Coca Cola’s Business Policy In Zambia And El Salvador Research Paper Online Essay Help

Introduction According to the Word Bank, about 1.35 billion people in the world today live below the international poverty line, which is set at $1.25 per day. In addition, it is estimated that the recent global financial and economic recession increased this number by 64 million people.

What this means is that a significant number of people in the world today live under extreme poverty (Raman 103). As a result of this, it is important to encourage investment in the private sector.

Investment in the private sector is important considering the fact that the ability of governments to foster development and provide aid is limited. Right now, the government is under a lot of pressure to provide the citizens with basic infrastructure using the meager resources.

The resources are overstretched, meaning that the government needs help from the private sector. Investors in the private sector will provide the citizens with, among others, employment and infrastructure.

For more than three decades, private corporations around the world have emerged as essential pillars as far as economic development is concerned.

The private corporations have created job opportunities and other benefits in the society, contributing significantly to the reduction of poverty in the world (Walsh and Dowding 106). There are debates revolving around the impact of private investors on the global economy.

Analysts are especially concerned with the impacts of these organizations on the economy of the developing countries. The debates notwithstanding, it is important to note that private corporations have significantly improved the economy as far as the developing nations are concerned.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizations have improved the business environment in these countries, in addition to providing the citizens with employment and other social amenities.

Private organizations are aware of their impacts on the economy of the developing nations. They are aware of the fact that their operations affect the life of individuals in the community within which they are operating.

As a result of this, the organizations recognize that their success or failure impacts on the community they are operating from. It is as a result of this realization that such companies have taken the initiative to transfer skills and knowledge from the developed world to the third world economies (Stanford 54).

The current paper is written against this backdrop. In this paper, the author focuses on the operations of a multinational company with significant impacts on the regional and global economy.

The companies selected for this analysis are Coca Cola and SABMiller. In this report, the author focuses on the business policy adopted by the Coca Cola Company and SABMiller. In addition, the author critically analyzes how the two companies have assisted the government in reducing levels of poverty in the country.

The report is a case study of the operation of the two companies in two developing countries. The two countries are El Salvador and Zambia. The impacts of the two companies on these two economies are critically analyzed.

Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador Zambia: Background Information

In spite of the fact that Zambia has recorded a positive economic growth in the past five years, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The country attained independence in 1964. Immediately after independence, the country had the potential to emerge as one of the leading economies in Africa.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the economy of the country declined sharply in the 1990s. Analysts blame the economic decline in the country on corruption. Corruption increased immediately after independence, and it persisted into the 1990s.

The country’s economy started to recover in 2003. For the next five years, the country recorded an average of 5% in economic growth. The positive growth is largely attributed to the establishment of a favorable environment, which was conducive to investment.

The country attracted investments from other nations, both within and outside Africa. The boom in copper mining is another reason why the country recorded a positive economic growth. Other factors leading to this growth post- 2003 include low inflation rates and improved political stability.

In 2005, the country was relieved of most of its foreign debt. To this end, the country received a 4 billion USD debt relief. In 2008, the price of copper in the international market plummeted, which affected the economy of this country negatively.

The decline in the price of copper on the global market was brought about by the recent economic recession. The economy of the country revived in 2009 when the effects of the economic recession on the global economy tapered off.

Since then, the country’s economy has continued to grow at an average rate of 6.3 percent per annum. However, in spite of this impressive economic growth, about 64% of the population in the country lived below the poverty line by the end of 2006. The current macroeconomic outlook in Zambia is positive.

However, there are various factors that continue to negatively affect economic development. For example, more than 80% of the nation’s working population is involved in agriculture (Sherelle 38).

El Salvador: Background Information

Currently, El Salvador is recovering from the effects of ten years of civil war. It is one of the poorest countries in Latin America.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A series of natural disasters, coupled with the plummeting prices of coffee in the world market, have worsened the situation. The economy of the country recorded a steady positive growth between 1996 and 2006. The economic growth was especially significant after dollarization in 2001.

According to Mexico Food (71), dollarization has increased the cost of living. In addition, dollarization has reduced interest rates in the country.

In spite of these positive impacts, dollarization has not significantly reduced poverty levels in the country. The country has experienced labor shortages in the recent past as a result of migrations. Most of the citizens have migrated into the United States of America and into other western nations.

The effects of poverty in the country vary from one group to the other. For example, and according to Mexico Food (72), poverty levels are disproportionately higher among women and farm workers compared to the rest of the population.

After the civil war, the country was faced with additional challenges, including violence and crime. Rate of crime has increased as a result of increased economic inequalities and pervasive poverty.

Other factors attributed to the rise in crime include increased access to illicit firearms, underemployment, and unemployment.

All these factors have negatively affected economic development in the country (Mexico Food 71). The success of efforts made by the government and other stakeholders to revive the economy is hindered by these factors.

Coca Cola- SABMiller Value Chain: Background Information

Coca Cola is one of the most popular multinational corporations in the world. It has established local operations in various countries around the world. The bottling of Coca Cola products is carried out by local companies, which are usually under the management of local investors.

Since the company was started in 1852, it has developed more than 500 still and sparkling brands of soft drinks. In addition to this, the company has operations in more than 200 countries around the world. In these countries, the country works in collaboration with more than three hundred bottling partners.

Coca Cola manufactures various products. The products include, among others, syrups, beverage bases, and concentrates. The manufactured products are then sold to the bottling companies (DATAMONITOR 2).

The company has operations in El Salvador and Zambia. The bottling operations in El Salvador and Zambia are carried out by SABMiller. In both countries, Coca cola has very few employees.

Majority of employees are drawn from the local population. The few employees shipped in by the company are mainly tasked with the responsibility of providing technical and marketing advice to the local operators (Market Watch 22).

In spite of the fact that El Salvador is geographically small, it is an important market for Coca Cola products in the region. On the other hand, Zambia medium sized as far as physical boundaries are concerned. As a result of this, Zambia is one of the top twenty markets for Coca Cola products in Africa (Sherelle 39).

It is a fact beyond doubt that competition is stiff in the two markets. However, Coca Cola has countered this by developing an elaborate business policy. Coca Cola Company’s business policy is aimed at promoting continual growth in El Salvador and Zambia.

Coca Cola Company controls the largest market share in both countries compared to the competitors. For instance, in the category of sparkling beverages, Coca Cola accounts for 51% of the market share in El Salvador and 73% in Zambia (Dibadj and Powers 111).

In 2009, the profits of Coca Cola in Zambia declined significantly. The decline was attributed to the company’s heavy investment in manufacturing glass bottles. The cost of manufacturing the bottles was very high as a result of decreased supply.

The revenues generated by the company from its operations in El Salvador have recorded a consistent positive growth in the past five years. It is a fact that the prices of the company’s products in El Salvador are significantly lower compared to those in Zambia.

However, the company has managed to increase the revenues in this country by increasing the sales volumes (Madhavan 35).

Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador: Macroeconomics Job Creation

As already indicated earlier in this paper, the number of individuals employed directly by Coca cola and SABMiller in these countries is very small. However, the value chain resulting from the operations of the two companies in the two countries employs a large number of people.

For example, it is estimated that more than 3,810 jobs are created by the value chain in Zambia. The implication here is that one direct job from the Coca Cola-SABMiller value system generates 10 other jobs in the Zambian economy.

The value chain is responsible for more than 4,300 formal jobs in El Salvador, which translates to more than 1% of all formal jobs in the country. The implication here is that for every direct job created by the Coca Cola- SABMiller value system, there are three formal jobs created in the El Salvador economy.

Most of the formal jobs linked to the Coca Cola- SABMiller value chain in the two countries are created in sales, distribution, bottling, and non- farm supplies’ sectors. In addition to the formal jobs, the value chain in the two countries has created a significant number of informal jobs.

The informal jobs are found in the retailing of products and harvesting of sugar cane sectors. The value chain system has created more than 65,000 retail outlets in El Salvador and more than 26,000 retail outlets in Zambia (Nevin 44).

Revenue Distribution

The revenue generated from the sale of products manufactured by this company is shared among all the partners in the value chain. In El Salvador, each 12 ounce bottle is sold at 4.25 USD. In 2010, the cost of a bottle was 62% of the selling price. The recommended price of the same bottle in Zambia is 5.04 USD.

In 2010, the cost of one bottle was 76% of the selling price. Each value chain partner receives a profit that is pegged on sales volume and the cost structure. In 2009, the sugar farmer in El Salvador received 2.2% of the profits. The retailer and the distributor in the country received 35.5% and 56% of the profits respectively.

There are variations in cost structures and the types of business conducted by the company in the two countries. As a result of this, revenue distribution in the two countries is significantly different (Sellers 141).

Tax Contributions

The revenue realized by the government in the two countries as a result of taxes imposed on the two companies varies. The revenue largely depends on the taxation systems adopted by specific countries.

The total revenue in terms of taxes collected by the government in El Salvador from the operations of the two companies is significant.

In the past five years, the government has collected approximately 51 million USD from the two companies in terms of taxes. In Zambia, the system’s tax contribution in the past five years is approximately 53.5 USD (Walsh and Dowding 109).

Sourcing suppliers

The Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain extends beyond the borders of the two countries. In 2010, the total amount that was spent on procurement in Zambia was 26 million USD. Seventy five percent of the amount was used in purchasing inputs from the region or from other countries in the world.

In El Salvador, 73 million USD was used to procure inputs. Sixty four percent of the money was used in buying inputs from other countries in the world. Supplies are mainly sourced from Central America in the case of El Salvador and from South Africa in the case of Zambia.

In attempts to spur the growth of the local economies, SABMiller and Coca Cola endeavor to source supplies locally in both countries. However, most countries in the developing world are not in a position to provide most of the inputs required for the smooth running of the two companies.

One explanation for this is the limited capacity of industries in these economies. The main factors taken into consideration by the two companies when purchasing supplies are quality, availability, and price. In many cases, local suppliers lack the technical ability and capacity to meet the system’s demand.

In addition, the business policies adopted by SABMiller and Coca Cola with regard to environmental and labor standards are quite stringent. As a result, most companies in the developing economies lose the opportunity to partner with Coca Cola (Madhavan 45).

Livelihoods Informal and Formal Sectors

Just like in most other developing nations, the jobs created by the Coca Cola- SABMiller value chain in El Salvador and Zambia are mainly in the informal sector as opposed in the formal sector.

In Zambia, the informal sector accounts for about 90% of the nation’s economy. In El Salvador, the informal sector is responsible for more than 60% of the economy. Informal workers toil in the sugarcane fields, as well as in distribution and retailing channels.

Although the jobs in the two countries are not regulated, they are important for the survival of the poor in the two nations. The livelihood and job security of workers in the two nations depend on whether they are formally or informally employed.

The individuals working in the formal sector are entitled to social welfare. In addition, they can effectively negotiate with the employer. In contrast, their counterparts in the informal sector lack such rights. The individuals engaged in the informal sector are forced to endure unpleasant working conditions.

The lack social security and are disproportionately affected by fluctuations in the market. Most people lack the opportunity to engage in formal work. As a result, they have no option but to stick to the informal sector (Regassa and Corradino 107).

Benefits, Living Wages, and Minimum Wages

In El Salvador, the employees receiving the highest pay in the Coca Cola- SABMiller system are in formal employment. The employees include those engaged in the sugar mills, bottling company, and distribution outlets.

The purchasing power of the formal employees is very high compared to that of the informal employees. In addition, those who own retail shops have a higher income than those working in the sugarcane fields. The income of the latter is slightly above the minimum wage.

In Zambia, formal employees in the Coca Cola-SABMiller system receive salaries that are above the average wage set in the country. The employees of Zambia Breweries receive the very high salaries compared to the rest (Sherelle 39).

Capacity Building and Training

Both companies have invested heavily in efforts to improve the capacity, skills, and knowledge of business partners in the value chain. The efforts include, among others, providing sugar producers with credit programs and technical assistance.

For instance, SABMiller, under Industrias La Constancia (ILC), invested 800,000 USD in the training of workers in 2011 alone. The objective of this investment was to improve the capacity of the employees, as well as help them to advance their careers.

On the other hand, Zambia Breweries spends about 95,000 USD each year to train employees. Zambia Breweries’ sales representatives are encouraged to mentor retailers and assist them gain skills necessary for business development (Raman 112).

Empowerment According to Nevin (47), it is hard to quantify empowerment. However, it is one of the most important aspects of corporations investing in developing and transitional economies.

Nevin (47) notes that empowerment among employees is evaluated by the degree to which they are capable of coming together to make collective bargains. In addition, empowerment among employees is determined by their effectiveness in using channels of communication to receive audience.

Empowering employees in the developing world is very important. It ensures that they benefit from economic growth brought about by increased investment. When people are empowered, they become assets to the company.

They protect the business against potential conflicts and emerging tensions. In addition, they provide the company with insights that help in product innovation and in improving production processes (Dibadj and Powers 134).

Workers in the Informal Sector

The capacity of employees in the informal sector to come together and agitate for the changes they need in practices and policies is very limited.

The limited capacity is observed among independent retailers, distributors, and sugarcane harvesters in the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain. The individuals in these sectors are incapable of organizing themselves. In most cases, they are incapable of influencing business policies in the company or in the government.

