Business in Ghana Report (Assessment) writing essay help

Introduction In justification of the case for Global Ventures PLC business idea on production and processing of Cocoa, the company has focused on Ghana as the country of choice for the business idea.

Currently, Ghana is the second leading African country in the world cocoa production after Ivory Coast with an 11% market share in cocoa production (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). Many large companies, which produce cocoa such as Nestle and Cadbury, focus on Ghana as the country of choice.

Though traditionally the country was involved in farming cocoa and then exporting it as beans. In the recent past, it has strived for increasing its earnings from the export by setting up facilities for processing the cocoa beans. While Ivory Coast is the leading world producer of cocoa, the preference for Ghana over Ivory Coast was due to the constant political instability associated with Ivory Coast.

Justification As stated in part 2, lack of corruption was key to choosing the country of choice for setting up the new business. While no case can be made for an African cocoa producing country that is free of corruption, there is clearly a case to make on the level of corruption in Ghana being minimal as compared to other African countries involved in cocoa production and manufacture such as Ivory Coast or Nigeria.

Therefore, it is important to investigate the situation on the ground while establishing the base for conducting such a business.

One significant milestone occurred when Ghana achieved success in fighting corruption, which resulted in the establishment of the Serious Crime Office in 1999; thereafter, it has been involved in investigating corruption.

In addition, though the country has not signed a treaty for its commitment with OECD Countries for fighting bribery, the law on procurement laws of 2004 helped in conformance with the World Trade Organization principles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional marketers; Marketing was clearly a key ingredient of success of any company In Ghana, The Cocoa Marketing Company is owned by the Government and responsible for marketing and selling a significant portion of cocoa in Ghana.

This was a justification for the establishment of the company in Ghana due to the availability of professional marketers. As such, this ensured marketing for the company not only at the national boundaries, but also at a global level.

In addition, the company was impressed by the efforts by the chartered institute of marketing, Ghana (CIMG) (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). Having a strong base in the country since 1991, and having been certified by Board on National accrediting, the company has help in nurturing strong base in Ghana.

Genuine Reforms The ability to uphold genuine reforms is one of the most outstanding characteristics of Ghana as a country, such as strong leadership, local ownership and political will within the country. Ghana upholds democracy more than any other African country, and is considered to be mother to key leaders within the African continent.

For instance, key Ghanaian personalities, such as the retired President Kuffuor and retired UN Secretary General Koffi Annan, gained credits for restoring peace in Kenya after the 2007 post election violence. Moreover, the country has been the leading one in initiating education and health reforms while, at the same time, using soccer to promote peace.

Observance of labor laws Labor laws have been highly violated in some cocoa producing countries; in fact, many countries violate children rights by employing children in cocoa farms, as well as processing industries. In addition, many of the cocoa producing countries have highly violated human rights through noncompliance to labor laws such as minimal wages (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”).

In Ghana, there is moderate observance of labor laws with few cases of children labor being reported and being compared to Ivory Coast whose poverty level is much higher hence motivating the violation of labor laws. Many organizations and trade unions in the country are responsible for ensuring that labor laws are observed.

We will write a custom Assessment on Business in Ghana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fighting child labor in Ghana, organization such as ILO/IPEC, the government, the media, international organizations have helped in achieving the proposal of 2001-2002 “National Plan of Action for the elimination of Child labor in Ghana” through campaigns education programs and involvement of inspectors and the police.

Organization in Sacco Schemes Ghanaian farmers are not left behind when it comes to forming groups that enhance their collective decision to being heard and implemented. In the pilot study to justify the establishment of the company in Ghana, the company was impressed by the presence of the international NGO Technoserve that has played a remarkable role in helping cocoa farmers obtain greater results from their crops.

Instead of selling cocoa immediately after it is harvested, the organization helps farmers to store it in a warehouses managed by the cooperation. In exchange, the farmers are able to obtain loan depending on the amount of cocoa that they have stored.

Sacco’s such as Kuapa Kokoo Limited and Farmer Organization Network have been particularly prominent in some areas of Ghana. These are prominent in mobilizing farmers and in fighting child labor among cocoa farming and production industry.

Infrastructure/Logistics In justifying the case for the establishment of the company in Ghana, a strong analysis of the transport sector was necessary. As stated in part two, this would ensure efficiency and presence of movement and infrastructure facilities to transport beans from producers to the processing factory and from the finished goods to global consumers.

Many African countries are lagging behind in terms of the transport sector, and Ghana has never been an exception. In an effort to improve the sector, the Ministry of Transport in the country has been on the forefront in implementing projects to enhance the transport sector of the country.

In 2009, there was established a project that has been active in enhancing mobility of goods and services and in reducing the cost of production. The first role of the 2009 project was directed at the road sector and engaged in vigorous feasibility studies coming up with a geographical system.

Open market system In the modern society, many nations that have achieved a mileage in their economic systems have embraced the private sector and have strived to eliminate government system in the financial control system. In the recent past, Ghana has drastically grown in terms of the freedom of its economic system especially in terms of labor freedom and money freedom.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business in Ghana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This year the country has climbed to number 9 of the 46 Sub-Saharan African countries with a 60.7% score in economic freedom. With a 6% annual growing economy, the country is number 84 in the world in terms of a free market (“Global Research Report”).

Cocoa supply in Ghana As it has been stated earlier, Ghana is the second supplier of cocoa in the world. With over 90 years in cocoa production, the supply of cocoa by the six areas of Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Volta, Central and western region the supply of cocoa are highly guaranteed. Though many of the farmers of cocoa are small holders with 4-5 acres, there is a guarantee of production of cocoa since it is a main source of livelihood in the country.

Regulatory framework The regulatory framework in Ghana is effective in promoting new investment and competitiveness of a new company. The Global forum on transparency and exchange of information is the guiding tool for Ghana’s legal framework, it has been effective in promoting new investment companies.

Industry policy Industry policies include the principles, policies, rules, regulations and procedures that regulate industrial enterprises within the nation; hence, determine the direction of key development. In June 2011, Ghana trade and industry Minister, Ms Hanna Tetteh launched the industrial policy for the country to be implemented within the period of the subsequent five years.

Key issued the policy that justified the establishment of Global Ventures PLC in Ghana included the increase of industrious employment in the production sector and marketing of Agriculture based industries (“Ghana launches Industrial Policy” 3).

Export policy According to the ministry of Trade and Industry which is in charge of all the export policies in Ghana, the sector is geared to ensure the implementation of a self-fulfilling export sector.

The country is improving its international presence so as to improve the export value of its goods, which are mainly the Agriculture processed or partially processed export goods. The country is likely to gain stable and fair prices for its exports by increasing its multilateral presence with other countries.

In addition, Ghana has a positive image when it comes to the quality of its cocoa. Since 1947, Ghana has been the sole nation with the government established institution (Ghana Cocoa Board) among all cocoa producing countries in West Africa (“Ghana launches Industrial Policy” 2).

