Table of Contents Methodology
Experiment one (Clay task)
Experiment two (The coin task)
When a child is born, the assumption is always that he doesn’t know anything about what goes on in his environment. It then puzzles us that when the mother intends breastfeed the child, even as young as one day old, he automatically ends up sucking the mother‘s breast and hence drinks the milk.
This is testimony that the when children are born, they are not as green as is perceived of them, instead they are born with some degree of knowledge about what happens around them (Cocking, 2007). The knowledge and skills are categorized according to how they will help the child in solving issues in his life. The skills they have around and during this time vary in different stages and ages of child development.
This variance comes to play for instance in a one year old child when he learns to sit and walk and in a five year old child when he learns to count numbers. The same factors held constant, when a two year old is in the process of acquainting himself with the surrounding with which he is being brought up in, the five year old is busy in school learning. This process through which the child learns and adapts the life skills through given time spans or periods is referred to as Child development.
Child development is divided into two categories, cognitive development and moral development. Cognitive development refers to a child’s ability to learn and provide solutions to issues that affect their lives.
Other aspects of development include social and emotional development which dictates the level of the child’s interaction with others and also determines how much control the child has over himself (self-control). As the child grows from infantry, he also develops the ability to understand and make use of language, to make meaning out of elements of communication like gesture and words, also referred to as ‘speech and language development’.
Other abilities include fine motor skills, which refers to his ability to execute movements through the use of his muscles, especially at the hands and fingers. His ability to develop and use his large muscles to move himself or parts of his body, also referred to as gross motor skills are also key factors in the growth of the child (Cocking, 2007).
Through infancy, the child (At around two years) develops the ability to be observant to other people’s emotions. They are keen about the reactions to their actions on other people. Through this they are able to know what is expected of them, and what their parents and guardians recommend of them when it comes to their behavior, as a result they end up conforming to the norms that define their society or the environment with which they are brought up in.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several theories help us understand what affects the quality of morals that a child may adapt in his or her life, but in this case we shall dwell on the cognitive developmental theory, which was put forward by a Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget. This theory states that, ‘children actively construct their own cognitive worlds; information is not just poured into their minds from their environment’ (Cocking, 2007).
According to Piaget’s theory, the process of learning in a small child is simply an update to what they already know; they have an idea of what happens around them.
Piaget’s school of thought is built on the idea that assimilation (a persons inclusion or addition of new data into their store of knowledge) and accommodation (defined as the ability of a person to adjust and relate to new ideas or data around him) are present in small children; when children are born, they automatically suck anything that comes to contact with their lips (assimilation) but with time and the experience they gain through exposure, they gain insights and deepen their understanding of things.
As such, they end up choosing what to lick and what to discard, for example they will lick fingers and their mother’s nipples, but they won’t lick things like towels and mattresses. This is referred to as accommodation (Cocking, 2007).
Piaget went further to say that there are four stages that one went through to comprehend the world, all the stages are related to age and in each stage a person exhibits totally different perspectives of thought. The piagetian stages are as follows;
From birth to about two years of age (sensorimoter stage), at this stage the children comprehend the scope of things in their environment through synchronizing the experiences of their senses (I.e. sight and hearing) with concrete motor actions.
The preliminary of this stage is characterized by limited reflexive patterns within which the infants operate in. By the end of the stage, at about two years of age the infants have developed sophisticated sensorimotor movements and though young, they are almost always able to operate or communicate in symbols.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive or Moral Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From between two to seven years of age (the preoperational stage). This is the second of the four Piagetian stages of development and the children begin to make use of words, pictures and diagrams to represent their sentiments.
Their thoughts go past their links that sensed information then and now, it also goes beyond their physical actions, and they bring out their sentiments through the use of these symbols. Piaget asserts that although children in this age bracket can use symbols to communicate, they lack the ability to integrate and perform activities physically. They instead internalize psychologically the operations they do physically.
At around seven to eleven years of age (the concrete operational stage), the child goes through the third Piagetian stage. The children can transform their thoughts into action through conducting operations that translate into corresponding acts. In the stage, they reason logically as opposed to the intuitive thought in the previous stage.
However, their thinking and reasoning can only be applied to certain physical operations, for instance it’s hard for them to comprehend the process of solving an algebraic equation, because they cannot decipher the complexity of the sums. The last stage in the Piagetian circle involves children around eleven to fifteen years of age. This stage is also referred to as the formal operating stage (Klausmeier, 2001).
One main trait the members of this stage exhibit are their ability of the children to think well past their physical experiences and reason theoretically, and make sense in their reasoning. The child at this stage is an adolescent, and they conceptualize their thoughts, creating images in real life scenarios.
For instance, they may set standards over what an ideal best friend is like, and make comparison of their thought to their real friends. They are able to think about their future and imagine what they can be; they wallow in the fascination and excitement that these thoughts create. They are more orderly and efficient in getting solutions to problems around them, formulating theories about issues around them and working around to get them solved (Klausmeier, 2001).