In Zambia, the National Association of Marketers is charged with the responsibility of communicating with the relevant stakeholders on such issues as marketplace amenities, local authorities’ fees, and licensing. However, the number of informal employees joining this organization is very small (Sherelle 41).

Price Negotiations

In most cases, sugar producers are incapable of determining the price of the commodity. Regulatory restrictions, such as quotas, make it very difficult to include farmers in price negotiations.

The difficulty is observed in both El Salvador and Zambia. Despite the fact that the costs of inputs increase on a regular basis, the farmers are not in a position to negotiate with the millers. In both countries, there are organizations representing the interests of producers. However, small-scale producers remain unrepresented (Sellers 140).

Stability and Security Sugarcane Harvesting

Harvesting sugarcane is a very rigorous process. Laborers working in the fields have suffered from such injuries as poisoning and burns. Poor wages and lack of access to basic amenities and medical services are cited as some of the main factors exposing workers to such dangers (Walsh and Dowding 110).


The level of crime in El Salvador has remained very high since the civil war. Partners in the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain, including distributors, suppliers, and sugarcane producers, report cases of vandalism, extortion, and muggings on a regular basis.

For example, the area within which ILC is located is regarded as a crime zone. Consequently, the company has put in place round-the-clock security programs to enhance the safety of the members of staff. Additionally, ILC came up with a program to train young men who were involved in crime in the past.

They are trained on how they can start small businesses to improve their life. Leaders in Nejapa, where ILC is located, have pointed out that poverty is the main reason why rate of crime is very high in the town.

Owners of distribution businesses are afraid of expanding their businesses because of the high levels of organized crime (Regassa and Corradino 109).

Dangerous Roads

The condition of the roads in Zambia is quite poor. The poor conditions of the roads are a threat to the safety of truck drivers, who work for long hours (Sherelle 42).

Women Participation and Gender Diversity Coca Cola and SABMiller promote the participation of women and minorities in the labor market in both countries. In the developing world, women are disadvantaged, especially with respect to access to healthcare, employment, and education.

They are denied basic rights because of culturally-determined gender roles in the community. Their opinion does not count in the decision making process, and they are especially prone to violence (Market Watch 23).

Women and SABMiller

In both countries, formal jobs are largely dominated by men compared to women. The company has a strong policy that discourages discrimination on the basis of gender. However, most of the work in the bottling company requires physical strength. As a result, it is considered as a man’s job.

In addition, insecurity has contributed to the underrepresentation of women in the value chain. The entire Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain is dominated by male workers. There are various factors responsible for this underrepresentation, including insecurity (Mexico Food 73).

Women in Distribution

In most cases, women work together with their husbands in retail and distribution outlets. The number of female business owners in the two countries is very small. For instance, the two largest distribution outlets in Zambia are owned by couples.

Stanford (54) notes that women in Zambia are concerned about gender discrimination with regard to access to business growth and career advancement opportunities. Distribution in both countries is characterized by insecurities, which discourage women from owning such businesses.

In both countries, a significant number of women own and operate small retail outlets. Most outlets are close to their homes. As a result, they work and take care of their families at the same time. Seventy six percent of retail outlet owners in El Salvador are women.

In Zambia, 35% of the outlets are either owned or managed by a woman. Zambia Breweries and ILC train small scale retailers. However, women retailers in Zambia face various challenges accessing credit services.

As a result, their capacity to grow is very limited. In El Salvador, the situation is significantly different from Zambia. Most of the women interviewed in one study pointed out that they accessed credit facilities with the same ease as male retailers (Regassa and Corradino 107).

Sustainability and the Environment Both companies have demonstrated their commitment to environmental and social sustainability. Both of them have elaborate corporate social responsibility (CSR) systems. They are independently evaluated each year (DATAMONITOR 8).

Depending on their supply chain and business operations, multinationals determine access to quality water among members of the community. Companies operating in close proximity to local communities give back to the society by sponsoring clean water initiatives and ensuring that they treat their wastewater.

In this regard, businesses should ensure that their operations do not interfere with the ability of the locals to access quality water. Coca Cola Company and SABMiller are registered members of CEO Water Mandate (CWM).

According to the stipulations of CWM, member companies are committed to strengthening water sustainability practices and policies (Market Watch 25).

In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly pointed out that human beings have a right to clean water.

The Assembly encouraged countries and multinationals to transfer technology, build capacity, and provide necessary resources to third world countries to assist them provide affordable, safe, accessible, and clean drinking water to their populations.

During the convention, The Assembly averred that 900 million people in the world lacked access to clean and safe water (Walsh and Dowding 113).

Just like in the developed world, the agricultural sector consumes more water in third world countries compared to other sectors. Water is the major component of the products manufactured by Coca cola. In addition, water is used as a coolant for machines.

Other areas where water is used include in washing facilities and in the manufacturing processes. The value chain significantly affects the farms in the third world.

In Zambia, farmers use a lot of water to wash sugarcane after harvesting. However, the use of water during harvesting in El Salvador is less compared to Zambia. The major reason for this is that it is usually wet during harvesting in El Salvador (Dibadj and Powers 145).

Coca Cola is a registered member of Bonsucro, which was established to limit the negative impacts of sugarcane farming and processing. As a member of this organization, Coca Cola encourages sugarcane producers to use environment-friendly practices, such as drip irrigation.

The reduction of negative effects on the environment effects is appraised by independent evaluators. Currently, Coca Cola is working with producers in Zambia and in El Salvador to design pilot projects that will benefit the environment and the producers (Nevin 45).

In the two countries, the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain system is located close to sources of water. The same water is used in other industrial, agricultural, and domestic processes. The main issue in Zambia is access to water.

On the other hand, the main issue in El Salvador is availability of water. Managers in the bottling plants engage members of the community by showing them how to use water to benefit everyone.

In addition, they train them on how to use water with minimal negative effects on the environment. Zambia Breweries and ILC observe the requirements of the water stewardship committee in Coca cola (Raman 103).

SABMiller ‘Water Dialogues’

One of the major plants operated by Zambia Breweries is located near residential areas. The plant supplies clean water to the residents of two nearby towns.

Residents of another town use water from an adjacent spring, which is also used by the plant. The plant has provided the community with several standpipes of clean water for free. In exchange, the community protects the plant’s pipes from vandals.

One of the major plants operated by ILC, as well as residents of the surrounding community, uses water from the San Antonio River. ILC is treats all wastewater before it is discharging into the river, but other industries in the area do not.

For some time, the community assumed that ILC was among the industries releasing untreated water into the river. ILC, together with the local authority, informed the community that wastewater from the plant was treated.

The company entered into discussions with the community on what should be done to deal with the pollution caused by the other industries. The other industries have started treating their waste water. They are now working together with members of the community to conserve the environment (Raman 110).

Packaging and Recycling

Landfill waste is one of the most challenging waste management issues in the developing world. Contaminants from the landfills leak and contaminate groundwater, endangering the health of members of the surrounding communities.

SABMiller has initiated a recycling program in both countries. 70% of all Coca Cola products in Zambia are sold in returnable bottles, with the rest sold either in plastic bottles or in aluminum cans. The use of returnable bottles is eco-friendly because they are returned to the company, washed, and reused.

Coca Cola and SABMiller had proposed a program to recycle aluminum cans and plastic bottles. However, due to the limitations of the Zambian recycling industries, the program has not taken off. In El Salvador, 52% of the products are sold in plastic bottles, 35% in returnable bottles, and 9% in cans.

The recycling plants operated by ILC are very efficient, but they were adversely affected by the economic recession. As a result, some of them closed down (Sellers 144).

Products and Marketing Beverage companies are tasked with the responsibility of making sure their products are safe for consumption. The companies should realize that some people in the society may be negatively affected by their products. In the developing world, these companies should ensure that their message is presented in a way understandable to consumers (DATAMONITOR 7).

Product Portfolio

The company’s product portfolio in the two countries is fairly limited. Most people in the countries consume sparkling beverages. Sales of juice in El Salvador have continued to rise in the past two years. The company has more than 500 brands and more than 3,300 products (Market Watch 25).

Consumer Perceptions and Marketing

Coca Cola has spent over 5 million USD in marketing its products in El Salvador. The brand is associated with success and inspiration in the two countries. The products are integral parts of family and cultural celebrations.

Fanta is the most popular product among children in the two countries. The business policy adopted by Coca Cola includes a Global Responsible Marketing Policy (GRMP). The policy discourages the marketing of the company’s products to children aged less than twelve years (DATAMONITOR 9).

Nutritional Labeling

Under GRMP, Coca Cola committed to display nutritional labels on all its products by the end of 2010. The products sold in returnable bottles in both countries did not have the labels as of 2009.

The company is reluctant to provide such information on returnable bottles because it will force it to replace all bottles that are currently in circulation. In 2011, the company established a telephone number that consumers could call and get such information.

Consumers in both countries point out that they do not comprehend the information on the cans and plastic bottles. In addition, they do not think that the company should provide such information on returnable bottles (Madhavan 41).

Under GRMP, the company commits to measure and monitor the degree to which the policy is adhered to. In addition, it has come up with a Review Process to make sure that the policy is fully implemented. The findings made are documented in the CSR report at the end of every year.

The International Food and Beverage Alliance conducted an independent audit and found that Coca Cola had complied with the provisions of GRMP. The level of compliance was more than 96% for television adverts and 100% for print and online adverts (Company Spotlight, 24-26).

Conclusion Coca Cola operates in more than 200 countries in the world. In most of its operations in the developing nations, the company has streamlined its value chain to ensure it remains profitable.

In addition, streamlining the value chain helps in protecting the environment, improving welfare of the employees, and improving the quality of products. The company has achieved this through a diverse business policy.

The policy addresses the role of the company in the countries’ macroeconomics, livelihood of employees, worker empowerment, job security, participation of women in the labor market, marketing of products, and protection of environment.

Works Cited DATAMONITOR. “The Coca-Cola Company: Coca-Cola Company SWOT Analysis.” DATAMONITOR 20 June 2011: 1-9. Print.

Dibadj, Ali, and Steve Powers. “U.S. Beverages


Theory of Knowledge Explicatory Essay online essay help: online essay help

Knowledge is very fundamental in the life of a person and it is therefore very necessary to fully understand the various ways of knowing. Traditionally, there are four basic ways of knowing which were developed by different philosophers. These four ways of knowing are depicted in the TOK diagram of knowledge.

The sources of knowledge represented in the TOK diagram include sense perception, language, emotion and logic. Sense perception is the first way of knowing that is based on body senses such as vision and touch (Lehrer 34).

The second source of knowledge is language and in this case knowledge is passed down from those in authority and through reading. Language is used as a medium to pass knowledge from one person to another.

The third source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is emotion. Knowledge about certain things is obtained through intuition and emotional feeling.

The fourth and final source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is logic which emphasizes the importance of reasoning as a source of knowledge. Rational thinking leads to generation of ideas and solutions that become a very important source of knowledge and understanding.

Philosophers and psychologists claim that there is a fifth way of knowing that is yet to be fully exploited. Many scholars agree that memory plays a very significant role in helping a person know and understand things (Lehrer 112).

Although memory as a way of knowing is not featured on the TOK diagram, many scholars agree that it plays a significant role in generating crucial information that is used in historical studies and social science.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will substatatiate and explain why memory is an important source of knowledge apart from the four ways of knowing highlighted in the TOK diagram.

The idea of classifying memory as a source of knowledge is always discussed in most TOK discussions. Memory is a concept that combines different sources of knowledge and is normally used by many people to make knowledge claims. Memory is a combination of past experiences, perception and emotion.

Ideas generated by memory are reliable but not in all instances (Dicker 59). Some of the ideas generated by memory end up being faulty and hence not trustworthy at times.

Cases of mistaken identity are very common in courts and it is therefore true to say that the reliability of memory as a source of information or knowledge is not a hundred percent. There are instances where eyewitnesses commit a lot of errors in their testimonies due to forgetfulness and misconception.

The fact that eyewitnesses can not be completely relied upon in a court of law makes many people to question whether memory is a reliable way of knowing. It is believed that memory can easily be altered if a person uses drugs or listens to other suggestions.

The memory of a person keeps changing as time passes with the one that is relived more that once losing its truthfulness over time (Dicker 78). The mind of a human being is very vulnerable and it can therefore be easily manipulated by other external sources.

The fact that the memory of a person can easily be influenced under different circumstances proves that it is sometimes difficult to find the actual truth of a particular case by completely relying on memory.

We will write a custom Essay on Theory of Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite its shortcomings, memory is still considered as an important source of knowledge in fields such as history and social science. Memory can not be completely ruled out as an unreliable way of knowing because it is sometimes useful in cases where there is no manipulation (Dicker 145).

It is always a great challenge to convince some people that memory is a very reliable source of knowledge that is used in fields such as history and social science. Psychology scholars have discovered that memory is a very important element of cognitive psychology and other social sciences.

Cognitive psychology deals with how the human behavior is affected by the mental processes of a human being (Pollock 46). Many people underestimate the importance of memory and only coming to realize its significance when it fails to help them.

Forgetting occurs as a result of memory failure and therefore memory should be seen as a very important asset. In psychology, memory is classified into three categories that include the working memory, sensory memory and long-term memory.

