Table of Contents Introduction
Depictions of road rage
Control of road rage
Introduction Road rage is defined as an angry or aggressive behavior of a vehicle driver. There are many road rage behaviors which include rude gestures, verbal insults, unsafe or life threatening driving. Road rage resulting in assaults, collisions and altercations usually lead to injuries and even death. These aspects of road rage clearly indicate that drivers only have the freedom of proper road use and no room for careless driving (Whitlock 211).
Depictions of road rage This essay explains on common manifestations of road rage behaviors commonly associated with many road users. Generally, aggressive driving is the most common road rage behavior. Many times careless drivers are prone to sudden acceleration, breaking and close tailgating. For example, according to the road safety report of 2009, most of accidents arising from road rage behaviors are particularly due to aggressive driving (Whitlock 334).
Cutting others off in a lane is also a common tendency of cruel drivers who don’t mind of road safety measures. Aljazeera net has reported that about 20% of road accidents have been due to motorists preventing other colleagues from merging. Most of the motorists have adopted poor road use tendencies of chasing other road users for fan and satisfaction of self ego. This aspect of road change has also increased cases of road accidents (Larson 21).
Road rage behaviors have encompassed excessive use of flash lights or use of full lights without justifications. This has contributed to increased cases of road accidents and that is why the drivers should cautiously use flash lights (Larson 32).
Careless drivers have been using rude and cruel gestures such as the use of fingers to intimidate female drivers. This road rage behavior has resulted in temper change amongst the intimidated drivers making them drive emotionally and end up causing an accident.
In many cases drivers have tendencies of shouting verbal abuses or threats to other road users, and this may lead to the road accidents as well. For example I have witnessed cases where heavy truck drivers knock small vehicles by their trailers due to verbally shouted abuse.
Data provided by most traffic personnel indicate that driving at high speed in the median of highway to terrify drivers in both lanes has been one of the main road rage behavior, that has caused fatal accidents in the most of the developed countries. In addition, exiting the car in an attempt to start confrontation, such as striking other vehicles with an object, is yet another manifestation of road rage behavior (Larson 67).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Control of road rage In the United States of America more than 300 cases of road rage annually end with serious injuries or even fatalities. For example, according to AAA foundation and police records only about 10 percent of road rage behaviors result in minor injuries. Angry drivers have depicted a common tendency of throwing projectiles to damage vehicles of other road users. This is because drivers with personal emotional issues may normally attempt to throw materials to overtaking motorists thus leading to outrage (Eberle, 56).
Hence, road rage has been one of the serious offences which have lead to endangering safety of the members of public. However, it may not always be possible to judge the intention especially by external observers. Due to increase of road problem, the United States has passed laws to ensure that there is public safety.
Conclusion In conclusion, drivers should be warned that road rage behaviors can often get them into a lot of trouble and thus drivers should be advised not to take their own frustrations on other road users. In a similar understanding, vehicle owners should be notified that driving is not a contest where one should win, and it should be safe for the road users and other members of the society (Eberle 34).
Works Cited Eberle, Paul. Terror on the Highway. Buffalo: Prometheus Publishers, 2006. Print.
Larson, Jake. Steering Clear of Highway Madness. Wilsonville: Book partners Publishers, 2007. Print.
Whitlock, Fredrick. Death on the Road: A Study in Social Violence, London: Tavistock Publishers, 1971, Print.
The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Given the fact that, while addressing life’s challenges, people are expected to observe certain ethical principles, it does not make much of a surprise that there have traditionally been a number of objective preconditions for the philosophers to make qualitative inquires into the very essence of morality, as a driving force behind one’s behavior.
Nevertheless, as philosophers went about landing their views on morality and its implications, it was becoming increasingly clear that morality cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the particulars of its affiliates’ existential mode. The reason for this is simple – the number of morality’s qualitatively different definitions correlate with the number of philosophers, who argued in favor of specifically their view on the discussed subject matter.
In its turn, this implies that, contrary to the claims of moral realists, morality is an essential relativist notion. In this paper, I will aim to explore the legitimacy of an above statement at length, while arguing that the actual measure of particular moral convention’s objectivity is being reflected by the extent of this convention’s practical usefulness.
The philosophical tradition, concerned with discussing morality The philosophical tradition, concerned with discussing morality, can be traced back to the times of Greco-Roman antiquity. For example, Plato used to refer to the notion of morality as being synonymous to the notion of justice: “True’ city and the corrupted city are put forward for us (by Plato) as models of human nature in association which display both justice and injustice, to be contrasted with the ideally just city, which displays only justice” (Annas 78).
According to Plato, the objectivity/subjectivity of moral predicaments is reflective of these predicaments’ ability to serve some higher good.
If, for example, a particular individual decides in favor of ending another person’s life, as the ultimate mean of saving the lives of many others, such his or her decision should be deemed moral. In its turn, this allows us to refer to Plato’s moral conceptualizations as ‘social’ or ‘external’, as they are only being concerned with exposing solely rationale-driven motivations, behind people’s moral or immoral behavior.
Such Plato’s view on what should be used as criteria for defining the extent of a particular conscious act’s moral appropriateness/inappropriateness corresponds to Kant and Hegel’s views on the subject matter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless; whereas, Kant’s moral imperative (treat others in a manner as you yourself would like to be treated) appears rather utilitarian/subjective, Hegel’s moral imperative implies the de facto existence of metaphysical objectivity: “Act as if the maxim of thine action could be laid down as a universal principle” (Mitias 83).
Thus, it would not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that it was namely Hegel’s philosophy, out of which the method of moral realism originally derived.
As time went on, however, more and more philosophers were trying to analyze the significance of moral conventions from essentially ‘psychological’ perspective, which implied these conventions’ relativist nature.
For example, Schopenhauer used to draw direct parallels between the notion of morality and the notion of compassion, simply because the behavioral stimulants, not related to compassion, are being innately malicious: “There are generally only three fundamental incentives of human actions, and all possible motives operate solely through their stimulation: a) Egoism… b) Malice… c) Compassion” (Schopenhauer 145).
Apparently, it was becoming increasingly clear to the European intellectuals of the time that morality is best discussed as something that is being ‘created’ rather than something that it is being ‘discovered’.
Such point of view on morality is being prominently featured in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. According to Nietzsche, there are two types of morality: ‘slave morality’ and ‘master morality’. The defining characteristics of ‘master morality’ are -unemotional, pathos of distance, aesthetic refinement and cynicism.
The defining characteristics of ‘slave morality’, on the other hand, are – sentimentalism, strong adherence to the provisions of conventional ethics, religiousness and intellectual shallowness (Nietzsche 250). Thus, it would be safe to assume that, by the beginning of 20th century, there were already two well-established philosophical approaches to addressing the concept of morality, which can be generally defined as ‘objectivist’, on the one hand, and ‘relativist’, on the other.
We will write a custom Essay on The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, it was during the course of 20th century’s second half that these approaches sublimated themselves in the creation of three conceptually different moral philosophies: ‘moral realism’, ‘moral relativism’ and ‘moral utilitarianism’.
The theoretical premise, upon which the proponents of ‘moral realism’ base their line of argumentation, has been outlined in Timmons’s article: “There is a completely mind-independent world of physical facts (facts that concern physical objects and properties of such objects) and an objective fact is identical with or reducible to some such facts” (373).
In other words, people’s tendency to reflect upon the emanations of surrounding reality in terms of ‘morality’ or ‘immorality’ is indeed being consistent with the objective nature of these emanations. Therefore, moral statements do in fact represent an objective truth-value.
The proponents of ‘moral relativism’, however, are challenging such point of view. According to them, the cognitive mechanics of how a particular person comes up with a moral judgment cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be the specifics of this person’s cultural, ethnic, social and religious affiliation: “According to the conventions of moral relativism, when I say that a certain action is right, my statement is elliptic.
What I am really saying is that, according to the system of morality in my culture, this action is right” (Torbjorn 123). Therefore, moral statements cannot represent any objective truth-value, by definition. After all, whatever one person may perceive as perfectly moral, another person may perceive as utterly immoral.
The comparatively recent times, however, saw the emergence of a qualitatively new approach to defining the extent of moral conventions’ appropriateness – a so-called ‘morally utilitarian’ one.
The foremost advocate of such an approach is Hilary Putnam. According to Putnam, the objectiveness/non-objectiveness of a particular moral convention cannot be discussed as ‘thing in itself’, but as such that is being reflective of this convention’s circumstantial ‘usefulness’: “What makes a (moral) statement… rationally acceptable is, in large part, its coherence and fit… Our conceptions of coherence and acceptability… are by no means ‘value-free’. But they are our conceptions, and they are conceptions of something real.
They define a kind of objectivity, objectivity for us…” (56). In the light of recent scientific breakthroughs in the field of physics, biology and psychology, Putnam’s conceptualization of morality appears perfectly legitimate. In the next part of this paper, I will discuss what accounts for the theoretical legitimacy of an earlier outlined Putnam’s view on morality at length.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Essence of Morality as a Driving Force Behind One’s Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What accounts for the theoretical legitimacy of a view on morality at length As it was pointed out earlier, moral realists base their line of argumentation upon the assumption that moral judgments are being inseparable from the objective essence of reality’s emanations, to which these judgments apply. The closer analysis of such an assumption, however, reveals its conceptual fallaciousness.
The reason for this is apparent – the manifestations of surrounding reality affect people irrespectively of whether these manifestations are being subjected to a moral evaluation or not. In its turn, this suggests that these manifestations are best discussed as ‘things in themselves’ and that the moral judgments that are being applied to the objective works of nature, are best discussed as ‘secondary derivatives’.
Apparently, moral judgments are nothing but informational models. Therefore, they are necessarily the subjects of ‘principle of complementarity’ (the ‘principle of complementarity’ refers to situations when two mutually exclusive theories can be applied to describe the essence of the same physical phenomenon).
For example, the statements ‘two parallel lines may never cross’ and ‘two parallel lines may cross’ are equally valid. The first statement is being valid within the theoretical framework of Euclidian geometry. The second statement is being valid within the framework of non-Euclidian geometry.
Another example – as contemporary physicists are being well aware of, an elementary particle can be simultaneously referred to as physical object or as the property of an electromagnetic wave (quantum dualism). A car that moves with the speed of 100 km/per hour can be simultaneously referred to by the spectators as ‘moving’ or ‘motionless’, depending on whether these spectators remain motionless or move with the same speed in a parallel lane.
The very fact that there can be two mutually irreconcilable but equally applicable/effective theories, concerned with exposing physical reality’s mechanics, points out to the absence of ‘truth’, as something independent of the particulars of people’s cognitive perception.
However, once there can be no universally recognized ‘truth’, than such a ‘truth’ cannot be referred to as the actual measure of moral judgments’ objectiveness. Therefore, it is quite inappropriate to suggest that the utterance of moral statements can be thought of as being impartial of the contextual specifics.
This is exactly the reason why moral statements cannot be regarded as representing some universally recognized truth-value, irrespective of the whole scope of affiliative circumstances. For example, the statement ‘pornography must be banned due to its immorality’ cannot possibly be thought of as being thoroughly objective, unless we assess its significance through the perceptional lenses of those people who came up with such a statement.
The manner of how people perceive surrounding reality and their place in it, however, is highly subjective. Moreover, there can be no any unified criteria for defining the legitimacy of ‘moral truth’, by definition. The validity of this statement can be illustrated in regards to what accounts for the actual realities of multicultural living in Western countries.
For example, the majority of Muslim immigrants to these countries think of their practice of cutting sheep’s throat and watching animal’s convulsions in the pool of blood, during the course of Eid al-Adha celebration, as perfectly moral. The native-born Westerners, however, regard such Muslim immigrants’ practice highly immoral.
Alternatively, even though it represents a commonplace practice for Western women to walk around while wearing mini-skirts, Muslims cannot help referring to this practice as morally despicable. This once again exposes the fallaciousness of moral realists’ assumption that moral judgments are being thoroughly objective – this could not possibly be the case, because there are as many ‘truths’ out there as there are people on this Earth.
The validity of an earlier suggestion can also be explored even in regards to a number of moral conventions, the legitimacy of which is being taken for granted. For example, it is commonly assumed that killing people represents a highly immoral deed.
This is the reason why committing murders has traditionally been considered the most dangerous criminal offense. During the time of war, however, one’s willingness to murder human beings (deemed ‘enemies’) on the line of duty, is being considered utterly virtuous and therefore – highly moral.
In its turn, this once again illustrates the full validity of Putnam’s suggestion that it is specifically the extent of moral conventions’ circumstantial ‘fitness’, which actually reflects the measure of these conventions’ objectiveness. Such Putnam’s idea correlates with that of one of Pragmatism’s founders William James: “The ideas (which themselves are but part of our experience) become true just in so far as they help us to get into satisfactory relation with other parts of our experience” (58).
Moral theories/conventions can only be recognized as thoroughly objective if our belief in these theories’ legitimacy helps us to gain practical benefits – pure and simple. To put it in plain words – if a particular moral convention proves ‘useful’, we can refer to it as ‘objective’ and vice versa.
The best proof to the legitimacy of an earlier suggestion’s can serve the fact that this suggestion is being fully correlative with empirically observable aspects of how people take a practical advantage of informational models. How do nuclear physicists go about choosing in favor of applying one or another physical theory, in every particular case when the measurement of atoms’ properties is being concerned?
They utilize an essentially utilitarian approach – they choose in favor of a theory, the application of which would simplify addressing the actual task. When it is easier to refer to atoms as physical particles, nuclear scientists refer to them as physical particles. When it is easier to refer to atoms as electromagnetic wave, nuclear scientists refer to them in terms of a wave.
Another example – when it comes to treating mentally inadequate patients, psychologists find themselves at liberty to resort to the utilization of a variety of often mutually contradictory psychological theories, such as the theory of Freudian psychoanalysis, the theory of gestalt-therapy, Habbard’s theory of dianetics, or the ‘regression method’.
However, in the end, it will matter very little which psychological theory has been utilized to treat patients’ anxieties – the most important objective would be ensuring positive dynamics in the process of patients’ recovery. The most important is the actual result.
The same can be said about moral conventions/theories. After all, as it was pointed out earlier, they are nothing but informational models. By coming up with moral judgments, we reflect upon the surrounding reality – hence, trying to adjust such reality’s emanations to correspond with the essence of our subconscious anxieties.
I go without saying, of course, that reality never ceases remaining what it is, despite being subjected to our moral judgments. Nevertheless, we do benefit from referring to reality in terms of morality, as it helps us to deal with life’s challenges.
This also explains why, just as it is the case with scientific conventions, moral conventions never cease undergoing the process of a qualitative transformation – hence, the notion of ‘moral progress’. As it was noted by Putnam: “It is important to recognize that moral rationality and justification are presupposed by the activity of criticizing and inventing paradigms and are not themselves defined by any single paradigm” (234).
After all, one does not have to hold a Ph.D. in history to be aware of a simple fact that, as time goes on; moral conventions continue to undergo an exponential change. For example, even as recent as hundred years ago, it was considered morally inappropriate for unmarried men and women to live together. Nowadays, however, in Western countries this practice became a commonplace occurrence.
Whereas, during the course of fifties, many White Americans thought of African-American students’ willingness to indulge in educational pursuits ‘morally despicable’, in today’s America it became morally despicable taboo to even think that African-Americans may be inferior, as compared to their White counterparts.
Whereas, when Christian fundamentalists were exerting a strong influence onto the process of designing socio-political policies, the act of masturbation used to be deemed a ‘morally wicked sin’, it is now being referred to as merely an instrument of releasing one’s sexual tension.
The fact that moral conventions continue to undergo a qualitative change, as we speak, is alone exposing the wrongness of moral realists’ belief in the unchangeable nature (objectiveness) of morals.
It is not only that, as time goes on, the validity of outdated moral dogmas continues to be revised, but it also appears that it is only the matter of short time, before the very concept of morality will be replaced by the concept of ethics. And, it is specifically the behavior of ‘strongly moral’ people, which through the lenses of ethics appears utterly immoral – whatever ironical this suggestion may sound.
Conclusion The line of argumentation, deployed throughout this paper’s discursive part, can be summarized as follows:
a) Morality is clearly subjective/relativist notion. It is not only that the specifics of people’s ethnic, cultural and social affiliation define the qualitative essence of their moral predispositions – the very course of socio-cultural and technological progress invariably results in undermining the validity of formerly legitimate moral conventions. In its turn, this suggests that morality is best discussed in terms of psychology, rather than in terms of a philosophy proper.
b) The measure of morality’s objectiveness is the extent of its practical ‘usefulness’. If the adoption of a particular moral convention serves the purpose of improving people’s lives than there can be no objections against such an adoption. Alternatively, if a particular moral convention appears to be hampering people’s chances to take a full advantage of their existential potential, than this convention should be revised or dropped altogether.
c) As time goes on, moral conventions will continue being replaced with ethical conventions. The reason why discussing morality’s implications was considered a legitimate philosophical pursuit in the past is that, until comparatively recent times, organized religion used to exert a strong influence on the very essence of public discourses in the West. Nowadays, however, this is being no longer the case.
I believe that the deployed earlier arguments are being fully consistent with paper’s initial thesis as to the fact that, given morality’s clearly relativist nature, it cannot be discussed as any objective property of physical reality’s manifestations. Morality is essentially a reflective byproduct of the process of people addressing cognitive tasks. Therefore, it is highly inappropriate to refer to morality as the notion synonymous to the notions of impartiality and objectiveness.
Bibliography Annas, Julia. An Introduction to Plato’s Republic and Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.
James, William. Pragmatism. Maryland: Wildside Press, (1907) 1999.
Mitias, Michael. Moral Foundation of the State in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right: Anatomy of an Argument. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1984. Print.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. London: Penguin Classics, 2003. Print.
Putnam, Hilary. “The Craving for Objectivity.” New Literary History 15.3 (1984): pp. 229-239. Print.
Putnam, Hilary. Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Print.
Schopenhauer, Arthur. On the Basis of Morality. London: Hackett Publishing Corporation, Inc., (1840) 1998. Print.
Tannsjo, Torbjorn. “Moral Relativism.” Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition 135.2 (2007): pp. 123-143. Print.
Timmons, Mark. “Putnam’s Moral Objectivism.” Erkenntnis 34.3 (1975): pp. 371-399. Print.
“Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison Essay college essay help near me
“Sula,” a novel written by Toni Morrison, is based on race, hatred, death, friendship, betrayal and reconciliation. In Medallion, Ohio, the Black community is regarded as the lowest or bottom of the rank. A black slave was given a gift by his master but the gift later became a trick. Being given a poor hilly land by the master, the slave was convinced that it was closer to god since it was hilly.
The black communities are considered ignorant and they are easily convinced to believe a lie because of their lack of knowledge, they settle for handouts thinking that it will benefit them in the future.
In “Sula,” two girls grow up as friends to become women and later are separated by different beliefs in their lifestyle. The author illustrates how the root and background can affect one’s belief when growing up. In the text, Toni Morrison describes the character Nel Wrights as being raised in a contemporary lifestyle by her parents while Sula Peace was raised by a loose parent and grandmother.
Sula ends up running away from the bottom community to have an independent lifestyle of prostitution. Betrayal is demonstrated by Toni Morrison when Sula decides to abandon her conventional lifestyle subscribed by her community (Morrison 12-23).
Despite of the differences of how Sula and Nel were raised, when they were young they became very close friends. This portrays the innocence that comes with being a child. The differences between them did not become a hindrance to their friendship. It also portrays the stages of friendship.
When one is young, the demand for friendship differs when one grows up. There are no boundaries that separate friendships because all you have in common are toys and companionship. They began to separate when an accident occurred in the community.
Sula was playing with a neighborhood boy called little chicken as she was swinging him by the hand. She lost grip and the boy fell in a pool of water and drowned. They kept the secret to themselves and the tension between them began to grow. One of the hindrances of friendship is tragedy. I am sure every time they disagreed concerning an issue the event concerning Little Chicken came up. Even if it was unrelated to their arguments, the tragedy had a way of cropping out.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is normal in issues that are unresolved and they are often called untied loose ends. Their failure to deal with issue of the accident allowed the ghost of little chicken to haunt their friendship. Opening up to such incidents not only helps the victim emotionally but also gives psychological freedom to the one that allowed the accident to occur. Unfortunately, Sula loses her mother through a fire accident where her dress catches fire and she dies of burns.
When the two completed high school, Nel decides to get married and live to play the role of a conventional wife and lifestyle. On the other hand Sula diverges from her conventional society to an independent lifestyle.
The decision that Sula takes is contrary to the black community because of the discrimination they faced by the white community. Intermingling with the whites was being a cast away especially having multiple sexual relations with them. As Sula went to explore the independent life, the nature of the effects of being raised by a loose parent began to surface.
She gave herself to strangers and some say she became a prostitute. This brings up the issue of parenting. As much as the black community secluded themselves from other races, their way of conventional lifestyle proved that one can turn out better in life. Why was Sula’s mother considered ‘loose’? Did they perceive the conventional lifestyle as being too strict? The outcome of Nel was favorable even among his people.
Through discrimination and hardship the black community went through, they considered the liberal lifestyle of the white community as evil. This can be illustrated in the text when Sula decides to return to Ohio. After ten years, she returns from having many affairs especially with white men.
Due to her staying away for so long she must have adapted the lifestyle of being loose and independent. Ten years is enough for someone to adapt to the environment in which they choose to dwell in. The unwelcome return of the lost daughter was perceived evil because of her disregard to the social convention.
Sula made a mistake by having an affair with Jude who was Nels’ husband. This proved the perception of the people in Bottom that they were right by calling her evil. The act proved their word and Jude abandoned Nel. This brought about tension in the lives of two women who were once friends.
We will write a custom Essay on “Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The separated completely. Fornication is a serious offense in the black community. This incident was an act of betrayal after Sula came back to reconcile with her long lost friend. She violated the code of friendship and destroyed the marriage and family of Nel. It would be hard for Sula to convince Nel to get back together. Trust is not give, it is earned and to build it back it takes a lot of sacrifice and selflessness. Before the death of Sula, the two tried to reconcile and to be at good harmony.
Race has been tackled diversely by author of this text. Morrison has done well to illustrate the complexities of racism that existed in America in the early 1970s. As a matter of fact, racism comes out strongly through the display of the lives of various characters in the novel as well as the social set-up of the environment.
First, racism is illustrated through the plot by the white master to give the black slave a gift of land in a hilly terrain. The master intentionally lies to the slave by telling him that the Bottom is near heaven due to its hilly terrain landscape. It is clear the Bottom was highly disregarded by the white community.
It is for this reason that they decide to dispose off the land in the form of a gift to the black slaves. It can be observed in this instance the white community are pure racists. This scenario as illustrated by the author clearly brings out the nature of racism that existed in America in the early 1970s. Racism was practiced through attempts to segregate the black community in Ohio into poor and degraded living conditions as the white masters occupied the best parts of the land.
In addition, this scene demonstrates that racism was employed through acts of trickery. The white community believed that the black people were stupid. It is for that reason that the black slave is given the Bottom as a gift by the white master who tells him that the hilly terrain is near heaven. This is a trick and clearly unrealistic.
Racism is also developed in novel through the change of mind by the white community to use part of the Bottom. When the white community realizes that the hilly Bottom terrain is good for construction of a golf course, they try to reoccupy the land in a bid to achieve their goals.
This shows an element of racism that is mixed with discrimination and exploitation of mentality. The author, at this point is clearly indicating to the readers the racism that was witnessed in the early 1970s in American was mainly composed of discrimination, application of force, and exploitation mentality.
Moreover, racism is highlighted by author of the novel through the relationship between the white and blacks in the community. This is evidenced by the fact that the communities in Ohio are socially immiscible. The white and black communities are known to be separate entities which are prohibited to socialize. Sula is regarded a cast away by her black community for forfeiting the customs and social conventions of her people.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Sula” a Novel by Toni Morrison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She is disregarded by her people for having intimate relationships with the white men. This makes her lose favor with her people whose mindsets prohibit such kind of interactions. Evidently, this scene is significant in terms of understanding the nature of racism in the early 1970s. The author is basically informing the readers that racism in that time was mainly composed social hatred whereby the white and black communities were not supposed to socialize at any level.
Identity is another characteristic of this novel that effectively comes out through texts. There are a few characters that have been significantly used by the author to illustrate the search for identity in the novel.