Alliance, trade, navigation, and taxation agreements are mainly concerned with offering security for trading rights, as well as eliminate situations of double taxation.

In Ghana, there is a fair business environment where all competing companies are treated equally without discrimination in the enforcement of laws and regulations. This was a key justification for the establishment of the country in Ghana as it was not exposed to unnecessary discrimination because it was a foreign company (“Global Research Report” 7).

We identified the country because the pricing of cocoa beans was left to the market determinants of supply and demand, but not controlled by the government. Though several economies are not isolated from the world market fluctuations, in economically powerful countries such as the US as well, the floating exchange system in Ghana was a justification for the establishment of the company in Ghana.

Monetary Policy This refers to all those activities and interventions that aim at establishing an even supply of credit for business and advancement of trade, as well as industry. The effectiveness of a monetary system is based on a thorough investigation on how the policy will affect and diffuse into other factors of the economy of the country (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 5).

In Ghana, the monetary system has been remarkably effective with the Bank of Ghana keeping a thorough check to ensure intervention in the monetary system is on time.

Social or cultural factors Culture is a combination of the tangible and intangible factors which influence how a certain group makes its decision (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). In justification of the company establishment within the country, it was adequately necessary to investigate the social norms that influenced consumer behavior.

Since Ghana is an African country, the consumer behavior was highly influenced by what family and friends thought about the product; hence, it was necessary to use this as a key strategy for marketing the company. Individual purchasing decision was influenced by what their friends and relatives thought about the product.

An Integrated supply chain was necessary so that the product could be produced and sold to the relevant markets; in choosing Ghana, the presence of ports, malls and mass retail outlets were a key justification in the choice for the establishment of the company.

Unlike a country which is landlocked, the presence of ports exporting the goods to the outside and enabled a fast reach of the global market (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 7). The mass retail outlets established over the years were also a key justification for the choice.

Government contracts and large corporate orders Since 1947, the government of Ghana has been in the forefront in promoting cocoa farming in the country. The country has a Board dealing with cocoa that is responsible for making purchases and then selling it internationally. With the government involvement in Ghana, the company will be assured of the government assistance in the sale of its products.

Niche market This refers to a selected group or class that the company wants to concentrate on selling its products. Cocoa farming and production will not be something new in Ghana and subset group will be easy to form.

Forming a niche market will be remarkably easy since the company is dealing with a product that the local people already know (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 7). At a global level, forming a niche market will be quite easy since Ghana cocoa products are distinct, as well as famous for their outstanding quality.

Potential global market size It is no doubt that Ghana is well known all around the world for cocoa production. Establishing a global market will become easy. While the quantifiable characteristics such as the population size and GDP per head might have been hard to estimate, other characteristics such as, cheap labor and semi-skilled labor for farming and skilled labor for processing justify the case for Ghana as the country of choice.

In conclusion, when it comes to the country of choice in Cocoa farming, Ghana outdoes all other countries. The respect for democracy, peace and its record in stability, favorable legal framework, as well as outstanding economic growth and production of cocoa makes it the best country for making key investments.

Works Cited 2011 Investment Climate Statement – South Africa. Bureau of economics energy and business affairs. March, 2011, Web. .

Ghana launches Industrial Policy, 2011. Government of Ghana, Web. .

Global Research Report 2012. Heritage Research Institute. Web. .


Langston Hughes Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Langston Hughes was a renowned icon in the world of African American literature. He wrote numerous poems, plays, novels and newspaper articles during his career’s lifespan. His social activism was focused on creating a voice for the African American people.

Having lived momentarily in Harlem, he was quite familiar with the racial friction that existed at the time. He hence plays a major role in the Harlem renaissance movement of the 1920s and 1930s. The Harlem renaissance was a period in which various African American writers exploited literature to push for civil and political equality.

There is a jazzy/ blues tone in a number of his poems as they circulate around themes of racial oppression within the early American society. The main contributing factor to these chosen themes was his personal experiences. We shall thus explore how these experiences are expressed in some of his poems.

Negro The poem speaks about the writer’s identity as a Negro. The tone of the poem is one of anger and, at the same time, pride. He voices the grievances of the enslaved black community throughout history by making references to their afflictions under several masters.

The poem has been written in the first person’s point of view and there is repetitive use of the words ‘I’ve been’ (“Negro”).

This serves to emphasize the manner in which the black race has been subjected to various experiences in each verse. It portrays the black man’s positions as a victim of these experiences. The writer also uses similes such as ‘black as the night is black’ and ‘black like the depths of Africa’ to create illustrations of different views of the African race (“Negro”).

Cross The poem Cross voices the writer’s personal experiences of living in a cross racial family. He conveys the ideal of racial reconciliation amongst white and black people by showing his remorse and apologies for wishing the worst to his parents. His parents came from different races. He contemplates their contrasting fates wherein one died in a place of fortune and prosperity while the other died in an environment of poverty (“Cross”).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He then ponders his own fate by linking it to his mixed race. The message that is driven here is that racial background ultimately affects one’s fate due to the social setups that favored one over the other. The poem uses rhymes and meters in its structure thus setting up a rhythmic flow in its narration.

The Weary Blues This poem is written in a very sad tone. It describes the poet’s encounter with a blues musician who, tired of his life, was contemplating suicide. The theme of death is prominent in this piece as it is featured in several lines. The song Weary blues contains the line ‘And I wish I had died’ which captures the theme of death (“The Weary Blues”).

The final line ‘He slept like a rock or a man that’s dead’ clearly presents another instance of this theme. The message that the reader is left with is that the singer discussed in the poem had died deep down because of the loneliness he has been forced to live with.

Lenox Avenue: Midnight The setting of this poem is a high traffic street on a rainy day. This can be seen from the references of rumbling street cars and rain in the second stanza. It seems to be a poem that speaks in second person to a lady. This may be explained by the use of the term ‘Honey’ in referring to the person addressed (Bass


Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The UN System The UNO is not just an inter-governmental organization located in New York and comprising of key political organs such as the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the General Assembly and the Security Council. The UN body is made up of about 16 UN specialized agencies with independent Assemblies and Councils-including Secretariats and budgets (White 281).

These agencies deal with global issues such as: international telecommunications; merchant shipping; financial crises; and diseases. These agencies have also produced several subsidiaries bodies. For example, the UN General assembly has created several bodies such as the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to address children’s welfare and economic issues respectively (White 281).

The UN Values The values that the UN promotes are enclosed within the Preamble of the system’s foremost treaties. Most of these core values (self-rule, human rights protection and peace) symbolized a new departure for the international community in 1945. These values are used as benchmarks for assessing the failure or success of the UNO.

They also provide goals that can be pursued by the UNO. What’s more, other values have been integrated with the core values. For example, environmental protection was added to the core values following the UN Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972 (White 288).