The sensory memory is directly connected to mind with the information delivered or the impression created fading in the shortest time possible. The human mind could be completely overwhelmed if it had to remember all the information it receives (Pollock 46).

The human mind tends to remember only the information that grabs its attention. The human mind finds it difficult to remember everything that a person sees of hears. The amount of information that can be kept and worked on by the memory at a particular time is very limited.

A working memory is normally used to keep information while working on it at the same time. The people who speak faster are a perfect example of how a working memory works. The information in a working memory tends to fade if it is not stored in a long-term memory.

It is always easy to retrieve information from a long-term memory since the information stored is permanent. A person’s name is normally stored in their long-term memory and that is why its retrieval is automatic.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other shortcoming of using memory as a source of knowledge is the possibility of new memories interfering with the new ones (Pollock 46).

The memory of person can be distorted by stress, passage of time and the power of suggestion. There are three ways through which the memories in the mind of a person can be retrieved.

The first way is through recall where previously learned information is retrieved in its original order or randomly.

The other way through which information can be retrieved from the memory is through recognition. In the case of recognition, previously learnt information is retrieved through identification of the right option from a number of choices (Hoerl 396).

The third way of retrieving information from the memory is through reconstruction. Reconstruction occurs through remembering particular details of a scenario and building concrete information from the remembered details.

The majority of historical information was obtained through the use of memory to remember past events. It is therefore very important to examine the reliability of memory as a source of historical information (Hoerl 396).

Many historians are always skeptical about the use of memory as a source of historical information. Social historians are the main proponents of oral history that relies majorly on information obtained from oral interviews.

The use of memory in recalling a past event makes some historian to view oral history as subjective and unreliable. The use of documented sources as a source of historical information has become a common trend with many historians but it is important to state that those sources are not always accurate (Hoerl 396).

Some of the discrepancies in documented sources are normally discovered when oral interviews are conducted. This scenario justifies the fact that memory can be a reliable source of historical information.

The subjectivity of oral history is what makes the memory a unique source of knowledge for historians and social scientists. Critics of oral history bank on the argument that memories decline with time but the argument is yet to be substantiated with concrete evidence (Hoerl 396).

Supporters of oral history argue that when interviewing a person to obtain historical information, the only thing that is required is the motivation to remember.

Knowledge claims are categorized according to their source. The primary category consists of a person’s own understanding and ideas whereas the secondary category is based on the ideas and findings of others.

There are cases where knowledge claims are based on a combination of both primary and secondary sources (Guyer 89). The majority of new ideas and theories are normally derived from other people’s ideas and it is therefore very difficult to classify them as original.

The majority of knowledge claims are based on both primary and secondary sources because new knowledge is normally built from the existing one.

The two categories of knowledge claims include positive and normative knowledge claims. Positive claims of knowledge describe the past; present and future nature of a system, process or activity (Guyer 89).

The statements that are normally formulated from positive knowledge claims describe the relationship between things. The best way to come up with positive knowledge claims is through careful observation of processes and systems.

Positive knowledge claims also describe systems, things, processes and activities in detail. These descriptions are based on both personal understanding and understanding of others. Positive knowledge claims are very common in science because science aims at discovering why things happen the way they do.

By claiming that academic success depends on how hard a person works, an individual is said to have used a positive knowledge claim to describe the relationship between working hard and academic success. A statement of relationship is used in the mentioned example to describe a process.

The normative category of knowledge claims is based on judgment. The value, morality and importance of a process or thing are normally expressed in this category of knowledge claims (Guyer 89). The normative knowledge claims judges whether a process, system or thing is wrong or right.

Knowledge claims come with issues that limit what people claim to know. The first issue that arises when particular knowledge has been claimed is whether evidence is required and the reason why it is needed.

The second issue regarding knowledge is that the number of knowledge claims that do not require evidence is very small. The majority of knowledge claims require evidence for people to believe in them.

The implications that a knowledge claim without evidence brings is another knowledge issue (Guyer 112).

The fourth issue regarding knowledge is the level of importance that some areas of knowledge have compared to others. Knowledge issues should be critically analyzed before a person comes up with a knowledge claim.

Works Cited Dicker, Georges. Kant’s Theory of Analytical Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason. New York: Hackett Publishing, 2004. Print.

Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.

Hoerl, Christoph. Time and Memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.

Lehrer, Keith. Theory of Knowledge. New York: Westview Press, 2000. Print.

Pollock, John. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. New York: Rowman


University Students’ Emotions in Lectures Critical Essay college essay help near me

In their article “University Students’ Emotions in Lectures: The Effect of Competence Beliefs, Value Beliefs and Perceived Task-Difficulty, and the Impact on Academic Performance”, Greek researchers Georgia Stephanou, Petros Kariotoglou, and Konstantinos Dinas present the results of the investigation on the problem of correlation between students’ emotions at lectures in Psychology, Linguistics and Physics and their academic expectations and performance.

The article was published in The International Journal of Learning in 2011. This quantitative research is related to the problem of academic performance in the field of education with its dependence on such factors as the students’ cognition and emotions.

The researchers have focused not only on examining students’ usual emotions at lectures during the academic semester but also on their performance expectations, the category of ability self-perceptions, on value beliefs, estimated task-difficulty and on the interdependence of these factors with students’ successful and unsuccessful academic performance.

In the study, the authors have presented several hypotheses with the main one suggesting that students who experience positive emotions at lectures are more successful in their academic performance than those students who often experience negative emotions at the same lectures.

Those students who consider their performance as successful experience more positive emotions at lectures. That is why, they argue, the process can be discussed as interdependent.

Furthermore, the level of value beliefs, performance expectations, and ability self-perceptions also depends on the correlation between positive emotions and successful performance.

These hypotheses are based on the results of the previous studies according to which such positive emotions as, for instance, curiosity and pride can affect students’ motivation, cognition, and achievements positively as well as negative emotions provoke students’ unsuccessful performance (Stephanou, Kariotoglou,


Nationalism in the Modern-Day World Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Every person in any corner of the earth has a country that he or she considers as his or her motherland. Therefore, no matter where he or she moves, there is something in the back of the mind that reminds him or her of his or her country.

For example, United States of America has for along time being considered as the land of milk and honey by the immigrants from other countries especially the developing ones. However, regardless of this perspective, Taiwo (p 21) observes that such people remain attached to their country of origin in spite of the difficulties found there.

He point out that most of these people move there to look for greener pastures and that when they are satisfied with that they will return to their country of origin. He claims that to show their patriotism, he notes that the immigrants will not invest heavily in the foreign land but rather will invest in their country of origin.

As a result he portrays these kinds of people as nationalistic because they have put the welfare of their country ahead of their country. According to him nationalism is the loyalty or devotion to ones country. Gellner (p 54) claims that nationalism is solely responsible for the creation of a national identity.

In addition he says that nationalism makes a people in a country appreciate and have respect to each other irrespective of their faith, race, and even ethnic affiliation. Therefore, peace and stability in a region or a country is promoted when people learn to co-exist with others in spite of their varying cultures. He observes that as long as people have a unifying factor for example the president, then nationalism will be promoted.

Theories of Nationalism In the contemporary world a number of scholars have come up with various explanations to explain why people feel honored to be identified with their countries. Samir (p 100) has come up with a theory which he calls the instrumentalist theory. In this theory the most striking feature is that it focuses more on the ethnic groups rather than countries or the nations.

In his discussion he observes that ethnic identity is variable as well as flexible. That is, both the content and the boundaries of the ethnic group are not rigid and therefore can change according to the prevailing conditions. He observes that ethnic affiliations are a mere way of promoting economic interests. To add on he point out that some people are ready to change their group membership once they have fulfilled their desired and set goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modernization theory According to Bellamy (p 15) modernization theory asserts that nationalism emerges as a result of the process of transition from traditional to modern society. He claims that the modernization theory proponents zero in on the spread of industrialization, political, cultural conditions as well as the socio-economic.

According to him these are some of the issues that make a people in some countries be proud of their nation. He says that in the developed countries of Europe, Asia and the United States of America industrialization and a strong economic base has in particular led to rise of nationalism in them. Taiwo (p 15) states that modernization theory of nationalism stems from the tradition of Enlightenment rationalism and more specifically in the area of scientific materialism and empiricism.

In his discussion he tends to relate nationalism with the historical, economic as well as political advancement that is necessitated by the science and its effect to politics and also social life at large. According to him nationalism affects traditional social ties in that it breaks the progress that had previously been witnessed in the market relations for instance.

Evolutionary Theories Andersson (p 50) states that people begin by having an ethnic sought of nationalism before they can develop the ‘real’ nationalism. He observes scholars have not managed to explain the period at which people change their perception from ethnic to national appreciation.

He attributes this to lack of an in depth research o how these transitions occurs and the failure to see the implication of ethnicity for today’s nationhood. According to Geertz (p 115) there exists a gap between the medieval and the modern notions of a nation. As a result of this he point out those national identities has to be re invented in the modern world.

Types of nationalism Anti colonial nationalism

Scholars have identified a number of nationalisms that are different from each other depending on their nature and the times at which they take place. According to Sukumar (p 251) there is the anti colonial nationalism. He notes that, this took place in the period after the World War II.

After the World War II many countries especially in Africa and Asia that had for a long time been under the colonial rule of the Europeans began to rise up against such rule. In Africa for example he claims that nationalism movements claimed a lot life in Algeria and Kenya as they wanted their countries from the colonial chains.

We will write a custom Essay on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1952, a group calling itself MAUMAU waged a full war against the British colonial government and true to its expectation the country attained her independence in 1963 after more than a hundred thousand people had lost their life.

He observes that although the Kenyan and Algerian nationalism turned out to be bloody other countries like Tanganyika managed to negotiate with the British who had been given the mandate to run her affairs after the defeat of the Germans in the First World War.

Ultranationalism Blaut (p 198) observes that this kind of nationalism is characterized by people’s immense support for their country. He claims that people come in their numbers to show their solidarity with the actions of their government. He says that when a country is attacked by enemies like it happened in the United States in September 11 2001, members of the public are likely to come out in large numbers to demonstrate that they are in solidarity with the government.

According to him other actions that may cause this kind of nationalism include, the government plan to control the number of immigrants entering the country, expulsion out of the country of suspects who are considered a threat to the state security, fight against drugs as is the case in Colombia and Mexico.

Other include going to war against another country that is perceived as a threat to that country. He thus argues that this kind of nationalism is normally peaceful and in many instances do not last for a long time. This is because its occurrence is catalyzed by an event that is at hand.


Bellamy (p 22) has noted that some countries especially those that have advanced technologically have a tendency of looking down upon those countries that are poor and technologically behind. He contends that this kind of behavior people originates from infancy when a child is taught by the parents on what or who he or she should relate to.

He says that in the twentieth century, black people in the United States of America and in Europe were despised which made it extremely hard for them to co exist with the whites. He point out that with changing time, the perception has changed and as a result such people can relate and help one another during the times of need. He calls this kind of nationalism as ethnocentrism.

Civic nationalism

Civic nationalism is another type of nationalism. According to Snyder (p 102) civic nationalism shows a country as an assembly of different people who view themselves as belonging to that nation. He argues that such people consider themselves as having same political rights and allegiance to similar political procedures.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he says this kind of nationalism is meant to instill certain values such as equality, tolerance, respect for human rights, and freedom in people as they participate in the process of nation building.

Impacts of Nationalism in the modern day world In the world today, nationalism has contributed greatly in shaping the world in its present state. Tilly (p 127) points out that, as people try to search they national identification on the international scale various events has taken place that have made what they are today. He says that one of the impacts of nationalism is the rise of new states.

According to him, prior to the Second World War, the world was literally owned by the European powers led by the British and the French authorities. In the African continent for example he states that French and British government claimed over 80 percent together while the rest of the European powers controlled the rest.

After the Second World War, most of the African soldiers taken by the British to be carrier corps returned home and demanded that the Europeans leave their territories. He points out that the India’s independence of 1947 gave a fresh impetus for these Africans to demand for their independence.

This wave spread across the whole continent and by the year 1970 more than 60 percent of African countries had been liberated from the colonial rule. This therefore gave rise to many countries that had previously not existed. He says that prior to independent Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania used to be referred to as East African Protectorate.

But with attainment of independence, each country adopted its own name with a complete government. He notes that to date there are those regions of the world fighting to secede from another country. He argues that this is all brought about by nationalism.

Furthermore, Andersson (p 54) asserts that nationalism has brought about war between one country and others. He says that the terrorism attacks on the 11th September 2001 in the United States of America made the then president, George Walker Bush to declare war on Afghanistan that was blamed for protecting the then leader of Al-Qaeda the late Osama bin Laden.

He claims that the members of the public came out in large numbers and urged their government to retaliate by waging a war against Afghanistan. According to him, the attacks on the Twin Towers and the World Trade Centre brought together the entire American citizens. As a result they united behind their leaders and offered their support for the country to go to war as they considered it a war against terrorism.

Nationalism has also led to an increased pride among nations. Geertz (p 110) claims that as countries compete with one another, the winning one feels more superior to the other although it is the players alone involved. He says that in Brazil, their winning football culture has made the entire nation proud.