First is Shadrack- an ex-WWI soldier who returns to the Bottom and is unable to reconcile his experiences during the war with realities of his surroundings. He manages to devise a ritual called “National Suicide Day,” an activity that he intends to introduce in the society. However, this fails in the beginning, but later the black community finally adopts it as culture.
This scene has been used categorically by the author to give the reader insight concerning the lifestyle of the black people in early 1970s. Morrison is basically making suggestions that the search for identity filled the hearts of most black Americans at that time. Another scene that illustrates the search for identity is in the difference of lifestyle that Nel and Sula decide to adopt after high school education.
While Nel chooses to identify herself as a mother and wife, Sula decides to take a different path by choosing to live independently of the social conventions of her people. It is clear in this instance that the characters in this scene are mainly in search of their own identities. Morrison is indicating to the readers that the entire black community experienced a season of search for the real identities in the early 1970s. This can be related to the nature of lifestyle they had during that time.
Difference is another issue that Morrison has clearly displayed through the displays of scenes in the novel. Evidently, Morrison has used this literary work to indicate the elements of difference that existed in the early part of 1970s.
In this regard, it can be noted that the element of difference is shown through various scenes in the novel. First is through residence of white and black community. The white community has settled in the wealthy part of the land. On the other hand, the black community has settled in the poor and degraded hilly side of the land called the Bottom.
This difference in residential places clearly indicates the nature lifestyle as well as the economic status that existed between the white and black community at the time of the production of this literary work. The wealthy whites mainly resided in good parts of the land while the poor black community resided in the bottom – which was poor and degraded.
Another instance of difference is in terms of lifestyle choices. While Sula chooses to adopt an independent lifestyle which is contrary to the customs and social conventions of her people, Nel decides to take a different path that is conventional and consistent with social conventions of her people.
She gets married and becomes a wife with the intention of settling as a mother. On the other hand, Sula chooses to do the opposite as she abhors her culture and decides to mix with the white community. In this case, Morrison is basically trying to indicate to the readers that while there was a search for identity amongst the black community, there are a few black who chose to remain to remain conservative.
In conclusion, it can be noted that “Sula,” a novel written by Toni Morrison, is based on race, hatred, death, friendship, betrayal and reconciliation. This is shown through the plot by the white master to give the black slave a gift of land in a hilly terrain, change of mind by the white community to use part of the Bottom, and through the relationship between the white and blacks in the community.
Works Cited Morrison, Tony. Sula. New York: Vintage, 2004. Print.
The foreign policy of the United States Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The post-Second World War United States of America had a different face from the one that existed during the First World War. The United States’ foreign policy moved from isolationism to interventionism after World War II. Therefore, this paper examines the changes in America’s foreign policy after the World War II. It also examines Kennan’s long Telegram and how the United States may implement the suggestions.
How United States’ foreign policy changed after World War II Before the Second World War, the United States of America practiced the policy of isolationism (Chandler
Marketing Mix Planning Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Pricing and distribution
Target market and promotion
Market place and growth prospects
Introduction Several marketing decisions are crucial while conducting an examination on a product before any given marketing strategy is implemented. The aspects whose consideration is of fundamental include current product, target market, distributor network, current competitor, financial analysis and external forces among other factors (Armstrong
Dancescape Company Case Study online essay help
The paper is a case study of a couple which wants to promote their services to their target market through different channels. The case study will analyze the background of the couple, the services that they are offering, their target market, their marketing strategies, the problems that they are facing and recommendations on how to face the problems. The paper will basically study the case, find out the problem and give recommendations on how to deal with the problem.
The case is talking about a couple, Robert and Beverly Tang who is former dancing champions and they want to use their talent to make money by starting dance lessons. Their target market is the population of ages above forty.
These are mainly the boomers. Within the target market, they want to concentrate more on the women. They have invested a lot of money in starting up a dance class at the Ukrainian church and they need a further investment to promote their dance company called dancescape in the internet via three websites so that their dance lessons can be easily downloaded and they can easily interact with current and potential consumers of their services.
The company also seeks advice from Lina KO who works with the national public relations, a company that carries out research on boomers and also Robert herjavec who owns a computer company. Their opinions are important in the success of the company.
The problem that Dancescape Company is facing is the poor marketing strategies that they are using. Robert and Beverly want build three websites that will help in marketing their company even though they do not have the $1.4 million required to build the three websites successfully.
Another problem is that they made a poor first impression to a potential investor in their business when Robert called Tim the investor Steve twice. This shows that they are not ready. Another problem that the company is facing is that they are using a lot of technology and internet to promote their services to a generation that is not so conversant with technology. Another problem that the couple is facing is that they are not using a revamp language that will appeal more to the boomers.
The company has already released a dance tape which is already being sold and they are also holding dance lessons to the boomers in the Ukrainian church hall. They have already made their presentation to Tim Draper and this shows how serious they are about getting this website started for them so that the company can be marketed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have also given a dance lesson to their potential investor Tim so that he can have a feel of the service that he wants to invest in. This shows that they are on the right track and they are making progress.
The company should convince Tim of the returns that he will get from the websites and that. They should carry out another demonstration and sales pitch to Tim and this time do it without any problems.
The company should also find other ways apart from the internet to market their services so as to reduce the use of internet. The company should also bring an element of being young in their lessons and videos and promotional messages so as to attract the boomers more by making them think that dancing will make them feel younger.
The Islam Concept Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Islam is among the major religions with many followers around the world. The number of Muslim adherents is about 1.2 billion across the globe. The founder of Islam is Muhammad. He was born in 570. Majority of Muslims attest that Allah (God) gave him the authority as a portent of timely news to mankind. His early influence through teachings made many people in Mecca admires Islam and its practices thus, contributing to its growth and expansion.
Islam has continued to hold the traditional practices anchored in the Quran (Islam holy book) and those created by their founders. Significant rituals of Islam include; the sacred time, the five pillars among other rituals and ceremonies which are normally performed in Mosques (Islam place of worship).
The rituals and ceremonies have continued to define their faith to date. Also, Islam has continued to increase their faith through their religion beliefs. Beliefs such as the sacred narratives, human nature and ultimate reality and divine being form the basis of Muslim faith.
Islam’s assume that most people mistake Jihad as a “holy war”. However, for them, Jihad appoints constant struggles that one is involved in protecting his/her faith and privileges of worship.
According to Maqsood, Muslims describes Jihad has having a strong connection in the Quran (85). Thus, it is a network of checks and balances that Allah left them with “to check one people with another. Hence, when a person or a group violates their limits or rights of others, Muslims have the right and duty to control them, so they can adapt to what is right.
According to Maqsood Islam does not tolerate unprovoked aggressions from their companion Muslims (77). They are commanded in the Quran not to create hostilities, violet the welfare and rights of other people, associate in acts of aggressions and harm the innocent. Moreover, even destroying or hurting trees or animals is forbidden. However, war is only a last resort waged to defend the Islam faith against oppression and harassment (Maqsood 94).
Islam’s classifies Jihad into three distinct groups. These groups are physical, verbal and personal Jihad. Muslims invoke physical Jihad when they are protecting themselves against exploitation and oppression from their perceived enemies and Allah.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They affirm that Allah allows Muslims to embrace peaceful lives and not to offend against anyone. However, when they are oppressed and persecuted, the Quran affirm that they need to migrate to tolerant and peaceful land. On some occasions, when the migration or relocation is not possible, then Allah allows Muslims to protect themselves against themselves by against those who fight them.
Verbal Jihad allows Muslims to aim for justice through words rather than threatening activities. Muslims believe that Mohammed encouraged them to ask for justice by pleading the name of Allah. During his life in Makkah (Mecca), he embraced non-violent methods.
However, after fixing his leadership in Medinah, by Allah permission, he used armed struggle against his transgressors whenever he thought it was unavoidable”. Muslims believe personal Jihad is the most fundamental form embraced by them. This form of Jihad is called the Jihadun-Nafs. It shows the profound campaign that one is involved in purifying his/her spirit against evil influences.
According to Syed Muslims describes different contexts in which the Quran and the Hadith (the sayings of Mohammed) use the word Jihad to refer to personal struggles (124),. Some of the explanation put forward is making Allah a priority rather than wealth, worldly ambitions, loved ones and our own lives (Syed 45).Others include, striving for righteous deeds, spreading the message of Islam and resisting pressures from the society, peers and parents.
Islam is believed to have begun in the 7th century C.E when Mohammed received and preached the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. Islam was an Arabic word which means “submission, acceptance, obligation or surrender” (Farah 191). A follower of Islam is called Muslims, literary, those who make peace.
Muslims are those people who submit to the will of Allah in all aspects of their lives and enjoy peace with Allah and one another in return (Robinson
Rani Singam Thrills her Fans in a Memorable Concert Essay (Article) online essay help
Rani Singam is a famous vocalist in Asia and one of the most respected jazz singers. Her first album which was recorded in Los Angeles with Jeremy Monteiro as the producer is found in many places in the US and Asia. According to the US Jazz Newsletter of 2008, the album scored 4|4.
The recording of her second album entitled ‘Contentment’ took place in 2011 at Bennett studios in the US. The question that arises is whether this album is a new approach to jazz vocals. Definitely, it is an album that portrays her skills in song writing and the ability to compose original songs.
This article reviews ‘Contentment’ which is the latest album to be performed by Rani Singam. The performance remained one of the greatest highlights of the singer and her fans.
In her own words, Rani described contentment as one of the albums that was driven by her desire to become a singer. On 16th November 2011, she held a performance at Esplanade Recital Studio which was aimed at promoting the album. The fans treated the concert like early Christmas for them. The show was attended by more than 160 fans including her son and husband.
As Rani made her way to the stage, it was evident that the fans were filled with enthusiasm about her performance due to the anxiety they portrayed. They applauded and shouted jovially as she took the stage. On stage, she was accompanied by Chok Kerong playing piano, Christy Smith playing the bass, Greg Lyons on saxophone while the drums were played by Soh Wenming.
She took a period of one hour and 15 minutes as she performed a set of 10 songs from her second album contentment. When she started the performance, she demonstrated her unique capabilities in music and performance by creating a compelling musical atmosphere. Her performance quickly convinced the audience that the music was her own composition.
During the performance, she maintained an entertaining rhythm with each of the movements she made during the performance leaving the audience thrilled. She made the performance lively through constant physical movement on the stage as the audience clapped and cheered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In composing the lyrics in the new album, Rani portrayed great effort as she did while doing live performances. All the ten songs in the album were created with the support of her musical partners. Blended with classical sounds, the lyrics were quite simple but undoubtedly touching.
Rani connected well with the audience through her stories in the songs and this created unforgettable memories of the performance in the minds of the fans. For instance the song ‘My Muse’ talked about her first crush in school while ‘Day Break’ was a story about her endearing memories in Switzerland.
As the concert approached its end, it reached its highest point as the crowd applauded Ran’s performance and requested for more songs. It was amazing that Rani managed such a performance considering that her earlier ambition was to become a lawyer. She changed her mind and decided to get into jazz music after attending Raffle Girl’s school. It was incredible that she had been a vocalist/composer of jazz music for only 10 years.
When the show ended, Rani Singam gave her fans a chance to sign on a table outside the studio. There was a long queue of people who wanted to meet her and talk to her. She embraced the love showed by her fans by smiling to them and initiating conversations with them. It was a good concert since all the fans left satisfied and hoped to attend her concerts once more.
Capstone Project Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction This paper seeks to describe how the Solow Building and the red object work together as well as their connection with each other. The paper will hence illustrated the form of the building, functions and the symbolic meaning of the building. This will be done by elaborating a brief history of the building and identifying some of the functions of the offices within the building and the activities taking place in the same. The role of the red object to the Solow building will also be discussed in order to show how the two connect with each other.
Solow building is a Manhattan skyscraper situated in the 57th street at 9 West. The building was constructed in 1974 and designed by Owings, Skidmore and Merrill’s Gordon Bun shaft. The building is sandwiched between the 58th and 57th street just in the west of Fifth Avenue next to other prominent buildings like the Plaza Hotel and the Bergdorf Goodman department store.
The red object 9 in the west that is in front of the building was actually part of the project. It was included in the project due to the complaints that the sloping building’s reflecting walls had revealed an unappealing sides of the historic buildings previously obscured in the neighborhood.
Solow building, also known as Solow Building Company is a skyscraper situated in the 57th street at 9 West within the Midtown neighborhood in the city of New York. The building was constructed from the year 1968 and completed in the year 1974. It was designed by Owings, Skidmore and Merrill’s Gordon Bun shaft.
The building is sandwiched between the 58th and 57th street just in the west of Fifth Avenue next to other prominent buildings like the Plaza Hotel and the Bergdorf Goodman department store. Solow Building is 210.01m high with 50 floors above the ground (West Group 2007).
The building’s façade materials consist of concrete glasses with a façade system of curtain wall. It has a modernism architectural style. The building’s main usage is for commercial offices. The only existing competitor of the building in the vicinity by height is the GM Building which is located a block east and north. The floors above the 23rd floor provide a complete view of the Central Park and unobstructed virtual view of northern Manhattan.
The concave vertical slope of the Solow Building of its south and north façade on the 57th and 58th Street forms one of the building’s notable aesthetic attribute. Similarly, the W.R. grace Building which is also a Bun Shaft creation is an attribute too to the building because of the used façade design that was rejected in the Solow Building (Dunford 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building has some of the most expensive rents within Manhattan. The top floor of the skyscraper is occupied permanently by the Solow Building Company. The Bank of American Securities is the largest tenant occupying several stories and other trading floors in the 3rd and 2nd floors.
Other known tenants that use the building for commercial purposes are the U.S. Headquarters of the French Corporate and Investment Bank, the Silver Lake Partners, the private Equity Firms, Highland Capital Management and the Apollo Management. Some of the amenities provided by the Solow Building are the parking garage which is in the underground with available retail space in its northern side (Dunn 2004).
The underground spaces that is rented by the Brasserie restaurant, the lobby newsstand, trading floors and twenty four high-speed elevators that are subdivided into a set of floors. Some of the facts about the Solow Building are that it is one of the largest Midtown skyscrapers which has a façade sloping up from the base and that the 9 West chain stores is practically named after the Solow Building.
A part from the mentioned companies and the tenants using the building for commercial purposes, the building also has other services offered within its premises such as accessing data base of the designers, company and project tracking, export data functionality, contact information of the company, customer support that may be troubleshooting and other complimentary research (Bureau of National Affairs 2005).
The Solow Building and the red 9 object are connected such that the red colored sculpture distracts the eyes of the pedestrians or the passersby from noticing the unappealing walls of the historic buildings. The red object was designed by Ivan Chermayeff, a graphic artist in New York City (Edward 2000).
According to the Solow residual value and the production function by Cobb Douglas, the econometric model of building the performance of and industry is established and its quantitative analysis and influencing factors conducted. The data used for this analysis resulted from the macroeconomic data between 1997 and 2008. The drawn conclusions and results indicate that the production of the industry’s building belongs to the incremental reward type (Chermayeff 2011).
In my economic point of view, the industry’s improvement on the performance may depend on the efficient and adequate investment, continuous scientific progress, appropriate economic reforms, high quality oriented labor force and technological innovations. I also think that the object 9 is a perfect connection with the Solow Building as it not only destructs the viewing of the unappealing walls of the historic buildings, but it’s also scenery on its own.
We will write a custom Essay on Capstone Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s beautiful and attractive enough to capture the attention of anyone. The position of the red object 9 in the west actually suits its purpose. It is therefore my perception that the building is of high economic importance and scenery as well due to the commercial activities going on within its premises.
Conclusion In summary, this paper has described the Solow Building and the red object and how the two work together as well as their connection with each other. The functions and the symbolic meaning of the building have been explained too. In the process of learning, I learnt the history of the building and the functions of the offices situated in it. The role of the red object has also been revealed in aid of the historic buildings which have varied implications to the unappealing walls of the previously obscured buildings.
Bibliography Bureau of National Affairs. Construction Labor Report. New York: Bureau of National Affairs, 2005.
Chermayeff, Ivan. Basic concepts in the identity design. New York: Cengage, 2011.
Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.
Dunn, Brian. New York. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Edward, Jefferson. New York Supplement. New York: West Publishing Company, 2000.
West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Capstone Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Footnotes Bureau of National Affairs. Construction Labor Report. New York: Bureau of National Affairs, 2005
Chermayeff, Ivan. Basic concepts in the identity design. New York: Cengage, 2011.
Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.
Dunford, Martin. Rough guide to New York. New York: Springer, 2002.
West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.
Edward, Jefferson. New York Supplement. New York: West Publishing Company, 2000
West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.
West Group. West’s New York Digest: New York: West Publishing Company, 2007.
South Korea’s Economy Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Timing and Severity of Nation’s Downturn
Comparison with the Experience of the US Economy
Transmission Mechanisms of the Global Financial Downturn
Response of Policymakers (Fiscal and Monetary)
Timing and Severity of Nation’s Downturn South Korea’s economy is deemed to be the biggest economy in Asia. Its economic superiority is only rivaled by other Asian giants such as Japan, China and India. The timing of South Korea’s economic downturn coincided with the 2007/2008 global financial downturn. This economic downturn affected South Korea’s economy because South Korea is predominantly and export-oriented economy.
When then global financial crisis hit, South Korea’s gross domestic product (GDP) shrunk from 5.1% in 2007 to 0.2% in 2009 (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009). The nation has since been able to recover from the economic meltdown after it posted better GDP projections in 2010.
Comparison with the Experience of the US Economy South Korea’s economic downturn has a strong resemblance to the US economic downturn. South Korea’s dominance in the Asian market is attributed to the resemblance of its economy to Taiwan (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009).
The resemblance to Taiwan’s economy makes South Korea the biggest export competitor of the US. Part of the reason advanced for South Korea’s economic downturn was the fluctuation in crude oil prices. This fluctuation in prices is widely similar to US’s experience of the global financial downturn because South Korea and the US share a strong reliance on international oil imports for production (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009, p. 6).
The slide of the US dollar during the global financial downturn also affected South Korea and the US in equal measure. The impact of exchange rate fluctuation on South Korea was especially witnessed by the fact that most of South Korea’s stock market was valued in foreign currencies. Obviously the weakening of the US dollar also affected the US economy because it amounted to a loss in value for US assets.
Transmission Mechanisms of the Global Financial Downturn The global economic downturn in South Korea was attributed to fluctuation in the prices of raw materials and energy. However, a significant portion of the downturn can be attributed to the weakness of the US economy. The US had a strong impact on South Korea because the US is South Korea’s second biggest trading partner.
In fact, after China, the US is considered to be South Korea’s biggest trading partner. The US accounts for about 10% of South Korea’s export (Top Foreign Stocks, 2010, p. 1). Similarly, this percentage amounts to $37.7 billion of South Korea’s export. The volume of South Korea’s export therefore significantly reduced with decreased imports from the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More South Korea’s economy is also supported by foreign investors because South Korea was able to attract a lot of foreign investments during its period of economic boom. For instance, South Korea was able to be less dependent on the US by increasing its trade relations with other foreign investors (such as European investors) (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009).
Due to the strong economic ties with foreign partners, the global economic downturn significantly affected South Korea’s economy because there were less capital inflows from foreign investors. The economy therefore slid into a slump.
Response of Policymakers (Fiscal and Monetary) After the global economic meltdown, South Korea’s policy makers have significantly relaxed their monetary policies. For instance, the country’s base rate lending has been reduced to significant lows. Other economic reform programs were also launched, including the 50 trillion KRW green new deal that was launched by the Korean government in 2009 (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009). This economic program is expected to be completed in 2013.
The main objective of the economic program is to create more jobs (about a million). Other auxiliary goals of the project is to create more “green” jobs for the Korean public in response to climate change concerns and environmental pollution (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2009, p. 10).
References Taiwan Institute of Economic Research. (2009).The Analysis of Global Economic Crisis and Situations in Asia. Retrieved from: http://english.tier.org.tw/eng_analysis/FS200907.asp
Top Foreign Stocks. (2010). South Korea by the Numbers. Retrieved from: https://topforeignstocks.com/2010/11/11/the-top-trade-partners-of-south-korea/
American history: The Civil War (1861-1865) Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Civil War
Northern Versus Southern Interests
Causes of the Civil War
Aftermath of the Civil War
Introduction American history is considered as the most inquisitive worldwide. Traditionally, American history started by a declaration of independence in the year 1776. This declaration was due to threats of British government towards American self-governed system. Declaration of independence led to war in 1775 that was to liberate Americans.
With help of France in providing military and financial support, the patriots won American Revolution. In 1789, war hero George Washington became the first president of federal government by virtue of constitution. With influence of European community, coping with scope of central government proved to be a challenging issue for American people.
In 1790s, creation of political parties was initiated and later fighting for the second independence in 1812. Consequently, this brought about expansion of US territory westwards. With this, the US managed to overcome modernizers who were solely interested in deepening its economy rather than helping American people in expanding their geography.
Heavy demand for cotton in southern states encouraged slavery of Africans even though it was illegal in northern states. In 1860, came the election of Abraham Lincoln as president and this triggered a crisis in slave states as he dejected the expansion of slave trade. Amongst the slave states, some of them seceded in forming the Confederate States of America in 1861. This brought about American Civil War, which was from 1861 to 1865.
The Civil War In the American history, Civil War is the most momentous event that ever happened in the US. This iconic event redefined the American nation, as it was a fight that aimed at preserving the Union, which was the United States of America. From inauguration of the Constitution, differing opinions existed on the role of federal government.
It was a belief of Federalists that in order to ensure the union does not collapse, there was need for the federal government to hold on to power. Anti-federalists on the other hand, were of the opinion that sovereignty of the new states were to remain within their countries. Anti-federalists believed that each state had the right to determine their own set of laws and it is not right to indict them in following mandates of the federal government.
Northern Versus Southern Interests With the advent of the slavery, Northern states completely squared off against Southern states. The main reason for this being economic interests of north and south which were opposed to each other. In addition, Southerners largely depended on large-scale plantations of cotton, which was more labor intensive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, northerners were more of a manufacturing region who produced finished goods by making use of raw materials. Southern ingrained culture of the plantation era encouraged slavery because it gave them an inexpensive labor source. The compromise of each group was the fear that one could gain an unequal amount of power. For example, northerners feared that if more slave states existed, then they would garner an unequal power in the nation.
Causes of the Civil War Causes of the American Civil war, which claimed of over 618,000 casualties, are traceable back to early days in history of the US when tensions escalated. The main cause was difference in economic and social capabilities between the North and the South. The south mainly depended on cotton, which meant the urgent need for cheap labor most probably slaves, as they become one crop economy. On the other hand, northerners depended solely on industrial products.
This disparity, which existed between the two, was the major difference in their economies. The second cause was due to the infighting between those who favored states’ rights and those who favored federal rights. Emergence of these two camps that had differences in opinions ignited the war.
Third, the American Civil war was caused by in-fight between those who were proponents of slavery and those who were against slavery. Another cause of the American Civil war was the growth of the abolition movement. The fact that northerners were against slavery led to the increase of abolitionists who were against slaveholders. Lastly, when Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, it catalyzed the civil war, as southerners believed that he favored interests of the northerners because he was against slavery.
Aftermath of the Civil War Surrender of General Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865 marked an end to the confederacy era. However, this did not stop the war completely as some small battles continued to occur. This was later to end when the last general, Stand Watie, surrendered on June 23, 1865.
Abraham Lincoln’s vision of reconstructing the nation did not bear much fruit as it failed to become a reality because of his assassination on April 14, 1865. The Radical Republicans imposed military rule on the southerners dealing with them harshly until Rutherford B. Hayes ended it in 1876. In the American history, Civil War is a watershed event and most importantly an event that officially ended slavery.
Conclusion In conclusion, the Civil War was an important event in history of the American people. Moreover, its iconic stature is very vital, as the proponents who were against slavery became victors because their wish of anti-slavery was satisfied. In addition, it helped in liberating the people who had different opinions and gave them reasons to live for better ideals.
We will write a custom Essay on American history: The Civil War (1861-1865) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010.
Kelly Martin. “Overview of the American Civil War-Secession.” About. Web.
Kelly Martin. “Top Five Causes of the Civil War: Leading up to Secession and the Civil War.” About. Web.
The History Channel. “American Civil War.” History. Web.
Footnotes Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74.
Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74
The History Channel, “American Civil War,” History.com.
Martin Kelly, “Top Five Causes of the Civil War: Leading up to Secession and the Civil War,” About.com.