The swift development of agencies and mechanisms for use in alleviating further destruction of world’s environment underlined the need for entrenching environmental protection as a core value (White 288).

Apart from environmental protection, the promotion of democratic system has been entrenched as a core value (derived from self-rule principle). Nevertheless, the UN’s promotion of democratic system should not be construed to mean the triumph of liberalism over communism after Cold War ended (Fox and Roth 532).

The establishment and consistency of these principles are in harmony with the UN’s core value of protection and promotion of human rights which the organization has promoted ever since the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For example, the self-rule principle was recognized by the UN in 1945 and it has been promoted since then (White 288).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other core values established by the UN are socio-economic comfort, justice and law, and peace and security (Falk 208). Although peace and security are pursued by the principal organs set up by the UN Charter, other values are promoted by specialized agencies as well as supplementary bodies and programmes.

Consequently, there is a general perception that peace and security is the principal value pursued while other values are deemed secondary in the pecking order (White 288).

The Nature of the Founding Law The UN is not just an organization characterized by a convoluted structure of conference. It is a system based on law. The question that emerges then relates to the character of this law. Following the establishment of the League of Nations Covenant in1919, there have been numerous attempts to suggest the existence of a considerable distinction between constitutional multilateral agreements and normal multilateral treaties (Johnston 889).

This suggestion represented a paradigm shift from the observation that international law was, in reality, a private law between compliant states acting as equals as opposed to any type of public law. The balance in this argument can be traced back to when Max Huber asserted that the legal nature of the League of Nations Covenant was “neither contractual nor constitutional (Zimmern 290).

According to Huber, the Covenant had a dissimilar disposition from the typical contractual agreements and exchanges that had taken place before. It is worth mentioning that inter-governmental organizations-such as International telecommunications Union (ITU) founded in 1865 and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) created in 1874- existed before the League of Nations (White 290).

As a matter of fact, the treaty that created UPU was considered a constitution. The ITU and UPU established a union of services which implies that the legal framework developed by member-states of these organizations was a contractual one (Crawford 6).

The UN and Constitutionalism If we shift from the post-1919 world order to the post-1945 order, the portrait presented above is one made up of societal values that shape, inform and regulate the functioning of an intricate set of organizations within a structure enclosed by legal instruments of foundational importance (White 291).

We will write a custom Essay on Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is obvious that the UN structure is not only managed by a series of accords/treaties but also by a composite constitution, with the UN Charter at the centre. The UN Charter is aptly characterized by Schachter who asserted that:

The Charter is surely not to be construed as a lease of land or an insurance policy; it is a constitutional instrument whose broad phrases were designed to meet changing circumstances for an undefined future (189).

It appears that in 1945, the UN Charter was interpreted as a constitutional document and not merely as an international accord/treaty. This assertion is aptly reflected in the Preamble of the Charter-We the Peoples of the United Nations (Fassbender 555). Therefore, no one can dispute the fact that the UN Charter is the basis for constitutional document in the United Nation structure.

There is no doubt that the institutional system of the UN is imperfect. Nevertheless, this phenomenon does not prevent the UN from having a constitutional foundation. For instance, the UN General Assembly is a weak legislative body.

Nonetheless, the resolutions made by the General Assembly form a conjecture of legality in favour of behaviours that conforms to them as well as an assumption of illegality when such behaviours contradict them (Schreuer 118). What’s more, these decrees can function as a mechanism and as an expression of traditional international law.

Contrary to the basic recommendatory nature of UN General Assembly decrees, the UN Security Council boasts of legislative influence with regard to joint security (White 292).

What’s more, the Security Council functions as an executive unit which implements those resolutions. Although there is no clear separation of powers within the UN system, both the executive and legislative roles are allocated uniformly between the key political organs (White 292).

As a matter of fact, the UN Security Council has not only executive and legislative powers but also possesses partial quasi-judicial authority to propose settlement terms as well as to establish whether there is an act of aggression, breach of peace or a threat to the peace (White 292). In addition, there is the International Court of Justice’s arbitrative role (although it is weak compared to state jurisdictions).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Security Council’s authority regarding legal disagreements between states is based on approval from UN agencies and organs (White 292). The Council’s role as a constitutional court is therefore susceptible to inquiry although its jurisprudence is somewhat moving in that direction (White 401).

There is clearly lack of separation of power within the UN system. The problem is also prevalent among its specialized agencies. The major benefit associated with separation of powers is the enhancement of the rule of law. For example, the separation of power averts the enactment, application and enforcement of laws by one body.

As a result, the absence of institutionalized judicial review within the UN system weakens the rule of law in the same manner the concentration of power (under joint security) in the hands of the UN Security Council does (White 293).

This means that the UN Security Council is effectively allowed to function as legislator, judge and enforcer with regard to the sphere of joint security (Gwynn 1). Thus, the apparent lack of separation of power in UN system is likely to result in power misuse.

In spite of the apparent structural shortages within the UN system, the Charter as well as the constitutional documents of the specialized agencies creates an intricate constitutional pecking order. Nevertheless, it can be argued that they merely represent a weak constitutional dispensation.

It can also be argued that the UN Constitution is synonymous with the rudimentary rules that govern a local golf club given that both constitute an organization. However, opinions about this issue vary among different scholars. For example, Bernhardt asserts that “the Charter has become the constitution of the international community” (1117) while Arangio-Ruiz claims that “the Charter is a mere inter-state compact” (9).

However, other scholars have adopted a cautious approach by enumerating the shortages prevalent in the UN’s constitutional structure as well as the organization’s achievements in securing conformity with its resolutions.

For example, the UN’s remarkable success in averting Iraq’s antagonism against Kuwait in the early 1990s is contrasted with its failure to secure peace in Rwanda (in 1994), Somalia (1992-3) and the former Yugoslavia in 1992-5 period (Dupuy 20).

The UN Legal Structure There is no doubt that the UN structure is based on law. The UN’s legislative capacity has broadened over the years as the international community shifts from a horizontal structure that relies on state approval towards a purely hierarchical one (Kirgis 274).

For instance, the decrees by IAEA, ICAO, ITU and WHO are generally acknowledged and implemented as sets of laws for the international community (Schermers 117). The UN legal system can be evaluated from three phases: legislative; interpretation and application of law; and enforcement and compliance.

The Legislative Phase

The UN agencies generate laws in remarkable ways. Most of these laws transcend the conventional foundations of international law (i.e. customs and treaties).

These laws include: quasi-judicial pronouncements; guidelines; codes of practice; declarations; binding regulations; and excellent decrees with reporting requirements as well as enforcement systems (White 295). Most of these laws represent a paradigm shift from the conservative ways of making laws in the international arena.

The Interpretation and Application Phase

The interpretation and application of law occurs on a continuous basis all over the UN structure via the agencies, bodies and organs in light of the principle of effectiveness (White 296).