Therefore as they play another country, the entire nation is behind them so that they can continue with their winning ways. In addition he says that, countries that have progressed technologically have developed a negative attitude towards the poor and the impoverished countries.

According to him some of the citizens in the developed countries got so much pride that they cannot take or consume anything made from such a country because he or she believes that their country has the best product while the others are sub standards. Tilly (p 147) points out that nationalism have led to the fall of government in different parts of the world.

He claims that dictatorial forms of government have witnessed its own people rising against it in popular uprisings. This usually takes the form of mass action organized by the pressure groups and other activist. If this fails to work, he notes that others takes arms and uses force to topple such government. He gives an example of how the late Mobutu Sese Seko of the former Zaire was overthrown.

Therefore, a government has to be responsible to its people or else people will revolt against is and bring it down. In addition Sidwell (p 214) argues that nationalism has brought about unifications in some countries in the world today. He says that in Italy and Germany for instance, nationalism as a tool for unification.

According to him, prior to this nationalism in Italy the whole country was divided into many city states that claimed autonomy. As a result of nationalism he points out that the city states came together and managed to form the modern day Italy. He argues that once the citizens have learnt to live peacefully with one another, they are likely to cooperate and work together for the good of the country.

Sukumar (p 254) points out that nationalism have led to the emergence of a new crop of leaders in a number of countries in the world. According to him, the young people have become tired of being referred to the leaders of tomorrow and therefore want to take up the leadership o their countries now and not any other day.

He notes that in most of the developing countries the heads of government are usually old people above the age of sixty five who have been blamed for lack of vision in their leadership. As a result there has been a rise in the number of young people taking part in elections where a significant number is vying for the top seat in their country. Nationalism has increased accountability in many government institutions.

According to Hroch (p 73) many government that had previously blamed for lack of accountability are today being held accountable by the electorate. To ensure that they gain the electorates’ confidence and thus stand a chance of being re elected in the subsequent elections, he asserts that these government have yielded to the calls by the members of the public to increase transparency in all their transactions.

As a result incidences of corruptions have gone down significantly. Furthermore, nationalism has led to persistent conflict between neighboring countries. According to Feld (p 99) when colonial government laid their hands on the colonies they drew up boundaries without bearing in mind the effects the boundaries would have on the communities residing in those areas.

He says that, while carrying out a research in East Africa, he realized that the British government divided the Somalis from Kenya with their families in Somalia. As a result of this the Somali government that came to power after the British had left tried to annex the northern part of Kenya into Somalia. He observes that even today the Somalis in Somalia considers the north eastern part of Kenya as rightly theirs and therefore continues to cause conflict with their Kenyan authorities.

Nationalism has also led to increased democracy in a number of countries. Gellner (p 127) argues that when people stand united to demand certain things from the government are bound to get them because the government is aware of the potential danger posed by the citizens should they all decide that enough is enough.

He points out that as a result of this the government yields in to the demands of the people and allows room for more public participation in the running of the government affairs. He adds that nationalism has led to some countries looking down upon others. According to him, the developed countries have put in measures that ensure that the developing countries don’t improve economically without their help.

By so doing he says that the developed nations are able to spread their influence on these nations and make them compel to their wishes. Woolf, (p 123) points out that nationalism has been responsible for the ethnic and religious clashes in some countries in the world. In Northern Ireland for example there have been for a long time clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants based on ideological differences.

According to him, these people fight with one another because of their unity in religion. That is, the believers are proud and ready to die in the name of their religion because they are proud to be associated with either side of the divide. In addition, he argues that such people will do anything possible to protect their religion from interference from other people.

Minaham (p 211) contends that nationalism has helped a lot of people to know their basic human rights. According to him when people feel attached so much to their country, they get a good chance to be taught their basic rights and therefore critic their government when such a person realizes that the government or any other state agency is not respecting human rights.

Moreover, nationalism has promoted the relationship between a country and the others. He notes that when the members of the public show their solidarity with their government actions, people and governments from other countries begin to show a keen interest in such a country and the countries may end up becoming good trading partners hence benefiting the citizens of both countries and more so those who realizes a positive balance of trade.

Hayes (p 54) has argued that if not properly looked at, nationalism can lead to degeneration to groups. He point out that, once become proud of their nation so much, they can attract potential enemies who would attack them using propagandas in order to divide them.

Once such propagandas have sunk in them, people tends to develop a sense of mistrust and with time a country that was perceived as intact may begin to disintegrate slowly and after a while some of the leaders may begin advocating for secession. He says that this was the case when the cold war ended in the late 1980s and early 1990s after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

According to Kohn (p 78) nationalism has impacted on the manner in which people conduct themselves whether in public or in private. He points out that once the people realize the importance of being royal and appreciating their country and the leaders, they develop a new attitude towards that country and begin behaving in a manner likely to suggest that they respect and honor all those in authority.

Conclusion Being a nationalist is a virtue that each one of us regardless of age, sex, race and religious affiliation should have. Although some of our rulers have not created a good environment for us to be proud as citizens we should take that and try to ask other people to join us in campaigning for patriotism and nationalism.

People should learn that it is their noble to duty always be ready to protect their country from external as well as internal attacks. In order to promote nationalism from an earlier stage in life the government should start an awareness campaign in school for children to be taught the importance of being patriotic as they grow up.

In addition to that, the government should introduce a mandatory unit that will be taught right from the primary school to the University level. By so doing people will be in a better position to decide for themselves on whether to be patriotic or otherwise. One way of promoting nationalism is to ensure that democracy prevails in the country.

Members of the public on the other hand should learn to co exist peacefully at all times regardless of the prevailing conditions. Liah (p 211) asserts that peace and harmony are important ingredients in the realization of nationalism. This is because for people to be considered nationalistic, they must show cohesiveness among themselves so that they can get whatever they want to achieve.

As earlier stated there are certain types of nationalism that can bring hatred among people and to an extent generate into a full scale war like it was the case in the Northern Ireland between the Catholics and the Protestants. In order to avert such crisis leaders in both camps should sit down together and iron out their differences so that no blood shed is witnessed in the future.

Once people in a country have learnt to live peacefully in their own country, it is the government’s obligation to establish good working relationships with other countries so that the citizens in those countries can benefit from such a relationship in terms of doing business.

Works cited Andersson, Eliud. Culture, Identity and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008

Bellamy, Charles. Nationalism and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001

Blaut, Jim. The National Question. London: Routledge, 2004

Feld, Jordan. Minorities, Autonomy and elf Determination. London: Sage, 2003

Geertz, Clifford. Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004

Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006

Hayes, Carlton. The Historical Evolution of Modern Evolution. London, Blackwel, 2007

Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002

Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism. New York: Macmillan, 2009

Liah, Greenfeld. Nationalism, Roads to Modernity. London: Penguin, 2007

Sidwell, Alex. The Age of Nationalism. New York: Harper


The Three Choirs Vineyard Research Paper scholarship essay help

The wine industry is one of the most competitive industries in many countries around the world. Companies involved with wine production have to put in place the right marketing and promotional strategies in order to retain and attract customers.

The Three Choirs Vineyard offers different wine varieties and accommodation services in addition to a beautiful and relaxing environment. The Three Choirs Vineyard facility has a wine shop, gift shop, daily guided tours, a restaurant, eleven boarding units, and a state of the art winery with 75 acres of vines.

To fully analyze the Three Choirs Vineyard, it is important to highlight the organization’s marketing strategies such as segmentation, targeting and positioning.

To begin with, Three Choirs Vineyard has tried its level best to divide its market into segments of consumers with a common inclination towards a particular brand of products and services.

Market segments are created according to demographic variables, income, behavior, lifestyle and the type of benefit sought from the product or service. Consumers with the same interests and needs are divided into small segments to ensure that everyone is fully satisfied.

The success of Three Choirs Vineyard is attributed to its segmented market. Three Choirs Vineyard provides a unique experience for its customers with the different varieties of wine and other recreational facilities being perfect segments for its customers.

Three Choirs Vineyard caters for wine enthusiasts, gift shoppers, holiday makers and those just looking for a beautiful place to relax. The organization produces different brands of wine according to the different preferences of its segmented market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promotional schemes of products and services depend on the unique tastes and preferences of a particular market segment. After creating market segments, the next step to be taken by the organization is targeting the created segments.

An organization develops marketing schemes and plans to effectively reach the created market segments. In an attempt to target its wide range of segments, Three Choirs Vineyard has elaborate marketing schemes targeting its market segments.

To begin with, the organization has wine tasting tours that target wine lovers and holiday makers. Three Choirs Vineyard has discount plans for each market segment according the marketing goals of each segment.

The organization offers two packages of wine for both its rich and average income customers through the adopt a vine with wine promotion. An organization strives to create a particular perception in the mind s of customers with regard to their market segment through positioning.

Taking Three Choirs Vineyard as an example, the organization has different wine brands for the rich, middleclass, teenagers, the old, women, men, Christians and non-Christians. All brands are created with the aim of creating a particular perception in a targeted market segment.

Positioning is an effective marketing strategy that ensures that all market segments are accommodated. Each brand of wine is prepared, priced and positioned according to the requirements of a particular market segment.

The three marketing strategies have been effectively used by Three Choirs Vineyard in an attempt to retain, satisfy and attract customers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organization needs to analyze and fully understand its environment of operation for it to achieve its organizational goals. In order to analyze its environment of operation, there are certain external factors that the organization needs to understand.

These factors are commonly referred to as the PESTLE factors. Three Choirs Vineyard faces some legal, social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect its daily activities. The legal and environmental categories of the PESTLE factors are very crucial in the UK wine industry.

Three Choirs Vineyard faces strict regulations that guide the winemaking industry. The alcoholic strength of each wine category has both minimum and maximum limits that need to be followed. Enrichment and de-acidification of wine produced in the UK is also regulated to ensure that the standards are maintained.

The legal regulations limit export business of wine making companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard. The level of sulphur dioxide in red wine is limited to 150 milligrams per litre for all UK wine industries.

Records concerning wine bottling and enrichment must be recorded immediately and kept for a minimum of five years for accountability purposes. The UK wine labeling regulations are very strict because they are harmonized with the EU wine labeling regulations.

The wine label must include the alcoholic strength, the nominal volume, country of origin, sulphur dioxide content and the type of wine. Fluctuating values of international currencies affect the price of wine at the international market.

Wine companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard end up incurring loses on its exports due to weak foreign currencies. The Three Choirs Vineyard holds daily tasting events and it is therefore required to have a Winery Special Event Permit.

There are quite a number of environmental regulations and issues that affect the wine industry in the UK. Environmental factors form part of the PESTLE factors that affect the UK wine industry.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vineyards and other winery operations are considered as Agricultural activities by the UK authorities and therefore the zoning of farms is done by bona fide government agencies.

All wine producing facilities like Three Choirs vineyard are inspected after very six months to check whether there are any activities which are harmful to the environment. All companies that produce wine must have a Winery Waste Disposal Permit to ensure compliance with environmental legislation.

The PESTLE factors affect the marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard in a number of ways. To begin with, the sociological factors help the organization in the process of market segmentation. The organization uses the data gathered from sociological analysis to segment its market.

Three Choirs Vineyard has segmented its wine market according to age, sex, level of income, religion and the type of satisfaction sought from wine. The data obtained from analyzing external sociological factors helps a great deal in market segmentation.

Economic factors such inflation and exchange rates play a significant role in the pricing of goods and services at Three Choirs Vineyard. Promotion of goods and services is an essential component of a marketing mix that is enhanced by the PESTLE factors.

It would be difficult for Three Choirs Vineyard to promote its products if the UK as a country was politically unstable. The success being enjoyed by Three Choirs Vineyard is as a result of the good political and economic relationship that the UK enjoys with the rest of the world.

An organization or company can only develop an efficient and effective marketing plan if all the PESTLE factors are put into consideration. The marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard brings good results because the organization constantly considers the PESTLE factors.


The Psychology of Personality Essay college admission essay help

Introduction This case study outlines the process of counselling, which composed of six sessions that my client underwent. The case study I have chosen has great significance to my life and career due to several reasons. Firstly, it was my first experience dealing with a client during my first year of training as a counsellor.

Secondly, I managed to counsel a client successfully despite the conditions that surrounded her life. Thirdly, the experience was quite enriching as it gave me the impetus to build my career. Nevertheless, I will elaborate how the case study is significant to me through the six sessions of counselling that my client underwent.

Confidentiality is important in counselling because it protects clients from undue stigma arising from the use of confidential information. Since confidentiality is important in protecting clients, I have used different names to protect my client’s identity as well as identities of her relatives and friends.

To elaborate the case study well, I will outline it as follows:

Firstly, I will introduce the case study by providing background information of the client and the case study. The background information will enable readers to get a glimpse and understand the essence of the case study.

Secondly, I will describe the six sessions that my client underwent, as an endeavour to elucidate the process of counselling that occurred in the case study.

In the description section, I will describe the following aspects of the case study: therapeutic interventions, the client’s process, experienced instincts, my own process, evolution of our relationships, learning gained, and the role that my supervisor played. Description of these aspects gives an insight of my experience coupled with client’s experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, I will discuss how supervision played a role in helping me overcome the numerous challenges that I encountered during the six sessions. Given that the case study represents my first experience as a counsellor, supervisor helped me to resolve ethical dilemmas and apply my theoretical knowledge professionally.