Martin Kelly, “Overview of the American Civil War-Secession,” About.com.
Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York: W.W. Norton, 2010), 74.
Circus Maximus in Rome Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Thesis statement
Thesis statement Even though that it has already been close to 1500 years, since Rome was sacked by Gothic barbarians, the cultural, political and social legacy of Roman Empire never ceased affecting just about all the aspects of Western living, as we know it. This continues to be the case even today. The soundness of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to what accounts for the political attributes of ‘Roman Empire’ of modern times – The United States of America.
After all, one does not have to possess extraordinary analytical abilities to be aware of a simple fact that the symbols of America’s statehood closely mimic those of Roman Empire – the Statue of Liberty (dressed in Roman toga), Capitol Hill (Capitolium), Senate, American Eagle (which strikingly resembles Roman Eagle), etc. The resemblances between today’s America and Roman Empire, however, do not only amount to solely external ones.
After all, just as it used to be the case with Roman citizens, during the course of Empire’s decline, more and more Americans grow comfortable with adopting the slogan ‘bread and circuses’, as their lives’ foremost guiding principle. Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that there is essentially no qualitative difference between America’s entertainment-driven mass culture and what used to account for the entertainment-driven mass culture of ancient Romans.
In this paper, I will aim to explore the validity of an above suggestion at length, while exposing the parallels between public spectacles, which used to be held at the Circus Maximus in Rome, and sport-related public spectacles, deeply embedded into the very matrix of American contemporary living.
Analytical part Ancient Roman historians, such as Livy, used to date the founding of the Circus Maximus back to the Etruscan era – around 600 B.C. Back then, the Circus Maximus was nothing but an essentially 621 meters-long and 118 meters-wide sandy strip, surrounded by a wooden fence. Nevertheless, as time went on, the Circus Maximus never ceased being subjected to a continuous improvement.
By the end of Rome’s Republican era, it became the equivalent of Greek hippodrome, featuring wooden starting stalls and amphitheater-styled rows of spectator seats. It is now being estimated that, even before the Circus Maximus’s architectural structure began to feature concrete and marble blocks, the hippodrome could already seat 150.000-200.000 people, which makes its holding capacities well comparable with the holding capacities of today’s largest stadiums (Goldsworthy 43).
Nevertheless, it was during the reign of Emperor Augustus that the Circus Maximus attained its classical dimensions. Through 50 B.C. – 540 A.D., the Circus Maximus remained a largest semi-architectural creation in the whole world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Circus has commonly been used for holding chariot-races in time of ludi (public games, dedicated to Roman gods and organized by Rome’s Emperors/politically influential citizens). Even though that initially, these games used to be held for no longer than for 34 days per year, by the time Trajan had taken over the Imperial throne, the overall duration of ludi was increased to 75 days per year.
The parallels between what used to be the specifics of holding chariot-races at the Circus Maximus and what account for the specifics of holding car-races in today’s America (such as NASCAR, for example) are quite apparent.
For example, just as it is being the case with contemporary car-races, in which drivers compete on behalf of their corporate sponsors, Roman charioteers also used to defend the colors of their teams, sponsored by Rome’s socially prominent citizens: “The traditional four racing stables (or factions), namely the Reds, Whites, Blues, and Greens, probably existed as early as the fourth century B.C. Like modern sports clubs, they (factions) traded drivers and possessed official quarters where supporters and others could meet regularly” (Crowther 130).
Thus, there is nothing utterly surprising about the fact, as time went on; chariot-races at the Circus Maximus were being gradually turned into nothing short of an extremely lucrative industry – just as it is being the case with today’s sports of hokey, football, NASCAR racing, etc.
Apparently, one of the foremost motivations behind Roman citizens’ enthusiasm to be present at chariot-races was the fact that, while in the Circus Maximus, they were able to bet money on their favorite charioteers. It is needless to mention, of course, that this accounts for another striking similarity between ancient Roman chariot-races and a number of contemporary sports, capable of gathering huge crowds of spectators.
As we are well aware of, today’s politicians often exploit the most popular sporting events in America to boost the spirit of patriotism in watching audience’s members.
For example, not a single opening of The Super Bowl goes without some popular singer being invited to sing the American National Anthem. The same can be said about the ritualistic aspects of holding ludi at the Circus Maximus. The games’ official opening used to be preceded by a ceremonial march (pompae), consisting of the actual participants (charioteers, gladiators, wild animals).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Circus Maximus in Rome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Emperor himself often headed this march. While watching the pompae marching procession, spectators were expected to give Roman salutes – hence, showing the strength of their patriotic feelings (Balsdon 316). Moreover, every chariot-race, held at the Circus Maximus, was dedicated to commemorating Rome’s victories over its enemies.
Apparently, the chariot-races, held at the Circus Maximus, were not merely meant to serve the purpose of entertainment, but also the purpose of endowing spectators with the sense of pride, on the account of their belonging to the greatest nation on Earth. This explains why Circus’s spina (barrier between racing tracks) was embellished with the obelisk, dedicated to the Egyptian god Osiris.
Given the fact that this obelisk was brought from Egypt, after this country agreed to submit to Roman ruling, having an Egyptian ‘artifact’ displayed on top of spina was meant to symbolize that Rome’s geopolitical dominance simply could not be challenged. This also explains why, on many occasions, the official opening of ludi at the Circus Maximus used to be followed by gruesome executions of barbarian tribes’ captured leaders.
Moreover, these races were also meant to increase the extent of Roman citizens’ loyalty to the Emperors, who used to take an active part in organizing ludi. This was the reason why most Roman Emperors would never skip the chance of being present at the Circus Maximus, during the course of ludi.
By presenting themselves to the cheering crowds, Roman Emperors wanted to show to the citizens that, despite their high Imperial status, they shared the values of Roman living to the same extent, as it was the case with the majority of ordinary Romans: “The Circus Maximus became a general meeting place for emperor and subjects, where the ruler tried to appear as a first citizen among equals, primus inter pares…
The circus became so socially and politically significant that the emperors never closed it on a permanent basis” (Crowther 131). It is needless to mention, of course, that there is an apparent similarity between Roman Emperors’ tendency to indulge in populist socialization with their subjects, while at the Circus Maximus, and many American politicians’ tendency to do the same, while showing up at some popular sporting event.
After all, just as it is used to be a tradition for Roman Emperors to ‘bless babies’, prior to the beginning of chariot-races at the Circus Maximus, the American Presidents, who ‘accidentally’ show up at the Super Bowl game or some other sporting event, also do not skip the chance of ‘holding babies’, in front of cameras.
Another similarity between mass-entertainment, provided to the Roman citizens by chariot-racing, and mass-entertainment, provided to the American citizens by sport-related public spectacles, such as NASCAR racing, is being concerned with the fact that, just as it used to the case with Romans, Americans attend sporting events for a variety of different reasons that do not necessarily relate to sport proper.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Circus Maximus in Rome by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apparently, the factor of socialization plays an important role in attracting entertainment-seeking individuals to sport-related mass events. By finding themselves amidst mind-likes, intellectually marginalized Americans attain an emotional comfort, which lasts well beyond the duration of the actual event. The same could be said about ancient Romans, who used to attend chariot racing.
Nevertheless, unlike what it is being usually the case with today’s Americans, there were strongly defined sexual undertones to how ancient Romans thought of socialization-related opportunities, provided to them by the popularity-seeking Emperors. According to Henderson: “The CM (Circus Maximus) audience came to eyeball displays of manhood in a muscular variety , brinkmanship and bravura, necks on the line… CM was thus made, even more obviously , the place to hunt down women, thanks to imperial legislation.
To get hunted here, women only needed to take their seats, next to men” (50). Therefore, it is fully explainable why; every nine months after the holding of ludi at the Circus Maximus, there would be a dramatic increase to the childbirth rate in Rome.
Nowadays, it would prove quite impossible to reflect upon the realities of American mass culture, without mentioning the phenomenon of ‘celebrities’. After all, it is namely by reporting ‘celebrity-news’ that even America’s mainstream TV Medias are able to dramatically increase the rate of their popularity of with the viewers.
As it was noted by Austin: “Unless you’ve been pushing up daisies for the last several months, you know all about what has been happening with Paris Hilton… One literally cannot get away from the coverage of her life, seen in American news outlets as the most important news of the day” (2007).
Yet, it would be wrong to think that the cult of ‘celebrities’ is an essentially 20th century’s phenomena, made possible by the continuous progress in the field of informational technologies. It appears that ancient Romans were just as obsessed with ‘celebrities’ as many of contemporary Americans are.
There is only one difference – whereas, the majority of American celebrities are movie stars, the celebrities of the Imperial Rome used to be exclusively gladiators and charioteers. Charioteers, who used to compete in the Circus Maximus, enjoyed a particular popularity with the representatives of Roman plebs, because unlike the majority of gladiators, they were free native-born Roman citizens.
Just as it is being the case with today’s movie-celebrities, the most distinguished Roman charioteers were enjoying ‘lives in the fast lane’, while never experiencing the lack of money. So great was the popularity of charioteers with their fans, that upon having heard of their idols’ deaths, many of these fans would simply throw themselves into the funeral pyres.
At the same time, however, many socially prominent Romans remained strongly resentful of most famous charioteers: “Charioteers had their critics among the writers in Rome. Juvenal disapproved of the fast money that they earned, declaring that they could receive up to 10 bags of gold in an hour and more than 100 times what a lawyer could make” (Horsfall 104).
This again allows us to draw a parallel between what used to be the specifics of ‘celebrities’ phenomenon in ancient Rome and in today’s America. After all, it is quite clear to the intellectually advanced Americans that the cult of celebrities, peddled by Medias, is nothing but a symptom of American nation’s degradation – just as the cult of celebrity-charioteers was the symptom of Roman Empire’s imminent decline.
It is important to understand that it was not ancient Romans’ endowment with a particularly strong sport-mindedness, which prompted them to think of attending chariot-races, held at the Circus Maximus, as one of their lives’ foremost priorities, but the fact that, as time went on, they were growing increasingly marginalized, in intellectual sense of this word.
By attending chariot-racing, these people were simply seeking cheep emotional thrills, as there was virtually not even a single instance of chariot-racing, during the course of which at least one charioteer had not lost its life (Kyle 34). It was namely the prospect of being exposed to people’s graphic deaths, which used to attract the representatives of Roman plebs to the shows, held at the Circus Maximus.
Essentially same can be said about the nature of marginalized Americans’ attraction to sport-related public spectacles. Even though that, as of yet, these spectacles do not feature people being purposefully killed for the sake of spectators’ amusement, there are nevertheless good chances for the participants of these shows to sustain life-threatening injuries.
Apparently, just as it was the case with continuously degrading Romans, who used to derive pleasure from being exposed to the sights of human suffering, a growing number of intellectually marginalized Americans also do not think that there is anything wrong about their animalistic anxieties to catch a glimpse of professional sportsmen hurting themselves.
Conclusion As it was shown earlier, there are indeed a number of good reasons to draw parallels between ancient Roman and contemporary American mass cultures. After all, it is namely people’s preoccupation with seeking cheap thrills, which established objective preconditions for both cultures to thrive.
The difference between American and Roman mass cultures appears merely superficial. Whereas, the symbols of Rome’s cultural decadence were the Coliseum and the Circus Maximus, the symbol of America’s cultural decadence may be well considered the Hollywood.
Therefore, it would only be logical, on my part, to conclude this paper by suggesting that there is nothing incidental about America’s current financial, socio-economic and demographic tribulations. These tribulations were dialectically predetermined by the fact that America continues to follow the footsteps of declining Roman Empire with utter precision. I believe that this conclusion is being fully consistent with paper’s initial thesis.
Bibliography Austin, Anastasia. “Why Are We So Obsessed with Celebrities?” Buzzle.Com. 7 Mar. 2007. Web. https://entertainism.com/why-are-we-so-obsessed-with-celebrities
Balsdon, John. Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome. London: The Bodley Head Ltd., 1969. Print.
Crowther, Nigel. Sport in Ancient Times. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. Print.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. Print.
Henderson, John. “A Doo-Dah-Doo-Dah-Dey at the Races: Ovid Amores 3.2 and the Personal Politics of the Circus Maximus.” Classical Antiquity 21.1 (2002): pp. 41-65. Print.
Horsfall, Nicholas. “The Cultural Horizons of the ‘Plebs Romana’.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 41(1996): pp. 101-119. Print.
Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. Florence: Routledge, 1994. Print.
The Hermitage in US Essay essay help free
The Hermitage has significant mark on the United States history because it does not only represent the life history of Andrew Jackson, but also the presidency of the United States during 1828 to 1834. Andrew Jackson was the seventh president of the United States who originated from a humble background as a Tennessean. During his early life before he entered politics, Andrew Jackson was a lawyer as well as a farmer.
He owned a large tract of land, approximately 1000 acres at Nashville, which was a cotton plantation. In the plantation, Andrew Jackson built a mansion, the Hermitage, in Nashville where he lived before and after his presidency. In his life, Andrew Jackson became a hero in both military and political arenas, which made him a significant figure in the United States history. The Hermitage is a historic landmark and museum that mirrors the life history of Andrew Jackson and the history of the United States.
Thus, the hermitage is a historic site that reminds Americans of a great leader like Andrew Jackson, who made a considerable contribution to the United States history and presidency. Therefore, this essay explores the significance of the Hermitage and evaluates the effectiveness of its exhibits with the objective of establishing salient lesson learned about the site.
The Hermitage is tremendously significant to Americans because it is a historic landmark of the 19th century, a presidential home and a plantation. It depicts life history of Andrew Jackson as a Tennessean who rose from a humble background and ascended into power. During his childhood, Andrew Jackson was poor because he grew as an orphan. His father died before he was born, while his mother together with his brothers died before he attained the age of 14 years.
Thus, Andrew Jackson began his life as a lonely man who had no family ties to support him to achieve both financial and political stability. At the age of 21 years, Andrew Jackson became a lawyer and gradually started to own large tract of land in Nashville that eventually reached about 1000 acres. To achieve financial freedom, Andrew Jackson turned his farm into cotton plantation where he employed slave labor.
Moreover, Andrew Jackson entered politics and managed to lead American for two terms from 1828-1834. He built the Hermitage in 1819 and lived there with his wife, Rachel Donelson, who died in 1828 and 1945 respectively, and buried there. Hence, the Hermitage depicts life history and family of Andrew Jackson as the United States president during the 19th century.
Since Andrew Jackson employed slave labor in cotton plantation, the Hermitage is a historic plantation. Andrew Jackson acquired immense tract of land gradually and progressively recruited slaves to work on his farm. While Andrew Jackson and his wife lived in the Hermitage mansion, the slaves lived in cabins within the farm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By 1850, the plantation had expanded to 1000 acres with 137 slaves who were working on it. Therefore, history of the Hermitage plantation shows how slavery made significantly contribution to the farms of affluent people in Tennessee and across the United States. Given that Andrew Jackson rose from a humble background, slave labor enabled him to amass more wealth that led him to expand his farm and slaves with time.
Gradually expansion of the plantation and an increasing number of slaves indicate that Andrew Jackson was progressively achieving financial freedom that he has been grappling with a mere lawyer in Nashville. Hence, the Hermitage is a historic plantation due to the use of slavery in cultivation of cotton.
The hermitage is also significant to political history of the United States because Andrew Jackson mobilized his army and defeated the British army at the Battle of New of New Orleans. For three years, from 1812 and 1915, American army battled against British army, which invaded America.
In 1815, Andrew Jackson led his army of about 4000 American soldiers to battle against more than 10,000 British soldiers. Even the though the British army significantly outnumbered American army, Andrew Jackson employed his military prowess and tactics to overpower British invasion in the battle of New Orleans. Americans attributed the victory of the battle of New Orleans to Andrew Jackson and made him a military hero.
Thus, the battle of New Orleans did prepare the foundation for Andrew Jackson to ascend into the political arena and seize political power as American president for two terms, 1828 to 1834. The Americans voted for Andrew Jackson to become the seventh president because he was one of the dominant military heroes in the history of the United States. Because of his victory in battle of New Orleans, Americans named him Old Hickory, a tough military leader who made Americans overcome its enemies.
After the battle of New Orleans, the Americans transformed the Hermitage from a mere cotton plantation to a historic site where diverse people across the world visited because military and political legend emerged from it. Prior to the battle of New Orleans, Americans hardly noticed Andrew Jackson as a national figure who would transform United States by offering critical leadership that shaped history of United States.
Battle of New Orleans and the presidency of Andrew Jackson are two significant events that have made the Hermitage a historic site where legendary leaders and ordinary people visit. Since the United States noted historic significance of the Hermitage, it bestowed Ladies’ Hermitage Association responsibility to manage the Hermitage as the national museum.
We will write a custom Essay on The Hermitage in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ladies’ Hermitage Association envisaged that the Hermitage would become a “Mecca” for all patriots and strangers to visit. Hence, due to its historical significance, the Hermitage has become a historic site and a museum in the United States of America. It has also become a national model of preserving and conserving of historic things and a place of conducting archeological studies.
The Hermitage effectively presents its exhibits because visitors view them through the glass, thus preventing unnecessary damage due to constant touch or handling. Normally, the Hermitage receives approximately 180,000 visitors every year, who contribute millions of dollars that have enabled Ladies’ Hermitage Association to maintain exhibits as they were during the 19th century.
Currently, plans are underway to restore the magnificence of the Hermitage by painting, repairing columns and observing various architectural elements that are exceedingly fragile. For more than a century, the Ladies’ Hermitage Association has managed the Hermitage remarkably well by ensuring that repairs and maintenance do not distort authenticity of original artifacts in the Hermitage.
Hence, repairs and maintenance efforts are effective in preservation of the Hermitage and its artifacts. Currently, exhibits and multimedia are still authentic as they were during the time of Andrew Jackson, implying that Ladies’ Hermitage association is effectively managing the site as a home and a farm of a legend that Americans celebrate.
The most fundamental lesson learned about the Hermitage is that it was a home and a plantation of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States during 1828 to 1834. Hence, the Hermitage depicts life history of not only Andrew Jackson, but also the United States. When patriots of the United States and strangers from across the world visit the Hermitage, they perceive how influential man like Andrew Jackson lived and managed to be a hero who led American army to conquer British army in the battle of New Orleans.
The Hermitage reminds visitors of how Andrew Jackson transformed the United States during the war against British invasion and as remarkable president who brought democracy. Moreover, the plantation is significant because it depicts how slavery played a critical role in cotton farms that extend to 1000 acres. Hence, battle of New Orleans and the presidency of Andrew Jackson are significant events associated with the Hermitage and the plantation.
The Hermitage is significant to history of the United States during early 19th century because it was a home and a plantation of Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States. Andrew Jackson became a military hero when he led American army to defeat the British army in the battle of New Orleans.
Because of his military prowess and tactics, Americans made him a president for two terms, 1828 to 1834. Currently, the Hermitage is a magnificence museum that patriots and other people visit to celebrate the life of Andrew Jackson and history of the United States.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Hermitage in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Bartoy, Kevin. 2008. The Heritages of the Hermitage: Critical Archeology as Applied Anthropology at a Presidential Shrine. The Hermitage, 2, no.3, 1-14.
Haas, Irvin. 1991. Historic Home of the American Presidents. New York: Courier Dover Publications.
Hankins, Paula, Tony Guzzi and Howard Kittell. 2010. Roosters Declare the Hermitage Is Open: History Unveils a Face-Lift. The Hermitage: Home of President Andrew Jackson, 5, no. 1, 1-3.
Hoobler, James. 2008. A Guide to Historic Nashville, Tennessee. New York: The History Press.
Footnotes Irvin Haas. 1991. Historic Home of the American Presidents. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 35.
James Hoobler. 2008. A Guide to Historic Nashville, Tennessee. New York: The History Press, 27.
James Hoobler. 2008, 27.
Irvin Haas. 1991, 33.
Kevin Bartoy. 2008. The Heritages of the Hermitage: Critical Archeology as Applied Anthropology at a Presidential Shrine. The Hermitage, 2, no.3, 1
Paula Hankins, Tony Guzzi and Howard Kittell. 2010. Roosters Declare the Hermitage is Open: History Unveils a Face-Lift. The Hermitage: Home of President Andrew Jackson, 5, no. 1, 2.
London during the Roman Age: A Critical Overview Essay cheap essay help
Every city in the world has its foundation stones, often enfolded in legend, conjecture, traditional beliefs and odd truths (Hollis 21). In an attempt to scrutinize these stones for evidence, this essay aims to outline how London looked like during the Roman age, particularly in terms of possible layout, mode of business, size, religious orientation and other variants.
Historians are of the opinion that London emerged out of a river crossing, when merchants following the Roman soldiers fighting under Emperor Claudius settled on the Thames northern bank in AD 43 (Hollis 21).
It is imperative to note that the Roman age covers the period AD 1-200. In attempting to digest how the city of London looked like during the Roman age, extant literature demonstrate that the “…trail trenches dug in 1985 revealed distinct evidence of timber-built workshops and houses built in the period AD 60-100” (Williams 3). Other accounts demonstrate that London was built as a planned Roman town, with major public buildings, including a substantially large basilica, temples, bath houses, and a large military fortress.
Indeed, it has been claimed that the Romans transformed the city from an open commercial meeting place into an administrative centre and a military stronghold (Nicholas 58). However, this description serves to demonstrate the layout of London during the Roman age.
As reported by Roman historian Cassius Dio, the section where the merchants settled during the AD 43 war had a bridge even before it had a name (Hollis 21). It was this settlement that later came to be called the town of Londinium, but the bridge that had been constructed prior to the town’s existence, specifically in AD 55, had been build using long poles (piles) made of wood.
These piles were hammered into the soft ground until they reached the hard surface underneath to achieve stability, after which more wood was used to strengthen and reinforce the bridge (Morris 45).
Historical and archeological accounts of discovered coins demonstrate that the Roman-era merchants conducted business using currency as is normally done in present-day London. However, other accounts demonstrate that barter trade was used during this era for trade and commerce (Morris 64; Hollis 22).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The popular view among historians is that the currency trade subsisted hand-in-hand with barter trade, where people of high social standing and soldiers normally traded in currency while people in the lower echelons of society exchanged goods.
The Londinium was home to one of the largest basilicas ever to be built by the Romans (Morris 27). The presence of the basilica, along with other buildings of worship such as temples and bath houses, serve as vivid pointers to the presence of religiosity among the inhabitants of the city of London during the Roman age (Hollis 22).
Archeologists have discovered tessellated pavements and roman tombs suggestive of the fact that concrete was used to pave the streets of London during the Roman age. The great London wall built by the Romans in the 2nd century is also suggestive that knowledge on the use of concrete to built critical infrastructure was present (Morris 65).
Lastly, in size, historical accounts demonstrate that London occupied a smaller but heavily fortified area, roughly equivalent to the size of present day Hyde Park, and with a population of an estimated 60,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century (Morris 42).
Works Cited Hollis, Leo. “Spanning Centuries.” History Today 59.7 (2009): 21-23. Print.
Morris, John. Londinium-London in the Roman Empire. London: Phoenix Giant, 2005. Print.
Nicholas, Dean. “Streetmuseum Londinium.” History Today 61.10 (2011): 58. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on London during the Roman Age: A Critical Overview specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Williams, Stephen. “New Light on Dark Age London.” History Today 36.2 (1986): 3. Print.
Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company Proposal a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Corporate Objective Visite Brazil Company has the objective to be a leading provider of best-of-breed adventure and tour services to world tourist market. The company believes in offering the best quality services unmatched by other tour agencies in the industry.
Divisional Objectives The company embodies a culture of inclusivity that promotes the unity of purpose and teamwork. The core facet of the company is to offer the best environment for staff, customers and suppliers. Through this critical factor, all units endeavor to provide the best service within the provisions of harmonious coexistence.
Marketing Objectives The company’s emphasis will be underpinned by the need to provide completely specialized services based on the market knowledge of the vacation destination and the services that shall meet the demands of the customers. Visite Brazil company shall rely on the market research undertaken to underscore its market obligations.
The company projects that its sales shall increase substantially following the detailed market analysis based on the segment needs. According to Euro Monitor International (2009), the historical estimates indicate that tour needs have been neglected by lack of provision of customer-led services.
Sales estimates anticipate gaining a larger market share compared to its competitors. Using historical figures, the company has projected sales of over $500, 000 for the coming activities in Brazil and its environs. Additionally, Visite Brazil believes that the number of unit services shall increase to about 5,000 single-person unit services and 1000 corporate-based unit services. Profitability of the company would increase to register profits of 65% as a percentage of the total unit sales.