As the UN’s structure and legislation broadens, in terms of quality and quantity, the likelihood of some agencies and bodies transcending the constitutional laws which define their operations is apparent (White 296). However, there are several rudimentary laws that deem certain activities by the UN as unconstitutional or ultra vires (White 296). Nevertheless, the real issue at hand is the absence of a suitable judicial review system.

Compliance and Enforcement Phase

Compliance and enforcement is usually the last phase in any legal structure. White asserts that the major huddle experienced by the UN legal structure is the compliance and enforcement phase (296). Although the UN has enacted a number of legislations, little attention has been given with regard to the strategies of ensuring compliance (White 296).

Nevertheless, the UN is striving to improve compliance and enforcement of its laws at different levels. For example, the UN’s specialized agencies have adopted reporting and supervision as a common strategy to ensure compliance with the law (White 296). States are now obligated to submit reports on their compliance endeavours for inspection by a UN body.

The naming and shaming strategy is occasionally complemented in the human rights sphere whereby states (under elective protocol) permit certain persons within their authority to assume cases of human rights abuses executed by the state before a UN agency (White 296). Nevertheless, these strategies are usually ineffective when dealing with unrelenting offenders.

Consequently, the UN has considered adopting a number of intrusive strategies in order to decrease incidences of human rights abuses in many countries. An armed peace-keeping force is an example of an intrusive strategy adopted to ensure compliance with UN declarations.

UN peace-keeping force has evolved into a multi-dimensional strategy that encompasses the conventional blue-helmeted force as well as human rights and development element (White 297). The Sierra Leone case is a clear demonstration that the UN peace-keeping force is in dire need of reforms although this should not undermine the successful operations undertaken by UN forces in Mozambique, Nicaragua and Namibia (White 297).

Other coercive strategies adopted by the UN include conditional loans and aid that are granted to those states that respect UN decrees and suspension of delinquent states from UN membership (White 297).

The Security Council has also invoked article 41 of the UN Charter to impose other non-military enforcement actions such as economic sanctions on rogue states (White 297). In addition, the Security Council has sanctioned the use of armed forces on several occasions in countries such as Kosovo, East Timor, Bosnia, Somalia and the Gulf region to enforce compliance (White 297).

The UN judicial system represents another major hurdle in the enforcement system. It is worth mentioning that the International Court is somewhat weak with regard to judicial enforcement. The Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court, represents a significant step with regard to holding accountable and punishing individuals who commit war crimes, genocide and other crimes against humanity (White 298).

However, the ability of the International Court to discharge its functions is severely compromised by the UN Security Council which focuses its judicial enforcement efforts at individual level rather than at the state level (White 298). Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether the UN’s judicial enforcement, at individual level rather than state level, is the most successful strategy to guarantee respect for UN principles.

Works Cited Arangio-Ruiz, Gaetano. “The Federal Analogy and UN Charter Interpretation: A Crucial Issue.” European Journal of International Law 8.1(1997): 9. Print.

Bernhardt, Rudolf. The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.

Crawford, James. The Charter of the United Nations as a Constitution. London: British Institute, 1997. Print.

Dupuy, Marie. “The Constitutional Dimension of the Charter of the United Nations Revisited.” Max Planck Yearbook of UN Law 1(1997): 20. Print.

Falk, Richard. The United Nations and a Just World Order. Boulder: Westview, 1991. Print.

Fassbender, Bardo. “The United Nations Charter as a Constitution of the International Community.” Columbia Journal of Transnational 529(1998): 555. Print.

Fox, Gay and Brad Roth. Democratic Governance and International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.

Gwynn, Barbara. The Meaning of the Separation of Powers. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1965. Print.

Johnston, Douglas. Structures and Processes of International Law. Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1983. Print.

Kirgis, Frederic. International Organizations in their Legal Settings. St. Paul: West, 1993. Print.

Schachter, Oscar. “Review of Kelsen: The law of the United Nations.” Yale Law Journal 61(1951): 189. Print.

Schermers, Henry. “We the Peoples.” Max Planck Yearbook of UN Law 1(1997): 117. Print.

Schreuer, Christoph. “Recommendations and the Traditional Sources of International Law.” German Yearbook of International Law 20(1997): 118. Print.

White, Nigel. “The United Nations System: Conference, Contract or Constitutional Order?” Singapore Journal of International


Quality Management Awards Report essay help online free

A key symbol, of the growing appreciation of management as an area of vast significance, has been the increase, in the late twentieth century, of awards that a range of governments gives their most stupendous organizations.

This official acknowledgment of management practice and quality mirror the principle, at the top levels, that excellent management practice may be learned and cultivate d by supporting recognition of innovative procedures and best practices. This section will discuss and compare various frameworks of quality management.

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality became established, in 1989, by the United States. This establishment of this prize became motivated by the successes of Japan industrial sectors, due to the introduction of Deming Prize.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality award seeks to acknowledge successful quality management systems and enhance total quality management, in America. The award gets administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Brown 2004; Vokurka et al. 2000).

MBNQA focuses on seven criteria including “Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer Focus, Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge management, Workforce Focus, Process management, and Results” (Pryor et al. n.d. p. 7).

These centers on the following values “ customer-driven excellence, visionary leadership, organizational and a personal learning, agility, focus on the future, managing for innovation, valuing partners and employees, focus on results, creating value, management by fact, social responsibility and systems perspective”(Pryor et al. n.d. p. 7).

MBNQA resembles and differs with the Deming award, in several ways. The Malcolm Baldrige National Award, similar to the Deming Prize, gets applied to corporations owned by aliens (Khoo and Tan 2003; Zairi1994). However, MBNQA can only be applied to alien corporations that have half of their assets in America, unlike the Deming award.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MBNQA stresses on customer focus, through its seven criteria (Hui and Chuan 2002). Hence, MBNQA centers on certain objectives, unlike the Deming award, which is system-centered.

Besides, MBNQA uses several professionals in determining the corporations eligible for the award, while the Deming Prize relies, entirely on the JSU, in making decisions..

Lastly, MBNQA is apt to disclosing information of a winning company to others, unlike the Deming Prize, which keeps secrets of the winning company.

The Deming Prize

The Deming Prize, the Japanese management award, became formed in 1950, by Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers and became first awarded in 1951 (Gabor 1990; Vokurka et al. 2000). The award recognizes reliability and quality of commodities, in Japan.

The standard assesses a corporation, in the fields of quality improvement, sales, profits, productivity enhancement and cost diminution. Also, it evaluates quality-assurance procedures, with the overall goal of determining the level of total quality control commitment, in a company.

This prize can be administered n two forms including the Deming Application Prize and the Deming Prize. Whereas the Deming Application Prize gets based on achievements related to TQC implementation, the Deming Prize may be issued to persons or companies that appreciate TQC, and show progress, in its practice.

Also, those eligible for the Deming Prize must have received the Deming Application Prize earlier. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers expects the Deming final award to encourage award holders in enhancing quality control of earlier recipient of the award. However, all Deming prizes become awarded at the same time of the year.