Although I will try to recapture all that transpired in the case study, I admit that I cannot recapture every detail. Therefore, I will try to provide a glimpse of what transpired during the six sessions in an attempt to present my firsthand experience in counselling. Interaction with my client involved intricate nuances that I cannot articulate well or present them as they occurred during counselling.

How can I explain the nature of glances that my client usually gave or describe the nature of pain and depression my client expressed in my presence? Thus, it is impossible to explain the emotions that my client was fighting at the time of our interaction throughout the counselling session.

Background The case study underscores the life of my client who is a 65-year-old female showing signs of depression. For the sake of confidentially, I have named her Ita. Ita is a depressed woman because she has many issues bothering her. Firstly, she is a widow because her husband died five years ago, and his death anniversary is approaching.

She is also about to celebrate her 40th wedding anniversary without her husband in a few months’ time. Ita lives a lonely life because she has only one daughter who rarely visits her due to their volatile relationship.

Moreover, Ita has several health complications as she has an inoperable breast cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and arthritis in her both hands. Cancer therapy leaves her fatigued and sensitive to warm sunny weather.

Given her conditions, Ita is unapproachable, bitter, and angry about the world. Her family members have forsaken her; they did not even support her during her husband’s illness. Moreover, they have cut off any communication with her. Ita is also upset by the negligence on the part of her family members because they have not done much to help her disabled sister, who suffers from schizophrenia.

We will write a custom Essay on The Psychology of Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The First Session

During the first session, Ita came to the room that I had rented since she was my first client. After we talked and I understood her condition, I decided to employ the Rogerian model of psychotherapy in helping her to overcome depression. As it was the first session, I started by seeking an informed consent from her and creating a rapport.

According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, relationships between a client and a psychotherapist form the basis of a therapy. Thyer (2008) states, “Rogerian therapy sought to transform the therapist from a resident expert to transparently honest human sojourning with the client” (p.299). During the first session, I aimed at creating a good relationship between Ita and me, so that we could engage freely in subsequent sessions.

When Ita arrived at the counselling room, she had many reservations. She did not want to express her depressing conditions because she had fears regarding the revelation of her confidential information. Moreover, Ita expressed some of the problems she had been experiencing in life.

With my counselling skills, I probed her gently and assured that the information she could give would only be applicable in the counselling process only. Glassman and Hadad (2008) warn, “The therapist must act in an open and genuine way; not hiding behind a professional façade” (p.431). After managing to create a rapport, Ita was in a position to communicate freely without any fears.

At the end of session one, I had obtained enough information from Ita, which enabled me to understand the cause of her depression. Eventually, Ita went home happy because she got someone who listened to her problems attentively and was willing to help her.

When Ita entered the counselling room, I welcomed her warmly and offered her a seat. Although it was difficult to introduce myself, I gathered courage and informed her that I was a counsellor and I would take her through several sessions of psychotherapy. After the brief introduction, Ita sat restlessly and somehow bored.

As a counsellor, I had to take charge of the situation and create a friendly environment to enable her participate actively in the therapy. Although I managed to encourage Ita to express her misery, she intermittently broke into tears.

Shulma (2011) argues, “psychotherapists should understand the power of emotion in their own lives before understanding their impacts on clients” (p.322). Thus, although her feelings moved me, I managed to control them so that I could help her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Psychology of Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The relationship between Ita and me developed gradually as we shared our experiences. The more she narrated her experiences in life, the more we became close to one another. The narration of her experiences moved both of us and in some way bonded even more.

Thyer (2008) notes, “The fundamental change is determined by the relationship between the therapist and the client” (p.299). Hence, in the first session, the relationships between Ita and me transformed from just being a client to being friends who could share anything to each other.

The first session was the first experience in dealing with a client, and I gained from it a great deal of empirical skills. The major skill that I gained during the first session is that, I learned how to create the necessary rapport for any therapy.

Close interaction with Ita resulted into fruitful communication, which enabled me to gather enough information for the therapy. I applied the Rogerian psychotherapy strategy of creating psychological contact between the client and the psychotherapist. Ultimately, I learned that client-psychotherapist relationship plays a significant role in the process of psychotherapy.

Prior to my first session, my supervisor and I discussed what I was to do on my first session. Since counselling was my first experience, I had to consult my supervisor who provided me with necessary skills to perform psychotherapy.

The Second Session

In the second session, Ita arrived in time because she was eager to have her depression relieved. Ita described her condition as total misery because she lived a lonely life, suffered from inoperable breast cancer, was diabetic, and experienced a host of other social issues in her life. In this session, I had to identify and classify her problems as well as examine possible solutions to each of the problems.

An important step in psychotherapy is the identification of the presenting problem and then contextualising it (Shulman 2011, p.76). Hence, I discovered that Ita’s problems emanated from social and health aspects. From here, I could formulate hypotheses about possible interventions that might help her recover from depression and live a normal life.

At the beginning of the session, Ita viewed her life with lots of complications without any possible intervention. She cited that she lived “a solitary life” where nobody was willing to help her. Moreover, she said that her inoperable cancer and diabetic conditions contributed to her depression.

At first, I too perceived these conditions as very complex for I could not figure our possible interventions that could help Ita overcome her depression.

However, after taking her through the process of identifying possible interventions using different hypotheses, she became convinced that her life would change for the better. Hence, at the end of the second session, Ita was longing to proceed to the next session and have her problems solved.

According to my experience, the second session was somehow easy to handle since we had created a good rapport in the first session. Nevertheless, I experienced a challenge in identifying the problems and formulating possible solutions. Given that Ita viewed her condition as irredeemable, it was challenging to convince her that the hypotheses that we set would work effectively.

Barlow (2007) asserts, “A therapist can facilitate the transition to a more active and structured approach by maintaining a problem-oriented stance” (p.268). In this view, I made sure that Ita transitioned from having pessimistic attitude to having optimistic attitude for her to internalise the possible interventions.

At the beginning of the second session, Ita viewed me as a friend who would perform a miracle to get her out of her condition. As the session progressed, Ita gained an insight of her condition and possible interventions. Ita expected me to come up with interventions and make them work to improve her life.

However, with time, she realised that interventions emanated from our interaction. Therefore, at the start, Ita viewed me as a helping friend, but at the end of the first session, she recognised me as a partner who wanted to help her overcome her miserable life.

The second session gave me great insights of how clients perceive their problems. Moreover, I learned how to identify and classify problems so that I could formulate possible interventions. I noted that formulation of interventions is the hardest part in the process of psychotherapy.

Clark (2006) argues, “In constructing the model of a patient, the therapist is often able to activate affective and imaginative processes that provide an empathic understanding of a patient’s experiential state” (p.117). I realised that involvement of the Ita in the formulation of possible interventions is central in psychotherapy. Therefore, the second session gave me an invaluable experience of formulating possible interventions with Ita.

Given that I experienced some challenges in the first session, I had to consult my supervisor on what to expect on the second session, lest I would experience similar challenges.

My supervisor helped me a lot because he provided me with reading materials that enabled me to prepare well. Without my supervisor, I could not have managed to counsel Ita during the second session. Hence, I attribute my success in the second session to my supervisor’s guidance and instruction.

The Third Session

The third session started well as Ita arrived on time as usual for the therapy. Since the Rogerian psychotherapy is non-directive, I commenced the therapy by letting Ita recollect what we did during the previous session to see whether she could remember anything. The non-directive approach to counselling is effective because it enables a client to take charge of the counselling process (Barlow 2007, p.268).

The aim of the third session was to formulate feasible goals that Ita could achieve at the end of the counselling process. Therefore, in the session, I did ask her to state goals that she sought to achieve at the end of the counselling.

During the third session, Ita made significant progress that encouraged me. At the beginning of the counselling, Ita was reluctant. She did not want to play an active role in the counselling process because she believed that I was the one to guide her through the process of counselling and recovery. However, using non-directive skills of the Rogerian psychotherapy, I managed to convince her to become active.

Clark (2006) argues, “…a therapist’s attitudinal stance of congruence is fundamental to the quality of therapeutic relationships” (Clark 2006, p.68). For me to probe Ita well, I had to be congruent and attentive to her needs. Eventually, Ita trusted me and started becoming active throughout the counselling process.

I had prepared well for the third session, but when I started counselling Ita, I realised that she was quite different. Although she arrived as usual, she looked disinterested with the discussion. I too felt uneasy as I did not know how and where to begin the session. From expressions, she looked more depressed than previous sessions. She uttered some words saying, “life is unfair because my misery has no end.”

These words compelled me to encourage and comfort Ita because she said them while crying. I empathised with her while encouraging her to face the reality. The situation seemed tough, but I eventually managed to contain her and progress with counselling.

The counselling relationships in the third session evolved from a therapist-centred to client-centred. At the beginning of the third session, Ita assumed that I had the overall responsibility of directing her in the process of counselling. She believed that a therapist performs everything, while the client simply receives the therapy.

However, continued discussions on her condition allowed her to discover that she had a noble role to play in the counselling process. In the end, Ita formulated feasible goals that she wanted to achieve. Hence, the counselling process started from a therapist-centred and ended as a client-centred process.

Before the third session, I was quite aware that employing non-directive approach in counselling is difficult. As the Rogerian psychotherapy entails using non-directive strategy, it was challenging to transform Ita from playing a passive role to an active one.

According to Shulman (2011), non-directive strategy involves “reinforcing and encouraging positive statements to enable client become active in the counselling process” (p.67). The application of non-directive strategy helped me in transforming Ita’s attitude. Although she was reluctant to participate, my constant probing prompted her to open up for the session.

After opening up, Ita became active in formulating the goals that she expected to achieve at the end of the counselling process. Ultimately, I realised that non-directive approach is critical in counselling because it enables a client to own the counselling process.

Since I knew the third session was more complex than previous sessions, I consulted my supervisor regarding the probable challenges that I would face. My supervisor cautioned me to be ready for any relapse that could happen since Ita was vulnerable to depression.

Thus, the caution helped me when I found that Ita was not in the mood to continue with the counselling process because the depression overwhelmed her. In this view, my supervisor gave invaluable advice that I applied in the third session.

The Fourth Session

At the fourth session, we focused on formulating interventions to the problems that we had examined in previous sessions and aligned them to the goals we had made. Ita’s problems constituted health and social aspects. Hence, we started by formulating interventions to social problems that she had faced in life.

In the social interventions, we agreed that Ita should forgive her family and daughter for not giving her the support she deserved. In addition, we concluded that Ita should begin engaging her family members in a friendly manner. Concerning the medical issues of diabetes and inoperable breast cancer, we agreed that she would seek medical attention on management interventions, as well as live a positive life.

According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, “by adapting cognitive behavioural intervention to the individual client’s background, life history, and experiences, psychotherapist is helping a client to attain a state where there is meaningfulness in life” (Thyer 2008, p.126). During the counselling, I helped Ita to find meaning in life and uplift her spirit.

In the fourth session, Ita made considerable improvement because as we started the session, she was in depression due the conditions in her life and left when she was a bit happier. When she arrived at the counselling room, Ita confessed that her troubles were weighing her down and she was tired of facing another day. She cried saying, “I am desolate and wretched without anyone caring about me”.

As she cried, I comforted her to regain strength and live a positive life. After a lengthy discussion of issues affecting her and formulation of possible interventions, Ita improved for she went home hoping the interventions could work in her life.

I perceived the fourth session as a bit technical, for I had to formulate interventions that seemed feasible enough for Ita to accept and apply them in life. I knew that, for an intervention to be effective, Ita must accept it wholeheartedly.

Thus, I was quite careful in formulating interventions and describing the expected outcomes to Ita. Since the depression at times overwhelmed Ita making her unapproachable and bitter about life, it required a tactful approach to convince her. For that reason, I had to formulate workable interventions that suited her condition.

During the fourth session, our relationship changed as we progressed with the counselling session. At first, Ita perceived me as a therapist who wanted to impose unreasonable interventions that would not work in her life. However, as counselling progressed, she realised that interventions emanate from the available resources.

After examining several interventions, we had a privilege of choosing the most appropriate ones among them. Hence, at the end of the session, Ita had entrusted me with her life since I was sensitive and did show great concern towards her attitude and feelings.

From the experience of the fourth session, I learned that winning the trust of a client is a critical factor in the counselling process. Trust is important in collaborating with patient, “because collaboration requires that the patient trusts the therapist; we emphasise those interpersonal qualities that contribute to trust” (Barlow 2007, p.380). Trust enabled me to engage Ita in the formulation of feasible interventions.

Although the interventions seemed obvious, the trust that Ita had developed enabled her to understand the feasibility of the interventions. Overall, I have learned that a therapist must first develop trust before engaging a client in the development of possible interventions.

My supervisor helped me in the formulation and development of possible interventions that suited the case of Ita. Before the fourth session, we discussed with my supervisor various interventions, which gave me an insight into psychological interventions. During the counselling session, I applied the interventions because they suited Ita’s situation.