Methodology Before Piaget came about with his principles and circles about a child’s cognitive abilities and development, he had conducted extensive researches before he laid bare the result of his findings. The method he used was called hypothitico-deductive method, in which he laid emphasis on logic. He formed many theories about a given issue on child development, and then eliminated them one by one in order to draw a conclusion about the issue he was experimenting on. His observations were as follows;
From the time a child is born, the children make attempts to suckle, sometimes even when they don’t have something to suck. Lip movements correlate with how the tongue moves and at the same time the arms move irregularly in a manner that seems rhythmic. During this time their heads move laterally, and upon brushing of their lips, albeit accidentally, they tend to act as though they are sucking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cognitive or Moral Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Piaget repeated this experiment (the sucking reflex) again with his second child for proof of permanence. In one of the experiments, he hid a child’s hand from her sight and placed a wrist watch on it. The child could not identify the watch as alien to her body when they showed the child the hand with the watch.
From this experiment Piaget deduced that the child did not feel the hand as a part of her own body. The first experiment proved that at that given stage of their lives, infants understand the scope of things by synchronizing the experiences of their senses such as the sense of sight and hearing with concrete motor actions. The sucking reflex is attained when other senses such as touch (touching their lips) is aroused. (Cocking, 2007)
In the same manner, we shall conduct experiments about the several piagetian tests on children of different ages to see their reactions in relation to the principles that Piaget put across.
The methodology will be the same to what Piaget had used, the hypothitico-deductive method, in which he forms hypotheses about why the child reacts in the given manner, and uses logic to eliminate them before coming up with a concrete solution. I will conduct this experiment on two children of varied ages, that is, they are living through different piagetian stages of development.
The two children are eight ears old and eleven years old (the preoperational stage and the concrete operational stage). Both of the children are familiar with me since I happen to be their father, but as required of me explain to them what I am up to. In order to get their honest thoughts and opinions, I tried to put them at ease by telling them that all their honest answers are correct, and they should not be jittery about giving varied opinions.
Experiment one (Clay task) In this experiment, I get some mound of clay and divide it into two equal balls. I proceed to ask one of the children, the eight year old, whether the size of the first ball is equivalent to that of the second ball. I ask him pointing to both balls one at a time. The child agrees that they have the same size.
I then ask the child to flatten out one of the balls and then repeat the experiment, the child gives me a different answer. He claims that the flat ball is smaller than the round ball, the reason he gives out is that the round ball is taller than the flat ball, and for this reason it is bigger.
A repeat of the experiment with the eleven year old yielded the same results on the two round balls, in that they are equal in size. When instructed to flatten out one of the balls and then probed on their sizes, the eleven year old still insisted that they were the same.
The reason he gave out was that though they were different in shape, one flat and the other one round, the same amount of clay had been used to flatten the round clay. He was implying that when it came to the quantity of the clay that had been used, the same amount had been used up in both cases.
Experiment two (The coin task) In this experiment, we make use of identical objects such as coins, buttons or candy. In my experiment with the children I used coins. I made two equal rows of the coins, on in front of me and the other row in front of the child. I asked the eight year old child if we had the same number of coins.
He took his time to compare the two lines before concluding that they were the same in number. I told him that I was going to spread my row out, and he had no objections to that, I spread the row of coins in front of me making the row appear longer than the one with the child.
While pointing to his row, I asked him whether the number of coins in his row had been altered, or increased, to which he objected. I asked him the same question about my row, and his response was that I had increased the number of coins in my row, that was why my row appeared longer than his.
I proceeded to the eleven year old and asked the same questions I did with the eight year old. He agreed straight away that the number of coins in the rows was the same. When it came to the second question, where after spreading out one of the rows and enquired about the number of coins in the rows, he again took some time to think about it before telling me that the number of coins was the same.
His reasoning was that when the coins are spread out they took more space, therefore the coins were the same in number, but once spread out they took up more space. He emphasized that to be the reason why the row of the spread out coins appeared longer.
Conclusion From the two experiments conducted above, it is evident that the children relate differently to their world. The difference in age groups and the varied opinions played a factor to distinguish the variance in the two Piagetian stages of development. According to Piaget, the eight year old (at the preoperational stage) has the ability to use symbols and distinguish features, they still are deficient in their ability to integrate and perform activities physically.
That is why the eight year old could tell that the clay and coins were the same amount, but could not figure out that they were still identical after one clay ball had been pressed together and one row of coins had been spread out to look longer.
On the other hand, the eleven year old, at the concrete operational stage reasons logically, opposite to his younger sibling’s intuitive thought (Klausmeier, 2001). He is able to apply his thinking and reasoning some physical operations, and they are able to translate their thoughts to actions. That was the case in the two experiments in which he appeared to provide more logical answers to queries.
This research, however in-depth in its revelations had some weaknesses. I used children from the same family (my family), this on its own is questionable in that doubts may be placed on the reactions of the children. One may question whether if the research was conducted on children from different families the results would still stand to be the same.
The point of argument here is that the children however small or young, are genetically related, this may influence their reactions towards different stimuli. Their reactions may be the same because of their relationships.
The other factor that I did not consider is the fact that in order for me to carry out such a comprehensive research, I could have included children from different social classes. This inability to include the children from the diverse classes that define society provides a weakness in the experiment. Questions abound as to how children from a rich family would react to the same stimuli as a child from a poor social class. The results would almost be different given the difference in the environment they are brought up in (Klausmeier, 2001).
In a nutshell, a child’s development differs over time. His ability to assimilate, accommodate and integrate data strengthens with his level of growth, measured through the number of years as the child s growing. All normal children, all factors held constant, go through this life processes, eventually developing the ability to decipher, and provide solutions to what they face daily in their lives.
References Cocking, Rodney R., Sigel, Irving E. (2007). Cognitive Development from Childhood to adolescence: A Constructivist Perspective. New York: New York publishers.