The company assessment suggests that the industry shall remain competitive in the next four years and later. While these challenges offer pressure for better business approaches, the company believes that its recognition of value and quality through provision of unique services shall aid to push it to an advantaged level (Euro Monitor International, 2009).
Currently, the company’s valuation and strategic market analysis has shown that its ability to beat the market lies in the eventful provision of first-class tour and travel services. Additionally, the company underpins its performance on the nature and quality of its employees in delivering these services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rationale
VB believes in respecting the varied cultural needs of its customers. Similarly, the company shall ensure that its service provision conforms to the legal and political legislations. The good relationships shared between the company and the legal bodies will enable its proper functioning without bridge of the provisions of the law.
Program Objective Pricing
The concept of pricing is a critical component in the general progress of the company. To design the most sustainable pricing model, the company shall rely on the market surveys and research. The researches taken by its marketing team will be essential in modeling a price package that appeals to the economic needs of its customers as well as the cost aspects of the company. These sets of information have proven that pricing shall be undertaken in a differentiated manner (Jeanine, 2010). This is because of the heterogeneous nature of the clientele projected as the target market.
Advertising and Promotion
The promotional strategy depends mainly on making the right information available to the right target customer. The company shall make sure that those who have the budget and appreciate the product know that it exists, and know where to find it.
The marketing team has to convey the sense of quality in every picture, every promotion, and every publication. The company anticipates shaping itself to appear in second-rate catalogs with poor illustrations that make the product look less than it is. They also need to leverage their presence using high-quality catalogs and specialty distributors.
Sales and distribution
Therefore, the service provision of the company shall follow a segmented marketing strategy. This is because the customers that shall be served by our company have varied needs and demands. The marketing unit has prepared inclusive approaches to help in boosting the sales of the business. Individualized and generalized marketing and distribution shall be helpful in meeting the marketing and sales prospects.
The company has received an appointment as an agency for major suppliers of tour vacation packages throughout Brazil. The company is still negotiating for the lucrative alliance and partnership with the leading and major travel tour companies in the region. This plans aim at ensuring that the company affords a wide service portfolio in order to maximize its profits during the festive period of world cup.
Apart from provision of the ordinary services, our company anticipates to differentiate its service offering from the rest of the competitors by promising safety and enjoyable customer service with a lasting experience. Some of the services shall include insurance, service directory, and informational services from both pre and post vacation packages.
We will write a custom Proposal on Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company believes that selling tour related products would have far-reaching influence on the company’s overall profits. In conjunction with other service providers, Visite Brazil projects to offer inclusive services that would render it a one-stop tour agency.
Monitoring and Controls
In ensuring that the business gets on the right footing, the company has made use of the available historical records and data concerning the tour business. Comparative analysis of the previous sales, costs, profitability, and number of visitors shall serve to benefit the firm in respect of its projections.
Sales reports To succeed in monitoring its sales and measuring them against the projected sales, our company shall utilize the periodic sales reports in evaluating its progressive movement. All the respective units of the company shall remain committed to market the company’s services and goods to meet the expected goals.
Information Sources Primary Data
The company has focused on gaining market knowledge in order to approach it from a market-led perspective. This aims at making Visite Brazil a tour agency firm of choice by all the prospective visitors visiting Brazil and other neighboring countries for both football festivities and other recreational activities (Euro Monitor International, 2009) and (Mancini, 2009).
The company shall undertake a market research and surveys in order to demonstrate the need for gaining first-hand information about the customers. The market surveys shall offer the company with requisite data, which shall be analyze. The analysis will aim at achieving themes necessary in explaining the market scenario. Although the secondary, records and data are relevant in informing the company, the survey data shall display the real demographics necessary in developing strategic decisions.
Sales Records Actual sales reports shall be essential in enabling the sales and marketing department to estimate continuous progress in the company’s profitability and market share. The company estimates that it will achieve an average market share of about 20% of the total tour and travel market.
Specialized Consulting firms The business of tour agency cannot be approached from a unidirectional perspective. Analysis of the industry reveals the industry needs in tour agency and progress shall rely on the strategic business alliances and partnerships. In order to strategically position the business
Consumer Panel Contingency Plans and Other Miscellaneous Documents Contingency Plans
Although Visite Brazil has enacted strategic business plans that will take it through its operations, it believes that the challenges of the contemporary tourism industry. In order to enable Visite to cope with these inherent challenges, the management believes that setting up strategic plans capable of sustaining future uncertainties remain relevant to Visite Company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Plan – Visite Brazil Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Visite Brazil Company is unique in its discovery and utilization of the high quality, executive level tour and travel niche. Therefore, it is possible that with our success and superior services, other well-established tour firms will release a competitive service line.
However, VB focuses specifically on the high-end, technologically integrated aspect of tour services. With this exclusive concentration, VB can continue to focus its resources on producing the best executive level tour and travel services. Another possible challenge would be the emergence of a new company in our niche.
This however, would not constitute a great threat, as their initial market share would be minuscule, allowing us to strategize further for continued success. Finally, and tour and travel company may choose to begin marketing to our target market. This would not be overly threatening because VB products and services are inherently the best available due to the true artisanship and design involved coupled with its well-known excellent customer service (Singh, 2008).
Strategic business positioning demands that affirm develops alternative business models that would help to leverage it in the future. Although there are many other players in the industry, VB believes in its reserved strategies and their ability to offer best alternatives in beating the market.
The primary strategies shall include strategic expansion and differentiation in reaching the target markets and favorably competing (Mancini, 2009). However, the company believes that the application of the price leadership strategy would offer the best fallback means for positioning the business on a more competitive edge. This strategy shall be achieved by customizing the services in order to appeal to the loyalty of the customers (Jeanine, 2010) and (Singh, 2008).
References Euro Monitor International. (2010). Travel and Tourism in Brazil. Retrieved from https://www.euromonitor.com/online-travel-sales-to-residents-in-brazil/report
Jeanine, P. (2010). Brazil Wants You Clients. Retrieved from https://www.travelagentcentral.com/destinations/brazil-wants-your-clients
Mancini, M. (2009). Selling Destinations: Geography for the Travel Professional. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Singh, L.K. (2008). Marketing in service industry: airline, travel, tours and hotel. New York, NY: Gyan Publishing House.
Shakespeare’s Plays Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Power in the hands of good people is useful because they use it to serve and improve the lives of others. On the contrary, bad people with power may abuse it to promote their own selfish interests. Furthermore, they abuse the power to oppress and cause violence and pain to their fellow human beings.
Many leaders abuse their power and oppress the people they rule. Many of Shakespeare’s plays portray how power corrupts people. The abuse of power is evident in some characters in Shakespeare’s plays namely, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Macbeth, Titus Andronicus and Richard III. Some of the characters in the plays change once they receive power or get a promise of acquiring power; they allow greed and blind ambition to corrupt them until they meet their downfall.
Macbeth Macbeth is a good example of a person who becomes corrupt because he has been promised power. The play was written in England during the time when there was a threat to the king and his throne. The people loved the king and Shakespeare wrote the play in his honor just as other writers pen praise leaders they admire (Macbeth as Royal Play 1).
Macbeth first learns that he would become King in the future from the three witches. The once virtuous man starts to change and becomes a villain and wicked person full of evil, as the hunger for power begins to grow in him. The wife, Lady Macbeth, urges him to kill King Duncan and ascend to the throne and increases his ambition for power (Bloom 20).
Macbeth does not want to kill because he thinks sanely, and knows it is wrong to kill “Will great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood/clean from my hand?” (Shakespeare a 2. 2.58-59). He overcomes his doubts and decides to kill Kind Duncan because he thinks he is the obstacle to the throne.
He has become an evil man ready to betray even a friend like he did to King Duncan thought Macbeth is a genuine friend. Thus, blind ambition leads to cruelty like the one shown to King Duncan by his friend Macbeth and his wife. Power corrupts and makes people forget their morals and commit unspeakable deeds.
Greed is a vice that causes people to commit evil. The vice occurs to people who get into power through underhand dealings. They desire to consolidate their illegitimate power and in order to do so, they unleash violence on the people who are perceived to be threats to their power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macbeth ascends to the throne, he is determined to hold on to the throne, and so he must get rid of Banquo and his family because the witches had predicted that the throne would go to his sons. He kills Banquo and his son hence adding more blood on his hands. On the other hand, his ascension to the throne drives him and Lady Macbeth apart and she later commits suicide. Macbeth becomes more violent as he desperately tries to keep his power. He plans to kill Macduff as well.
He does not feel any remorse about his evil way as illustrated by his words “I am in blood/stepped in so far that, should I wade no more/returning were as tedious as go o’er” (Shakespeare a 3.4.153-137). He plans to kills Macduff and his family as well and yet he is not a threat to him “Seize upon Fife; give to the edge o’ the sword /His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls/That trace him in his line (Shakespeare a 4.1.131-135).
His greed is so strong that he seeks an oracle from the three sisters and he is told that he is invincible and cannot be harmed by a mortal man. He believes the oracle, and goes to war but he is killed in the war. His greed for power drives him to his death the ultimate downfall.
Lady Macbeth Lady Macbeth is a strong willed character. She desires to become powerful, and once she learns about the prophecy concerning her husband ascension to the throne her hunger for power heightens.
She wants King Duncan dead for her husband to become a king. She wishes to kill him herself but she cannot and tells her husband to do it instead. Macbeth is tempted by the power to execute the evil plan but backs out,”We will proceed no further in this business:” (Shakespeare a 1.6.33).
However, Lady Macbeth mocks him out of anger because she is ambitious, and wants to become the Queen. She attacks his manhood by telling him “And live a coward in thine own esteem, /Letting ‘I dare not’ wait upon ‘I would,” (Shakespeare a 1.6.46-47).
She is very ambitious and greedy for power. Her ambition makes her cruel, and shows no regard for the sanctity of human life. Eventually, Lady Macbeth becomes the queen but she does not enjoy the power that she fought so hard to gain.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Shakespeare’s Plays specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She starts to think about her actions, and guilt consumes her. She keeps seeing the scenes from the murder of King Duncan ““Yet here’s a spot…/ Out, damned spot! Out, I say! – One; two; why, / then ‘tis time to dot. –Hell is murky. – Fie, my/ lord, fie! A soldier and afeard? What need we/ fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account? / Yet who would have thought the old man/ to have had so much blood in him?” (Shakespeare a 5.1.31-36).
In addition, the innocent death of Banquo disturbs her until the weight of her sins drive her crazy to commits suicides. Thus, the greed for power leads Lady Macbeth to her downfall.
Richard The play Richard III was written during the Elizabethan era. During that time, Calvinism, the religion that believes God determines human actions, and rewards good human behavior with good and returns evil with evil was gaining root in England.
Thus, Richard got the reward he deserved of dying in the war for all the evil he had committed against innocent people. Shakespeare wrote the play and incorporated the people’s belief about God’s punishment in Richard III. Richard was an evil man who had risen to power illegitimately and killed many people during his brief reign, and he would be punished at the end for his behavior.
The playwright also incorporated the beliefs of the Protestant Reform believers who believed in common grace from God and justice. Richard is an evil man and Margaret calls him “”hell’s black intelligencer” (Shakespeare b 4.4.7) Therefore, the downfall of Richard in the pay was a punishment from God to England for the way he had treated Richard II and Richard would help to root out the evil in the society in readiness for a new King.
The new King who gave hope to England was Henry VII who signified a new beginning after the death of Richard III (Baldwin, P and Baldwin T 62). Richard III dies in the war “God and your arms be praised, victorious friends,/ The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead” (Shakespeare b 5.1.1-2). Richard dies as a dog and Richmond takes over the reign and ushers in a new dawn.
Richard is ambitious for power, and does everything in his power to become King. He is physically challenged as he says in the opening scene of the play “I, that am rudely stamp’d, and want love’s majesty/ To strut before a wanton ambling nymph; / I, that am curtail’d of this fair proportion,/ Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,/Deformed, unfinish’d, sent before my time” (Shakespeare b 1.1.16-20).
During the renaissance period, the deformity of the body was as a curse and people with the deformity did not stand a chance of succeeding. Richard knew his disadvantages but he was a shrew character or a very clever cunning man, and he used his deformity to ascend the throne (Schaap 26).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shakespeare’s Plays by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His stature is not attractive, and he says that even dogs bark at him but he is determined to attain power and he will ensure that his brothers Clarence and King Edward IV turn against each other by falsely accusing Clarence of planning to kill the King. He kills his brother Clarence who was in line to the throne. Thus, after the death of King Edward IV, he ascends to the throne.
However, before he climbs the throne he has to clear his way by removing any obstacle that might hinder his quest for power. He pretends he is a good man even though we know he is a villain or a wicked man because of his ambition for power.
He is acting in his evil ways “But then I sigh; and, with a piece of scripture,/Tell them that God bids us do good for evil:/And thus I clothe my naked villainy/With old odd ends stolen out of holy writ;/ And seem a saint, when most I play the devil” (Shakespeare b1.3.28). He plots against his brother Clarence to be killed because he is greedy for power, and the brother would be a hindrance. The ambition for power engulfs Richard and he kills all the people considered supporters of the princess. His greed has made him blind.
Once on the throne Richard kills innocent people. He orders the assassination of his nephews the young princes. Power can corrupt, and Richard was no exception he did not care even for people close to him such as his wife Ann whom he killed. Finally, he lost the support of people and even his mother cursed him. He died in the war because his greed for power blinded him, and brought his downfall on himself.
Titus Andronicus Titus Andronicus a Roman general believes in Rome. He respects the Roman law, and follows it to the letter. He allows Sartininus to become King even though he had threatened him. Sartininus marries Queen of the Goth Tamora an enemy of Titus. Titus has power but he uses it wrongly first by killing Alarbus and his son Martius. The people in power kill his sons in jail and he swears to revenge their deaths.
Titus has suffered so much, he does not expect any justice for the wrongs committed against his loved ones, and he decides to take matters into his own hands. We see his gradual downfall from the war hero at the beginning of the play to a man who does not care much about his status when he puts on the uniform of a cook during the banquet (Escolà 72). Saturninus asks him why he is dressed as a cook and he says, “Because I would be sure to have all well / To entertain your highness and your Empress” (Shakespeare c 4.2.31-32).
However, his mission is not to serve but to seek revenge and he is able to disguise his intentions well. He later kills Tamora’s sons and bakes their remains in a pie that he serves Tamora and her husband. He decides to kill his daughter and put her out of her misery because she had become dependent on him for everything such as feeding her as he tells her during dinner “Come, let’s fall to, and, gentle girl, eat this (Shakespeare c 3.2.54).
Eventually he kills Tamora and Saturninus kills him. Lucius kills Saturninus to avenge his father’s death. Titus death is brought about by his abuse of power at the beginning of the play when he sacrifices Tamora’s son. The killing starts his downfall journey as revenge sets in and leaves many other people dead including him.
Oberon Furthermore, Oberon in A Midsummer Night’s Dream uses power against people close to him. For instance, Oberon is jealous about his wife, and hence he becomes cruel to her. He reduces her sexuality to that of an animal when he uses magic to cause her cuckold an donkey, it means Oberon can use his power to get whatever he requires without regard for other people.
He does not care how his wife would feel about getting involved with a donkey. He is vengeful towards his wife, and uses his power to exercise power over his wife. It is important to note that during the Elizabethan era when the play was written the society was patriarchal. Men dominated over the women and marriage served as the ultimate way to tame women.
The women who got married would be under the authority of their husbands and before marriage, their fathers controlled them. A woman who got married was seen to have achieved in the society and thus marriages were very important to women in order to gain respect in the society (The Life and roles of Elizabethan Era Women 1).
Oberon, the king of the fairies is the husband of Queen Titania. His character changes from time to time. He can be compassionate especially when he sympathizes Helena because of her troubles with Demetrius. He uses his magic to help her get the love and attention of Demetrius. Furthermore, he ensures the Athenian lovers get suitable partners and blesses them to bear beautiful children.
On the contrary, he uses his power to get his way. His jealous and abuse of power is evident when his wife refuses to give her foster child to him whom he desires.
Puck tells us the reason for Oberon’s jealous towards the child “And jealous Oberon would have the child/ Knight of his train, to trace the forests wild; / But she perforce withholds the loved boy, / Crowns him with flowers and makes him all her joy (Shakespeare d 2.1.23-26). Oberon is power hungry and wants to take away the boy from Titania to make him his slave. He wants to show his wife how much power he wields over her.
Oberon is even abusive of his wife, and calls her “Tarry, rash wanton: am not I thy lord?” (Shakespeare d 2.1.63). The king of the fairies will use his power to control everyone he desires. Power has corrupted him, and he does not hesitate to abuse for his self-interests. He does not show his wife respect, and reminds her he is the lord hence she should obey his commands without questioning. Surely, power has made Oberon a ruthless man.
His ruthlessness is seen clearly, after he decides to make his wife fall in love with Bottom. He gives Bottom an ass head, and makes his wife fall for him using his magic. His greed for the Indian boy blinds him to an extent of not caring whether his wife falls for a beast. His ambition to get the boy for himself is very great and nothing will stand in his way.
Oberon uses magic juice upon his wife as he tells his servant Punk “I’ll watch Titania when she is asleep, /And drop the liquor of it in her eyes. /The next thing then she waking looks upon,/Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull,/On meddling monkey, or on busy ape,/She shall pursue it with the soul of love:” (Shakespeare d 2.1.). He turns Bottom’s head into an donkey’s and Titania falls for him. Her attention shifts from the boy as she pursues her lover and Oberon gets the boy he desires. Therefore, power and greed makes Oberon ruthless.
Furthermore, Oberon uses his power to conquer women. He has a big love for other women apart from his wife. She accuses him of having affairs with women outside their marriage. For example, Titania accuses him about his affair with Hippolyta.
She also accuses of involvement with Philida “To amorous Philida. Why at thou here” (Shakespeare d 2.1.68). the affairs he has with a string of women show that Oberon uses his power to win over women and leaves one for another. He is not concerned about his wife’s feelings because he feels he is her lord. Thus, he can do anything he wants without fear or shame because he has power, which he can use to maneuver his wife.
Oberon’s power not only affects people close to him, but every other person too. Titania tells him that their fights have been very violent and they have affected even the seasons “But with thy brawls thou hast disturb’d our sport. /Therefore the winds, piping to us in vain,” (Shakespeare d 2.1.87-88).
The interruptions of the seasons by their brawls make other people suffer such as farmers who plant in vain “The ploughman lost his sweat, and the green corn” (Shakespeare d 2.1.94). The people face danger of starvation because of crop failure “The fold stands empty in the drowned field,” (Shakespeare d 2.1.96). The power does not directly lead to Oberon’s downfall but the power he possesses causes disruptions in the universe
Conclusion Lastly, power corrupts and some people use it wrongly for their own selfish gains. Many people admire power, try all means possible to attain it, and may kill some people to clear the way.
After killing and manipulating their way to power, they have to come up with ways of keeping the power and thus they continue the streak of evil ways that they used to acquire the power. Innocent people who appear as legitimate threats to power are eliminated because the leaders fear of losing it and become paranoid. Once in power leaders become greedy.
They cannot think of someone else ruling, and the desire to hold on to power intensifies. The more they try to hold on the more they become corrupt villains who hurt instead of protecting their subjects. Using the Machiavellian thinking, they do everything to remain in power. However, the greed and blind ambition for power leads to destruction of self and even society. The people corrupted by power end up in a downfall because they do not know when to stop committing evil and eventually it comes back to them and destroy them.
Works Cited Baldwin, Pat and Tom Baldwin, (eds.). Cambridge School Shakespeare: King Richard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Bloom, Harold. Macbeth. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2004.
Escolà, Jordi Coral. “Vengeance Is Yours: Reclaiming the Social Bond in the Spanish Tragedy and Titus Andronicus.” Atlantis, 29.2 (2007): 59-74.
Macbeth as a Royal Play. Web.
Schaap, Katherine. “Enabling Richard: the Rhetoric of Disability in Richard III.” Disability Studies Quartley, 29.4 (2009): 26.
Shakespeare, William a. The tragedy of Macbeth. Web.
Shakespeare, William b. Richard III. Web.
Shakespeare, William c. Titus Andronicus. Web.
Shakespeare, William d. A midsummer night’s dream. Web.
“The Life and roles of Elizabethan Era Women”. Web.
Europa Exploration: Exobiology Term Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Exobiology is a multidisciplinary field of study which explores the origin of life on earth and other planets. The human race has been interested in the origin and possibility of life on the other planets and moons. Reflectively, myths and beliefs exist on views of the universe components.
The core belief of exobiologists is that all matter in the solar system has a common origin as a component of myriad changes in the form of primordial stellar matter. Thus, this reflective paper attempts to weigh the gains in knowledge about exobiology against the risks of contamination should technological advancement penetrate onto the surface Europa moon on the orbit of Jupiter planet.
A continuous excitement has been witnessed in the resent past following a revelation that there might be a large mass of water body on its surface. It is natural to wonder about the kind of life in this water body and possibilities of microbial activities or aquatic fauna. The Europa Ocean has an ecosystem which is not fully self-sustaining like that on planet Earth.
Presuming an existence of tons and tons of ocean vents such as those spread across the ocean floors on planet Earth, there is a strong possibility of bacterial activities. These bacteria survive mainly on gases containing sulfur. Besides, there would be alien worm-like tiny creatures alongside clams directly depending on the nutrients made available by bacterial activities just like fungi and mosses plants common beneath the sea bed across the major water bodies on planet Earth’s surface (Greenberg 27).
To complete the food chain, unusual fish like creatures might exist to feed on these plants and smaller creature. Being to far away from the life supporting planet Earth, Europa’s ocean might lack planktons. Just like on the oceans across our planet, there is a strong possibility of finding dominant specie of a sea animal on top of the food chain (Greenberg 53). This might be due to variance in size, aggression, and other natural selection orientations same as those practiced by the Orca, commonly referred to as the apex predator.
After the successful unmanned NASA voyage to planet Jupiter in 1979, a Galilean moon called Europa was discovered. The visit proposed an existence of a planet-wide water body beneath hundreds of miles sulfur cover. In the images captured, Europa has magnetic and tidal characteristics and an icy surface.
Despite being a hostile environment for survival, for instance, there is no visible sunlight penetration, the surviving creatures might have evolved to rely on smell, electric fields and touch to sense variance in surrounding. Photosynthetic plants are incapable of surviving in such conditions. Thus, to cover up, the primary ecosystem producers would be bacterial organisms feeding on chemical emissions from the bottom of the ocean (Greenberg 51).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the publishing of the futurist view of Europa Ocean, it is in order to ascertain existence of life in this water body. Penetrating the surface of Europa into this section would seriously contaminate the atmosphere and alter survival of the alien creatures. Reflectively, drilling into the ocean bottom would release the tens of miles sulfur gas layer on to the surface of Europa.
Consequently, this is likely to directly affect bacteria colony and catalyze viral organism mutations. In the end, destructive radiation levels would certainly increase beyond the current levels as the populations of bacteria expected to breakdown the sulfur gas would not cope up with the quantities of emitted gas.
Also, the balance between fluorine and silicon components of this ecosystem might experience un-proportional energy input. In the end, there may be in existence another form of slow life due to increased radioactive levels. As a matter of fact, the cycle of complete digestion and degeneration of one form of life supporting component might end up being the silicon fluoride (Greenberg 81).
Since there is not evidence of existence of energy beneath the sulfur cover, breaking of this crust might open up way for some complex chain of molecular reaction capable of multiplying when in contact with energy. As a result, a chain of untested reaction might abruptly occur with dire consequences on the stability of the ecosystem.
Though this reaction and reengineering may be different from that in RNA and DNA, it might be in the form of hydrocarbon pollution. Before breaking the crust, the layers of this frozen sulfur consists of floating molecules which can easily react with foreign energy producing material in the simplest form of chemical fusion. The result may be complex and probably self destructive (Jacques 19).
Considering the fact that scanty knowledge exist on this expedition, the mission would be operational on guess work. The mission would be ignorant on the unlimited possibilities of activating a fermented energy fostered by the hostile and unique environment. There could be giant alien creatures swimming in the dark enclosure of this ice covered ocean equivalent of dolphins, Wales, and plesiosaurs. There might be rival intellectual life covered in this darkness.