We will write a custom Report on Quality Management Awards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Deming awards may be awarded other countries, apart from the factory and individual medal.

The European Quality Awards

The European Quality Award became established, in 1992, after the establishment of the Deming and MBNQA. The structure of the award resembles the MBNQA. However, the first awards went to large, profit-oriented corporations, until 1996, when the award adjusted to suit small and medium sized enterprises.

A group of six assessors, comprising of quality experts and academicians, assess the practice of the program.

The European Quality Awards bases on nine criteria including “people management, leadership, resource management, policy and strategy, customer satisfaction, process management, impact on society, business results and people satisfaction” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.43).

Most of these criteria resemble those of the MBNQA. However, The European Quality Award stresses on the impact on society and individual s perceptions, which lack in the Deming and MBNQA.

The European Quality Award, unlike the Deming and MBNQA, vary in the criterion for qualified corporations. Besides, The European Quality Awards vary, in the group of award assessors, as it includes quality experts and academicians.

The European Quality Award matches with MBNQA in that it can only be rewarded to companies that have at least half of their dealings in Europe. However, the European Quality Award is applicable to more nations, than the Deming and MBNQA awards.

The Canada Awards for Excellence

Canada established the excellent award, in 1983, so as, to credit the practice of management. In the initial phases, the Canadian government became responsible for administering the award (Funk 2004). Ten years later, the National Quality Institute, took direction over the award.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Management Awards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since inception, the Canada Awards for Excellence varied from Deming Prizes in significant ways. First, this award focused more on results than the Deming Prize. Consequently, MBNQA decided to imitate this result perspective into its structure. Similarly, MBNQA adopted the seven criteria just like the Canada Awards for Excellence. Therefore, most criteria in MBNQA can also be found in the Canada Awards for Excellence.

The award has seven drivers including “organizational performance, leadership, customer focus, people focus, planning, supplier focus and process management” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.44).

The Canada Awards for Excellence, equally, differs with the European Quality Awards. While the Canadian excellent award remained applicable to both private and public sectors, the European award could only be applied to for-profit firms. However, the European award later expanded to incorporate corporations in the public sector (Stading and Vokurka 2003).

Although Canada Awards for Excellence are valuable, just like the European Quality Awards, Deming Prize and MBNQA, they operate on a small span because Canada’s population is not large.

The Australian Quality Awards for Business Excellence

The Australian Quality Awards became established in early 1990s. The award gets issued by the Australian Quality Council. The aim of the award is to develop best practices and quality principles (Vokurka et al. 2000).

The award follows seven groups of criteria including “leadership, people, information and analysis, strategy, policy and planning, customer focus, quality of process, product and service and organizational performance” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.44).

According to the model, information, people, strategy, analysis, planning and policy and categories have supreme impact on the quality of processes (Vokurka et al. 2000). While the Australian award resembles MBNQA, it stresses more on the importance of multicultural management. It, also, stresses on people and processes, unlike the Deming and other awards.

China Quality Award

China Quality Award became established in 2001, by the China Association for Quality (CAQ) (Pompeo, 2010). The award gets offered to businesses that promote quality management, develop the general quality and competitive capacity, in order to serve the people and community. China Quality Award follows the Baldrige criteria (Pompeo, 2010).

Similar to other awards, for instance, European Quality Award, Deming Prize and MBNQA, beneficiaries of China Quality Award become selected following a lengthy assessment (Pompeo 2010; Tan 2003).

ISO 9001:2000

ISO 9001:2000, refers to quality management practices that seek to meet “customer’s quality requirements and applicable regulatory requirements, achieve continual improvement of performance, and enhance customer satisfaction in pursuit of these objectives” (Pryor et al. n. d. p.8).

ISO 9000 becomes founded on 8 principles including “ Customer Focus; Leadership; Involvement of People; Process Approach; System Approach to management; Continual Improvement; Factual Approach to Decision Making; and Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships” (Pryor et al. n. d. p.8).

Hence, ISO 9001:2000 eight principles resemble MBNQA, and other related awards Criteria, in some ways.

How “ISO 9001:2008” framework gets implemented in a real organization operating in the “United Arab Emirates

In this part, we shall focus on the preparation and implementation of the ISO 9001:2008, in UAE, by Organization X. Organization X is a real security firm in UAE, known as First Security Guard. The following is a discussion of the steps that First Security Guard (referred to as organization X), follows in implementing the ISO 9001:2008.


Organization X makes preparation by attempting to understand the ISO 9001:2008 standard.

Organization X, then appoints a ISO 9001 “Management Representative, or the Quality Manager, who is responsible for the preparation and implementation of the appropriate procedures and Quality Manual to guarantee quality at every phase, beginning from acquiring the order to after sales service.

Organization X then prepares training for the quality manager, in accordance with the manual. Subsequently, the organization ensures that the executives back the ISO 9001 and necessities that may be associated with this implementation. Also, the founder of Organization X informs all the workers about the significance and feasibility of ISO 9001, so that they do not fear the changes.

Quality Manual, Quality Policy and Procedures

Organization x prepares various documents including Six Quality Procedures, Quality Objectives, Quality Manual, Process Flowchart and Quality Policy. Organization X ensures that all these documents meet all the necessities of the ISO 9001:2008 standard. In addition to the above documents, the organization formulates work instructions, with detailed steps on how processes will function.

Implementation, Training and Work Instructions

Organization X introduces the novel requirements incorporated in the organization’s Implementation Manual. The organization, through various departments, instructs workers regarding implementation of the standard, and ensures that they fine-tune their methods of working to the new requirements.

Internal Audits

Organization X hires Abdul, a subcontractor who audits the implementation of the standards. Organization X presents Abdul with the implementation manual of the organization. Abdul examines whether organization X meets the provisions of ISO 9001:2008 as described in the organization’s Implementation Manual.


Organization X, then selects an appropriate registrar, who can award the certificate. The manager of organization X structures an evaluation form, in an effort to find the best registrar.

After the certification audit, organization X uses the new ISO 9001 certification as a marketing tool.

The manager of organization X sends announcement cards to its clients, prepares a press release, print the certification blot on letterheads, exhibits a banner outside the organization and adds the ISO 9001 certification mark in its advertisements. Also, the manager of the organization appreciates all workers for their hard work, towards implementation of the standard.

Finally, Organization X recognizes the need to maintain the standards, as the registrar of the ISO 9001 certificate must conduct inspection audits several times, in every year, to confirm sustained ISO 9001 fulfillment. Therefore, organization X encourages its workers not to relax, so that they can maintain their excellent position. Also, the Organization maintains its internal audits, so as, to correct any inconsistencies.

Organization X recognizes that the first manual, which details the first Quality


African American Soldier in American Revolution Dissertation essay help: essay help

In 1775, the black American’s constituted of about 20 percent of the entire colonial population, yet only 5 percent of the African-Americans were engaged in the Continental Army1. This presented worrying statistics on the American Revolution history. The black soldiers mainly originated from the Northern states, which constituted of many Freedmen.

