Common School Movement Essay College Admissions Essay Help

The “common school period’ was between 1830 and 1872 and during this period, almost every state experienced great changes in its public schooling system (Sass Para. 5).

Through the common school movement the masses were able to access an education. Education innovators and reformers worked very hard to ensure that education became public, as opposed to free, state maintained, and private.

According to Church (64), the objectives of the common school movement were to ensure that white children had access to free education, to educate and train teachers, and also to ensure that the state had control over public schools.

Many proponents were in favor of the common schools. During this period, the northern states experienced a tremendous growth in immigrant population and for this reason the common schools acted as a tool for “Americanizing” the foreigners.

Horace Mann played a very crucial role in popularizing the common schools and as such, he was for the common school movement. He was convinced that by enabling everybody to have access to common education, this would result in a more prosperous and productive society (Church 66).

The deep commitment by Mann to the common school movement was greatly informed by his strong belief that social harmony and political stability relied heavily on universal education.

He advocated for the establishment of common schools that all children could have access to. In addition, he argued that it was a civic and religious duty to support nonsectarian common schools.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He preached to the working class that education “is the great equalizer of the conditions of men” (Cremin 65). He preached to individuals who owned property that their prosperity and security relied heavily on having law-abiding and literate neighbors who are knowledgeable about the sanctity of private property having attended the common schools.

Moreover, common schools would also ensure that such neighbors remained competent. Mann was also convinced that education was the “absolute right of every human being that comes into the world” (Cremin 87).

On the other hand, there were those who were opposed to the common school movement. For example, Carl Kaestle, a renowned historian, argued that in order for the common school systems to be accepted by the Americans, this would depend on the development of capitalism, the dominance of the native Protestant culture, as well as how committed the American were to the republican government (Church 67).

Most of the Protestant sects (save for the Pan-Protestants) and the Roman Catholics were strongly opposed to the establishment of the common school movement on grounds that they were “nonsectarian” schools.

Bishop John Hughes of New York City opined that the public schools were anti-Catholic and as such, they would not be accepted by his flocks. Many Catholics were in agreement with him.

Besides religious divisions to the creation of public schools, there was also a growing desire to ensure that schools were controlled locally and for this reason, majority of the advocates of statewide organizations were opposed to the common school movement (Sass para. 7).

When the issues of race, class and ethnic tensions were factored in, the demand for controlling schools locally grew immensely. There was also the argument that the establishment of public schools would come at the expense of the taxpayer.

We will write a custom Essay on Common School Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the involvement of the government in education was seen as a repudiation of parental rights and liberalism. Proponent of this position also argued on the need to ensure that individuals remained solely responsible for their lives, and hence it was important to leave them alone (Church 67).

There was also growing fear among conservative members of the society that the creation of public schools would negatively affect relations between labor and capital, and result in enhanced clamoring for “rights” among the working class.

It is important to note that the government, the church, and scholars were all behind the formation of the movement for Common School.

I believe the reason why the common school movement was such a controversial issue in the nineteenth century America is because of religious and racial differences.

To start with, some of the churches were seen as being liberal, and these are the ones who were in support of the establishment of public schools.

On the other hand, the conservative churches such as the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church were opposed to the establishment of public schools on grounds that they did not support their teachings.

At the same time, because the main objective of the common school movement was to ensure equity to all though education, the white were opposed to it because it meant that both the Whites and the Blacks would also have access to the same education system.

Works Cited Church, Robert. Education in the United States, an interpretive history, New York: The Free Press, 1976. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Common School Movement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cremin, Lawrence. The Republic and the School: Horace Mann on the Education of Free Men, New York: Teachers College Press, 1953. Print.

Sass, Edward. 2008. American educational history: a hypertext timeline. 2008. Web. .


Diversity within Unity Essay best essay help: best essay help

Overview and Introduction Cultural diversity is a source of strength as well as weakness for many societies around the world. A multi-cultural society has the advantage of having a rich cultural environment but this diversity in culture can also be a source cultural tension and conflict (Fisher, 1994).

Educational institutions are the most affected by the potential negative impact of a multi-cultural environment, thus, creating the need to implement policies for dealing with cultural issues in schools (Freire, 1985).

The aim of this paper is to analyze critically the ways of dealing with cultural diversity issues facing educational institutions as presented in the article Diversity within Unity by Banks, Cookson, Gay and others.

The Concept of Diversity as Discussed in the Article Diversity in the article refers to cultural, ethnic and language differences in the context of the American society. The cultural landscape in the US is becoming increasingly diversified mostly due to the high number of immigrants that join the nation each year (Feagin, 1994).

This number is estimated to be around one million. Most of the immigrants are Africans and Asians who have different cultural and language backgrounds from those of the natives of the US.

A high percentage of the immigrants are youth who join educational institutions in the country including high schools, colleges, and universities and they only use English as their second language (Dahl, 1998).

Though this influx of new cultures has the positive impact of enriching the nation’s cultural environment it also harbors the potential effect of dividing the country along cultural lines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need, therefore, to emphasize the common aspects of all the different cultures in the US in a bid to foster cultural cohesion and create a united nation.

The best way to achieve this unity would be through encouraging multi-cultural cohesion in schools through both instruction and by emphasizing inter-cultural interactions among students (Fine, 1991).

Analysis of the Philosophical Perspectives Advocated in the Article The article identifies various principles which the management of educational institutions in the US should implement in order to promote cultural cohesion amongst students. These principles are as follows:

Professional Development Programs for Teachers

The article advocates for teachers and educators to undergo professional development programs in which they can learn how culture, language, ethnicity and social classes affect students’ learning and behavior.

By taking such programs, teachers and educators will be in a good position to prevent the negative influence that culture, ethnicity, social class and language background may have on learning.

Offering Equitable Opportunities for Learning

The article calls for schools around the US to offer equal learning opportunities to students irrespective of their cultural, ethnic or social background in order to foster a sense of equality amongst students.


According to the article, the current curricula that are being taught in the US schools should be changed and new ones developed which embrace all cultures including the minority groups. The current curricula are biased towards the majority groups in the country.

We will write a custom Essay on Diversity within Unity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Providing Equal Opportunities for Extra- and Co-curricula Activities

Extra- and co-curricular activities such as sports and academic associations enhance students’ learning and performance. Students of all cultures, races and ethnicities should be encouraged to participate in these activities so as to promote cultural interactions as well as learning.

Creation of Super Ordinate Groups

Super ordinate groups are groups whose purpose would incorporate all cultural groups. Such groups could be based on grade levels in school, age, sex, etc. Super ordinate groups create cohesion among different cultures.

Teaching Students about Stereotypes

Stereotypes result from categorization of people into groups and the belief that a person’s group is superior to other groups. It is crucial to teach students about the fallacies of stereotypes and how they develop so that students can avoid believing in them.

Teaching Common Cross-Cultural Values

There are some values which are shared by all cultures such as justice, equality, and fairness. Teaching these values to students in a multi-cultural environment promotes the sense of egalitarianism amongst them which enhances social cohesion.

Imparting Social Skills on Students

Helping students to acquire social skills is one of the best ways of promoting inter-cultural interactions. Teachers should encourage students to learn and understand the behavior of other cultures as well as how to resolve and mediate intercultural conflicts amicably.

Implications of the Principles in a Specific Educational setting According to the above principles, promoting cultural cohesion in educational institutions is necessary to avoid inter-cultural conflict. The way to achieve this is by emphasizing on the common aspects of different cultures and playing down the differences.

Recommendations and Conclusion Cultural diversity is beneficial to a society by virtue of cultural richness but at the same time it could be a source of conflict and social tension. This situation is most apparent in schools where cultural diversity is depicted at its best.

There are various strategies that could be used to promote cultural cohesion in educational institutions not only in the US but around the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Diversity within Unity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These strategies or principles should focus on emphasizing the similarities between different cultures and underplaying the differences.

References Dahl, R. (1998). On democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Feagin, J. R.,


Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector of Angola Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector

Management of Oil Reserves



Introduction Corruption is one of the big problems in various developing countries that are rich in oil. It has been considered to be pervasive and an important element of resource curse. Corruption has always been extreme in Angola and Nigeria and billions of US dollars have been disappearing.

Most of the disappearing billions are from kickbacks, and this has led to the concentration of the wealth into few hands. Since the countries are endowed with resources, they are said to suffer from the resource curse. Angola is considered to be the second oil produce after Nigeria.

Angola receives a lot of money from various oil companies in the form of signature bonuses that are received before the signing of contracts. The oil wealth has been to line and oil the wallets of the elite and political class within the society.

Unbridled corruption is the norm in the oil economies. In Angola, the aid agencies have estimated that billions of dollars have been lost in royalty payments through corruption.

Corruption and Bribery in the Oil Sector A lot of oil revenues have disappeared from government coffers according to the reports by the Human Rights Watch and Global Witness. There has been evidence according to studies undertaken in France and Switzerland about the bribes that are given to the president of Angola Eduardo Dos Santos, and it is by no coincidence that he is the Richest Angolan.

Corruption is the main bane of the Nigerian development, and this has eroded the benefits of oil wealth. Corruption is endemic in the Nigerian economy with oil serving to distort the oil structure. The Nigerian domestic refineries have been laid into waste due to the rampant cases of mismanagement and corruption.

It is by no coincidence that Nigeria is ranked as the third most corrupt country in the world. The corruption in Nigeria is manifested in various media sources and tribunals that have been established to investigate some cases of financial impropriety on the government officials (Jerome, Adjibolosoo


Social Influence on Bullying in Schools Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction There is no globally agreed definition of bullying. Tattum (1993) defines bullying as, “the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure”.

Bullying is the most malicious and malevolent form of deviant behavior widely practiced in schools and yet it has received only scant attention from national and local authorities (Tattum


Calambra Oil Company Case Study essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

The marketing mix

Market Viability

Gallons Quantity

Plan for the 1994 remaining oil

Introduction Frank Lockfeld faces the dilemma of deciding on the number of olive oil gallons to manufacture for the year 1994. Besides, Lockfeld has not assessed the viability of market of the preceding year sales, and thus has to rely on assumptions.

As such, this manuscript mulls over Calambra Oil Company, thereby assessing measures that Lockfeld may apply to minimize losses in his recent business endeavor.

The marketing mix The 4P’s of the marketing mix entails preparing the right goods and services, considering the needs of customers. It is evident that Calambra manufactures the best oil, as it has been voted in California severally.

Besides, the products ought to be at the most apposite price, whereby the intended consumers can pay for. This is a challenging issue for Lockfeld thus forcing him to make a well-informed decision in order to avoid looming losses.

In addition, the products ought to be in a proper place for customers to have adequate access. Additionally, business people ought to promote their products in order to have a niche, in the competitive market.

California offers a viable market for Lockfeld’s olive oil. Besides, he endeavors to expand the market to North California, along with other places.

In my opinion, Lockfeld has successfully applied the correlation of the 4P’s in the marketing mix. Though he has not assessed the 1993 sales, it is evident that his company’s name has created its name in the available market. As a result, this has given him a major boost in the competitive Californian market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market Viability The Californian population provides a steady market for the Calambra Company olive oil due to its excellent quality, owing to the use of the premium black olives. Besides, the oil acquired the first position, beating 21 competing oil manufacturers.

However, stiff competition still poses a great challenge for the firm, since it places its products at a high price. Fortunately, the firm boasts of steady and loyal consumers thus giving Lockfeld a niche over his competitors. Besides Lockfeld’s accentuated that the oil is from California, boost his markets, owing to the fact that local people are willing to promote more local products.

Gallons Quantity The number of gallons that Lockfeld should produce poses a serious dilemma to him, since he dreads incurring losses in his new endeavor. As such, he has to make careful and well-informed decisions. His decision on the quantity of gallons to order will be based on various aspects.

For instance, though he has not received the 1993 sales information, he may project on the current 1993 sales. Moreover, he ought to project on the current 1994 market viability. Lockfeld plans to purchase about 3000 gallons as part of the viability test, based on his projection.

Plan for the 1994 remaining oil It is clear that the firm will not sell all its oil. As such, it is crucial to pre-plan for the remaining oil. This will aid in playing down the losses that it may experience. Lockfeld should set preservation measures for the remaining gallons. Besides, they may be sold at a lesser price and thus reduce the involved reduced earnings.

The Profit and Loss Assumption

Projected P