Human beings lack the tools to determine such possibilities. Thus, the mission might be very risky in an attempt to know the ecosystem beyond the dark and deep world surrounded by a continuous landmark of frozen sulfur. The pressure of rushing gases through the opening created by human drills would leave innumerable ridges of pressure lines accompanied by deadly radiations as the gases escape into the atmosphere.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Europa Exploration: Exobiology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though this mission is essential in furthering knowledge into the surrounding world, it is important to appreciate the fact that mankind is intruding an environment which has not been interrupted since its formation. Since there are no known infrared reflectors on the predominantly organic grounds, scientific advancement might provide a solution for the same (Hornbeck 23).
Through the space technology, scientists, especially planetary scientists and exobiologists, are engaged in a search for earth-like planets that may have the capacity to support life.
It is through knowing how abundant such planets are that they are able to make informed decisions about where to search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what the basic chances are of finding intelligent life beyond humans’ own solar system.
Should it emerge that life is extremely rare in Europa, the future generation has a solemn responsibility of ensuring that the entire universe and its precious biological heritage is preserved.
On other hand, if life is found to be abundant throughout the galaxy then the future generations should strive to learn from its existence and ultimately become part of a galactic family of conscious and intelligent beings. And this exploration will finally answer scientifically the question: are we alone in this vast universe? However, the risks involved may be catastrophic as scientific studies on this moon are scanty and unreliable. Despite the risks of contamination, the benefits are long-term.
Works Cited Jacques, Arnold. Icarus’ Second Chance: The Basis and Perspectives of Space Ethics. New York: Springer, 2011. Print.
Hornbeck, George. “Life Sciences: Exobiology”. Proceedings of the symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission .Spec. issue of Birmingham Scientific Publication Journal 22.3, (1998): 21-25. Print.
Greenberg, Richard. Europa: the ocean moon: search for an alien biosphere. New York: Springer, 2005. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Europa Exploration: Exobiology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Travel For Abuse: Mail Order Brides From Asia Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Looking at the conceptual meaning of the word mail order brides, it will mostly revolve around marriages that find roots in ages that are partially, if not fully outdated. The marriages take place in distances that are extended. The device that orchestrated the pioneering of this idea was none other but the web which has grown to be a major boon in the vast world Diaspora.
The practice of organized marriages has been done all over the world and in the recent years, the aspect of the western world has on often terms executed away with it. Nevertheless, looking at the prevalent cultural practices of the Japanese people, one will notice that the areas have vogue organized marriages and will find a lot of Asian mail orders that have become forthcoming to the perception.
On the other hand, in other parts of the world like Japan, Thailand, China and India, there are large numbers of women who have warmed up and are open to this type of perception or notion. Moreover, in other parts of the world, men and also women have downed their opinions on the notion of mail order brides but the situation seems somehow different amongst the mail order brides of the Asian population (Alvarez 11).
The reason that falls behind this perception is basically due to the fact that the mail order brides of the Asian world are much more used to the idea of marriages that are arranged since they are all right with it.
The Asian mail order brides are also a better option compared to the rest of the brides since their prices are generally low. The reason behind the notion that the Asian international location are not in any way excessive in the alternative worth of the Forex world proves that the orders of the Asian brides are generally competitive.
Also, there is a disputed fact that the mail orders of the Asian brides are the lowest in terms of pricing. Another fact that makes them more preferable is the fact that they are not generally stunning and are considered by many as homely and this contributes much.
They also gain more in their preference due to their young age as compared to the other brides from other parts of the world and statistics have proven this fact. They are also known to marry at a very tender age as compared to the rest of the worlds’ population where by their late teenage years, or even their early twenties, they taken the big and bold step of tying the knot.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, basing on this point, it is evidently clear that they register for these websites at this very tender age (Trinh 102). Their indisputable fact in terms of their sensible and talented character is also a plus for them therefore, making large numbers of people from various parts of the globe to seek for these charming and complement the order mails from these Asian brides.
A mail-order bride is a term that is used to describe a woman who portrays or publishes her intent to marry another person from another country that is more endowed financially, with the main aim of seeking a better life.
Historically, these were the type of women who gave their lists in forms of catalogues and were later selected by men who wanted foreign women for marriage (Faller 39). Sometimes, the men and women who were involved came from different countries and on some other occasions, came from the same country. In this perspective, the situation involves different countries.
The situation currently revolves around women who originate from less developed countries migrating for marriage to more developed countries. Majority of these brides originate from countries of the south eastern Asia, the countries from the Former Soviet Union and the Latin America in the very least extent (So 113).
The nations that are the recipients of these mail order brides mainly are from the more developed nations in Northern America, Europe and Asia. Examples include South Korea, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan and Australia. The notion of the mail-order brides was first experienced in the frontier of the American land around the mid 1800s and the first company that is known to have pioneered in the industry is the Brooker
Price ceiling on gasoline prices Research Paper essay help
Introduction A price ceiling or limit refers to a restriction on the quantity that can be demanded as payment, for a certain commodity or service. In most instances, a price limit is enforced by a nation’s administration in a bid to sort out one or a number of issues touching on the general financial system, and it may at the same time, be used to look after the interests of consumers in general.
On the other hand, it is not odd for a number of industries to enforce a price control as a way of propping up the more advancement of that trade (Melanie, 2008). The use of price control for the latter purpose in most times has a lot to do with the association linking the supply and demand for the commodity or service. In order that a price limit comes out as effective, it has to be different from the free market price.
Whenever a price limit is enforced by an administration with a certain objective, a commodity or service that is well thought-out to be important is normally involved. For instance, an administration may enforce a restriction on charges that power firms can demand from clients for every unit of energy consumed.
The initiative is to look after the interests of customers through ensuring that dealers do not charge rates that are expected to make it unattainable for customers to come up with the money for something considered necessary for the basic standard of living. In the US, it is not odd for government-level entities to keep an eye on, and enforce price limits on utility expenses.
The enforcement of a price limit can be of assistance in the evening out a given market, and have a favorable effect on the economy. The approach mostly inspires traders who were charging very high prices for their commodities and/or services to either trim down on production or probably ditch the market altogether. This ends up in suppliers who are at a position to put forward commodities and/or services of up to standard quality at a cost that a customer can actually afford.
Again, the capacity to buy commodities and/or services at sound prices motivates customers to do so. Such consumers, as well, are left with more resources to use up on other purchases, which subsequently raise demand in a number of markets and has the result of fueling the economy. Price ceilings are not beneficial as will be discussed in this article. They are beneficial just at the onset before negative effects set in.
At times, cases of a restriction on how low a price can be demanded for a commodity or service that is seen to be essential occur (Hugh, 2008). This is referred to as a low price limit or ceiling. Such restrictions are aimed at preventing the emergence of a control or within a given industry, an occurrence that would undercut the capacity of a number of firms to be viable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Should a price ceiling be imposed on gasoline prices in the US market? Price ceilings should not be enforced on gasoline prices in the United States market. There are a good number of reasons for this, and they are going to be highlighted here. To begin with, gasoline firms sell their fuel at prices determined majorly by the global costs of the commodity. They are in business, and their major aim is to make profits just like any other business people.
These firms import the commodity and have to adjust their selling prices to make reasonable gains. When the prices at which they buy the gasoline go up, they as well have to raise the prices at which they sell to their consumers (Alston, Kearl
How To Prepare The Students To Travel To Foreign Country? Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
While preparing the students to trip, the teacher must think over the steps to be made to convince the students of the advantages of travelling. Thus, the first and most important issue is related to the experience which students can get while communicating with native speakers.
In my opinion, the most important advantage for students is an opportunity to improve communication skills as well as to obtain some knowledge concerning culture peculiarities of other country. The teacher may point out that students who have an opportunity to visit foreign countries can get not only emotional experience, but also mental and social one. Social experience is related to customs and traditions which a person can become familiar with.
Mental experience, in its turn, concerns with numerous cognitive processes which impact on intellect development. One more issue I would like to touch on concerns with the so-called subjective experience, which means the perception of other reality. Thus, the teacher is to explain his/her students that subjective experience appears when students interact with foreign environment.
One should keep in mind that understanding other reality is also to be taken into consideration. Thus, the teacher is to explain the students that foreign reality means world views or beliefs which differ from the reality of their own nation. Another point I would like to draw your attention to is related to the notion of concept. Thus, the teacher is to explain that most concepts which students must take into account are related to the linguistic origin.
For instance, it is a well-known fact that learning foreign languages is not an easy task, and in most cases the native speakers of English will not understand those who speak Russian. Thus, the main problem is not only the lack of practice, but some aspects which touch upon various countries mentality. So, the thing which is considered to be of primary importance is the teacher’s concentrating on the advantages which students are able to receive.
The idea to show the students some documentary films seems to be rather attractive too. For instance, watching a film is considered to be a necessary step to provide students with some general/basic knowledge about the country they want/can visit. On the other hand, they can become familiar with the realities (traditions, customs) of other country.
Some economic issues are also to be taken into account. Thus, the teacher must touch on certain contradictions concerning economic questions. Next step which the teacher is to draw his/her attention to concerns with educational quality improvement. Of course, nobody will deny the fact that direct communication with native speakers as well as feeling the atmosphere of foreign life can not be replaced by foreign literature reading/studying.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the theory is considered to be a good thing, but practice is more important. Finally, there is a great opportunity to enlarge students’ knowledge about the history and geography of the country they are going to visit. Thus, the students are able to become familiar not only with the social history, but also with cultural and economic history. In some cases, military history as well as environmental one is also to be taken into account.
The disadvantages are also to be touched on. Thus, the teacher is to describe some unpleasant situations which may occur while travelling.
Customer Relation Management Case Study essay help
In modern competitive business environments, managers need to enact policies that address challenges facing their organizations. Effective business strategic should have the ability to take advantage of business opportunities and mitigate against business risks and threats in their industry.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a recent strategic management tool, strategy, and weapon that business leaders effect to build health customer portfolio; it is a comprehensive approach to creating, maintaining and expanding customer-business relationship; it has the main role of ensuring that the customer is satisfied with the products and services of a company.
Marketing is an integral part of business management; it involves policies and strategies implemented to facilitate selling of products and services manufactured in an organization (Kerin and Peterson, 45-90). This paper discusses strategic and competitive opportunities within customer relation management (CRM).
Customer relation management strategy Businesses can only prosper if the management has policies that ensure that the products and services produced address the need of their customers. To ensure that customer needs have been addressed, the management has the responsibility of undertaking wide and comprehensive research on the target market and making responsive business decisions. According to management gurus, customer is the most important segment of an organization; they need to be managed effectively and their loyalty developed.
Organizations that have enacted effective customer management approaches have remained competitive amidst challenging business environments they are engage in. For example Apple Inc. has become the world largest electronic industry in sale volumes and production due to its effective customer management procedures; the company adopts a customer relationship management (CRM) approach to attract and maintain customers.
In the definition of the company CRM is a management strategy where a company creates healthy relationship with the suppliers, customers and the public; at Apple Inc, customer is the most important stakeholder and all processes are aimed at increasing customers’ welfare.
The following are the main objectives that effective customer management programs endeavors to fulfill:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determine, develop, nurture, and develop mutual satisfaction of the organization and customers, this notion means that the customers’ needs are aligned with business goals and objectives
Create, develop, and maintain good customer rapport, the customer rapport will be an effective tool that will create customer loyalty. When an organization has attained high customer loyalty , it is able to sell its products at relatively low cost of marketing, the company is self marketing
Customer relation management have the goals and objective of creating a positive feelings in the organization and the customers
The most important parameter that an organization should consider when enacting customer relation management policy within its frameworks is the target market who will be consuming the products and services of the company.
Strategic opportunities offered by customer relations management (CRM) programs In contemporary competitive business arena, companies need to management the relationship they have with their customers. When customers are well managed, an organization benefits from loyalty and self marketing notion of their organization; customers are the backbone of a company; they are the sources of finance and the reason why a certain business exist.
CRM’s main objective is satisfying customers and developing close relationship that facilitates customer loyalty; to attract customers and persuade them buy ones products takes a combination of business processes; effective marketing and sales strategies have a direct effect on customer’s attainment and development of customer loyalty.
In customer acquisition and creation of loyalty, there are two main theories that a company needs to understand and decide the best approach to use; the theories are customer retention and customer acquisition.
Customer relation management policies link a company to its target customers; if this link is not effective, there will be a breakdown of communication between these two parties. Information is power; marketing offers much needed information for strategic decisions. When producing goods, there is a target market that company aims.
Human beings are not static; their needs change with time and space. Understanding of customers’ trend is important for an effective business. When a company produces goods and services, it does so with the aim of selling. Creating awareness and persuading the customers to buy a company’s goods is the role of the marketing department. It thus ensures that the main objective of a business that is profit making is attained.
Customer relation management assist, a company to compete effectively and probably win the competition. How well a company persuades its customers goes a long way in determining whether customers favor it or not. To satisfy customers, marketers provide much needed information on which products are on demand, to assist the company make products that meet customer-changing needs.
We will write a custom Case Study on Customer Relation Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, it advises a company when designing distribution channels, supply chain, and retiling systems. When determining the integrated marketing communications combinations to use then information from the marketing department is crucial.
An effective customer management procedure affects the overall operation of an organization; it aims at analyzing internal and external environment that a business operates in, to device mechanisms for effective product communication to the target customers.
When the internal and external environments have been noted, the process assists in analyzing consumer behavior both in domestic and global markets to ensure that it advises its company effectively on the best practices to adopt to remain competitive. Consumer behavior has an effect on decisions that consumers make pertaining buying a particular company’s products or consuming their services.
Customers are well managed using and effective marketing research, the responsible department is expected to advise other sections on product developments and the best approaches they should take to attain effective product differentiation. Through survey of the prevailing market conditions and analyzing competitors, marketing assists a company in setting prices.
It aims at advising a company in product development and differentiation; an effective marketing strategy fulfils all the above-mentioned objectives not in isolation but all at a go. When all the objectives are met, a company gains a competitive advantage, as it is able to relate with its customers well (Kerin and Peterson 45-90).
Competitive opportunities in customer relation management Customer relation management emphasizes on three main areas which are marketing management, product differentiation, and service differentiation.
After development of products, whether service or goods, a company needs to create awareness and sell the products to the target customers. Marketing in an integral part of a business, it starts way before a product has been developed; and continues through the life cycle of product.
The main objective of marketing is to create awareness and develop a repo between customers and a business. For this noble task, there is need to have an effective marketing strategy; no single strategy can effectively operate in all industries; however, there are some shared elements of an effective marketing strategy
Not sure if you can write a paper on Customer Relation Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When developing a marketing strategy, the first thing that marketer should do is to perform a marketing research; marketing research starts before a company has created the products required in the market and continues through the product cycle. It aims at recognizing a deficit that the current products in the market are not meeting, and developing product that can fill the gap.
When developing a marketing strategy, a company should aims developing a strategy that will give maximum results at the minimum cost possible; thus for an effective marketing strategy, timely, organized and relevant information is required. To get this information, a company needs to undertake market research and analyze the data for decision-making; information collected should be easily manipulated to reflect the changes in ad hoc requirements of information by management.
Market research has the role of collecting, interpolating, analyzing and storing internal and external data; the data collected should be presented in a form that enables informed decision-making.
Market research starts with a desk research where marketers use the available secondary materials to understand the situation and basic operations in the market; the information can be gotten from published and unpublished materials.
When developing a marketing strategy it is important to understand internal and external factors likely to affect the strategy; internally the company aims at understanding its strength and weaknesses, whereas an external analysis assist a company understand the position that it holds in the market as well as the effects of competitors.
If it is the case of new company, it is able to understand the market dynamics operating in certain industry for future marketing related decisions like marketing entry mechanism. External environment trend is likely to affect the behavior of consumers so when well understood better strategies will be made effectively.
When undertaking marketing research, the main aim is to understand Psycho-dynamics of the market and the underlying factors that can be used for the advantage of the company and developing mitigation measures against those factors that are likely to affect the business negatively.
Product/service differentiation and Brand Loyalty
The success of the company is dependent on the quality and reliability of the products; when products are of the right quality and meet the standards of the people, they are likely to be competitive amidst competitor products. When a company is developing a product, there should be the need that the product is supposed to fulfill.
For example fast food joints are places where consumers should get a quick service; this implies that they should have an effective queue flow to ensure that they have ready products adequate for the consumers at a particular point in time and still the products have not stayed in the restaurant for many hours. An organization in the hospitality/fast food industry has differentiated products if it is respected for its products quality, freshness, and production of tasty foods.
The trend that the customers follow at one given point is a change to the product that gives them a higher utility. When the product is developed, the team should always invest in offering something extra to the consumer. Products come with the idea of packaging, and how the product is presented to the final consumer, there is need to have a pleasant look as the way as the way the product is handled has an effect on its successes (Kotler and Kevin 6-67).
To attain brand loyalty, a company must ensure its products are differentiable in the market; this call for high quality good and making brand salience, the brand should be on top of a consumers mind so that they are willing to decide without much of consideration on the brand. It involves having a psychological attachment where a mention of certain industry products creates a stimulus in a consumers mind.
For example, by the mention of soft beverages, Coca-Cola Company has ensured that customers will think of the company first, in a rather unconscious way. The mention of a soda is sometimes associated with Coke- the most sold brand by Coca-Cola Company. It has created the need for emotional attachment with the brand.
Consumer attitude goes a long way in influencing the choice of brand; attitudes are created by experiences with the brand, information from other people who have had an experience and it is subject to marketing and advertising tools implemented by a company.
Consumer behavior keeps changing, they are persuadable though a company with a strong marketing team can correctly predict consumer behavior and implemented appropriate strategies. Having a strong brand awareness campaigns that ensures customers can recall involves creating mental attachments like brand names, logos and symbols. When this has been affected, then customers will be willing to buy a company’s products without much consideration.
Mercedes Benz manufacturing company has invested in creating mental pictures about the brand; it is believed that the model is classic, expensive and has status. It is seen to have a “niche” products kind of approach because of its uniqueness and division of the market between those people who want their social status respected in the society.
Customers who have purchased the brand in the past are operant conditioned to believe they have made it to a higher class than their counterparts who have other models like Toyota. For such a customer to buy another model, his mental picture as molded by the company will show him or her that he is losing status, something that consumers will always fight against, the end result is brand loyalty and attachment.
The longevity that Coca-Cola Company product has had in the market has favored the company in creating positive attitude towards its products. For a larger population in modern world, they are younger than the brand.
Since childhood, the brand name has been triggering in the mind of a person. He grows believing that a soft drink in a soda from the company. The positive attitude created by the company has made it easy to have effective brand extension with the latest as Coke Light a brand extension of Coke brand. Believes of the people which run down generations is that the company has unique products and is superior.
The company has invested in understanding consumer behavior; consumers keep changing with economic, social and age changes, the company keeps evolving with the needs of the customer. For example, with modern busy world where people are busy hopping from one place to another, it is rather difficult for someone to sit back and enjoy a bottle of a soft drink, realizing this, the company came up with disposable bottles soft drinks, the response has been positive (Joby 20).
Conclusion Customer relation management is strategic management tool that seeks to create, improve, and maintain healthy relationship between an organization and its customers. The management approach addresses internal and external operational factors to develop policies and strategic to create loyal customers; organizations that have adopted customer relation management strategic attain competitiveness over products made by their competitors.
Works Cited Joby, John. Fundamentals of Customer-Focused Management: Competing Through Service. Westport: Praeger, 2003. Print.
Kerin, Andrew, and Peterson Richards. Strategic Marketing Problems: Cases and Comments. London: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
Kotler, Porter, and Kevin Keller. Marketing Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.
The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China Term Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Xu Beihong was born in Yixing, China in the province of Jiangsu. He was born into a poor background and all the skills that he acquired at an early age including seal engraving, Chinese classics, calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting were from his father who in turn had acquired them through self-teaching.
He was born on the 19th of July, 1895. He began commercially selling his work in 1915 when he relocated from his home town to Shanghai. He mainly sold paintings and other illustrations that were used in different publications. A government scholarship saw him enroll into the Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in France in 1919.
This is where he acquired the skills of oil painting and sketching as he travelled widely through Western Europe. He observed the works of western artists in different countries including Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, and Italy. He returned to China in 1927 and began teaching at what is presently Nanjing University and formerly the National Central University. Here, he taught in the department of fine arts and eventually headed it.
Xu Beihong is so influential in Chinese art that you cannot talk of the 20th century in terms of art without the mention of his name. He has over a thousand works done in ink, oil and also as sketches. The vastness of his works makes him a legend in themselves. The number of his works is however dwarfed by the amount of literature that has been written analyzing his work which has been both positive and negative.
He is regarded by many as the vanguard of 20th century Chinese art and has a whole museum dedicated to him. The major reason he is so highly regarded is the incorporation of western realism in his Chinese works. His style that is regarded as social realism has dominated the art scene in China up until the 1970’s.
Among the works that have become icons of Chinese art are: The Astute Judge of Horse, The Foolish Old Man Removing The Mountain, Tian Heng and His Five Hundred Followers and Awaiting For Deliverer. The art of this great artist is seen more as the perfect blend of traditional Chinese art with that of the West. They are lauded for depicting virtuosity and patriotic ideals.
While Mao Zedong was so moved by The Foolish Old Man Removing the Mountain that he incorporated it in his political rhetoric, critics like Michael Sullivan claim that the painting is “one of the most unpleasant works to ever come out of China” (50) and that the works of Xu Beihong are “seldom more than merely competent.” (Sullivan 72)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thought processes that make people take such extreme positions when discussing Beihong’s work are influenced by preconceptions of what modern Chinese art should be, political preferences and personal tastes.
Pheng Cheah concedes that these criticisms can be as a result of “dogmatic application of untested universalism” by the Western nations and “a dubious cultural relativism” by other nations in the East (54). This means that the work of an artist is viewed from a single dimension which may not produce the best results. There should be an appreciation of the arts present by the analyses of these works through a multidimensional scope (Eco 108).
This paper seeks to examine the work of Xu Beihong in a wide perspective and not just against the narrow scopes including modernism versus realism, western oil paintings versus Chinese traditional ink paintings or left versus right. Here, we are going to examine the influence that this artist had on Chinese art as a whole.
Discussion Xu Beihong was not the first Chinese artist to attempt modernizing Chinese art. He was however the most successful since he used the method of realism that was common in the 19th century and had long been proven in history as very effective. His works were successful partly because they depicted the problems that dogged the people of the time with relative accuracy. His however was a personal statement given his background.
Before he was born, the Chinese had lost in the First Sino-Japanese War (1884-5). The political upheavals that followed including reform and revolution undoubtedly affected the perspective of this artist (Shen 172). The background of Xu Beihong helps us to discern the thought that he was “modern” due to his role in modernizing Chinese art.
The experience that Xu Beihong had in the French school where he was enrolled made him view the world in a different perspective. First, it removed the pressures that are accompanied by being in familiar surroundings and helped him to be more objective even with himself. While studying the western way of art, he thought of the situation in his home country as he viewed himself an alien in another land.
Western art drew its inspiration from mythology and antiquity and thus was able to tell a story by looking at it. This was the inspiration that led Xu Beihong to produce paintings that were capable of telling stories. His major context was on historic Chinese texts while incorporating the western style of painting. T
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More hree of his most iconic works namely Awaiting for Deliverer, The Astute Judge of the Horse Jiu Fanggao and Tian Heng and His Five Thousand Followers were all produced immediately on his return from France in 1927. Tian Heng and His Five Thousand Followers told the story of Tian Heng who was a legendary figure and the ruler of the Qi dynasty. However towards the end of his reign (221-201 BCE), he chose to protect his integrity by committing suicide rather than be captured by Liu Bang who was the leader of the Han dynasty.
The Astute Judge of the Horse was painted in 1931 and incorporated the traditional Chinese methods of painting that only used paper, ink and brush. The story is of the protagonist Jiu Fanggao who was said to be an excellent judge of young men who were to serve the nation as scholars and were metaphorically referred to as horses. The last piece, Awaiting for Deliverer, was a very large oil painting.
The painting was depicting a suffering people in the era of the Xia dynasty (2000-1600 BCE) as they waited for a savior to deliver them from the oppressive regime. The concept was borrowed from the Book of Documents. The shift from contemporary styles to realism based on classical academics was a very effective tool for educating people and also for artistic convictions. This made the work of Xu Beihong distinguishable from that of other artists of his time including Lin Fengmian (1900-1991) and Liu Haisu (1896-1994).