Historical findings ascertain that these blacks from the Northern states were accorded some liberty for enlisting. During these times of the American Revolution, it was witnessed that some regiments were mainly composed of black men, but the officers in charge were the whites2.

For example, this kind of arrangement was witnessed in Rhode Island, where most solders went to the battle fields and fought with conviction as well as valor. Indeed, Edward Hector was among these little known heroes of the American Revolution, who took part in the Battle of Brandywine. Edward “Ned” Hector was a black solder who came from Pennsylvania.

Hector was appointed to be a wagoneer under the leadership of Captain Courtney. The Captain was under Colonel Proctor who was manning the third Pennsylvania’s Artillery Regiment3. Besides, it was witnessed that the unit positioned itself next to Chad’s Ford, and this could be somewhere on the ridge that was after John Chad House.

On September 11, Hessians as well as the British started overrunning the positions of the Americans, especially on the Eastern Brandywine. This event took place in the afternoon, and the Americans were ordered to abandon their horses, wagons, and guns in order to save their lives4.

Indeed, during this dreadful attack, Edward Hector strongly came out to protest against the threats of the enemy by arguing that he would save his team, horses and himself5. Hector made some remarkable achievements during this war when he ensured that all the abandoned arms were grabbed, thrown into his wagon, fended off the enemies, and escaped with his salvage wagon6.

In fact, this was one of his remarkable achievements because the salvaged items were critically required by the army’s operation in the coming days. It can as well be argued that Hector regarded both the wagon and the team as his personal property, and losing them would mean the loss of his personal livelihood7.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Ned Hector’s activities during the America’s war with the British were very remarkable in the American political history since the white people had never heard of black heroes. Therefore, it is important to realize that the story behind Hector’s heroism could break certain stereotypes, build bridges, and even create links among individuals8.

This story provokes historical scholars’ thinking that many people and individual groups are excluded from history, and are unrecognized as heroes and heroines for their remarkable achievements towards political freedom.

Indeed, these groups of unrecognized heroes and heroines have never been rewarded by the society for the good work they did9. This would provoke scholarly thinking on whether Hector was fully rewarded for his good service at the battle front10.

In sum, it should be realized that those who took part in the American Revolution were not fully rewarded, yet this was an important event that led to independence. It was revealed that the blacks were behind the American’s liberation from the British colonial rule, and this was witnessed with Ned Hector’s brevity to salvage his army at the battle of Brandywine.

References Bennett, Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619- 1962. Chicago, IL: Johnson Publishing Co., 1962.

Ciment, James. Atlas of Africa-American History. New York, NY: Facts on File, c2001.

Gutman, George. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1825. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

We will write a custom Dissertation on African American Soldier in American Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hope, Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York, NY: Knopf, 1967.

Reich, Steven. The Negro in the Civil War. Boston, MA: Little Brown Pub., c1953.

Schubert, Frank. On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Biographies of African American Soldiers in the US Army, 1866-1917.Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1995.

Uarles, Benjamin. “Afro-Americans in the Revolutionary War Era”. The Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, 7.1 (1986):3-11.

Weir, William. The Encyclopedia of African American Military History. New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004.

Westwood, Howard. Black Troops, White Commanders and Freedmen during the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

Wilson, Joseph. The Black Phalanx: A History of the Nero Soldiers of the United States in the War of 1775-1812, 1861-65. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Co., 1892.

Footnotes 1 Bennett, Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1962. Chicago, IL: Johnson Publishing Co., 1962.

Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Soldier in American Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2 Wilson, Joseph. The Black Phalanx: A History of the Nero Soldiers of the United States in the War of 1775-1812, 1861-65. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Co., 1892.

3 Gutman, George. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1825. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

4 Schubert, Frank. On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Biographies of African American Soldiers in the US Army, 1866-1917.Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1995.

5 Hope, Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York, NY: Knopf, 1967

6 Uarles, Benjamin. “Afro-Americans in the Revolutionary War Era”. The Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, 7.1 (1986):3-11.

7 Westwood, Howard. Black Troops, White Commanders and Freedmen during the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

8 Reich, Steven. The Negro in the Civil War. Boston, MA: Little Brown Pub., c1953.

9 Weir, William. The Encyclopedia of African American Military History. New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004.

10 Ciment, James. Atlas of Africa-American History. New York, NY: Facts on File, c2001.


Warfare in the Age of Gustavus Adolphus Through the Lens of the Western Way of War Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Background

Of all Swedish kings, Gustavus Adolphus is, perhaps, the most famous one. A straightforward thinker and an innovator, he redesigned the very foundation of the military tradition accepted at the time. The changes that he made to the army, including consistent training, change of values, technological and economic innovations, etc. created premises for the development of a strong army and led to the further acceptance of a new Western way of war as later explained by Parker (2008).

Thesis Statement Despite failing to develop the “punctuated equilibrium” (Parker, 2008, p. 6) model due to the obtrusive politics of the royal power enhancement, Gustavus Adolphus managed to not only win numerous armed conflicts with his opponents but also alter the very concept of warfare by reinforcing the significance of technological advancement and consistent training of the soldiers.

Military Tradition and Faith: A Winning Combination

One could also argue that the emphasis on the importance of religious beliefs, particularly, the promotion of the traditional Protestant values among the soldiers. Fueling people’s emotions my supporting their battle spirit with the idea of fighting for a noble cause was promoted by Gustavus Adolphus actively and quite successfully as a military tradition, which the Thirty Year War is a graphic example of (Knox


Warfare in the Age of Gustavus Adolphus Through the Lens of the Western Way of War Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Background

Of all Swedish kings, Gustavus Adolphus is, perhaps, the most famous one. A straightforward thinker and an innovator, he redesigned the very foundation of the military tradition accepted at the time. The changes that he made to the army, including consistent training, change of values, technological and economic innovations, etc. created premises for the development of a strong army and led to the further acceptance of a new Western way of war as later explained by Parker (2008).

Thesis Statement Despite failing to develop the “punctuated equilibrium” (Parker, 2008, p. 6) model due to the obtrusive politics of the royal power enhancement, Gustavus Adolphus managed to not only win numerous armed conflicts with his opponents but also alter the very concept of warfare by reinforcing the significance of technological advancement and consistent training of the soldiers.

Military Tradition and Faith: A Winning Combination

One could also argue that the emphasis on the importance of religious beliefs, particularly, the promotion of the traditional Protestant values among the soldiers. Fueling people’s emotions my supporting their battle spirit with the idea of fighting for a noble cause was promoted by Gustavus Adolphus actively and quite successfully as a military tradition, which the Thirty Year War is a graphic example of (Knox


Human Growth Discussions Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Attachment and Culture

Socio-Cultural Influences on Education

Socio-Cultural Influences on Relationships

Views of the Elderly

Works Cited

Attachment and Culture Socio-cultural factors have a strong influence on attachment at various stages. One of the socio-cultural beliefs among many people around the world is that a fatherly figure is a sign of security (Dasgupta and Hauspie 45). This creates a unique bond between a father and other members of his family. The secure attachment created in this context is based on the belief that the father is able to counter any threat that may face the family.