The Fifth Session

Given that we had formulated interventions to achieve set goals in the previous sessions, the fifth session sought to find out if Ita had applied the interventions and made any significant changes. When Ita arrived at the counselling room, I welcomed and asked her how she had progressed after applying the interventions we had set in the previous session.

She responded, “there is no difference because I was so depressed last night”. Though she looked fine that morning, her statement indicated that she needed extensive counselling to allow the needed change. Corsini and Wedding (2010) argue, “More individuals seek therapy because of concerns about the purpose in life than often therapists often realise” (p.313).

Since Ita was willing to go for therapy, I realised that she was determined to have a purpose in life. Hence, in the fifth session we re-examined the goals and interventions that we had established and planned to re-apply objectively.

During the session, Ita progressed well since we started the session after she had experienced mild depression, and at the end of the session, she reported that she felt much better than when she came for the therapy.

Her progress during the fifth session indicates that she had not only made significant achievement, but also the Rogerian psychotherapy had effectively changed her condition. Her determination made her apply the interventions that we had formulated. Moreover, the trust we had developed enabled her to communicate freely and follow my instructions to the letter.

When Ita responded that the therapy had not done much to her, I thought I had employed the wrong intervention in the counselling process. Since her problems revolved around social and medical aspects, I made sure that the formulated interventions addressed all the problems for Ita to recover well from the depression that had weighed her down.

Corsini and Wedding (2010) assert, “More and more patients come to therapy with vague complaints about loss of purpose or meaning in life” (p.311). Therefore, I began questioning whether the non-directive approach in the formulation of goals did not target the problem well. Eventually, I re-examined the process of counselling and reapplied the strategies while having conviction that they would work well.

Throughout the fifth session, our relationship remained relatively constant except that she entrusted me with her life because she thought that I was the only person who would make a difference in her life. In this case, I was like a family member who had the responsibility of taking care of her in times of distress and need.

At the end of the session, Ita felt much better and could not help thanking me about the therapy she had received. As she moved out of the counselling room, she smiled and told me that, “you have brightened my day, I am now better with great hopes”. Such a response encouraged me because I knew my intervention had made her life more tolerable.

As usual, I consulted my supervisor before I started the fifth session. Since I was worried about the effectiveness of the intervention, I inquired from my supervisor whether I could change the intervention in the middle of the counselling process.

My supervisor told me that relapses are common occurrences in the counselling process, and I should be ready to tackle them whenever they occur without necessarily changing the intervention used. Therefore, by the time Ita showed signs of relapse, it was not strange to me. Hence, I handled the situation well and encouraged her to continue with the therapy.

The Sixth Session

The sixth session involved assessment and termination of the counselling process. As a therapist, I had to ensure that my intervention had worked well and empowered the client. Since engagement of the client is important when starting a therapy, disengagement is also essential in termination of the counselling process.

“Under normal circumstances, after a client has made progress in reaching therapeutic goals, it is the therapist’s responsibility to explore what the client thinks and feels about ending the therapy” (Mozdzierz 2009, p.427). In this case, when Ita came for the sixth session, I observed that she had progressed well, and she even confirmed the same verbally.

Afterwards, I proposed that the therapy might end at the sixth session and she did not object it. She only asked that I allow her to see me whenever she wanted because we had become great friends. Thus, we recapped the interventions that we had agreed upon and scheduled to meet after a month or any day that she deemed fit to see me.

In the sixth session, Ita seemed quite happy because she believed that the therapy had helped her to live a better life that is free from depression. Despite her conditions, Ita promised that she would live a positive life with a meaning and full of hope.

The counselling process has been good to her in that she was unwilling to terminate our relationship for we had established a strong bond between us. Eventually, Ita ended the counselling process with a considerable progress for her to manage depression and accept reality of life.

The sixth session was quite enriching for both of us. It is inspiring to interact with a client, share problems, and eventually reach a successful conclusion.

The counselling process started with sorrow and misery, but through various psychological interventions, it ended with fulfilling happiness that gave us a sense of achievement. Thus, the sixth session enabled me to assess the achievements I had made through the process of counselling and gave me a reason to terminate the process.

During the sixth session, our relationship evolved from a client-therapist association to great friends with common experiences.

The experiences we shared made us one. In the Rogerian psychotherapy, “there is a considerable amount of emphasis on the working relationships between the client and therapist” (Carducci 2009. p.215). The working relationships made us friends because at the end of the session, Ita was willing to meet me again on a friendly level.

The sixth session made me understand the essence of engagement and disengagement with clients. As the Rogerian psychotherapy is client-centred, therapists should engage a client in the process of counselling, and when the client has achieved considerable progress, there should be a process of disengagement.

The process of disengagement is very important because it determines the effectiveness of interventions employed during counselling. According to Mozdzierz, psychotherapist must try as much as possible to end counselling process on a positive note (2009, p.427). In this view, I disengaged Ita smoothly from the counselling process to protect her from relapsing.

Prior to the last session, I did not know what to do because I deeply empathised with Ita. The condition of her life required someone to support her throughout her life.

Since I did not want to terminate the counselling process abruptly, I consulted my supervisor who informed me about the process of termination and disengagement of a client and when I applied the skills, I was successful. Therefore, my supervisor guided me through the counselling process from the first to the last session.

Conclusion From Ita’s case, I can conclude that the Rogerian model of psychotherapy is effective in counselling a person with depression due to a combination of social and health issues. The Rogerian psychotherapy entails the use of skills that are client-centred. The non-directive approach is another attribute of the Rogerian psychotherapy for it allows a client to be active in the formulation of his/her goals and interventions.

The main objective of the Rogerian psychotherapy is to help the client accept and face reality in life. Since I applied the Rogerian model of therapy in the case study, it was effective despite the fact that it was my first experience. The process of counselling was quite successful as I managed to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling Ita to recover from depression.

The process of psychotherapy was interesting because it was my first experience to counsel a client. Moreover, the experience of interacting with a client at a personal level was quite inspiring as I managed to win Ita’s trust.

In the course of the counselling process, I noted that relationships change according to the progress of the client. As Ita progressed, I also advanced because I had to keep abreast with any developments that occurred in each session. At the end of the counselling process, I was happy to have achieved the objectives that we had set with Ita during the counselling.

The experience of counselling Ita has enhanced my knowledge and skills. Firstly, I have understood how to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling a client with depression. Secondly, I have known how to engage a client into psychotherapy, utilise various skills in the counselling process, and eventually disengage a client from the process of counselling.

Thirdly, I have learned how to create a rapport that provides room for growth and progression in psychotherapy. I managed to learn all these skills with the help of my supervisor whom I consulted throughout the process of counselling Ita.

References Barlow, D 2007, Clinical Handbook of psychological disorder: A step-by-step treatment Manual, Guilford Press, London.

Carducci, B 2009, The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and Applications, John Wiley


Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The article under analysis called Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation considers the role of leadership styles, as well as supervisor-subordinate relationships, in increasing organizational performance and culture (Butler 139). The author provides an overview of connections between efficient decision-making and its influence on productivity levels in a company.

The article starts with identifying leadership in terms of its relation to business performance. The researcher also provides a distinct analysis of leadership, particularly how it differs from managers. Further, the author proceeds with the assessing communication that is crucial in promoting leadership skills.

Therefore, leaders should be able to generate favorable behavioral patterns and shape an effective organizational environment. With an emphasis on organizational culture, leaders should be able to use power effectively to influence other people. As a result of such relations, leaders evoke certain moods, expectations, and images which later allow managers to carry specific roles.

To emphasize importance of leadership for organizational performance, the author also touches on the problem of cultural diversity in Arab multicultural organizations. Implementing specific leadership styles can both encourage and motivate employees to work more enthusiastically.

Therefore, concept of cultural diversity comes to the forth. At the end of the studies, the scholar concludes that leadership should underline charisma to attract employees’ attention and increase their satisfaction. It has also been found that commitment to organizational goals is strongly associated with quality of relations between supervisors and their subordinates.

Clarity and Usefulness

The article has well organized and transparent structure. The author’s ideas closely relate to the structure and organization and provide the readers with the overall concepts and connections. Therefore, the article is consistent and logical. In addition, the article is useful because it highlights aspects and challenges of managing cultural diversity in UAE. The author has managed to shed light on leadership in a narrow cultural concept.

The author also presents information about features and conditions under which multicultural organization can improve its performance. In addition to the consistent structure, the article provides a number of reliable evidence stipulating the usefulness of the research under consideration. In particular, the authors provides similar research studies related to cross-cultural issues.

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The study is based on a qualitative methodology which allows to analyze 137 employees working in a multicultural Arab company. By means of Likert scale, the participants had to choose seven variants of answers, which ensure greater objectivity of the text. The chosen sample for the research is adequate for conducting a research provided the sample covers the entire population.

Although the give methods allows to provide significant findings, as well as practical implications for future research, introducing quality methods, such as interviewing of the focus groups, individual interviewing, and recording of the answers, could contribute greatly to the analysis of employees behaviors, as well as their attitude toward the challenges of multicultural environment.

Quality of Hypothesis and Data

The hypotheses of the research study are relevant because they are confined to a specific problem investigated in an Arab leadership context. Each hypothesis out of five is followed by detailed explanations of purposes and arguments that should be researched and discussed. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the necessity to establish frames within which leadership influences other organizational aspects, as well as human resources.

By discussing various traits of leadership, the author skillfully finds correlations with other dimensions of organizational leadership, including employees’ commitment, reward and recognition schemes, cultural backgrounds, and leadership styles.

Apart from the topic relevance, the given hypotheses allow for assessment of employees’ behavior. They also predict further implications for studying leadership styles and their influence on a multicultural environment. The quality of data delivered in the article is justified because it is taken from the real-to-life environment.

Discussion Evaluation (Good no need to add any more points, just I need explanation on some point, so I can get it for my discussion with my teacher)

Though there is no particular heading for discussion, it still involves explanations that are matching with all hypothesis posed at the beginning of the research. The explanations, however, do not provide consistent and systematic responses to the research questions, but are incorporated into thematic domains.

While evaluating the persuasiveness of the highlighted themes, specific emphasis should be placed on considering logical connections established between employees’ responses and leadership theories.

We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The value of the discussion is enhanced because it relates to a specific cultural context within which leadership styles are considered. Despite the consistency and clarity, much concern is connected with the generalized conclusions based on the surveys.

So, there should be more references to the initial hypothesis, instead of generalized statements. In particular, the discussion focuses primarily on general assumption, but not on practical implementation of the discussion.

Findings and Practical Implications

The findings are represented in a clear and transparent way. Each of the conclusions made in the passage correspond to the numerical data received during the survey. Because the research refers to a certain multicultural variety, as well as the way it is treated in an Arab world, the findings could be used to make the corresponding changes to work and objectives of an organization.

Despite the narrow context, the findings can also be applicable to the multinational organizations established in other countries. For example, it has been defined that “commitment to the organization is related to the quality of supervisor-subordinate relations” (Butler 139). The finding proves the importance of introducing person-oriented approaches in managing multicultural organizations.

Therefore, the research proves the reliability and validity of the findings. Practical implications introduced in the article reflect further perspectives for analyzing business environment in terms of culture and organization.

Limitations for Academics and Consultants

The limitation of the study lies in a narrow-focused discussion of supervisor-subordinate relations in a particular organization. The findings related to this topic could not be applied to other organizations with various cultural backgrounds.

Indications on Future Research

Because the research under analysis focuses mainly on the analysis of leadership qualities and their impact on employees’ performance, future research should be dedicated to the analysis of employees’ behavior and their influence on the development of new leadership styles.

In addition, the author pays closer attention to language and communication skills as essential components of successful cross-cultural interaction. Managers and leaders should be more concerned with understanding cultural peculiarities. A person-centered approach is more justified.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Relevance of the Research to an Arab Management Context

The research studies are based on the survey of employees working an UAE multicultural company, but their nationalities differ. On the one hand, because UAE culture shapes the basis of organizational culture, the research findings are highly relevant to the topic.

On the other hand, the employees who take part in the research originate from different cultures and, therefore, their answers that do not depend on the UAE cultural peculiarities. Such perspectives, however, could be used in any multicultural context to meet the needs of culturally diverse employees. The task of Arab leaders, therefore, is to correspond to international standards of managing business.

Works Cited Butler, Colin. Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation. Leadership


Differentiated Instruction’ Strategies and Benefits Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Responding to the requirements of unlike students

Involving Students

Engaging parents




Reference List

Introduction Differentiated instruction entails giving students unlike avenues to gain content, develop, build, find the meaning of ideas, and construct teaching stuff to ensure that every student in a classroom learns efficiently, irrespective of differences in capability (Ellis, Gable, Greg,


Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Strategic Planning Mission and vision statements, core values and organisational goals have become defining forces in the formulation of organisational strategy.

To this end, some strategists note that mission and vision statements, core values and goals can offer options to a tedious work of organisational planning (Dobson, Starkey and Richards 10). This is because stakeholders look at organisations in terms of their mission and vision statements, core values and goals. These factors define the long-term purpose of a company with regard to its services and products.

Organisational strategies and objectives must support its vision and mission statements, core values, and goals. Vision and mission statements, core values, and goals should show the purpose of the firm in terms of the main business, principal values and aspirations. It should also show key stakeholders and principles of the code of conduct to guide employees on how to behave.