Klausmeier, Herbert J. (2001). Cognitive Learning and Development: Information-Processing and the Piagetian Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.
The Issue of Bullying in the Schools Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Personal experience
Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying
This paper attempts to look at the issue of bullying in the schools. A personal story about how I was bullied when I was young is included. The paper looks at this issue by considering aspects like causes and forms of bullying as well as examples of bullying cases.
Since the number of bullying cases has been on the increase in schools, recommendations will be offered on the best thing to do when bullying cases are reported. Main ideas on the topic will be presented so that the issue can be presented in a comprehensive way (Smith, Pepler, and Rigby 56-60).
Personal experience I grew up in south Bronx until I was thirteen years old when we moved to an Irish neighborhood. My brother and sister are half Irish and half Puerto Rican, unlike me; my whole family has a very fair skin. The first time I landed on this neighborhood, I was very delighted since unlike our previous home I could play outside the house.
I still recall what befell me the first time I went out to play; all the children in the neighborhood were white and the girls started harassing me by telling me that if I was hoping to live there I had to be white, they even spread baby powder on my face. We later become friends although some of their parents resented me because I was Spanish. The situation did not get any better since some children nicknamed me Goya bean: this made to hate Goya beans
When summer ended, I joined school and it so happened that I was the only Spanish girl in the whole school. Things did not go well here either since I picked fights frequently because other children teased me. At some point, it became a routine that I had to be involved in a fight everyday. The principle took the initiative of calling my mother to discuss the matter. When my mother came, she was told that I was a problematic child since I frequently fought with other children.
The board of directors claimed that with my stubborn nature I deserved to be taken to a special school where other problematic children studied. Since then, I was regarded as a problematic child. My mother was forced to transfer me to another school since I was expelled from my former school. I developed low self-esteem and I started taking drugs, soon afterwards I dropped out of school at sixth grade.
This victimization made me to start thinking of ways that I could change my way of life to show that I was still strong hence prove to my aggressors wrong. The events acted as a motivating factor for me to make a difference. Each time I feel like giving up my efforts of trying to be what I want to be, I look back and remember all the challenges that I have overcome in my life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This makes me to realize that I have much more challenges to face and overcome; thus I become a stronger person. Every time I look back, I do not regret what I have gone through since it is through these chain of events that I have become what I am today.
One thing that I am proud of is that I managed to turn anger into motivation. Nevertheless, I must admit that these experiences left me with a scar since when one is a victim of bullying he or she is tempted to believe that something is wrong with them one asks questions like ‘why me?’ Bullying kills one’s self esteem and also makes one to feel isolated.
The victim may fear or feel ashamed to tell anyone since he or she may think that this has never happened to anyone else. It gives me joy to know that the issue of bullying is now a pubic affair since bullying stories were unheard of when I was growing up. It is also important to note that children are no longer afraid to report bullying cases.
Forms, Effects and recommendations of bullying Slavens and Kerrigan (23) see bullying as a term used to describe a pattern of behavior that is cruel and humiliating towards another person, he further notes that it can affect people of all walks of life and age.
Bullying can occur in two forms, verbal and physical. One can be bullied verbally when the bully attempts to verbally anger the victim by mocking them on purpose. Physical bullying occurs when the bully or aggressor forces physical contact with his or her victim, this may be in form of kicking or punching to the point that the victim becomes submissive.
Physical bullying is more serious as compared to verbal bullying since it can lead to serious injuries and sometimes death of the victim (Orpinas, Horne, 12-34). Bullies enjoy intimidating others to either gain fame or to satisfy their ego. Teenagers may bully others due to peer pressure since they may want to fit in a certain click. Factors that can lead to bullying include differences in physical and cultural characteristics; in addition, showing signs of inferiority can also be a major cause of bullying.
This vice has many effects on the victim. Since the bully has control over the victim, the victim can become stressed to the extent of becoming depressed. Most victims of bullying have low self esteem since they do not feel self-sufficient. The victim can also develop negative attitude towards the environment and the people around him.
We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Bullying in the Schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a person may isolate him/her self from the rest of the world because of a feeling of inadequacy. School children who have been bullied may drop out of school or start taking drugs so as to seek consolation (Field, 211-250).
Teachers should be strict when dealing with bullies. Heavy punishment should be given to the aggressors so as to prevent them from repeating the act again and to also warn others not to repeat the same mistake in future. Victims of bullying should be encouraged to report to their seniors if they are bullied.
It is important for the teacher to diagnose any physical and psychological problems affecting the students. Schools and other institutions should set up advisory centers where students can be helped to overcome the aftermath of bullying. These centers should have friendly counselors so that students can feel free to discuss their problems with them (Slavens and Kerrigan, 12). The counselors should also be well trained so that they can offer professional help to the victims.
Conclusion Bullying is the act of humiliating others either verbally of physically. A bully is the aggressor who undertakes bullying. Although bullying is common in schools, it can also occur in other settings such as the workplaces. It is important for the school administration to come up with ways of dealing with bullying cases such as punishing the bully heavily. People bully others for different reasons such as the need to feel superior. The vice bears negative impacts to the victim to the extent that it can be verbal.