His presence means security not only to the children but also other members of the family who believe that the father has the power to make the home environment safe. Whenever a child is forced to spend some time away from the parents, either for educational purposes or a tour, the primary concern of all the family members is always on its security.

Given that the father will not be present to offer protection, the child will feel very insecure (Artwelle and Wislon 71). The attachment to the father can sometimes be so strong that a child may completely refuse to part from its family for fear of what may happen. This socio-cultural factor is responsible for the unique bond that children, especially girls who often feel insecure, have with their fathers.

Socio-Cultural Influences on Education Social integration is one of the major factors that have significant impact on student’s achievement, especially in higher education. According to Cameron and Bogin, success in higher education is achieved through intensive research and sharing of knowledge (43). Students in higher education institutions stand a better chance of achieving success when they work as a team.

The United States has been struggling to fight racial and other forms of discrimination, especially in institutions of learning, because of its negative consequences. Social integration brings together learners from different social background into a single system where they can easily interact and share the research findings for their own success. Daun says that students who have learnt to accept their colleagues from different social backgrounds have higher chances of achieving academic success than their colleagues who are antisocial (112).

Appreciating other people the way they are expands one’s thinking beyond the narrow sense of racism. Graduate students spend a lot of time testing theories and principles to determine their applicability in a real world situation. They can make better progress if they work as a unit irrespective of the socio-cultural differences they may have. Undergraduate students also stand to benefit a lot if they embrace social integration in the education setting.

Socio-Cultural Influences on Relationships The religion that I embraced has largely shaped my own relationship behavior with my friends. I came from a family of Christians and we strongly believe in loving and caring for people around us. At school, these beliefs have strongly influenced how I relate with my friends. Baumeister and ‎ Bushman note that it is the responsibility of all Christians to offer support to those who are in need of it (43). I have been keen to support my friends in various areas when they are in need.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I also try to avoid engaging in activities that may hurt my colleagues because I always want to share in their happiness. Compassion is another factor that has influenced the way I relate with my friends. As Daun notes, it is ethically important to be compassionate when it is necessary (122).

I have often faced a situation where I have to sacrifice my personal happiness to help a friend who is facing a given problem. It gives me a special satisfaction to see someone happy because of my actions. Sometimes it may not be easy to make major personal sacrifices, but in the long run one realizes that indeed the sacrifice was worth making because of the long-term psychological benefits.

Views of the Elderly The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is largely an Islamic state with an overwhelming majority professing Islamic faith. In this socio-cultural environment, the elders are viewed as the leaders who have the absolute power to make critical decisions in their families and society. In an Islamic setting, elders are seen as the custodian of wisdom. They know when it is appropriate to go to war, and when the community should refrain from war.

They are revered and their instructions cannot be disrespected. Unlike in Western nations where elders are cared for in homes for the elderly, in Islamic settings the elderly remain with their family members as the head (Kahn and Wright 92). They have the responsibility to guide the younger generation and to show them the right paths they ought to take in order to achieve success.

According to Baumeister and Bushman, elders in this setting remain very active, especially mentally because they are often called upon to make critical decision (78). Instead of the old age being a weakness as is the case in most American families, it becomes a resource revered by the society. In this setting, the government recognizes and respects the role of the elders in the society and the need to consult them as frequently as possible when making major policies.

Works Cited Artwelle, George, and Francis Wislon. New Human Growth Hormone Research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 2012. Print.

Baumeister Roy, and ‎Brad Bushman. Social Psychology and Human Nature. New York: Cengage Learning, 2016. Print.

We will write a custom Assessment on Human Growth Discussions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cameron, Noël, and Barry Bogin. Human Growth and Development. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2012. Print.

Dasgupta, Parasmani, and Roland Hauspie. Perspectives in Human Growth, Development and Maturation. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011. Print.

Daun, Kenneth. Humanivity – Innovative Economic Development Through Human Growth. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2013. Print.

Kahn, Jack, and Susan Wright. Human Growth and the Development of Personality. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2014. Print.


Internet Purchasing Portal to Facilitate Better Online Electronic Commerce Transactions in China Proposal a level english language essay help

While China’s rapidly growing economy has facilitated wholesale purchases using credit cards via B2B transactions and platforms, a majority of the population still has limited access to credit cards that can facilitate international and, in some cases, domestic purchases (Xinsheng and Qi 33).

This is in part due to the restrictions placed by the Chinese government on its internal financial systems due to its desire to have greater control and limit foreign volatility from affecting local markets.

However, with the increase in internet usage, higher demand for smartphones and greater consumer interest in owning a PC, this has created an ever increasing level of localized demand for EC (Electronic Commerce) transactions as more local consumers within China realize the advantage of online purchasing. To meet this demand, it is recommended that an online purchasing gateway be created that allows local Chinese buyers to purchase products online yet make payments locally via a payment center or a bank using a product code.

China has experienced an exponential growth in internet subscribers with more than 18 million being added on a yearly basis. Combined with greater purchasing power as a result of China’s booming production based economy, this has resulted in more local consumers developing consumption habits outside of merely subsistence (Liu 266).

Convenience, novelty and, in some cases, luxury have become the factors by which local consumers within the country base their purchases (Stanworth, Warden and Hsu 461). The ability to accommodate these factors via EC has been at the forefront of the developing online marketplace within China and, as such; requires immediate attention in order to take advantage of this opportunity.

It is recommended that an internet portal be created that allows online transactions to be funneled via this gateway. All local consumers within China would have to do is create their own account and use this as a means of paying for all online transactions with merchants that also have accounts via the same gateway.

In order to process payments, a barcode or a serial number is sent to the client’s email account once a transaction has been initially processed online (Yali, Yang, and Beixin 24). The client would then take that serial number and barcode to the nearest authorized payment center or bank, have them scan the barcode and pay the amount indicated on the transaction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once the amount has been paid, the transaction is then completed with the item being sent to the address indicate on the internet portal account. If the customer has a credit card, the internet portal can process the transaction via agreements with the local bank that the card belongs to.

The advantage of this method is that it allows individuals without credit cards to make online transactions. Also, customers that do have credit cards yet are unable to use them to purchase goods internationally can use the merchant portal as a middle man in order to process the transaction for them (Chang, Chen, and Dobbs 73).

Given the sheer size of China’s economy and the number of consumers within it, it is likely that many online merchants, both local and international, would have very few reservations about opening their own online accounts via the payment portal in order to make their goods and services more accessible to local buyers in China.