Therefore, we shall focus on these strategies when formulating vision and mission statements, core values and goal for Gulf Fertilizer. This is a start-up organisation that needs well-formulated statements to provide strategies that can radically transform it for the markets it serves. These are the mission and vision statements, core values and goals of Gulf Fertilizer.

Mission statement

Gulf Fertilizer is a global leader in the provision of fertilizer to farmers. We are a leading fertilizer company that combines various processes and technology to produce high quality fertilizer. There is no other company in the world that produces fertilizer to farmers the way we do by integrating technology and research.

Vision statement

Gulf Fertilizer is dedicated to providing the best quality fertilizer with the aim of value creation for farmers and quality performance of crops, and providing productive and sustainable farming in society at large.

Organisational goal

To provide the best fertilizer manufactured with the state-of-the-art technology and research.

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Proving the best quality natural and organic fertilizers available

Delighting and satisfying customers through meeting their diverse needs

Creating ongoing win-win partnerships with suppliers

Caring about farmers and the environment

Promoting the safety and health of farmers through education programmes on fertilizer handling and usages

Description of the organizational environment, both the internal functions and the external context

The internal environment an organisation reflects features within the organisation. These are resources, culture, strategies, competence, and behaviours among others. Some elements of the internal environment may relate to the management, whereas others affect the entire organisation.

Gulf Fertilizer is a progressive organisation that empowers its workforce to make decisions that drive business. Some elements of the internal environment of the company include the following.

Organisational Resources

These refer to the company’s human resources and other inputs that produce products through combinations of various processes.

Gulf Fertilizer needs resources like money, raw materials, facilities, knowledgeable workforce, and manpower in order to produce products for various markets. Gulf Fertilizer must ensure availability of products and meet the costs of these resources so as to ensure success of its goals, strategy, mission and vision.

Organisational Behaviour

These are behaviours within the organisation originating from forces and influences of management and workforce. They can influence usages of available resources. Gulf Fertilizer promotes functional behaviours to ensure that relevant departments get adequate resources.

Distinctive Competence

This is the strength the company has among its major rivals.

The company has distinctive competence in its core functional area like research and development, finance, human resources, and marketing systems. The company evaluates its strength in terms of skills and abilities that enable it to implement its core strategies.

We will write a custom Report on Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer can address its weaknesses by investing its resources so as to achieve the strength necessary for implementation of strategies. The company can also change its mission so that the available skills and resources can support it (Roberts 49).

Functional Plans and Policies

The company strategy should serve its plans and business policies. Implementation of these plans and policies influence the effectiveness of strategic management. Functional plans and policies shall help Gulf Fertilizer in the following areas. First, plans and policies ensure that the company implement its strategic decisions across all departments.

Second, the company has capabilities to control processes in different areas of its operation. Third, functional plan and policies shall reduce time spent in decision-making processes as the organisation already has plans. It shall also help the organisation distribute its resources fairly in core areas that need them. Finally, there is coordination among all departments of the organisation.

The external environment entails all elements outside the company which have effects on growth its growth. The company has little or lack control over external environment elements. However, the organisation must monitor them and adapt accordingly. We shall focus on areas that have significant effects on Gulf Fertilizer.


Gulf Fertilizer shall face competition from well-established companies like FAUJI Fertilizer Company, Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT), Saudi Aramco, and Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) among others. These industries have a regional presence, strong market relations, large in sizes, better facilities, and high skills.


Gulf Fertilizer shall directly supply its products to farmers. It will also set up distribution outlets in the region.

Global context

The company shall assume a regional context in the Gulf region and Middle East. Its expansion strategy shall focus on Africa, Asia, and the US.


The company shall rely on external resources such as efficient road networks in the UAE, logistic capabilities, power supply and manpower for its success.

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The company shall utilise available and qualified labour pool in the production of its products especially in research and development of new products. It shall also observe changes in the labour market so as to adjust with shifts in the labour market. This shall prevent the company from losing qualified employees.

Raw Materials

Gulf Fertilizer shall avoid any disruption in the supply of raw materials to ensure its continuous operation. It shall also watch fluctuating costs of raw materials. This shall also include storage facilities, transport facilities and subcontract to other organisations.


The company shall rely on its initial investment of one billion dirham in driving its operation. Since Gulf Fertilizer is a start-up company, it has little avenues of raising capitals.


The company shall rely on technology for efficiency in its production. This shall also include technical tools in the production processes.

Laws and Regulations

Gulf Fertilizer shall apply good corporate governance and ensure effective implementation of the region’s laws and regulations. However, it shall also take into account costs associated with compliance especially in the environmental area.

Current organizational chart showing functional relationships and lines of communication

Management structure strengthens the culture of a company by providing foundations, showing planned relationships, communication line, and providing outline boundaries in which the firm’s activities take place. The management structure must accommodate all aspects of varied departments. However, it can ignore conflicting expectations of the constituents (Miner 147).

There are two main strategies of designing a company’s structure. These are mechanistic and organic structure approaches. Traditionally, structures depicted power delegations, authority relations, and communication lines among others. The mechanistic management structure provides a single line of reporting and communicating that employees follow rigidly.

Employees in similar horizontal structures have no power or authority over each other. On the other hand, the organic structure lacks rigid or fixed hierarchy. Workers can work together to finish a project, and then provide help in other areas. In addition, employees can also handle more than a single project at any given time. Workers can have a manager, many managers, or none at all.

In such situations, the firm expects its workforce to exercise self-leadership. Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt an organic management structure to ensure effective operation and coordination among departments. This structure shall also work best because the company is new. Below is the proposed management structure.

Breakdown of the organisational structure in terms of characteristics, size, line and staff components or administrative and operational components, and examples of differentiation in terms of vertical and horizontal components, integration, centralization, standardization, formalization and specialization

The organisational structure and related information depict the division and coordination of the work of the firm among various departments (Kazmi 25). This provides specific functions for every department among all functional areas of the organisation. Breakdown of the organisational structure is necessary so that processes and policies have clear coordination for maximum achievement of the core goals and strategies.

These strategies become functional strategies of the organisation. The firm can create them from its corporate and business strategies. It is necessary that the company aligns its strategy implementation with the capabilities of its resources (Griffin 78).

Organisational strategies work at different levels. However, a company must create congruence and coordination of all its different strategies. This is the importance of vertical and horizontal elements of strategies. These processes should create both vertical and horizontal fit for the company.

Vertical elements create a necessary definition of various functional strategies with regard to their capabilities within the functional area so as to enhance the strategic advantage of the company. Gulf Fertilizer functional strategies with the focus on both horizontal and vertical elements shall focus on the following key areas.

First, the company shall focus on strategic sales and marketing management. The aim of this strategy is to align marketing strategies of the firm alongside its core goals in order to achieve strategic advantage in the market.

Second, the company shall also focus on strategic, financial management in order to control costs of operation and maximise returns for shareholders. This is a key strategy that the company will use to achieve strategic advantage against its competitors.

Third, the company must also pay attention to its operations management. The company should align operations management with its business and organisational strategies so that it creates a competitive advantage.

Fourth, Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on recruiting and retaining the best talents in order to achieve success from its human resources capabilities. This implies that the company must focus on demographic shifts in the workforce and adjust its recruitment strategies.

Strategic management of human resources shall ensure that the company has recruited, retained and exploited its human resources for the overall strategic advantage of the company.

Fifth, the company must also manage its research and development strategies in order to create the best fertilizer for its customers. This is a crucial area in the success of the company. It ensures growth and survival the company. The company must introduce technology, facilities, and knowledge and skills that can facilitate this strategy.

Horizontal element of the company shall ensure integration of different operational activities within the company that produce products for customers. Thus, the company must ensure integration during implementation processes of operations management.


The company shall operate with heads of departments that report to the director.


The company shall learn to standardise its processes as it comes of age. In the beginning, there shall be limited standardisation of processes.


The company shall not operate with formal written rules. However, it shall change its rules as it matures.


Organic management structure allows employees to have overlapping roles and perform various tasks. However, this is likely to change as employees become specialists in their areas.

Estimate of the organizational life cycle in terms of where it has come from and where it is going and comment about short term objectives and longer range strategy

A start-up like Gulf Fertilizer must go through a life cycle like any other company. This implies that directors and other staff must perform all the necessary functions to keep the business running. However, the future survival of the organisation requires changes from these practices found in start-ups. Thus, the management must recognise processes that the firm is undergoing.

The management must understand issues that the company faces in its life cycle. This creates a sense of insight and provides opportunities on how management can respond to various issues the company faces during operation. As the organisation changes, it acquires new features different from the old ones. Daft provided a summary of an organisational life cycle upon which we define life cycle of Gulf Fertilizer (Daft 135).

Gulf Fertilizer Life Cycle. (Adapted from Daft, 1992)

Birth Youth Midlife Maturity Size Small Medium Large Very large Division of labour Overlapping tasks Some departments Many departments Extensive, with small jobs and many descriptions Centralization One-person rule Two leaders rule Two department heads Top-management heavy Formalization No written rules Few rules Policy and procedures manuals Extensive Internal systems Nonexistent Crude budget and information system Control systems in place; budget, performance, reports, etc. Extensive planning, financial, and person Short-term Objectives

The short-term objectives of the company shall focus on the first year of its operation. The company shall focus on growth and expansion in terms of sales, finance, and market share.

The company shall also concentrate on employees and management of the company. The process shall involve recruiting top talents for the organisation. New employees shall also undergone training and take various responsibilities within the company.

Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on sales and income. However, this may change as people learn about its products. The company must consider prices, outputs, and demand within the region.

Long-term Strategies

Gulf Fertilizer shall focus on revenue growths as its core strategy. In order to achieve this goal, the company shall study the market, competition, customers buying behaviour, and provide new products to drive sales.

The organisation shall also focus on customer service. The company targets at least 95 percent of positive response from its regular customers. It will redesign customer service approach where necessary so as to ensure customers’ satisfaction.

Gulf Fertilizer shall also engage in employee appreciation and reward systems that ensure low staff attrition. This also aims at attracting creative inputs from employees.

The company shall also focus on community and the environment. Employees shall volunteer to support community projects and environmental conservation efforts in areas it operates.

Strategy Development SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis shall offer Gulf Fertilizer advantages by identifying areas where it can focus and create a niche. At the same time, the company shall also understand the fertilizer industry in the Middle East and Gulf region. This process shall also enable the company to identify potential threats and formulate strategies to counteract them.

Strength Massive capital of 1 billion dirham

Favourable distribution channels

Suitability of location

Low operational costs

Weaknesses Low market penetration

High costs of production

Similar products in the market

Unreliable supply of skilled labour

Opportunities Research and Development

Technology in production

Favourable distribution channels

Skilled personnel

Market share

Availability of natural gas

Reliability of supply

Increasing capacity for raw materials

Threats Market saturation

Shortage in key inputs including skilled labour

Economic uncertainties such as recession, exchange rates, inflation rates

Arab uprising threats


Changes in regulations and trade policies

The PESTEL analysis

Economic factors

The globe financial crunch of 2008 and the euro crisis were the main economic factors that tested start-ups in the recent period. The prevailing economic conditions influenced how consumers, resellers, and other stakeholders in markets purchase products.

Some start-ups closed because their business systems could not sustain difficulties of the recession. However, the financial crisis may create opportunities for new investors with low operating costs. Gulf Fertilizer can take advantage and exploit the vacuum in markets.

The fluctuation of exchange rates also has huge potential of affecting the company’s earning and profits. The prevailing market factors are difficult to predict. Thus, the company should prepare for such eventualities in the market.

Political factors

These may entail taxes, regulations, political unrest in the Middle East and other related political factors. Gulf Fertilizer must operate within the regulations of Middle East and the Gulf region.

The unrest in the Middle East and the Arab spring are major factors that can cause instability in the company. The company must anticipate effects of such unrest before exploring new markets.

Social factors

The company shall engage in social responsibilities such as conserving the environment and supporting local communities’ initiatives. This shall create a favourable company’s image and enhance its relationship with customers. Such approaches have influence on consumers’ emotions, attitudes, opinions and interests regarding the company and its products.

The company must also avoid any negative publicity that may affect its operation. Thus, it must relate well with its customers, communities, suppliers, and other stakeholders in order to enhance it social image among competitions.

Technological factors

Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt technology in its core operation. The company must actively engage technology in research and development of its new products. Changes in technology shall ensure efficiency and low costs for the company. Technological advancements have changed the way companies conduct business. In fact, Gulf Fertilizer must adopt technology in all its operation and in dealing with external suppliers and relations.

Legal factors

Gulf Fertilizer must operate with the law of the fertilizer industry in the region so as to avoid expensive lawsuits that shall affect its profits. Therefore, it must avoid charges from regulators, customers, competitors, labour unions, environmentalists, and trade unions among other interested parties.

Environmental factors

Environmental factors shall also influence Gulf Fertilizer practices. Regulators are keen on the effects of fertilizer materials on the environment. As a result, the company must ensure compliance with the environmental requirements regarding its products in terms of chemical compositions and packaging. It must also minimise production of waste materials during manufacturing processes.

Protection of the environment has become the key sustainability approach among many manufacturing organisation. Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer must also adopt best practices in the industry when conducting its manufacturing processes.

Competition profile analysis

Fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East mainly engage in manufacturing or mixing of fertilizer materials from other sources. The fertilizer industry in the Gulf region grows at a high rate predicted to reach 7.5 percent per annum by 2016. As a result, fertilizer companies should embrace long-term strategies for sustainable growth.

Top fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East

Company Market share FAUJI Fertilizer Company Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT) Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Borouge Fertil Saudi Aramco Total Petrochemicals Strategy map for Gulf Fertilizer showing the different perspective of it along with the cause-and-effect relationships between these different dimensions

The strategy map shows cause-and-effect relationships among various key performance indicators and overall goals of the company. Strategy maps originate from the Balanced Scorecard framework (Kaplan and Norton 64). It shows organisational performance through four key areas.

Analysis of cause-and-effect relationships in the strategy map breaks down a mission and a strategy to a point where we can identify key performance indicators (KPIs) and objectives as the organisation focuses on detailed and specific objectives.

However, in a case where various departments engage in promoting the mission and strategies, then KPIs build a chain that ensure the implementation of organisational, strategic goals and mission. KPIs show the relationship among key activities of the company.

For instance, Gulf Fertilizer shall recruit qualified employees and provide them with the necessary training. Highly qualified and trained staff shall improve internal processes of the business through developing quality products, and maximise use available resources to satisfy customers’ needs.

This has potential of creating customers’ loyalty. Loyal customers will come for repeat purchases thus, increase the company’s profitability and shareholders’ returns.

Strategy map adapted from Kaplan


“Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The book ‘impossible subjects’ by Mae Ngai focuses on the history of immigration in the twentieth-century America. It offers a concise illumination of the illegal immigration of the late twentieth century. Though considered illegal and a serious problem, the author sees the immigration as a legal endeavor.

According to him, the inclusion of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was a politics-based activity. They government wanted to use these immigrants to boost the political economy in the Southeast region.

In reality, these Mexican immigrants became the major source of cheap labor in the Agri-business sector, which was dominant in the region.

With the aid of border policies, inequitable control of visas and the Immigration Acts, the Americans and the American government went on to institutionalize racism against the Mexican and Asian Immigrants.

According to the author, ‘illegal aliens’ is a construction of positive immigration-policy laws and the implementation of border laws that propped the labeling of ethnically foreign immigrants.

The chronological scope of this book revolves around the twentieth-century immigration into the U.S. Most of these immigrants came from Mexico and the main actors were the Mexican government, Mexicans, American government and the American people.

Arguably therefore, the author uses the concept Impossible Subjects to denote this immigration that seemed impossible according to law, but turned out to be a social reality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her exploration, the author seeks to answer two major questions: what is the origin of the label ‘illegal aliens’ in the American society? Why does the immigration policy consider the ‘impossible subjects’ a national problem? These are the key questions the author attempts to answer throughout the book.

In her exploration, the author uses content analysis and literature methods to carry out her study. This methodology entails a methodical and critical analysis of the American historical sources. She also uses theories to reinforce her arguments concerning the twentieth-century American immigration policy.

In her analysis, the ‘Critical Legal Theory’ plays a very critical part. This theory is critically instrumental in determining the role laws play in the process of social formation.

Therefore, theoretical approach in this inquiry makes posited arguments about the American immigration highly persuasive and historically excellent.

Such sources as case studies; archived historical documents; government documents, and historical journals were primary in the provision of necessary information relevant to the study.

In regard to the issue of national origins, the author is trying to persuade her audiences that the United States is a fabled country of immigrants. On the question of racial discrimination, the author fails to understand how people from certain ethnic origins became culprits of racism while every America is a country of immigrants.

Before the inception of the U.S., America was inhabited by Asians, Caucasians, Latinos and the Indians. Ironically, these are the racial groups that later came to suffer colonial subjugation.

We will write a custom Essay on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of 1020s, the colonial government called for more immigrants so as to get enough cheap labor. The imperialist government used the immigration policy to administer immigrants under the provisions of the American law.

However, an intricate strategy came into play in institutionalizing discrimination against the immigrants on grounds that they came to America through illicit means. As a result, the label illegal alien was introduced to refer to the immigrant population in the U.S.

The Mexican immigrants became socially known as new political and legal slaves whose inclusion in the country had no legal basis though a social reality.

Therefore, these immigrants became culprits of racism for many years since the so-called ‘aboriginals’ saw them as ‘illegal aliens’ who didn’t deserve the American citizenship.

As the author illustrates, there was a huge recruitment of Mexican and Filipino laborers into the U.S. to work in the Agri-business sector at the start of the 1920s. This was a legal endeavor that constitutionally granted these Mexican and Filipino immigrants the U.S. citizenship according to the constitution.

However, as time passed, these immigrants began to face racial discrimination. As the situation continued to worsen, these legally recruited and accepted Mexican and Asian immigrants became known as illegal foreigners in the American society.

According to the author, the whole endeavor was aimed at ranking racial categories, excusing mistreatment of certain races, and elevating economic, political and racial status of the European-American people in the U.S.

During the Second World War, Americans of the Japanese and Chinese origin opted to leave America for their mother countries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though this was as a result of disappointments from the abusive and discriminatory American society and the subsequent reinforcement of their cultural bonds, they received a wrong depiction as treacherous citizens.

In reality, these were the original American citizens. In addition to their patriotism, they were also native-born and deserved all rights and protection that citizens should have unlike their illicit immigrant counterparts.

The author also notes how the American government put in place extreme measures to prevent Chinese immigration to the U.S. According to her, all these were aimed at protecting Americans from the Chinese communist ideology.

This book deserves academic appraisal. It offers critical and realistic historical insights about the American society. It has contributed much to American History, Ethnic Studies and Legal History.

In a nutshell, Impossible Subjects is a perfect exposition of the twentieth-century immigration to America. Therefore, history scholars should make good use of the information in this book.


Data Results of Statistics Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help

Statistics is a supportive measurement that has an objective to evaluate and enumerate a situation to find the most probable conclusions. It is, therefore, factual to state that statistics do not always evidence situations (Bartholomew, 2004). Rather, statistics provides an overview of the situation in a probability manner.

The accuracy of collected data depends on the strategies and techniques incorporated. It is clear that inaccuracy in collected data leads to the wrong results. Data collection, therefore, requires adequate experience and commitment to prevent failure in results.

Einstein describes data collection as a hitting and missing strategy of trying to support conclusions. He suggests that what might require considerations during data collection may be missed for another that does not (Einstein, 2000). For instance, during data collection in ecological studies, the random methods involve the collection of data relying on the randomly picked areas.

This method only allows collection of data held in the area. Also, the measurement made in that area might not all be necessary or accountable in the study. For instance, in a study to measure how perform when employed by the government, effectiveness is a vital factor to consider. Measuring effectiveness is quite hard.

This, therefore, calls for other strategies that could be counted in the study. In management, where the personality of decision making is unavailable, the decisions made by managers when giving data are impartial and unreliable. These are the types of data that cannot count. In this way, the postulation made by Einstein is workable.

There are different types of scale classified as parametric or nonparametric data (Sheskin, 2007). The distributions of parametric data can be predicted easily using the parametric tools. However, nonparametric data do not assume any distribution.

Ordinal and nominal scales are used in the nonparametric while both interval and ratio scales are used in parametric statistics. In graphical representation, we use tools such as histograms, box plots, the Q-Q, and P-P plots among others. They determine the normality of data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, there are four types of scales used in the measurement. These types are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales (Louis, 1980). Nominal scale measures qualitative data. The origin of the word nominal originates from the Latin word ‘nomen’ which means name. This scale represents data that have something in common but with different names.

In this case, no data points are superior to the others. For example, data with the data points as Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Pagans are nominal scale. We observe that a Muslim is neither superior nor inferior to a Christian. All data points are equal to each other. In nominal scale, items are categorized to belong in a similar category. For instance, the four constituents written above belong to religion classification.

Just like the nominal scale, ordinal scale is a scale used in qualitative data belonging to the same category (Louis, 1980). However, unlike the Nominal scale, it has an element of hierarchy and superiority (Louis, 1986).

For example, if we would consider the category of education to classify data in different levels, we might have undergraduates, graduates, masters and PhD. In this case, PhD is a higher level than the Masters level whereas the undergraduate level is a lower level.

Unlike nominal and ordinal scale, interval scale is used for quantitative data (Louis, 1980). In this case, the data points are at similar distances from one another. For example, the data points 1, 2, 3 and 4 are in interval scale. This is because the quantitative items are at an interval of one from each other.

The point zero is used as a reference point. It allows the use of negative and the positive integers. For example, we can have a temperature of -5 degree Celsius and a temperature of 5 degree Celsius.

Ratio scale, just like the interval scale, also represents quantitative data (Louis, 1980). It measures data such as the mass, weight, amount of energy, and age among others. It is possible to make comparisons on data in ratio form because the numbers are multiples of others. In this scale, the point zero has a meaning. For example, an energy value of zero means that there is no energy. We can either divide or multiply the ratio scale by a scalar.

We will write a custom Essay on Data Results of Statistics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The statement made by British prime minister that refers to statistics as a lie applies here (Tolman, 2012). Statistics do not prove whether or not the theoretical facts presented are true. Instead, statistics supports what we already know. It, thus, implies that the conclusions we make after doing a statistical research appear to be consistent with the present knowledge.

It is not what we obtain from the statistical analysis that we always aim to investigate. In most cases, researchers are unable to collect the data for the whole population and hence consider a sample of the population. It is true that data collection relies on samples.

The results retrieved from these samples determine the population properties such as mean and median. This clearly shows that assumptions made in deriving concepts for the whole population lead to wrong conclusions. This is unrealistic and supports the statement made by the prime minister.

References Bartholomew, D. J. (2004). Measuring intelligence: facts and fallacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Einstein, A.,


Time Value of Money Exemplification Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), time value of money means that money at hand today is worth more than the same amount at a future date. It is the amount by which money will grow to in the future. In simpler terms, it is the net increase or decrease in the amount of money. He affirms that the concept helps to determine the amount that one will earn in the future.

This concept results from the existence of charges due to the use of other people money. There are different sections under time value of money. According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), the concept of simple interest, compound interest, compounding and discounting are used to assess the time value of money.

The process of growing money from its present value to its future value at a given duration and interest rate is known as compounding. Discounting is the process of calculating how much future value of money equal to at present.

Decisions that utilized the concept of time value of money The instance was when one of my business partners owed me money which I had lent to him as a loan. The person was reluctant to repay the money, and I took him to a law court. After the careful analysis of the evidence that I presented, the case was ruled in my favor and the judgment specified that the loan should be repaid to me.

I further made a request that the borrower should not repay the exact amount that I lent. In that instance, I was claiming that the amount I lent should be repaid with an interest. An agreement had to be entered to determine the amount of interest that was payable to me. The rate of interest was determined by considering the prevailing economic conditions, and it was determined as the prevailing market interest rate at that time.

Compounding was done on the amount that I had lent out using the market rate over the duration of time the person held my money. As a result, the amount of money that I received increased tremendously.

Computation was done using the future value annuity factor, considering that variables like principal, interest rate and duration were known. Having applied the concept of time value money, I was able to obtain extra income from that transaction. If I had claimed the original amount I had lent out, I would have obtained relatively less.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another instance where the concept of time value of money was applied was during a rotary competition in my home country. The winners were to be awarded a total of half a million shillings. It happened that I was declared a winner among other people. As the winner claimed their money, I was reluctant since I had a decision to grow the money so that it could increase.

An agreement was entered between the rotary committee and me so that they could be paying me as an annuity at the end of every month. This was advantageous move as the money was earning me interest at the prevailing interest rate. The compounding formula was applied to determine the amount at the end of every month. If I had claimed the money as a lump sum, then I could have obtained a lesser amount than what I finally got.

Reference List Kuhlemeyer, A. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. USA, Pearson Carroll College: Waukesha Pearson Education Limited.


Motivation and Reward Systems Used In Today’s Companies Research Paper writing essay help

Abstract Human resource is one of the vital resources that organizations require to remain competent. Organizations should have favorable motivation and reward systems to retain their employees. The two-factor theory holds that tangible rewards do not act as the main motivators. Expectancy theory maintains that employees are motivated if they realize that their effort will lead to material or tangible rewards.

The stewardship theory focuses on managers in the upper stratum of an organization. Social cognitive theory focuses on self-efficacy and concurs that employees are motivated to pursue certain projects after realizing that they have the capacity to achieve the goals in question.

The fifty-fifty principle asserts that fifty percent of employees’ motivation comes from within while the other fifty percent comes from people that the employees interact with and the working environment. Organizations use varied rewarding systems to motivate their employees. Some organizations believe that extrinsic motivation plays a significant role in promoting employee motivation.

Such organizations have monetary reward systems to reward employees according to their performance. On the other hand, some organizations trust in the power of intrinsic motivations. Such companies have policies that enhance employee growth and development as one of the motivation mechanisms.

Introduction The present competition in the business world is compelling organizations to come up with reward systems that aim at enhancing employee motivation, thus boosting their performance. Currently, organizations are coming up with reward systems that reward employees according to their contribution to the organizational success. In most cases, organizations use rewards whenever they wish to achieve certain goals (Andrew