Works Cited Field, Tim. Bully in sight: how to predict, resist, challenge and combat workplace bullying: overcoming the silence and denial by which abuse thrives. New Jersey: Success Unlimited, 2000. pp. 211-250
Orpinas, Pamela, Horne, Arthur. Bullying prevention: creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. MI: University of Michigan, 2006. pp. 12-34
Slavens, Elaine and Kerrigan, Brooke. Bullying: deal with it before push comes to shove. Toronto: James Lorimer
Culture and Diversity Argumentative Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
America is a country built by people from different backgrounds. It is a nation comprising of people who migrated from other parts of the world, some willingly and others forcefully through slavery. All these people have their different cultures and the majority of them hold to them making America a land of cultural, racial and religious diversity.
The people who founded and built America migrated from various places of the world and they included the Europeans, Jews, Italians, Germans, Filipinos, Indians, Africans and the Irish among others. Even now, America still experiences massive immigrations mostly from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The increased development of different cultures in America as well as social, political economic, racial and religious diversity affects the American nation in many ways.
There are both merits and demerits of the diversity in America. This diversity has enabled the people from different backgrounds to live together and understand the diverse cultures and practices of other people. The diversity is important in the educational processes of the American people as they learn from what is practically present with them.
These people also participate in these educational processes, which contribute to their development. Cultural diversity is important in economic development. It gives people involved in business to know the desires and needs of other cultures in the world and thus help them to come up with business strategies. The diversity in language is well exploited in this process.
Diversity also determines the health of a country or region. The more diverse a country is, the more innovative its citizens are likely to be and less resistant to innovations and change. It also gives individuals an opportunity to develop their personal skills by learning from each other. This not only leads to personal growth, but also leads to economic, social, spiritual and political growth.
On the other hand, diversity in the American nation has a number of negative effects. Segregation and discrimination in America has led to a heterogeneous nation divided along racial lines. This affects development negatively as the segregated group does not get enough opportunity to exploit their potential. They also pull back in developmental issues, which can impair the development rate of the country. Conflicting cultures also create conflicts between the citizens thus disrupting the unity of the nation.
Most of the immigrants to America came in with their traditional heritage and they are determined to maintain their practices. In this way, these immigrants overlooked the heritage of the traditional Americans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of maintaining a diverse heritage in America is what brought a misunderstanding between the communities involved and led to the marginalization of the immigrants. Some of the immigrants, such as some groups of the African Americans, felt inferior in their culture and decided to drop their heritage in favor of the original American heritage; however, they did not succeed.
Still, the traditional heritages of the immigrants make it easier to draw clear lines between the different communities holding different heritage practices in America. Their heritage makes them to be more unacceptable by the early American nationals who demand that the immigrants be assimilated to the American culture.
In order for a nation to remain one, the people have to accept the diversity of cultures in the nation and appreciate each other’s culture. The governing bodies should also do away with discriminative policies and come up with those that can unite the country.
In conclusion, America is a country that was founded on “the back of immigration” and therefore has people with different cultural and historical backgrounds. To unite this country language is a major tool to use and the American people should learn diverse languages. The citizens should appreciate each other’s culture and learn to live together as a united nation.
The Character of Joseph Grand in “The Plague” by Albert Camus Analytical Essay scholarship essay help
In this paper, I would like to discuss such character of Camus’ novel The Plague as Joseph Grand. Although it is too early for me to advance any far-fetched arguments, I can say that Joseph is very much similar to Sisyphus; he becomes accustomed to the routine nature of daily life, and his existence reminds us of Sisyphus’ attempts to roll a rock to the top of the mountain.
Albert Camus creates this character to show that the majority of modern people do not strive for intellectual or spiritual development, while focusing on the material side of their lives.
If they do decide to make a difference to their existence, their attempts are usually very superficial. Another purpose which Grand serves is to prove that as a rule people do not search for good qualities within themselves, and only a sudden misfortune can force them to do it. In order to elaborate this argument, I need to discuss the behavior of this man, his relations with others and, most importantly, those expectations, he sets for himself.
At first, one has to show how the author describes this person. Camus points out that “ambition was not the spur that activated Joseph Grand… All he desired was the prospect of a life suitable insured on the material side by honest work” (Camus, 56). This indicates that he was quite content with his status in community and the quality of his life. In part, this lack of ambition explains why he has served his entire life as a clerk and why his wife left him.
It should also be noted that Grand also attempts to write a book, most probably, a novel. However, he never even finishes the first line of this alleged masterpiece. In his defense, Conrad says that he struggles to find the most suitable words and phrases for this novel and this perfectionism prevents him from progressing further.
At this point, an attentive reader has to ask oneself a question whether this behavior can ascribed only to perfectionism or to something else, for instance to the fear of a making a mistake, laziness, and reluctance to take risks.
He changes his lifestyle only when the epidemic of plague breaks out in the town. This calamity helps Joseph to rediscover the traits of which he was unaware before, namely, fortitude and resolution. He is seen by others as the “embodiment of quiet courage” that raises the spirit of other people (Camus, 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the plague, he stops being a Sisyphus, engaged in senseless labor. He becomes a person who realizes that his life must not be spent in vain. At the very end, we learn that Joseph resumes the work on his novel, but we do not know for sure whether he has ever completed the first line. The author leaves it for the readers to decide whether Joseph Grand is a changed man, who can take initiative and responsibility for his actions, or he is the same Sisyphus, who is more content with the safety of daily routine.
It is quite difficult to determine how this novel would have looked like without him. Most likely, the plot of The Plague would have remained unchanged, yet the impression, produced by this literary work would have been different.