The fame of Xu Beihong took him to many countries where he exhibited his work. In addition to his exhibitions in Europe and China, he went as far as South and Southeast Asia. It was in India in 1940 that he did his other very influential piece known as The Foolish Old Man Removing the Mountain. This was in the period of the Japanese Resistance War (1937-1945).
The painting was based on an ancient parable in the Leizi text that told the story of an old man who saw it prudent to remove a mountain that was in front of his house (Hsia 533). Even if it was a tall order for him, he was convinced that his children would continue in this endeavor long after he was gone. The sentiments that were being depicted in this painting were of a nationalistic nature and that is why Mao Zedong saw it prudent to incorporate the painting in his politics.
The role that Xu Beihong played in modernizing Chinese art culminated in him being named the president of the fine arts department in the Central University in 1950. This was immediately after the war and after the formation of the People’s Republic of China. The communist regime continued the work of this legendary artist after he passed away in 1953.
China was a country that was ruled by dynasties up until the 1900s. The speedy development of Japan and other European countries meant that China only had a single option in order to survive; westernization. The establishment of the May Fourth Movement was the first step towards the “westernization” of China (Spence 223). This meant that for China to succeed, she had to embrace the western ideals so that she could become a superpower like Japan.
This was achieved by emulating western ideals of romanticism, symbolism and realism that was possible under the banner of democracy and science and was the focal point of the May Fourth Movement. This was the genesis of the art reform that led to artists like Xu Beihong going into foreign countries in order to learn their art.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Artistic Life of Xu Beihong and His Influence to Modern Art in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei, who were the mentors of Xu Beihong and were responsible for him securing a scholarship in France, were supporters of the May Fourth Movement. Xu Beihong was a major player in the revolutionalization of Chinese art. As a whole, Chinese art was progressing steadily until it was disrupted by the Japanese Resistance War.
The other artists who assisted in the revolution were Japanese educated Chen Baoyi (1893-1945), Guan Zilan (1903-1986) and Guan Liang (1900-1986) together with French trained Pan Yuliang (1902-1977) and Pang Xunqin (1906-1985). They all were instrumental in creating the necessary hype for Chinese art that was always in sync with that of other cities like Tokyo and Paris.
Chinese peace was an uneasy affair as there was always tension between warlords, a threat from the rapidly developing Japan and the rift between the Communist Party and the National government. Xu Beihong found himself very patriotic in this times and was always eager to make history by fostering peace through his artworks. The emphasis was thus on the importation of western ideas that would assist in determining the national fate of the Chinese people.
This was the backdrop in which Chinese modern art was determined. Many artists held the ideal that the best way to change Chinese art was along the traditional lines and contemporary styles whereas a few advocated for an amalgam of traditional styles and those of the West. The western style had the advantage of being more socially involved than did the literati art that had ceased to be as popular in the late 18th century.
It was held that the best way forward was integrating the western style of art into the traditional Chinese art. It was thus up to Xu Beihong and other western educated artists to come up with the best way forward. The array of western educated artists did not have a common idea and a quandary of ideas was brought forth. There was a tug of war between realists and modernists.
Those that advocated for the latter were Liu Hansi and Lin Feingman who believed in everything that was after Post-Impression (Andrews 29). They considered the works of Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Henri Matisse as the most fitting to decide the way forward for Chinese art (1869-1954) (Wong 91). The dissenting voice was however that of Xu Beihong who was convinced that the answer to Chinese art was in the 19th century classism and realism in Europe.
Xu Beihong did not however give in to the whole concept of modernization. He was not interested in the whole context of modernity that was occurring in the West (Clark 4). In fact, he was only focused on the depiction of realism in the Chinese context. He claimed that the definition of realism that the western critics and his Chinese counterparts held was not his understanding. His main aim was in depicting reality in his artwork.
Additionally, although he was a strong believer in academic realism, his works were broader than what was entailed in realism and contained other concepts including naturalism, romanticism and realism in the broader western sense. Xu Beihong groups all arts as either being based on realism or conceptualism. The latter he associates with traditional Chinese aesthetics.
Conclusion The Chinese culture is no different from any other in the world. The culture looks to the social function that art plays in politics and in the definition of culture itself. Xu Beihong depiction of moralistic overtones that were largely sourced from historical sources means that the artist was free of self inclination a far cry of other modernists.
It is remarkable that after eight years in France in the midst of fauvism and post-impressionism, Xu Beihong still had a fondness for 19th century classism. In a world where people are constantly changing with the times, remaining true to a single conviction can be a tall order.
Xu Beihong produced numerous works during his lifetime. However, his most profound works that gained international acclaim are five in number. The common feature of these pieces is that their concepts were borrowed from Chinese history that was a parallel to the success of European pieces based on mythology and antiquity. The pieces were also developed in the years after Xu Beihong returned from France.
The turbulent history of China and especially its war with Japan had a great influence on the way that Xu Beihong crafted his pieces. This was the reason that his works were used in political rhetoric. He is considered the father of modern Chinese art that borders on realism, rightly so as he undoubtedly shaped the way that art in China was viewed and presented a platform onto which modern Chinese art has blossomed.
Works Cited Andrews, Julia F. Painters and politics in the people’s republic of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Print
Cheah, Pheng. “Asian studies in a world in motion”. Trace, 1 (1993), 54-5
Clark, John. Modernity in Asian art. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1993. Print
Eco, Umberto. The open work. Translated by Ann Cancogni. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. Print
Hsia, C.T. A history of modern Chinese fiction, 3rd Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. Print
Shen, Kuiyi. A century in crisis: Modernity and tradition in the art of 20th century China. New York: Guggeiheim Museum, 1998. Print.
Spence, Jonathan D. The search for modern China, 2nd Ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. Print
Sullivan, Michael. Art and artists of the 20th century China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996. Print
Sullivan, Michael. Chinese art in the 20th century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959. Print.
Wong, Fong C. between two cultures: late 19th and 20th century Chinese paintings form the Robert H. Ellsworth Collection in the metropolitan museum of art. New York: metropolitan museum of art, 2001. Print.
Historical Context of “All My Sons” by Arthur Miller: Analysis Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction This essay analyzes the historical context of “All My Sons” by Arthur Miller. The play appeared between 1940 and 1950, in an eventful decade for America and the rest of the world. America was recovering from the effects of the Great Depression that took place in the 1930s. The Second World War marked the first half of the 1940s, while the second half was characterized by the early stages of the Cold War.
The Second World War had significant effects on many countries around the world, including those in America, Asia, Europe and Africa. It influenced the formation of political alliances where countries came together against a common enemy in the war. The effects of this war persisted to the second half of the 1940-1950 decade, merging with the beginning of the Cold War (U.S. Timeline 8).
Apart from the war, there were other events taking place in America during this time. Those included changes in the lifestyle of the American people, among other things. After the prosperity associated with the war tapered off, the American economy experienced high rates of inflation. More than 25 per cent of the population had been living below the poverty line by the end of this decade (U. S. Timeline 9).
The family became a cherished social unit during this time. There were strong ties between family members as the population of the country and the size of the family increased. The average size of the family during this time was about 2.5 children. It was during this time that the country went through the infamous baby boom (Anonymous 5).
The effects of this boom persist to date, given the fact that those born during this time are in control of the country today. Discrimination against African Americans and other minorities, such as the Mexicans, also took place during this time period. Perhaps it happened as a result of the suspicion that the American people had towards outsiders as a result of the war (Anonymous 9).
The social and political situation of any country is reflected in the art taking place at that time. Art, to a large extent, mirrors the social and political situation of the society at that particular time. A historical analysis of art in a given time period will indicate the events that were taking place in that society at that time. The form of art, in this case, includes paintings, songs, poems, plays and sculptures, among others.
The events that took place in this society during that time can be discerned from various forms of art in that decade. It includes the plays staged in the country, the books written among other forms of art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The play “All My Sons” by the famous American artist A.Miller was written in the year 1947, It opened on Broadway on January, 1947, closed on November, 1949, and ran for more than 300 performances. The play’s setting is America.
This paper is going to study the historical background that “All My Sons” was written and acted within. The author will go further to analyze if Arthur Miller addressed the identified social and political topics in his text. The problems addressed in the play will be separated from those not addressed.
“All My Sons”: Historical Context
Forgiveness in Martin Luther’s Movement for Rights Blacks Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The best way that blacks can learn to forgive is through seeking God. Martin Luther led the movement that blacks had fighting for their rights in America in the 60s. The bible teachings tell us that God exists in the holy trinity and the only way to forgive others is for us to be able to forgive our own transgressions.
God’s grace is the only way that we can achieve forgiveness. Worthington states that forgiveness is achieved when, “we yield ourselves to God and [are] guided by God’s Spirit.” (2009, p. 14) Once we have acquired the skills to be able to forgive ourselves, then, we can learn to forgive others as well. Although Everett Worthington Jr. cautions that forgiving oneself is particularly hard, the driving factor should be the end result.
No hurt or transgression is too big to bear once a person has learnt the art of forgiving him/herself. The best way of working through a hurtful thing like the way that African Americans were during their fight for their rights is to be in a group scenario. The forgiveness of transgressions against other people is very hard to fathom in many. There are transgressions or hurts that people consider too painful to easily forgive.
Martin Luther had a particularly tasking job in attempting to instill forgiveness in the hearts of the African Americans who had been hurt. He insisted repeatedly that the only way that their rights were going to be recognized was through peaceful means. However, a tall order this was, he had to convince his followers that the best option for them was to forgive those people that had hurt them.
Discussion There are steps that Everett has developed that are aimed at helping people to become more forgiving in their encounters. The foundation block for this program is that one has to dedicate oneself to discerning God’s heart. As such, one has to be a dedicated Christian for the steps advocated by this writer to work. The major idea here is that god is the most important agent in order to achieve forgiveness. Therefore, one has to allow God to use one’s actions as the vehicle through which he works.
Achieving forgiveness is equated to acquiring any other skill in the course of performing ones duties. Therefore, it is not expected that a person can be forgiving instantaneously. This means that people have to work on their forgiveness skills in order to achieve the forgiveness level that the gospel teaches. Martin Luther had to focus on the religion in order for people to translate the teaching of the bible and apply them in their every day lives so that they are capable of forgiveness.
Conclusion Forgiveness entails that a person does not seek revenge for a particular hurt that is done to them. This means that although African Americans felt that their rights were not being recognized by the regime in America, they should have desisted from taking any actions to avenge this wrongdoing. The only way that a person can achieve forgiveness is if the action warranting the forgiveness no longer hurts them. Events that are far in the past can be easily forgiven since the hurt occasioned by such wrongs is no longer potent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, African Americans should have first work on the hurt that they felt in order for them to be able to forgive the transgressors. Martin Luther was charged with the responsibility of ensuring that any ill feelings that the African Americans may have harbored were not eliciting hurtful sentiments from his followers. If this was achieved, then the process of forgiveness should not have been difficult.
Reference Worthington, E.L. Jr. (2009). A Just Forgiveness: Responsible Healing Without Excusing Injustice. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.
Learning English as a Second Language for Chinese Students Essay (Article) essay help online free: essay help online free
Learning English as a second language, students should pay much attention to the relationship between environment and language as these factors are very important. Students should learn not only the language itself, but pay much attention to the history of the country, its customs and values.
This paper is aimed at Chinese students who have just got down to learning English as a second language. These students should know the pitfalls and the difficulties they are going to face. Those who have never learnt another language are not really aware of the situation they are going to face with. Another language is not just a collection of the symbols which should be arranged in an appropriate order, it is another culture which may be understood only when collaboration is observed.
Only working together, only trying to understand the main idea of the American and British nature Chinese students will get the main idea of the language, will be able to learn it. Communication and cooperation with native speakers is exactly what is meant. Students should understand that they have great opportunity to cooperate with native speakers either in the centers or in other particular places, such as social networks, etc.
Therefore, it may be concluded that cooperation and the opportunity to speak with the native speakers are really important factors for becoming a good learner. This essay is created for those who have just begun to study English as a second language as they are to know the peculiarities of the learning process and the difficulties they are to overcome in the future to succeed.
Works Cited Facebook. Facebook.com. 2011. Web.
Love, Tim. What is culture? 2008. Yomiury: Media Kit. Web.
Social Studies Instruction and Diverse Students Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Education is a critical requirement for any society seeking prosperity within the global circles. Globalization is a new hurdle that educators now need to deal with as various cultures meet and interact within the school set up and if unregulated, this situation usually erupts in chaos and disruption of learning.
However, a greater loss is the stunted development of the minority cultures, which occurs because of the structures of the prevailing educational systems put in place with the majority cultures in mind. Consequently, there is need for a paradigm shift if the educational system is to provide equitable service to the entire population.
Multicultural social studies teaching is a merger between social studies as a discipline and multicultural education as a concept. The goal of social studies is to promote civil competence while that of multicultural education is to provide equal education opportunities to the entire population with the intent of producing “first class” citizens who are sensitive to “democratic ideals such as human dignity, equality, and freedom.” (Banks, 1999, p. 65)
Due to their complimentary nature, it is prudent to integrate these two concepts to achieve the intended purpose of each. This kind of teaching involves a shift from the conventional teacher-oriented classroom sessions to student-oriented discussions. It is flexible and allows students to select their own referencing material. It gives parents and the rest of the community a chance to participate in the students’ learning and encourages cooperation between students from diverse backgrounds.
It highlights the advantages of this diversity and reveals the possibility of better learning if the students take advantage of their differences to gain better understanding of various concepts. Finally, it discourages single-minded formulation of stereotypes by teachers, parents, the community and students while inhibiting self-destructive behavior in students from minority cultures acting out the frustration with a mono-cultural system of education. This type of teaching satisfies everybody’s needs.
The advantages of this type of teaching include harmony in the classroom as teachers strive to encourage cooperative learning. As they encourage their students to share cultural experiences, question, and challenge their dogmatic beliefs, students set aside their superficial differences and share in an enriching earning experiences where they use their different cultures as sources of information.
The different perspectives brought in by different students offer a variety of learning options that apply to each student in a classroom set up. The involvement of parents in their children’s learning also greases the educational processes as they know how best their children learn and they can divulge this information to teachers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multicultural social study teaching uses culture as the foundation upon which school-based knowledge builds. Consequently, students have a better grasp of a lesson’s content because they can relate to it on a cultural level. This way, learning becomes a natural activity and is not as taxing as the current system portrays it. This teaching involves every student in the classroom because each student has something he / she can allude to (Sleeter,
Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running Term Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction In the 21st century, the hospitality industry has thrived. Traditionally, there has been saturation of big monopolies of hotel brands, with their primary objective being provision of lodging accommodation for travelers.
A boutique hotel is a luxurious, personalized version of the traditional hotels whose focus is on the provision of a comfortable, intimate, and welcoming setting. According to Dubois (2010), the personalized service and design reflects the characteristics of the target market and is the distinguishing feature that categorizes a hotel as a boutique hotel.
Boutique hotels were started in the early eighties, with two of the world’s first boutique hotels opening in 1981 – these two hotels are The Blakes Hotel in South Keningston, London designed by Anouska Hempel, and The Bedford in Union Square San Fransisco, now a series of 35 such hotels of the Kimpton Group (Dubois, 2010).
Starting Up Location and Destination The most significant factor to consider when starting a hotel is the destination and location, although product quality, market demand, a well-defined marketing approach, and effective reservation coverage play a major role that contributes to the success of the business (Yanos, 2008). For a city destination, the location should be in a trendy neighborhood, central to other things that are going to complement the business. Indeed, good locations lead to guests’ loyalty and interest (Nickisch, 2011).
A city destination attracts a diverse market from leisure, business, events, and conventions all week long. Ideal city locations are fashion centers, media capitals, cities with vibrant economies, and trendy residential areas. For a resort destination, the more the indigenous a location, the better, as this gives guests a chance to explore the local feel without sacrificing luxury.
The hotel should be tucked well behind mountains, in valleys, deep in the jungle, near a lake or watering points in wildlife reserves or in deserted corners of islands. Indeed, the more difficult it is to reach the destination by conventional means, the more fashionable the location is considered (Yanos, 2008).
The location is dictated by the destination; this defines the style, décor, and architectural design of the hotel and hotel rooms. It is generally a good idea to avoid areas that are too saturated with boutique hotels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Financing Boutique hotels are a big investment, as their start up costs are quite high and the marketing is costly, as it needs to be continuous (Enz, 2009). The cost varies depending on the location, number of rooms, and the additional amenities in the premises.
Buying an already existing property and renovating it to fit the desired design and needs is generally more cost effective than developing a new project from scratch. With limited finances, one should consider remote, scenic locations, suburban locations, or renovating an old city hotel in a transitional neighborhood, where property values are rising; this is not only cheaper, but it also has favorable future prospects (Yanos, 2008).
It is not easy to find funding for boutique hotels, as non-branded lifestyle hotels are seen as a risky investment (Dubois, 2010). One can also consider partnership with an investment group that will help with the financing of the project be it building, or acquiring reposition, to the desired standard under agreed terms.
This is particularly important because with the financial pressure reduced, one can concentrate on the quality of the project. Commercial loans, which are tailor-made to suit boutique hotel financing, are also a viable option although at a higher cost. Partnerships also play an important role in the financing of the business and the partners can vary from affluent hoteliers interested in new ventures to other businessmen.
Architecture and Design The focus should be in style, distinction, warmth, and intimacy. There are no standards, but each design should fulfill individual needs. The right design, destination, and location determine the success of the hotel (Yanos, 2008). The location determines style and materials used, be it stone, timber or even logs.
The hotel should be designed to reflect or blend with the area, taking advantage of what the area has to offer. For instance, beach resorts may take advantage of the oceanfronts and water for swimming or creating swimming pools using salty water, or log cabin rooms in the wild to blend in with nature. Successful resort boutique hotels unite traditional architecture with the comfort of luxury and modernization without losing the personality of the local community.
The design should have a theme, and the selected theme should attract all senses (Dubois, 2010). Different themes can be incorporated in different rooms to create a personal touch that appeals to individuals.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The target market, which is usually between early 20’s to mid 50’s mid- to upper-income groups, should be represented and the style and design should describe their characteristics. Skilled operators in the boutique segment increasingly use psychographics to understand and define their customers.
Psychographic is a marketing classification used to define customers by attributes such as lifestyle, aspirations, interests, attitudes, and beliefs. For example, Joie de Vivre hotels- create each of its hotels around a reader-base of a popular but specialist magazine such as Rolling Stone. This is the theme behind their first hotel, The Phoenix, which opened in San Fransisco in 1987 (Dubois, 2010).
Themes could be romance, music, wildlife, historic details, or fashion. The lighting, colors, music, or art can be used selectively to appeal to all senses and create a feeling of intimacy (Yanos, 2008). The idea of a boutique hotel is entertainment in its own nature; hence, the exceptional themes and visually spectacular decorations are a necessity.
Amenities In the hospitality industry, the primary goal should be getting people to become regulars, hence the emphasis should be more on service than on the amenities; however, luxury is necessary (Stellin, 2007). Plan the amenities to meet the needs of the target clientele while at the same time defining the hotels’ niche. In addition, it is important to invest in fine furnishings, comfortable beds, quality artworks, fine linens, good quality toiletries, extra pillows, and comfortable chairs (Atkinson, 2007).
Small things matter to clients and hence there is need to pay attention to the fine details that make the whole difference in a room. Regardless of the comfort, luxury, and style, one should compete at a practical level, hence the need to have current trend amenities such as
Flat screen plasma televisions
Cable television networks
Air conditioning, traditional spa services
Rose petal baths
Bar and grill
These should be available to provide a competitive edge (Stellin, 2007). Moreover, the investor should always aim and be willing to go an extra mile in order to attract and retain clients with complementary packages such as honeymoon packages, wine and champagne art and painting sessions, guests’ favorite CD collection, and buffet breakfast.
Service The common feature that all boutique hotels have is the emphasis on quality service that is personalized in a professional manner. The approach and attitude, but not the size, defines a boutique hotel (Dubois, 2010). The stay-to-guest ratio should be high in order to cater for every possible need that a client may be having.
This may means a high payroll, but it pays off in customer loyalty and the clients do not mind paying extra for the comfort. Lastly, it is important to allow the staff to memorize guest names and encourage friendly interaction to make the guests’ stay memorable. The staff of a boutique hotel should predict or know in advance, the needs and requirements of the guests and deliver to their guests’ expectation (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Boutique Hotels: Starting and Running by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketing Develop a high-quality product to appeal to an understanding clientele (Tisch, 2007). Simply, it is the experience and image that are sold, rather than the product itself. Marketing an independent boutique hotel has financial and other resources restrictions because marketing needs to be continuous (Dunne, Lusch,
Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of information Systems to a business
Introduction An information system comprises of all constituents that collect, proliferate and disseminate data. In most cases, these comprise the hardware, people, software, communication systems and the information itself. Information systems conduct various activities that include processing data in to information, input of data, data storage and the production of outputs (Moin, 2006). For these reasons, most contemporary businesses have integrated systems of information technology in their management.
Benefits of information Systems to a business Correct utilization of information systems by the management of a business can offer a great deal of operational effectiveness and accurateness. In contemporary business world, this is similar to the competitive advantage of the business (Sharrieff, 2011). Moin (2006) affirms that in most cases, information systems sustain and sometimes comprise the competitive advantage of a business. In this case, information systems sustain all the sustainable competitive advantages of a business.
Incorporation of information systems helps employees to give greater level of services to their consumers, especially the employees who are in contact with customers. This means that information systems are at most times fundamental in running business activities in the modern world since the employees offer better services to the consumers.
Businesses achieve more productive business decisions that have positive influence on the company’s bottom line due to suitable utilization of the information systems offered by the company (Sharrieff, 2011).
Information systems can decrease the number of administrative employees as well as the number of hours an employee will work in comparison with the manual performance of a similar process. This occurs since the duty that an employee was supposed to perform happen to be performed by the machine.
This effectiveness permits the organization to gather benefits in other areas. For instance, a company can offer a lower bid for a certain contract than its rival company due to the reduced costs linked with the execution of effective information systems (Webster, 2011).
In the modern world, computer networks permits the multinational companies to offer real time services at all times all over the world. Improved technology of the computers and the information systems helps in meeting consumers’ requests and their relocation across the nations and time zones even without the customers’ consent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the Sealand Services Inc. which is a global based shipping company in the United States executed a new proprietary shipping management system that mechanized customer transactions worldwide. These customer transactions included order taking and document management (Stephens, 2011).
Information systems play a major role in supporting business processes and operations. They achieve this through recording and storing sales information, acquisition data, savings data, payroll data, and other accounting information. Information systems also aid in storing and recording inventory data, equipment repair and maintenance data, work in process data, supply chain data and other production records.
The human brain is not capable of storing all the necessary data that a company requires and thus the use of information systems is relevant. Information systems are also helpful in recording and storing customer purchase histories, market data, customer profiles, marketing research data, advertising data and other marketing records (Moin, 2006).
In most companies, execution of information systems occurs in order to offer self-services to employees and the consumers. If companies and businesses grant permission to customers and employees to gain access and make changes to their own account data rather than presenting a paper request, the response time will radically decrease. Electronic communications such as email reach the receiver faster than communication sent through traditional paper modes (Webster, 2011).
For a company to ensure that their management information system is pertinent and offers the greatest level of profit, they must plan purposely for their business entity. Even though most software packages offer a level of usefulness to a business venture, it is essential that the system that a business executes addresses the informational necessities and utilization behavior of every person who will take part in the operational effort (Sharrieff, 2011).
Information technology mechanizes some of the information systems. For instance, Dell Computers has a system where there is no human interference in their various operations including taking orders from customers, delivery of constituents to the Dell factory for assemblage as well as shipment to the consumers. Through the company’s website, the company can acquire an order for a personal computer directly from a customer (Moin, 2006).
Information systems aid in reducing errors that are common when performing processes manually. The access to error-free reports guarantees that the organizational leaders have access to the required information needed to make well-informed decisions. Reduction of response time enables leaders to make better verdicts than they might have otherwise done. With the aid of effective information systems, leaders can make efficient decisions in an appropriate manner (Webster, 2011).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Information Systems Role in Contemporary Businesses specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion It is evident that information systems are vital components of a business. They increase the competitive advantage of a business in various ways. In addition, information systems accelerate the globalization of business and trade. This offers multinational companies a suitable ground to reach many customers. In contemporary business world, most businesses have integrated information systems in their business management to accelerate their business performance and eventually increase sales.
References Moin, U. (2006). Information Systems and Technology. Web.
Sharrieff, M. (2011). The Impact of a Management Information System. Web.
Stephens, D.O. (2011). The Globalization of Information Technology in Multinational Corporations. Web.
Webster, A. (2011). Tangible Benefits of Information Systems. Web.
Rise of England as a European Power Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents The War of the Roses (1455-1487)
Background information: War of the Roses
The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty
The rise of England as a European power involved various strategies including use of religion, marriages, and weapons in war. In other cases, kings emphasized on trade, learning, and explorations. This document details the emergence of several kings of England and the strategies they used to conquer other empires. Kings also had various means of retaining power to protect their territories. This in turn facilitated the rise of England as a European power as discussed below.
The War of the Roses (1455-1487) The War of the Roses as discussed in history books compounded continuous battles that supporters of the House of Lancaster (Lancastrians) and the House of York (Yorkists) engaged in (Markham, 1983). The representation of the Yorkists by a white rose and the Lancastrians by a red rose led to the emergence of the name “War of the Roses” (Markham, 1983).
The dominant noble families inclined to any of the houses and fought in various Civil Wars, which culminated to the victory of Lancastrians and crowning of Henry Tudor as King (Markham, 1983).
Background information: War of the Roses The reign of Edward III and power struggles between his sons after his death is considered the primary cause of Wars of the Roses (Markham, 1983). The four eldest sons of King Edward included the Black Prince (heir apparent), Lionel of Antwerp (Duke of Clarence), John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) and Edmund of Langley (Duke of York) (Starkey, 2003).
After King Edward III’s death in 1377, his grandson Richard II became king arising from the fact that his eldest son had died from plague in1376. Richard II was hardly ten years old and therefore his uncle John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) took over to rule the country (Markham, 1983). Richard grew older and became rebellious to his uncle’s rule.
The death of John of Gaunt in 1399 brought forth a new dimension into the country’s rule. This is because after his uncle’s death, Richard II forcefully took the land owned by his uncle. However, John of Gaunt’s son Henry prepared an army, which saw the surrender of Richard. Consequently, Henry crowned himself Henry IV and took over the throne.
This saw the establishment of the reign of the Lancastrian as Kings. Soon after, Richard was imprisoned in Pontefract castle where he met his mysterious death in February 1400 (Starkey, 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since Henry IV was not the rightful heir to the throne after the death of Richard II, he faced numerous setbacks. Arguably, Edmund Earl of March the great grandson of Lionel Duke of Clarence was the rightful heir to the throne (Starkey, 2003). Fortunately, Henry was able to consolidate his position on the throne. As such, when he died in 1413, his son Henry V succeeded him without setbacks (Starkey, 2003).
Henry V was a strong leader. He won the Battle of Agincourt in1415 among the numerous battles that he won (John, 2007). He also conquered Normandy and Rouen for England. He married the daughter of the King of France. Because of his premature death in 1422, his son Henry VI was crowned the king of England and France (John, 2007).
At his father’s death, Henry VI was hardly four months and therefore his uncle ruled the two countries on his behalf (John, 2007). The French monarchy was restored after Joan of Arc raised military in opposition to the English. Henry married Margaret of Anjou and as he became older, it was evident that he was going to be a weak (Markham, 1983).
Consequently, the Yorkists planned to take over the thrown from him. He condoned corruption and the country went broke despite of the high level of taxation. In his reign, trade declined while great Lords interfered with the judicial system and Parliamentary elections (Markham, 1983). Unrests were common and in 1450, there was a revolt in London headed by Jack Cade. Citizens laid their hopes on the duke of York to instigate change (Markham, 1983).
On 22 May 1455, the first battle of the Wars of the Roses occurred at St Albans (Markham, 1983). Richard, the Duke of York led the Yorkists to defeat the king’s army with ease. Subsequently, Henry VI was captured and imprisoned.
Richard of York was made protector of England after Henry suffered a bout of insanity from 1455 to February 1456 (Hawes, 2009). After his recovery, his wife Margret advised him to reverse many of the decisions made by the Yorkists. The decisions included the appointment of Warwick’s as the captain of Calais that was reverted back to Henry Beaufort the new III Duke of Somerset (Markham, 1983).
Lancastrians were ordered by Margaret to attack Salisbury at Blore Heath on September 1459. They lost to the Yorkists. Henry and Margaret later confronted York, Warwick and Salisbury with a force of 30,000 in the battle of Ludford Bridge on October 1459 (Markham, 1983). Calais men defected to the Henry’s side. The Yorkists dissolved and fled.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Rise of England as a European Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Warwick fled to the South East and ended up in Sandwich. Here, he raised an army of 25000 people (Markham, 1983). With this, he confronted Henry’s army at the battle of Northampton on July 1460. Yorkists won because the commander in charge of Henry’s front line betrayed him and joined the Yorkists.
In addition, Buckingham, John Talbot V Earl of Shrewsbury, Beaumont, and Egremont were killed (Horrox, 1989). However, York on return from Ireland claimed the throne. In1460, the parliament passed an Act of Accord that left Henry as King, but York’s heirs would be Henry’s successor (Horrox, 1989).
Margaret was infuriated by the decision to deny her son (Edward) the right to the throne. On this account, she decided to form another Lancastrian army. Jasper Tudor organized an army in Wales, Holland, and Somerset in the West Country while Percy, III Earl of Northumberland with John Clifford rose in the north (Markham, 1983).
The combined total of forces was 15000 men (Horrox, 1989). York heard about Margaret’s location in Pontefract and decided to go to his castle at Sandal south of Wakefield. York infuriated by breaking of Christmas peace, marched out of his castle but he was ambushed in the Battle of Wakefield. York and Salisbury’s son Thomas Neville were murdered (Horrox, 1989).
On the other hand, York’s son was in Pembroke and Wiltshire where he had been sent. He won the battle of Mortimer’s Cross on 2 February 1461. Margaret’s forces at the second battle of St. Albans intercepted Warwick on 17 February 1461, as he left London to meet with March (Horrox, 1989). The Lancastrians won prompting Warwick to flee with the remainder of his soldiers.
Norfolk Warwick and his uncle Lord Fauconberg formed forces in the south East, Midlands, and West Country. They combined forces with the rest of the Yorkists army led by Richard’s son Edward, the Earl of March. In the Battle of Ferrybridge, on 28 March 1461, Lord Fauconberg was killed (Horrox, 1989). The two armies met again in the battle of Towton the following day. Lancastrians lost and most of their noble men were killed (Markham, 1983).
Edward was crowned the king on 28 June1461 and Warwick was reinstated as the Captain of England (Hawes, 2009). Edward and Warwick fell out over issues relating to foreign policies. Edward lost in the battle of Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469 and was imprisoned at Warwick castle. Later, Edward fled to the protection of his friend Duke of Burgundy. He later won in the Battle of ‘Lose-Coat’ Field on 12 March 1470 after gathering support from Charolais, Duke of Burgundy (Markham, 1983).
Warwick and Clarence sought refuge in France where they met Henry’s wife, Margaret. King Louis provided them with funds, forces and sixty ships for battle (Hawes, 2009). In exchange, Henry VI was reinstated as king. Henry VI regained the throne in 1470 and was crowned king on 13 October 1470 (Hawes, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise of England as a European Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under Warwick’s rule, an alliance between England and France proposed an invasion of Burgundy. Charolais, Duke of Burgundy facilitated Edward with provision like ships, manpower, and funds to invade England. The sail was on 11 March 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward used his wit to gain public confidence and raised his forces even more.
Edward went to London where his supporters accepted him back. He defeated Henry in the Battle of Tewkesbury and was crowned king as Edward IV (Hawes, 2009). He set out for Warwick. In the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471, the Lancastrians were defeated and Warwick was killed (Hawes, 2009).
Through Edward’s order, Henry was killed in May 1471 (Hawes, 2009). Edward IV remained in power until 1483 when he died suddenly from chill and soon the country went back to mayhem again (Hawes, 2009). Queen Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI sought refuge to Wales with her son. Jaspar Tudor who was Henry’s half brother accepted them (Hawes, 2009).
After the death of Edward IV, his two sons Edward and Richard were too young to rule (Hawes, 2009). Thus, their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester took over the leadership of England. The two princes mysteriously disappeared in 1483 from the Tower of London where they had been taken (Horrox, 1989).
It is alleged that their uncle killed them. Richard was subsequently crowned Richard III on 6 July 1483 (Horrox, 1989). Richard III’s position in the throne faced numerous hitches especially from Henry Tudor. This was the grandson of Owen Tudor the second husband to Henry V’s wife Katherine of Valois (Williams, 1996).
Henry Tudor prepared an invasion with the support of Charles III the King of France. On 7 August 1485, a 3000 force landed in Wales and kept adding more on their walk (Hawes, 2009). A Lancastrian army that was raised by Henry Tudor in the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 defeated the Yorkists (Hawes, 2009). Despite the fact that Henry had a less force of about 6000 men, he defeated Richard who had 10000 men and was a more experienced commander in the field (Gravett, 1999).
Richard III was killed in the battle and Henry found his crown on the battlefield (Gravett, 1999). Henry placed the crown on his head and he was crowned king on 30 October 1485 (Gravett, 1999). The following year, he married Elizabeth of York (the daughter of Edward IV) uniting the two houses of Lancaster and York (Gravett, 1999). This union put to an end to the War of Roses.
In summary, the War of Roses started with irreversible disagreements between the ruling Houses of Lancaster (Lancastrian) and York (Yorkists). It was referred to as the War of Roses because a red rose represented the Lancastrians while a white rose represented the Yorkists (Gravett, 1999).
Yorkists (Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III) reigned. However, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth field and crowned himself Henry VII (Gravett, 1999). This marked the beginning of new royal dynasty. His marriage to a York’s daughter brought to an end the Wars of the Roses (Chrimes, 1972). He later gained the trust of his subjects when he overcame a claimant at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487.
The Rebirth of Tudor and the Tudor Dynasty During this era, King Henry VII overcame adversaries to his new dynasty and promoted noble writs and commissions. The era was characterized by political and social strengthening. In this era, there was increase in births and businesses thrived (Gravett, 1999). Tudor cared for the people and their welfare was his main interest. He endeavored to stop wars and foreign conflicts (Chrimes, 1972). This marked the beginning of social change.
The royal couple had eight children though only four survived. They were two boys (Arthur and Henry) and two girls (Margaret and Mary) (Kilkenny, 2007). Margaret wedded King James IV of Scotland fostering a peaceful coalition (Gravett, 1999).
During the reign of Henry VII, John Cabot made a major discovery. He discovered the New World in 1494 (Busch, 1895). However, John Cabot discovered that he was likely to lose his right to the great discovery since Spanish examination tried to supersede him with Christopher Columbus. Thus, he sought to obtain Royal Charter for his discovery, which was granted by the king in 1496 (Kilkenny, 2007).
In order to promote the union between Spain and England, the oldest son of King Henry and Catherine of Aragon were affianced (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine and Prince Arthur were married in November 1501 (Kilkenny, 2007). Prince Arthur died five months later of a mysterious disease while his mother Elizabeth died 10 months later in childbirth at 37 years of age (Kilkenny, 2007). Catherine should have returned to Spain but she did not. She was ordered to stay to be engaged to Henry, a younger brother of Arthur (John, 2007).
The marriage of Catherine to the king of England would promote obedience to the Papal Bull of Borgia that had been proclaimed in England in 1494 (John, 2007). She would also see to it that England would not conflict with Spain over the ownership of the New World (Mattingly, 1941).
King Henry and his son Henry were opposed to a re-marriage of Henry to Catherine. This is because the death of Arthur was seen as a bad omen (Mattingly, 1941). In addition, Isabella of Castile died in 1504 worsening the matters (Mattingly, 1941). Catherine started planning to go back to Spain.
However, the arrival of a Franciscan called Fry Diego Fernandez altered everything. He is believed to have poisoned the king in order to maintain the alliance of Spain and England through the marriage of Catherine to Henry (Mattingly, 1941). The king died at an early age of 52 in 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007). Soon after his death, Henry became king and revoked all the policies of his father. Indeed, he executed his father’s advisers at the Tower. He was crowned king on 24 June 1509 (Kilkenny, 2007).
During the reign of Henry VIII, Martin Luther posted 95 Theses meant to start blessed Reformation to the church door in 1517 (Kilkenny, 2007). Henry immediately opposed the Reformation. Unlike his father, Henry VIII cared little about the people who liked partying. He admired beautiful girls (Kilkenny, 2007).
Consequently, he had met Anne Boleyn and because Catherine could not produce a male heir, he wanted to divorce her and marry Anne. The divorce would break the alliance between England and Spain and had therefore to be stopped. The Pope postponed until the king became impatient with Rome and declared himself Supreme Head of the church (Kilkenny, 2007). Later, he proclaimed himself pope of England. Subsequently, Henry married Anne on 25 January 1533 (Starkey, 2003).
The break between England and Rome made reformation in England a reality. Queen Anne reigned for 1000 days between 1533 and 1536 (Starkey, 2003). She made strong enemies among the Roman Catholics since she favored reformation (Kilkenny, 2007). She had many miscarriages but nonetheless, she had one surviving daughter later to become Queen Elizabeth I. she ended up becoming England’s greatest queen.
Bloody Mary reigned only for 5 years (1553-1558) and these were the bloodiest years in the history of England (Kilkenny, 2007). Due to refusal to convert to catholic, over 500 people were burned and they included Archbishop Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, Bishop Rochester among others (Warnicke, 1989). Bloody Mary married Philip II of Spain but died childless after failing to produce an heir (John, 2007).
Gloriana the virgin Queen Elizabeth became queen on 17 November 1558 and reigned for 45 years (Kilkenny, 2007). During this period, both Spain and England were engaged in great efforts for world domination. It is during her reign that pope Pius excommunicated her in 1570. During this period also, Sir France Drake discovered California and the Spanish Amanda was defeated (Kilkenny, 2007). Queen Elizabeth paid for the creation of the Gaelic tongue, in Ireland (Olden, 1892).
In conclusion, the Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603 and James IV of Scotland became James I of England (Kilkenny, 2007). He witnessed completion of the translation of the bible in 1611and was referred to as the Authorized or the King James Version (Kilkenny, 2007).
The Pilgrim father formed the first colony in the new world in 1620 that later grew to be the United States of Cabotia (Kilkenny, 2007). The Stuart Dynasty ended in 1688 and thereafter in 1694, the Bank of England was fully fledged and this gave English government authority over bankers and moneychangers (Kilkenny, 2007).
Reference List Chrimes, S. B. (1972). Henry VII. California: University of California Press.
Gravett, C. (1999). Bosworth 1485: last Charge of the Plantagenets. Oxford: Osprey.
Hawes, P. (2009). Wars of the Roses: Lancaster Vs York. Rule book. New York: Z-Man Games, Inc.
Horrox, R. (1989). Richard III. A study of Service. Cambridge.: Cambridge University Press.
John, C. (2007). The Tudor Monarchy. Web.
Kilkenny, N. (2007). Life and Times of King Henry VII and VIII. Retrieved from http://www.reformation.org/king-henry.pdf
Markham, R. (1983). Henry V: Four Battles from the Hundred Years War. Cambria, CA: 3W. Game.
Mattingly, G. (1941). Catherine of Aragon. New York: Vintage books.
Olden, T. (1892). History of the Church of Ireland. London: Welles, Gardener, Darton and Co.
Starkey, D. (2003). Six Wives: the Queens of Henry VIII. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Williams, D.T. (1996). The Battle of Bosworth field: 22nd August 1485. Leicester, UK: Bosworth Publications-Leicestershire County Council.
California State Assembly district Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help
Introduction Elections in the California State Assembly district are guided by the California law. According to this law, any candidate aspiring for any office in the California State Assembly district must gather a certain amount of signatures from the registered voters in the district in the case of a recall.
In most cases, the number of signatures required from the aspirant by the California law must equal 12 percent of the total number of votes cast during the previous election for the seat. It is worth noting that the signatures must be certified by the election panel before a person is declared a candidate for a particular seat (Baldassare, 2002).
After certification of the signatures, the candidates are free to launch their campaign for the specific office. The schedule for the election under the Californian law is supposed to be determined by the governor. However, there exist regular schedules for elections in the California State Assembly.
If a recall to the assembly falls in less than 180 days prior to the regular election schedules, the California law requires such a recall to be part of the regular election schedule. In case of a recall against a governor occurs, the responsibility of determining the special election is given to the lieutenant governor (Mona, 2011).
Research indicates that the California state assembly has had the highest number of recalls compared to other states in America. According to Field (201, p.20), a recall gives citizens an opportunity to replace a public official before the end of their term in office. This happens in the event that the citizens loose confidence in the leadership of a given leader. Traditionally, recalls have been common to leaders holding junior offices. The most recalled seats in the California State Assembly district according to Baldassare (2002) are include that of the city council and members to the boards of schools.
The passing of the Open Primary System on the 14th of June 2010 and the New Legislation Boundaries on 20th of November 2010 changed California’s Congressional and State Legislative delegations. These changes, which are to be effected during the 2012 general election, will make California the state the largest number of delegates and legislators in America.
For instance, these legislations will increase California’s congressional delegates to 53 and the state legislators to 120. The interpretation of these according to Mona (2011) is that new faces will see their way into the California’s congressional and legislative assembly. In addition, this is expected to bring significant changes to the public policy priorities in the state of California (Field 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proposition 14 in the California state election legislations require only the top two vote-getters to proceed to the general election, irrespective of their political parties. The aim of this legislation according to Baldassare (2002) is to eliminate the traditional party nominations forces.
It also allows the congress and state legislature to contact comprehensive campaigns that would attract support from the whole district. Aspirants in thee California state assembly district should therefore be more ambitious in their campaigns by committing both their resources and time to the campaigns.
The results of this type of campaigns in California are that only the candidate who has a district appeal has the highest chance of being elected. It makes elections in the California state assembly district individual based by divorcing it from party politics. With these changes in place, the 2012 general election is expected to be characterized by more fiercely campaigns than ever before in the history of California state assembly district politics.
The state of California deserves a change in terms of the representatives. This is based on the fact that the above mentioned changes aim at bringing new faces in the state’s leadership. In this case, the newly elected members and the incumbents, in case of any former representatives will be elected, may be presenting totally different constituents.
The newly elected officeholders are expected to bring significant changes in the running of the political politics of California State. In addition to the above mentioned changes, the California for a fresh Start (CFS) initiative is expected to bring into the election laws further changes concerning elections in the state. For instance, this initiative aims at reducing the term of holding a public office from 14 years to 12 years (Baldassare 2002)
Conclusion Despite the argument by political analysts that the service of officeholders improves with their increasing time in office, I am of the opinion that the current State Assemblyman in California should be voted out. For me, new leaders should be elected into office because they bring with them new opinions and ideas.
Research has indicated that the more a leader remains in office, the more he or she becomes reluctant in his or her work. The much the current State Assemblyman in California would have done has already done and according to me, voting him back will deny the state new changes in terms of development and leadership strategies.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on California State Assembly district specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Baldassare, M. (2002). A Californian state of mind: The Conflicted Voter in a Changing World. New York: Oxford University press.
Field, G. P. (2011). Struggle for Democracy with California Government and Politics today. London: Pearson Education.
Mona, F. (2011). California Government and Politics Today: London: Longman Publishers.
A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction: Summary The main theme in a Doll’s House play is feminist of the time. Nora and Helmer is a model husband and wife, living in peace and harmony in their family until Mrs. Linde, an older friend to Nora made a visit in their home in search of a job. Nora manages to secure a job for Mrs. Linde, but unfortunately pushes Mr. Krogstad an accused forger out of his job. Generally, in this play Henrik Ibsen pointedly captures the inferior role of women in Victorian society through his doll motif.
The play ‘A Doll’s House’ is one of the controversial plays, where Nora’s decision actions to dump her kids is contradictory to her thoughts as she thinks that her kids need her more than she needs her own freedom. The author of the play believed that women were made to be mothers and wives.
Moreover, he brings some idea of having an eye for the injustice on the female characters. Although, feminists would later hold him, Ibsen was not an activist of women’s rights; he only handled the problem of women’s right as an aspect of realism within the play.
The key theme of this play is Nora’s insurgence against society and everything that was really expected of her (Ibsen 140). During her era, women were not expected to be self-reliant but were to remain supportive to their husbands, take care of the kids, cook, clean, and make everything perfect around the house.
When Nora took a loan to pay for her husband’s medical bill, this raised a lot of questions and problems in the minds of many individuals from the community, as it was taken as act against the community norms for women to take up a loan without their husbands’ knowledge.
She proved that she was not submissive and helpless as her husband Torvalds thought she was. Thus the author referred her as “poor helpless little creature.” A good example of Torvald thought control and Nora’s submissiveness was when she got him to remind her tarantella, she knew the dance style but she acted as if she needed him to re-teach her everything.
When he said to her “watching you swing and dance the tarantella makes my blood rush” (Ibsen 125), this clearly shows that he is more interested in her physically than emotionally. Then when asked him to stop he said to her, “am I not your husband?” once more this is another example of Torvald’s control over Nora, and how he thinks that Nora is there to fulfill his every desire on command.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage
Marriage is another aspect that the play addresses; the main message seems to be that, a true working marriage is a joining of equals. In the beginning, Helmers looks happy but as the play progress, the imbalance between them becomes apparent. At the end, their marriage breaks because of lack of misunderstanding among them. They fail to realize themselves and to act as equals. (Johnston 671)
Women and Feminist
Throughout the play, Nora breaks away from the control of her arrogant husband, Torvald. The playwright, Ibsen denies that he wrote a feminist play. Still, throughout the play there is steady talk of women, their traditional roles, and price for them of defying with the traditions. (Johnston 570)
Men and masculinity
Men in this play are trapped by general traditional gender responsibilities. They are seen as the chief providers of the family and they should be in charge of supporting the entire household. Men must be the perfect kings of their respective palace. We see these traditional ideas put across at the end of the play.
Respect and Reputation
The men in this play are occupied with their reputation. Some men have the integrity in their society and do anything to protect it. Even if the play setup is in a living room, the public eye is portrayed through the curtains.
In within the play, ‘A Doll’s House’, the characters spend a lot of time discussing their wealth. Some characters are financially stable and promise for a free flowing money in the future while others struggle to make the end meet. (Ibsen 132)
Love has been given a priority in the play where good time has been used on the topic but in the end, Helmers realize that there was their no true love between them. Romantic love is seen for two of the other characters, but for the main character, true love is pathetic (Ibsen 200).
There are some examples in the play where this aspect is used, in Act 1 where Torvald condemns Krogstad for forgery and not coming forward. He also mentions that this action corrupts children’s mind. As a reader, you should know that this is very important to Nora because we know that she had committed forgery in the play and kept it a secret from Torvald. (Johnston 603)
We will write a custom Essay on A Doll’s House by Norway’s Henrik Ibsen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It’s ironic when Torvald says that he pretends Nora is in some kind of trouble, and he waits the time he can rescue her. When the truth is known and Torvald has been given a chance to save Nora, he is all concerned with his reputation (Ibsen 128).
He abused her by calling her names such as featherbrain; he is not interested with rescuing Nora is interested on how he escapes out of this mess without affecting his reputation negatively. Then, when krogstad brings back the IOU document, Torvald shouts that he is rescued and he has forgiven Nora. Ironically, he did not even consider that she had borrowed the money earlier to save him.
Christmas and New Year
The play is set during the holiday period. Its Christmas period for the Helmers and New Year celebration is approaching. Both Christmas and New Year are associated with rebirth and renewal (Johnston 589).
Several characters in the play go through a rebirth process both Nora and Torvald go through a spiritual awakening, which can be taken as a rebirth. When things fail to happen, she realizes that it will not be possible for her to be a fully realized person until she divorces her husband. Finally, at the end of the play Helmer and Nora have been reborn.
Works Cited Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Methuen Drama, 2000. Print.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Faber and Faber, 1997. Print.
Johnston, Brian. Ibsen has Selected Plays: A Norton Critical Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.
Garbage Pollution Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Solutions and Recommendations
Introduction Human activities are largely attributed to the loss of the planet’s biodiversity. The impact of man on the environment is so enormous since he has facilitated the rate of species extinction a thousand to ten thousand times the normal rate (Derraik, 2002). The extinction of marine life for instance, has been accelerated by waste debris and the global climatic variations.
The twenty first century has been marked by a dramatic technological advancement that has uplifted the standard of living. However, this has also come with a great cost since the materials produced are difficult to dispose without affecting the environment. Plastic bags, household garbage and electronic waste are such products, which have posed a great risk to the environment since the means of disposing them is difficult (Derraik, 2002).
Thesis: Garbage remains are a burning problem that we have to face today. It is close to everyone who lives in the world because we product trash every day. In most of the world, we do one of two things with our ordinary garbage: burn it or bury it. Neither one is good for us or for the environment. Burning garbage in incinerators releases dangerous gases and dust which contribute to global warming and pollute lakes, forests. How to reduce the garbage remains become a big issue for everyone.
Land Pollution Typical house hold waste contains papers, cardboards, chlorine-bleached plastics, foils, food scraps and batteries (EPA, 2011). Averagely, in the U.S, a single person can produce 3.72 pounds garbage daily, where 40% of 50 million people living in the non-metropolitan region of the nation are estimated to burn their waste (backyard burning), while 63% of the total daily garbage is incinerated in burn barrels. As a result, more than 1.8 billion pounds of garbage from household is incinerated in burn barrels annually (MDEQ, 2005).
According to Hill (2010 p.345), more than ‘500 billion one-time-use plastic bags’ are used annually in the world and end up being littered ubiquitously to comprise waste/misuse. At the same time, plastics are non-biodegradable and burying them only destroys the ecosystem, posing a hazard to marine ecosystems. Plastics are polymeric, highly non-biodegradable and persist for a long time in the natural environments (Hill, 2010).
Electronic wastes/e-waste comprises of discarded electronic appliances such as computers, phones, TV, and fringes. These are hazardous when improperly disposed in landfills or when incinerated. For instance, the Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) present in televisions contains phosphors and lead that contaminates the land and water if improperly disposed, or when there is transfer of the ash from the incinerators. Such landfills contaminate the surrounding soil which in turn contaminates the underground water (MDEQ, 2005).
Air Pollution Plastics are derivatives of fossils fuels with varied chemical properties hence, complicating the recycling process. Therefore, burning garbage particularly the ones containing plastics, pollute the atmosphere through emission of toxic gases. Many have volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) such as chlorine/bromine that are released on burning and destroy the ozone layer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Carbon dioxide and monoxide released from burning organic matter also accumulates in the atmosphere. Ultimately, they deplete the ozone layer resulting to global warming, which is the chief facilitator of climate change (MDEQ, 2005).
PVC in particular, releases dioxin upon burning. Dioxin is an organic chemical, which has detrimental health effects when inhaled since they are carcinogenic and bio-accumulative. Incineration emits flue gas that contains hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as carbon monoxide and dioxide, nitrogen oxides, benzene, styrene, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), furans as well as heavy metals like lead, arsenic and mercury, which significantly pollute the environment (MDEQ, 2005).
Burn barrels release smoke containing hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde, which irritates the respiratory system and eyes. Formaldehyde is present in pressed wood and paints. On the other hand, bleached papers and plastics contain chlorine, which releases dioxins when combusted with other garbage at minimal temperatures.
Dioxins cause cancer, immune system dysfunction and birth defects (EPA, 2011). On the same note, statistics from 2002 to 2004 indicates that backyard and barrel burning comprised 57% of the source of furans and dioxins (U.S. Department of Health, 2011; EPA, 2011).
More so, combusting garbage with synthetic materials emits heavy metals that are carcinogenic and implicated with some birth defects. Combusting polystyrene polymers present in foam cups and plastic packaging produce styrene gas that can pass through skin as well as lungs and mucous membranes to cause damage to the central nervous system (U.S. Department of Health, 2011).
Water Pollution Some plastics and electronic wastes go ahead to breakdown into simpler toxic products that pollute the underground as well as the running water when buried or left to litter in dumpsites. After incineration of electronic wastes and plastics, the ashes finally find their way in rivers and lakes thus posing a hazard to marine life.
Mercury, dioxins, Furans and PCBs bioaccumulate in the ecosystem and therefore, they are transferred through the food chain. When plastics pile together due to poor disposal, they clog drainages and sewers leading to floods, where mosquitoes and other pathogens breed causing poor sanitation with serious health implications (Derraik, 2002).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Garbage Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ash from incinerators may contain hazardous products, which when buried or placed in the landfills, contaminate the soil. Mostly, they contain heavy metals most of which are carcinogenic e.g. cadmium, lead mercury from batteries as well as chromium and arsenic from treated wood. These accumulate in plants or contaminate ground and running water.
Garbage debris moves to the oceans, killing the marine life such as zooplankton and marine turtles. Garbage discarded in beaches and from ships into the waterways or through fishing nets could ultimately be eaten by marine life, obscuring their digestive systems. Some are strangled, entangled or trapped by the debris causing the organisms to drown/starve, become exposed to predators or unable to hunt their prey.
These are some of deleterious impacts of marine debris facilitated by garbage littering, which jeopardize the existence of these organisms (Derraik, 2002). The ingested plastics also contain polychlorinated biphenyls that are hazardous to invader species. Moreover, the marine ecosystems also face the danger of hypoxia/anoxia, due to garbage debris that imbalance its usual functioning (Derraik, 2002).
Solutions and Recommendations The economic implications of garbage cannot be ignored since enormous amount of money is spent in clearing and treating the litter, addressing public health concerns and recycling. International legislations and cooperation should be oriented towards conserving the environment through proper disposal of garbage, recycling of plastic and use of alternative packaging that are biodegradable or long lasting bags that can be reused severally.
Moreover, public awareness should be enhanced through education of the wider community through the school curriculum. International relations facilitated by the concept of ‘Thinking globally and acting locally’ significantly address the environmental threat posed by garbage disposal (Derraik, 2002).
Garbage pollution can be managed through recycling measures or banning of plastic bags used in packaging. Alternative ecofriendly means of packaging should be drafted while high taxes should be imposed on the manufacturer and consumers of these plastics. Electronic waste can also be recycled and refurbished. ‘Reduce’, ‘Reuse’ and ‘Recycle’ are the 3Rs that go a long way in handling the issue of garbage.
Pre-cycle entails selecting items that are less packaged or those that can be reused. Reuse of old papers, plastic bags and cans, offering old clothes for charity as well as using a coffee mug rather than disposable cups is crucial. Reduce, refers to minimizing the household garbage through purchasing economy packs and avoiding wastage of papers. Recycling of plastics and papers, cardboards and even e-waste should be upheld (U. S. Department of Health, 2011).
Biodegradable garbage should be left to decompose in a composite pit while the rest should be placed in licensed landfills. To sum it all, backyard burning should be regulated in all countries particularly in the rural regions since it does not only pollute the air but also comprises a significant emission of toxic residue that poses a high risk to the public health and more so, decrease the quality of life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Garbage Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burn barrels that facilitate incomplete combustion to emit very toxic compounds should be regulated. Therefore, licensed incinerators with filters and temperatures exceeding 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit to facilitate complete combustion, should be embraced to minimize hazardous emissions.
References Derraik, J. G. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842-852.
Hill, M. K. (2010). Understanding Environmental Pollution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). (2005). Backyard Burn Barrels Vs. Municipal Waste Combustors. Retrieved from https://www.michigan.gov/
U. S. Department of Health. (2011). Does Burning Trash Make it Disappear: Stop Backyard Burning. Retrieved from https://www.health.ny.gov/environmental/outdoors/air/trash.htm
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011). Outdoor Air – Industry, Business, and Home: Backyard Trash Burning – Additional Information. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/
Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos Essay college essay help: college essay help
Aristotelian appeals: Ethos, Pathos and Logos Musicians use persuasions from ethos in order to confirm the truth of something or their characters. In contemporary society, people have moved out their families, and some parents have joined retirement homes.
Consequently, the idea of ethos has shifted from family to individuals’ material possessions, academic achievements among others. However, Aristotle shows that ethos does not emanate from personal appeal, but rather from the use of language. For instance, Thievery Corporation establishes ethos through their song, The Richest Man in Babylon by use of artistic language.
Thievery Corporation show a character of an upright fellow who stands to condemn the indifference of the richest man in Babylon. The song by the Clash, Know your rights, tries to confirm to people about their rights. The musician assertively says that the song is a public announcement. John Lennon condemns the suffering people go through right from birth to adult working life. Every new stage evolves into a new form of suffering.
There is a problem in expression of modern ethos. The outward appearance has virtually consumed the intellect and moral of individuals. The Richest Man in Babylon demonstrates the modern notion of ethos whereby people put much emphasis on their personal wealth and self than character. The material possessions consume the moral and character of an individual.
Aristotle’s tells people elements, which speakers use to inspire confidence in a character. A person of ethos must observe good sense, moral character, and goodwill. People who utter misleading information and advices do not have elements of a good character. The Clash gives people good advice about their rights because he has the three elements of a character. By telling people to know their rights, he is exhibiting goodwill to every person who has experienced discrimination in any form. Further, use of “I” establishes The Clash credibility.
Pathos captures the emotions of the listeners. Musicians establish reception for their ideas into listeners’ minds through the use of artistic language. John Lennon creates a sense of pity for the Working Class Hero. At the same time, he also condemns wrongs the Working Class Hero undergoes.
Aristotle shows how to establish various emotional appeals among the audience. The musician can fluctuate from anger, pain, pleasure to sense of calm. This is what John Lennon does through asserting that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all” and “Till you’re so fucking crazy you can’t follow their rules”. The Richest Man in Babylon appeals to listeners’ emotions through sense of virtue and vice, rich and poor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The song goes as “The wicked stench of exploitation” and “Beneath the praise and admiration” to highlight sense of vice behind wealth. He further appeals to listeners’ deepest emotions by the line “Your beggars sleep outside your doorway” and “Your servants have burned all their songs. Nobody here remembers freedom”. John Lennon balances between emotions as follows “But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”.
However, Aristotle warns musicians against playing with listeners’ emotions. This can ultimately corrupt the judgment of their listeners (Fabiola 20). Fabiola E. Saul is a Spanish writer who has authored books on pedagogical theory of education. This book provides a critical reflection of Aristotelian appeals of pathos, ethos and logos in studying human emotions, truth and credibility. This book is also available in Spanish language.
Musicians appeal to listeners through sense of logos. There is inductive logic, which involves a couple of examples and then generalization. Conversely, deductive logic is whereby the musicians give audience couple of general illustrations and then draw a specific conclusion. This is how musicians establish the new truth. The Clash urges people to know their rights by drawing a couple of example such as “You have the right not to be killed. You have the right to food money” and “You have the right to freeee speech”.
He then concludes that “Know your rights. These are your rights, all 3 of ’em”. Likewise, John Lennon gives a couple of frustrations the Working Class Hero undergoes, and he concludes that “Till the pain is so big you feel nothing at all”. Thievery Corporations uses logos appeal to the Richest Man in Babylon through several examples then advices him as follows “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.
Musical composition: Lyrics, Tone, Rhythm, and Melody Musicians base songs on four most vital elements. These elements are crucial in establishing the essence of a musical composition. These four elements appeal to listeners in various ways and collectively make up a song.
In melody, musicians use successive lines of one tone to create unity in length and intensity. Melody contains a unit of meaning. For instance, John Lennon’s unit of meaning exists in “When they’ve tortured and scared you for twenty odd years”.
Melody also exists in the final part of the song e.g. “If you want to be a hero well just follow me”. We can also find melody at the climax of the song. For instance, in Thievery Corporation we have melody at “Babylon this is your final day. Babylon this is your final call. Read the writing that’s on the wall”.
We will write a custom Essay on Musical Usage of Ethos, Pathos and Logos specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rhythm is the flow in music. Rhythm entails timely flow in a song. For instance, in The Richest Man in Babylon we have rhythm at “There is no guidance in your kingdom” and “There is no wisdom to your freedom”. The Clash utilizes rhythm at “Investigation, humiliation, And if you cross your fingers rehabilitation”.
John Lennon uses it at “There’s room at the top they are telling you still. But first you must learn how to smile as you kill”. Lyrics go with the tone of the music. We know that not every song is slow nor is every song fast. The tones and lyrics of these songs are fast and cheerful to the listeners.
Works Cited Fabiola, Gavito. Pathos, Ethos and Logos: An Aristotelian Theory On Education. New York: John Wiley
California State Senate Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The California state senate is the higher house of the California State Legislature and it consists of 40 state senators who are restricted to serving two four- year terms. The state Legislature meeting takes place at the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor, who was the President of the Senate is currently authorized to influence on the tied vote. The Presidents, Secretary of the Senate, and Senate Sergeant-at Arms manage the Senate and are elected at the start of each legislative session.
My State senator in is District 8 Leland Yee. He is an official representative of the western part of San Francisco and the biggest part of San Mateo County. Before he has become a state senator, he was a California State Assemblyman and Supervisor of San Francisco’s Sunset district. He has also been a member and President of San Francisco School Board. Yee was elected to be the first Temporal Speaker for African Americans and this is why he is considered to be the second most active Democrat in the California State Assembly.
Leland Yee has done a lot for the people of California and as a result, has been named Legislator of the Year by numerous organizations. Yee should be elected back to the senate. Some of his most recognizable contributions to the State include tireless fights for children, women and the elderly, improvement of education and health services, advocacy for an open government, consumer protection, and environmental protection (Cantrell, 2011). He has repeatedly voted against budget cuts to education, social services, and health care.
On matters relating to public safety, Yee has committed himself to not only protecting California’s most vulnerable, such as victims of human trafficking and domestic violence from oppression and discrimination, but also in enhancing public safety locally in the entire San Francisco. He passed a bill, SB 1356 that has been chaptered into the law which protects domestic violence survivors from the threat of confinement, when they refuse to testify against their abuser in court.
This fight has led him into receiving the Modern Day Abolition Award by the San Francisco Collaborative Against Human Trafficking, the Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Neighborhoods by the Coalition for San Francisco Neighborhoods and has been recognized as the Legislator of the Year by the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence. He is currently working on other bills that will be of help to the State, if he is re-elected, he will continue fighting for public safety and protection of the citizens.
Leland Yee has fought to reform public schools and public institutions of higher learning (Aoki
Nanotechnology Risk in NanoBatteries Report (Assessment) college essay help online
Table of Contents Hazard and Exposure Identification
Nanotechnology involves the manufacture and the use of biological, chemical and physical systems at scales ranging from individual molecules or atoms which are about a hundred nanometers (Bowman
Ethical Problems for New Graduates Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
New graduates face different ethical dilemmas every time they join a new organization. Markkula Center of Applied Ethics offers dynamic insights regarding how new graduates should tackle different ethical dilemmas. Most of the advice given in the short videos recommends a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas.
For instance, the videos recommend that new graduates should always understand the background of the ethical dilemma in the organization and review if appropriate actions are normally taken in such situations or not. This is a scientific approach to handling ethical dilemmas. For instance, regarding the accounting dilemma, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics recommends that new graduates should investigate if errors of omission are normally committed in the organization.
Moreover, the interviewee (Hanson) explains that, employees should investigate if action is ordinarily taken in such situations. If it is established that there is a serious ethical problem, Hanson recommends that the problem should be escalated to superior authorities.
Based on a friend’s experience, it is normally difficult to escalate an ethical dilemma to a superior authority if an employee is still new to an organization. Often, new graduates have just secured new positions in organizations and ordinarily, their first preoccupation would not be to ask many questions regarding the ethical or unethical conduct of the organization but to get everyone to like them.
In extreme situations, most new employees would focus on securing their jobs and refrain from drawing too much attention to themselves by blowing the whistle on a colleague. Such scenarios are common for new graduates and Hanson’s advice of escalating ethical dilemmas to higher authorities fail to represent the real situation facing most new graduates in the organization.
The above approach of handling the accounting dilemma is also stressed in the ethical dilemma of gender discrimination. Hanson’s advice to women who think they are being discriminated against is defined by a background analysis of the ethical dilemma. He proposes that this background study is crucial to establish if there is substantial ground to assume an employee is being discriminated against (or not).
He points out that there are unique situations where an organization may treat an employee differently (such as when an employee is being prepared for an international assignment) and it is therefore important to refrain from unleashing the “gender” or “race” card (if a background study of the problem is not done). Hanson’s assessment is an intelligent but cautionary approach to handling gender-based ethical dilemmas because a colleague’s real-life experience shows that this approach is always the best.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there was a case where a female employee confronted her supervisor for giving her fewer duties at work because she believed she was given fewer tasks because she was a woman. It turned out that it was the company’s procedure to give fewer duties to new staff until they got acquainted with the organization’s tasks. The female employee had to withdraw her complaint because she did not give herself enough time to learn how the organization operates.
Based on the above example, Hanson’s advice to new graduates is well informed Comprehensively, Markkula Center of Applied Ethics provides the right framework for handling ethical dilemmas but Hanson’s advice regarding first time ethical dilemmas is a little shallow. More sensitivity should therefore be given towards the “real” organizational environment facing new graduates (or employees who have just secured employment).
For instance, more focus should be made on how new graduates can solve ethical dilemmas without running the risk of losing their jobs or getting their employers in trouble. Such is the recommendation that applies to the accounting dilemma.
The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction: The Deadly Breath of the War Among all controversial issues that the humankind conceal sin the folds of time, the history of was must be the most biased one. Caused by certain political issues and demanding enormous blood-shedding to satisfy its thirst for cruelty, war is the most despicable and disgusting invention of the humankind.
Nevertheless, a part and parcel of evolution, wars do occur even in the most advanced countries on a variety of premises, not to mention the clash of cultures and the resulting conflict that occurs as two countries of different stages of development are at war.
Because of the complexity of the political, economical and personal issues that mixed in the course of the notorious Vietnam War, the latter can be posed not only as a conflict between the two states, but as a conflict between the two cultures, political forces and the visions of the reality, both political and civil one, which requires thorough considerations.
Providing sufficient food for thoughts, the events of the Vietnam War are quite hard to analyze from the bird’s-eye view of the present days, yet offer an enticing material for exploration that allows to learn more about the political affairs of the USA, the motivations of the 1967-68 Congress and the President and make certain conclusions about the policy of the United States.
Analyzing the viewpoints of an ordinary soldier and a civil citizen who witnessed the Vietnam War, one can demonstrate the differences in the visions of the two and offer reasonable explanations for the phenomenon.
The Matter of Honor and Courage: In the Eye of a Soldier There can be no possible doubt that, to realize what the war is, one has to see the horrors and the destruction of the armed conflict with his/her own eyes, which the author of the book, Frederick Downs, demonstrates quite well. With the help of the most realistic descriptions and the vivid pictures of woes that soldiers had to take in the course of the battles, the author makes the people sink into the mind of the man with the gun.
It is quite important that the author portrays both the elements of the relatively calm and peaceful environment – if anything in the front line can be calm and peaceful – and invites the reader into the mind of his own – the place where ideas and morals are set loose, and the only wish that is left is taking the revenge on those who destroyed his life – not the vengeance inspired by raging fury, but the revenge of a cool-blooded mind, the man who knows what he is doing and why.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Showing the readers that war literally kills the remnants of humanity left within, Frederick portrays himself as a man motivated by the wish to kill: “The American strategy was to draw them into a fight so we could use our superior firepower to destroy them. To win a battle, we had to kill them. For them to win, all they had to do was survive.”
On the battlefield Whenever Downs refers to the descriptions of the battles, he emphasizes that the fights that take place here are far from what the civils imagine as they hear the word “battle.” Making it clear that there is no room for compassion when the war is going on, Downs draws the line between a soldier and the people left in the rear. Whenever the author mentions civils, there is a slight tint of scorn in his words:
‘Not everyone doing the fighting is in the newspapers. You’ll never ever see a reporter up there. It’s too rough for them.’ He looked at my youth. ‘You’ll get a belly full of fighting up there, son, if that’s what you want.’
Thus, the author clearly showed that the Vietnamese war, like any other one in the history of the universe did, split the nation into two parts, the still living one and the ones who have their life on credit. In the vision of a soldier who is partaking in the Vietnamese War, there is no yesterday or tomorrow, there is only the current moment, the blissful “now,” which means that the death is not here yet: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone.
I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.” When the war has broken out, there can be no compassion, otherwise, the soldier will go mad.
The political controversy Of all the issues concerning the Vietnamese War and the decisions undertaken by the government, the issue concerning the way the war went and the way the government wanted to portray it to an average citizen were strikingly different, which Downs does not hesitate to expose. At this point, the interception of the soldier’s life and the life of a civil citizen can be traced to point at the obvious diversities in the perception of the two and point at the main difference between a soldier and a civil.
It was obvious that the Congress was trying to lift the spirits of the country and not let people become depressed about the tragic event once again, which resulted the striking contrast of the attitudes towards the war in the front and in the rear. While the latter were perfectly sure that the situation is fully under control and that the victory is just around the corner, the soldiers were supposed not merely to observe the opposite, but to fight it with their efforts doubled.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps, it is even not the cruelty of the tragedies that occurred in the course of the war, but the cool, emotionless reports of Downs that sends shivers down the reader’s spine: “Two women survived long enough to cross the bridge and enter one of the hootches. Three of my men crossed over the bridge and threw grenades in the hootches.” It is worth mentioning, though, that the lead character is not portrayed as a machine for murdering enemies either.
Though the battles and the numerous deaths that he has seen made him coarse and emotionless, there is still the remaining of his old self, and he still feels pity when mentioning that the war is spreading like cancer all over the place: “Chu Lai was a free-fire zone. I was instructed to shoot at everything not American, ROK, or ARVN. The brutal war of the highlands had come to the flat farm ground of the South China Sea coast.”
Serving on the home front: An average citizen’s position In contrast to the soldiers in the front, the people in the rear were under the delusion that the Vietnamese with their attempts at defeating the American troops are doomed to a failure. Considering the letters to the New York Times Editor, one can see the way the enemies were portrayed: “the intense and futile commitment in Vietnam is deepening the sense of resentment…”
However, it must be taken into account that the New York Times editors were aiming rather at keeping people optimistic, forgetting what kind of road good intentions pave, depicting the Vietnamese patriotism as “not quite bright” instead of “rather dangerous.”
Playing a game of chess However, it is essential to add that the vision of war that an average citizen had in the USA in 1967-68 was half-optimistic, half-frightened. Some journalists conveyed in their articles the ideas that there were instances of corruption and treachery in the USA Army, which dropped the rates of optimism among the citizen.
Still, compared to the miseries and injustice depicted by Downs, these were the minor issues that called to people’s patriotic feelings and the willingness to protect the country, while the soldiers were already deprived of any hope. Portraying Presidents “rejection of dissent on war,” journalists made attempts to stir the public, yet they did not reveal what happened in the front.
Here is the newsflash Offering the citizens snatches of essential information, journalists contributed to the shaping of people’s idea of war. For most of the citizens, war was the gas used on crowd and the short notes on the success of military actions. On the one hand, such inspiring ideas did contribute to the shaping of patriotic feeling.
On the other hand, people were unable to see that was going on in the front, which made people think of the war as of some faraway monster that will obviously be defeated. With his incredibly gloomy and truthful story, Downs bursts the bubbles of the public, yet he is unfortunately late.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Vietnam War: A Clash of Viewpoints by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion: Counting the Losses Hence, it can be concluded that Vietnam War was rather versatile issue in the distant 1967-68 for a civilian and a soldier, which can be explained by a number of reasons.
Due to the different settings and environment, the two could not envision the war any different way; serving on the home front and learning about the events on the battlefield from the newspaper articles and short reports that could not deliver the grief and pain, though journalists did attempt to, citizens could not conceive the terror and pain of being in the heat of the battle and, thus, considered the war as the event that will help to restore justice in the USA if only the army pulls itself together.
Meanwhile, soldiers were facing the terror and agony of pain, coming one step closer to peril every single say and narrowing the article of death with every step that they made.
Therefore, it can be claimed that Downs’s book served as an eye-opener for millions of people. Obviously, the two viewpoints considered above are diametrically opposite to each other, the vision of a civil citizen being mist optimistic, and the world of a soldier collapsing in front of him. However, comprising the two, one will be able to obtain the ultimate truth – the real story of what happened in the course of the Vietnam War, the painful experience that was inevitable yet almost unbearable for the two nations.
Reference List Carr, A. Z. (1967). Our Vietnam policy. New York Times, p. 46.
Downs, F. (2007). The killing zone: My life in Vietnam War. New York, NY: W. W. Norton