Number of Internet Users Vs Number of Credit Cards Issues in China

Number of Internet Users Number of Credit Cards 2012 564000000 270000000 2013 617580000 320000000 2014 641601070 360000000 2015 650000000 390000000 (Zhang, Bian and Zhu 304)

What this data shows is that the number of internet users increases at almost the same pace as the number of credit cards available within China. This shows that as more people have credit cards and access to the internet, they need a reliable method of online payment processing for the local and international goods that they want.

Works Cited Chang, Elsie, Yougang Chen, and Richard Dobbs. “China’s E-Tail Revolution.” Mckinsey Quarterly 3 (2013): 70-77. Print

Liu, Ying. “Online Purchaser Segmentation And Promotion Strategy Selection: Evidence From Chinese E-Commerce Market.” Annals Of Operations Research 233.1 (2015): 263-279. Print

We will write a custom Proposal on Internet Purchasing Portal to Facilitate Better Online Electronic Commerce Transactions in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stanworth, James O., Clyde A. Warden, and Ryan Shuwei Hsu. “The Voice Of The Chinese Customer.” International Journal Of Market Research 57.3 (2015): 459- 481. Print

Xinsheng, Ke, and Sun Qi. “Study Of CSF In China’s B2C E-Commerce Based On Expert Evaluation.” Journal Of Electronic Commerce In Organizations 12.2 (2014): 31-45. Print

Yali, Shen, James G.S. Yang, and Lin Beixin. “Current Status Of Internet Commerce And Taxation Problem In China.” International Tax Journal 40.2 (2014): 17-47. Print

Zhang, Yu, Jing Bian, and Weixiang Zhu. “Trust Fraud: A Crucial Challenge For China’S E-Commerce Market.” Electronic Commerce Research


Cross-Media Communication in Advertising: Exploring Multimodal Connections Synthesis Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Article Summary This article initiated by scientists from Aalborg University, Denmark provides the reader with the information on the research of cross-media communication in advertising. The research was inspired by latter studies connected to this area. It focuses on the television commercial and the website as two separate advertisings connected with each other.

Three dimensions comprising announcements, participants, and address strategy were studied. Besides, authors have “examined multimodal connections between texts in terms of different degrees of similarity or dissimilarity between what is represented and how it is represented” (Jessen


Transportation Standards and Environmental Regulations Term Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

The rapid growth of global economy and the rise of globalization in the past decade led to the increase in products consumption as well as the expansion of goods distribution streams worldwide. The outburst of the global economic development and manufacturing could not but have a robust impact on the natural environment, and global warming has become one of the most significant matters of concern resulting from the growing interdependence and interconnectedness of economic and manufacturing systems at the international level.

As shown in the recent statistics, more than 50% of greenhouse gas emission is caused by cross-national transportation, and the further expansion of the international trade will provoke even more significant increases (Abe, Hattori,


Port Security Analytical Essay online essay help

Despite the tremendous efforts in the field of port security, U.S. ports remain vulnerable to the threat of the terrorist attacks due to the complexity of their functional systems and the wide range of stakeholders responsible for the different aspects of safety measures development and implementation.

The following discussion will analyze and critique the safety and emergency management structures in the port environment. In addition, it will address the supporting plans and programs and the legislative policies developed to prevent and respond for a WMD attack at a major port.

The safety and emergency management structure found in the port environment can be evaluated as quite effective with some considerable issues that still remain. The weak points include the following omissions: (1) vessel identification system is not available for every port; (2) omissions are identified in port security assessment procedures; (3) security issues related to foreign vessels; (4) IT technical issues in the port security systems; and (5) inconsistence of emergency management practices in some ports to the general guidelines and regulations provided by the government (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003a; U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003b).

The supporting plans and programs typically found in a major port operation complex structure of ports amount to ensuring that the brought to ports cargo is safe (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2005). The major components of these plans and programs include the principle of “reporting about every cargo assessment result within the 24-hours period” and “integrated training for all port security workers to ensure their professionalism as for the technical aspect of protection systems” (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2004).

Evaluating the legislative policies developed to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a WMD attack at a major port, considerable progress since the year 2001 is noted. Legislators did not fail to notice the limitations the port security systems had. Since the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the government systematically draws closer to the exalted objective to secure safety in ports.

The remarkable achievements include refining the Automated Targeting System regulations and designing the national standards for the port security workers’ attestation (Congressional Research Service, 2004; U.S. General Accounting Office, 2004). However, as far as I am concerned, the current legislative security policies are insufficient to secure and protect US ports due to the complicated system of port authority distribution between the public and private stakeholders, and interference from multiple governmental and private agencies.

The reality of a terrorist nuclear threat to America’s seaports is high. The situation is getting worse because of the sheer size of cargo being operated in ports every day and absence of the well-designed system of the central authority overseeing the maritime system (Cruise et al., 2013).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a final point, the vulnerability of the U.S. ports to the terroristic threats remains of high concern to the government and commercial institutions due to a variety of complex issues connected with the port security. The most complicated issues relate to the complexity of ports authority.

Analysis of facts demonstrates that there are too many stakeholders involved in the process of port security control. These stakeholders have problems with implementing the unified security systems developed by the governmental agencies and, as a result, some of the major ports appear vulnerable to a WMD attack due to the existing unifying protection violations.

References Congressional Research Service. (2004). Border and transportation security: Overview of congressional issues. A Report to Congress. Web.

Cruise, R. J., D’Erman, V. J.,


Personality Tests and Employee Selection Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Personality Tests

Projective and Objective Tests

Behavioral Measures

Standardized Personality Tests

APA Guidelines


Personality Tests According to Krilowicz and Lowery (1996), “the determining force behind the effectiveness of an organization is the quality of its human resources” (p. 55). The personality tests are the techniques that enable organizations to make a reasonable decision regarding the employee selection and, therefore, they are beneficial to a significant extent.

According to research findings, personality affects the job performance and work productivity significantly (Krilowicz


Porter’s Five Forces and Best Buy Analytical Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Buyer Power





Introduction The model that has been developed by Michael Porter can be viewed as incredibly efficient and still can be used by modern companies. The need to have an understanding of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses should not be disregarded during the development of their strategies, and it could lead to a significant competitive advantage in most cases (Porter, 1991).

Rivalry Best buy is one of the most well-known corporations that operates all over the globe and is focused on consumer electronics. Such retail companies as Radioshack and Circuit city may be viewed as direct competitors because they offer similar services and are aimed at the same target market. Also, it is important to note that the company has to deal with indirect competitors such as Amazon, E-Bay, Wal-Mart and others.

Another issue that should not be overlooked is that the popularity of online sales has been increasing over the years, and many companies may use this approach to minimize unnecessary expenses.

However, Best Buy is capable of using this aspect to its advantage. For instance, an individual may make a purchase, and the product will be delivered to a particular address or may be picked up at a store. It is necessary to mention that the second choice is beneficial for both parties because a customer will be able to avoid shipping fees, and a company will not have to deal with possible issues (Rao, Goldsby,