The thing is that Joseph Grand embodies the strengths and weaknesses of modern people, including their aspirations, fears, and prejudices. Again, this character proves an idea that people usually do not attempt to change for the better on their own accord, unless there is a powerful external stimulus. This is why the character of Joseph Grand is important to this novel.
Works Cited Camus Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. 1955. Available at: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/hell/camus.html
Camus Albert. The Plague. BookEden, 1967.
Planning and decision making in management Reflective Essay best essay help: best essay help
Planning and decision making are among the most valuable foundations on which businesses and organizations are built. For any organization to succeed in its undertaking, it needs to properly plan for virtually all aspects of its operations. The right decisions have to be made by its managers to see the business through successful operations.
Since the success of managers is reflected by the welfare of the organizations they manage, it is indubitable that planning and decision making cannot be separated from the practice of management. This paper is a thoughtful reflection of the usefulness of planning and decision making skills, acquired in class, in the practice of management.
As an aspiring manager, the ideas I acquired about planning and decision making in organizations will be very useful. This is because the topic was covered with clear explanations of the usefulness of planning and management in management and it also covered how one can plan well and make right and acceptable decisions.
Among the things that will be particularly useful in my life as a manager is the idea that planning and decision making is efficiently done using a bottom-up approach. This is because the use of a bottom-up approach in planning and making of decisions results in decisions that are characterized by sufficient consultation.
More importantly, the decisions made using a bottom-up approach are in most cases acceptable to both managers and junior employees (Smith 33). Other issues covered in the topic were equally useful and I am sure I will be applying most of the ideas I got in class, about this topic, in my life as a manager.
There are so many new things I learnt about planning and decision making. One of the new things that substantially impressed me is the fact that good managers are able to make decisions by just listening to their fellow employees (Smith 35).
That is, if someone comes with an idea of objection to a given plan, a good manager will listen to him/her and after evaluating the value of the suggestion, approve it or reject it. Since his/her evaluation is assumed to be based on shrewd judgment, the suggestion is, in this case, bound to have a positive effect on the organization. Much of the credit from such success goes to the manager for his/her coordination and leadership skills.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More My realization of the fact that listening to other people’s ideas makes a good manager will be very useful in my life. This is primarily due to the fact that I like putting my ideas across so much that it sometimes interferes with my listening skills.
After the course, I am a better manager since I can now start working on my listening skills and try to have a positive perspective towards every idea that another person puts across. I now appreciate the fact that to be a good manager, I do not have to do all the thinking and planning work but I should have good evaluation skills for gauging the usefulness of ideas suggested by other people.
As it can be deduced from the discussion above, good managerial skills require good planning and decision making. Taking a course that tackles the same is very important since, as students are taught on how to be good planners and decision makers, they are given a chance to evaluate themselves. This is very useful since after evaluating themselves, students are able to perfect their weaknesses as far as planning and decision making is concerned and consequently be good managers.
Works Cited Smith, Jane. Planning and Decision Making. New York. Wadsworth Publishing, 1996. Print.
Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) Descriptive Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
This is an open space Park in Jefferson County with both geological and cultural importance to the whole nation. This park has offered great and wonderful views for a long time.
Most hikers and other outside fanatics have fun in deer Creek Park. Within the park compound there are various types of wild flowers especially the rainy seasons. Attractive views of the plains and the beautiful flowers, create a good photographic opportunities for the visitors (Hall 345). Most of people have preferred to visit this park due to its wide range of facilities that fits different types of visitors.
To begin with, the park has a wonderful and comfortable restroom facilities. Within its compound, the secluded areas for picnic are well secured with barbecue wires to ensure safety for the visitors. Both hikers and bikers are provided by multi purpose trails while climbing the mountain.
Any visitor to this park gets a chance to go through the park information, as there are information places equipped with brochures. The parks cleanliness is maintained through provision of many trashcans all over the place, thus it’s hard to see litter within the compound (Lipker 89).
The visiting time is relatively enough as the park is opened an hour before sunrise and its closed one hour after sunset. There are also attractive shelters within the compound and more beauty to the natural environments. The center of attraction lies in the presence of scrub oak habitat that is uncommon within that locality. In the park, wild animals enjoy oak as their food and their shelter. The atmosphere of the park is made wonderful by sweet melodies of different types of birds.
The most powerful force that is recognized in the formation of this park is erosion by water and wind. Other minor forces include Colorado River, volcanism, and climatic changes. Although this park is located in the desert, water also has a great impact during its formation. During the rainy seasons, the park soils do not absorb water as it is hardened completely by the strong sun (Yanagihara and Denniston 103).
When raining the water flows with force making the situation worse. The plants in the park have got shallow roots enabling them to absorb as much water as possible during the rainy seasons. On the other hand, these roots cannot control soil erosion as they are very weak and cannot hold the soil together.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deer creek park occupies a big space approximately 1881 acre. In the beginning, its fertile soils attracted activities like mining and farming. Currently, people around the park also do a lot of hunting especially the deer that are common wild animals in the region. In the park, there are several well-managed trails that one can choose which to use (Hall 530).
Hiking trails are traveling paths inside the park. Some of the trails that are mostly used are Plymouth creek trail, Plymouth mountain trail, scenic view trail, and red mesa loop trail among others. The commonly used trail in deer Creek Park is meadowlark trail. This trail is estimated to have a length of one and a half miles. It’s a trail for pedestrian only although there are other that bikers can use. Through the help of residents around the park, the deer creek park has been able to offer protection and maintenance of wild animals and trees.
People from outside have also gotten an opportunity to be educated and conservation (Hlawaty, 210). The main aim of the deer creek park is to make use of that open space land as well as preserving natural resources. Some of the recreational activities that are conducted in the park include, luxury and family traveling where people enjoy themselves through trekking or by use of bikes.
Different types of sports, running and marathons have for a long time being conducted here especially the winter sports. During vacations visitors come in this park for leisure with their friends or family. Boating and sailing is also a common activity in this park especially when there are no water sports in progress.
The red rocks formed by the wind and water erosion are estimated to be 335 million years. These red rocks are formed by marine limestone and dolomites among other components (Samelson, et al 93). These red rocks are about 400 to 500 feet going upwards separating the lower and the upper sides of the deer creek park.
A slope for climbing these rocks is created where there is a crack. The strong and admirable red color is as a result of iron oxides from other layers as the original color of these rocks is dark brown. Some marine fossils are seen on these red rocks for instance snails, and fish among others. On these red rocks too caves and arches are also available.
In conclusion, the geological and the cultural aspects of the park have made it of value. Through these two people have learned, have funs, and enjoyed their leisure time well in the deer creek park. A lot of recreational activities have been organized and taken place in this park bringing people together (Lipker 113).
We will write a custom Essay on Geological and cultural importance of Deer Creek Park (Colorado) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has contributed in promoting the social aspect of people and unity among them. The most surprising thing I observed in the park is the presence of the rattlesnakes, thus one has to be very careful when making a visit there. Weather conditions are also to be observed keenly when visiting, as there are several eruptions of the rocks due to contraction and expansion.
Works Cited Hall, Frank. History of the State of Colorado, Volume 2, ISBN1110812094, 9781110812097, BiblioBazaar, LLC, New York, 2009. Web.
Hlawaty, Stephen. Mountain Biking Colorado’s Front Range: From Fort Collins to Colorado Springs, ISBN0762725559, 9780762725557, Falcon, New York, 2003.
Lipker, Kim. 60 hikes within 60 miles, Denver and Boulder: including Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, and Rocky Mountain National Park, ISBN089732627X, 9780897326278, Menasha Ridge Press, Birmingham, 2006.
Samelson, Jenna, et al. Colorado Campgrounds: The 100 Best and All the Rest, (3rded), SBN156579334X, 9781565793347, Big Earth Publishing, Colorado, 200I.
Yanagihara, Wendy and Denniston, Jennifer. Grand Canyon National Park, (2nd ed), ISBN1741044839, 9781741044836, Lonely Planet, Adelaide, 2008.
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Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Loyalty becomes a euphemism for blind obedience in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. A curious relationship exists amongst the main pairings of fathers and sons therein. Though grown men, the sons in Hamlet essentially do exactly what their fathers tell them to do, without so much as a word of protest.
These boy-men adopt their fathers’ arguments, vendettas, and wars as their own, and seemingly guide their actions entirely by paternal approval. In the case of Hamlet, he surrenders his own life and future to the will of his father, albeit following significant hesitation, not to mention the passage of an entire play. Nonetheless, this essay examines the core action Hamlet, Laertes and Fortinbras share in Hamlet: the absolute subjugation of their own personal ambitions and desires to paternal rule.
Let us begin with Hamlet. His case begs particularly close scrutiny when we consider that the elder Hamlet has passed away. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet receives the dictum of action from the ghost of his father, demanding revenge against his treacherous brother, Claudius, with a decidedly passive aggressive manipulative tactic: “List, list, O, list! If thou didst ever thy dear father love – …Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder” (Shakespeare 1744).
More about Hamlet How did King Hamlet Die? 5 108 Which Statement Best Describes Gertrude’s Development Between Act 1 and Act 4? 5 57 What is the significance of the Willow Song in Othello? 5 1059 In act 1, scene 1, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense? 5 111 Interestingly, at no point in this initial exchange between father and son does the elder Hamlet ask his son if he might be agreeable to the challenge. The ghost simply indicts the king. “Now, Hamlet, hear: ‘Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark, Is by a forged process of my death, Rankly abused: but know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father’s life, Now wears his crown” (Shakespeare 1744).
The ghost then employs heavy handed tactics to remind Hamlet of his station and duty: “If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not; Let not the royal bed of Denmark be, A couch for luxury and damned incest” (Shakespeare 1745).
Significantly, the ghost reminds Hamlet not to exact revenge on Gertrude herein: “But, howsoever thou pursuest this act, Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive, Against thy mother aught: leave her to heaven” (Shakespeare 1745).
The significance of these lines lies in the ghost’s assumption that the deed has already been accepted. In essence, the ghost takes for granted that his son will avenge him, by virtue of his role as a son, while reminding him not to hurt his mother. Hamlet’s father, apparently, still rules the roost from beyond the grave. Tellingly, he meets with no complaint from Hamlet.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Laertes exhibits a little more freedom and self-direction when compared to Hamlet, however, he too directs his life according to the approval of Polonius, as evidenced by his return to Denmark after Polonius’ death. Laertes’ vulnerability to dutifully honor and obey his father becomes his undoing in the masterful hands of Claudius.
Laertes bursts into the castle, after nearly exciting a riot, and demands revenge for the death of his father: “And so have I a noble father lost; A sister driven into desperate terms, Whose worth, if praises may go back again, Stood challenger on mount of all the age, For her perfections: but my revenge will come” (Shakespeare 1786).
Claudius, spotting another boy-man and thus, easy prey, smoothly uses Laertes’ anger to his own purpose, using the same calculated appeal to obedience that we saw earlier with the elder Hamlet.
Claudius makes use of the same masculine weaknesses which Hamlet falls prey to so effortlessly and consistently. “Laertes, was your father dear to you? Or are you like the painting of a sorrow, A face without a heart?…Not that I think you did not love your father; But that I know love is begun by time;…There lives within the very flame of love, A kind of wick or snuff that will abate it;…that we would do, We should do when we would; for this ‘would’ changes, And hath abatements and delays as many, As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents; …Hamlet comes back: what would you undertake, To show yourself your father’s son in deed, More than in words?” To which Laertes, ever the good son, replies, “cut his throat i’ the church” (Shakespeare 1788).
Fortinbras, for the purpose of this essay, represents the man whose actions appear the most practical and explicable, in that they exist beyond the realm of emotion.
He seeks revenge not for the sake of his father, but to recover the lands and inheritance that the elder Fortinbras forfeited in the battle. “Our last king, Whose image even but now appear’d to us, Was, as you know, by Fortinbras of Norway, Thereto prick’d on by a most emulate pride, Dared to the combat; in which our valiant Hamlet – For so this side of our known world esteem’d him – Did slay this Fortinbras; who by a seal’d compact, Well ratified by law and heraldry, Did forfeit, with his life, all those his lands, Which he stood seized of, to the conqueror: … Now, sir, young Fortinbras, Of unimproved mettle hot and full, Hath in the skirts of Norway here and there, Shark’d up a list of lawless resolutes,… But to recover of us, by strong hand, And terms compulsatory, those foresaid lands, So by his father lost” (Shakespeare 1733).
In Hamlet, the vengeance that Fortinbras undertakes against Denmark and the elder Hamlet is essentially self serving, and less colored by emotion and obedience than that of Hamlet and Laertes. However, it is vital to note that Fortinbras praises the manner of Hamlet’s death at the end of the play, which suggests that he also values and acts by paternal rule. “Let four captains, Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage; For he was likely, had he been put on, To have proved most royally” (Shakespeare 1803).
We will write a custom Essay on Father-Son Relationships in Hamlet – Hamlet’s Loyalty to His Father specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why do these men feel so beholden to this idea of surrendering to the will of their fathers, even if they should die in the attempt? Identity. Though both Hamlet and Fortinbras are named after their fathers, only Fortinbras’ action directly benefits him. Hamlet’s loyalty to his father cost him his life. Both, however, are princes, and dutifully accept the limitations of public office.
Further Research How do the actors’ physical appearances affect their adaptations of Hamlet? 5 73 Why does Hamlet kill Polonius? 5 38 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 166 If Shakespeare kills the character of Hamlet, what dramatic convention would he be using? 5 237 In the brilliantly prophetic scene between Laertes and Ophelia, Laertes asserts that Hamlet’s blind compliance to his father’s will stems from his position as the Prince of Denmark; his role is to obey and serve the dictums of royalty, regardless of his personal wishes. “His will is not his own; For he himself is subject to his birth: He may not, as unvalued persons do, Carve for himself; for on his choice depends, The safety and health of this whole state” (Shakespeare 1740). The relationship between fathers and sons in Hamlet seems to suggest that in Shakespeare’s time, sons of kings were little more than pawns to the larger will of the paternalistic monarchy.
Works Cited Shakespeare, William. “Hamlet.” The Annotated Shakespeare. A.L. Rowse, ed. New York: Greenwich House, 1988. 1731-1803. Print.
Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help
In life, people do things for different reasons; however, all these reasons boil down to two broad issues viz. happiness and obligation. A person will either do something to achieve happiness or as a duty. Nevertheless, regardless of the motives behind one’s actions, the actions will be a means to an end or the end itself. Therefore, in this context, happiness and obligation might be the means to a desired end or the end itself.
Logically, the basic element in any pursuit is the end itself; consequently, the task here is to determine the element that stands out as the end as opposed to means to something else. The means to an end is necessary for the end is unrealizable in absence of the means. The debate on the basic elements in ethics still rages. Proponents and critics alike have their side of story, with critics claiming that obligation is the basic element in ethics while proponents hold that obligations are a means to an end and not the end itself.
The superiority of one element over the other determines its viability as the basic element in ethics; consequently, the element that surpasses the other becomes the basic element. At this point, one might confuse the means for the end and vice versa; however, as aforementioned, there can only be one end. Happiness is the basic element in ethics; not honor.
As aforementioned, the end is superior to the means to the end; consequently, happiness is superior to honor. One would wonder why he/she would seek happiness and not honor. Well, happiness is the end because “…we always desire happiness for its own sake and never as a means to something else…” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). Therefore, if people desire and pursue happiness as the end, then happiness surpasses honor.
However, happiness is not autonomous; consequently, there has to be other elements that work in concert towards the realization of the same. Honor lie in the category of the ‘other elements’ because people do not pursue honor basically for what would come out of it but “…as being means to happiness, because…they will prove the instruments of happiness” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In the light of these observations, happiness outscores honor validating the reason why people should pursue happiness and not honor.
In its entirety, happiness does not seek to accomplish honor because in happiness, honor exists. However, this argument is relative depending on what is important to humans. There cannot be a one-fit-all answer to this question; however, the initial argument that people pursue the end and not the means answers this question. Happiness being the end stands out as the most important element amongst humans.
If honor were the most important element, then it would surpass happiness and having achieved honor, people would not pursue anything else. Unfortunately, this is not the case as even those in honorable positions seek happiness. Aristotle argues that, goodness of a man comes from executing good deeds carried out in proper excellence. For excellence to exist, virtue must be present, and in the presence of the two, one’s goodness becomes an activity of the soul as Aristotle insinuates.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To understand the superiority of happiness to honor, it is worth considering Aristotle’s argument that, the “good of a man is an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 128). In other words, the motive behind any one’s activity determines the good of that person.
Virtue in this context surfaces with practice and knowledge; that is, one has to practice virtuous deeds and be aware of their implications. If one executes a virtue without knowing it is a virtue, then the activity is not good anymore and one’s goodness becomes obsolete. Virtue minus knowledge turns out to be mere duty and duty cannot define one’s goodness.
Moreover, for virtues to function optimally, they should relate to some morals and this leads to moral virtues. According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the consequence of a habit. Habit sprouts from actions that one continually do. The role of habit in achievement of moral habit is paramount here.
Just the same, way artists have to practice art after learning it; people have to practice virtues to qualify as having characteristics that associate with the virtue. For instance, by practicing kindness towards others one can be termed as kind. Likewise, by showing love to others one passes for a loving person. Without action that leads to habit, then a virtue does not qualify as a virtue. Aristotle likens habit of exercising virtues to that of exercising any other learned aspect of life.
For instance, he observes that not until someone plays a harpist, he/she does not qualify as a harpist. Similarly, virtue that is not exercised is no virtue. However, as aforementioned, Aristotle cautions against use of virtues void of knowledge, and he puts across some conditions that a virtue has to undergo to qualify its excellence.
One should “…know what he is doing…deliberately choose to do it and to do it for its own sake… do it as an instance of a settled and immutable moral state” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 129). If these conditions are unmet, then the virtue holds no moral support thus negating its worth.
Critics would fault this argument and question the modality of distinguishing what is moral from what is not. At this point, Aristotle introduces the ‘mean’ as a way of balancing the extremes of any moral issue.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aristotle seeks to explore mean value not from mathematical perspective where one obtains absolute mean, but from a philosophical point of view where mean is relative depending on an individual. Taken in this context therefore, ‘mean’ means that which is not excess and not deficient, depending on an individual. Critics would again raise the question of how to balance the relativity of this mean given the fact that no one is a replica of the other.
As aforementioned, virtue void of knowledge is no virtue and knowledge comes with emotions. Emotions coupled with actions executed at the right time underscores the mean state of any virtue. “To experience these emotions at the right times and on the right occasions and towards the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or the supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue” (Mulvaney, 2008, p. 130-31).
Therefore, time, occasion, subject, cause and manner are functions of ‘mean’ state in any virtue. Given the relativity of determining ‘mean’ state of a virtue, prudence and reason are the key factors that weigh one’s mean state.
There are different forms of mean states as even in some cases; mean is either an extreme or a deficiency. Nevertheless, these inherent differences do not nullify the superiority of happiness to honor or obligations. As previously mentioned, some mean states represent extremes where there are no excesses or deficiencies. For instance, there is no excess or deficiency of wickedness; therefore, the mean state here is an extreme; wickedness.
Murder, rape, adultery and theft among others are inherently wicked states. There cannot be a good or bad murderer. Nevertheless, some cases have clear-cut extremes and deficiencies thus mean stands out conspicuously. For instance, in giving and receiving of material things, the extreme is profligacy while the deficiency is illiberality; liberality is the mean. Whichever, way one perceives and determines his/her mean, the best way to hit the mean is by pushing one’s position towards the mean.
That is, to “choose the lesser of two evils…by steering clear of the evil which is further from the mean…drag ourselves in the direction opposite to them; for it is by removing ourselves as far as possible from what is wrong that we shall arrive at the mean…(Mulvaney, 2008, p. 134). In other words, doing things for the common good of all people underlines the principle behind the best way of hitting the mean.
In conclusion, people do things for different reasons; some do what they do for fame, honor, money, or leisure among other things while others do what they do to get happiness. To determine the basic principle in ethics calls for extensive exploration to distinguish the end and the means to the end. The end is superior to the means to the end and as analyzed above, happiness is the end while honor is means to the end. Therefore, happiness is the basic principle in ethics.
That which brings happiness to all people underscores what is ‘good’ for humans. The goodness of a person lies in the virtue surrounding any action performed. Virtues become virtues only when a person exercises them with full knowledge of their implication and chooses to exercise them deliberately. However, virtue has to be practiced continually giving birth to habit, which works towards realization of moral habits.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Which is Basic in Ethics: Happiness or Obligation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regrettably, virtues exist in extremes and if not balanced in a state of mean, they become vices. Mean is that state in which there are no excesses or deficiencies, a state of balance. There exist different types of mean given the diversity of those who practice is it. Overall, the best way of hitting the mean is to choose not the excess or the deficiency of a virtue. By doing so, everyone will achieve happiness with honor being one of the means to this felicity.
Reference Mulvaney, R. (2008). Classical Philosophical Questions (13th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall