Classical Social Theory: In Defense Of Marx’s Ideas Essay Essay Help Online Free

The process of social evolution has been fascinating people for years, and there have been a number of theories concerning the way in which society functions and develops. Among the theories that stand out the most, the ones by Spencer, Comte and Marx should be mentioned. Though rendering the same issue, the three philosophers managed to approach the concept of society from completely different angles and yet come up with the ideas that cross at some points.

Comte, perhaps, deserves to be mentioned first as the founder of the so-called “social physics”[1], known later as sociology. It is rather remarkable that Comte was the first to suggest looking at society as an organism, with each element having to be in its place and performing a particular function. Comte defined three stages that a society must pass to reach its peak, i.e., theological, metaphysical and positive.

Speaking of Spencer, the philosopher introduced a new way of envisioning evolution in society, though clearly borrowing some of the concepts from Comte’s theory. Spencer should be credited for actually coining the term “social evolution”[2]; in fact, Spencer considered it a cosmic principle that can be applied to any society, life or matter.

As for Marx, his idea of social evolution revolved around economical relationships between individuals and companies. Marx also used Comte’s concept of society being an organism, yet the functions that its elements performed were tied in with major economical concepts[3].

Technically, it would be wrong to compare the theories suggested by three philosophers, though. Instead, their work should be viewed as a whole, with Comte creating the premises for one of the most significant social sciences, sociology, to be born. Spencer, in his turn, perfected Comte’s work, while Marx’s efforts helped envision the society as a mixture of social and economical interactions.

The founders of modern sociology, Spencer, Comte and Marx managed to create unique theories explaining the mechanism of society clockwork. Each offering his idea of how a society functions, they helped envision the complexity of society and understand the significance of its elements.

Bibliography Comte, Auguste. The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Translated by Harriet Matineau. Kitchener, CA: London George Bell

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Fate and Fortune in Rural China Term Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

China and the province of Liaoning

Major themes and content of the book

Comparison between the book and course materials

Conclusion

References

Introduction China is among the world’s nations with rich historical backgrounds that perhaps every historian seeks to understand. Endowed with a strong political history that interrelates perfectly with its cultural, social, and economic developments, China has attracted the world’s attention due to its unique developments in different spheres. Socialists and historians have found it imperative to record the literature of China in several forms of writings including books in a bid to enrich the world with this unique historical matter.

The work of James Lee and Cameron Campbell is a good example of a book that examines the social and population history of the conventional rural China with regard to social arrangement and behavior of the Chinese living in Liaoning. With regard to such issues concerning social organization, this essay explores the major themes and concepts articulated in the book, Fate and Fortune in Rural China: Social Organization and Population Behavior in Liaoning, by James Lee and Cameron Campbell.

China and the province of Liaoning Liaoning is a small Chinese province that has its history connected to the ancient capital Shenyang, which existed during the Qing regime of 1644-1911 (Lee and Campbell, 1997). Literature describes this region in the form of a conventional Daoyi landscape that greatly contributed to the development of the modern Liaoning province. The village history was initially much of a family history rather than a community development history, with Daoyi termed as (tun) being a military community form that prevailed during the Qing dynasty.

Through examining the archives of Liaoning province, Lee and Campbell (1997) perused through a series of long-preserved household data and population registers, which revealed that the Daoyi and surrounding communities in Liaoning were initially 12, 000 people. Although little sources substantiate the population density of the contemporary Liaoning, the initial sources of the imperial period reveal that Shenyang had 500,000 people, Baodao had 10,000, and Daoyi tun had 20,000 and these three regions form the Liaoning province.

Major themes and content of the book The book aimed at examining the social arrangement and population behavior of the Daoyi and the surrounding communities that resided in Liaoning back in the Chinese history (Lee and Campbell, 1997).

The book contains primary research on the Liaoning province and it investigates four fundamental issues in the social organization and population behavior of the Liaoning communities. The book describes the Daoyi landscape, the history of a flood and the development of a bridge, and the social organization and mobility of communities around the Liaoning province (Lee and Campbell, 1997).

The historical legacy documented in the book about Daoyi, its neighboring communities and their social arrangement around this province are the only events that occurred between 1774 and 1873 (Lee and Campbell, 1997). It portrays the long history of the Daoyi, surrounding communities and their form of settlement arrangement based on the natural historical events that almost certainly contributed to their present day social mobility and population behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lee and Campbell (1997) graphically illustrate how the association between demographic trends and social and natural pressures somehow become integral factors that determine social arrangement of the population as it occurred in the Liaoning province in China. The authors begin by discussing the geographical setting of Shenyang by considering three important physical and infrastructural features that include the river (Pu), the road, and the ridge.

The river, which constantly experienced periodic floods, is a major feature that possibly explains the social arrangement of the communities in Shenyang. As Lee and Campbell (1997; 1) postulate, “Past floods have left scattered ponds in and around the village, as well as several hollows filled with mud.”

The authors further explain that the flood-prone river caused the formation of deep gullies that are currently thick and occupied by stout vegetation. This aspect explains why the population of Daoyi and the surrounding communities are arranged depending on the area landscape, especially when considered that this river has less agricultural importance to them.

The road is another infrastructural feature that Lee and Campbell (1997) consider as important in the social organization and population behavior in the traditional China. The road connecting Shenyang, Jilin, and Mongolia is a common geographical feature that best explains the nature of social mobility in the rural suburbs of the traditional China (Lee and Campbell, 1997).

As the postcolonial road became continuously busier during the modernization period, the village population tended to move away from the busy street, which explains its contemporary residential housing that tends to develop away from the main road (Lee and Campbell, 1997). This aspect separates the local poor villagers from the rich who possessed the brightly decorated restaurants and worked in the beautiful stores and businesses.

The ridge is another feature that determined fate and fortune of villagers in the rural China. Perhaps due to persistent floods from river Pu, Lee and Campbell (1997) state that a village had once developed in this ridge, but later relocated.

In elaborating the theme of social mobility and social organization, Lee and Campbell (1997) connect the historical flood issues of river Pu with the transferring of the village to its present day region. Believed to have happened during the early nineteenth century when prolonged floods were common in many Chinese villages, the events are vividly presented in the local stories (Lee and Campbell, 1997).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Fate and Fortune in Rural China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As explained by the local posters, the tortoise that found habitat in the swampy flood-prove zones repeatedly destroyed the bridge structures that forced them to construct a turtle temple (Wangba Miao).

Although the present day community portrays a mixture of perceptions on their settlement in Shenyang, Lee and Campbell (1997) believe that the Qing government integrated these communities through the imperial ‘banner’ initiative. Therefore, Lee and Campbell’s story has a complicated and construed realities pertaining to the Shenyang inhabitants, which seem like a jumbled story with convincing evidence. One can barely understand if these communities settled through government’s process or social order.

Comparison between the book and course materials Although having a mixed story on the social mobility and social arrangement of populations in the rural China in its colonial perspective, the book carries an important message on the concept of human social order as contemporarily evident. According to Lee and Campbell (1997), humans differ distinctively from their social living, which reveals the postmodern societal arrangement as even demonstrated by the housing disparities.

The story earmarks significant attention to gradual societal changes impelled by social pressures, ecological forces, and political circumstances. Lee and Campbell’s book interrelates with important concepts discussed by Chirot (1994), who postulates that social change is a gradual and continuous process that seems to occur in microscopic unnoticed constructive periods.

Chirot (1994) rests his judgment on why, notwithstanding human’s biological and psychological similarities, people tend to differ as years of postmodernism replace traditional histories. Chirot (1994) wonders why despite interbreeding happening so well and even having basic human similarities, there exist huge disparities in social, political, and even economic behaviors.

In his understanding of revolutionary biology, Chariot demonstrates that the process of societal change involves a combination of certain efforts and probabilities, where individuals may genetically inherit useful life characteristics that make them succeed.

According to Chirot (1994: 9), “one of the most important technological changes in human societies, which prepared the way for the evolution of modern societies, was a slow shift from gathering, hunting, and fishing towards agricultural revolution.” Certain modern human aspects, including agriculture and construction activities carry significant influence on the social order of individuals.

More importantly, the issue of agrarian revolution is eminent in the two books where rice growing slowly started shaping the modernity of Shenyang in the case of social mobility as demonstrated by Lee and Campbell. Chariot’s book explains how agricultural revolution, marked by the advent of crop growing, brought enormous social changes through influencing settlements in Mexico and parts of China.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fate and Fortune in Rural China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the story articulated by Lee and Campbell (1997), the notion of economic disparity, which happens naturally, as the poor villagers slowly segregate themselves from the wealthy business tycoons who manage to settle along the busy traffic, clearly demonstrates Diamond’s convictions over scientific technology and economic disparity.

In his book, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, Diamond (1999) seeks to express how the human history developed from the influence of geographical and environmental factors. Just as demonstrated in the story articulated by Lee and Campbell (1997) where ecological and geographical issues helped to shape the modern social arrangement of Liaoning province, Diamond has similar convictions.

Diamond (1999) disputes the prevailing racially based theories, that claim human history has evolved in social mobility based on racial trend, and instead explains significant issues connecting human social arrangement with environmental and geographical factors. The author provides ultimate examples of the influence of geographical and environmental factors and mentions facts from Eurasian, African, Australian, and some American history that reveal such influences.

Diamond (1999) expresses his ultimate perceptions through an elaborate description of how human history unfolded across the different continents, by pointing different ecological and geographical evidences to comprehend his argument.

Geographical factors and environmental factors according to Diamond (1999) influenced the historical development of the preemptive domestication and crop farming that subsequently influenced social arrangements in different continents. Diamond (1999) also connects Chinese social mobility with the advent of Chinese food production with the geographical expansion and interaction of local cultures.

Additionally, the story of social mobility and social arrangement of the people of Liaoning province demonstrated by Lee and Campbell (1997) is connected with issues discussed by Nolan and Lenski. In their book, Human Societies: An Introduction to Macro-sociology, these socialists seek to explain the major transformations of the swiftly changing times across the globe.

Studying humans in the large scale and describing how human historical social arrangements influence social order, the two authors also believe that political, ecological, and geographical pressures influenced human social mobility. Just as portrayed in the story of Lee and Campbell (1997), Nolan and Lenski (2010) use the macro-sociological global approach that describes how human societies offer a comparatively cross-cultural and historical arrangement to establish facts behind the evolution of human social changes.

Through emphasis on the comparison of society’s history and cross-environmental factors, Nolan and Lenski (2010) explain how such natural dynamics contributes to human social changes. They present a clear ecological-evolutionary perception that provides a powerful hypothetical structure for understanding how the arrangement of social order in human societies has occurred.

Just as emphasized by Lee and Campbell (1997), Nolan and Lenski (2010) articulate major evidences that demonstrate how social arrangements relate with the environmental and even the technological contexts as eminent in the modern living. In connection to evolutionary aspects, the authors examine how modernity, which is characterized by cyber warfare and changing political ideologies are presenting unique problems to modern societies.

Conclusion The contemporary social order with fragmented social arrangements may trace its roots to important traditional social, political, and even ecological pressures that influenced population behaviors.

The story of human evolution seems to be considerably long and disparate stories interpreted it differently as documentation of information might have arrived too late in the decades when human historical events had already surpassed developments. However, with the little evidence accumulated by the theorists, even the socialists like Lee and Campbell (1997) can greatly contribute to the understanding of human evolution, social arrangement and social mobility.

Lee and Campbell (1997), akin to the rest of the socialists, believe that many of the human social transformations and development possess certain ecological, political, and social factors that influenced populations in their settlement behavior. Retrospective to historical events, the ecological and geographical story of Liaoning explicitly demonstrated how the Shenyang, Daoyi, and the surrounding communities followed such events to establish their housing arrangement.

References Chirot, Daniel. 1994. How Societies Change. London, UK: Pine Forge Press.

Diamond, Jared. 1999. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton

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A Real-Life Situation Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The Corporate Ethical Issue of Providing Questionable Products to Other Markets The paper presents a real-life case that was witnessed in CornCo plant Company in Arizona. The corporate ethical issue in this case is the provision of contaminated products to other markets as a way of circumventing the strict administration laws concerning foods and drugs. George who the operations manager of CornCo plant has been informed about the aflatoxin- contaminated of the corn that has been brought for processing (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell 289). Aflatoxin is a poisonous substance that develops when corn is not dried well.

Therefore, when found in food substances, it qualifies the food as unfit for human consumption (Holland and Albrecht 779). It is therefore unethical for the company to export the products knowingly to other markets that may not have stringent inspection systems for the sole purpose of making profits and/or remaining competitive in the market. By doing this, the company will be deliberately putting the health and lives of consumers at risk.

Discussion of the submissions in the suggestion box Different people have given George several suggestions, which border more on personal interests. The first suggestion must have come from his colleague who feels that he or she should do anything to save his or her jobs even if it means breaking rules and standards.

The organisation’s environment provides for different levels of ethical conduct. For instance, there is the ethical leadership at the top followed by ethical action, which is then followed by ethical education. At the bottom, there is ethical awareness (Holland and Albrecht 780). All these levels have been satisfactorily achieved by the organisation, thus eliminating any excuse for ignorance.

The second suggestion of exporting products to Mexico is wrong because it is meant to beat the food and drugs administration rules since it breaks ethical rules on food production. The third suggestion should be applied by George because he is aware of the problem and cannot act as if he is ignorant. The reason for observing ethical standards in the food industry is to avoid scenarios where the lives of consumers are endangered.

Pressure behind the Ethical Issues in this Scenario There are two main driving forces in this scenario. The first pressure is the need to make profits for the company and/or to earn the executive’s bonuses. As Jake puts it, they need to cut costs as a way of making profits because their competitors have upped their game and would easily drive them out of the market (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell 289). Therefore, there is pressure to buy the contaminated corn at a cheaper price as a way of cutting on production costs and increasing profit margins.

The second source of pressure is coming from George’s his immediate boss and colleagues who justify the need to use the corn to make a profit by saying that there will be layoffs among staff members if the company does not make profits. This has forced the threatened staff members to put pressure on George as a way of keeping their jobs. The third source is George’s awareness that such an action is legally unlawful. Thus, his conscience cannot allow him to do what is wrong.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Ethical principles are supposed to be self-governing and self-regulating for the players in the industry, with utmost good faith being the driver for this need. In most instances, businesses have failed this self-regulatory test, hence attracting the need for a body to enforce ethics and moral standards for the sake of the consumer.

Works Cited Ferrell, Odies, John Fraedrich and Linda Ferrell. Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making

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(JUST DO 2 of the three Entries with the Keeping a listening journal will encourage you to think critically Essay custom essay help

(JUST DO 2 of the three Entries with the

Keeping a listening journal will encourage you to think critically about your listening habits and skills. You will describe and analyze your listening behavior by recording a minimum of three listening experiences in journal form. You should record a variety of listening experiences (professional, personal, academic, social, and so on) in which you listen for various purposes (specifically discriminative and comprehensive) and at various levels. This assignment will include a minimum of three entries (one discriminative entry and two comprehensive entries) AND a concluding summary. These entries should reveal your understanding of the discriminative and comprehensive listening purposes and demonstrate your ability to apply the concepts, principles, and techniques presented in the course. Your entries should be rich with concepts, principles, terminology from the assigned readings (from your course content readings and the readings found in the course discussions). Verbal and nonverbal aspects of each listening experience should be shared.

Each journal entry should be a minimum one full page in length, single-spaced, with one-inch margins, and a size 12 Times New Roman font. You may be over the page limit (no more than a page and 3/4 per entry), but not under. There are significant deductions for being under.

Include the following information in an organized manner (using subheadings for each) in each entry:

Date of listening experience
a detailed descriiption of the listening experience (including where, who, what, how, and so on) with an emphasis on the verbal and nonverbal aspects of the episode
your purpose(s) and behavior as a listener (this is where you clearly emphasize your role as a discriminative or a comprehensive listener -keeping in mind that comprehensive listening also involves some discriminative listening, but your entry should primarily focus on the higher listening purpose even if some discriminatory aspects are mentioned)
a descriiptive evaluation, supported by specific examples, of your strengths and weaknesses as a listener
what you learned about your listening -including how you might address your weaknesses
Thus, your submission will have the following subheadings (single space all subheadings):

Entry #1 (1-3): Comprehensive Listening Entry (or Discriminative Listening Entry)

Date:

Descriiption of Listening Experience:

Purpose and Behavior as a Listener:

Evaluation of Listening Strengths and Weaknesses:

What I Learned About My Listening:

You should submit one discriminative entry and two comprehensive listening entries and a descriiptive 1 page (minimum) concluding summary. This assignment is VERY similar to the listening journal part II, but each focuses on different listening purposes. A formal introduction is not necessary for this assignment. Begin with your journal entries and finish with your concluding summary. Your concluding summary should be an overall evaluation of what you’ve learned about your listening. Reveal both specific details and “the big picture.” Also, include how you will work for improvement in both listening purposes.

Grading Criteria – First Listening Journal

For this first Listening Journal, you must:

fulfill the above requirements in a well-organized manner
entries should be rich with concepts, principles, terminology from the assigned readings (it should be clear that you have read course material and you are able to apply what you have learned)
provide the required subheadings
post your work in the assignment folder by the due date – there is a 20% deduction for submitting your work late and late work is only accepted up to a week after the due date
submit a minimum of three entries from a variety of listening experiences (professional, personal, academic, social, spiritual/religious, and so on)
appropriately represent both discriminative and comprehensive listening purposes in your submission (1 discriminative and 2 comprehensive)
explain your strengths and weaknesses in a clear, descriiptive, and detailed manner
provide a concluding summary of your findings from this experience, including a thorough, sophisticated analysis of your listening behavior as developed in this course (1 page in length, single-spaced)
proofread and edit your work (well-written submission)
Use a size 12 Times New Roman font
single space the entire document (no double spacing)

SOURCES you may use

Week 3: Skills Involved in Discriminative Listening. (n.d.). Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014, from University of Maryland University College: SPCH 470 Class: https://learn.umuc.edu/ d2l/le/content/31385/viewContent/1253697/View

Week 4: Comprehensive Listening. (n.d.). Retrieved Nov. 10, 2014, from University of Maryland University College; SPCH 470 Class: https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/31385/ viewContent/1253708/View

Week 4: Follow-up after the Lecture/Seminar. (n.d.). Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014, from University of Maryland University College: SPCH 470 Class: https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content /31385/viewContent/1253713/View

Week 4: Listening for Organizational Structure. (n.d.). Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014, from University of Maryland Universtity College: SPCH 470 Class: https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/ content/31385/viewContent/1253710/View

Week 4: Preparing for the Lecture/Seminar. (n.d.). Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014, from University of Maryland University College: SPCH 470 Class: https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/ content/31385/viewContent/1253709/View

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Manage Your College Budget Efficiently with These Tools and Tips Essay (Article) best essay help: best essay help

College is SO expensive these days! How many families or students can pay for their college experience from one personal checking account? No, far more common is pulling together funds from an alphabet soup of government agencies, private foundations , the piggy bank, Aunt Sophie, Grandmom, and plan for a part-time job. How, given all the challenges of paying for them, can you reduce you’re your expenses to a dull roar? Some things may seem like boring good sense, but it would be less than complete not to mention them.

The major college expense is tuition. Word is – the finer state institutions offer you the best value for the money. You can consider transferring after two years to a private institution, often blessed with lusher scholarship programs. Successful alumni like to endow scholarships – try it yourself after you make your first million!

Make sure that you have applied for every bit of federal, state, or private entity aid for which you qualify. Your high school college/guidance counselor, and then your financial aid officer, should become your new best friend.

Know what you have and what you have spent. This can be really depressing but it is crucial. To keep track of all the sources of funds and your expenditures, consider a site such as Mint.com. This will allow you to organize your expenditures as well as your various pots of money.

Since some payments may arrive at different times, having a schedule of incoming funds is as important as knowing what is going out. You can plan purchases, or other outflows based on when and how much of an infusion you are getting. Other sites, such as SmartyPig, help you track savings towards a goal, and then converts those savings into a gift card. ManageMe helps you by alerting you when you approach a spending limit you’ve set.

Dispense with a car at school if at all possible. Apart from the deadly distraction that a vehicle represents, (think of the seductive appeal of a road trip or a visit home mid-semester), a car is a massive money waster. Consider, instead, a car-sharing service such as ZipCar, Enterprise’s new initiative, or other car-sharing firm.

You pay mainly for the car usage you incur, not for the carrying costs of a car all the time. Usual annual fees are likely to be less than even the cost of auto insurance. Additionally, check the student directory or college Facebook page for schoolmates from your hometown, check for a “ride board”, and reach out to other students who might be traveling in the same direction to get home.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If you are a commuter student, this option is even more useful. Some sites match drivers with those needing rides – GoLoco, and Rideshareonline are examples. Others, such as RelayRides, connect you with car owners prepared to rent you their own vehicle. Be careful, of course, and let someone know before you travel, even if you are driving your own car.

Be very careful, as well, about having and using a credit card. This can be your downfall. Credit card companies are in the business of making money. If they offer you a 1 percent rebate or the chance to earn points or something similar, they will be profiting more than that some other way.

Perhaps they count on your keeping a balance on the card with as much as a 25 percent annual rate of interest. Perhaps they count on taking it out of you in fees for late payments. Maybe they charge an extraordinary amount for a replacement bill, or talking to a real person on the phone. All these things have been tried by banks and other credit card issuers. Know your credit score, if you must have a credit card, to get the best rate.

One of the biggest elements in many budgets, whether college or not, can be telecommunication and internet access. Find out before heading off to campus what the Wi-Fi situation is going to be. Use it whenever possible, in preference to your own data plan, if you have one.

Know when during the day or week your phone or long distance charges are lowest, and use those windows of opportunity, or Skype, to talk to family back home. Don’t be seduced by the promise of cool or style; just go for practicality in your phone! You might be able to use Magic Jack to get basic phone service for yourself if you have wireless access in the dorm. Just watch out for double billing.

Use the resources of your college for entertainment as much as you can. Almost any college is going to have visiting artists performing, and movie nights, perhaps sponsored by the school, or a campus club. This is not the time to be vegging out in front of the TV, or dreaming your way through one movie after another. RedBox and Netflix are cheap enough for an occasional treat, but your college or local library will probably also have DVDs for free to borrow.

If you are allowed to cook in your residence, you can certainly cut down on costs by signing up for the leanest food service plan on offer. Then fill in with simple cooking or meal assembly on your own; most practically your breakfast and lunch. Be sure to include fruits, vegetables, and enough protein, to maintain your effectiveness as a student. This issue is a hot one, and any online discussion of it is likely to get heated.

We will write a custom Article on Manage Your College Budget Efficiently with These Tools and Tips specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This scrimping is only for a few years, and if you can keep your college expenses down, you will be free of debt sooner. That is worth a great deal.

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Please read the case studies at the end of Chapter 4 in our textbook. Then, complete the following tasks: essay help online free: essay help online free

Please read the case studies at the end of Chapter 4 in our textbook. Then, complete the following tasks:

1) Select the case study you find most interesting. Do NOT choose to answer question one as it is not appropriate for our purposes.

2) Read the discussion questions listed at the end of the case study you selected.

3) Choose one (and only one) of the numbered discussion questions. Some numbered questions have multiple parts; you’ll need to answer each part.

4) Write a 500-700 word paper on the case. If you can’t write 500-700 words, you should choose a different question. Your paper should:

(a) contain a clear summary of the case in your own words;

(b) answer discussion question(s) clearly and thoroughly;

(c) support your answer with strong and persuasive arguments;

(d) incorporate references to the philosophical principles and ideas discussed in our textbook.

Please see the rubric for the paper below.

Case Study Rubric (1)
Criteria Ratings Pts
The essay meets the required word count (500-700 words).
Yes

1.0 pts

No

0 pts

1.0 pts
The essay contains a clear summary of the case in your own words. If you quoted any parts of the textbook, you placed the quotes in quotation marks (” “) and cited a page number.
Yes

2.0 pts

Somewhat

1.0 pts

No 0.0 pts 2.0 pts
You answered the discussion question clearly and thoroughly.
Yes

2.0 pts

Somewhat

1.0 pts

No 0.0 pts
2.0 pts

You supported your answer to the question with strong and persuasive arguments.
Yes

2.0 pts

Somewhat

1.0 pts

No 0.0 pts 2.0 pts
The essay incorporates references to the philosophical principles and ideas discussed in our textbook.
Yes

1.0 pts

Somewhat

0.5 pts

No 0.0 pts 1.0 pts
The essay is clear, well written, and free of any and all plagiarism.
Yes

2.0 pts

Somewhat

1.0 pts

No 0.0 pts 2.0 pts
Total Points: 10.0

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Italy Country Report. Company: Ford Report online essay help

Company: Ford Overview

Italy is geographically positioned in Europe. The country’s capital city is the renowned city of Rome. Italy’s population is estimated as over 61.2 million people. The country takes pride in a parliamentary form of government. Moreover, the country trades with Euro (EUR) as its main currency. Since the year 2011, the country’s GDP shows that the main economic sectors are service delivery, industry and agriculture. In addition, the country’s both import and export are associated with the United States, France, Germany, China and Spain.

Economic Situation Weak Economic Performance

Italy’s economic performance has been in decline since the Eurozone economic turmoil in the year 2012 (Lane 52). The subsequent economic struggles in Greece had a negative impact on both external and internal demands in Italy. In fact, the economic struggles reduced business and consumer confidence in the country.

This factor has a negative impact on Ford’s operations in Italy. With a declining demand for automotive products and reduction in industrial production, Ford would suffer huge losses of the company ventures in Italy in 2013. The general economic performance in Eurozone affects consumer spending. This is attributed to the increasing unemployment rate. Ford manufactures high quality products, and consumers in Italy cannot spend money on expensive automotive.

International Competitiveness

Italy’s position in international competitiveness has been deteriorating since the year 2011 (Smeral 8). The fact that the country has lost at least 20% of the market share in international exports is discouraging. In this respect, Italy has avoided conducting business with countries that do not pose competitiveness in terms of costs and price change. Such countries include Germany and the United States. In this regard, it would not make economic sense to have Ford’s venture in the Italian market.

Inflation Rates

In the year 2012, the inflation rate in Italy had increased incredibly. A major reason for the increasing inflation rate was the rise of energy costs. An increase of the value added tax (VAT) also influenced the high inflation rate.

During this period, the demand for automotive products was stable, but the decreasing demand for trend in the year 2013 is a sign of reduced inflation rate. In this regard, a demand for imports in Italy will reduce in the year 2013. A projected decrease of inflation by 1.6% would influence the demand for Ford’s products in the country.

Unemployment

Unemployment in Italy has been on the rise since the year 2012. By November of 2012, unemployment had risen by 11.1%, which is 25% higher than the previous year (Checchi 148). The current labor laws in Italy seek to protect employees who only work on a permanent contract.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this respect, companies like Ford and similar businesses are unable to invest in uncertain labor environment. In fact, this makes it difficult for companies like Ford and automotive businesses to manufacture and sell automotive products in Italy. Ford’s success in Italy requires constant availability of labor and stable market.

Bank lending and interest rates

The Eurozone crisis in the year 2012 led to restrained bank lending. The Italian economy has depended on the European Central Bank to fund government projects, and bail out major economic sectors. The increasing lending rates provided by Italian banks are making it difficult for investors to increase their capital base.

Companies like Ford or automotive businesses require support from financial and lending institutions during an economic meltdown. Such support was evidenced in the United States when the government bailed General Motors from receivership and total bankruptcy. Currently, the lending institutions in Italy cannot support Ford or bail out a foreign investor in the automotive industry.

Italy’s interest rates are determined by the European Central Bank. Interest rates in the year 2001 were recorded as 4.8 % compared to 0.5% in the year 2013 (Spaventa 9). The projected reduction of interest rates in the year 2014 might increase the business opportunities for Ford and automotive business in Italy. However, the current interest rates are still high and cause a decline of the automotive business in Italy. Moreover, the high interest rates are causing the weakening of the Euro in the region and especially in Italy.

GDP

It is estimated that the country’s GDP reduced by 0.1% between August and September of 2013. Until the year 2013, Italy’s GDP has always averaged 0.6% since the year 1960. From the year 1992, Italy’s expansion of trade within the European Union has seen its GDP reduce significantly. This may be due to its low international competitiveness and the global economic meltdown. The increased public spending in Italy is not favorable for automotive business and Ford.

Fig 1.0 Sample Italy’s GDP graphical representation

We will write a custom Report on Italy Country Report. Company: Ford specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Demand

The demand for Ford vehicles in Europe has been high for the past two decades. By targeting market segments in Germany, France, Spain and Italy, Ford’s sales volume rose by 2.3% by the end of August 2013. However, a decrease of automotive sales in Europe declined by 5.7 % during the same period. This is an indication that Ford’s sales volume may be reducing if the current economic factors remain constant.

Works Cited Checchi, Daniele. “Labor market and inequality trends in Italy.” The Politics of Structural Reforms: Social and Industrial Policy Change in Italy and Japan. Ed. Magara, Hideko and Sacchi, Stefano. Boston: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013. 148-170. Print.

Lane, R. Philip. “The European sovereign debt crisis.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 26.3 (2012): 49-67. Print.

Smeral, Egon. “The impact of the financial and economic crisis on European tourism.” Journal of Travel Research 48.1 (2009): 3-13. Print.

Spaventa, Lugi. “The growth of public debt in Italy: past experience, perspectives and policy problems.” PSL Quarterly Review 66.266 (2013). Print.

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The Concept of Justice Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Descartes’ View

Plato’s View

Comparisons and Contrasts

Works Cited

Descartes’ View The concept of justice enables human beings living in different societies to be fair and rational in their dealings. Descartes reveals that people’s perceptions and attitudes are influenced by strong religious beliefs. God is the source of all good things that happen to man and his teachings have a positive influence on people, regardless of their cultural and social backgrounds.

As a result, they are able to make clear distinctions between right and wrong actions to ensure they do not deviate from God’s real teachings. People’s sense of judgment makes them understand consequences they are likely to face if they choose to engage in different actions (Bennet 2). Therefore, Descartes emphasises that theological ideas influence how people understand and apply justice.

Descartes’ arguments show that religion has a big role to play in making people understand justice and its benefits. In this regard, it shapes their ideals about different issues that affect how they enjoy various liberties and freedoms. Descartes shows that people’s emotions are shaped by encounters they have with other people from similar or different backgrounds.

These interactions enable them to have common beliefs and principles which form the basis of laws and social codes that are observed by people living in different societies (Bennet 5). Descartes’ arguments show that theological understanding makes people to submit to governmental authority and the rule of law.

Plato’s View The Euthyphro is a dialogue between Euthyphro and Socrates regarding the application of justice under the ancient Greek justice system. This dialogue demonstrates the ignorance people have about the concept of justice and how it is applied in different social and political systems.

Socrates has been accused of impiety because of his liberal statements on Greek gods and religious beliefs. Through the dialogue, Socrates is interested in uncovering the real meaning of piety and how it relates to the concept of the justice under the Athenian legal system (Plato). One of the major arguments that come out of the debate is how the concept of piety is understood. Euthyphro insists that piety involves actions that please the gods; a view opposed by Socrates who insists that the gods do not always have similar opinions.

Socrates and Euthyphro show that the application of justice in different societies is not always fair. As revealed in the dialogue, the law cannot only be influenced by religious teachings because human beliefs and lifestyles are constantly changing. Therefore, people need to analyse different liberal positions that serve as pillars on which legal principles are founded. This will ensure that they come up with realistic and fair laws.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this context, religious doctrines should not be the only basis that influences how laws are formed, applied and enforced in various societies (Plato). Effective justice systems serve the interests of both minority and majority segments of the population without bias. Theologically influenced interpretations of the law are not likely to be responsive to expectations of people living in different societies. They are can be easily manipulated by influential people in the society to achieve their own selfish interests.

Comparisons and Contrasts Descartes’ arguments that people’s values systems are influenced by religious teachings are true. Plato’s insistence that the application of justice should not only be interpreted from a religious angle is accurate.

Descartes fails to note that some religious teachings are not similar and as such, this brings about confusion regarding the way justice needs to be applied. Plato’s arguments are ambiguous because they do not offer a rational basis about how religion can be used to ensure the application of justice is done in a fair and rational manner.

Works Cited Bennet, Jonathan. “Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy.” Early Modern Texts. Early Modern Texts, April 2007. Web.

Plato. Euthyphro. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. The Internet Classics Archive. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009. Web.

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Impact of Training on Employee Development Report best essay help

Introduction Employee training has become a very important aspect in the modern business world. Due to the increased competition of customers and high profit margins, many organizations have formulated training schedules for their employees. Training is aimed at developing employee skills and knowledge.

It is therefore associated with the achievement of organization’s goals and hence profits. Training enhances organizational development and performance. Training refers to the whole process of learning through which skills are sharpened, knowledge is acquired, concepts are developed, rules are elaborated, change of attitude is enhanced, and employee behavior is streamlined with the aim of improving employee performance.

Employee development results from consistency in development where employees acquire more skills and knowledge. The knowledge acquired through employee training enables them to realize that they can perform better. Organizations conduct on-the-job training, and off-the-job training. On-the-job form of training is done when employees are trained while they perform their assigned task. On the other hand, off-the-job training is done by having employees out of their work for one or more training sessions.

Employees resume their work after the training. Most of the employees will appreciate trainings that are aimed at enhancing their skills and career development. Appreciation of employee training by both the management and employees will enhance its productivity. Training programs that are valued by employees enhance their level of satisfaction, motivation, and commitment to the organization. The performance of employees will also improve with an increase in training sessions.

Although there exist a debate on whether employee training enhances turnover or it increases commitment, training is vital for employee development. There are various impacts of training on both the organization and individual employees. Since employees are the most important publics of an organization, their training should be prioritized by organizations. With the above highlights on training, this report discusses the impact of training on employee development.

Increased Employee Productivity/Performance Training enhances employee development in the sense that in enables them to performance better. According to Ameeq-ul-Ameeq (68), employee training is said to be effective when employee performance improves. According to the human capital theory, appropriate and proper training of employees enables the organization to yield high results.

High organizational productivity can only be achieved when the performance of individual employees is increased. It is through training that employees learn the importance of being more active on their duties and/or to appreciate the diversity of the working environment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Appreciation of workplace diversity enhances teamwork. Hence, the achievement of organizational goals is enhanced. Training also enhances employee confidence. Chiaburu and Tekleab (604) argue that proper and consistent training of employees makes them more confident and accurate when performing their duties. Since confidence in work enhances proficiency, employees become more effective.

Employees who are well trained do not fear the risk of tear and wear, errors, and scrap. Confidence also boosts the rate of output per individual employee. Employees are also likely to perform better with increased training since they require less supervision and correction. A considerable amount of time is lost as the supervisors and managers monitor the conduct of employees.

Training improves performance especially on new employees, for instance, fresh college graduates and employees who turn from one career to another one. Since new employees have little or no practical experience on their jobs, they are likely to cause wastage, scrap, and errors. Such kinds of employees are also likely to increase the rate of accidents in an organization. It is such negative occurrences that make such employees perform poorly.

Proper training is one that is conducted after a thorough research is conducted on employee training needs. According to Chiaburu and Tekleab (609), analysis of employees training needs will enhance the objectives of the training such that the training will enhance the skills required for the performance of a certain task. Workers learn how to use certain technology features to increase their efficiency. They learn how to avoid risks and consequently how to reduce health hazards and absenteeism.

The ability to use certain machines enables learners to increase their rate of production and standardization of products. Increase in the number of days that employees are in a certain job enhances their productivity. Employees are also exposed to various situations and occurrences during training. Through education and instructions that employees receive in training, their experience is increased. Hence, they become more productive and accurate.

Since employees learn how to reduce risks and/or protect themselves, it becomes quite easy for them to remain healthy and productive. Healthy employees have high performance levels. Organizations experience low performance because some skills are not learnt in school. Kennett (112) argues thatmost of the practical skills can only be achieved through the on-the-job training. Training also enhances employee commitment. Hence, they feel more attached to achieve good results for the organization.

Training enhances Employee Relevancy in the Market and Career Growth The current world of technology has resulted in fast changes in the job markets. According to Ameeq-ul-Ameeq (68), skills that are relevant in the job market today may be irrelevant tomorrow. For example, Ameeq-ul-Ameeq’s report found that some years ago, the typesetting machine was relevant in the market.

We will write a custom Report on Impact of Training on Employee Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, with the wide adoption of computers in most of the institutions, the machine has become irrelevant. In the same way, those who used to operate these machines have also had their services lacking relevancy in the market. It is out of these constant changes in the service industry that makes training important. Kennett (112) argues that as technology changes, workers must also be trained on new skills required in the market.

On-the-job and off-the-job trainings aim at equipping employees with the current and relevant technology. Some of the employees in organizations stay for many years in the organization without advancing their skills. In fact, the report found that most of the employees in many organizations still use obsolescent skills that they acquired from college more than 20 years ago.

Products made by such employees may continue to lag behind in the market. Since most of the employees who are in their senior years are in managerial positions, their methods of administration may result in conflicts with the junior employees. Kennett (114) argues that some of the skills that old managers and supervisors use are focused on production rather than on employees. Training is therefore important to old employees since it equips them with modern skills that make them remain relevant in the market.

Training enables all employees in an organization to read from the same book. When employees’ skills and knowledge are leveled, coordination in job performance is easily achieved. Old and new employees gain the ability to work together as a team. During the training session, the old employees and fresh graduates share their knowledge and skills. Divergent views on various strategies of performance are converted into a common agreement.

Workers that are occasionally trained are able to refresh their skills. The report also found that a considerable number of employees working in organizations have not received any training during their term of service. In fact, some of the employees had spent more than twenty years without receiving any refresher training. Training of workers enables them to develop on their previous knowledge and skills.

Chiaburu and Tekleab (604) assert that combination of previous knowledge and skills with modern skills acquired during regular training helps employees remain relevant and competitive. The employers are also looking for relevant and current skills and knowledge from the employees that they hire. An employee who does not show commitment in acquiring new skills and/or moving with time is likely to lose relevancy in the work place.

The report found that many companies dropped most of the employees who worked as office assistants during the manual era. However, those who had acquired training on computer skills and applications were retained. Job structures and design are also changing with change in time. A piece of work that required five professionals to finish is currently being done by one person and with lesser time.

This goal has been achieved through a revision of training curriculum and mechanization. Employees who receive consistent training from their organizations are able to align their skills with changes in the market. Enrichment of careers is therefore achieved through training. Training enables learners to acquire new knowledge and skills. In most of the organizations, job promotions are done with regard to employee wealth of knowledge and skills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Training on Employee Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An employee who has received more training relative to others is likely to score high in performance. Hence, he or she will be promoted. Promotion is part of career growth and development. In fact, even the competitor organizations hunt for employees with high levels of knowledge and skills. Kennett (113) argues that training may also work negatively for an organization since the more employees are trained, the more their marketability is increased.

Training enhances Employee Commitment and Job Satisfaction Training enables workers to become more committed to their job. Lack of employee training may result in increased turnover. Every employee who comes to an organization has a desire to grow and develop his or her career. Training will enable an employee to learn how to be committed to his or her organization.

Commitment makes employees patient in working for one organization for a considerable amount of time. It enables employees to appreciate the process of organizational growth. They become patient to grow with it. Employee training enables workers to appreciate that the more one remains in an organization, the less likely that he or she will turn over.

Through training, employees learn to appreciate conflicts and/or how to solve them. Cases of strikes and other forms of industrial actions are reduced. Job satisfaction is also enhanced through employee training. Employees would not want to turn over to other organizations that do not offer training. Employees who are occasionally trained on various topics and issues gain the required skills for promotion and reward. Such employees will always be waiting for the next training.

Training will therefore enhance employee commitment. Employees will also be committed to implementing the skills that they learn from training sessions. Commitment will enable employees to correct their colleagues who make errors during the performance of their duties. Trained employees will work hard to ensure efficiency and accuracy. According to Chiaburu and Tekleab (606), relationship between employees that are occasionally trained is better relative to that of employees that are never taken through training.

Job satisfaction has been associated with good employee working environment. Since employees are trained on conflict resolution, they are able to solve conflicts within the organization. Employees will also be satisfied with career development, promotions, and rewards. Training develops employee skills in handling complex tasks. The ability to handle complex problems makes the employee achieve a certain level of job satisfaction.

When an employee realizes his or her importance and contributions towards the success of an organization, he or she appreciates it. Improvement of knowledge and skills makes the employees have the capacity to seek better remuneration. With a better pay and terms of service, employees are able to live a better life relative to the period before training. Organizations that offer consistent trainings to their employees also indicate to them that there is a brighter future. Employees want to stick to an organization with a promising future.

No employee would want to remain in an organization that will collapse or turn into receivership within the next few years. Chiaburu and Tekleab’s report also found that job commitment improves with the duration of employment and the age of the employee. Employees who are sure of a secured source of income in the future are able to invest in their careers. They feel obligated to their organization. Training has been credited with increased employee commitment.

Training nurtures Employee Talents On-the-job training enables organizations to nurture employee talents. This report realized that job turnover is higher in junior employees than with older employees. Employee turnover reduces with an increase with age and period of service. In some cases, junior employees will turnover from a job due to lack of sufficient support during induction.

Chiaburu and Tekleab (607) argue that employees who are well trained during induction have their talents nurtured. As a result, they are less likely to turn over from their jobs. However, employees who receive training from their employers are able to adapt to the working environments in an organization. Individual employee skills are also nurtured during training. Various areas of employee development are addressed during training. Great talents are also developed and maintained.

For example, employees with management talents are trained on the best practices. Talents are enhanced through training. Kennett (2013, p.112) argues thattraining onvarious topical issues enhancesknowledge and skills, thus making talents more professional. Young, ambitious, and talented employees are also retained through training. Training enables employees perfect their skills. Employees that are trained enjoy their work and develop a positive attitude towards work.

Employees also get more involved in their jobs after they are trained. Training also enables employees to appreciate their contribution in jobs that they do. It is through training that employees learn to appreciate their contribution to the organization. Hence, an organization gives open forums to employees. In turn, they are able to express themselves fully. In such forums, employee talents are realized. Talent realization also happens during the actual performance of the job.

The spirit and enthusiasm that employees develop during training enables them to nurture their talents. Employees are also trained on how to make their talents work for them. Through training, employees learn how to select the right careers for themselves hence maximizing the impact of their talent. For instance, an employee may be working in the communication department of an organization as an editor.

However, he or she may not be talented in editing but in public speaking. During training, talents are realized. Such an employee is able to appreciate his or her public speaking skills in an attempt to move to the sales promotion sub-department where he or she maximizes his or her skills. According to Ameeq-ul-Ameeq (68), talents enhance productivity of employees. Employees are able to develop their talents and careers to another level. Such talent makes an organization outstanding in the market amidst tight competition.

Training enhances Employee Communication and ability to solve Conflicts Employee development is also enhanced through training on communication and conflict resolution. Through training, employees have their communication skills enhanced. They are able to interact with their supervisors, management, and colleagues in a better way. Cases of conflicts are also reduced since the employees can already appreciate each other.

Training also enables employees to learn how to avoid and solve internal conflicts. Conflicts between employees are also reduced in trained employees. Trained employees know how to relate with each other in the workplace. Unity of purpose and socialization is also raised through training. Employees work like a team. As a result, their unity enhances their performance.

Proper, clear, and complete communication in the working environment enables employees to open up to each other, hence boosting work coordination. Workers that are trained also learn from each other in an open way. Each employee minds about the other’s welfare. Hence, there exists a tight organizational culture. Employees who have been trained on various issues identify with each other.

This identity further enhances socialization in an organization. The report also found that conflicts are more rampant in organizations that do not provide for employee training. Employees that undergo regular trainings acquire skills on how to communicate with each other together with how to communicate with their supervisors and their seniors. In most cases, conflicts arise from misunderstanding and lack of communication.

According to Kennett (112), through proper communication skills, employees are able to articulate their grievances in a professional and acceptable manner. The management and supervisors are also able to respond to the need of the employees in the right way and on time. It is for this reason that organizations that conduct regular employee training have few conflicts. Trained employees also appreciate the need for dialogue on various matters.

Dialogue enables the parties in conflict to solve their problems in an amicable way instead of rising against each other and destroying the reputation of their organization.

Barrett and O’Connell (649) argue that trained employees are also more loyal to their organizations relative to untrained employees. Trained employees understand the whole process of leaders. They understand the financial position of their organization. They understand their profit margins. Therefore, they are likely to demand what they understand is their rightful share.

Trained employees also know the right channels of conflict resolution. They are therefore less likely to soil the image of their company by seeking other methods of solving conflicts. Training also enhances diversity among employees. Employees are trained to accept diversity in terms of gender, age, race, tribe, and sexual orientation among others. Acceptance of diversity in the workplace enhances teamwork and/or reduces conflicts. During training, employees are occasionally reminded of the need for teamwork.

Employees who work in organizations, which carry out training sessions, acquire socialization skills. They can work with diversified groups of people. Training develops employee communication skills. Employees with developed communication skills understand how to make the right choice of words. Wrong choice of words in communication results in conflicts among employees.

Training equips employees with skills on how to communicate effectively. Correct, concise, and clear communication skills are enhanced through training. Communication promotes understanding in the organization. Learners develop skills on how to handle various publics of the organization. Employees who are trained on communication are able to carry out audience analysis before packaging communication materials for them.

Appropriate training on communication enables employees to select the right channels of communication for different publics. For example, employees develop skills to choose on communication channels that have a wide reach, fast, and/or use a language that the target audience understands. Every public receives the right communication appropriate for its needs. With proper training, organization culture is nurtured. Employees become part of a larger communication family in the organization.

Training reduces Employee’s Weaknesses, Errors, and Scrap Through training, employees learn how to deal with their weaknesses, how to reduce errors, and how to avoid product wastage. One of the major aims of training is to reduce errors. Employees who are not sure of certain methods of production are likely to make errors in delivering their services. Errors increase with a change in technology and methods of production. Kennett (112) argues that lack of training increases the chances of errors in the process of production.

Guesswork in delivery of services can cost the company its money, time, and reputation. Barrett and O’Connell (647) argue that errors reduce the quality of products and services that a certain company produces. Employee training ensures that employees are introduced to new methods of production, new technology, and/or are trained on how to make the best use of it. An employee who is occasionally trained is not likely to forget the process of service or product manufacturing.

Training acts as a constant reminder of various aspects of service delivery to the employees. Training enables employees to develop an active mind that guides them on accuracy, hence enabling them avoid errors. Employers want employees that will maximize profits while reducing losses. Since employees are human beings, they are bound to personal and professional weaknesses. During training, employee weaknesses are addressed.

The areas where employees face difficulties while working are addressed. As a result, the employee develops new and more elaborate skills in handling tasks. Professionalism in the delivery of duties is enhanced through training. Every employee who is constantly trained becomes more professional with increased training. Barrett and O’Connell (650) further affirm that employees are reminded of various standards of operation during training. Trained employees are therefore strong in the way they perform their duties.

Training aims at turning the weaknesses of employees into strengths. Employees who understand their weaknesses can easily come out of them and turn them into strengths. Strongly willed employees are likely to yield better results in performance since they are sure of their work and expectations. The amount of scrap that results from employees that are constantly trained is also reduced. Trained employees rarely make professional mistakes.

The number of errors that such employees make is also reduced. Training enables employees to reduce scrap. During training, employees gain knowledge and skills on how to reduce errors that may result in total damage of goods and services. Efficiency of production is therefore increased with a reduction in scrap. Employees with high levels of accuracy are also likely to be rated high during appraisals.

Training enhances Employee Efficiency Employees who receive occasional training develop their efficiency skills. Efficiency of employees saves time. Time is an important factor in the production of goods and services. Training enables employees to learn how to plan, execute, and evaluate programs. Time wastage is reduced when employees are able to carry out their duties efficiently.

Training enhances employee accuracy. Accuracy enhances efficiency of production. When employees are confident of the kind of work that they should do and the expectation of their work, they are able to save time. Barrett and O’Connell (647) observe that employee productivity highly depends on their level of efficiency. Training enables the employee to acquire knowledge and skills on how to use machines in the process of production. Mechanization and adaptation of modern technology will further enhance employee productivity.

During training, employees are trained on how to automate and use machines to achieve high rates of production. Employees who are able to use technology enable their companies to be better competitors in the market. Mechanization of labor increases the speed of production. Training also enhances retention of the best employees in the organization. Employees would want to remain in an organization that promotes their career development and/or one that enhances their productivity.

By having the right people in the organization, it becomes easier to attain organizational goals on time. Some experienced employees who turn over from organizations due to lack of opportunities for growth and development hurt the efficiency of organizations. Therefore, it is important to train employees in order to develop their skills and knowledge thereby reducing turnover rates. Employees who undergo training are not likely to turn over to other careers.

Retention of employees in one career for a long period enhances their mastery in their area of specialization. Specialization enhances efficiency in the performance of duties. Employees are trained on how to be the best service providers in their areas of specialization. Increased repetition in performance of duties enables the employee to be more efficient in performance of duties. Training enables these employees to be confident in performance of their duties. Confidence enhances efficiency of performance of duties.

Efficiency of employees is also enhanced through training on conflict resolution. Organizations waste lot of time in solving conflicts between the management and employees and among the employees. Conflicts are also a great source of de-motivation to the employees. Barrett and O’Connell (647) affirm that through training, employee efficiency is enhanced since employees are taught on how to solve simple conflicts.

Training enables them to acquire skills in mediation, conflict management, and resolution. Workers who undergo regular on-the-job and off-the-job training are able to manage differences among them. Workers are also trained on how to mediate in cases of conflict among employees and between employees and supervisors. When employees work with little or no stress, their efficiency is enhanced. Such employees can make high quality products. They can avoid cases of accidents.

Conclusion Based on the expositions made in this study, it is evident that training is crucial in employee development. Every employee has developmental needs such as advancing knowledge and skills, learning how to communicate well, achieving job satisfaction, achieving higher pay and reward, having the ability to solve and manage conflicts, advancing their talents, acquiring of skills in the application of modern technology, being more proficient in work, and becoming more productive.

This report realized that both on-the-job and off-the-job training are able to achieve all these developmental needs. Organizations that organize occasional employee training are able to achieve high profit margins. Such organizations are also able to compete well in the modern markets.

Therefore, this report realized that every organization should invest in training of its workforce in order to nurture skills for the current market and for the future. Employees who are occasionally trained develop confidence and accuracy in their jobs hence reducing errors and scrap.

Training also nurtures proper communication skills. Organizations with employees who have well developed communication skills are able to nurture organizational culture. Therefore, this report finds that training of employees is important for the purposes of developing their knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Works Cited Ameeq-ul-Ameeq, Furqan. “Impact of Training on Employee’s Development and Performance in Hotel Industry of Lahore, Pakistan.” Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 4.4(2013): 68-82. Print.

Barrett, Allan and Philip O’Connell. “Does training generally work? The returns to in company Training.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54.3(2001): 647-662. Print.

Chiaburu, Dan and Amanuel Tekleab. “Individual and contextual influences on multiple dimensions of training effectiveness.” Journal of European Industrial Training 29.8(2005): 604-26. Print.

Kennett, Geraldine. “The Impact of Training Practices on Individual, Organization, and Industry Skill Development.” Australian Bulletin of Labor 39.1(2013): 112-135. Print.

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Chinese Real Estate Market Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Correlation to Althusser’s connection to structuralism

China’s Real Estate Market

Understanding the Chinese Real Estate Market

Raymond Williams and Hegemony

State Influence in Local Real Estate Development

Works Cited

Correlation to Althusser’s connection to structuralism When examining the illogical nature of China’s construction industry, it bears a great deal of similarity to Althusser’s connection to structuralism wherein he states that there are overarching socio-economic and ideological structures that ultimately have power to determine the other elements of the system, even though these other elements have a fair degree of autonomy.

In this particular case, it can clearly be seen that there is an overarching system in the form of the state capitalist based economic model of China that has influenced its government to such an extent that it pursued a path of real estate development that focused on creating high value properties.

Since real estate development is normally an independent and autonomous system that is based on consumer demand, the fact that real estate developers in China still adamantly pursues high end development despite lack luster demand is indicative of a structural system in place that dictates their actions.

Evidence of this can be seen when examining regional wage developments within China (Sujian, 207-224). It was noted that the average salary of an ordinary Chinese worker is roughly 2,000 to 4,000 Yuan per month, which when converted utilizing the current monetary value of the British pound is equivalent to 190 and 380 pounds respectively or $270 and $520.

While the wage can still relatively low, it is still considered by the Chinese government as an adequate level of monetary compensation for a bare minimum standard of living. An examination of average property prices for affordable housing within China done by Bradsher (2013) reveals that the average median home price within the country is equivalent to $114,900

The pricing situation present in China’s cities is roughly equivalent to average prices within western countries such as the U.S. yet the wage demographics within China is 6 times lower making most housing within the country unattainable by the average worker. What this shows is a failure on the part of a overarching structuralist system that attempted to grow based on a particular predetermined path yet failed spectacularly due to limited vision regarding the ramifications of its actions.

China’s Real Estate Market Within the past 2 decades China’s economy has grown to become the second largest economy in the world as a direct result of government initiatives into encouraging foreign direct investment, local entrepreneurship and real estate development (Hui, 951-961).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, as noted by studies such as “Study On China Real Estate Price Bubble: Will It Burst Soon? (2011)”, though there may be a high rate of property development occurring within China’s cities there is an increasingly prevalent rate of housing surplus within the country with well over 70 million surplus housing units expected to reach completion by the end of 2013.

As stated by Shen (2009), ordinarily having a certain level of housing surplus would be fine if such housing initiatives were created in order to meet expected demand within the near future, however, Shen (2009) determined that property development within China is not concentrating on either affordable housing or subsidized housing schemes which are in great demand within China.

Instead, what is present is a development strategy that is oriented towards high end property development. In fact, studies such as those by Hui (2012) which examined the 70 million housing surplus units within China took note of the fact that most if not all if these units had price schemes that were well above what an average Chinese worker would be able to afford.

This presents a rather unusual situation since real estate construction within certain areas should reflect consumer demand which is not occurring within this particular case. Instead, what is occurring in the case of China is the complete opposite of what analysts say should be an ideal rate of local real estate development (Shen, 3).

Understanding the Chinese Real Estate Market China’s real estate market essentially works under 5 distinct forces that influence the development of its local real estate market. These forces are composed of: the central government, local government, banks, developers and consumers (Bradsher, 2). These particular 5 forces are ubiquitous in real estate markets around the world, yet, what makes the case of China unique is the greater degree of government control over the rate of development (Real Estate Bubbles and the National People’s Congress, 20).

This aspect of control was seen during the period of 2000 to 2008 where the central government effectively dictated the rate of real estate development within the country instead of allowing natural market forces such as demand and supply to influence the actions of developers (Shen, 18). This particular strategy was noted by Bradsher (2013) as being related to the central government’s desire to meet ever increasing GDP targets and, as such, utilized the real estate market in order to artificially drive up growth.

The process of real estate development within China operates under the process of local government officials selling land to developers who build mainly 3 types of housing: subsidized housing for the poor, affordable housing for people with average incomes and high end residential properties (Study On China Real Estate Price Bubble: Will It Burst Soon?, 27).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Chinese Real Estate Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of China, property auctions are often won by developers who chose to build high end properties due to the assumption that the cost of the land can be recouped through selling expensive housing units.

It is mentioned by Fung and Yu (2011) in their examination of localized property development that it is not that high end property developers do not win land bids in various international real estate markets but rather it is often the case that high end property developers do not bid as often compared to subsidized housing or affordable housing developers.

In the case of China, what is present is a high degree of demand for subsidized or affordable housing with a relatively low degree of demand for high end real estate yet what is present is a situation where there are more high end residential construction projects despite low market demand for that particular type of housing (Sujian, 207-224).

Raymond Williams and Hegemony When examining the context of Raymond Williams and Hegemony, it can be seen that it is applicable to the case of China wherein an overriding “world view” or “class outlook” influences the development of systems of belief within a particular country (Williams 108-114). While China may espouse that its brand of communism is “for the people” the fact remains that it is the political elite and rich that in effect dictate social and economic development within the region.

China’s real estate industry is an excellent example of domination and subordination in action. The rate of development that focuses primarily on high end real estate development in what can only be described as a form of “tunnel vision” focuses on the development of structures that appeal to the rich and political elite despite the lack of localized demand.

As it has been mentioned before, in most systems, supply is meant to meet demand, however, when throwing in the concept of Williams and Hegemony into the mix, what occurs is that despite the lack of demand local corporations continue to supply since the focus is in conforming to the plan of the government for urban development despite the potential negative economic ramifications.

This is one of the issues when it comes to state owned developers and hegemony wherein an overriding directive becomes the focus which causes problems for those that are being subordinated yet benefit those who dominate the system.

State Influence in Local Real Estate Development As noted by Fung and Yu (2011) in their examination of real estate development within China, it was noted that one unique aspect of the Chinese banking sector was that most banks within China are actually controlled by the state as opposed to the situation in other countries where banks are not directly controlled by the government (Fung, Esther, and Yu, 5).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Real Estate Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This presents itself as a unique situation as described by the article “Restless (1998)” since this actually enables the central government to dictate lending rates, who to lend to and for what purpose (Restless, 3).

As noted by Fontevecchia (2011), state owned companies tend to receive more preferential treatment from state owned banks (nearly all the banks in China are owned by the government) which in turn enables state owned companies to outbid private developers for land deals.

In fact it has been noted by Bradsher (2013) and other similar studies that all around China state run corporations ranging from military, telecom to even oil producers have been venturing into the real estate development industry with which they utilize preferential treatment from banks to overtake private developers in the sheer amount of construction projects created.

This has created a situation where multiple state run companies are investing into a platform that simply is not in demand which will result in an eventual catastrophe for the country.

Works Cited Bradsher, Keith. “China’s Central Bank Has Its Own Worries.” New York Times 29 May 2013: B2. Regional Business News. Web.

Fontevecchia, Agustino. “China: When Falling Home Prices Are A Good Thing.” Forbes (2011): 3. Print

Fung, Esther, and Rose Yu. “Fitch Sees Bank Risks For China.” Wall Street Journal – Eastern Edition Sept. 2011: C5. Business Source Premier. Web.

Hui, Eddie Chi-Man, et al. “Real Estate Bubbles In China: A Tale Of Two Cities.” Construction Management

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The Right People on the Bus Essay online essay help: online essay help

Corporate leadership and organizational success transcend from the people in the organization. Therefore, these organizations should get the right people in the right seats to do the right thing. The company’s staff should be willing and ready to accommodate changes for the success of the organization (Collins, 2001). This study seeks to agree to with Jim Collins’ notions of the right people in an organization.

Human resources play a valuable role in transforming the inputs into outputs for the final customers of an organization. The people in the organization must work hard to enable the business to attain its goals and objectives. The right people are committed to the organizational values. Thus, this view supports Jim Collins’ notions of the right people in the company (Collins, 2001). Organizational success depends on the right people who have values that are in tandem with the values of the company.

The right people are willing to take responsibility. They have the passion to ensure the success of the business (Collins, 2001). For example, Wells Fargo managed to transform itself from a global mini bank to an electronic banking organization. The organization identified its hedgehog concept and used the right people to focus on its core competencies (Collins, 2001).

Teamwork and collaboration also enable the right people to ensure the success of the company. The right people in the organization strive to strengthen group and individual relationship in the organization. As a consequence, this enables them to increase the level of self-motivation for the benefit of the business. Motivation is important in increasing the productivity of the workforce and ensuring commitment to the organizational goals and objectives (Collins, 2001).

Reference Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why some companies make the leap and others don’t. New York: HarperCollins.

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Why US Attracts Immigration From All Over the World Essay writing essay help

Ever since the discovery of America many centuries ago, the country has continued to attract millions of immigrants from all over the world. Some of the common reasons that have led to the increased number of immigrants into the country are plentiful job opportunities, cases of overpopulations in other countries, the search for religious and political asylum, and the advertisement for the free land.

However, some of the main reasons behind the immigrations include, but are not limited to education, economics, social security, and cultural aspects. Using the above four reasons as the main points, this paper helps to explain why the USA remains a major attraction for immigrants across the globe.

In fact, the USA offers a lot in terms of education compared to the offers other countries are able to provide for their citizens (Rumbaut, 1994).

The country is home for some of the best universities and colleges in the world, and for that reason, it has continued to attract students from all parts of the world. Some of the famous institutions of higher education in the country include universities like the California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, the University of California, New York University, the University of Michigan, Yale University, and the University of Chicago.

Most of these institutions have constantly featured in the World University Rankings, thus amassing too much recognition globally. More importantly, these establishments have also continued to offer superior career programs to learners to maximize their opportunities for professional lives, and that way, have become considerable attractions of prospective immigrants from other states.

Apart from its ability to offer exclusive education programs, the US has always been in search for new talents and skills in various disciplines to help drive its economy forward. Through immigration initiatives such as the Green Card lottery where people from other countries are given direct opportunities to live, study, and work in the US, America has successfully managed to acquire qualified personnel from all over the world, to serve in key sectors of the economy.

As the largest national economy in the world today, America is an open society full of career possibilities for immigrants. This, however, explains the reason why the immigrants tend to abandon everything in their home countries to establish new lives in America, which is considered a land of opportunity by many.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from coming to the US as job seekers, the immigrants have also been aware of the country’s economic prosperity, thus seeing it as a promising land for business. In this regard, many of the foreigners who happen to find their way into the country would be entrepreneurs or investors who are attracted by the country’s economic development.

As it would be observed, the vast job and business opportunities provided by the US have over the time given the immigrants a chance to live their full potential as they make positive contributions towards the country’s economy. In just another perspective, the USA relies on foreign professionals to drive its economy, and for that reason, will tend to attract immigrants from all over the world to serve in various economic sectors (Chellaraj, Maskus

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Wolof Language in Africa Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Over seven million people spreading across three West African states including Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania is currently speaking Wolof. In fact, Wolof is deemed one of the most significant languages originating from Niger-Kordofan group of dialects set up by Greenberg. In Senegal, Wolof is widely spoken and perceived as the national language besides French.

The estimates are that over eighty percent of Senegalese speak Wolof. The language is divided into various dialects ranging from Baol to Lebou. According to (Gamble 25), the number of Wolof speakers are rising given the fact that majority of the communities within Senegal, Gambia and part of Mauritania are using the language in their socio-economic and political undertakings.

Moreover, the language plays a critical role in the socio-economic and political levels of the communities. In other words, the language is used in social, political and economic settings particularly in Senegal. Even though most of the speakers of the language are from diverse dialects, they are communally comprehensible (Campbell 341).

The history of the Wolof language Historians argue that Wolof language came from Tekrur kingdom. Tekrur was one of the territories found in ancient Ghana. The Wolof language is considered the framework of the Senegalese ethnic communities. Moreover, Wolof is believed to have close relationship with Serer and Pulaar, the major languages originating from the north of Senegal (Garry and Rubino 445). Wolof, Serer and Pulaar are said to have over the years separated due to social, political and economic changes.

As such, the three languages have various similarities in dialect and practical terms. Most historians assert that Wolof language branched out from Serer. In fact, Serer and Wolof are similar in all the foreign elements. In addition, historians point out that Wolof, Serer and Pulaar are linked heritably and culturally (Ruhlen 129). Further, historians assert that the three major and related languages might have originated from ancient Egypt.

Further, other historians relate Wolof to Mandinka community of Djolof Mbing. In fact, the theory asserts that Wolof originated from a small village known as “lof” established by Mandinka, Djolof Mbing. The “lof” residents were later called “waa-lof”. The historians belonging to the school of thought believe that the name “waa-lof” later evolved to be Wolof (Gamble 25). As such, the “waa-lof” people later expanded to be Wolof speaking communities or the language group.

The reason is that the “waa-lof” and Wolof is similar in cultures and dialects. The other similarities the historians cite include political systems, lifestyle and the belief systems. The relationship in the form of cultural norms and dialect prove the theory that Wolof language originated from the ancient Mandinka village of ‘lof”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, the Wolof speaking communities have spread in most part of Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. Moreover, Wolof is deemed one of the sub-branches of the larger Niger-Congo language families occupying West Atlantic Region (Grimes 111). In Senegal, the Wolof is widely spoken majorly on both sides along river Senegal from the north to lower parts including Podor, Richard-Toll and Saint-Louis. In Gambia, the communities speaking the language are majorly found along river Gambia.

Moreover, the language is spread above the Senegal River mainly in Mauritania, Guinea and Guinea Bissau (Comrie 219). The presence of Senegalese in foreign countries particularly in France enables the language to have some of the foreign dialects. The presence of the foreign language and education has enabled Wolof to evolve into form of new dialect though majorities still maintain the original vernacular.

The existing borrowings and relation to other languages As indicated, the language is widely spread in terms of geographical area resulting into variations in dialect. The differences in dialect is also associated with the influence other languages have on Wolof particularly French, which is widely spoken in West Africa. However, the variations in dialect do not affect the comprehension of the language (Garry and Rubino 445). Moreover, most of the original vernacular is maintained. In whole sentence, the borrowed word can only be one, which is even rare.

In other words, in a whole sentence, only one word may differ from one place to another. The borrowings from other languages are not common. Further, the distinctions in dialects are insignificant since such dialectical variation cannot prevent other people from understanding the verbal communication. Essentially, the mutual intelligibility is highly maintained among the Wolof speaking communities (Grimes 111).

However, wide variation is observed in Wolof language spoken in urban and rural areas. The variations originate from the pressure of modernization in urban centers where majority interact with various languages and the maintenance of the original vernacular in the rural areas. Some of the terms are frequently used in the rural areas as opposed to urban centers where foreign borrowed dialects are common (Ruhlen 134).

In other words, some terms are specific to the rural dialect. People living in the downtown cannot understand such terms. Similarly, some dialects are specific to urban areas and are commonly borrowed from foreign languages particularly French. For instance, words such as “Jatan” and “Naaf” are common in rural areas while words including “Garaas” and “oto” commonly used in urban areas are borrowed from French words “Garage” and “Automobile”.

Further, the increased rate of modernity and influence in education exert more pressure on urban dwellers. As a result, the urban dwellers constantly create new words and use many French borrowings, which are directly related to political, economic and social transformations existing in urban centers. On the contrary, the rural dwellers are quite conservative and use dialects that are ignored or disregarded in modern cities (Gamble 25).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wolof Language in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interactions with the French language has also led to differences in some terms such as toilet which is referred to “douche” in town while in rural areas, the original term “wanag” is used. The contacts Wolof has with other languages also have influence in some areas such as in Saint Louis. The city of Saint Louis, being near Mauritania, has borrowed the term “Kaudir” meaning pan, which the rest of Senegalese Wolof communities term “Cin”.

The regional diversity also contributes to the Wolof dialectical differences. The reason explains the differences observed in Senegalese Wolof dialects from the Gambian Wolof languages. The changes in the Gambian Wolof dialects are influenced by English language given the fact that Gambia is a former British colony.

The influence of English is not obvious in Senegalese Wolof dialects as opposed to French (Grimes 113). The English borrowings are only common with hip-hop singers in Senegal. In Gambia, English language greatly influenced the Wolof dialects where coined English are replacing some terms.

The recent changes in Wolof language related to technological innovations Even though technological advancement has little influence on the changes taking place within the Wolof language, few transformations have taken place particularly in terms and pronunciations. Advanced technology has also facilitated the borrowing of some terms. Terms that did not originally exist in Wolof dialect are now incorporated.

In other words, technology has led to the creation of new terms (Gamble 25). The new terms have enriched the Wolof vocabulary particularly in urban centers. However, the advancement in technology has facilitated the rate of influence foreign languages have on Wolof dialects.

Moreover, technological advancements result in differences of some terms used in particular urban areas as opposed to rural areas. For instance, in Dakar, where majority are educated and apply modern technological gadgets, common terms are being replaced with the French or English terminologies of the gadgets. From time to time, new words are being inserted in place of original terms in Wolof or words considered old-fashioned in urban areas (Campbell 341).

For instance, the term “muus” originating from the mouse of a computer is constantly replacing the Wolof term “wundu” which is still being used in most areas. Even though there are changes resulting from technological advancements particularly in some terms, large transformations have not occurred.

Wolof language and its chances for a change Wolof language has specific characteristics that differentiate it from other languages. Moreover, Wolof language has specific attributes that differentiate it from other national languages spoken in Senegal and Gambia where Wolof speaking communities are widely spread. One of the attributes is the role the language plays in society since it is the only vehicular language (Garry and Rubino 456). In other words, unlike other vernacular national languages, communities and not the whole population speak Wolof.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wolof Language in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, everybody in social and political setting including the media uses Wolof. Further, the language is largely used within the economic domains particularly in commercial and urban centers (Gamble 25). Almost all commercial transactions in Senegal and Gambia are conducted in Wolof. The application of the language in social, political and economic settings increases the need to know and comprehend Wolof detriment to other languages.

One of the major characteristics of the Wolof language is persistence during the colonial era. The language did not change despite wide spread of the use of French and English (Comrie 224). In other words, Wolof language was not greatly influenced by the foreign colonial languages. The attribute distinguishes the language from other African languages that were victims of colonial influence.

Despite widespread use of French language in West Africa and its influence on other African languages, Wolof dialects remained though with little borrowings. The characteristic contributes to little chances in the transformation of the language. Even though the chances of the language changing exist, it will take time before significant transformations are observed (Garry and Rubino 456).

However, modes at which the language has borrowed words from other languages have increased in the recent past. In other words, the rate of transformation is likely to increase due to pressure from modernization and education (Comrie 231). Moreover, modern technological advancements are also likely to increase the rate of transformation. Generally, modernity will be the major cause of transformation of the language.

Conclusion Wolof is widely spoken across three West African states including Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. The language plays a critical role in the socio-economic and political levels of the communities.

Even though most of the speakers of the language are from diverse dialects, they are communally comprehensible. Despite widespread use of French language in West Africa and its influence on other African languages, Wolof dialects remained though with little borrowings. The characteristic contributes to little chances in the transformation of the language.

Works Cited Campbell, George. Compendium of the World’s Languages. London, Routledge, 2000. Print.

Comrie, Benard. The World’s Major Languages. New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.

Gamble, David. Elementary Gambian Wolof Grammar. Brisbane, CA, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 2001. Print.

Garry, Jane and Carl Rubino. Facts about the World’s Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World’s Major Languages, Past and Present. New York, The H. W. Wilson Company, 2001. Print.

Grimes, Barbara. Ethnologue, Languages of the World. Dallas, TX, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 2009. Print.

Ruhlen, Merritt. A Guide to the World’s Languages. London, Edward Arnold, 2007. Print.

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The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Term Paper best essay help: best essay help

The Great East Japan Earthquake happened on March 11, 2011 as a triple disaster. The earthquake was accompanied by a great tsunami given the high magnitude of the earthquake that reached 9.0 on the Ritcher scale.

The third disaster was the meltdown of a number of nuclear plants following the tsunami. Japan had never been hit by such a devastating earthquake before. Its effects were so immense that the tsunami that accompanied it spread as far as Antarctica. Moreover, the debris of the tsunami appears offshore in North America up to today (Oskin par. 2).

The Tohoku earthquake of 2011 occurred in a subduction zone. The subduction zone is the area where the tectonic plates slide over one another as illustrated in figure 1. The hotter side of one of the plates goes beneath the earth’s crust. An earthquake occurs because of slipping of the plates once they stick together. This is what happened during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Tate par. 1). The earthquake fault at Tohoku is characterized by two forms of patches.

Some patches of the fault slide smoothly, while others stick. Moreover, the Pacific plate goes beneath the Eurasian plate. A lot of pressure had built up over many centuries below these plates. There was a rupture in the fault, leading to the release of the built up pressure. There was a quick shift in the fault’s deeper part. However, the shallow part shifted at a slower pace during the subduction process.

The sliding of the continental plate over the Pacific Ocean plate happened over a distance of about 80 meters. The earthquake occurred as a result of release of the build up pressure. The sea floor ended up being lifted by about 10 meters after the earthquake, causing the seawater to be displaced vertically (Tate par. 2). This resulted in a tsunami that spread from the epicenter of the earthquake as shown in figure 1.

Source: Tate (par. 1)

The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 occurred at a depth of 15.2 miles in a duration of about six minutes. The 9.0 magnitude earthquake had an epicenter of about 80 miles in Sendai City that is in Tohoku region. The powerful earthquake led to a shift of the Earth by about 10-25 centimeters on its axis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was a shortening of the day by duration of about a microsecond (Oskin par. 3). In addition, there was a 2.4 meters shift of the island of Honshu to the east. A series of aftershocks hit Japan later, with the first day after the tragedy seeing at least 50 aftershocks.

To date, more than one thousand aftershocks have hit Japan. The aftershocks have been strong enough to trigger tsunamis given that the least aftershock recorded is magnitude of 6.3. There was a slide in the Pacific plate by about 24 meters to the west close to the epicenter. The seismic waves reached the Antarctica and jolted the Whillans Ice Stream by approximately 0.5 meters. Moreover, there was a 2 foot drop in the Honshu coastline.

The coastlines of Tohoku and the south of Hokkaido were hit by a severe tsunami following the earthquake. The tsunami was as high as 38 meters and its effects spread further inland to a distance of more than 500 km. The tsunami is said to have led to most of the more than 15,848 deaths that were caused by the earthquake. Approximately 300,000 people remain internally displaced following the earthquake and the tsunami.

Among the worst effects of the earthquake, other than the loss of lives, was the destruction of the nuclear plants. Some nuclear plants like the Fukushima Daiichi underwent a meltdown of level 7 due to malfunctioning of the cooling systems (Oskin par. 4). The radioactive substances from the nuclear plants spread into the environment, with water contamination being the most evident nuclear contamination up to today.

The health care system and the health statuses of individuals in Japan were shaken immensely following the earthquake tragedy. There was total destruction of at least 3 hospitals in the Itwate Prefecture (Nohara par. 14).

A study conducted by Yamanda et al. (par. 5) revealed that the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in a society that was largely characterized by an aging population. Consequently, high numbers of the elderly were admitted with respiratory diseases like pneumonia due to the harsh living conditions they experienced following the disaster. Utilities like water and electric power were halted. It took time to restore these utilities.

Transportation in the coastal areas came to a standstill. The economy suffered at least $360 billion directed towards the disaster, making the economy of Japan continue to perform dismally since the disaster. For instance, it is estimated that trade deficits amounted to 78 billion dollars in 2012 (Ferris and Solis par. 2).

We will write a custom Term Paper on The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Fukushima nuclear disaster that followed the tsunami triggered the formation of a citizen movement that advocated for an end to nuclear power production. The earthquake also unified the Japanese as they came to the rescue of those affected. Volunteerism, especially through NGOS, was also sparked by the disaster (Ferris and Solis par. 3).

In addition, the government of Japan established stricter rules to oversee the safety of nuclear power plants. These restrictions have seen Japan’s economy suffer immensely because it mainly relies on nuclear power.

Works Cited Ferris, E., and Mireya S. “Earthquake, Tsunami, Meltdown – The Triple Disaster’s Impact on Japan, Impact on the World.” Brookings. 2013. Web.

Nohara, M. “Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake And Tsunami On Health, Medical Care and Public Health Systems In Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011.” Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal 2.4 (2011). Web.

Oskin, B. “Japan Earthquake

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Some tips for bloggers who consider video blogging – pros and cons and your advice on the matter Essay college application essay help

Video blogging, or vlogging, is the 21st century’s incarnation of the essay. Anyone with a webcam, laptop or a smart phone, can capture video of himself or herself holding forth on any topic they choose, singly or in interview. For some observers, this seems like the ultimate in narcissism: the ‘selfie’ taken to the next level.

For others, it is a liberating force that gives voice to many people with no other way to share their story, their opinion, or their knowledge, with the world. It is doubtless powerful, as is any visual medium. However, it can also be a risky step, requiring judicious and thoughtful consideration. Know what you are getting into before that little blue light flashes on! Consider the following issues carefully.

What do you want to accomplish by producing a vlog?

As with any piece of work involving words, it is crucial to know why you are creating and sharing it. What do you want to say? What do you want to happen as a result of saying this?

If you have not invested the thought to articulate this, your vlog risks sounding like a lame check-in video call with a relative or friend. ‘You just wanted to let them know something or other…but you can’t really remember what it was…and…so, yeah…ok, bye.’ Spare your prospective viewers, please.

Instead, begin by articulating the impact you want to have and on whom. Consider whether you wish to include a call to action (donate to disaster relief, craft candy wrapper bracelets, use better grammar, avoid brands that use slave child labor, or buy your services or product, for example). Write down in detail what you wish to convey, to avoid omitting critical points out and needing to re-record (being able to correct problems is the best feature of vlogging!).

Consider whether your message really fits with the media channel of vlogging. For example, an editor and writer might be better served by text-based promotion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While too many bloggers display deficient writing skills, it takes at least a few sentences of reading to arrive at this conclusion. Unfortunately, with video, a lack of skill or aptitude is instantly apparent.

Vlogging’s deceptive similarity to a personal conversation via, for example, Skype, makes it seem as simple as talking to a friend. On the contrary, to be effective, video blogging requires clarity, organization, calm confidence, and good fidelity. This visual medium brutally reinforces any tics, speech idiosyncrasies, or hesitancy.

Be honest with yourself about this.

Do you insert ‘um’, ‘er’, or nervous throat clearings throughout your paragraphs? Are you even aware that you need to speak with a paragraph structure in mind?

Does your sound volume trail off at the end of sentences? Do you swallow the terminus of most words? Are consonants optional?

Do you attach the words ‘like’ and ‘so’ to the beginning of most utterances? This irritating habit, infecting otherwise intelligent speakers in a vast array of professions and specialties, has even inspired its own satirical segment on comedian Harry Shearer’s radio program called Le Show.

Hesitation can be charming in small doses, and even endearing when it comes from a toddler; in an adult; on the contrary, it wears on the viewer very swiftly. Do you pause, halt, and release your thoughts in dribbles as though you are fearful of being associated with them?

We will write a custom Essay on Some tips for bloggers who consider video blogging – pros and cons and your advice on the matter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If you cannot certify your avoidance of all the above-mentioned speech issues, please wait before exposing yourself to public criticism in a vlog. Spend some time and effort practicing saying what you want to say with no interruptions or loss of volume or clarity before debuting yourself as a vlogger.

The alternative could be painful. No matter how innocuous the content or wording of a web posting, someone will rip it to shreds. This is exacerbated for any video posting. Do you want to expose yourself to this sort of hurtful message?

Consider as well that only those with a compatible device will be able to access your vlog. This may include most of your intended audience, but think about this before committing.

The most important risk to vlogging is your safety. The internet is wonderful because it connects people who might never have even known of each other’s existence. The internet is a potentially terrifying place for the same reason. In text blogging, your identity may, with enough effort and expertise, be discovered eventually.

In video blogging, your identity can be confirmed with even greater precision – visually! If you are vlogging about anything controversial, or even if your appearance or personal demographics trigger someone mentally unbalanced in some way, you could become a target.

Vlogging is a terrific tool for those who may be unable to get their message out to the world in any other way. It has the potential to instruct, bring people together, and mobilize effort on an enormous, in fact, nearly unlimited scale. It has risks, and it requires as much care and forethought as any piece of word craft.

Additionally, it asks of you that you present yourself as well as your ideas, which can take some practice and preparation. Do this, and you will command a powerful launching pad for your great ideas. Fortunately, there are tools to do so available for cheap or free

Good luck with vlogging!

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Managing your schools electronic waste Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Over the last few decades the life span of electronics has drastically reduced.Computers in 1996 had an average life span of around six years, today they have a lifespan of about two years. Phones have an even shorter period considering the number of Smartphone manufacturers who are always competing to produce the next best phone.

All that this leads to is massive amounts of electronic waste. Without proper management, electronic waste can lead to serious environmental damage. This paper will discuss various ways, in which your institution can manage its electronic wastes. (U.N.E.P)

One of the most effective ways of reducing the electronic waste in your school is to avoid buying electronics that you do not need. The consumer culture that has gripped the whole world does not only affect individuals, institutions are also guilty of purchasing electronics that they do not need. By ensuring only the essential things are bought, you reduce the amount of waste generated (Hieronymi, Kahhat,

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Information Privacy Research Paper college essay help

Information privacy is the privacy of personal information within organizations, and their attempts to define content of information stored on computer systems that third party can also access. Data masking, encryption, and authentication are some of the ways of protecting data from the public so that only authorized personnel can access such information (Rouse, 2013).

Organizations always use this aspect of information technology (IT) to increase confidentiality within the management in order to reduce vulnerability and exposure of their systems to unauthorized segment. Information on finance, medical data, criminal records, and business information are some of the personal data that require continuous privacy.

The United States, for instance, has different legislations on data privacy that deal with specific sectors given the different needs that emanate from them. Data usage by unauthorized persons is illegal in most parts of the globe. Therefore, concerned parties must come up with relevant protective measures to address the possibilities of such pieces of information of finding their way on the wrong hands.

Patients’ records are essential in managing health facilities by ensuring that they offer quality services to the clients. For instance, a patient’s medical history is essential in determining the types of medication to administer to the patient. Such data remain confidential, and should only be used for treatment purposes only. As a way of preventing information leakage, which may result in stigma to a patient, the management must ensure that pieces of information on all patients are kept securely to maintain confidentiality.

The US has the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) that ensures that patients’ data remain accessible only to the authorized segment of the staff. HIPAA uses electronic data interchange to give patients’ information unique identifiers that the unauthorized group cannot interpret. Users are given privileges under strict laws to access all medical records, and, at the same time, have to maintain data integrity and confidentiality on information that may lead to identification of a patient (Rouse, 2013).

Websites also have confidentiality policies that guide their service provision. Some organizations have put tracking measures in place to identify those accessing their websites for security purposes. For example, when one accesses such sites, the computer stores cookies automatically. This move prevents hacking of information by third parties as the organizations can trace all their users.

This issue of cyber security has been contentious, with opponents arguing that it is against the privacy policy to allow organizations to track their users through cookies. However, proponents hold that even though the move infringes on the privacy of the public, it has impressive impacts on guarding the security of organizations. That is, loss of data by an organization has great impacts on society as compared to tracking individuals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The US citizens use cyberspace to travel, power their homes, communicate, provide essential government services, and run their economy. The overreliance on the network has posed serious attacks thus causing more information vulnerability. Organizations should work towards limiting data breaches that may arise from information hacking. Using password-protected data is one way of improving the security of online data (Zhan, 2009).

Markedly, choice of passwords is key in limiting data loss. In cybercrimes, one does not need to break into a physical property to steal information or use force to access the materials. For example, bank frauds have been on the rise with the coming of this new technology.

In addition, cases of information confidentiality is worrying, as other internet savvy people can access such information, a recent example is the Wikileaks. These cases prompted US to pass legislations that could help in eradicating this menace. Since many departments and organizations use this modern technology, fighting the vices is a shared responsibility (Raab

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US Media representation of Saudi Arabia Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The US Media representation of Saudi Arabia

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The mainstream elite media such as Newsweek, The New York Times, CNN, CBS, NBC, Washington Post, Fox, and ABC are perceived by Arab world people as biased in addressing issues of foreign affairs with regard to the Islamic world.

Saudi Arabia is one of the Islamic countries that have always been scrutinized by the mainstream media in the United States. Many citizens of Saudi Arabia blame the US media for the American stereotypical representation of Arabs. This essay explores some of the recent US media representation about Saudi Arabia, and provides an insight into the effects of this aspect.

The US Media representation of Saudi Arabia In the last two years, the mainstream US media has portrayed Saudi Arabia as a country that does not value rights and freedoms of women (Subramanian 1). They majorly point out the Muslim laws and the Arab culture has the impediment of women empowerment and rights.

With reference to CNN, the arbitrary rules found in the Arab world restrict women’s freedom of putting on what they want (Ghitis par. 3). They are also denied the right to drive cars. This report was carried exclusively by CNN and ABC news in October and November 2013.

The New York Times refers to Saudi Arabia as the only country in the world that does not allow its women to drive (Hubbard par. 5). This media reflection of the women’s rights in Saudi Arabia is positive, especially to our women who have been treated unjustly by culture and religion (Ghitis par. 4). This is positive reporting from the US media. However, on a negative note, the media are representing Saudi Arabia as a nation that does not respect women’s rights.

Politics and democracy is another important issue that the United States has highlighted about Saudi Arabia. The New York Times depicts Saudi Arabia as a monarchy covenant and as an impediment to democracy. Khashoggi (2012) points out that the monarchical system of government denies the population the rate to vote and elect their leaders (Khashoggi par. 2).

In regional politics, Saudi Arabia is reflected as a nation that prefers to work behind the scenes with a selfish agenda of promoting their vision. In his article, Tom Philips (CNN) argues that Saudi has always been at the forefront in pushing for Gulf regional stability (Phillips par. 3). This is a positive observation of the American media. However, due to its domestic, political, and democratic systems, the reason behind its push for regional integration is to take top slots.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States media portray Saudi as a good business destination in the Middle East. It acknowledges that the country is the world’s most developing and the growing economy (“Business culture in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia” par. 3). The CNN report owes this to excellent business culture, business code and management style. This is a big compliment by the United States media on Saudi Arabia.

The US media has been behind the stereotypical representation of Saudi and the entire Arabs (Phillips par. 5). This has always been negatively perceived though not very true. This has led to the Arabs being depicted as people who care less about human rights, undemocratic, and always under the confines of religion (Hubbard par. 3). This indeed has resulted in negative attitudes of the American people towards Saudi Arabia and its citizens.

Conclusion Media plays a major role in developing stereotypes. This is evident in the manner in which the American mainstream media have represented Saudi Arabia. The US media has demonized Saudi Arabia in matters ranging including culture, human rights, and politics. However, in economic terms, Saudi Arabia has been well represented by the American media.

Works Cited “Business culture in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia”. CNN, May 27, 2013. Web.

Ghitis, Frida. “Don’t tell Muslim women what to wear“. CNN, November 3 2013. Web.

Hubbard, Ben. “Saudi women rise up, quietly, and slide into the driver’s seat.” New York Times, 27 Oct. 2013: 6.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “The Saudi King Never Promised Democracy“. New York Times, August 29, 2012. New York Times, Web.

We will write a custom Essay on US Media representation of Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phillips, Tom. “What’s got into the Saudis?”. CNN, October 19, 2013. Web.

Subramanian, Courtney. “Saudi women fined In protest on driving ban.” Time.Com (2013): 1.

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The human rights in the USA and around the world Term Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Definition and Explication of the Human Rights

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Nowadays, we live in the world, in which the most of the leading countries declare the supremacy of law based on the democratic values and the human rights. However, the discussions of the problem of the human rights protection are still urgent in the society. The cases of their violations do still occur in the modern world.

The aim of this essay is to discuss the problem of human rights in the USA and all over the world.

The Definition and Explication of the Human Rights Various organizations as well as the individual scholars explain the term of the human rights from their own point of view. Many of them describe it in context of the issues actual for the society of their native countries. The United Nations Organization proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10 December 1948 (“Universal Declaration” n.pag.).

The document was signed one year after the end of the World War II, when the mankind was concerned about the recovery of the social well-being and about the prevention of the repeat of the terrible events of the WWII in the future. The document laid the foundations of the law protection of the human rights.

The first article of the Declaration states, “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood” (“The Universal Declaration” n.pag.). The text of the document supports the highest human values and encourages people to behave ethically in relation to each other.

However, we know from history that the simple declaration of the human rights is not enough to make the society free from the bias, hate, and violence. The racial discrimination in the United States was the obvious example in this respect. The decades were necessary to overcome it.

The activity of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL), which is responsible for the protection of the human rights in the United States, is based on the following key principles: striving to learn the truth and state the facts, taking consistent positions, and facilitating and supporting partnerships (“Human Rights” n.pag.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The human rights are often supported by the legal documents of the international law and the local law of the particular countries. The individual rights in the US were firstly proclaimed and legally documented in the Declaration of Independence of 1776, which was written by Tomas Jefferson (“A Brief History” n.pag.).

However, the struggle for the human rights and other democratic values did not stop at that time. Nowadays, the US Constitution guarantees the human rights to every citizen and it maintains them as the legal rights (Dowling p.96). Their realization is the responsibility of the US government. Many human rights movements strive to monitor the realization of human rights and make public aware of the cases of their violations.

Conclusion In order to sum up all above mentioned, it should be said that the human rights are the vital element of the jural state. They are supported by the numerous legal documents. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed after the WWII. It proclaims the highest values including the personal freedom and the equality of rights for all. In the US, the human rights are guaranteed by the US Constitution.

Works Cited “A Brief History of Human Rights”. Humanrights.com. 2013. Web.

Dowling, Noel T. “Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.” Essential Human Rights 243 (1946): 96-100. Print.

“Human Rights”. State.gov. n.d. Web.

“The Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. Un.org. n.d. Web.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The human rights in the USA and around the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. Ohchr.org. 2012. Web.

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The Second Coming Explicatory Essay college essay help

William Butler Yeats is thought to be one of the most admired poets. “The Second Coming” is a masterpiece that leaves the reader wondering what is truly meant by the poem. The title suggests that the content is positive, relating to religion and saving of people. But at the same time, there is a sense of controversy because of the unordinary nature of the title and the way the words are related to each other.

It seems to have sarcastic and dark nature, even though the words are not apparent in this regard. The first lines start from afar “Turning and turning in the widening gyre”, supposing no escape from what is to come, and the totally consuming force that cannot be stopped (Yeats, 1996). It is something grandeur and incomprehensible by humans, as they are too small to grasp the concept and emotion.

The poem continues as a dream like state where the author seems to imagine or even see the future and the disasters to come. It is almost a display of the end of his world, as he knows it. Next lines talk about the “drowning of innocence”, and this represents the modernity where people are losing morality and ethics.

The perversion is spreading at an ever increasing rate, and people do not even notice how detrimental it has become to the society. The line “The best lack all conviction, while the worst are full of passionate intensity” means that people who are kind and helping cannot find the will to continue, as they see the devastation and suffer at heart (Yeats, 1996).

This shows that there is only a small amount of people who are honorable and ethical. In contrast, those people who are evil, criminal and cruel are happy that the world is ending, conditions are worsening and good people are becoming extinct. This adds joy to their dark heart and so, they are shown to display feelings of “intensity” (Yeats, 1996).

Yeats continues by saying that “The Second Coming” is getting nearer and makes a connection to religion. It is obvious that those who believe in the “Second Coming” of Jesus Christ will be happy and will expect things to get worse before getting better. But in reality, Yeats is talking about the coming of evil, saying that religion will not help.

He makes a link to the desert and “The Sphinx” who stares at the world and, has no feeling in the eyes. The ending confirms that the dark times are coming, and a reference is made to the time passing, and the beast being unmoved by the evil that was and is going on. In such an atmosphere, a part of the psyche is traumatized, but the author is forced to resort to this sort of activity in order to predict and warn people (Smith, 1990).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major theme of the poem is that appearances are deceiving and those people who will not learn from the past and the pain will bring darkness. The predictions and facts are not straight forward and leave a lot to the imagination. From one point of view it is a good technique because it does not draw concrete lines for the reader but lets the individual imagine the scene and setting. It is also richer because everyone will create their own picture and this will lead to a more personal relationship towards the poem.

References Smith, S. (1990). W.B. Yeats: A Critical Introduction. Lanham, MD. Rowman

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W.B.Yeats: Writing Style essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Yeats’ Poetic Style

Conclusion

References

Introduction Each poem is very individual and unique. There are many types of rhythms, tones, language uses, and the general structure. Everyone reflects a particular feeling felt or thought of by the poet. It is a reflection of the personal philosophy, understanding of life, and others. This essay describes the writing style of William Butler Yeats. His poetic style is believed to be one of the most memorable ones that can be analyzed.

William Yeats is one of the key figures of the 20th-century literature. Born in the middle of the 19th century, he is still considered to be a modern and up-to-date poet. The biography of William B.Yeats is quite interesting. Having renounced the transcendental beliefs of his youth, in his later years Yeats turned out to become a politician. He served two terms as a Senator of the Irish Free State. Yates’ works gained recognition during his lifetime. In 1983, he got a Nobel Prize in Literature.

Yeats’ Poetic Style Yeats’ famous poems feature a unique and very distinct poetic style. W. B. Yeats was a great poet who deserves a place among other famous artists. The specific characteristics of his type of poetry originality come from the spontaneous nature of the poem, and the use of alteration and substitution.

In the first one, spontaneity adds a surprise to the verse and leaves the reader wondering what will come next. As it is always a process of discovery, the poem becomes even more intriguing and unexpected. In the second method of writing, using alteration and substitution gives the ability to percept various meanings and concepts (Unterecker, 1996).

The writing style in Yeats’ poems was much different in the beginning, comparing to the later one. It is nostalgic, having a much laid back structure and appearance. It related more to the older language and the times when poems had a much different development level. After some time, Yeats’ style of writing changed and became more modernized. It gained many directions and became very precise and specific.

Whereas previously, his poetry was more “poetic,” it changed into being “to the point,” accurate and intense. Yeats’ poetic style provided very rhythmic and structured order and sounding. It was very vigorous and direct, which left no room for hesitation and interpretation.

The use of language in Yeats’ poems is very confident and passionate at the same time. The words are very definitive and have the power to draw attention and force understanding. The use of affectionate words adds color and energy to the poems. The functionality of language and especially the subject matter became predominant throughout.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was a form of philosophy that aimed to educate the deeper parts of the human psyche. Even when the subject was related to passion, celebration, nostalgia, or calmness, it was still straightforward. As such, a concrete organization has become instrumental when using metaphors. Exaggeration and hyperboles started to appear more often, defining the poetic style as overdramatic and distrustful (Chaudhry, 2001).

Yeats’ style is very contrasting to that of Shakespeare’s. Even though there are a lot of unexpected turns, the language is much more direct. Shakespeare often uses an indirect approach, and then, the meaning appears to come together from several pieces. Yeats’ style of poetry is crisper, so the meaning is received quickly and without hesitation.

As such, a lot of information can be grasped by the reader, and the picture will be more logical and organized. Some poems have very shortened verses, and this gives a rapid rhythm to a poem. It keeps a person at the moment, inspiring to action and a clear way of thinking. One can see that from the quote below:

That fool, all foul and pitifully looking

Dost thou not learn how to correctly dance?

If ye has chosen entertainer’s fate

That taken kindness from your unresolved inside?

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Theories of the Language Evolution Report writing essay help: writing essay help

It is not certain when language was originally evolved. It is a subject that has not yet reached any consensus, even though scholars have been trying hard to draw inferences from various indications.

One of the theories of the language evolution suggests that during the prehistoric era, language evolved as an adaptation to change; a change that meant better survival and enhanced understanding of the surroundings. Therefore, according to this theory, language was a source of survival; to communicate, to hunt, and to defend (Bryant, n.d., para. 2).

All living things (animals, birds, etc.) communicate with each other using their own methods of communication. Then, how was language important for the survival of human beings? Iit should be understood that language has made all the difference. It has made the human beings superior than other living beings. Other living things have not made any developments, but people have gone way ahead and this has been possible by virtue of language.

Language does not simply mean to communicate. It should be mentioned that the mute can also interact. So how is language different? How does it help human beings? The world that one sees today was not the same. There have been tremendous innovations, inventions, and developments that have steered mankind to this stage.

Businesses and finances have increased and so have the living standards. Talking of innovations, all these have been possible by virtue of the facilitation provided by language. With the help of language, important and confidential information could be transferred without any risk of landing in wrong hands. Planning for the future could be done with ease.

No one is perfect and as such, people made mistakes in the past and language was the medium through which such mistakes were passed over the years. People learned from these mistakes and rectified them. There are some important decisions that have to be made for the betterment of the society or the world.

Such decisions cannot be taken individually and have to be discussed in order to arrive at some concrete decision; again, language is the medium. One cannot explain his/her point of view by simple gestures. In addition, human beings have faith in some religion and no religion preaches bad things. It is crucial to spread such teachings but without language, this would not be possible. Even if people want to spread the teachings of any particular language by way of books or art (paintings), these are a sort of language as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In today’s world, business plays a vital role, whether people are employed or have their own business. There are many corporate houses that were small businesses earlier. However, by the virtue of language, such businesses have been able to communicate with people worldwide and expand their businesses.

Furthermore, businesses have also been able to sustain the competitive markets by having up-to-date information about their competitors; again by virtue of language (Importance of language, n.d., para. 5). During this data collection, I was able to acquire information about the evolution of language and various advantages that language has bestowed upon human beings.

Following is the conversation (numbered for the ease of explanation):

In this particular conversation, numbers 1 and 2 do not need any displacement, except the names. Then, again numbers 3, 4, 5, and 6 do not need any displacement. Even chimps can communicate/understand such things.

Number 7 is not possible without body language. Numbers 8 and 9 do not need any displacement because even chimps can make one understand that they want to play carom board and the word “great” can be rendered with a simple thumbs-up gesture. Finally, numbers 10, 11, and 12 need displacement because they involve certain things that cannot be explained in gestures or by chimps.

During this conversation, by virtue of language, I was able to gather the following information:

Smith was feeling better but was still under medication.

Smith liked to play carom board that evening.

Smith’s sister was planning to visit a friend’s home with Anne.

Smith was able to know that Anne was in the classroom.

We will write a custom Report on Theories of the Language Evolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Bryant, C. (n.d.). How did language evolve? Retrieved from https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/language-evolve.htm

Importance of language. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.importanceoflanguages.com/

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Evaluation of Devices Used To Enhance Texts Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Text enhancement devices such as spelling, grammar, and plagiarism checkers help writers discover some of their own typos and evade plagiarism. These devices discover fault so promptly and ably that proofreading a document might seem useless. However, these text-enhancement devices are not perfect. It is obliging to combine using these devices with manual editing to achieve the best quality text within the shortest duration possible.

Nevertheless, proofreading cannot detect plagiarism. Since plagiarism is a grave academic offence, it is essential to understand the cons and pros of plagiarism checking devices. Experts and students have to depend on automated plagiarism detection devices, such as plagiarism.org and EVE, to find out the originality of their papers. However, given the weaknesses of most plagiarism checkers, it is impossible to depend entirely on the automated devices.

The author of the article under review, Andy Dehnart, had a negative experience when they used plagiarism.org. They noted the imperfection of the device when it reported they had plagiarist a 30-page thesis, which was an original content.

The author says, “(the checker)…had just discovered a copy of my own thesis online. Instead of realizing it was my work and ignoring it, the service had accused me of plagiarism.” Dehnart argues that the plagiarism checker embraces an odd way of doing business by announcing the crime and leaving the recipient of the report to analysis whether the outcome is justified or not.

The device puts students at risk of facing dare legal and academic consequences, if professors and other stakeholders in education fail to investigate the reports’ charges with objectivity. The author notes,”… a false reading or a misinterpretation of the results have some pretty ugly consequences.” These consequences according to the author range from suspension from school to expulsions.

Apart from the inability to recognize authors, plagiarism.org cannot detect some cases of lack of originality in a text. It only flag cases of gross plagiarism. However, some checkers flag legitimate excerpts, as well. ” But a quick check showed that the indicated sentences were all legitimate excerpts…with quotation marks and citing sources.” Dehnart says. The inability to detect whether the author has cited a text properly is a common weakness of most text enhancing devices.

However, despite the weaknesses of the plagiarism-checking device, it also plays a crucial role in enhancing texts. Experts say that plagiarism.org is an effective informational tool that enables professors to find out whether students use quotation marks properly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It also helps professors to evaluate the percentage of text that the student has directly quoted from other sources. Using manual methods of searching through files has been prohibitively time-consuming. When professors use the automated device properly, they save time and detect levels of plagiarism that human efforts alone cannot detect.

Plagiarism.org contributes significantly to the reduction of academic cheating cases. According to creators of plagiarism.org, the device has discouraged students from downloading and submitting to professors their peers’ work as their own.

Given the scope of success of the device regarding stopping or reducing cheating cases in schools, the technological tool is a solution to the challenge the Internet was breeding. The effectiveness of the plagiarism checker has led to the increase in popularity of the technology. The author of the article under review states,” To date, (the checker)… has been used … by hundreds of individual instructors around the globe.”

Additionally, plagiarism.org is useful for verify whether a student has cheated. According to the author, when students understand that there are mechanisms for detecting plagiarism, they work hard to generate original content and avoid punishment. The use of the checker makes it easy for students to confess if they have presented another person’s work.

Apart from plagarism.org, EVE is another commonly used text enhancement device. It is also imperfect. Despite that the device offers exceptional searching power, it lacks usability and interface. The software cannot provide side-by-side comparison on a paper and match texts it locates from other sources. It provides URLs for sites where it has found matching materials. EVE leaves the task of determining what the author actually plagiarised to the user.

Spelling and grammar checkers also have problems. They do not recognise some proper nouns and the meaning of words or sentences in context. Further, they do not remove negative words even if their use changes the meaning of the sentence to what the user never intended. Spell-check and grammar-check devices do not teach spelling and grammar concepts.

Notably, all automated grammar, spelling, and plagiarism-checking devices only improve text if the user understands what they want. Professors should evaluate and interpret reports that these devices generate.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Evaluation of Devices Used To Enhance Texts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of the paper that the author of the article submitted, there was no plagiarism. If the professor had no competence on plagiarism detection, the college would have expelled the student from school. Therefore, despite the essentiality of text enhancement devices, nothing can entirely substitute the observant eyes of human beings.

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Medicare and the Affordable Care Act Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Affordable Care Act

Conclusion

References

Introduction There has been a lot of attention from the media with regard to the recent Affordable Care Act in the United States. Little focus is given to how the new Act is going to affect the young and elderly receiving Medicare. This paper takes a critical look at the Affordable Care Act with an aim of analyzing its affordability, benefits, and quality as well as other key features.

Affordable Care Act The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is the new law based on reforms in the United States health care. It refers to two separate Acts which are Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act 2010 (Rosenbaum, 2011). This Act gives an expanded Medicaid coverage to low-income Americans. The ACA provides access to care by providing coverage needed for the American citizens.

Once rolled in 2014, the ACA will allow millions of American individuals and families to access subsidized insurance coverage. The Act provides lower costs of insurance coverage, and makes insurers more accountable by setting standards be met (Rosenbaum, 2011). Furthermore, the act guarantees coverage for pregnancy and disability, or other pre-existing conditions.

The law gives Americans more access to insurance coverage as well as safe-guarding their rights. The legislation also removes dollar limits on the coverage and prohibits insurers from dropping coverage when individuals get sick on an unintentional application (Rosenbaum, 2011).

The Act also allows Americans to make appeals on insurers’ coverage decisions and allows individuals to take control over their health care issues. It sets new coverage options for young adults, senior adults, women, businesses, families with children, and people with disability. In addition to the above insurance related benefits, the ACA provides essential medical benefits such as preventive care, doctor visits, hospitalization, and prescriptions (Rosenbaum, 2011).

The ACA is projected to make Medicare more fiscally efficient through the application of cost savings. The law provides incentives to health care providers so that they can formulate strategies to provide high quality health care, and eliminate costs, wastes, and abuses in the Medicare (Family USA, n.d.). The Act will ensure that beneficiaries pay and receive high quality medical care. To achieve this, the law reins on unnecessary spending by health providers.

These reforms will save Medicare billions of dollars. The Act imposes financial penalties on hospitals when a patient acquires infections from the hospitals (Family USA, n.d.). This move will improve hospital care and save money spent on paying for health care. Finally, the Act will improve the health care delivery efficiency, by reducing wastages within the system. Therefore, the high quality care and efficiency created by the new law are among the many methods through which the Act is fiscally efficient (Family USA, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The opponents of the ACA point at a number of issues about the consequences of the new legislation on the Medicare program. First, they argue that the law will reduce the autonomy of physicians, and hence reduce job satisfaction (Williams, 2013). The consequence of which they believe will be passed on to the patients.

They foresee patients being restricted from accessing, or having to wait for long for appointments, and receiving rationed health care services (Williams, 2013). They regard the Act as having negative impacts on jobs and the overall economy. They argue that the price controls imposed by the legislation on Medicare will be a disincentive to in the medical sector, thereby reducing investment in health care (Williams, 2013).

On the other hand, the proponents argue that this framework increases access to affordable Medicare for millions of low-income Americans and increases the provision of quality Medicare in a more pragmatic and efficient way (Family USA, n.d.). In particular, the proponents of the ACA point out that it gives people the liberty to take charge of their own health matters.

This gives autonomy to the beneficiaries to plan for their health issues instead of leaving it at the discretion of the insurers and health providers (Family USA, n.d.). Additionally, the proponents also point out that the ACA introduces the culture of prevention by encouraging beneficiaries to work together with physicians and caregivers in order to reduce health costs through adequate preventive measures (Family USA, n.d.).

The ACA will strengthen the Medicare program in the country. First, the Act’s top priority is fighting fraud in the Medicare program that has inhibited the delivery of quality health care to many Americans. Secondly, the legislation guarantees many benefits to many Americans who have been denied access to Medicare for a long time through discriminatory tactics.

Finally, the Act reforms the Medicare program by offering medical providers with new incentives to improve the quality, as well as eliminate costs and abuse to preserve the benefits for all Americans.

Conclusion The ACA was enacted with a primary purpose of increasing access to Medicare for millions of Americans. The law has received a lot of attention from the media due to the arguments leveled for or against it.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Medicare and the Affordable Care Act specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Proponents argue that the Act is a landmark reform in the Medicare program that guarantees access to affordable and quality medical care to all in the United States hence benefiting many low-income Americans. On the other hand, opponents argue that the reduction of the autonomy of health providers and physicians, works negatively against the economy. These arguments can be proved early next year when the Act will be enforced.

References Family USA. A Summary of the, Health Reform Law. Web.

Rosenbaum, S. (2011). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: implications for public health policy and practice. Public Health Reports, 126(1), 130-135.

Williams, A. (2013). Why are we against the Affordable Care Act? New York Amsterdam News. Web.

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Procurement Strategies for Companies when Encountering Natural Disasters Case Study best college essay help

Introduction The concept of procurement directly relates to the process of acquiring goods or services whether (raw or manufactured) in a way that enables a company to meet the needs of its clientele in terms of the quality of the product and quantity it is needed in.

Through the analysis of ( ), it can be seen that procurement is an essential process in all company operations since not all companies are able to extract raw materials, are capable of processing it into different components and have the capacity to assemble it into a viable product. It is based on this that when examining the manufacturing industry as a while it can be divided into 3 distinct types of companies:

A raw materials supplier

A components manufacturer

End product manufacturer

Manufacturing industry supply chain progression Companies are separated into these distinct categories based on the need to focus on a type of a specialization that they are good at rather than attempting to diversify itself into all aspects that go into creating a finished product. By doing so, this enables a company to significantly reduce its cost of operations while increasing its capacity to be able to develop better product types.

Process in creating a finished product A finished product can this be considered as the culmination of a company utilizing different suppliers and using its own manufacturing processes to create products to be sold. For example, one of the most popular gadgets that has been sold within the past 5 years has been the Apple iPad, yet, the company itself merely sourced the materials needed in its constructions from other companies within its supply chain

iPads are primarily manufactured in China by Foxconn (one of the largest electronic manufacturers in the world) with each individual part being purchased from different parts suppliers.

The processor utilized within the tablet was purchased from Intel, the motherboard was bought from local suppliers in Taiwan, the memory components that go into it were from suppliers in China, and the solid state hard drive was from Seagate. In essence, nearly every single part that went into you average Apple was the result of procuring individual product components from a robust supply chain.

Process Components Involved in the Development of the iPad The parts manufacturers involved in the process of creating an iPad in turn sourced the needed materials that went into their own products from their own raw material suppliers as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This process is known as a procurement supply chain that starts from raw material suppliers and ends with the final product on the shelves of a store. Do note though that this procurement supply chain is not primarily limited to consumer electronics, it can also include manufactured agricultural goods and most of the everyday items that people see around their home.

The reason this is being brought up is due to the fact that while each type of product has its own manufacturing process and supply chain, all of them have the same characteristic in that they depend on the integrity and reliability of their respective procurement supply chains in order for their product to be created (Shuguang, 2010).

Supply Chain Concept Due to the necessity of reliability in the provision of raw materials and equipment, this immediately brings up the question of what would happen a supply chain should an integral link in the process be removed due to an unforeseen external event (Shuguang, 2010). The end result would of course be obvious, the total and subsequent collapse of the chain which would prevent a product from being completed.

What must be understood is that the inherent problems with doing business in the current global system is the fact that unforeseen circumstances such as natural disasters have severe ramifications on the supply chains for most corporations.

Analysis Method Diagram Production processes are vulnerable due to their dependence on a continuous stream of raw materials and components (Stecke

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Writer’s Choice Essay custom essay help

Read the case “Eastern Bank: Innovating through Eastern Labs”, available to order in our HBP coursepack, and this week’s assigned readings. What are the pros and cons of Eastern Bank’s digital transformation strategy? In your answer, try to discuss whether the strategy helped the bank to create and/or appropriate value in a novel way and the implementation of the digital transformation.

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Extra Credit Work Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Discussion

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction The art objects are frequently used by the companies to advertise their products. Budweiser, the Czech bear producer, launched its new commercial How Venus de Milo Lost Her Arms? with the intention to introduce his new mark of bear “BudLight”. The statue of Venus de Milo takes an important place in the commercial. The aim of this essay is to discuss why the company used this art object for the commercial purposes.

The Discussion I guess Budweiser used the statue of Venus de Milo in its commercial for several reasons. One of them is connected with the differentiation of the commercial among the others broadcasted on the TV. The aim of the advertising is to draw attention of the target audience but the achievement of this goal becomes more and more difficult because the consumers are overloaded with the plenty of different commercials and advertisements.

The marketing specialists try to use different techniques to compete successfully. The interesting plot represents an important element, which allows making the commercial stand out. The video How Venus de Milo Lost Her Arms? is interesting from the point of view of its main theme and funny plot.

In addition, the plot of the video unfolds in the Ancient Greece and, by using the antique art object, the creators indicate the time and place of the showed event. Taking into account that Venus de Milo is, perhaps, the most famous sculpture of the Antique Greece, its use in the commercial is logical.

It immediately tells the watchers about the information, which the creators aim to bring to the target audience. Due to the fact that “BudLight” targets the broad market segment, the use of some other, less known art object has seemed unreasonable. In this respect, Venus de Milo has been the perfect choice as everyone knows it.

Finally, the statue of Venus de Milo is used in the commercial in order to make the consumers memorize it and the product, which it promotes. It is used in the video to uncover its irony. According to the results of the recent marketing survey, the consumers tend to memorize those products better, which they consider as funny[1].

The commercial shows the scene when the Ancient Greeks, the master and his students, admire the statue of Venus de Milo. One of the students tells, “She is absolutely perfect[2].” The master adds that the bottles of “Budlight” , which she holds in her hands, are what make her the best. Then, the students tore the bottles from her hands and broke the arms. The advertisers use the slogan “Great taste. Great times”. Undoubtedly, they try to say the “BudLight” is for people with the great taste, who can value it as the art object.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion In order to sum up all above mentioned, it should be said that the commercial How Venus de Milo Lost Her Arms? uses the statue of Venus de Milo in order to draw the attention of the potential consumers. The art object helps to uncover the funny plot of the video and to make people associate the product with the great taste. I like this commercial and I guess it proves the fact that the art is the integral part of our life, we feel its impact every day as many companies use the art objects for the advertising of their products.

Bibliography “7 to 10 Consumers Believe Funny Ads Spur Better Product Recall”. Marketingcahrts.com. Web.

“How Venus de Milo lost Her Arms?”, YouTube Video, 0:31, posted by Myllyrinn3. Web.

Footnotes “7 to 10 Consumers Believe Funny Ads Spur Better Product Recall”. Marketingcahrts.com.

“How Venus de Milo Lost Her Arms?, YouTube Video, 0:31, posted by Lyllyrin3.

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Stepped Pyramids in Egypt Term Paper writing essay help

The Egyptian pyramids can be discussed as the biggest stone buildings constructed by the ordinary people living during the ancient times. Today, the Egyptian pyramids are examined by many scientists and architects as the examples of the unique ancient architecture and as the symbols of the Egyptian art.

Thus, the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom in Egypt were traditionally buried inside the tombs which were called ‘pyramids’ because of their specific form where four sides resembling triangles met at the top of the massive construction to point at the sky. It is important to note that the ancient Egyptians focused on constructing two typical forms of a pyramid which are known as the ‘step’ and ‘true’ pyramids. The first pyramids characterized by the ‘stepped’ form were built by the ancient Egyptians at Saqqara in 2650 B.C.E[1].

In spite of the fact that the design of the true pyramids is studied and described by researchers more actively, it is important to concentrate on the design characteristics of the first stepped pyramids in Egypt because of their great role for the development of the specific ancient Egyptian art and architecture styles.

The earliest stepped pyramid was built for the pharaoh Djoser or Zoser at Saqqara in 2650 B.C.E. The pyramid was constructed from the stone in order to be built for ever and to symbolize the power of the pharaoh. That is why, many people from all the country could see its six huge stone steps of 196 feet high (Fig. 1).

Before the first stepped pyramid was built for Djoser, the pharaohs had been buried in the tombs of a rectangular form which were known as mastabas. The mastabas were the huge stone structures built over the tomb. These structures were made of solid sun dried bricks[2]. The researchers note that the tomb for the pharaoh Djoser could also be developed as a mastaba, but some more rectangular mastabas were added to the previous construction in order to form the pyramid[3].

The design of the pyramid for the pharaoh Djoser was developed by the famous Egyptian philosopher, physician, and architect Imhotep or Imuthes. This prominent person was the minister of the pharaoh, and he contributed to the spread of the pharaoh’s reputation as the most culturally developed person in Egypt.

The idea of the minister’s authorship in relation to the design and construction of the pyramid is supported with the fact that Imhotep’s name is inscribed on the pedestal of the pharaoh’s statue, and this statue was found in the pharaoh’s tomb[4].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To understand the architectural process and the specific process of construction developed in the Ancient Egypt, it is necessary to focus on the procedures of the first stepped pyramid’s building. The first step was the process of clearing the desert plateau from the unnecessary sand. Thus, it was important to expose the flat surface hidden under the sand in order to provide the space for building.

The first pyramids had the underground part and the cone seen over the ground. That is why, the structures were built on the underlying limestone. It is important to pay attention to the fact that “a large pit was then quarried in the rock nearly 24 m deep, with a rock-hewn stairway leading down into it. The bottom of the pit was lined with granite quarried at the First Cataract, nearly a 800 km to the south”[5].

First of all, it was necessary to build the underground chambers and galleries. Thus, eleven large chambers, the stairway, and the passage which led to them “were then embedded in masonry up to the surface, and above them a great masonry was built, about 12 m high with side length of approximately 120 m”[6].

The form of the pyramid was achieved with the help of building the second smaller rectangle over the basic rectangular structure which formed the fundament of the pyramid. Then, the necessary third, fourth, fifth, and sixth rectangles were constructed and put on the fundament to finish the specific pyramid with the help of building its steps. Referring to the construction of pyramids, it is necessary to note that the main feature of pyramids is the possibility to face the four sides which can be pointed according to the compass[7][8].

The huge pyramids were never built in isolation from the other buildings. Thus, the ancient pyramids form significant architectural complexes which are important because of their cultural and social roles. Springer and Morris state that the pyramid built for the pharaoh Djoser is surrounded by many significant buildings where the most important ones are the North and South Pavilions, “large temples and terraces, carved facades, columns, platforms, shrines, chapels and life-sized statues.

The enclosure wall contains an area of 37 acres (almost 15 hectares), about the same size as a large town of those times”[9]. From this point, the first stepped pyramids had the significant art and cultural meaning for the ancient Egyptians because these architectural complexes reflected the aspects of the people’s religious and social life (Fig. 2).

If the process of building pyramids and associated temples and galleries was significant for ordinary ancient Egyptians to symbolize their devotion to the pharaoh as the God, the construction of pyramids was also significant for the pharaohs who tried to accentuate their power with the help of building huge tombs with a lot of secret chambers and passages[10][11].

We will write a custom Term Paper on Stepped Pyramids in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While discussing the shape of the tombs developed and constructed for the pharaohs, it is possible to assume that the shape of a stepped pyramid symbolized the steps to the heavens where the Egyptian pharaohs could find the source for the eternal life[12].

Furthermore, the form of a pyramid was also discussed as a special launch pad designed for the pharaohs to achieve the eternal life along with the other Egyptian gods at the heavens. That is why, the pyramids were built with the great mathematical accuracy in order to provide the pharaohs with the opportunities to achieve the heavens[13].

Although archeologists found several stepped pyramids in Egypt, the pyramid for the pharaoh Djoser at Saqqara is still discussed as the most significant example of the Egyptian architecture to conclude about the particular features of the ancient art and architectural design in Egypt.

According to the unique graffiti dated in relation to the period of the 19th Dynasty, Djoser was described by the Egyptians as the ‘opener of stone’ and as the possible founder and developer of the specific stone architecture, and this development was possible with the help of the pharaoh’s minister and architect Imhotep[14].

rom this perspective, the small step pyramid built for Ombos during the end of the 3rd Dynasty cannot be discussed as significant for the progress of the ancient art in Egypt in comparison with the pyramid designed by Imhotep[15].

To discuss the significance of the stepped pyramids for the art and culture developed by the Egyptians, it is appropriate to refer to the description of pyramids and their perfect forms provided by Schatz. Thus, Schatz states that the lines of pyramids can be discussed as rather simple, but they are perfectly aligned and connected with each other to state the interesting form of a cone. Furthermore, “a great deal of effort was exerted in their construction.

They are appealing, mysterious, and inspiring. They invoke a great deal of wonder. You can look at them 100 times and never see them the same way”[16]. The mysterious character of pyramids is accentuated with references to the idea that ordinary people living during the ancient times were not competent enough to develop and construct the mechanisms to transport the huge stone bricks in order to form the specific platforms or steps of the pyramids.

The stepped pyramids can be discussed as the vivid examples of the ancient art developed in Egypt in 2650 B.C.E. The pyramid built for the pharaoh Djoser at Saqqara can be described as the reflection of the Egyptians’ unique vision of the architectural forms and mechanisms which were used and followed to build the first stepped pyramid.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Stepped Pyramids in Egypt by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the approaches to build the ‘step’ and ‘true’ pyramids are different, the significant symbolic meaning of pyramids as the objects of art can be noticed with references to any Egyptian pyramid built in about 2650 B.C.E.

Endnotes Leon Gray, The New Cultural Atlas of Egypt (USA: Marshall Cavendish, 2010), 123.

Robin Derricourt, “Pyramidologies of Egypt: a Typological Review”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22, no. 3 (2012): 354.

Philip Steele, Ancient Egypt (USA: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009), 22.

Ibid., 22.

American University in Cairo, Egypt (USA: American University in Cairo Press, 2007), 17.

Ibid., 17.

James Allen, Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids (USA: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999), 11.

Miroslav Barta, “Location of the Old Kingdom Pyramids in Egypt”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15, no. 2 (2005): 177-179.

Lisa Springer and Neil Morris, Art and Culture of Ancient Egypt (USA: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010), 10.

David Koch, “Dating the Pyramids”, Archaeology 52, no. 5 (1999): 26-28.

Philip Steele, Ancient Egypt (USA: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009), 22.

Ibid., 22.

Robin Derricourt, “Pyramidologies of Egypt: a Typological Review”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22, no. 3 (2012): 355.

American University in Cairo, Egypt (USA: American University in Cairo Press, 2007), 17.

Leon Gray, The New Cultural Atlas of Egypt (USA: Marshall Cavendish, 2010), 96.

Florence Schatz, Ancient Egyptian Art – The Fun Way (USA: AuthorHouse, 2008), 44.

The List of Figures Figure 1. The Step Pyramid

Figure 2. The Complex of the Pyramid

Bibliography Allen, James. Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. USA: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999.

American University in Cairo. Egypt. USA: American University in Cairo Press, 2007.

Barta, Miroslav. “Location of the Old Kingdom Pyramids in Egypt”. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15, no. 2 (2005): 177–191.

Derricourt, Robin. “Pyramidologies of Egypt: a Typological Review”. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22, no. 3 (2012): 353–363.

Gray, Leon. The New Cultural Atlas of Egypt. USA: Marshall Cavendish, 2010.

Kleiner, Fred. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Concise History of Western Art. USA: Cengage Learning, 2012.

Koch, David. “Dating the Pyramids”. Archaeology 52, no. 5 (1999): 26-35.

Springer, Lisa, and Neil Morris. Art and Culture of Ancient Egypt. USA: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010.

Steele, Philip. Ancient Egypt. USA: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009.

Schatz, Florence. Ancient Egyptian Art – The Fun Way. USA: AuthorHouse, 2008.

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Domestic Violence against Women Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Prevalence of Domestic Violence against Women

The Effects on Child Development

The Health Effects on Women

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Domestic violence against women refers to “any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, and mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts as coercion” (Renzetti and Bergen 32).

Domestic violence against women is one of the oldest social and public health problems in the history of humanity. It began in the traditional society when women were subordinated to men. The culture of most communities in the pre-modern world considered women to be equal to children. Besides, most communities viewed women as men’s properties (Latchana 17).

As a result, women had very limited rights in the society. Men influenced nearly all aspects of women’s lives including their participation in economic activities, leadership, and social relationships such as marriage. This led to various forms of violence against women such as sexual harassment, deprivation of liberty, and physical abuse. For instance, battering was considered as a means of punishing errant women rather than a form of physical abuse. In the 1870s, men began to change their perception of women (McGee 34).

In the United States, the courts abolished the common-law principle that allowed men to punish their wives. Similarly, men’s right to punish their wives was abolished in the United Kingdom in 1891. The government and the civil society in virtually all countries are constantly campaigning against domestic violence against women. However, the prevalence of the problem is still very high.

The symptoms of domestic violence include insulting or calling a female spouse names, and preventing them from going to work or visiting their families. Other symptoms include inflicting physical pain, controlling how women expend their money, forcing women to have sex, and threatening them with violence. The risk factors associated with domestic violence against women include “low levels of income, witnessing family violence, antisocial personality disorder, and uncontrolled use of alcohol” (WHO).

Other risk factors include past history of violence, low levels of education, marital discord, and poor communication in relationships. Women with low levels of education are likely to tolerate domestic violence because of lack of adequate knowledge about their rights, or the measures that they can take to prevent the violence. Similarly, women with low-income levels are likely to tolerate domestic violence because they depend on men for their financial needs.

In addition, low self-esteem prevents women from reporting violence against them or quitting abusive relationships. Generally, domestic violence affects women in every country, race, ethnicity, and social class. Consequently, domestic violence against women should be taken seriously because it is increasing, it has negative effects on child development, and it adversely affects women’s health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Prevalence of Domestic Violence against Women The prevalence of domestic violence against women is on the rise despite the efforts made by governmental and non-governmental organizations to address it. At least 35% of women worldwide have experienced some or all forms of domestic violence (WHO).

Globally, nearly a “third of women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and or sexual violence by their intimate partner” (Latchana 72). The fatalities attributed to domestic violence against women is equally on the rise in nearly all parts of the world. Recent studies have indicated that domestic violence is one of the leading causes of murder among women worldwide.

In particular, domestic violence accounts for approximately 38% of the women murdered every year in various parts of the world (WHO). Undoubtedly, the prevalence of domestic violence against women is likely to be much higher than the figures reported in national or worldwide surveys. This perspective is supported by the fact that most women who are in abusive relationships do not report their plight to the police.

Besides, the circumstances under which national surveys are administered make abused women reluctant to admit that they have experienced domestic violence in their lifetime. For instance, during an interview a woman may deny having experienced domestic violence for fear of embarrassment. Domestic violence against women is on the rise because people tend to ignore it. In most societies including the United States, people tend to ignore domestic violence against women due to the following factors.

To begin with, domestic violence manifests itself in several ways that are sometimes difficult to identify. For instance, a simple emotional abuse that is followed by an apology by the man who commits it can easily be ignored even though it is a harmful form of domestic violence against a woman. The toll on women’s self-esteem increases with the longevity of their stay in abusive relationships (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 95-110).

In addition, women begin to feel helpless or defeated as they continue to stay in abusive relationships. In some cases, women with problems such as physical disability may feel dependent upon the men who abuse them. In this regard, women are likely to tolerate or fail to report their plight to the police. For women in same sex relationships, the tendency to ignore domestic violence is even more likely (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 95-110).

Women who are abused in same sex relationships hardly seek help because of their reluctance to disclose their sexual orientation. Even if they seek help, abused women in same sex relationships are likely to be ignored because of the belief that women cannot be violent to other women (Latchana 78). Generally, domestic violence against women is highly ignored in masculine societies where women are still considered inferior to men.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Domestic Violence against Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The prevalence of domestic violence against women has been disputed due to several reasons. People believe that the advancements in the United States’ legal system have adequately addressed the problem of domestic violence in the country (Renzetti and Bergen 112). In particular, the constitution has granted men and women equal rights. Thus, men can no longer dominate or abuse women without being punished through the legal system.

The increased empowerment of women through education, as well as, participation in leadership and economic activities is believed to have led to a decline in domestic violence against women (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 84). The gist of this argument is that women with high education and income security are less dependent on men. Thus, they are likely to quit abusive relationships or take legal action against their abusive partners (Enrique 536-537).

The argument that the legal system has adequately addressed the problem of domestic violence against women is misguided. Although the constitution protects women from domestic violence, legal assistance is still out of reach to many women (Latchana 83).

Several women, especially, among the low-income and ethnic minorities cannot afford legal services (Renzetti and Bergen 145). This makes them more vulnerable to domestic violence. Although empowering women is likely to reduce domestic violence, empirical evidence suggests otherwise.

For instance, women with very high educational achievement and financial income have always complained of domestic violence (WHO). Besides, factors such as the need to protect family name, personal image, and children force women to stay in abusive relationships despite their empowerment (Enrique 536-537). This explains the increase in cases of domestic violence despite the efforts made by the society to stop it.

The Effects on Child Development Children are negatively affected by domestic violence against women in several ways. To begin with, children often witness domestic violence directly as their parents engage in physical or verbal confrontations (WHO). In the United States, approximately 15 million children stay in homes where domestic violence occurs at least once a year (WHO). In this regard, children are secondary victims of domestic violence against women.

Consequently, they are likely to experience emotional and psychological harm as a result of living in homes where domestic violence occurs. Children who grow in families where domestic violence is rampant are likely to become abusive in adulthood (McGee 96). To elucidate, the children are likely to believe that violence against women is a normal way of settling differences in relationships. As a result, incidences of domestic violence against women will continue to rise.

Domestic violence against women is one of the major factors that contribute to the displacement of children from their homes. It is also one of the major causes of separation between children and their parents. In the United States, thousands of children are taken every year by organizations that provide shelter services to battered women.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Domestic Violence against Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, the shelter services deny the children the opportunity to live with both parents (Latchana 119). Undoubtedly, the presence of both parents is essential for child development. Thus, separating children from one or both of their parents because of domestic violence is detrimental to their development. Several studies have indicated that children who witness domestic violence are vulnerable to psychological disorders (WHO).

To elucidate, the children tend to be fearful and more aggressive than their counterparts who live in families where domestic violence does not occur. In addition, children who witness domestic violence are likely to experience high levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Children tend to believe that they are the cause of the abuses that occur in their homes. Moreover, they develop fear for their lives and that of their mothers if they cannot stop the violence.

As a result, they feel guilty and develop stress whenever domestic violence occurs in their homes. Children who witness domestic violence often exhibit symptoms of “post-traumatic disorders such as bed-wetting and nightmares” (McGee 103). In addition, the children are likely to develop medical conditions such as asthma, allergies, and migraines.

Children also become victims of domestic violence when their fathers use them to manipulate their mothers. For instance, a man can threaten to take custody or harm the children if his spouse informs the police of the abuse. This is likely to happen in a situation where the mother is likely to lose a legal suit to take custody of the children due to problems such as drug abuse. It also suggests that the fear of ruining children’s future is one of the main reasons why women tolerate domestic violence.

Several arguments have been advanced to counter the claim that domestic violence against women has adverse effects on children. One of the arguments is that the negative effects of child exposure to domestic violence are likely to reduce over time (McGee 121). Once the violence stops, children can be socialized to embrace peace rather than aggression.

In addition, emotional and psychological therapies can be used to help the children to manage the post-traumatic symptoms of domestic violence (Renzetti and Bergen 151). Babies and very young children lack the capacity to understand the significance of domestic violence (Latchana 65).

As a result, they are not likely to be affected even if they witness domestic violence against women in their homes. Understanding the effect of domestic violence on children is also difficult. For instance, several cases have been identified where children love their fathers and opt to stay with them despite abusing their mothers (McGee 124). This suggests that children either do not understand the significance of domestic violence or support their abusive fathers’ actions.

The argument that the effects of child exposure to violence reduces with time is not always true. Boys who live in homes where domestic violence is rampant tend to be abusive in adulthood irrespective of the time at which the violence stopped in their families (WHO).

This suggest that the passage of time and psychological therapies are not effective in helping children to cope with the effects of being exposed to violence at an early stage of development (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 95-110). In addition, the impacts of domestic violence on children tend to persist. Children are likely to remember traumatic domestic violence incidences in adulthood.

As a result, they are likely to develop stress or become abusive. Although babies and very young children lack the capacity to understand the significance of domestic violence, they are likely to learn the undesirable behaviors of their parents. Children often learn through imitation of their significant others. Consequently, they can adopt the violent acts of their fathers without understanding their significance.

The claim that children who opt to stay with their abusive fathers approve their abusive behaviors is misguided. Children can always be manipulated to love their parents through different ways such as giving them gifts (McGee 145). Thus, it is not correct to conclude that children approve their fathers’ violent behaviors by opting to live with them during separation.

The Health Effects on Women Domestic violence is one of the major causes of poor health among women worldwide. Apart from physical injuries, domestic violence can lead to chronic pain, and psychosomatic disorders. Domestic violence also causes several mental health problems among women. These include anxiety, depression, and stress (WHO).

Mental health problems such as depression often reduce the quality of life and women’s lifespan. They also reduce women’s productivity at work by causing severe mental and physical tiredness. The vulnerability of women to domestic violence increases during their pregnancy because of their perceived helplessness. For instance, a pregnant woman may opt to stay with an abusive partner for fear of losing the financial support that she requires to take care of the infant after delivery.

Domestic violence during pregnancy leads to medical complications and deaths. Several obstetric problems have been linked to domestic violence against women. In particular, women in abusive relationships have high chances of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI) (WHO). They are also vulnerable to vaginal, cervical and kidney infections (Renzetti and Bergen 156). These infections often lead to complications such as excessive bleeding during pregnancy.

The emotional imbalance associated with abuse during pregnancy often leads to delayed prenatal care and little or no postnatal care among women. This puts the lives of the pregnant women and their unborn babies at risk. The risk of miscarriage also increases with the increase in the severity of mental and emotional health problems such as stress and depression.

The high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among abused women is attributed to their lack of sexual autonomy (Latchana 114). Some men believe that marriage grants them unlimited access to sex with their spouses. Consequently, they use violence when their wives resist their sexual demands. Unfortunately, lack of sexual autonomy forces women to have unprotected sex with their spouses, thereby exposing them to sexually transmitted infections.

Moreover, lack of sexual autonomy leads to unwanted pregnancies, which in turn necessitate abortion. Women who are not able to afford medical services often procure unsafe abortion, which normally leads to reproductive health problems such destruction of the uterus. Unsafe abortion also leads to death among pregnant women. Generally, domestic violence is likely to cause death if it is repeated over a long time.

Physical injuries are the main causes of domestic violence related fatalities (Enrique 536-537). For instance, strangulation has been found to be the most preferred form of physical violence against women since it leaves little or no incriminating evidence on the victim. Unfortunately, strangulation increases the chances of death significantly.

Some scholars often dispute the severity of the health effects of domestic violence against women. They claim that emotional or psychological torture is the most common form of domestic violence against women (Renzetti and Bergen 172). Proponents of this perspective opine that psychological or emotional harm can hardly cause fatalities.

In addition, emotional problems such as stress are considered to be common in every relationship. This argument is based on the claim that every couple experiences some form of disagreements that may lead to stress (Bostock, Plumpton and Pratt 95-110). Consequently, the emotional problems caused by domestic violence against women can be addressed through the interventions that are commonly used to reduce normal stress.

Furthermore, women have always been blamed for worsening the health effects of domestic violence by failing to seek medical attention in time (Latchana 186). Women who feel embarrassed to discuss the causes of their injuries hardly seek medical attention. Consequently, their chances of dying because of the injuries caused during domestic violence increase.

The severity of the health effects of domestic violence against women has been illustrated in several studies. In the last three decades, medical research has showed that psychological torture is as harmful as physical injuries to women (Renzetti and Bergen 213). Since domestic violence can occur over a long period, abused women tend to experience very high stress.

Although stress and depression might not cause death directly, they increase the chances of its occurrence. Several studies have established a link between depression and non-communicable diseases such as high blood pressure, stroke, and heart attack (McGee 193).

Consequently, the emotional harm caused by domestic violence can easily lead to death through the aforementioned diseases. The claim that the emotional effects of domestic violence can easily be addressed through readily available interventions is not always true. Psychological therapies can be very ineffective in circumstances where the victim is regularly abused during and after the therapy.

Besides, not all women can access psychiatric services and other interventions to help them cope with the emotional effects of domestic violence. Women should not be blamed for their failure to report domestic violence for fear of being embarrassed (WHO). It is natural to be embarrassed of being in an abusive relationship. Thus, abused women should be encouraged to articulate their plight and to seek medical help in time.

Conclusion In sum, domestic violence against women is a major problem because of the negative health and child development effects that are associated with it. Domestic violence against women is on the rise because people tend to ignore it. People often ignore the violence because its prevalence is underreported and some of its symptoms are difficult to identify. However, the effects of domestic violence are real and devastating.

In particular, it causes physical, emotional, and reproductive health problems among women. Additionally, domestic violence causes emotional harm to children and increases their chances of being abusive in adulthood. Since the prevalence of domestic violence is on the rise, the suffering of women and children in the hands of unruly men is bound to increase in future. Consequently, the government and the society in general should use legal, social, and cultural interventions to stop domestic violence against women.

Works Cited Bostock, Jan, Maureen Plumpton and Rebekah Pratt. “Domestic Violence against Women: Understanding Social Processes and Women’s Experiences.” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 19.2 (2009): 95-110. Print.

Enrique, Gracia. “Unreported Cases of Domestic Violence against Women: Towards an Epidemiology of Social, Tolerance, and Inhibition.” Journal of Epidemiol Community Health 10.7 (2004): 536-537. Print.

Latchana, Karen. Domestic Violence . Edina: ABDO Publishing, 2011. Print.

McGee, Caroline. Childhood Experinces of Domestic Violence. London: Jessica Kingsley Publsihing Group, 2000. Print.

Renzetti, Claire and Raquel Bergen. Violenec against Women. Rowman and Littlefield: London, 2005. Print.

WHO. Violence against Women: Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence against Women. World Health Organization, 13 Oct. 2013. Web.

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American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Carpinus caroliniana is a medium sized tree whose genus is carpinus. It is a member of the betulaceae family. Its usual height is between 20 and 30 feet but it can grow up to 40 feet. Its common names include ironwood, blue beech, water beech, American hornbeam, musclewood, and muscle beech. It is native to the eastern United States of America (Furlow 1).

It is a slow-growing hardwood tree. This paper will discuss carpinus caroliniana in detail. It will begin with a brief description of the subspecies followed by a section on unique plant characteristics. It will end in a section on growth characteristics and the available cultivars.

There are two subspecies of the tree; subspecies caroliniana and subspecies virginiana. They are classified based on geographical location and morphology. The caroliniana subspecies is native to southern Atlantic region, Gulf of Mexico plains, and some parts of Mississippi. It has small narrow oval leaves. The subspecies virginiana is mainly found in forested areas of northeastern North America. It has large long oval leaves. However, hybrid trees exist in areas where the two subspecies overlap.

It has a wide cone shaped canopy (Keeler 319). Its crown tends to be thick and irregular. However, it can be pruned to get a more regular shape. Its crown characteristics are dependent on the amount of shading it is exposed to. When it grows under a shade, it tends to have a less dense crown. It has slender reddish brown hairy twigs. Its leaves are either ovate or oblong. The leaves have double serrated margins and are between 3 and 12 centimeters in length.

The underside of the leaf is hairy while the top surface is smooth and may bear visible dark glands. In the fall, the leaves turn to rich shades of orange, yellow, and red. Its stem has a tendency to branch extensively. Carpinus caroliniana is covered by a smooth bark with muscle-like ridges. Its common name is derived from this appearance. The flowers of the American hornbeam are inconspicuous.

The flowers emerge from small catkins. Both staminate and pistilate flowers are found on the same plant. However, the male flowers are slightly larger than the female flowers. The fruit of this species is inconspicuous. The fruits are small nuts held in place by leaf-like bracts. The bracts coalesce together to form pendulous clusters that hang from the twigs. As they ripen, they turn from green to brown.

Carpinus caroliniana does well in acidic soils. It can tolerate a lot of moisture. It is frequently found in wetlands and along riverbanks. It is often referred to as a flood resistant plant. It can also flourish in areas with little soil moisture. However, it cannot tolerate drought. It is also less tolerant to brackish habitats. It does not thrive in alkaline soils.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The American hornbeam is difficult to transplant. For this reason, it is better to grow seedlings in bags in order to reduce transplanting shock. Once it has been successfully transplanted, other management practices like pruning may be initiated. However, pruning should be delayed until the plant is fully established.

It can withstand frequent pruning. It matures in about 15 to 20 years. After maturity, it continues to produce seeds for about 50 years. In the wild, the seedlings establish well in the forest floor where humus is abundant. It can be grown in shaded areas in naturalized environments.

The American hornbeam has limited economic viability owing to its small size. Its wood has been used to make a variety of items. It is commonly used to make tool handles and golf clubs. It may also be used to make wooden hammers (mallets). It has also been used in the past to make utensils like bowls.

These uses rely on the fact that its wood is hard and does not easily crack or break. However, it is also planted in landscapes, lawns, hedges, and parks. It can be grown in shaded areas since it is shade tolerant (Gilman and Dennis 3). It may be used as a specimen tree owing to its showy characteristics. It is also frequently planted in naturalized areas. Its economic uses are limited. It cannot be harvested for wood since it is a small tree.

It is relatively resistant to diseases and pests. Some problems that have been reported include leaf spots, blight, and cankers. However, these rare problems can be prevented using good management practices. Its seeds attract a number of birds that feed on them. However, this is not considered a problem because the birds aid in seed dispersal. It is not classified as an invasive species. This means that it does not present a threat to the ecosystem in areas other than its native habitat.

The cultivars of carpinus caroliniana are not easily accessible. This is because it is slow growing. It is also difficult to transplant. Its narrow ecological zone may also have an effect on availability of cultivars. Some cultivars that have been planted with considerable success include palisade, fire spire, and pyramidalis.

However, it is recommended that cultivars be sourced through local extension offices. It is important to select a cultivar that is well adapted to local conditions. Homeowners do not commonly grow the American hornbeam. In general, it is not a widely cultivated plant making it suitable for use as a specimen tree (Niemiera 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This paper discussed carpinus caroliniana in detail. Carpinus Caroliniana is a hardwood tree that belongs to the betulaceae family. Its common names include ironwood, musclewood, blue beech, and water beech. It is native to the eastern parts of the United States of America. Its bark is smooth. The tree has muscle-like ridges on its trunk. Its flowers and seeds are inconspicuous. Female and male flowers are found on the same plant. Leaf-like bracts hold the seeds.

However, its leaves are conspicuous in the fall. The leaves turn from green to vivid shades of orange, red, and yellow. It thrives well in acidic soils. It does not tolerate drought and salty soils. Its wood is mainly used to make handles of small tools. In the past, it has been used to make utensils. It is commonly grown in lawns, parks, gardens, hedges, and naturalized areas. It forms a dense, cone shaped canopy.

However, it can be pruned to create a flat crown. It is difficult to find cultivars because the species is generally difficult to culture. It is relatively resistant to pests and diseases. Some diseases that have been reported include leaf rot, blight, wood rot, and cankers. Its fruits attract a variety of birds. However, the birds are not considered a problem because they help in seed dispersal. The tree is slow growing. It reaches its peak height in about 20 years.

Works Cited Furlow, John. “The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States.” J. Arnold

Arbor 71 (1990):1- 67. Print. Gilman, Edward and Watson, Dennis 1993, Carpinus caroliniana. PDF file. 1st Dec. 2013. .

Keeler, Harriet. Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them, New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1990. Print.

Niemiera, Alex 2012, American Hornbeam. PDF file. 1st Dec. 2013. .

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Comparing and Contrasting three Versions of Slavery Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Similarities

Differences

Conclusion

Introduction The system of slavery has been practiced by different societies in human civilization for millenniums. Three continents that have been involved in large-scale slavery over the centuries are African, Europe, and the Americas. The Arabs participated in slavery in sub-Saharan Africa from 1100 to 1400 while the Ottoman Empire had a flourishing slavery system in the 1500s.

The Portuguese colonizers engaged in slavery in Brazil and the Caribbean between 1500 and 1800. This paper will engage in an analysis of these three versions of slavery in order to highlight the similarities and differences among these different versions of slavery.

Similarities A similarity in all the versions of slavery is that the slaves were forcefully relocated from their motherland. In sub-Saharan slavery, the slaves were captured in raids or sold off by their rulers who were mostly in the Middle East. In the Ottoman Empire, the slaves were obtained though military conquest or bought from the Crimean Tatars. The slaves for the Brazilian and Caribbean Islands were captured from the African interior and transported to the coasts where they were sold off to European slave traders.

Another similarity among the different versions of slavery is that a significant number of slaves died in transit. In sub-Saharan slavery, the black slaves had to cross through the harsh deserts often on foot. Many of them did not survive this horrifying trek due to the extreme heat during the day and cold at night.

The slaves in the Ottoman Empire were often obtained from the Crimean Tatars who engaged in the capture and selling of slaves. This process of capturing and transportation of humans by the Tatars was very cruel. The African slaves destined for Brazil and the Caribbean were transported across the Atlantic in overcrowded ships and under inhumane conditions. Many died during this journey due to the harsh conditions.

The slaves played a major role in the social and economic environment of their new home. In sub-Saharan slavery, the slaves went on to become domestic servants to wealth Arabs. These slaves were entrusted with family business and they could represent their masters in important commercial undertakings.

In the Ottoman Empire, slaves promoted the commercial well being of the society by working as skilled craftsmen. In addition to this, there were elite slaves who served as administrators and military commanders in the Ottoman Empire. In the Caribbean and Brazil, the slaves provided the labor necessary to fuel the sugar export driven economy of the Portuguese colonizers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differences The main tasks that the slaves performed for their masters also differed. In the trans-Saharan slavery, the African slaves were especially important as domestic servants and concubines. The slaves were generally treated well and there was some prestige attached to being the slave to a rich Arab master or ruler.

The ottomans made use of slaves as laborers in craft production and agriculture. In addition to this, the Ottomans relied on the slaves as soldiers. During the 1500s, there was a great demand for soldiers and the Ottomans recruited slaves from conquered lands and trained them as professional soldiers who were used for further military expansion. The slaves in Brazil and the Caribbean were used primarily as laborers in the sugar plantations. In addition to this, the slaves also worked in the mines.

The three slavery versions also differed in the race makeup of the slave population. Slaves in sub-Saharan Africa were blacks who were obtained from this the interior of Africa by the Arab traders who had taken on a strong interest in African since the mid-seventh century.

The ottomans obtained their slaves from primarily from the conquered regions of Europe. These slaves were therefore of Caucasian races since they were from the Slavic and European regions. The slaves in Brazil and the Caribbean were the indigenous peoples of the region who were enslaved by the colonists. In addition to this, there was a huge influx of African slaves obtained from the African continent.

Another difference was in the preference for slaves of a particular gender over the other. In sub-Saharan slavery, there was a marked bias in favor of women for trade. This preference for women was because slaves were predominantly used as servants and concubines for the Arabs.

The Ottomans valued both male and female slaves. Men were preferred since there was a high demand for soldiers and skilled craftsmen. Women were also valued since there was a great demand for domestic servants in the Empire. Brazil and the Caribbean preferred male slaves who could work in the sugar plantations and mines.

The method of attaining slaves also differed among the three cases. In sub-Saharan Africa, slaves were obtained primarily though raids to villages or as tributes offered by some rules to the Arabs in order to avoid being attacked. In the Ottoman Empire, slaves were primarily obtained though military engagements.

We will write a custom Essay on Comparing and Contrasting three Versions of Slavery specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Slaves were obtained from the lands that the Ottoman military had conquered. Communities were forced to give up their children as slaves to the conquering ottoman armies. Slaves for the plantations and mines in Brazil and the Caribbean were bought from the slave markets in Africa. The European bought these slaves from Arabs and Africans who ventured inland to capture the slaves.

Conclusion This paper set out to highlight the similarities and differences in three different versions of slaveries. It has noted that the different versions of slavery were similar in that they led to a displacement of the slaves from their homeland and they involved cruel means of transporting slaves.

In addition to this, the slaves contributed to the economic prosperity of their masters. The major differences included the major activities that the slaves were used for, the race make up of the slaves, the gender preference of the slaves, and the means of obtaining the slaves.

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“Doctor Faustus” by Christopher Marlowe Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction The British literature of the epoch of Enlightenment is characterized by the prevalence of the poetry and drama as well as by the focus on the themes of morality and Christian values. The play Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe can be referred to the modified genre of the Morality Play, which was popular at that time.

The Discussion The play Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe can be referred to the genre of the Morality Play because it uncovers the theme of the Seven Deadly Sins. The genre of Morality Play was widely spread in the British literature of the Middle Ages. The focus on the moral qualities of the characters was the main distinctive feature of this genre (Morality play n.d.).

In particular, we know from the play that Faustus, the main character, sold his soul to devil. He encountered with the Seven Deadly Sins, each of which warned him about the consequences of his choice.

“BEEL. Faustus, we are come from hell in person to show thee

some pastime. Sit down, and thou shalt behold the Seven

Deadly Sins appear to thee in their own proper shapes

and likeness” (Marlowe, 1965, p.70).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the play by Christopher Marlowe is not typical for this genre, it has a lot of its features. We can say that the author modified the genre a little bit and, essentially, made a breakthrough in the literature of that period. His literary innovations are considered to be the steps on the path from the traditional literature of the Middle Ages to the literature of the epoch of Enlightenment. Being inspired by the Medieval play Everyman, Marlowe wrote his own work by using the major themes of the play.

However, Doctor Faustus is much more complicated work. The author tried to show that not the external circumstances determine human destiny but rather the inner world of the person does. His play uncovers his ideas and does this in the progressive manner. In particular, Marlowe uses the new literary techniques such as the blank verse. We can see that many lines of the play do not rhyme. In particular,

“ROB. What, Dick, look to the horses there till I come again. I

have gotten one of Doctor Faustus’ conjuring books, and

now we’ll have such knavery as’t passes” (Marlowe, 1965, p.72).

It should be noted that the character of Faustus revealed his complex and contradictory nature. He was tempted by the devil and did not pass the test. Seven Deadly Sins were stronger than his morality. The author of the play tried to show the tragedy of Faustus in his strong ambition and the low morality at the same time. He ruined his soul by himself because he lacked the right moral fiber to withstand the temptation. Faustus was the victim of his own desires.

Conclusion In order to sum up all above mentioned, it should be said that the play Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe represents the genre of the Morality Play in the British literature. At the same time, it should be emphasized that the author modified the traditions of the genre and introduced his own approach to the Morality Play. The belonging of Doctor Faustus to exactly this genre is proved by the main theme of the work, the spiritual struggle of the man with the Seven Deadly Sins.

We will write a custom Essay on “Doctor Faustus” by Christopher Marlowe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Marlowe, Ch. (1965). Doctor Faustus. New York, USA: Routledge.

Morality Play? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/

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Ethereal qualities and sexuality in art: Aphrodite pandemos vs. Aphrodite ouraneia Essay college essay help online

Thesis statement: Despite the fact that Aphrodite as a mythological character comprises both the elements of physical attraction (Aphrodite Pandemos) and ethereal qualities (Aphrodite Ouraneia), which incorporate spiritual and moral qualities, most artists tend to exploit the former image more often in their works, putting the emphasis on Aphrodite’s sexuality, which can be explained not by chauvinist moods, but by the public’s unwillingness to accept another interpretation of a famous character.

Indeed, when considering the majority of artworks devoted to Aphrodite, one will find out that the goddess is rarely portrayed as Aphrodite Ouraneia; her ethereal qualities are only included into most of the artworks at best, completely ignored at worst. One of the most famous artworks, Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus depicts the beauty of innocence, yet still puts a strong emphasis on the sexuality of the character.

It would be wrong, however, to claim that every single artist exploits sexuality of the character in question to the nth degree; one of the chastest artworks devoted to the goddess of beauty and love, Aphrodite of Milos strikes with the lack of sexual connotation of the image. Even though devilments of nudity are obvious, they are not stretched to the nth degree, which allows the audience to view Aphrodite as the symbol of love and beauty.

From a certain perspective, Botticelli’s Aphrodite can also be seen as the symbol of love rather than sexuality; the use of pastel palette and the lack of obviously sexualized imagery can be considered as a proof for Botticelli’s intent to depict the innocence of young love, which borders platonic love.

The aforementioned artwork, however, is one of the few exceptions of the overall sexualized images of Aphrodite in art, not to mention the depictions of the goddess of love in popular culture. Speaking of more recent portrayals of Aphrodite as the representation of desire instead of love and beauty, one must mention such work as Robert Fowler’s Aphrodite. While one would not consider this work shallow, it still tends to capture the elements of Aphrodite Pandemos rather than Aphrodite Ouraneia.

There is no denying that each artist tends to create his own Aphrodite in accordance with his/her vision of beauty. However, it seems that in their works, most artists tend to choose the elements that stress the elements, which contribute to sexualizing the character. For instance, most artists choose to “dress” Aphrodite in the clothes that put the emphasis on her body, tending to depict such materials as silk, which also add to the sexualization of the image.

The reasons for the choice of the theme that the manner of depicting Aphrodite is based on a large variety of factors, among which, personal preferences of an artist are obviously a priority; however, most of the existing artworks prefer Aphrodite Pandemos to Aphrodite Ouraneia, which can be explained by stereotypical thinking of an artist, as well as the fact that the public is not ready to accept a sudden change in the traditional depiction of the ancient goddess.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the reasons for the reluctance to see Aphrodite as the goddess that possesses a certain ethereal qualities can be viewed through the lens of feminism, with the application of gender profiling concept, it still seems that the phenomenon in question can be explained by laziness.

While the image of Aphrodite Pandemos seems to have been cemented in the heads of most people, the image of Aphrodite Ouraneia seems to be alien for the greatest part of the population; hence the need to exploit the former appears.

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The Symbolism of Public Transportation in “On the Streetcar” and Washington Square Essay essay help online free

1. The symbol of the street-car carriage described in Emilia Pardo Bazan’s short story reflects the desire of the people to represent themselves as belonging to the higher class and to overcome the challenges of the real plebeian life. To accentuate the gap between the desire and reality, Bazan states about the plebeian carriage as about the aristocratic one, “Oh, how gay the Madrilenian Sunday is and how aristocratic the streetcar at that time of day” (Bazan 46).

2. In Bazan’s short story, the symbolically important carriage is described as “the plebeian streetcar” which “sparkles proudly in the sun” (Bazan 46).

One carriage scene in Washington Square is when “in the carriage, as they drove home, she [Catherine] was as quiet as if fatigue had been her portion” (James 23). The next scene is when Catherine tried to reach “the road, where the carriage stood waiting. In it sat her father, rigid and silent; in silence, too, she took her place beside him” (James 100).

3. The carriage in Emilia Pardo Bazan’s short story symbolizes the inner desire of the people to hide their origin and to achieve the social tops when the carriage in Henry James’s novel is a symbol of the home where silence and patience can be found.

4. The carriage described by Bazan is the reflection of the people’s changing nature when they can seem to be plebeian or aristocratic. On the contrary, the carriage in James’s novel is the symbol of the characters’ true nature when they prefer to become silent or quiet to find the desired patience.

5. Susan McKenna states that in her story, Bazan focuses on “the various types boarding the streetcar at the Puerta del Sol” (McKenna 81). As a result, the social dissimilarity of the population is emphasized along with the description of the carriage.

6. In her discussion of Bazan’s works, Susan McKenna concentrates on the features and elements not only from the social perspective but also from the point of gender.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 7. In the introduction to James’s novel, Jennie Kassanoff states that Washington Square is rich in symbols, and the reference to cars is important to reflect the characters’ true nature and their desire to run from themselves (Kassanoff ix).

8. Jennie Kassanoff is great in seeing deeper in the context and symbolism of James’ novels and stories.

9. The symbol of the ‘changing’ carriage in Bazan’s story is an attempt to represent different types of people and their possible desires to play the other persons’ roles within the society. These various types of people want to escape from the plebian reality and to achieve the social tops.

10. The symbol of a carriage in James’s novel is the author’s attempt to describe the place where the characters can avoid their ironical behaviors and become silent in order to achieve some harmony.

11. The main ideas which should be emphasized with references to symbolism in Bazan and James’s works are that the simple symbol of a carriage as the public transport can be used to reflect the diverse public with its many ideas and desires. Moreover, the carriage is also the symbol of the transition from one state to the other when people cease to be active and become silent because they want to behave in such a way.

Works Cited Bazan, Emilia. “The White Horse” and Other Stories. USA: Bucknell University Press, 1993. Print.

James, Henry. Washington Square. USA: Interactive Media, 2012. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The Symbolism of Public Transportation in “On the Streetcar” and Washington Square specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kassanoff, Jennie. “Introduction”. Daisy Miller and Washington Square. Ed. Jennie Kassanoff. USA: Spark Educational Publishing, 2004. i-x. Print.

McKenna, Susan. Crafting the Female Subject: Narrative Innovation in the Short Fiction of Emilia Pardo Bazán. USA: CUA Press, 2009. Print.

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The Catastrophe to Come: When the Society Falls Apart. A Essay (Book Review) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Like any other system, a society needs changes in order to sustain its evolution; otherwise, its members will finally get stuck and will never be able to reach the top standards, which are extremely prone to changing. However, some of these changes come at a price, and, as the recent works claim, these costs may include a complete reinvention of social norms and concepts.

Though presenting different opinions and providing different arguments, Gross, Newman and Perrow agree that the society is currently at the brink of failure due to the changes that it has suffered over the past few decades, and due to the conflicts within that the given changes have inflicted.

As it has been stressed above, each of the authors tackles a specific topic, yet the themes of the works are, in fact, related to each other. For instance, Perrow addresses the problem of the nature vs. nurture conflict, comparing the effect of natural and human induced destructions. In addition, Perrow addresses a very topical social issue of the inefficacy of the U.S. homeland security with the help of his “page 99 test”: “It did not do well in FEMA and was starved of resources”[1].

Newman considers the terror of poverty, claiming it to be the next disaster of the XXI century. Finally, Gross evaluates the scale of destructions inflicted on a particular – Jewish – community by the force of prejudice: “Half of the population of a small East European town murdered the other half”[2].

In addition, the ideas communicated by the three authors can be referred to the concepts listed by Wallace. Newman’s idea of poverty as the plague of the XXI century correlates with Wallace’s concept of self-serving ideology as self-destructive[3]; Gross with his description of the Jewish community repeats Wallace’s idea of social Darwinism[4]; and even Perrow with his natural, industrial and terrorist shocks shares such ideas as the need for sustainability with Wallace.

It seems that the books by Perrow, Gross and Newman help evaluate the problems in interpersonal and intercultural relationships of the XXI century rather accurately. While each of the works focuses on a particular aspect of the society mechanism, their authors still manage to get the key idea concerning the need for sustainability and equality across in a very convincing manner. Based on decent theoretical foundation, each of the works allows defining a major social issue and helps search for the ways to mend it.

While the books by Perrow, Gross and Newman seem to tackle the issues that are not quite related to each other, every book addresses the same problem of changes within the society and the means to address these changes. More to the point, all of the authors seem to be talking mostly about the phenomenon of intercultural misunderstanding, which was inflicted either by racial prejudice, or by religious conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the authors make it obvious that prejudice, be it racial or religious one, can be defined as the source of the on-coming catastrophe and is, in fact, tearing the fabric of the society apart. Providing enough food for thoughts, Gross, Perrow and Newman make a witty and sad commentary on the structure of the contemporary society, therefore, proving Wallace’s idea of multiculturalism within a prejudice filled society leading to multiple conflicts.

Bibliography Gross, Jan T. Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Newman, Katherine S. No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. New York City, NY: Doubleplay, 2009.

Perrow, Charles. The Next Catastrophe: Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial and Terrorist Disasters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Wallace, Ruth A. and Alison Wolf. Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition. 5th ed. London, UK: Pearson, 1998.

Footnotes Charles, Perrow, The Next Catastrophe: Reducing Our Vulnerabilities to Natural, Industrial and Terrorist Disasters (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011), p. 99.

Jan T. Gross, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), p. 7.

Katherine S. Newman, No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City (New York City, NY: Doubleplay, 2009), p. 26.

Ruth A. Wallace and Alison Wolf, Contemporary Sociological Theory: Expanding the Classical Tradition, 5th ed. (London, UK: Pearson, 1998), p. 71.

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US Problems: Medicare Program Ineffectiveness Research Paper college essay help

The United States of America currently faces several problems that make it impossible for the government to provide quality services to the citizens. Some of the major problems include “the lack of appropriate incentives to hold cost on food stamps, Medicare, Obama care, and entitlement programs (Williams, 2010)”. The complexity of these problems calls for immediate solutions in order to continue addressing the needs of the Americans. This discussion explores the nature of these problems and offers solutions for them.

The Medicare structure has resulted in conflicting incentives especially when it comes to the issue of cost. Currently, there is lack of appropriate incentives to hold costs on “sharing rules” (Williams, 2010). As well, there are misaligned incentives especially in “cost shifting for nursing homes and health care facilities (Williams, 2010)”.

The issue of cost allocation makes it impossible to provide adequate to patients suffering from acute and chronic diseases. Such problems have made the Medicare program ineffective. That being the case, various policy reforms can be useful towards addressing the problem (Williams, 2010). Such initiatives include pay-for-performance, capitation, and shifting Medicare costs to the government. The strategy will definitely help address most of the problems mentioned above.

The second problem arises for America’s food stamps. Today the country spends a lot of money on food stamps than ever before. In 2010, President Obama projected to spend $10 trillion on the program. This is definitely a major problem because the country cannot afford such costs. It is agreeable that the program helps the poor and most vulnerable members of the society. The best solution is to address the problem of employment and identify the most vulnerable individuals.

This will make it easier to allocate costs efficiently. As well, abuse and fraud have been associated with the food stamps program. There is need for efforts to address these wrongdoings and keep track of the gathered information. Alternatively, Congress can consider a move to end the program and allow each state to design its own food policy program. “This will definitely address the lack of incentives to hold cost on food stamps (Williams, 2010)”.

In America, entitlement programs are managed by the government in order to provide financial benefits to various individuals who contribute by paying into the programs (Williams, 2010). In the recent past, expenditures related to entitlement programs have increased fast. Currently, experts project that the costs will grow in the coming years. This means that the actual collections for entitlement programs present a deficit (Williams, 2010).

This explains why it has been impossible to hold cost on such entitlement programs. The best incentive to hold cost on entitlement is to use new policies regarding government spending and taxation. The government can increase taxes and eliminate tax exemptions. As well, the government can increase the age for eligibility. Such measures will help address the problem completely.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), also called “Obama care”, helped increase affordability and quality of insurance (Williams, 2010). The program has expanded both private and public health insurance coverage in the country. However, the original cost for the program was supposed to be below $1 trillion. The current economic situation and widening national debt does not allow the country to spend so much money on the program (Williams, 2010).

This explains why there is lack of incentives to hold cost on “Obama care”. The best way to address the current crisis is to apply new regulations and legislations. This will ensure the citizen does not bear the costs. As well, the federal government can cut most of its discretionary and mandatory spending. The approach will offer new incentives to hold cost on “Obama care” and other entitlement programs in the country.

Reference List Williams, N. (2010). Government Spending, Taxes, Entitlements, Healthcare, Pensions, Immigration, Tort Reform, Crime. New York: Author-House Press.

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Ford Motor Company’s Compensation System Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction Compensation refers to the rewards that employees receive on a regular basis for their contribution to the growth or operation of a company. A compensation package is “a total reward system that includes non-monetary, direct, and indirect rewards” (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 52).

Direct compensation refers to the salaries, wages, or any performance-oriented pay that employees receive periodically. Indirect compensation includes the benefits obtained from programs such as retirement plans, paid leave, and health insurance. Compensation is an important determinant of the competitiveness of every company (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 53).

It determines the ability of a company to recruit and retain the best talent in its industry. Moreover, it influences the level of employees’ motivation, satisfaction, and performance (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 54). Companies with effective compensation systems often have low labor turnover and high financial performance. Consequently, most companies are focusing on improving their compensation systems in order to bolster their competitiveness.

However, developing an effective compensation system is often expensive to employers. Besides, employees are interested in a variety of rewards rather than just monetary compensation. In this regard, most companies provide compensation packages that include monetary and non-monetary rewards in order to satisfy their employees. This paper analyzes Ford Motor Company’s compensation system. It will shed light on the extent to which the system helps Ford Motor Company to motivate and to retain its valuable employees.

Ford Motor Company’s Compensation System Ford is one of the leading car producers in the United States. The company also operates in several countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Ford owes its success to its talented and committed workforce that produces high quality products for every market (Ford Motor Company). Ford uses a performance-based compensation system in which its employees’ pay depend on their performance.

In the last decade, the company focused on paying its employees based on the extent to which they achieve predefined performance targets. The targets set for each employee are based on the company’s corporate level strategy. Ford’s corporate level strategy is to develop “one team that executes one plan to deliver one goal” (Ford Motor Company). The aim of this strategy is to enable the company to maintain its profitability by assigning specific responsibilities and performance targets to every employee.

Ford’s compensation philosophy is “…compensation and benefits programs are an important part of the company’s employment relationship, which includes challenging and rewarding work, growth, and career development opportunities” (Ford Motor Company). As a multinational corporation, Ford has developed a compensation system that is cost-effective and conforms to international best practices. Rewarding performance is an integral element of the company’s compensation philosophy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Ford rewards its employees for maintaining exceptional performance and improving its competitiveness in various markets. The objective of Ford’s compensation system is to “attract, retain, and motivate, as well as, to reward achievement of business results” (Ford Motor Company). Moreover, the strategy aims at improving employees’ income security.

Ford’s compensation system is guided by the following principles. First, the system is expected to enable the company to develop a pay-for-performance culture that motivates employees to achieve their targets (Ford Motor Company).

Second, the compensation system is meant to enable the company to position itself competitively by attracting, motivating, and retaining the best talent in the car manufacturing industry.

Third, the company must be able to afford the compensations in the medium-term and long-run. Additionally, the compensations should not be adversely affected by short-term changes in the external environment (Ford Motor Company).

Fourth, the compensation system is expected to take into account the diversity of Ford’s employees and their financial needs (Ford Motor Company). Finally, the company expects to achieve efficiency and effectiveness through its compensation system. In particular, the system is expected to create economies of scale and to reduce the cost of compensating employees. Additionally, it must have clearly defined metrics, which are used to determine the rewards that each employee should receive.

Based on the principles discussed in the foregoing paragraph, Ford has developed a compensation mix that consists of both direct and indirect rewards. The direct rewards include base pay, incentive bonuses, and stock options (Ford Motor Company). Base pay includes the salaries or wages paid to the company’s employees, whereas incentive bonuses include additional payments that are made occasionally, to acknowledge exceptional performance.

Stock options give the company’s employees an opportunity to own its shares (Ford Motor Company). The indirect compensations provided by Ford include retirement benefits, perquisites, and social security benefits. Taken together, these rewards help the company to attract, retain, and to motivate its employees.

We will write a custom Essay on Ford Motor Company’s Compensation System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How the Compensation System Helps in Motivating and Retaining Employees Salaries

Ford’s employees earn salaries that commensurate with their performance. The salaries vary with employees’ skills and positions within the company (Ford Motor Company). Ford’s compensation committee is responsible for determining the salaries of the most valuable employees such as the company’s executives. The company uses salaries to motivate and to retain its employees in the following ways. First, it ensures that the salary received by each employee fairly reflects his or her effort (Ford Motor Company).

In order to ensure fairness, the compensation committee takes into account several factors before raising the salary of an employee. To begin with, the committee considers the responsibilities assigned to the employee and his achievements in the last financial year. This ensures that each employee is paid according to the responsibilities assigned to him, as well as, the effort he channels towards performing his duties.

As a result, the company is able to avoid exploiting its employees by underpaying them. Moreover, paying employees according to their performance motivates them to improve their performance. For instance, the company provided a merit salary increment of 3.1% to its employees in 2012 in order to motivate them to maintain exceptional performance (Ford Motor Company).

The committee also considers salaries paid to individuals with similar responsibilities within the company before increasing salaries (Ford Motor Company). This improves internal equity in compensation among employees, thereby eliminating the dissatisfaction that might arise because of pay discrepancies.

Similarly, the compensation committee takes into account the salaries paid to employees in a particular position in different companies. The aim of this strategy is to ensure that the salaries of the company’s employees are equal to or better than those of its main competitors (Ford Motor Company).

Thus, the company is able to retain its employees by providing competitive salaries. For instance, the salaries paid to Ford’s executive officers in 2012 exceeded those paid to nearly all motor companies in North America (Ford Motor Company). The compensation committee also ensures fairness by considering employees’ job tenure and skills. By considering skills, the committee ensures that employees are rewarded for their effort to improve their expertise.

This motivates the employees to improve their expertise through higher education and on-the-job training programs. Furthermore, the committee considers the time since last salary increment to ensure that employees with similar responsibilities have comparable salaries (Ford Motor Company). Generally, ensuring fairness in compensation helps the company to reduce employee dissatisfaction. This motivates employees to improve their performance and to continue working for the company.

Second, Ford motivates and retains its employees by improving their financial security (Ford Motor Company). In particular, the company pays high salaries to its valuable employees throughout the business cycle. Accordingly, it cushions its employees from the negative effects of economic decline that often results into a reduction of their variable pay. This leads to income certainty among Ford’s employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ford Motor Company’s Compensation System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Generally, employees are likely to continue working for a company if the certainty and reliability of their income is guaranteed (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 78). In addition, providing income stability, especially, during economic decline is likely to reduce employee turnover significantly. It is against this backdrop that Ford focuses on improving its employees’ financial stability through high salaries.

Incentive Bonuses

Ford uses annual incentive bonuses to motivate and to retain its employees. The compensation committee has identified several metrics to help it determine the amount of incentive bonus that should be paid to each employee.

These include profit before tax, market share, cost reduction, sales, and product quality (Ford Motor Company). The employees receive incentive bonuses that commensurate with the extent to which they achieve the targets associated with the aforementioned metrics. In this regard, the compensation committee uses a sliding scale to compute the employees’ bonuses.

For instance, 35% of the incentive bonus paid to the company’s executive officers depends on profit before tax targets, whereas the sales and cost reduction targets account for 35% and 10% of the bonus respectively (Ford Motor Company). In 2012, the company’s executives achieved 75% of their performance targets, which involved improving sales in Europe. Consequently, they were paid 75% of the total value of the incentive bonus that they were promised (Ford Motor Company).

In this case, the incentive bonus system motivates the executives to improve their performance so that they can earn more. Since most employees are interested in increasing their earnings, they will strive to exceed their performance targets in order to earn the highest level of bonus. Currently, the compensation committee has set the highest level of incentive bonus at 200% in order to motivate employees to exceed their targets.

Apart from incentive bonuses, Ford awards incremental bonuses to its valuable employees. In 2012, the company established a performance fund, which it uses to reward its executive officers for individual achievements (Ford Motor Company). Under the incremental bonus system, the employees set their personal performance targets in every financial year and strive to achieve them.

At the end of the financial year, they receive incremental bonuses that correspond to the extent to which they achieve their targets. Thus, incremental bonuses also play an integral role in motivating Ford’s employees to achieve their targets. The incremental bonus system motivates employees to set challenging personal targets that lead to improvement of the company’s overall performance.

For instance, the senior management employees who were awarded incremental bonuses in 2012 had exceptional performance that led to an increase in the company’s value and profitability (Ford Motor Company). Apart from setting challenging targets, incremental bonuses motivate employees to focus on innovation in order to improve their performance. As a result, the employees’ commitment to the company improves, thereby reducing labor turnover.

Despite their potential to motivate employees, the bonus systems discussed in the foregoing paragraphs are likely to reduce employees’ motivation. For instance, employees who achieve the minimum level of performance are not entitled to any bonus. In this case, underperformers are likely to have little or no motivation to continue working hard, especially, if their failure is attributed to external factors (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 86).

In addition, employees who are not able to achieve their targets are likely to leave the company since they will not be able to improve their income by receiving bonuses. In order to address this challenge, the company ensures that all its employees have equal opportunities to perform according to their abilities in order to achieve their targets.

Performance Unit and Stock Option

Ford’s equity-based compensation package consists of performance unit and stock option grants (Ford Motor Company). The equity-based compensations are used to reward the company’s senior management team.

Half of the employees’ total equity-based compensation consists of performance unit, whereas the remaining half consists of stock option. The company believes that equity-based compensation is one of the best ways of ensuring that the executive management team remains focused on achieving short-term, medium term, and long-term objectives of the business (Ford Motor Company).

Ford’s stock option scheme vests over a period of three years. In addition, the stock option plan has a term of ten years, which makes it suitable for use as a long-term incentive scheme. The stock option plan plays an important role in retaining employees since their award is subject to the three-year vesting requirement. In particular, the employees are required to work for the company for at least three years in order to receive the rewards (Ford Motor Company).

In addition, the company uses the stock option plan to motivate its executives to focus on achieving its long-term objectives (Ford Motor Company). For instance, developing new car models and gaining market share in new markets requires a lot of time. Thus, employees have to stay with the company for a long time in order to achieve long-term goals such as developing new cars. In this regard, awarding stock options with a ten-year term helps in influencing the employees to continue working for the company.

The performance units “are earned based on a one-year performance period, but are paid out in service-based restricted stock units, which vest over a two-year period” (Ford Motor Company). The one-year period requirement helps the company to motivate its employees to concentrate on achieving essential short-term business objectives.

In addition, it motivates the employees to focus on continuous improvement of their performance in the short-term. The two-year vesting period requirement plays a key role in retaining the company’s senior management team. To elucidate, the executives have to work for the company for the two years in order to receive the performance unit compensation (Ford Motor Company).

In order to motivate employees to improve their performance, the company awards the equity-based compensations according to the employees’ achievements. The employees receive the equity-based compensations according to the percentage of their targets that they are able to achieve in a given financial year. Thus, employees who achieve 100% of their targets receive the highest level of equity-based rewards, whereas those who fail to achieve their targets are not rewarded (Ford Motor Company).

The company also awards incremental incentive grants to some of its employees who are responsible for the achievement of important business objectives. The incremental incentive grants are mainly used to motivate employees since they are directly tied to performance. In this regard, an employee receives the full amount of the grant if he or she achieves a predetermined performance target (Ford Motor Company).

However, the company does not award any incremental incentive grant if the employees fail to meet their targets. Generally, the equity-based compensations enable employees to be involved in the company as shareholders. As a result, they are likely to improve their commitment and to continue working for the company in order to enhance the returns on their investments. This leads to high retention rate among employees who receive equity-based compensation.

Perquisites and other Benefits

Ford provides a wide range of perquisites and other fringe benefits to its most important employees, which include the following. First, the company provides personal travel allowance to its chairperson and chief executive officer (Ford Motor Company). This involves paying the charter costs when the executives travel on private aircraft for official or personal trips.

The company also pays the travel costs of the executives’ family members. Second, the company provides its managers with at least two cars which they use free of charge. Third, Ford provides home security services to some of its managers. It also pays up to 75% of the managers’ counseling and real estate planning services (Ford Motor Company).

Finally, the company provides tax reimbursements to its employees who are transferred to other countries or regions. The reimbursements are expected to help the employees to meet the costs of relocating to their new workstations. These benefits help the company to motivate and to retain its employees in several ways.

To begin with, the benefits improve the comfort of the employees, which in turn improves their wellbeing. For instance, providing home security services enhances the safety of the most important employees and their families.

Similarly, paying for counseling services enables the company’s senior managers to access professional guidance on personal challenges that may lead to stress (Ford Motor Company). Several studies have established a positive correlation between improved employee wellbeing and staff motivation. Thus, Ford’s employees are likely to be highly motivated as the company improves their wellbeing.

The benefits also make the employees feel appreciated by the company. For instance, paying for the private travelling costs of the executives and their family members is a token of appreciation for their contribution to the company. This improves the employees’ commitment to the company, which in turn reduces labor turnover (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 104). The benefits also play an important role in improving the employees’ work conditions.

For instance, the managers are able to travel in a cost-effective and comfortable manner by using the company’s cars. Undoubtedly, work condition is one of the major determinants of employees’ motivation and retention (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 107). Employees are likely to be highly motivated and to continue working for companies that provide excellent work conditions and vice versa (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 109).

Retirement Plans

Ford has a general retirement plan, which enables its employees to enjoy tax-qualified benefits upon retirement (Ford Motor Company). Moreover, the company provides nonqualified retirement schemes for some of its employees.

These include the benefit equalization plan (BEP) and the supplemental executive retirement plan (SERP) (Ford Motor Company). In 2004, the company introduced a tax qualified retirement plan to enable it to achieve its objective of improving its employees’ income security and to cushion them from catastrophic loss (Ford Motor Company).

The retirement plans provided by Ford helps its employees to amass tax-advantaged wealth for their retirement (Ford Motor Company). The resulting increase in income stability upon retirement motivates the company’s employees to improve their productivity. The retirement plans have a significant influence on employees’ behavior.

They serve as incentives to young employees to continue working for the company for a long period in order to accumulate retirement income. Moreover, the company’s aging employees are motivated to retire in time because they have income security (Ford Motor Company). Aging employees often opt to retire in time if they have adequate income to spend after retiring (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 130).

Timely retirement is important to the company because it enables it to reduce staff costs. To elucidate, the costs of retaining aging employees is often high because of their deteriorating health and low productivity. Thus, the retirement plans are integral to the company’s success by improving the employees’ income security and motivating them to retire at the right time.

Apart from motivating the employees, the retirement plans enable the company to attract and retain workers with the desired behaviors. As a manufacturing company in a highly competitive industry, Ford is interested in employees who are willing to work for it for a long time (Ford Motor Company). This helps the company to achieve its long-term objectives such as product development.

Thus, the retirement plans enable the company to attract and retain employees who are interested in income stability and protection from catastrophic loss. Empirical studies have shown that employees who consider their retirement plans to be important are likely to continue working for their employers (Wemer, Schuler and Jackson 203). This explains Ford’s commitment to provide highly rewarding retirement plans for its employees.

Conclusion Compensation plays an integral role in attracting, retaining, and motivating employees in virtually all companies. Most employees take into account the importance of the compensation packages provided by their employers when making their career development decisions. Thus, Ford has focused on providing a competitive compensation package to retain and to motivate its employees. This involves paying salaries that are equal to or higher than those paid by the major car manufacturers in the United State.

Additionally, the company’s compensation system promotes fairness, and income security, thereby reducing employees’ dissatisfaction. As a result, the company is able to retain its valuable employees. Ford’s compensation package consists of different rewards, which include salaries, stock options, perquisites, and retirement plans. In order to motivate employees to improve their productivity, the company compensates its employees according to their performance.

Works Cited Ford Motor Company. Notice of 2013 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and Proxy Statement. Ford Motor Company, 9 May 2013. Web.

Wemer, Steve, Randall Schuler and Susan Jackson. Human Resource Management. London: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

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International Law Major Assessment Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction In 2012, violence broke out in Libya and later spread across several Arab countries over what protestors termed as the American disregard of Muslim religious saints through a film that showed disloyalty to Prophet Mohammad. In Libya, this violence prompted the death of the US ambassador to Libya and three of his assistants.

The unanswered question in this scenario is whether the action of the protestors amounted to breach of international law as it applies to freedom of religion and human rights.

Global media has been reporting on the progress of eminent military interventions in Syria to punish the government of Syria for the allegedly using chemical weapons against its citizens. Such an intervention requires calls into action the international law as it applies to use of force in conflict resolutions coupled with the rights of protection of sovereignty of nations.

International law will play a big part in the resolutions on whether to attack Syria or not by the UN Security Council. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the Libyan case and the Syrian case in the context of international law. Through investigation of Syrian and the Libyan cases, the paper scrutinises the applicability of international law in the context of protection of human rights.

Background to international law International law is a body of rules and principles that various nations commonly embrace and acknowledge to tie their interactions. Smith (2011) notes that international law underscores the structure with which states and nations collectively accept to abide in their conduct and dealings.

International law essentially entails pacts, customs, and all the legal agreements amongst various nations. Essentially, international laws are applicable to countries, rather than individual civilians (Schrock-Jacobson 2012). To some extent, national legal instruments are applicable as international law, especially when agreements entrust their territorial power to supranational hearings.

With regard to Haugen and Boutros (2010), international law is not mandatory except when sovereign countries deliberately decide to adhere on their own consent. Despite the view that subscription to international law pacts is consent-based, the application of several international regulations affects even non-member states, which steadily follow definite practices, though not as a legal mandate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rules that conflict with the international community as absolute law are subject to modification through peremptory standards of the international law (Haugen

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History of Catholic Church Essay college admission essay help

Catholic religion dominated the lives of the medieval people between the 5th and the 15th century. Whether one was a peasant or a King, he/she had to dedicate his/her life to the church. Catholic religion became the only acceptable Christian religion, as it had a universal meaning. So powerful was the institution that it had its own lands, taxes, and laws. Apart from tax collection, the Catholic Church received gifts from people who wanted favors from heaven.

With the power, the church became so wealthy that it could even influence decisions of European Kings (“Middle Ages Religion” par. 4). Attempts to oppose the Catholic Church would lead to excommunication. It was not easy to dislodge Christianity from the lives and minds of the medieval men and women, as it was a template of ideas and modes of behavior. Within hours of birth an individual had to be baptized since it was one of the important events in the lives of medieval people.

Christianity of the medieval age had rituals and symbolisms in its practice. The village priest was responsible for consistent and regular administration of vital sacraments. In addition, he had the role of absolving women and men of their sins upon confession. Notably, the church wielded a lot of power during the medieval period in Europe.

The rise of Charlemagne and Carolingian Empire helped in protecting the church from criticism, and went on to unite its people under the church (“Middle Ages Religion” par. 7). He further organized for training programs for the clergy in order to make them more intellectual, moral and effective in their service delivery.

Renaissance humanism consists of teachings of Roman and Greek that scholars compiled in Italy and later spread across Europe (“Renaissance Humanism” par. 1). Humanism developed to challenge the utilitarian approach and its scholastic education associated with it. It aimed at instilling creativity skills in men and women, as well as reading and writing skills.

The whole concept of renaissance humanism drifted away from the medieval Christianity given that it intended to encourage independence of the mind. In Italy, for instance, Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) who stood for conservative humanism had to balance extreme piety and frank secularism given the evidence and accuracy of ideas from most scientific activities (“Renaissance Humanism” par. 5).

This illustrates the rebirth of individualism where one thinks for himself/herself; however, the rise of caste system in the church suppressed the concept of individualism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the church was of the view that individualism brought arrogance and rebellion to Christian teachings. Humanists were more concerned with the surrounding environment than with heaven’s mysteries. Machiavelli included the concept of individual expression and intellectual freedom in his literature, thus eliciting the protestant revolt.

The Byzantine Empire went to war with Bulgaria in the 11th century. So costly was the war that the Byzantine could not fight the Ottoman Turks for curving much of the state into Sultunate of Rum.

The capture of the King resulted in several attacks in 1071. Constant attacks by the Islamic neighbors further weakened the empire; this made it lose control over Constantinople in 1204 (Duiker and Spielvoge 47). When the Byzantine Empire lost control of its cities, a puppet government was established that weakened further the essential aspects of the empire.

Misappropriation of funds coupled with the numerous external and internal conflicts resulted in the fall of the once powerful empire in Italy in 1453. In allowing the West into the territory to help fight the Islamists during the first crusade, Byzantine continued to lose grip of the region. The fourth crusade partitioned the empire, hence weakening the King’s influence. From the analysis of the roles that crusades played, it is evident that they facilitated the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

Works Cited Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. The Essential World History. 7th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth ;, 2013. Print.

Middle Ages Religion, lordsandladies.org. N.p., n.d. Web.

Renaissance Humanism, The History Guide. N.p., n.d. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on History of Catholic Church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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SmallBizMaster Classes you never thought would help in an online business Essay (Article) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Classes you never thought would help you in an online business

The three Rs:

Lies, Damn Lies, And …

Art:

Social Studies:

Classes you never thought would help you in an online business Did you wonder why you had to suffer through most of the courses you took from kindergarten to the completion of your education? Do you remember the sense of joy with which you emptied your locker on the last day of school?

Were you one of those kids who abandoned books, papers, pencils, extra clothes, and any recollection of the content of your classes the moment the semester was completed? Did you vow never to crack a book again, once you had your mortarboard? You are not alone. However, there were sound reasons for most if not all of your courses and you may find them remarkably useful when trying to start or grow a small business, even if you missed the memo back in school.

Writing, reading, manipulating numbers, all should seem like rather obvious skills for a small independent businessperson. However, understanding statistics, using artistic principles, and grasping the import of current events are just a few of the additional competencies you will need as an entrepreneur. Let’s look at some of the classes that you never imagined would enter your consciousness again after you closed the textbook for the last time.

The three Rs: It may seem so boring to hear this again, but everyone needs to know how to read. You need to be able to read analytically and critically. This means being able to summarize what is said, identify and articulate how the writer made their point or achieved their effect, and assess the quality of their arguments.

These skills from literature and rhetoric class are the best defense against propaganda or scams, and allow you to identify where a speaker or writer is making an unsupportable assertion, rather than merely feeling uncomfortable with what is being contended without knowing why.

Furthermore, you need to be able to persuade and influence others. Don’t you want them to purchase your product or servc9e? If anyone is going to have an impact using words, shouldn’t it be you?

Whether mathematics was fun or terrifying to you, you will need it in business. Until you can hire someone to do all your quantitative thinking for you, you will need to be able to do the calculations involved in setting up and managing your enterprise. Figuring taxes involves math, but even deciding whether you owe taxes and how much involves calculating your income minus your expenses. If you took business math, you are ahead of the game.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lies, Damn Lies, And … The complexities of determining how successful you are and how to be more so may require a bit more than just math. You need to understand some basic statistics as well. Perhaps you have heard the humorist Evan Esar’s definition of statistics, “The science of producing unreliable facts from reliable figures. As a businessperson, you need to be able to understand what the data you observe imply.

These days, as well, with Big Data as a hot commodity, you need to be able to assess whether a particular statistical measure is worth purchasing.

Art: You may have wondered where you would ever use what you learned in History of Art, if you were lucky enough to take it. However, every time you update your business web page, you will need to use the principles of design. The same design ideas that make a classical painting pleasing and effective: balance, emphasis, movement, and so forth, make your web site and your marketing effective.

Social Studies: Remember all that emphasis on current events? A businessperson has to keep current and spot trends in the news in order to anticipate and respond to the marketplace. Your ability to track and analyze news and trends could mean the difference between your capturing, or missing out on, important opportunities.

Those fusty musty courses were doubtless a pain at the time. However, you will be pleased to have those skills under your belt and in your portfolio when you are trying to establish and grow your business.

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Theories of Intelligence and Students’ Achievements Research Paper college admissions essay help

Summary The article discusses the role played by implicit theories of intelligence in influencing the achievements of adolescents in mathematics. This was done through two research studies that involved different groups of adolescents. The first study involved 373 adolescents in 7th grade. This study had two variables: students who held the belief that intelligence could be easily influenced, and students who believed that intelligence was fixed and cannot be altered.

The researcher tested the efficacy and influence of goals and belief on individual effort. In the second study, a group of 48, 7th graders was taken through a learning model that focused on improvement of student motivation with regard to their beliefs. A control group of 43 students was also included as part of this study. In the first study, the belief that intelligence can be altered showed an upward trend in grades that students attained within the two years of the study.

The belief that intelligence was fixed did not show either an upward or downward trend on student’s grades. The grades remained unchanged for the period of study. In the second study, the experimental group showed an upward trend in grades while the control group showed a downward trend. These results can be attributed to the many developmental changes that adolescents go through.

These changes determine their academic achievements depending on how they affect their beliefs. Consequently, beliefs on intelligence affect their grades significantly. For example, students who believed that intelligence was fixed performed poorly in academics because they lacked the motivation to handle challenges.

In contrast, students who believed that they could alter their intelligence, were motivated enough to handle challenges without giving up even if they failed. In addition, students in this group worked harder in order to increase their intelligence and attain high grades. According to the findings of the study, intelligence theories can be manipulated in real-life to alter the outcomes of situations.

Reaction The study has several strengths that validate the findings. The establishment of control groups helped to authenticate the findings of the experimental groups. In addition, the number of participants eliminated the possibility of bias.

The first study involved 337 students while the second study involved 99 students. On the other hand, the first study eliminated any doubt of the finding’s effectiveness in displaying the effects of intelligence theories on achievement because it was conducted for two years. Finally, the study was able to determine the effect of intelligence theories on achievement based on the findings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It successfully showed the relationship between students’ achievements and their different beliefs with regard to intelligence theories. The study had weaknesses too. It involved students from one school only. This could have introduced some bias in the findings. The study should have included more schools to eliminate partiality because each school has different factors that either aid or hinder students’ belief in intelligence theories.

In the second study, the experimental group received additional training that could have introduced some bias in the findings. In addition, the length of study was not sufficient to validate the results. This was unlike in the first study where students were followed for two years. Finally, the study was inconclusive because it did not consider the effect of teaching these theories to students, which could alter their beliefs. It only considered the effect of students’ beliefs on the theories.

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Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries Research Paper cheap essay help

1. Nowadays, it became quite clear to just about anyone that the idea that, by providing a financial aid to the so-called ‘developing’ countries, Western nations would be able to help these countries to get out of poverty, has been deprived of the remains of its former legitimacy.[1]

This could not be otherwise, because ever since the ‘aid’ paradigm has attained the status of the UN official policy, in regards to the Third World countries, there has been not even a single instance reported of the policy’s implementation having produced a positive outcome.

Quite on the contrary – the more this ‘aid’ has been pumped into the concerned countries’ economy, the faster they grew detached from the notions of progress and development, in the first place. In its turn, this leaves very little doubt that the assumption that aid can serve as the tool of development, is conceptually fallacious. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above-stated thesis at length.

2. One of the reasons why, during the course of the late 20th century, it became a commonplace practice among ‘progressive’ politicians in the West to advocate the idea of aid, is that during this time it used to be fashionable to assess the essence of the ongoing developments on the international arena within the conceptual framework of political Constructivism. According to the paradigm’s foremost provision, as time goes on, the very purpose of the independent states’ continual existence undergoes a qualitative transformation. [2]

In its turn, this was supposed to justify the idea that rich countries should preoccupy themselves with trying to improve living standards in the Third World. Nevertheless, as time goes on, it becomes increasingly clear to more and more people that, discursively speaking, political Constructivism is nothing by the instrument that allows Western countries to conceal their actual (Realist) agenda, concerned with: a) political/economic expansion, b) maintenance of a political stability within, c) destabilization of competing states.

What it means is that Western countries cannot be genuinely interested in having aid, which they provide to the ‘developing’ countries, to prove effective, by definition. After all, the fact that people in the West enjoy the world’s highest standards of living is the direct consequence of the Western countries’ existential mode remaining largely ‘parasitic’.

The validity of this statement can be well illustrated, in regards to the FRS’s practice of emitting billions and billions of dollars, without bothering to ensure that the money in question does reflect the value of any material assets. As a result, the US currency had ceased to represent any objective value, whatsoever, while being turned into essentially the tons of a valueless green paper (nowadays, it is rather the bunch of digital zeroes in the FRS’s main computer).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, it is specifically this currency (the US dollar), with which the Western world pays ‘developing’ countries, in exchange for their natural and human resources. In the similar manner, Spanish and later British colonists used to buy land from the American Natives, in exchange for glass-beads. Therefore, the Western practice of providing the Third World countries with aid, while these countries are being robbed clean by the very same ‘aid-providers’, is a hypocrisy of the worst kind.

Being strongly hypocritical, this practice cannot possibly result in the improvement of living standards among the world’s most impoverished people. Quite on the contrary – it prompts aid-recipients to adopt the mentality of beggars, which are doomed to rely on others, while trying to meet the ends.[3] In its turn, this causes the ‘poor and needy’ to become resentful of their moralistically minded ‘beneficiaries’.

In this respect, it would prove quite impossible to disagree with Bindra, who suggested that: “Far from being productive or necessary, the donor-dependant relationship most often ends in mutual hatred. And amid the final acrimony, one crucial fact is forgotten: the longer the relationship has carried on, the less capable the dependant of reducing his dependence”.[4]

This explains the phenomenon of legal and illegal immigrants from the Third world continuing to arrive to the Western shores in big numbers, despite remaining deeply resentful of the so-called ‘Western values’. These people are perfectly aware that in their own countries, they do not have even a slight chance of a social advancement, by definition, which in turn is the direct consequence of the West’s ‘well-meaning’ geopolitical arrogance, reflected by the euro-centric belief that aid can indeed serve as the tool of development.

This, of course, once again exposes the sheer fallaciousness of the assumption that by throwing ‘crumbs’ from their richly served tables to those people that have to struggle with hunger on a daily basis, philanthropically-minded Westerners would be able to make a difference.

There is another reason why there can be no rationale, whatsoever, in thinking that there may be any objective benefits to the policy of providing aid to the ‘developing’ countries – especially if the latter happened to be situated in Africa. This reason has to do with the fact that, in the evolutionary sense of this word, these countries’ citizens cannot be considered equal with their Western or South-Asian counterparts.

After all, it does not represent much of a secret that the average rate of IQ among citizens of the world’s most impoverished countries, such as Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Ethiopia, amounts to as low as 50-60.[5] What it means is that the very assumption that aid can trigger the process of the evolutionary underdeveloped individuals being set on the path of progress, does not stand much of a discursive ground.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason for this is apparent – it is only those individuals that are capable of operating with highly abstract subject matters, which in turn is being reflected by the rate of their IQ, who have what it takes to be able to enforce the virtues of a rationale-based (and consequentially prosperous) living.

After all, it is specifically one’s ability to understand the meaning of abstractly sounding terms/definitions, which creates objective preconditions for the individual in question to be capable of exercising a rational control over its animalistic urges.

One of these urges is concerned with the intellectually underdeveloped people’s tendency to remain tribally minded, throughout the course of their lives. In its turn, this can be discussed in terms of a metaphysical ground, out of which these people’s taste for corruption actually stems.

This helps us to understand why, as practice indicates, at least 60% of a financial/material aid that is being provided to the ‘developing’ countries annually, on the part of the West, ends up being stolen by the local officials, in charge of distributing this aid among the most socially disadvantaged citizens. [6]

Yet, it is not only that this does not cause aid-providing Western countries to reconsider the legitimacy of the policy in question, but it in fact appears to provide aid-donors with an additional incentive to keep on throwing money into the bottomless pit of the Third World. Such a seeming illogicality, however, can be well explained once we realize that, in the geopolitical sense of this word, the term ‘aid’ is nothing but the well-sounding euphemism to the term ‘extortion’.

The rationale behind this suggestion is as follows: By providing aid to the Third World countries, Westerners contribute to the maintenance of the situation when the representatives of the corrupted ruling elites in these countries, are able to remain in the position of power, while continuing to lead a parasitic existence. The price of this is that the rest of ordinary citizens are being kept in the state of an extreme poverty.

After all, the more impoverished citizens are, the easier it is to provide them with the incentives to participate in elections/publicly held mass-rallies, which in turn legitimize the earlier mentioned state of affairs. This is because the cost of the impoverished citizens’ active participation in the earlier mentioned activities is comparatively cheap.

For example, it represents a common practice, on the part of politicians in many ‘developing’ countries, to hire people to participate in the mass-rallies (staged to prove that these politicians indeed enjoy much of a public support), by paying every individual ‘supporter’ as little, as $1 per day.[7] This partially explains the reason why, while pumping finances into the economies of the Third World countries, the UN bureaucrats never cease stressing out that the provided financial assistance is also meant to promote the values of democracy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Providing a Financial Aid to the Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While knowing perfectly well that, within the Third World settings, democracy necessarily breeds corruption, the earlier mentioned bureaucrats simply strive to maintain the present status quo in the ‘developing’ countries, concerned with the situation when the small minority of these countries’ richest citizens continues to subject their less fortunate countrymen to the most extreme forms of an economic exploitation.

Therefore, the democracy-rhetoric, on the part of those Western politicians who popularize the idea that aid can indeed be considered the tool of development, indicates that, despite having condemned the legacy of colonialism formally, Western countries nevertheless continue to remain essentially colonial – although this time, their colonial aspirations are concealed with the politically correct wrapper of ‘aid’.[8]

Finally, the idea that aid may serve as the instrument of development cannot be considered thoroughly valid, because it is nothing but the byproduct of White people’s endowment with the sense of a perceptual euro-centrism.

That is, the concerned idea appears to be consistent with solely the Western outlook on what the notion of development stands for, because it reflects While people’s tendency to associate this particular notion with the notion of quality. What it means that there are no good reasons to consider this idea applicable, within the context of how people in non-Western countries go about addressing their evolutionary agenda of securing and expanding the affiliated environmental niche on the planet.

The reason for this is apparent – even though that, regardless of what happened to be the particulars of their ethno-cultural affiliation, all people are similar, in respect of being ‘programmed’ to seek domination, the strategies that they deploy during the course of the process, reflect the measure of the concerned individuals’ existential complexity.

Whereas, some people strive to maintain their evolutionary fitness by the mean of contributing to the pace of the technological/cultural progress (quality), the others pursue the same agenda by the mean of making babies on an industrial scale. In the eyes of evolution, neither of the mentioned strategies can be deemed ‘superior’ – all that matters, is that the chosen strategy ensures the eventual survival/dominance, on the part of its affiliates.[9] [10]

In its turn, this implies that, despite the fact that many citizens in the Third World countries do suffer from undernourishment; ‘aid’ (in the Western sense of this word) is the last thing they need.

For example, within the matter of forty years, the population of Ethiopia has tripled – despite the fact that, throughout this time, Ethiopians continued to suffer from the never-ending civil war and famine.[11] Perceptually ‘feminized’ Westerners, on the other hand, grow ever more incapable of addressing even the most basic life-challenges – despite enjoying the world’s highest standards of living.

As opposed to the Western societies of whining degenerates, which have effectively ceased evolving, the Ethiopian society is blessed with the Darwinian vitality, which in turn allows its members to successfully deal even with the most unimaginable hardships – without needing to be ‘aided’ by those who cause these hardships, in the first place.

3. I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that the notions of ‘aid’ and ‘development’ are mutually inconsistent, fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis. Apparently, aid cannot lead to development, by definition.

Bibliography Bebler, Anton. “Self-Assertion in the Third World.” International Political Science Review 1, no. 3 (1980): 369-380.

Bindra, Sunny. “Men Behaving Badly.” In Missionaries, Mercenaries and Misfits: An Anthology, edited by Rasna Warah, 147-155. London: AuthorHouse, 2008.

Ghosh, Arun. “Self-Reliance, Recent Economic Policies and Neo-Colonialism.” Economic and Political Weekly 27, no. 17 (1992): 865-868.

Hodgson, Geoffrey. “Darwinism and Institutional Economics.” Journal of Economic Issues 37, no. 1 (2003): 85-97.

Jones, Jack. “Social Darwinism Reconsidered.” Political Psychology 3, no. ½ (1981): 239-266.

Lynn, Richard, and Tatu Vanhanen. IQ and the Wealth of Nations. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

O’Higgins, Eleanor. “Corruption, Underdevelopment, and Extractive Resource Industries: Addressing the Vicious Cycle.” Business Ethics Quarterly 16, no. 2 (2006): 235-254.

Olssen, Mark. “Radical Constructivism and its Failings: Anti-Realism and Individualism.” British Journal of Educational Studies 44, no. 3 (1996): 275-295.

Szeftel, Morris. “Misunderstanding African Politics: Corruption

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Living in the Tenth Century: Essay (Book Review) essay help: essay help

Living in the Tenth Century, a book by Heinrich Fithtenau, presents an interesting view of life in Europe in the tenth century. Fithtenau takes the audience to a journey through the second millennium in Medieval Europe. The book is voluminous and challenging for those with no scholarly interest in History.

For Historians, it offers enlightenment and deeper understanding on how life has changed from medieval period to now. Fithtenau delves into all facets of life in Medieval Europe. The book digs into the interplay between rural schooling and religion. Additionally, it focuses on social order and the tenth century economy. This book review will demonstrate that Fithtenau’s book has well developed and credible arguments. It will also show that the book is resourceful but challenging to undergraduate students.

Fithtenau extrapolates the life in the tenth century Europe from the Carolingian age. He then ventures into emerging states like France and Germany. The tenth century experienced several changes in religion, economy, and education. In religion, the hypocrisy in Roman Catholic Church had led to disenchantment within a cross section of Christians.

There was incessant clamor for church reform from many quarters. Religious movements opposed to the Roman Catholic were gaining momentum day by day. What makes Fithtenau compelling as a writer is his style of themes presentation. On religion for instance, the book has pages with accounts of renowned clergy and bishops.

The book also focuses on population growth and urbanization. Increased food production led to better health and higher population. Additionally, people could sell surplus agricultural products or exchange them for things they did not have. The places that people met to trade became urban centers.

The book details accounts of rich land owners who cultivated corn. This era also witnessed the rise of different professions. These include architecture, engineering, and insurance. Trade led to emergence of brokers and intermediaries. In the new economic order, these intermediaries became merchants. The rich carved more land for themselves and hired poor people as laborers in vast cornfields.

Fithtenau book is unique because of the author’s dexterity in showing how different spheres of life connected and interplayed in the tenth century. The book delves into the notion of social order and shows how the societies organized themselves along schemes of order. The church exploited this order to teach subservience to those in low schemes. The elites exploited the notion of social order for social preservation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fithtenau uses this notion of social order to penetrate and understand the tenth century Europe. The medieval society was conducting rituals as a means of perpetuating and preserving schemes of order. However, Fithtenau suggests that order was elusive as people sought more participation in church reform and governance issues. This often led to conflicts.

The book caricatures the world around six basic notions. The first part of the book, titled Ordo, shows how social class determined access to the leadership and god. The society venerated the rich and lavished them with gifts and kind gestures. The second part of the book, titled Familia, captures family relations.

Fithtenau explores the subordinate status of women in the society. The book reveals the family as a unit organized around a woman in spite of her subjugated status. It also portrays the tensions that persisted in the royal family especially when it was time for succession. In the third section, titled Nobolitas, the book explores the administrative powers of the nobility.

In the book, Fithtenau captures human struggles to impose social order on the society. The society was also witnessing a conflict between Christian and pagan belief. This conflict is believed to emanate from the bumper harvest of 1033.There were those who attributed the harvest to God’s powers.

Others attributed it to magic. More than religion, people were also obsessed with proximity to power. Those close to power attracted respect and attention from those who were far from it. To get closer to those in power, those far from it offered gifts and praises. Women for instance addressed powerful men as “my lord”.

Living in the tenth Century also captures the debates on social thoughts that prevailed in Medieval Europe. The ecclesiastical nobility had outraged the secular nobility by using religion rather than economic status as a route to nobility. Fithtenau subverts the ecclesiastical nobility and upholds the secular nobility.

This shows that medieval Europe valued and esteemed secular clergies more. In the section titled religio, Fithtenau does not discuss ecclesiastical clergy, as the audience would expect. Instead, the section discusses reformers who were dissatisfied with the monastic. Interestingly, Fithtenau discusses bishops and clergy under the section of his book titled nobilitas. This shows that he considered their social status higher than their religious position.

We will write a custom Book Review on Living in the Tenth Century: specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another conspicuous aspect of the tenth century Europe as presented by Fithtenau is veneration of ranks and social status. The society expected people of the higher rank to behave and dress in a certain way. The ruling class lost personal identity because it had to conform to predetermined models. This class had a standing army for self-preservation. The army ensured that the peasants did not jeopardize the safety or status of the ruling class.

Fithtenau not only presents his argument but also provides logical reasoning to back it. In the original German version of the book, the author provides appendix and footnotes detailing accounts of the clergy, the ruling class, and the emerging intellectuals. This enhances credibility of the book.

Fithtenau portrays historical events correctly and factually. For instance, other Historians corroborate the loss in distinction between the clergy and ruling class. The increasing disenchantment with the clergy and ruling class appears in many other texts as Fithtenau captures it in his book.

Fithtenau’s Living in the Tenth Century is voluminous and very detailed. It is thus appropriate for Historians and anthropologists who wish to advance in their discipline. However, the book is complex and advanced for undergraduates. Fithtenau’s command on the subject and narrative style makes the book a compelling read. It is an incomparable resource book in spite of Lexical complexity. I would therefore recommend it to anyone interested in the History of medieval Europe.

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Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics Compare and Contrast Essay online essay help

The poems ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Odyssey’ have characteristics of an epic piece of literature. Epic poems have distinct features that separate them from other poems. To start with, they are lengthy and usually in a narrative style. Their themes are grand and the main characters are heroic figures. The protagonists face many challenges in the course of the poems, culminating into victory or failure. Some epics have supernatural figures or powers, while others have physical combats exemplary displayed by one or two characters.

Moreover, epics tackle the daily routine of life not just entertaining or glorifying some characters. Instead, they capture events that transpired in a given period. This paper will demonstrate that ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Odyssey’ are classic epics depicting the events happening in their respective periods. It will also compare and contrast the two poems under consideration.

In ‘The Odyssey’, by Homer, Odysseus is the heroic figure, who has fought in the Trojan War and achieved victory. He struggles to get back to his homeland, Ithaca, but his journey is full of tribulations. Odysseus is constantly under the danger of attack and dodging death, giving him ample time to think about his life, in particular, the spiritual life. However, he has to go home to Ithaca and save his people. The fact that Odysseus is a hero in a mission to save his nation distinguishes the poem as an epic.

‘Divine Comedy’ by Dante Alighieri reflects on life after death. The poet pens down his imagination of how hell would look like. It is a poem about the supernatural more than about a hero, which is the first difference between the current poem and ‘The Odyssey’. ‘Divine Comedy’ has 14, 233 lines, the number that is almost equal to ‘The Odyssey’ (Dante 43).

Dante makes himself the main character in the work that can be viewed as an aspect that distinguishes it from other epics. In spite of these differences in main characters, the two poems fit perfectly within the definition of an epic.

The beginning and setting of the two poems epitomize the writings as well. ‘The Odyssey’ starts by invoking a muse. Then, Homer follows this by extrapolating on the themes in the poem, which is a characteristic of an epic.

The setting covers a vast distance as Odysseus travels back to Ithaca across the Mediterranean Sea after the Trojan War. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ also begins in medias res. There are three different settings in the poem: the inferno, purgatorio, and paradise. The many settings afford epic poets an opportunity to develop their themes without space constraints.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It should be outlined that a major characteristic of epics is the use of heroic figures. Odysseus is the hero in Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’, who is venerated and fondly sobriquet the “Odyssey, master mariner and solder” (Homer 436). Odysseus undergoes numerous trials and tribulations but he emerges stronger each time. In the poem, the main hero and his men run into Cyclops. Facing imminent defeat, the brave leader intelligently fools Cyclops and blindfolds him.

Thus, Odysseus secures his men’s safety. In another episode, the king of Ithaca encounters Circle, the Greek goddess with powers to turn men into animals. Again, he secures the safety of his men by defeating the mighty woman. In the third encounter, visiting the underworld and meets his mother and other fallen heroes. Notably, the interaction between dead and living men is a distinct feature of epics.

‘Divine Comedy’ is different because it does not have a human hero who excels in war. Instead, the author enters into the afterlife and presents it to his audience. Thirty-five-year-old Dante makes entrance into a dark forest where he sees a light from a distance and attempts to reach it. However, a ferocious and angry lion stands on his way.

A spirit comes to rescue him but not without a price. The main character will have to go through hell, purgatory, and then get his way to heaven. Dante is ready to take the journey because of his desire to escape from a sinful world. In this poem, the author makes extensive use of supernatural beings, animals, and dead people, which can qualify the writing piece as an epic poem.

Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’ extensively applies supernatural forces, an aspect of an epic. Gods and goddess appear in the poem in many instances. Some of the supernatural forces help the hero while others are viewed as a hindrance to the hero’s progress. Poseidon hinders Odysseus’ progress by putting him through Calypso, a very dangerous island. Goddess Circle opposes Oedipus’ trespass and threatens to kill his men.

More about This Topic Who is Tiresias in the Odyssey? 5 75 Who are the suitors in the Odyssey? What is their fate? 5 45 Who is Hermes in the Odyssey? 5 109 Which part of the Odyssey is about learning patience and humility? 5 210 Which excerpt from part 2 of the Odyssey best supports the conclusion that Odysseus is clever? 5 230 Which excerpt from the Odyssey demonstrates the importance of hospitality in Greek society? 5 139 However, other gods and goddess facilitate Oedipus’ journey back to Ithaca. Athena, for instance, helps Oedipus escape from goddess Circle in Calypso. Hermes too facilitates Oedipus’ sojourn by offering protection against Calypso. As mentioned earlier, the use of superpowers is one characteristic of epics. Calypso, Hermes, Poseidon, and Circle elevate Homer’s poem epic stature.

Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ uses supernatural powers and unreal settings extensively. As mentioned before, Dante makes his poem unique by presenting himself as the main character. In his epic, he narrates his afterlife in hell and finally the journey to heaven. He also describes Virgil as the other main character in his poem, who was a Roman poet widely acclaimed for his Christian ways and moral rectitude. Capturing war escapades of the man who founded Rome, Virgil redeems Dante by offering him the way to heaven.

We will write a custom Essay on Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other deceased character in Dante’s poem is Beatrice, the author’s first love, who guides him in heaven. There are other mythological personages and creatures in the poem, including Arachne and Harpies, supernatural figures like demons, angels, and the devil. Just like in Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’, the use of mythological and supernatural figures enhances the poem’s epic nature.

One should bear in mind that the epic poems do not merely entertain or detail lives of heroes for their own sake. Instead, they pass across a message that resonates with what was happening at the particular period. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ captures the materialism and moral decadence that plagued his society. The poem employs deep allegory to depict the consequences of sin. Thus, it begins on the eve of Good Friday with the setting in the thick of dark woodland.

On the opposite side, allure of the sun beckons but a ferocious lion stands on the way. It could be considered that the dark forest symbolizes sin. The sun, however, represents salvation. The lion embodies all the things that hold human beings back from heaven. By timing his death on a Good Friday, Dante captures how Jesus died to save humanity. He argues that peoples’ greed and self-seeking pursuit set them apart from God.

Homer’s ‘ The Odyssey’ captures Odysseus’ trials and challenges as he attempts to get back to his people. The theme of homecoming runs through the poem. Temptation as a theme is also recurrent. Thus, Odysseus resists numerous temptations as he makes his way to Ithaca.

However, some of his solders suffer psychological peril because of falling into temptations. At a symbolic level, the poem shows how weakness makes human beings vulnerable. Identity and exile also run through the poem where Odysseus is in a foreign country to fight for his homeland. After winning the war, he has to go through hostile land to his people back at home that also need him. At a symbolic level, this journey represents human pursuit of identity.

In conclusion, the paper has extrapolated some characteristics of epics that are genres of long poetry, often classical. They are narratives with the elevated themes usually focusing on success and failures of heroes. Additionally, they may have supernatural characters that interact with mortals.

The poems ‘Divine Comedy’ by Dante and Homer’s ‘The Odyssey’ are epics. They start in medias res and invoke a muse in the beginning. Homer’s poem concentrates on extraordinary acts of king of Ithaca who is returning home after a successful war in a foreign land.

Throughout his journey, he encounters stiff resistance from some gods and goddess but manages to arrive home at the end. Dante’s ‘Divine Comedy’ focuses on afterlife where the author imagines the life after death and commits himself to investigate it for the audience. His poem is a protestation against materialism and decadence that rocked his society. The two poems fit perfectly within the characteristics of an epic.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Divine Comedy and the Odyssey as Epics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Dante, Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. London: Laurence King, 2010. Print.

Homer. The Odyssey. London: Penguin Classics, 2009. Print.

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Twelve Years a Slave Essay (Book Review) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The author of this book was born in 1808. He was raised in Minerva, New York. There is scanty information about his mother, and her name is not mentioned in the book. He is the son of Mintus, who was a slave under the Northup family. However, his father was freed from slavery after the family relocated to New York.

During his younger years, Solomon Northup assisted his father with the daily farming chores. Occasionally, he would also work as a rafts man. Northup got married to Anne Hampton. She had a background of mixed ancestry. Their wedding took place during the Christmas celebrations of 1829. They were blessed with three children during their marriage.

The author also became famous during the 1830s due to his skills in playing the fiddle. In 1841, Northup received a generous offer to join a group of performing artists on a tour of various states. However, just after accepting the offer, he was kidnapped and auctioned into slavery in the southern states.

During his time in slavery, Northup had several masters some of whom were brutal, and others that he deeply acknowledges as being kind and generous. The author was freed from slavery by an official of the state of Louisiana. After being released he filed kidnapping charges against his abductors, but the case was thrown away on technical grounds.

This book was recorded by a European lawyer acknowledging that it was the true account of the recollections of Solomon Northup. The book was subsequently published in 1853; barely a year after Solomon was freed from slavery. The initial chapters of this publication discuss the history of the Northup’s and the author’s marriage to Anne.

It also looks at his occupation as a farmer and rafts man. It further narrates about his life as a fiddle player and his kidnapping. Northup was promised hefty wages, $1 for a day and $3 for each show he performed. However, after arriving in Washington D.C., Northup was drugged causing him to fall asleep. When he finally woke up, he found himself “alone, in utter darkness, and in chains” (Northup 38). He was astonished to realize that a slave pen existed within Washington D.C.

The author was sold to a ruthless slave dealer who constantly whipped him for claiming that he was a free individual. During his stay at the slave pen, he met Eliza. The sad story of this lady is narrated by Northup in the subsequent pages of the book (Northup 50-54). During their transportation to New Orleans, the slaves plotted a mutiny.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, this plan is abandoned after one of them succumbs to a smallpox infection (Northup 69-72). They are finally sold to Theophilus Freeman. Northup and Eliza who were lucky not to succumb to the infection are later bought by a clergy-man named William Ford. The author states that the preacher was moved by the cries of Eliza to purchase her younger sibling, but the trader refused. Northup describes the preacher as a kind individual (Northup 90).

Northup is later sold to a carpenter to whom Ford owed a lot of money because of his skills and hard work. He is a victim of brutal treatment at the hands of Tibeats. When his master attempted to assault him for a mistake, Northup fought back and snatched the whip. He later whips Tibeats before he could be rescued. Out of anger his master attempted to lynch him.

However, Northup is rescued by an observer who felt compassion (Northup 107-111). Later, Tibeats attempts to kill Northup with a hatchet, but again he cannot match the strength of the slave. After brutally assaulting his master, Northup is forced to escape and seek refuge in Ford’s farm where he is provided with protection (Northup 139).

The second part of the book provides a description of Northup’s life in the cotton plantations. He also talks of his escaped when hired out to the sugar cane plantations. He also provides a detailed account of the lives of other slaves particularly the harsh treatment they get from their masters (Northup 179-180).

The authors attempt to send communication back home thwarted by the Edwin with whom he had shared his secret. However, Northup was cunning enough to request the favor without showing Edwin the letter. Since there is no evidence, he easily refutes the accusations leveled against him. The author later met Mr. Bass who was a Canadian specializing in carpentry.

The carpenter agrees to help Northup send some letters home. They both recognize the significance of the act. The author notes that the experience he got from the first attempt made him extra cautious when dealing with Mr. Bass. The carpenter also re-affirmed the need for utmost secrecy (Northup 269-271). After a long delay which made Northup despair, he is finally rescued by a member of the family which his father served as a slave.

The final chapters of the book describe the legal proceedings which ensued after the release of Solomon Northup. The author through the help of Henry filed charges of abduction against his captors (Northup 315-319). The book ends on a happy note when the author is reunited with his wife and family. Northup is also gets to meet his grandson named after him.

We will write a custom Book Review on Twelve Years a Slave specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave: Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853, from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River, in Louisiana, New York: Miller, Orton

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Church versus State: Antigone and Modern States Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Sophocles’ Greek play ‘Antigone’ presents a conflict between the god and man’s law. Antigone, the protagonist, believes that one’s conscience and divine law should prevail over the human’s one. She is proud and stubborn, qualities that make her uncompromising even in the face of adversity. Yet, others view her as an embodiment of resistance against unjust laws (Humphrey and Edith 23). Creon, the king of Thebes and Antigone’s uncle, has the duty to protect and enforce the state laws.

Their blood relationship notwithstanding, Creon and Antigone are involved in a protracted conflict over the burial of Polyneices, Antigone’s brother (Sophocles 12). As this paper will demonstrate, the tension between Antigone and Creon symbolizes a higher conflict between the state and god laws. Additionally, this paper will delve into the modern day conflict between the church and the state as seen in contentious issues such as abortion and same sex marriage.

Sophocles’ Antigone starts with an intense argument between Antigone and her sister, Ismene, over the burial of their brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices. Eteocles dies a hero fighting for his kingdom. Polyneices, on the other hand, is seen as a traitor because he dies fighting against Thebes. According to the laws of the land, Eteocles deserves an honorable burial while his brother should rot unburied on the spot where he has died.

Those who go against this law risk death by mob justice. Antigone, however, is ready to violate the law and bury her slain brother. This sets the first stage for a conflict with her uncle. Religion decrees that a dead man ought to be buried in order to save the society against a bad omen. In spite of this, Antigone decides to take this path. Creon insists on enforcing the laws of the land that prohibit the burial of traitors. Sophocles maintains his play by escalating the tension between the king and his niece.

A fear of reprisal, or a promise of reward, underpins the choice to obey or disobey a law (Phoebe 23). In Sophocles’ Antigone, Ismene is afraid to participate in her brother’s burial for fear of death by mob justice. Antigone, on the other hand, is driven by love for her slain brother.

She also wants to uphold the laws of gods, as she fears that failure to do so will attract their wrath against the people. Creon shares Antigone’s stubbornness and hubris. He is afraid that such acts of impunity, as demonstrated by Antigone, will hurt his legacy. Besides, it is the fear that forces him to seek counsel from Teiresias, the blind village priest, on the controversy surrounding the burial of his nephew.

Ultimately, the king succumbs to gods’ laws and ignores the human law. He decides to follow the law of gods albeit too late because he had already lost his son. Eventually, Antigone commits suicide. By the tragedy between Creon and Antigone, Sophocles suggests that the practice of religion should be tempered by reason (Spender 23). It is foolhardy to follow laws blindly without being mindful of realities of the world. Antigone demonstrates that should tyrannical laws conflict with divine law, it is more prudent to follow the latter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflicts between the church and a state are not confined to Sophocles’ era. In the modern world, the church is at loggerheads with the state on many issues. These conflicts sometimes escalate to full blown wars. In the interest of stability and fair treatment before the law, many states have legal provisions separating the church from the state.

Humphrey and Edith, however, argue that such separations are theoretical and hardly realizable (34). During the civil rights protests in the United States of America, Martin Luther King Junior, a clergy and young leader, lambasted the church for its silence and indifference in times of oppression.

In Britain, the church played a leading role in abolition of the slave trade. In South Africa, Bishop Desmond Tutu led his followers to demonstrate against the state perpetrated apartheid. History is replete with many conflicts involving the church and the state. This section will discuss some of these conflicts vis-à-vis the conflict between Antigone and Creon in Sophocles’ Antigone.

The first area of the conflict between the church and the state is on the issue of abortion. The Bible categorically forbids termination of pregnancy. Many states, however, have realized the inevitability of abortion in some situations. The pro-life argument is deeply rooted in biblical and other religious texts.

To most Christians, life begins at conception and only God has the right to take it away. However, logic and science dictate that in the best interest of the mother, it is sometimes necessary to terminate a pregnancy. In cases of pregnancy through an incest, for instance, such a child, if born, will be a constant source of shame to the mother. The same case applies to a pregnancy from rape.

In some cases, doctors may prescribe an abortion if the birth of a child will put the mother’s life at risk. According to the United States laws and laws of many other liberal nations of the world, abortion is allowed if it is in the best interest of the mother and the child. This is a classic case where the church conflicts with the state. Some fundamental Christians are strongly against the termination of pregnancies irrespective of the circumstances. In some Northern states of the USA, Christian fundamentalists ostracize and kill the women who abort.

The other conflict area between the church and the state is the same sex marriage. God created the Universe and a man and then created a woman to give the man company. The Bible is emphatic that a man should marry only a woman. Same sex marriages are, however, becoming common in the modern times. In the UK and USA, the members of the same sex marry publicly with blessings from their parents.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Church versus State: Antigone and Modern States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As much as it is against Christianity, many states in the United States of America have legalized gay marriages. The first amendment of the U.S. constitution allows for liberty and pursuit of happiness without undue restriction. The government role is to protect and enforce this law. Through its bodies and agencies, the government must protect the rights of gay people to marry without any discrimination. In the USA, President Obama has come under a scathing attack from the church for endorsing same sex marriages, especially in the military.

The tension between the church and the state in the modern times evokes the irreconcilable conflict between Antigone and Creon. Phoebe claims that personal traits, rather than the interpretation of the law and Bible, fuel most of church versus state conflicts (11). In Sophocles’ Antigone, the protagonists are too proud and stubborn to reconsider their positions and make a compromise. In the modern times, the church listens to the state to respond, not to understand (Spender 23). This explains why the church and the state will conflict even when they agree fundamentally. Even in absence of any ground for discord, the church and the state will perpetually be in conflict.

Works Cited Humphrey, D., and Edith, H. Antigone: Book review, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2008. Print.

Phoebe, P. “On Poetry: Rebels with a Cause.” The New Leader 2.1 (2004): 1-4. Print.

Sophocles. Antigone, Arlington: Richer Resources Publications, 2007. Print.

Spender, Stephen. “Desperately Seeking Sophocles: Oedipus Trilogy.” The New Republic 2.1 (2006): 1-5. Print.

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Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture Research Paper essay help

Abstract Each and every organization aims at ensuring that it has in place the best practices in the market. Dignity and reputation of a firm depends on interrelations not only amongst staff, but also with customers and suppliers. As a result, having a code of ethics which defines the ethical actions that one can take in any given scenario has become the order of the day.

Codes of ethics help in enhancing consistence of behavior among employees, orientation of new employees as well as communicating expectations of the company to all stakeholders. While having a code of ethics is vital in creation of ethical corporate culture, there are people who have a contrary view. The paper enumerates the various benefits of code of ethics thus outlining its importance in creation of a working corporate culture.

Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture The main aim of any business entity is to make as much profit as possible. Employees are therefore encouraged use their inputs in a manner that will maximize income of the organization. However, if pushed too much by the need to make more money, many people are bound to engage in certain behaviors that might not be in tandem with the visions of the organization. As a result, many organizations and professions have come up with regulations limiting the behavior that is allowed.

These codes of ethics define what employees as well as people in a given profession can or cannot do. The process of carrying out a given activity is fully outlined and deviance from these may lead to punishment. Though many people have applauded these codes of ethics due to the benefits that they have to organizations, there are those who do not see the importance of ethical codes conduct to corporate cultures.

To begin with, it should be noted that almost every organization has in place a code of ethics which regulates the behavior of its members. The main aim of having ethical code of ethics in place is not necessarily to increase output but rather to enhance correct behavior among people in the organization. As a matter of fact, good behavior among employees of a given company is known as one of the factors that attract customers and enhances customer retention (Shaw, 2010).

In this regard, ethical codes of conduct are vital in providing the proper way of handling various issues especially if the course of action is not immediately clear. It is important to note that there are scenarios whose mode of action is not defined in the rules and regulations of a company. Situations like these require a defined way of handling them to avoid conflicts.

On the same note, ethical codes of conduct are used to socialize new employees when they join an organization. It is important to note that new employees will need to be guided on how to behave while working in an organization. If they find that everybody is supposed to use his or her own means in solving a problem, they will also start using their own ways in addressing various issues. However, people have diverse ways of approaching issues in life and leaving them free to act how they want will lead to conflicts (Mika, 2011). Codes of ethics are therefore essential in enhancing values and principles of organizations among employees whether new or old.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, codes of ethics are usually written in a manner that fosters what the company expects from each and every stakeholder. Codes of ethics define the expected behavior of every person in any given scenario.

In this regard, organizations are able to clearly communicate their expectations not only to staff, but also customers (Wulf, 2011). After understanding organizational code of ethics, people are able to streamline their actions as required. Moreover, ethical codes of conduct help in promoting honesty and free communication in an organization.

Among the issues outlined in the ethical code of ethics is how people should be treated within an organization. The rights and privileges of each and every employee are clearly explained. Additionally, each member’s responsibilities are highlighted and procedures to be followed for promotions or demotions are laid down.

As a result, favors or unequal treatment can be avoided (Wulf, 2011). Knowledge of one’s rights is very crucial in enabling a person to avoid mistreatment. Therefore, outlining the rights of employees and other important procedures in ethical codes of conduct helps in eliminating unprofessional behaviors especially among managers. As a result, a culture of adhering to company policies is propagated which in the end enhances the sense of belonging.

It should be noted that there are regulations that are put in place by governments of various countries on what is expected from business organizations. However, not all these requirements can be captured in organizations’ rules and regulations.

As a result, codes of ethics help in ensuring that various governmental regulations are adhered to. As a matter of fact, it is a governmental requirement that each organization should have in place an ethical code of conduct (Bacher, 2007). This ensures that people in the organization develop a culture of respecting and adhering to governmental regulations.

Ethical code of conduct highlights how business transactions should be handled and how problems from customers and suppliers will be addressed. Besides ensuring consistence in the way that customer issues and business activities are handled, ethical code of ethics make sure that the best practices are used in executing duties.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This ensures that customers are satisfactorily served and that the reputation of a firm is upheld (Wulf, 2011). This is crucial in securing public trust in the company thus increasing its market share. Notably, daily actions of people end up being their behavior in the end.

Loyalty of employees is highly dependent on whether the organization handles them well or not. Buy having a good and sound code of ethics in place, a firm ensures that subjective treatment of employees by management is eliminated. Moreover, sound ethical code of conduct elevates public opinion regarding a firm.

This is quite essential in enhancing employee morale and pride thus enhancing not only their behavior, but also their productivity. Arguably, employees are motivated to behave in a given manner by the social status of the firm they work for. Most importantly, corporate culture is supposed to be effective and positive devoid of the governmental policies in place. In areas where there are weak governmental policies, ethical code of conduct is very essential in ensuring that high degree of professionalism is maintained.

Some actions may seem negligible to an individual but they can lead to legal actions against an organization (Shaw, 2010). Employees should be made to avoid these actions thereby saving the firm from unnecessary legal tussles. Ethical code of conduct defines all procedures that should be followed in executing any duty thus helping in reducing legal risks.

Additionally, ethical codes of conduct form the basis on which employee training and development is based. When an employee is unable to fully adhere to the laid down code of ethics, it sends a message to the management that the employee requires training in the given area. This helps in enhancing good behavior among employee and aligning the behavior of all employees.

On the same note, ethical code of conduct is part of the requirements that are supposed to be met by new employees. As a result, having a sound code of ethics in place ensures that only the best employees are recruited thus fostering organizational culture (Mika, 2011). It, therefore, goes without saying that ethical code of conduct is a very important ingredient in generating organizational culture.

However, this beautiful ideology has its own drawbacks which have made some people skeptical about its advantages to organizations. Firstly, evidence has depicted that though codes of conduct are designed with the aim of enhancing equality among employees of an organization, this is not always the case.

High ranking employees and managers are always exempted from some requirements that are outlined in the codes of ethics. For example, top-level managers are not so much monitored on the time that they report to work as is the case for junior employees. All this does not go unnoticed by the other members of staff (Bacher, 2007). As a result, instead of the codes of conduct boosting compliance and positive organizational culture, the reverse might be the case.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Codes of Ethics and Corporate Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, success of ethical codes of conduct depends on their enforceability. Moreover, the willingness of employees and other concerned parties in ensuring that the ethical code of conduct is implemented is vital. However, people will only be willing to implement regulations that do not seem to limit their freedom. Unfortunately, some ethical codes of conduct have been drafted in a mechanical way and they have too many explanations which sometimes go too far regarding what is demanded from each employ.

These codes of conduct become complicated and thus difficult to implement. On the other hand, some ethical codes of conduct make employees fell like they are being micromanaged (Wulf, 2011). As a result, rebellious tendencies are generated within the organization making implementation of ethical codes of conduct impossible.

On the same note, some ethical codes of conduct limit what employees can talk and what they cannot say. Furthermore, some processes outlined by ethical codes of conduct are just ethical from the outside but nobody usually follows them. Similarly, there is no serious action that is taken against those who do not follow the ethical codes of conduct in some instances (Shaw, 2010).

Having rules in place which nobody cares whether they are implemented or not encourages deviant behaviors. As a result, instead of ethical codes of conduct propelling positive organizational culture among staff of an organization, they will be leading to increased unethical actions.

Notably, nothing legal or otherwise compels a firm to implement its own ethical code of conduct. The legal requirement is just aimed at ensuring that every organization drafts ethical code of conduct. No mechanisms are put in place to ensure that these ethical codes of conduct are implemented.

Management of any organization has the option of either implementing their ethical code of conduct or not. Moreover, ethical codes of conduct are prone to manipulation (Shaw, 2010). As a result, directors and managers of firms can change them to fit their ambitions which can easily lead to conflict of interest.

Clearly, the benefits of a having a code of ethics in place are far too many compared to the disadvantages. It is what people do each day that determines their behavior. Not everybody will do the right thing at any given point in time. Human beings are used to having rules that guide what can or cannot be done.

In this regard, a code of ethics is a very crucial document for any organization. It will be practically impossible to achieve long term goals at once (Wulf, 2011). They need to be broken down into short term manageable goals. This is exactly what codes of ethics do. They take into consideration organizational vision and mission, break them down into every day activities and then ensure that the short term goals are met.

By ensuring that nobody goes against what is required by the firm, ethical codes of conduct help in propagating organizational culture. Moreover, through defining the correct behavior of staff and other stakeholders, ethical code of conduct enhances company values.

As a matter of fact, organizational culture comprises of the behavior among employees and the behavior of the staff to the outside world. This is what is defined by the ethical code of conduct. Therefore, ethical code of conduct helps in making employees develop the required characters.

Nonetheless, ethical code of conduct per se cannot bring about positive organizational culture. Employees must be willing and ready to follow and live by the regulations outlined in the ethical codes of conduct (Mika, 2011). Rules only do not change the behavior of a person. People can easily pretend to be following the ethical codes of conduct just because they want to secure their jobs while in reality what they are doing is the opposite. Change of behavior begins with the internal willingness of a person and not by the presence of regulations.

Having appositive organizational culture is the aim of every business entity. These will not only enhance their customer retention ability, but also their income levels. Positive and professional behavior will also reduce mistakes that can lead to legal actions. Certainly, codes of ethics are inevitable in the quest to formulate standard organizational culture. However, it should be noted that formulation of non biased codes of ethics and ensuring that they are fully implemented is as vital as having a code of ethics in place.

References Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Codes of Ethics. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.

Mika, A. (2011). The Importance of Codes of Ethics: Examination of the Ned of Business Ethics and the Efficient Usage of Codes of Ethics for Good Corporate Governance. Hamburg: Diplomarbeiten Angentur.

Shaw, W. H. (2010). Business Ethics: A Text Book with Cases. Stanford: Cengage Learning.

Wulf, K. (2011). From Codes of Conduct to Ethics and Compliance Programs: Recent Developments in the United States. Berlin: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH.

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Globalization and Security Environment: Visions of Prosperity and Peace Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Abstract The three main resources in the UAE are water, oil and human capital. The economic dominance of the UAE in the Arabian Peninsula makes it vulnerable to resource-based conflicts. Such conflicts can affect the regional security of the Middle East. The policy initiatives needed to ensure that the country remains stable are as follows. On water, the country needs to match its groundwater consumption to the replenishment rate of its aquifers. Secondly, the country needs policies that will help to increase water production through desalination.

Thirdly, the country needs policies that will enforce water conservation initiatives. On oil, the country needs policies to govern oil exploitation. These policies should favour longevity of oil reserves over short-term benefits of high production. Secondly, the country needs to pursue economic policies favouring further diversification of its economy. Thirdly, the country needs to develop policies to govern human capital. The policy areas in this regard include citizenship, social stability, and immigration.

The UAE is a modern miracle in economic development terms. The country was insignificant in any regard until the middle of the twentieth century when it struck oil. The country has since shown that it is possible to transform any country regardless of its past. The discovery of oil in the UAE made it a country of interest in regards to the global oil supply chain.

Apart from oil, the country has limited natural resources. However, it has used its resources to market itself as a business hub in the Arabian Peninsula. This paper explores policies regarding water and other resources that will best serve the interests of the UAE and the surrounding region.

Resources in the UAE Besides oil, the UAE and the surrounding region does not have significant quantities of other natural resources. The most precious resources in the region are water, oil and human capital.

Water

The water situation in the UAE is one of the main concerns of the government. The country has very little fresh water within its borders. The country receives about 120 mm of rain annually (Zenter, 2011). This quantity of rainfall cannot meet its recurrent water needs. Therefore, the country relies on groundwater for most of its fresh water supplies.

The challenge the country needs to address urgently is how best to manage the dwindling resource. The country’s water table has been falling by 1 meter each year since 1980 (Zenter, 2011). The country has access to plenty of sea water. However, it must desalinise the water before using it. The current desalination capacity can only supply 36% of the country’s fresh water needs (Abdellatif

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Writers who predicted the future Essay (Article) college admission essay help

Table of Contents America’s story-teller – a bit off-kilter:

The Armchair Soldier: Virtual Bootcamp

Oldies but Goodies in Prescient Fiction:

“Hello, HAL. Do you read me, HAL?”:

Call for Mr. Cthulhu…:

The Three Laws of Robotics, and more:

Science fiction is often also known as ‘speculative fiction’, and, accordingly, it gives authors free rein to imagine anything they choose. While a gripping science fiction yarn needs plausible, complex, three-dimensional characters, a tight and well-structured plot, and a smooth narrative arc, it also needs sound science underpinning it.

Years ago, in a meeting of the Philadelphia Science Fiction Society, George Scithers, the longtime editor of Asimov’s Magazine, and grand old man of SF editing generally, gave a most reassuring piece of advice to the assembled authors, fans, and wanna-bes.

He said (more or less – this was back in the 1970s) that if there was sound science at the base of a story, then almost any sort of superstructure, consisting of proposed extensions to that science, would seem believable.

It has been in the extension of existing science that SF authors have managed to occasionally hit on a prediction that actually comes to pass. In some cases, the hits seem to have outnumbered the misses. Let’s look at a highly selective sampling of these prescient authors and the inventions, trends, and events they predicted.

America’s story-teller – a bit off-kilter: Ray Bradbury never even thought of himself as primarily a science fiction author, preferring to consider himself a commentator on the world around him. This fine raconteur has mined the rich vein of his childhood memories to create evocatively lovely images of the American landscape. Along the way, in amongst goose-pimpling stories like The Martian Chronicles, and Something Wicked This Way Comes, he envisioned seductive virtual reality environments.

The privileged children in The Veldt inhabit a room that generates a 360 degree, full-sensory world, complete with patricidal lions. While we are a few years away from virtual large carnivores capable of eliminating inconvenient parents, just yet, how many kids are currently submerged in Saint’s Row, or Assassin’s Creed? They are enjoying a virtual reality, for the maximum time between bathroom visits!

A slightly different sort of immersion in media appears in Fare height 451. The hero’s wife longs for a wall screen to allow full participation in the daily soap operas. Full wall screens are entirely possible now – they are just a bit expensive, thus far. She also wants to have them personalized by including her name. With a cable subscription or online streaming, such personalization would be possible even now, given that viewers register with identifying information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Armchair Soldier: Virtual Bootcamp The virtual training of soldiers is the subject of Ender’s Game, by Orson Scott Card, and has recently been made into a movie, to mixed reviews. Returning to the novel after several decades away, this reader cannot avoid a frisson of apprehension at how current training for drone flying parallels the video game style exercises that prepare the young (very young – think tweens) in Card’s future Earth to remotely control weapons and vessels in outer space.

A former national security employee noted recently the phenomenon of video game creators whose products are nowhere to be found on the commercial market, but who are nonetheless making income from somewhere – unspecified. The implication is pretty clear. Some other interested entity, probably governmental, is buying their services and output. (Cue a sound effect of spooky music!)

Oldies but Goodies in Prescient Fiction: The ability to synthesize predictions from what is already known and mastered is particularly striking in some of the older authors. Jules Verne’s submarine, the Nautilus, captained by the mysterious Captain Nemo in the 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, is a wonderful example. It foreshadows both the positive possibilities of underwater vessels, and their frightening potential to violently disrupt shipping, and other activities.

Verne, of course, also predicted moon launches in From the Earth to the Moon, as most people know. However, the subtlety that such launches might not occur under the auspices of national governments, but instead, with the sponsorship of commercial or affinity groups is sometimes forgotten. Commercial enterprises are currently busily planning ways to get to space, just as Verne predicted.

The story and characters are about as wooden can be imagined in Hugo Gernsback’s novel Ralph 124C41 , but the number of suggestive and eerily accurate predictions is astounding. The most hopeful is Gernsback’s prediction of efficient conversion of solar energy.

Black Galaxy, a 1949 pulp novel by Murray Leinster, is now, happily, available in reprint and on Kindle. The notions of parallel universes and dark matter are central to the story, and are the current darlings of the scientific press. The love story is incidental, but sweet.

“Hello, HAL. Do you read me, HAL?”: The plot element of a beacon, located off-planet, and designed to trigger a signal to extraterrestrials that Earth has developed space travel, is also central Black Galaxy’s story. This may have inspired Arthur C. Clarke’s mechanism for alien contact in his influential 2001 series. Clarke himself, famous for asserting that sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, predicted the establishment of a space station in geosynchronous orbit (now called a Clarke orbit). This prediction, among others, including regarding artificial intelligences like the super-computer HAL, has been partially fulfilled.

We will write a custom Article on Writers who predicted the future specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Call for Mr. Cthulhu…: The master of cosmic horror, H.P. Lovecraft, tended to exploit then-current discoveries in his weird works. However, the novella At the Mountains of Madness correctly predicts that Antarctica would provide a rich yield of paleontological material, although has turned out to consist of intriguing dinosaurs rather than the remains oif extraterrestrial and star-born Elder Ones.

The Three Laws of Robotics, and more: While we have not yet achieved an artificial intelligence that moves independently, many of the ethical and design issues that Isaac Asimov articulated are being addressed by current researchers. Asimov’s I, Robot series explores the implications of robot use and misuse comprehensively.

This is a personal list, and not exhaustive. SF authors articulate our fears for the future and point the way to both warnings and solutions to the problems we will encounter.

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The Problem of Online Gaming in Modern Society Research Paper college essay help

Online gaming is the bane of parents worried about video addiction and adults fearful that their bosses will figure out why they are so unproductive so much of the time. The games that are designed to sell are specifically crafted with all the intellectual resources available, to make people stay with them.

They often provide, if one looks carefully, intermittent positive reinforcement, which, Psychology 101 taught us, is very powerful. They are an addictive substance, and custom-built to be exactly that. So, why in the whacky world would we want to encourage people of any age to go check out more online games?

Because, dear reader, the very addictiveness – the compelling nature of well-constructed online interactive games and activities are a fabulous advantage when we are trying to learn something. How can we best exploit this resource?

Think about what you want from the experience of playing a game online, because there as many different opportunities as there gaming fanatics and designers itching to get you onto their sites. You may want to learn something, or sharpen cognitive skills, or hand/eye coordination, or memory, or practice specific math techniques. There is something out there for every one of these goals. Look at these wonderful websites.

The most visually arresting is the National Geographic. This venerable organization has always had a tradition of providing beautiful images of the natural world and its people to inspire and inform. Did you know that the magazine used to insist that every photograph, of whatever untamed landscape or scene, should include a human figure somewhere in it?

This was probably intended to reinforce the connection between people and nature. This tradition is maintained in the National Geographic website, where games are flanked by gorgeous pictures of animals, people, and vistas. The games are simple but provide a sound ecological message. The ones available at the time of this writing are aimed at the very young.

If you want some of the feel of the aforementioned and decried Grand Theft Auto, but without the drugs, bad language, and violence, try, as an example, the Neon Racer game at Learn4Good. This particular game is reminiscent of the movie Tron, in its earlier incarnation, with light-outlined-motorcycles speeding down a virtual racecourse. This little game, so basic in design, offers a fast, dangerous driving experience. It is not entirely clear what academic content is being conveyed, but it does keep one’s attention focused.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There a bunch of other options listed, including one that offers a swords and castles sort of game. Again, the educational content is a bit obscure, but having free access to a game that avoids desensitizing a generation of young people to interpersonal violence seems worthwhile. Each game is on its own webpage, which means that the design varies widely.

Quite sophisticated games are on the SheppardSoftware site. They are listed as being for kids, however, be assured, many adults will be challenged. For example, the 600 history questions in the history trivia game includes some rather obscure facts! The visuals are almost entirely absent, but this is free, as a compensatory factor. The mathematics practice games go up to Algebra 2. They are planning to offer Pre-Calculus soon, which will make this useful for nearly everyone through high school, at the least.

If you want to aim for a Nobel Prize, or launch your offspring towards becoming a laureate, try out NobelPrize.org. In addition to comprehensive information about the winners and their accomplishments, this site offers games that provide a taste of the actual science that such luminaries engage in on a daily basis. As one example, visitors to the site can try out the skill of finding out blood type.

This is certainly a useful skill in the real world. The hope of any parent would be for this to inspire a child to enter the health sciences after playing this game, but most of us would be happy just to have a rest from Assassin’s Creed.

Ok, this next one is not strictly speaking educational. One could play it without learning a blessed thing. However, it is this writer’s favorite game of any variety or medium, and this writer has shameless decided to exploit the situation. Scrabble for iPad is just a great way to play with words.

There are other versions for regular computers. If you have never played this game, then you should start. If you take the simple step of trying to use words that are unfamiliar to you, employing an online dictionary to do so, you will learn some new vocabulary. If you are already a fan, this allows you to take it with you wherever you roam.

There is no reason to avoid gaming if you are using any of the many educational games that are available online. You can have all the fun of the commercial games, with almost none of the cost, and, happily, none of the detractions that make violent games so disturbing. Go play a game!

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Online Gaming in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Bioremediation Technology Essay (Article) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The breakdown decomposition degradation or removal of toxic contaminants from the environment is called bioremediation (Aislabie, 2012). Microorganisms are introduced into the contaminated soil to carry out normal functions (Nester, 2001). Microorganisms act on the contaminated soils to neutralize the contaminants. The organisms include bacteria, fungi, and plants to mention a few (Perfumo, 2007).

The organisms alter the composition of the contaminants by carryout their normal life activities. The waste management technique can be done on the site of contamination or on a neutral waste disposal site. Advanced technologies are employed in the treatment of contaminants (Walworth, 2007). The techniques include bioventing, bioaugmentation, and bioleaching to mention a few. The organisms utilized during bioremediation are called bioremediators.

The organisms are introduced on the site of contamination to degrade the contaminants. Waste management is a necessity because of the effect of the contaminants to human health. These contaminants pose health risk to humans and the environment. A study conducted by Simon revealed that waste managements could reduce the effect of toxic spills by 13 percent (2010).

Reasons for the technology Environmental studies suggest that oil contaminant causes severe health challenges. This accounts for the rise in toxic related diseases and infant mortality. Bioremediation technology mitigates these contaminants (Walworth, 2007). Observations are ongoing to ascertain the effects of bioremediation on the soil and its effect on human health.

Human beings and Plants suffer similar risk to contamination of the soil. The polluted soil makes it difficult to cultivate crops and grow animals. Contaminants block the passage of soil nutrients and the blockage affects the circulation of soil nutrients. Such situations make the soil infertile and toxic for agriculture.

The contaminants reduce the fertility of the soil. Three important agents are present during bioremediation processes. The agents are; the contaminant, the electron acceptor and a suitable microorganism. The degraded material adds nutrients to the environment. For example, degraded hydrocarbons react with oxygen to cause aerobic respiration. Although these microorganisms have their limits, they combine well under favorable conditions to influence the degradation of various contaminants (Swannell, 2010).

Industrial waste constitutes 65 percent of the world’s toxic materials. The emergence of bioremediation technology is a positive development in curbing the effects of the contaminants. Sveum suggested the use of five microorganisms to reduce the toxicity of industrial contaminants (2008). These microorganisms include; Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Aspergillus, Bacillus cereus and aeruginosa. These organisms combine to reduce the toxicity of industrial contaminants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The effects of industrial waste are so severe that chief executives have careful minimize oil spills. Industrial waste can be recycled using bioremediation to reduce the effect on the environment. Mass protests and demonstrations occur daily because of industrial spillage and soil contamination. A proper management system is the only way of reducing the effects of industrial contamination (Swannell, 2010).

Factors of bioremediation Bioremediation is a complex process which is controlled by different factors (Walworth, 2007). The factors include: the presence of a suitable organism, the presence of the contaminants, favourable environmental conditions suitable for microbial growth to mention a few.

Microbial populations in bioremediation process

The presence of microorganisms in the contaminants influences bioremediation. The organisms can survive in extreme conditions. The nature of their growth makes them suitable for bioremediation. The organisms can be categorized into four groups.

a. Anaerobic organisms: Anaerobic organisms survive without oxygen. This makes them suitable in the control of biphenyls contaminants and the compounds of chloroform. Composting and land farming techniques favors anaerobic organisms. The compost stimulated the growth of the organisms in extreme temperature.

b. Aerobic organism: They function with oxygen. The microbes include Alcaligenes and Rhodococcus to mention a few.

Methylotrophs microbes: The microbes grow with oxygen and little methane.

Ligninolytic fungi: This group of microorganism can be used to degrade hazardous waste.

We will write a custom Article on Bioremediation Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental factors affecting bioremediation

Microorganisms are the principal agents in the bioremediation process. To degrade much contaminant, the population of a suitable microorganism must be balanced (Aislabie, 2012). Thus, microorganisms suitable for bioremediation require favourable environmental conditions to boost their growth.

The nutrients must be available in equal proportions suitable for microbial growth. Microbial organisms require carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sodium, calcium, chloride to mention a few. Microbial growth and degradation is influenced by the conditions suitable for microbial development.

Bioremediation is influenced by soil moisture, temperature, pH, oxygen level, and temperature, nature of the contaminants, soil type and the nature of heavy metals. The nature of the soil influences the rate of degradation and microbial growth. The presence or absence of oxygen is influenced by the contaminants. The presence of oxygen requires aerobic microorganisms while the absence of oxygen in the soil will require anaerobic bacterial to complete the degradation processes.

The population of the microbes can be simulated by biostimulation techniques (Perfumo, 2007). The addition of oxygen and other favourable nutrients suitable for microbial growth is called biostimulation. The presence of heavy metals affects the growth of microorganisms.

In extreme cases, soil nutrients are introduced in the soil to boost microbial growth. Aerobic organisms will require aerated soils and this can be achieved thorough soil tillage. This will allow easy passage of nutrients suitable for the development of the microorganism.

Bioremediation techniques The nature of the contaminants determines the technique used on the site of contamination. Bioremediation strategies require two broad procedures. In-situ and Ex-situ are two major techniques employed in bioremediation processes. In-situ bioremediation is used when the contaminants are degraded on the contaminated soil.

Microorganisms are introduced at the site of contamination (Swannell, 2010). Large contaminations will require excavation of the contaminants to another site for treatment, which is called Ex-situ bioremediation. The introduction of suitable microorganisms in the soil is called bioaugmentation. Bioaugmentation is affected by two factors.

a. The introduced organism may not adapt with the indigenous microbes in the soil. Thus, population growth may be limited.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bioremediation Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More b. Indigenous microbes have potentials to carry out bioremediation processes.

In-situ bioremediation

The degradation of contaminants at the site of contamination is called In-situ bioremediation. It is a cheap technique compared to the excavation of contaminated soil to a new facility. Its disadvantage is caused by the soil type. The soil type influences the level of degradation. Aerated soils degrade faster and biostimulation is easy. In-situ bioremediation can be achieved in different ways.

Bioventing: It involves the supply of nutrients and oxygen in equal amounts through wells. The quantity of oxygen is controlled to produce stable growth of the microorganism.

Biodegradation: Gaseous solutions are supplied on the site of contamination to circulate the nutrient requirements suitable for microbial growth. The procedure requires the use of groundwater to distribute oxygen and microbial nutrients on the contaminated site.

Bioaugmentation: The supply of internal or external microorganisms into the site of contamination is called bioaugmentation. One disadvantage of exogenous microbe is the performance ratio. Exogenous microorganisms may not grow in extreme temperature. Extreme temperature will limit the population of the microorganism.

Biosparging: The site of contamination is pressurized to induce the availability of oxygen. The injection of pressurized air alters the concentration of groundwater at the contaminated site.

Ex-situ bioremediation

The techniques include land farming, composting, biopiles and bioreactors.

Land farming: The process requires the excavation of the contaminated soil to a prepared facility suitable for degradation. The microbes are stimulated with oxygen and microbial nutrients to increase its population (Walworth, 2007).

Compost: The combination of the contaminated soil with manure or agricultural products is called composting. The manure stimulates microbial growth and facilitates the development of ingenious microorganisms. The temperature of the soil is controlled to influence the production of anaerobic organisms.

Biopiles: The combination of land farming and compost is called biopiles. Engineered organisms are used to degrade contaminants. The technique is suitable for aerobic and anaerobic microbes.

Bioreactors: The use of treated vessels to decontaminate the soil is another bioremediation technique. The contaminants are transported to an engineered facility. The process is monitored under a controlled temperature (Nester, 2001).

Advantages of bioremediation

1. Bioremediation is a natural process and the residues do not pose a health risk.

2. Bioremediation is useful in the degradation of heavy metals and other toxic waste.

3. Contaminants can be destroyed or neutralized at the site of contamination. The procedure reduces the risk of transporting hazardous waste from the site of contamination to a free zone.

4. Except in extreme cases, the process of bioremediation does not disrupt the ecological system of the contaminated site.

5. Bioremediation is a cheap method of decontamination compared with various decontamination techniques.

Disadvantages of bioremediation

1. The decontamination of the soil is a limited process. Most contaminations cannot be degraded by microorganisms.

2. The introduction of microorganisms may cause severe damage to the ecological system.

3. The chances of success are slim because of the absence of microbial population. It is difficult to estimate the quantity of microbial organisms required for the decontamination process.

4. The process requires time. The evacuation and transportation of the contaminated soil to the treated facility lengthens the time of biodegradation.

5. The processes of bioremediation cannot be justified. The extent of damage cannot be determined.

Conclusion The treatment of industrial waste requires bioremediation. Unlike other methods of waste managements, bioremediation mitigates these contaminants. Bioremediation benefits man and the environment. Oil spills and heavy metals, which are major soil contaminants are treated with suitable microorganisms.

A combination of two or more microorganisms can create an atmosphere suitable for the degradation of contaminants. Although the treatment is cost-effective, it reduces the effects of toxic wastes on the environment. A practical approach must be used to degrade contaminants in large quantity.

Recommendations The process is suitable for degradation of contaminated sites. The cost of the procedure makes it suitable for large decontamination. The risk associated with the process cannot be ascertained; however the process provides the best technique for decontamination.

Future study I will recommend further studies to determine the extent of damage during the cleanup. Regulatory agencies must reduce the occurrence of oil spillage and soil contamination.

References Aislabie, J. (2012). Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Nester, E. (2001). Microbiology: A human perspective and approach. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Perfumo, A. (2007). Thermal enhanced approaches for bioremediation of hydrocarbons. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Simon, M. (2010). Evaluation of bioaugmentation for remediation of petroleum in a wetland. USA, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sveum, P. (2008). Hydrocarbon bioremediation and its benefits. Sydney, Australia: Ibex Press.

Swannell, R. (2010). The use of bioremediation to treat an oiled shoreline. Sydney, Australia: Maxon Press.

Walworth, J. (2010). Fine tuning soil nitrogen to maximize petroleum bioremediation. South Melbourne, Australia: Maxon Press.

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Social Networking and Depression Argumentative Essay cheap essay help

Studies show that social networking has a potential of causing depression and the more individuals use social sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, the more they are filled with anxiety leading to depression. In the University of Michigan, a study was conducted with a sample of eighty-two Facebook users in a period of two weeks.

The findings of the study confirmed that once an individual engages in social networking, his or her feeling of safety goes down and depression mood emerges meaning that a correlation between depression and social networking exists (Harris 81). Unlike other forms of social networking, such as chatting with friends, social sites offer invaluable data that are incapable of fulfilling an individual needs, such as security and safety.

If an individual spends more time on Facebook, he or she might end up depressed the whole day because of anxiety (Myers 17). Apart from causing depression, social networking may cause the fear of missing out because an individual feels rejected and neglected once his or her message or information is not taken positively. Some users may criticize the views of an individual, yet no chance is given to defend the idea.

While on Facebook or Twitter, an individual feels inadequate or insufficient because one person might post a good picture showing magnificent vacation, luxurious purchases, and gorgeous children. In case an individual does not have the means to achieve his or her ambitions, he or she might be jealous and might be resentful since good things are happening in the lives of others while suffering might be the characteristic of his or her life.

In a different study conducted in Sweden at the University of Gothenburg that interviewed 111 Facebook users, it was established that internet networking has an effect on the self-esteem of an individual, as well as his relationships with others (Noor and Hendricks 64). Individuals spending more time on Facebook and other social sites have low sense of worth.

Additionally, social networking causes narcissism because users spend too much time and resources for decoration of their pictures and modifying their profiles in order to gain approval and praise. If an individual posts a status update on Facebook or Twitter and no person is interested in commenting, there would be a high likelihood that an individual will be worried because he will not understand some of the reasons why others are reluctant to respond.

Scholars, artists, politicians, and other professionals might be tempted to post something related to their achievements, such as published works or won award. Such individuals would be affected greatly in case someone decides to post something negative (Noor and Hendricks 67). Many people end up spending sleepless nights because of a negative comment that someone posted on Facebook or Twitter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Continued usage of the social media contributes to the erosion of true relationships because it is difficult for individuals to interact face-to-face, as the traditional form of interaction is being replaced by shallow and meaningless online connections. Studies show that this is damaging the well-being of society since human need for true relationship is difficult to find (Myers 48).

Since individuals are incapable of finding authentic relationships and love, they tend to turn to the social sites for consolation. Instead of being comforted, the social media only serves one purpose that is related to depression and mental illnesses. In the modern society, it is common to find an idle person on Fcaebook or Twitter since it is believed to keep a person active.

The modern society is characterized by uncertainties and disappointments and people report all these in the social sites. For instance, of all the internet users, one or two people will report losing a job or breaking up a relationship. Again, the death of an individual will always be noticed, particularly when the person is famous.

Through the social sites, an individual realizes that it is so easy to lose a job or break up in a relationship, something that brings about anxiety. If the death of a famous person is reported, sadness mood comes in because there would be a feeling of loss. Some internet users develop a culture of judging others, irrespective of whether their post is accurate or not. In other words, they simply spread propaganda and falsehood once they realize that their ambition cannot be realized (Myers 75).

For instance, one person might fail to convince another to enter into a deal or relationship. Instead of accepting the outcome and moving on, he or she would go a notch higher to comment negatively on the social media, something that might attract a penalty or revenge. In many parts of the world, online wars are widespread whereby individuals are unwilling to concede defeat and continue with lives.

This has brought about many challenges because a negative comment is given to an individual with children and a stable family. Recently, a picture of a famous politician engaging extra marital relationships was posted on the social media, yet the leader has children and a good family (Kaplan and Haenlein 68). This causes depression to many people who feel disappointed and cheated. Even though the information posted might be inaccurate, it would be difficult for other users to change their minds once they have the picture.

In order to network with a friend, a social media user must send a friend request and wait for a response. An individual will definitely be depressed in case a response is not sent in time. Social networking isolates an individual from the rest of the community because most of the time is spent chatting with online friends who might have nothing to add to an individual’s life. Many young people are simply interested with popularity and they believe that having many friends in Facebook or Twitter makes them more famous.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Networking and Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In reality, this does not add any value to life because friendship has to be of high quality meaning that adequate assistance can be offered when necessary. An individual with many friends on Twitter or Facebook tends to believe that he or she is illustrious, but most likely will be disappointed in a time of need because not all online friends will ever care about what is happening to the life of one member (Harris 101).

They will simply express their sadness, which might not be genuine, yet the individual would be in need of emotional and psychological support. Therefore, social networking is believed to be harmful to the well-being of the individual in society because it does not add value to life (Myers 88). Additionally, it is established that a strong correlation between social networking and depression exists and it is upon the individual to control internet usage.

Works Cited Harris, Kandace. “Using Social Networking Sites as Student Engagement Tools.” Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 25.18 (2008): 88-112. Print.

Kaplan, Andreas, and Haenlein, Michael. “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media”. Business Horizons, 53.1 (2010): 61-98. Print.

Myers, David. Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2012. Print.

Noor, Al-Deen, and Hendricks, John. Social Media: Usage and Impact. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012. Print.

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How Did the French Revolution Impacted the Issue of Slavery and the History of Santo Domingo? Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The French Revolution Slaves learned about the French Revolution and decided to discuss their rights and future. As a result, they started to hold mass meetings in order to prepare for resistance. Slaves had already started to organize themselves into small groups of rebels in different isolated plantations.

Santo Domingo became a critical center for insurrection as slaves organized themselves. Slave masters terribly repressed their slaves. The French Revolution led to the spread of revolutionary ideas. French soldiers who visited the France colony of Santo Domingo also spread the idea of revolution among blacks. French soldiers also informed black slaves and mulattoes that the French legislatures had acknowledged that all humans were same and liberated.

Black rebels used the Island of Santo Domingo as their base during 1791 resistance. Most rebels were blacks who were working in sugar plantations. In addition, other oppressed workers also joined the revolution with the aim of eliminating their masters. Black revolters established bases in all locations they had destroyed.

Most blacks identified with the revolution movement. Consequently, slaves made their interests strategic objectives during their struggle. Cooper focused on the relationship between the French Revolution and its impacts on French colonies, particularly in the island. The author noted that slavery was a critical matter during the French Revolution. Blacks struggled for their freedom as the French Revolution provided them with new ideas. According to Cooper, one can comprehend the French Revolution alongside the question of race (Cooper 83).

Blacks struggled for total abolishment of slavery. Rebel leaders and soldiers worked together to ensure that the Port of Santo Domingo was safe. Toussaint became the most important leader during 1800 in Santo Domingo as he organized the island into a strong economy and established a military autocracy. Toussaint became authoritative and autonomous as he led rebels and French soldiers. This organization scared Napoleon as Toussaint led the slave revolution in Santo Domingo.

The cruelty of slave masters, who were owners of plantations, led to a deep-rooted feeling of suffering and rebellion as slaves started to demand for their rights. However, one must recognize that slave rebellion and revolution started long before the French Revolution emerged. Slaves conducted secret meetings, used language, and religion to resist their masters.

After the French Revolution, the law prohibited slavery and abolished in Santo Domingo. Rebels in the island understood the confusion and division among their white masters. As a result, they led the Haitian Revolution with a specific objective of ensuring that slavery ended. In order to realize this object, blacks were willing to take any challenge to achieve their goal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Island became a critical location for insurrection as many black slaves turned against their white masters and plantation owners in quest for freedom. The Haitian Revolution started in 1791. Initially, the Revolution was in a single location of the Island in the northern plain, but it later spread to other areas as other slaves joined the fight against oppression.

This was an issue of race struggle. While scholars have provided accounts of historical events at Santo Domingo, many white authors did not present actual events but rather portrayed the black revolution as a series of disorganized, unsystematic actions. However, the Haitian Revolution was organized, had leadership, and a sense of unity. This was a triumphant rebellion of against white plantation owners in history.

Works Cited Cooper, Anna Julia. Slavery And The French And Haitian Revolutionists 2nd ed. Lanham: Rowman

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Pruitt Igoe as a Part of the Urban Renewal Act Essay (Movie Review) essay help free: essay help free

St. Louis was transformed by the processes of concentration and deconcentration which related to the times and people’s social status. Concentration was evident through the distribution of the population. The lower and middle class people were placed into one area, close to the city and their workplaces. This was a form of exclusion of a part of the population from the rest of the city. Deconcentration took place in a type of urbanization.

People were moving away from the city to have their own home with a backyard and a front lawn which provided for space and light. At the same time, people who gained some resources were moving away from the city, thus causing a deconcentration of the work force and the general population. As the amount of people was decreasing, social programs and housing projects started to get abandoned and forgotten.

Pruitt Igoe was a part of the Urban Renewal Act which is evident through the examination of several factors. The primary one was to rebuild the slums and make sure that people had proper living conditions. Previously, the environment was very unsafe and unsanitary for people. Children had no place to play and spend time at.

The project was meant to enable people to have proper housing and playgrounds. The fact that the buildings were located close to the center of the city provided for easy access to factories, stores and social services. As the society and the government of a nation have a key role in a city, the general values of a large group of people are aligned with those of individuals and communities. Physical features of the housing play a significant role in the environment and the movement of people.

Pruitt Igoe failed for several reasons; the two major ones are the isolation of the location, and the second one is people losing jobs, and the city becoming demographically unstable. Isolation happened due to the decentralization of the building and architectural flaws. People became secluded from the rest of the population and as such, the area started to receive bad reputation within the city.

The level of security started to go down which resulted in people moving out and abandoning the projects. The second reason was related to people losing jobs and being unable to pay for rent. This led to the worsening of conditions, deterioration of basic services and general living conditions. Plumbing and fires became a common occurrence, and people were forced to leave.

The movie is titled “The Pruitt Igoe Myth” where “myth” relates to the unresolved problems, and people’s inability to clearly identify the factors that led to the deterioration. In the beginning of the construction, people have dreamt that it will be a perfect place to live. After the buildings were complete, it did become a dream life for many, but it did not last very long. Even though it was meant to provide a better life for people, it turned out to be a myth because a building alone cannot make sure that people have a better existence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The housing was only a framework, but many conditions that were necessary in the support of the environment depended on the people and the city. As such, the population and the government could not manage the worsening state of affairs, and the project became a myth.

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The play “Waiting for Godot” Essay college admissions essay help

The theatre is always about the play, the characters and the drama. The three questions that the theatre asks are: what the play is, why it is the way it is and what the characters learn during the play?

The play “Waiting for Godot” is about two people who are waiting for a person named Godot. In reality, Godot never comes and the two characters, Vladimir and Estragon, spend much time waiting for this individual. They talk about all kinds of things. Their wait seems to be eternal which is representative of life. The play is both a comedy and a tragedy. It is a comedy because it seems impossible and comical how these two characters are waiting for another one for so long.

They also have a special relationship with each other which is rather humorous. The unexpected things that happen throughout the play add to the humor of the wait. But at the same time, it is a tragedy because Godot never comes, and it is devastating to Estragon and Vladimir. They are frustrated that they have to wait for so long, and they even think of killing themselves several times during the play.

The tree is an important representation, and it stands for several things, as there are a few references by the characters to kill themselves, the tree could be seen as a tool for that. Estragon and Vladimir talk about hanging themselves from it. It could be a direct reference to Jesus and the crucifixion because Jesus was said to be crucified on a wooden cross (Feitsch, 2008).

The visitors, Pozzo and Lucky represent a duality. It seems impossible how these two characters who are so different can stay together. Another line that can be drawn is the connection between mind and body. It is a constant battle between the two forces in the struggle for what each wants and needs. It could also be said that Vladimir is the mind of the two, as he is the one coming up with ideas and concepts, and Estragon is the body, and this can be seen in his naps, the want to sleep and complaints.

The names of the characters represent another duality. The name “Lucky” in no way represents the fate of the person, as it is illustrated in the play. It shows how the obvious can oppose the hidden. And there is the contrast between the reason of the wait and the wait itself. The main goal is to wait for Godot but while they wait, there are things that happen to the characters, which display different aspects of life and its turns.

The wait is aligned with the grim reality of life, when a person waits for something to happen and it never does. The tree also represents the divinity of heavens, as the characters wanted to hang themselves on it and the theme of morals, which are high above, and the material needs of the human body (Patkovszky, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both acts describe the same place. It is a lonely tree by the road. This represents the theme that time stood still for these two characters. The only difference is that in the second act there are some leaves on the tree (Beckett, 2011). The mystery of Godot stays unsolved until the end. It is unclear who it is or why they wait for him, but it seems to be the point of their existence.

References Beckett, S. (2011). Waiting for Godot. New York, United States: Grove Press.

Feitsch, V. (2008). Waiting for Godot – a cultural approach. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag.

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“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” Essay essay help free: essay help free

“Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” are two plays. There is a definite connection between them, but it goes beyond the mere obvious drama of death. Both plays have a common theme of a surreal world where people are objects ruled by a higher and unknown force. Even though these works of art were created in a deem and distant past, they still can be attributed to the modern times.

The link of “Hamlet” and “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” to the present days can be seen in the lost characters. People are often unaware of their point in life and how to define own goals and dreams. Just like Rosencrantz and Guildenstern feel lost and are unaware of their purpose, so do people in the modern society. With such a vast amount of information people begin doing something, only to realize that their actions were pointless and unclear, so they begin doing something else.

The same is seen in the characters from the play, as they are not sure of why or where they are going. Several times, they thought about working out their destination, deciding to change the course of their lives, only to later give up and say that there is no point in life. They choose a path that forcefully takes them there, and they have neither strength nor want to decide anything for themselves (Shakespeare, 1987).

The two plays have a lot of parallels, but they are different kinds of tragedy. “Hamlet” is based on the feud within a family. Hamlet is torn apart by the recent events, and everything that follows springs from his anger and the need for revenge. Most of the time, the mood of the play is depressing and sad, as people become marionettes of greed and other people’s selfishness. “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” is a much different type of tragedy, as these two individuals are very sneaky, fake, seemingly kind and understanding.

Hamlet realizes the fact that his two “friends” act out of someone else’s will and he treats the situation accordingly. Two of his oldest friends cannot even begin to understand the reasons for Hamlet’s feelings because they themselves are not sure what is going on in their lives and minds (Shakespeare, 1987).

In the closing scenes, both Rosencrantz and Guildenstern end up unhappy and unlucky. The whole play they are unhappy, as events seem to collide, they cause them great confusion and grief. In the course of the play, they become more miserable with each act, so they reach the finish completely in loss of control over their lives and their individualities.

They are unlucky because every time they want to make something out of the situation, they appear as losers and are left with less than they had before. The drama of their fate is their absence from reality. They do not know what is going on, even when they directly participate in an event. They are unlucky because they do not know any of Hamlet’s secrets and plans. The fact that the letters got switched up, makes them even more unlucky and more unhappy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two plays have been intertwined in an interesting and provocative way. The message of both masterpieces is clear, as people must learn about themselves before going out into the big word and influencing or manipulating others.

Reference Shakespeare, W. (1987). Hamlet. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes.

More about Hamlet Do you think Hamlet is a problem play or a tragedy? Why? 5 851 What does the first soliloquy reveal about Hamlet? 5 27 How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 165 What Does the Ghost Tell Hamlet? 5 58 Which Details in Hamlet Reflect Elizabethan Society? 5 228 What Incident Serves to Initiate the Conflict in Hamlet? 5 70

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Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum Term Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Xiaxiao

Border Town

Red Sorghum

Comparison

Conclusion

Introduction Countryside is a rich aspect that has been incorporated in literature by most Chinese scholars. Despite the fact that there are variations in manner of countryside representation based on period of literature, there are common patterns adopted. Some patterns raise concerns while others are uncontroversial.

The essay will highlight ways that countryside has been represented in Chinese literature. Two novels by Shen Congwen and one by Mo Yan will be discussed. Countryside is ideal home that should be reverenced and not modified. Novels to be discussed are Xiaxiao, Border Town and Red Sorghum.

Background Information Writers are influenced by social structures that they operate in. Mon Yan and Shen Congwen are examples of writers who sought to represent aspect of countryside in their literature. Both of them identified with countryside and sought to represent it as an ideal place. Ideal quality was based on purity of nature that was associated with productivity and fertility.

Despite the fact that both writers sought to connect with their homelands, they did so in different ways. The essay will expound on how countryside is represented in the three pieces of literature.

Xiaxiao Shen Congwen is one of Chinese scholars who have been accredited for use of countryside setup in literature. He contrasts countryside with city, in his novel named Xiaoxiao. He represents countryside as a place with utmost freedom evidenced by his statement that there are many rules in the city even for the beggars. In this regard, countryside is represented as a very attractive place. He highlights degree of hostility in the city and blames it on rules.

Despite the fact that he represents the countryside as a place of freedom, there are many barriers based on tradition that contradict Congwen’s perceptions. The countryside is however better since there are no rules and people find ways to deal with traditions. For instance, Xiaoxiao’s uncle’s is not influenced by existing “mies” that are meant to govern the people, as he makes his own decision. In this regard, people in the countryside have more strength than those in the city, because they can make their own decisions.

Xiaoxiao is carried by wave of nature and puts no effort or intention. In this regard, countryside should remain unchanged and purity of nature should be emphasized.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The narrative represents countryside that assumes purity and innocence, with no form of manipulation in her growth. Notably, justice is realized effortlessly. Despite the fact that traditional aspects can be repressive, residents of countryside always find a way to cope. For instance, villagers have a choice of opposing established laws so as to ensure that certain aspects are incorporated.

Border Town In Shen Congwen’s Border Town, controversial aspects in element of countryside are represented. For instance, prostitutes and sailors encounter many challenges and disaster in the countryside. Predicament can be interpreted as a way of getting even with those who attempt to destroy countryside’s environment.

People in the countryside are aware of the fact that the river drowns those who are wicked and immoral. In this regard, water is perceived to have ultimate power, and people do not complain even in events of calamities. During floods, victims remain silent and do not complain. The river had a function of supporting the living as well as the dead. Tragedies or suffering caused by natural disasters were perceived as fate that could not be changed. Countryside is thus an ideal home, since spirits of ancestors stay with the living.

The narrative emphasizes on need to reside in countryside, since it cleanses land off evil and immorality. Countryside is a place where immorality is not tolerated. Cuicui is significantly influenced by countryside, according to the novel. She lived in a ferry boat with his grandfather and was named after bamboo bushes that surrounded the river.

Countryside shapes her love life as she identifies the river with his grandfather and her lover. Storm, which was an element of nature, revealed to Cuicui that her mother had also been buried in the river. Her lover uses the river as a bridge to reach other parts of the region. The more Cuicui learns the more she assumes an adult approach. In this regard, the countryside not only shapes her life, but also gives her a sense of identity and belonging.

Red Sorghum Mo Yan demonstrates high degree of countryside’s productivity in his novel called Red Sorghum. The novel depicts a grandchild who wants to restructure his grandparents’ lives.

Mo Yan highlights absence of child’s father to represent a traditional gap. In this regard, the child can only comprehend history of his people by identifying with the countryside. The narrative focuses on grandparents of the narrator as well as countryside. Mo Yan uses countryside to symbolize unity or oneness since it is shared by the narrator and his grandparents.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mo Yan compares blood relation with that of land people reside in. As a matter of fact, the narrator relates better with second wife of his grandfather because they have shared land with her more than his father. Despite the fact that narrator’s second grandmother is not related to the family by blood, she is assigned role of a spokes person for Red Sorghum family. The family identifies with red sorghum in the countryside.

Restructuring process of narrator’s grandparents is accorded much respect and importance. As a matter of fact, it is done in honor of the land. Gaomi’s black soil is associated with fertility and success in countryside. The narrator attempts to illustrate a connection between countryside and lives of individuals.

Countryside is used to highlight theme of romance especially that of narrator’s grandparents. The narrator is sensitive to land in his process of reconstructing lives of his grandparents. For instance, he also emphasizes on reviving red sorghum so as to have a fertile land, a distinct feature of the countryside.

Mo Yan highlights emotional connection that exists between residents of countryside and their land. Further, countryside is represented as a place of abundance. In this regard, legendary attributes of narrator’s grandparents is closely linked with countryside’s abundances. Countryside’s fertility is associated with great acts of narrator’s grandparents, while black soil is associated with spirit of success.

The narrator mentioned that the land was fertile and farmers exhibited great decency and ambition. The narrative highlights the situation in Chinese rural setups. Just like most artists, he highlights abundance of the land so as to represent countryside as the ideal home. Prosperity and success is associated with countryside, so as to make it best place to be.

Comparison Both Shen Congwen and Mo Yan associate countryside with abundance and prosperity. Mo Yan associates blood with land in a unique way and attributes success of people to nature of their homeland. According to him, time or distance cannot reduce abundance of countryside. Both authors align attraction and beauty of countryside with purity of nature. They highlight virtues and romance is well entangled with spirit in the land.

Despite the fact that there are certain issues of differences in approaches used by both authors, negative aspects associated with nature are hidden. The scholars represent countryside as pure due to natural aspect. However they fail to give explanation in instances of natural calamities. Natural calamities are interpreted as fate and destiny. For instance, Shen Congwen fails to question people after they associate calamities with destiny.

As a matter of fact, he seems to commend them for their ability to discern nature from fate. According to him, calamities are beyond human description and can only be defined as manipulations of fate. For instance, in Border Town Cuicui awakes to adult’s world that is very complicated after death of his grandfather. Calamities are used to signify limitation of human beings and how they are manipulated by fate.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Countryside in Shen Congwen’s Xiaxiao, Border Town and Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mo Yan describes his countryside as caring in contrast to political situation in urbanities that limits lives of people. He acknowledges the fact that human activities have brought adverse effects on the land. His fiction narrative of Red Sorghum advocates for ultimate respect for the land just like his grandparents reverenced their countryside.

Both writers incorporate theme of love in their depiction of countryside. Just like countryside is associated with nature, spontaneous love is also encouraged. For instance marriage in the countryside is not inclined to laws but love. As a matter fact, it is immoral for a relationship to exist without love.

Love is significant in countryside and it is to some extent more important than life. Shen Congwen highlights unplanned love that he compares with love between children, among people in the countryside. Personas are used by both authors as a way of representing their connectedness with countryside. It should be noted that, use of persona was in accordance to existing literature rules in China.

As opposed to fourth generation writers who felt frustrated about their homelands, writers in mid 1980’s sought to identify and reconnect with countryside. In both accounts personas seek their identity in their homelands and perceive them as their world. For instance, Shen Congwen compares water in the countryside with his own behavior. Mo Yan on the other hand, builds on land sensitivity to develop theme of romance in Red sorghum.

Shen Congwen, uses youth to highlight deviation from tradition reverence. He however bridges gap between youth and elderly using life in countryside. Mo Yan illustrates blood relations and highlight normal life that people lead in countryside based on morals and prosperity.

Reconstruction is meant to restore initial situation in the countryside that involved fantasy and romance. Focus is on achieving freedom by disintegrating official rules that tend to make lives of people unbearable. Similarly, Shen Congwen contrasts the unbearable rules in the city that have no aspect of humanity with free people in the countryside who make their own choices.

In Mo Yan’s Red Sorghum, peasantry is associated with interruption of the original landscape that was fertile and large. Focus is on replacement of hybrid sorghum with red sorghum. He believes that spirit of success that was once associated with his countryside still exists.

Despite the fact that red sorghum has been replaced by hybrid sorghum, it still exists in the soils. He will structure lives of his grandparents by recovering spirit of red sorghum that has been destroyed by politics. Mo Yan revealed that black soils were responsible for productivity of countryside and ensured healthy lives for residents. Soil of his countryside plays a crucial role in reconnection process between narrator and his family.

Theme of romance in the countryside is meant to depict attraction in the land as well as comprehend present scenario. In this regard, memory of narrator’s countryside aids in history identification. Despite the fact that red sorghum has been replaced with hybrid sorghum, its strength remains enshrined in the black soils. In this regard, abundance of countryside is only identified and enjoyed by those who identify with it. Countryside is the ideal home as nothing can deprive it off its strength.

Conclusion Countryside has been adopted as a rich pattern to connect past with present. The three pieces of works demonstrate that countryside is ideal place that requires reverence and not modification. Residents are expected to embrace countryside and refrain from modifying or interfering with it.

Modifications or interferences are seen to bring about failure and limit efficiency of countryside. Focus is on acceptance of natural aspects whether they bring benefits or harm to human beings. Further, countryside is only beneficial to those who relate with it. It defines history and identity of residents. Countryside is associated with abundance and fertility, thus an ideal place. Original homelands feed residents effectively.

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Blogging Tips Guru Essay (Article) argumentative essay help

For those who write facilely and joyfully, the appeal of earning money from doing what comes naturally is nearly irresistible. Even for those for whom writing is a chore, the lure of getting paid to share hard-won insights, innovative ideas, and whatever else populates their mind, is hard to refuse.

Bloggers have a number of ways to make an income from blogging, some of them arising from displaying ads in the web page. However, this is a big step, and should be undertaken only when you are ready for it. Let’s look at some of the considerations needed in the decision process.

Some blogging advisors recommend starting the effort to make a blog earn some money, even if the amount is miniscule, right from the start. Their view is that your readers need to get used to paying for your fabulous content, even if only by putting up with ads on your blog page.

This makes a good deal of sense, given the kicking and moaning that has results when bigger scale webpages have begun adding paid promotional material, or charging a fee to readers. Another intriguing advantage that could accrue from having paying ads right from the start is that the income, no matter how tiny, represents a source of inspiration and motivation to keep up the good work and stay on a tight schedule of writing output.

The downside of starting out as a blog with ads is two-fold. You probably already know that an advertising network such as AdSense, from Google, will not even approve you for ads unless you are fully functioning as a website – you need to have your page fully set up. Once you are posting regularly, it is more challenging to attract ads on your page if you do not have masses of traffic yet.

This obstacle cannot be overcome except by getting and keeping reader traffic. The other problem is credibility. Your freedom from sponsorship gives you an air of independence from outside pressure in expressing your untrammeled opinion. Readers like this sort of apparent freedom from external influence on the part of writers.

However, if you can get ads, and want to, for example, through AdSense , or BuySellAds.com , this can be a blessing or a burden. The blessing part is easy to comprehend. Of course, we all would like to have someone paying us. However, keep in mind that advertisers want their ads seen by lots of eyes. You have to prove to them that you can assure that they will get access to those eyes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Then your blog has to come through consistently with the numbers of visitors that will justify advertisers’ paying for the privilege of appearing on your page.

Making this happen can be a challenge and a stress on you the blogger. You need to be prepared to produce – or acquire – content every day, week, or month, to keep your readers coming back. If you are not up to this task, then you are probably not ready to monetize your blog.

Perhaps one compromise is to announce to your readers early on that this could be in the offing, to alert them that some sort of monetization will be part of their reading experience at some point in the future. Your readers will not feel that you have hoodwinked them if you are successful in attracting ads, obtaining a partner organization in order to publicize their product or service, or begin selling your own product or service.

Some pundits in the blogosphere name the figure 300 as a target for a daily number of visitors to your blog. At three hundred unique visitors a day, your blog is reaching more than your mom, your grandparents, your kids, and your BFFs. This makes some sense. You have traction at that point.

However, note the mention of unique visitors. The raw number of visitors is but one important factor. The type of visitors, and what they do, and where they come from, are also important factors. There are many ways to find out who your readers are.

These include analytics, such as information on your site rankings, and information on where your readers are and what time they are accessing your webpage. but they also include the far more in-depth information that you can obtain about your readers via your interactions with them on social media.

Have you not noticed how much more lively a blog page seems when there is a substantial list of comments and responses from the blogger? It creates a community for the sharing of ideas and innovation, support and encouragement, and inspiration. This sort of interaction is where a blogger finds out what sorts of content will meet the needs of the readers, however few or many. You want to know what interests them, what sites they visit regularly, and how they found out about your blog, for example.

We will write a custom Article on Blogging Tips Guru specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The needs your readers express in your communication with them via social media can inform your choice of websites on which you might consider trying to be a guest blogger. Writing guest blog posts in other people’s webpages and including links to your blog page is a rather subtle and non-intrusive way of obtaining more visitors.

You can return the favor by hosting some guest blog posts on your own blog page. This is also a way of testing the waters regarding your audience’s willingness to support you even if you display ads, or promote an affiliate product or service.

Thus, you can look for the following markers to signal your readiness to monetize your blog:

A working blog page

Good content that bring readers back for more

Your own preparation to produce original content on a regular basis

Absolute numbers of at least 300 unique visitors daily

An emerging pattern of readers referring other people to your blog

Active engagement between you and your readers

A clear sense of who your readers are and what they want to see in your blog and perhaps in products you promote

Lay the groundwork early, but hold off until you can be sure of giving both your readers and your advertisers what they want.

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Decision Making and Problem Solving Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Steps in Decision Making Decisions can be made at an individual or organizational level. Individual decisions may affect the decision maker, the people who look up to them or the organization they serve. Similarly, organizational decisions may affect individuals or groups associated with the entity. In this respect, different factors affect the process of decision making.

Experiences, the level of information, the uniqueness of the situation and urgency of the matter are some of the factors that influence decision making (Dietrich 1). Having decided on whether the decision is individual or collective, the following guidelines are vital.

First, one must identify the problem that requires a decision. In the second step, one ought to generate possible solutions to the problem. The third step evaluates the consequences of each of the decisions that are to be taken. The fourth step involves choosing the measure you have decided to undertake about the problem. The fifth step is implementation. Implementation may take place at once or may be done in bits depending with the situation. The sixth step involves evaluation of the degree of success of the decision (Lunenburg 3; Anderson 9).

Making decision in the light of Ian Robertson, “Religion and Social Change”and Nicols Fox, “What are Our Real Values” Determining whether affective domains of mankind determine culture and social change or whether social and cultural changes determine the affective domains is highly contested. In this regard, affective domains refer to the human beliefs, attitudes, social philosophies, ethics, norms and ideals. Karl Marx held the opinion that culture is made of material and nonmaterial constructs.

On the other hand, Max Weber agreed with the approach by Marx on material and nonmaterial constructs, but he held the opinion that the affective domains influenced social changes. According to him, the concept and principles of capitalism emanated from beliefs and other normative aspects (Robertson 10).

A further synthesis of the material and non material paradigms reveal that as much as the positions held by Max and Marx were based on correct constructs, they were relative and contextual. The growth of England as a capitalist over Scotland is a case at hand (Robertson 11).

The emerging modern economies in the East, especially China, complicate further, the view of Weber. Setting the ideals, believing in them and passing them on to the next generation is fast becoming an illusion. The ideals on the value of family, humanity and moral consciousness have become subject to media and celebrities (Fox 122).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lilian Smith: When I was a child The article is a classical analogy of racial discrimination in the south of the U.S. The parents talk of the goodness of God, of the virtue of their society, and of the value of life while at the same time they segregate against the people with the colored skin. As a little child, the author wonders why the family treated Janie without regard although she had showed good manners (Smith 36-37).

The white skinned society in the south denies children a chance to demonstrate hospitality, goodness and kindness to their colored skin friends. The only frame of reference in determining civility was in keeping slaves and disregarding them.

Plato: the parable of the cave The article is about prisoners who perceive the objects of the world in form of shadows. One of the prisoners is freed and told to give his view of the world; the impact of the light hurts him. The cave has conditioned the prisoners into understanding the shadows as the true and real objects (Plato 80). The article is an insight on enlightenment. It advises one on viewing a situation in a new paradigm that is held as the true and real. It is relativistic.

Henry Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience The article systemizes the tenets of social organization. It observes the existence of individual human beings, property and the laws that govern their interaction, appropriation and increase. The society in collective terms, contract a few of its own to oversee the social order. In times of inefficiency and misappropriation of the stewardship of power, the citizens opt for disorder. They become disgruntled by oppression, slavery and short-change their trust in the elected few to oversee social order.

This is the beginning of revolutions (Thoreau 194). The article’s advice for the current situation is that it is not absolute for the collective responsibility to be undertaken directly. Social order is already contracted to the government by the way of election. Furthermore, one continues to contribute to the stewardship of the law and order by way of taxation and service to the government.

E.E Cummings: LIV The poem is a presentation of the concept of reductionism. Although we are independent as individuals, many factors unite us. The poem states the importance and the reality of unity. The imageries given on tree, leaf, and on the growth of buds is an indication of the society comprised of many components yet united by the virtue of love and co-existence.

A show of love explains who we are (Cummings 181). The poem advises the situation on the value of compassion. The poem completely ignored the personal dreams, economic value and responsibility of provision on the east coast.

We will write a custom Essay on Decision Making and Problem Solving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Martin Luther king, Jr, “Letters from a Birmingham Jail” The letter speaks of the issues on racism in the south of the United States. As indicated, the racial discrimination anywhere had effect everywhere. Luther wondered what response he could give to a five year old if they wanted to know causes of segregation. Children understand that all mankind deserves good treatment. The section of the letter that touches on children is especially critical in deciding whether to go to Boston or remain in Iowa with the family (King 77-100).

Albert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus The myth is anchored on the condemnation of Sisyphus to roll the rock up the cliff and just before it topples over to the other side, it falls back to the foot of the cliff and he has to repeat. The punishment is given after the accusation of his role when Jupiter stole Aegina who was the daughter to Aesopus (Camus 237).

The myth is a demonstration of the power of divine creatures over the beings on the earth. Sisyphus suffers from labor in futility. The mythology informs the decision to remain in Iowa or leave to the east coast. The decision that violates the will of the divine power comes with adverse consequences.

Auden: the unknown Citizen The Bureau of Statistics considered the unknown citizen as one with good conduct. He was on the good side of demography according to the Eugenist, he had modest interaction with colleagues, and he was in good health. He also had a reasonable material fortune of radio, automobile, fridge and phonograph. He was well informed from the media and his level of education was apt. (Auden 98).

The unknown citizen is the ideal representation of the decisions that ought to be made in the described situation. He can meet the expectation of serving his community and undertake his employer’s assignment. The decision should strive to meet the ideals posed in the case of the unknown citizen.

Precepts from the living quotations The message in the quotations is derived from the scripture. It emphasizes on service to humanity through the lessons drawn from the stories of the Biblical personalities. The quotations reveal the benefits of working together as a community and treating each other with kindness (Bacote 155). The message in the nuggets informs the process of making decision in the present scenario by a historical and transcendent understanding.

Conclusion The decision must strive to meet the ideals observed by the unknown citizen meaning it must be conscious of the family. The decision should also note that the current is an act of nature. The emerging obligations need character, strong will and decisiveness. The economic and social family obligations must be met despite the desire to offer a helping hand in the aftermath of the disaster (Adair 10

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Edward William Lane’s Views on the Orients Term Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Lane’s views on the Orient

The orient’s culture, traditions and beliefs

The People of Egypt

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Edward William Lane was born on September 1801 in Hereford, England. He was a British national popularly known for his massive contribution in the research about the people of ancient Near East. He was an excellent lexicographer and a translator. Lane’s father, Dr. Theusand Lane, died when Edward Lane was still a young boy.

He was left an orphan at a tender age of 13 years, and his uncle, Gainsborough took care of him. The uncle sent him to a school at Bath to learn grammar. He was later transferred to Hereford which was considered a better school. At this early stage of learning, Lane showed a strong interest in Mathematics.

Although the teachers ignored this talent as just a normal case of a genius student, his uncle was convinced that he had some special academic capacity that put him above any other average learner. When he completed his elementary learning, Lane visited Cambridge. The uncle wanted him to continue with his education at this school which then had a good reputation. However, he did not join Cambridge. Instead, he decided to join his brother in London (Lane 26).

While in London, Lane started developing a special interest in Arabic. He thought that there was something unique about the Arabs, making them have their own unique cultural practices. Through his own initiatives, he started learning Arabic. It was not easy for him to learn Arabic because he did not have a teacher to guide him. However, he was able to learn this language. He went to Alexandria in Egypt in 1825 aged 24 years.

He then moved to Cairo later in the same year. It was while staying in Cairo that he developed a strong interest in studying way of life of people in this region. He started by translating books and other works of literature in this society from Arabic to English. From 1960, he started publishing several books, most of which were based on the lifestyle of the people of Egypt. This research will focus on Edward Lanes work in order determine his view on the orients as demonstrated in his book, ‘Description of Egypt.’

Lane’s views on the Orient As a young scholar, Lane had developed a strong interest in understanding the orients. As Lane (90) notes, his scholarly work about the orients made him one of the most successful Arab scholars of his time. He dedicated his time in analyzing people, customs, traditions, manners, and other practices of the orients in order to eliminate what he believed was a misconception about these people by the Western society.

Lane was convinced that there had been an unfair prejudice against the orient by the Western powers, and for this reason, he believed that the best he could do would be to offer an insight into the actual practices of these people. As Said (67) says, the West viewed the orients from two main perspectives. The orients were known for their production of oil and for terrorism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Western society, especially in his home country England and also in the United States, the orients were either terrorists or suppliers of oil. Lane believed that this was a misguided conception of an otherwise sober people who were determined to lead a peaceful life with their neighbors and other people around the world. He dug into the culture, traditions, and manners of the orients in order to dispel some of the long held myths about the orients.

The orient’s culture, traditions and beliefs When Lane entered Cairo, he was convinced that the orients were not as bad people as they had been depicted by the Western society. He believed that they were just as good as people from the West. His affection for the orients was demonstrated when he changed his dressing code from what he used to wear, to a new attire that was common in this region.

During this time, the orients were known for their unique dressing code. The dressing code itself was a source of prejudice from the Western culture. As a man who had grown up in a Western culture, Lane knew all the criticism that the society in the West had towards the orients.

However, he had a different view of these people. He believed in them, and that is why he changed his dress-code to reflect the lifestyle of these people. As demonstrated in his book, ‘Description of Egypt’, Lane shows a strong desire to give a true analysis of the orients in order to dispel some of the beliefs that the society had associated them with over the years.

As a man who had been raised in a British society, Lane decided to change his lifestyle and become an orient, from speech, dress code, practices, and in language. He notes that when he changed his mannerism to reflect that of the oriental, these people easily accepted him as part of their members of the society. He noted that the orients, just like people from the West, had normal beliefs and practices that were based on environmental factors.

Just like the Western societies, the orients had developed mistrust with the people of the West. He had to disguise himself as part of the orients in order be accepted in this society. He notes that the orients were even more tolerant in their mannerism than the Western societies. In the United States and Europe, Lane explains that the mistrust that they had towards the orients was deeply rooted and it would not be able to convince them otherwise.

However, the orients were warm and welcoming. They easily accepted him as part of them when he adopted their culture. In explaining the mannerism of the orients, Lane says that they had been subject of prejudice from the Western societies. This lack of trust by the West, and constant prejudice made them develop some form of defense mechanism that made them mistrust the West in equal measures.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Edward William Lane’s Views on the Orients specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The People of Egypt Most of Lane’s work was based on the people of Egypt. He was trying to reconstruct the ancient Near East cultural practices in order to determine any relationship it had with the terrorism tag that the modern generation had earned. The more he studied the Egyptian culture, language, dress-code, and mannerism, the more he came to approve of them over other Western cultural practices.

In fact he was keen to dissociate himself from the Europeans in Cairo who insisted on retaining the Western mannerisms. He argued that the Egyptian attire, just like that of many other orients in the Middle East, was full of respect as opposed to that of people from the Western culture. In his book, Lane was more sympathetic of the people of Egypt than being a defender of their culture.

Although he did all he could to identify himself with them, deep within himself he still believed that he was not part of them. He believed that he was from the West, but had a calling to defend the people from the East. He praised the communal structure of the people of Egypt. He was also pleased by the willingness of members of this society to offer help to other members of the society who were facing varying problems. This was very rare in the Western society where people were preoccupied with personal gains.

Conclusion Edward Lane was one of the most accomplished British oriental scholars of his time. He did extensive analysis of the orients to determine their cultural practices, beliefs, and general way of life. He concluded that the orients were not as bad as the West was trying to portray them to be.

Lane’s view of the orients is closely shared by Edward Said who believed that the orients were people of good ethics as opposed to what the West were trying to depict of them. Just like Lane, Said was critical of the West’s perception that the orients were either terrorists or suppliers of oil. Said noted that this was a narrow thinking, which lacked facts that could be used to support it. Instead, Said says that orients are normal people with ethics just like the people of the West. This is an opinion strongly held by Lane in most of his books.

Works Cited Lane, Edward. Description of Egypt: Notes and Views in Egypt and Nubia, Made During the Years 1825, 26, 27, and 28; Chiefly Consisting of a Series of Descriptions and Delineations of the Monuments, Scenery

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Equal Pay Policies Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Occupational segregation by gender remains one of the brightest features of labor markets in the developed world. Much has been written and said about the ways, in which gender is shaping occupational policies and organizational decisions. Despite the growing number of legislative acts and equity regulations, gender is still one of the main factors of wage decisions in modern organizations. At the same time, organizations and countries develop policies to strengthen the atmosphere of fairness in the workplace.

Equal pay policies have a long history that dates back to the nineteenth century. The goal of equal pay policies is to address the differences in wages paid to women and men, who fulfill the same amount of work. Unfortunately, many equal pay policies do not lead to any positive results, and the goal of this paper is to see how equal pay policies work in a number of countries and why they do not help to reduce the existing gender pay gap.

Equal Pay Policies – Meaning, Significance, and Current Situation Equal pay legislation is one of the most popular topics in literature. The drive for gender equality in the workplace justifies the growing importance of equal pay policies in countries and organizations.

Fitzpatrick, Kwon, Manning, and Pascall describe three important elements of equal pay policies: equal wages for the equal amount of work; equal wages for the work that is similar or substantially similar; and equal pay for comparable work (414). As of today, most industrialized countries offer equal wages for the work that is similar or substantially similar, and only now they realize the importance of comparable worth policies in reducing gender gaps in wages.

The history of equal pay policies dates back to the nineteenth century, with Great Britain being the first industrialized society to recognize the problem of gender pay gaps (Fitzpatrick et al. 414). In 1888, the British Trades Union Congress passed new legislation to promote equal pay for equal amounts of work (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).

At that time, many trade unions were not confident that equal pay policies were important, but the growing number of women in the workforce pushed organizations and business owners to review their approaches to wages. In 1914, Canada became the second country in the world to vote against the exclusion of women from the workforce and for the provision of equal pay for women and men (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).

Women entered trade unions, thus getting stronger in their demands for equal pay. After the end of the Second World War, North America saw thousands of women participate in equal pay campaigns (Fitzpatrick et al. 414). The movement towards equal pay in the civil service was faster than in private organizations (Fitzpatrick et al. 414).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the post-war period, many countries decided to adopt equal pay policies. In 1963, the United States passed its first equal pay laws, followed by Great Britain in 1970 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). The Equal Pay Act in Great Britain came in force later in 1975 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). Internationally, equal pay policies became a top priority at the beginning of the 1950s.

The International Labor Organization turned equal pay into one of its primary conventions in 1951 (Fitzpatrick et al. 415). The principles of equal pay were also included in the European Union’s Treaty of Rome of 1957. Today, both the United States and the United Kingdom have a broad range of legislative acts, laws and regulations that have to reduce and eliminate gender gaps in wages.

In the United States, the Equal Pay Act requires that all employers pay their employees equal wages for equal work (Inc.). The Equal Pay Act is an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act passed in 1963.

The Act was passed to protect women and men from the negative impacts of gender on their wages and, at the same time, eliminate the notion of sex discrimination in the workplace. Today, the Act covers all employees, as well as managers, executives, administrators, and elementary and secondary school teachers. At the same time, the philosophy of equal pay policies in the United Kingdom is based on the principles of equality in labor and wages adopted by the European Union.

The U.K. is facing unique gender discrimination challenges, which make it different from other European countries and the U.S. At present, the UK has one of the largest gender pay gaps in Europe, mostly because of the lack of collective bargaining and historically high levels of wage inequality (Rubery). Additionally, the United Kingdom has a higher share of women working in part-time jobs, and the differences in wages across full-time and part-time jobs in the U.K. are the highest in Europe (Rubery).

As a result, despite the years devoted to equal pay polices in the United States and Great Britain, the gender pay gap continues to persist. In 2009, gender wage gaps were one of the strongest features of labor markets in the U.S. (Hegewisch, Liepmann, Hayes

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7 Deadly Sins of Meetings Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Meetings are very important in a day to day running of any organization. Managers have to gather meetings once in a while to discuss various issues that may affect their organization and come up with possible solutions to these issues (Henkel 2007). It is important to make sure that these meetings are interesting. It is, therefore, important that people who are tasked with the responsibility of organizing meetings are able to avoid the seven deadly sins of meetings.

I have recently attended a meeting in my neighborhood that was address the rising cases of insecurity and how well the problem should be solved. The organizers of the meeting simply went from door to door informing people of where the meeting would take place, the agenda of the meeting and the time the meeting would start. Since we are all affected by the issue of insecurity, I decided to attend the meeting alongside my parents.

However, the organizers of the meeting committed one of the seven deadly sins of meeting. The meeting took too long. People became restless and one by one they began leaving the venue. The organizers had not taken into account the fact that people had other important matters to attend too.

There were too many speakers in the meeting. As a result, it was a total failure as the earlier set objectives were not met. This is because by the time the organizers had been concluding the meeting, most of the people had already left. It was impossible to make a binding decision in the absence of most residents of the neighborhood.

Still, it would have been possible for the organizers of the meeting to avoid committing the sin had they considered the following factors.

Good time management

The meeting should have taken a maximum of 90 minutes. This is because the meeting comprised of different people who had various commitments elsewhere. Each section of the meeting would have been allocated some definite period of time (Henkel 71). This is important in order to ensure that all the objectives that had been set would be met. This was failed because people spent more time discussing the issues and in the end did not have enough time to come up with solutions to the problem that had been raised.

Proper use of technology

The use of technology would have also helped a great deal. The organizers of the meeting should have hired a sound system assistant and acquire the appropriate technology to make sure that everyone was able to hear what was being discussed. I think it would have also helped a lot by using a projector to help highlight some of the main points that were being discussed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Limiting the number of speakers

The organizers should have also ensured that hey limited the number of people to address the meeting. Most of the people who addressed the meeting kept on repeating some of the things that the speakers had already addressed earlier. This would have saved on time as well as help avoid repetitions (Henkel 91).

Conclusion It is important that meetings are planned well in advance. The people tasked with the responsibility of planning the meetings should ensure that they do not commit any of the seven deadly sins of meetings. It is important to meet the set objectives while also ensure that meetings are interesting and do not consume much time.

Reference Henkel, S. L. (2007). Successful meetings: how to plan, prepare, and execute top- notch business meetings. Ocala, Fla.: Atlantic Pub. Group.

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Re-Examining Business Ethics Essay best college essay help

When we hear the term “business ethics”, what is the first idea that enters our minds? Some people will say that business ethics is “acting in accordance with the ethical principles and theories applied in our society”. However, “business ethics” is one of the best “ideas” that can make businesses successful and profitable. In my speech today, I am going to “re-examine” the idea of business ethics in order to help entrepreneurs and corporations understand the importance of embracing the concept towards a successful corporate culture.

Business ethics is a term used to describe the behavior of business organizations. Business ethics examines the actions of leaders and stakeholders in any given organization. Although “ethics” focuses mainly on performance, actions, and activities of business organizations, there is need to embrace the idea of “business ethics” in order to make businesses successful and responsible. Business organizations should apply the idea of “business ethics” to its activities including leadership, service delivery, and product development.

With such an approach, organizational leaders will make accurate and ethical decisions in order to promote a positive business culture. Business managers and leaders are also expected to behave in an ethical manner. Business organizations and entrepreneurs should always encourage their employees to make ethical decisions. This approach will ensure business organizations promote the best ethical practices. Most of the successful companies today have always embraced the idea of business ethics.

It is also necessary for organizations to practice Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The idea of Corporate Social Responsibility and proper ethical behaviors can bring numerous gains to a company or business organizations.

Any company that fails to act ethically loses its business and eventually become unprofitable. As well, ethical behaviors are necessary because they help businesses attract new customers. This will definitely boost their profits and sales. This explains why business leaders should embrace the idea of “ethical behaviors” and proper leadership strategies in order to make their companies successful.

It is also agreeable that the question of “labor” continues to affect many companies today. For instance, most of the companies that do not embrace the best ethical practices tend to fail in their businesses. The companies are unable to attract new employees. On the other hand, “ethical companies” will always attract new employees thus reducing their business costs. As well, an ethical company will find it easier to attract new investors and eventually become profitable.

It would be necessary for businesses to re-examine their practices and activities in order to remain ethical. There is need for companies to use various ethical principles and theories in order to improve performance. It is agreeable that unethical behaviors will eventually damage the reputation of a firm. This will make it less attractive to its customers and stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Along with other ideas such as proper organizational structures and leadership strategies, businesses should reexamine their ethical practices because this is an integral part of an organization’s culture. There is need for organizations to embrace ethical behaviors and practices in order to make the best decisions and address the needs of their stakeholders.

Business ethics helps companies improve their working conditions and support the needs of their stakeholders. Business ethics is definitely the best concept for firms to realize their potentials and become successful in their respective industries. I will conclude by encouraging business leaders and entrepreneurs to embrace the importance of business ethics. This will be the first step towards a successful business.

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The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case Studies

Debate

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction Filene asks an important question that several philosophers are yet to offer an adequate explanation, which relates to the worthiness of life. A debate is ongoing as to whether an individual has the right to withdraw his or her life whenever it is felt that it no longer makes sense.

Some of the concerned parties to the debate include bioethicists, social workers, families of the affected individual, as well as the entire society. The book discusses the historical and cultural aspects of life and death by putting it into the context of the modern society. Some historians view his works as an account of the right to die.

For instance, he presents the views of individuals who have wished to die because of one reason or the other. First, he discusses the role of technology in saving lives. Moreover, he evaluates whether the use of technology would be sustainable in the future because life-support machines are gaining relevancy in many societies, but they are not effective in safeguarding life.

In particular, he gives the case of Karen Ann Quinlan, which served an important purpose of shaping the public opinion as regards to the use of technology in supporting life. Apart from the case, he proves that several individuals have moved to court to determine whether they have the right of terminating their own lives, as well as those of their loved ones.

In his conclusion, he sums up that the issue of life and death is an ethical one, and self-determinism should not be applied in resolving this important issue. He notes that, “as we think about how we hope to die, we need to take into account the perspectives of history and culture[1].” To him, consideration of cultural and historical events in making ethical decisions helps in understanding the ambiguities that awaits an individual, as well as the options that people take.

Case Studies The first court case to have emerged in the country regarding the right to die was presented in New Jersey when the parents of Karen Ann Quinlan sought an interpretation from the judiciary on whether their daughter would continue to suffer.

Her physical condition was not improving after being kept alive in a respirator for some months, something that made her parents to ask the hospital administration to terminate her life without further delay. The hospital refused, citing several reasons, one of them being the provision in the constitution declaring that life is sacred and should be protected at all times. The court determined that the parents had the right of terminating the life of their daughter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The decision sparked a heated debate, with one group supporting the court’s decision while the other was highly opposed. Each side presented valid reasons as to why their positions had to be adopted. The practice of medicine was particularly affected since the ruling lead to the subsequent amendment of the law to incorporate divergent views. Through the case, each hospital was required to develop an ethics committee whose role would be to analyze each case and offer professional advice.

Ann’s parents defended their position by claiming that they were not pessimistic about the health of their child, but instead they wanted her to be returned to the natural state since they were against the technology employed in keeping her alive. The hospital was concerned with the response from the Morris Country prosecutor since they would be charged with homicide in case they withdraw the ventilator without state approval hence it decided to seek further clarification from courts.

The hospital was granted a court order stopping Quinlan’s family from terminating Ann’s life, but a successful appeal was made in 1976, granting the family its wish. It was surprising to note that Ann did not die as soon as the ventilator was removed because she survived for nine more years, even though the mode of feeding was artificial.

The ruling changed the perception of many, with the Catholic Church being drawn into the debate. The Supreme Court identified that Ann’s father was acting out of good faith. Moreover, the judges relied on letter received from the Pope requesting all doctors to exercise morality whenever dispensing their services. On the issue of withdrawing the life-support machines, the Pope responded by giving five important reasons as to why the family has the right.

The Catholic Church clarified that the doctor has the right to withdraw life support machines, but in extreme cases when it is felt that it is the only remaining option of fulfilling the ethical duty. However, the doctor cannot take this decision without receiving instructions from the patient directly, obliquely, utterly, or openly meaning that the family can represent the patient in making the decision.

The technique is considered an extra-ordinary means of saving life hence the family should never think of using it or instructing the doctor to do so. If it is confirmed that the patient has no hope of recovering and is unconscious, the Catholic Church allows the family to apply any available technique, including removal of life-support machine since it would turn out to be the only solution.

However, it should never be tried because it might end up affecting the condition of the patient. Finally, the Catholic Church is simply against euthanasia and the case of Ann was different because only the ventilator was disconnected and it turned out to be effective because she survived for an additional nine years.

We will write a custom Essay on The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the case, it is noted that the Church was simply against the overreliance on technology to save life since the Pope was of the view that God might provide a natural healing and in this case, the patient has to be allowed to survive through the natural means. In order to save life, all available options have to be tried out and withdrawal of machines is just one of the options. The church refers to this as the principle of double effect whereby the outcome might be either positive or negative.

The court supported Ann’s father proposal by considering his faith and the intention of the act since he was optimistic that his child would survive through natural means. The decision and the overturning of events surprised many people because Ann was able to survive for additional days, even though the majority expected her to be pronounced dead upon the withdrawal of the ventilator.

In a different case involving Cruzan and the Director of Missouri Department of Health in 1990, the Supreme Court failed to grant the family its wish of withdrawing the life-support machine because the reason was not convincing. The case was brought to the judges at the time when the health sector had developed laws to deal with issues of medical morality.

The Cruzan family requested the court to instruct the hospital to remove their child from the life support machine. However, the judges failed to pursue a similar path as the New Jersey Supreme Court because it followed the advice of the medics and stated clearly that a competent person has the right to object to the issue of machine withdrawal because he or she has adequate experience and understanding of the case.

Since Nancy Cruzan, the patient, was a minor and did not understand what was fit for her, it was against the law for the family to come up with a unanimous decision without consulting experts. The family appealed the decision and went back to collect enough evidence to prove that withdrawal of the machine was the best option for Nancy. The court heeded to the family’s plea and ruled in its favor leading to the stoppage of the life-support services.

Nancy survived for an additional seven days meaning that life can still go on without the machines. The decision and the preceding events had a greater impact on people’s perceptions on technology because they expected an instant death upon the stoppage of machine services. Even though many people are still of the view that machines have a role to play in preserving life, a majority of individuals have to appreciate the natural process that human beings go through in their lives.

Debate The withdrawal of life support services to allow the patient to use natural means of survival is considered homicide in the United States and it might be punishable by law, but the case is different when the individual or the family requests for the abandonment of the machines.

Filene suggests that those in support of the withdrawal of the machines base their arguments on the principle of self-determination, something he highly contests since life is not an individual affair, but instead a communal concern. For instance, the death of a family member might bring trauma, something that increases suffering instead of solving the problem.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Book “In the Arms of Others” by Peter Filene by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, supporters of mercy killing note that it would be better to allow a subject to die peacefully instead of allowing him or her to go through a lot of pain. Advocates of mercy killing suggest that the use of the term doubt of effect is hypocritical and unrealistic because placing a patient under a life support machine means he or she is unable to use natural means. There would be no any other alternative to improve the situation.

The opponents present strong points as to why the act should never be allowed in the country. One of the arguments is that not all deaths are painful meaning that there is no need of rushing to withdraw the machine without establishing whether the patient is really suffering.

Apart from inducing euthanasia or withdrawing life support machines, other options exist, including cessation of active treatment and inducing pain relievers. In fact, this would be the best option of reducing pain, as the situation is monitored. It is always believed that the patient might be allowed to die today, yet the cure for his or her condition is invented the following day. Some individuals believe that everything is possible in the world of science and technology because inventions are made every minute.

If life support services are to be withdrawn, the status of the patient should be taken into consideration because some patients might be opposed to the idea while the family is concerned with the escalating hospital bills. This would definitely amount to murder because the life of the individual would have been terminated without his or her knowledge[2]. In fact, this should always be investigated and those found guilty must be arraigned in court to face murder charges.

From a legal standpoint, mercy killing, which entails the withdrawal of the life-support machine, is a criminal homicide meaning the intention is always to terminate life, irrespective of the intention. However, the law is clear on homicide because not all of them are illegal. Any homicide that does not attract a criminal punishment is permissible and pardonable. However, withdrawal of life-support machine does not fall under the category that is excusable because it is active euthanasia.

If the physician injects the patient to facilitate death, the law designates this as suicide. The same applies with withdrawing life support machine, even though the practice is allowed in the United States. From the works of Filene, it is observed that several courts have upheld the decision to terminate life through switching off the machines. In the case of Ann, her parents had to make a decision for her, but she survived for nine years, something considered an extra-ordinary case.

For the case of Nancy, she did not survive beyond the eleventh day meaning that machines could be utilized effectively to enhance life. Even though the church is opposed to mercy killing, it permits the family to explore other options believed to be effective in preserving life, including the withdrawal of machines. This means that euthanasia and mercy killing are controversial concepts that cannot be addressed effectively by evaluating the views of one side.

Bibliography Filene, Peter. In the Arms of Others: A Cultural History of the Right-to-Die in America. New York: Diane Publishing, 2003.

Oluyemisi, Bamgbose (2004). “Euthanasia: Another Face of Murder”. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48.1 (2004): 111–121.

Footnotes Peter Filene, In the Arms of Others: A Cultural History of the Right-to-Die in America (New York: Diane Publishing, 2003), p. 65.

Oluyemisi, Bamgbose, “Euthanasia: Another Face of Murder”, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48.1 (2004), p 119.

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The Main Objectives of Heifer International Organization Expository Essay scholarship essay help

The main objective of Heifer International is to end poverty and hunger by facilitating programs through which individuals can obtain livestock and tree seedlings.

The organization offers extensional training to members of a community to ensure the success of its programs and encourages beneficiaries of Heifer International to give at least one of the female offspring of the livestock to another member of the community who has undergone training. By embracing the Pass on the Gift strategy, the organization ensures it realizes its initiatives and goals on a large scale and uplifts a significant number of people.

As a nonprofit organization, Heifer International sources for funds from individuals and organizations and may enter into partnerships with foundations, corporations and governments involved in projects to create wealth and opportunities. Apart from training individuals on appropriate animal husbandry, Heifer International incorporates various elements of sustainable development education, which enlightens beneficiaries on the management of the income generated from animal products or plants.

The organization acknowledges the fact that keeping people out of poverty is a complicated process, which requires the adoption of approaches in the social and economic context to ensure the growth of the initial investment. The US Agency for International Aid (USAID) considers aspects of the management of an individual project and the project portfolio in making the decision to fund an organization.

Considerations regarding effective portfolio management entail the cost effectiveness of projects and their impacts on the target population or community. Cost effective projects highlight the likelihood of success of the strategic goals while projects with unclear cost estimates indicate the underlying hurdles and inefficiencies in the implementation process.

To make an appropriate decision regarding the funding of Heifer International programs, the USAID needs to embrace evaluation procedures that will provide rough estimates on the gains of the beneficiaries in terms of the income, nutrition and wealth derived from livestock and seedlings (Hooft and Terry 113). The estimates of the beneficiaries’ gain should indicate a sense of relationship between the expenditures on Heifer International programs and the socioeconomic benefits associated with the programs.

A case study on Heifer International programs in Uganda illustrates the comprehensiveness of the organization’s programs and the viability of USAID funding the projects on livestock and plants. The Uganda project entailed the organization of families into projects based on a variety of animals with each family obtaining a cow, pig, goat or fish.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each family had to meet the conditions set by Heifer International, which included the participation of a member from each family in a series of training sessions, preparation of a shed for the expected animal and planting of appropriate fodder crops. The emphasis on zero grazing eliminated the challenges relating to the ownership of large sizes of land because most of the poor families own small pieces of land.

Heifer International programs thrive on twelve cornerstones, which include sustainability and self-reliance, nutrition and income, training and education, accountability and spirituality (Clements 18). The Uganda families benefitted in other ways such as strategies to improve sanitation, education and gender equality, which are some of the key hurdles to the improvement of the standards of living in developing countries.

Heifer International programs contribute positively to the enhancement of leadership skills by encouraging project groups to elect leaders who oversee the collection of dues and new development activities.

The focus on the long-term goals of Heifer International programs is evident by the decision to employ extension workers with veterinary skills and experience to support farmers in the early stages of their projects. The veterinary workers organize the training of new members from within the project groups to ensure self-reliance within families and the community.

The fact that Heifer International liaises with government agencies within the target country highlight aspects of transparency and openness in the organization’s programs. Heifer International objectives and policies highlight the organization’s desire to cooperate with other entities that are keen on helping impoverished communities in various parts of the world. The cornerstones of the organization’s projects highlight an opportunity that the USAID can exploit in the administration of civilian foreign aid.

Considering that the scope of Heifer International’s activities extends beyond the provision of livestock and seedlings to incorporate various humanitarian activities, the USAID decision to fund the organization would be viable. USAID’s programs on poverty relief, which include assistance to public health and improvement of education, can thrive within the cornerstones of Heifer International programs (Dowling and Chin 78).

Furthermore, the USAID seeks to improve the management of agricultural activities in poor countries and collaborating with Heifer International would enhance the penetration and success of its objectives. Heifer International places great emphasis on practices that facilitate the sustainability of the environment, which has become a global interest among agencies such as the USAID.

We will write a custom Essay on The Main Objectives of Heifer International Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Heifer International meets the demands that programs supported by the USAID must respect the regulations on economic and environmental sustainability and promotes the USAID’s objective of providing environmental assistance to countries facing the threat of declining natural resources.

Works Cited Clements, Paul . “Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Heifer International Country Programs.” Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 8.18 (2012): 16-28. Print.

Dowling, J. Malcolm, and Chin Yap. Happiness and poverty in developing countries: a global perspective. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Print.

Hooft, vant́, and Terry Wollen. Sustainable livestock management for poverty alleviation and food security. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, Uk: CABI, 2012. Print.

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Nike Company’s Marketing Strategy Case Study essay help

Nike is a very well known company around the world. It is one of the most recognizable brands in any part of the world. This paper analyzes the company to uncover various facets of its operations and to get a glimpse of its overall strategy.

Vision and Mission The vision of Nike is to “bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world” (Ali

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Homer, the Iliad Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Historical background

The summary of the book

My perspective and understanding

Recommendations to students

Works Cited

Historical background The Iliad by Homer is more of myth art than factual historical happening. It considered as has a great Greece mythology. It is known to have contributed greatly to the western civilization (Kershaw 34). More often, the Iliad is referred to as the Song of Ilion. It is an ancient Greek poem and its setting is on the Trojan War in which the Troy city was blockaded for 10 years. Troy is a union of several Greeks states. The poem seeks to illustrate on the battles between Agamemnon the King and the warriors Achilles.

The famous Iliad poem is one of the oldest literatures in the western nations. Actually, no one can exactly tell the precise time during which the poem was written. Little is known concerning its author. Some books assert that the composition is dated back to around 8 century BC. However, current statistical models grounded on language evolution indicate that the literature was written between 760 and 710 BC.

The literature is made up of about 15693 verse lines and is written in Homeric, which is a Greek language that emerged from a combination of Greek and other dialects. The Iliad poem only covers a brief final week of the Trojan War. Homer’s works have influenced several poets such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Chaucer over centuries. Over 2700 years the Iliad has remained the greatest war story in the West.

The summary of the book It is notable that Iliad myth has undergone several changes over centuries. The original Homer’s story has been greatly interfered and readers should be careful while reading it. The Iliad story begins at almost the end of the Trojan War during besiege by the Greeks (Fagles

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Music in the Ancient Greece Term Paper best college essay help

History This paper is about music in the ancient Greece. The paper opens with a brief overview of music and how it was practiced in ancient Greece. There is also an in-depth observation of how this form of art was perceived by ancient Greeks. There is also a discussion of the various ways through music reflected the cultural aspects of the Greeks at that time.

This paper cannot be complete without a description of some of the musical instruments that were used by different ethnic groups in the ancient Greece. Finally, there is a brief discussion about how the aspects of music in the ancient Greece will tend to differ from those of the ancient China. Without a doubt, music was a common feature in ancient Greek society, where it would serve various purposes in people’s lives.

Music during the Ancient Greece Period The history of music in ancient Greece dates back to the 6th century BCE when the first music lessons were introduced in the learning institutions. Music was held in high regard in the ancient Greece for a number of reasons. First of all, Greeks would see music as a divine form of art that helped to heal the hearts of the listeners.

As a matter of fact, music in ancient Greece was viewed as something that had a magical touch in people’s lives, and not just a system of rhythm and pitch that could be used for entertainment purposes (Norris 78). This form of art did not only inspire people, but it also soothed them in a special manner. In this regard, music would play a very important role in the course of unpleasant moments, thus helping to make common challenges and hardships more tolerable.

Music was also closely associated with some key aspects of education in ancient Greece, and for that reason, it served as a significant subject in Greek learning institutions. Mathematics and philosophy, both of which were significant subjects in the ancient Greece were some of the sciences that would have a close link to this form of art. The connection of music to education can be observed in the view of Plato that, the perfect kind of music is one which helps to discipline the brain and arouse courage and temperance within an individual.

Ancient Greeks held strongly to the belief that music had a direct influence on people’s ethical characters or ‘ethos’. In this regard, music bearing a message of advice was normally sung to people, especially the young ones, as a way of giving them moral lessons in life. This, however, would enable them to gain good characters and behaviors in the society. The Greeks would also view music as an effective mode of communication, thus using it to relay information.

This sense was enhanced through Aristotle’s theory of imitation which observes that, the art of music plays a significant role when it comes to representation of a person’s interests and passions. Another reason why music was highly regarded in the ancient Greece was due to its great contribution in the development of cultural aspects of the Greeks. In fact, Greeks saw music as a gift that had been given to them by the gods, considering the big role it played in the society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How Music Reflected the Greece Cultural Aspects The art of music played a very important role in the cultures of ancient Greece where it served as a unifying element. In this regard, people from various social backgrounds would play and listen to music as a way of appreciating different cultural aspects associated with their ethnic backgrounds. As it would be observed, music was an integral part of everyday’s life in the ancient Greece. This form of art was apparently used to inform people about early life, psychology, and history of the Greeks in different aspects of life (Anderson 42).

Even though there were other various forms of art that were practiced in Greece at that time, music was a common practice that was universally used to mark different rituals and ceremonies in ancient Greek society. For example, except being a significant element in private and public festival celebrations, music was a common feature in key celebrations such as social meetings, banquets, and rites of passage, among other moments of joy.

The key rites of passage where music was commonly applied included, but were not be limited to, initiation, marriages, and death. Music also served as a form of encouragement and motivation in the ancient Greece. In this case, it was used to accompany people as they performed their daily chores at home, in the fields, or in any other place of work. On the same note, music was also used to cheer up soldiers on their way to battlefields.

More importantly, music in ancient Greece was also closely connected to sports, where it served the role of encouraging athletes to do better in their sporting activities. Music and music practices were also used to accompany processions on important religious activities in some cities and towns in Greece. Some good examples of such religious occasions are the festivals of Great Dionysia and Panathenaia, both of which were commonly practiced in the city of Athens.

Music was also sung during religious rituals such as making of offerings and in the pouring of libation, among other religious practices. The Pan-Hellenic festivals that were conducted in some regions of the ancient Greece were other notable cultural practices where music remained a key activity.

As a matter of fact, a wide range of festivals were held annually in the ancient Greece, and all these featured numerous musical elements. Some of these musical elements would include singing processions, dances, and accompaniment of musical instruments.

Music Instruments used in Ancient Greece In order for music to achieve its full meaning in ancient Greece, instruments had to apply in almost all aspects (Bundrick 55). Ancient Greeks used a wide range of musical accompaniments that would comprise of percussion instruments, wind instruments, and plucked stringed instruments.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Music in the Ancient Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Common percussion instruments would include accompaniments that were identical to snare drum, cymbals, and timpani. Plucked stringed instruments consisted of the harp, the ‘kithara’, the ‘psaltery’, and the ‘lyre’. Finally, there were the wind instruments that comprised of the pan pipes and the ‘aulos’, among other simple instruments. Other instruments that were commonly used by the Greeks would include the guitar, conch and triton shells, bagpipe, ‘maracas’, shallow drum, clappers, harps, and xylophone, to name but a few.

Of all the instruments mentioned above, the most popular ones were the ‘aulos’, the ‘lyre’, and the clappers. The ‘aulos’ was a double-reed instrument that was commonly known as the double reed pipe. The instrument comprised of double tubes connected by a mouthpiece. In order for the most desirable music sounds to be produced, wind was blown through the mouthpiece as a series of holes on each of the two pipes were systematically closed and opened using the fingers.

The ‘lyre’ was another string instrument that comprised of a main body and a pair of protruding arms that would be connected to the body using a crossbar. Thin strings were fastened close to each other around the body and the cross bar. The ‘lyre’ came in many types, ranging from the round-based models to the square-based models.

The ‘clappers’ were the other category of music instruments that were commonly used in the ancient Greece. As it would be observed, humans have always possessed the desire to follow to the natural rhythm or beat of music. This feeling, however, can be expressed through a number of ways such as through stomping of feet, clapping of hands, and slapping of a particular part of the body. This, actually, was the case with the Greeks, who had fully adopted the use of ‘clappers’ as a way of adding rhythm to their music.

The ‘clappers’ used by ancient Greeks were constructed from ranging materials, with the most popular ones comprising of sticks that could be hit using a piece of metal to produce musical sound. This kind of instrument kept on changing over the years, and this would lead to the development of more advanced types of ‘clappers’ that made music in the ancient Greece more entertaining.

Differences between the aspects of music in the Ancient Greece and the Ancient China Even though the aspects of music for both the ancient Greeks and Chinese have a lot in common, there is a number of ways by which these aspects differ in both cultures (Pangle 45). One common difference here is that, both the ancient Greece and the ancient China had varied approaches for music.

For example, while music was an integral part in the lives of ancient Greeks where it was applied in almost every ritual, the Chinese would only use music for some specific events, especially ones that marked events of happiness in the society. Another major difference between the two cultures in regard with the aspect of music was that, music was observed to have had an extreme influence on the Chinese government.

This, however, was not the case with the Greeks, whose music never played any significant role in the government affairs. Another common difference was observed in the symbolic interpretations of music in the two cultures, which varied greatly. The other major difference between the aspects of music in the two cultures was in the music instruments used. It is clear that, the musical instruments and accompaniments used in the ancient Greece were not the ones that were used in the ancient China.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Music in the Ancient Greece by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As has been noted in this paper, music was highly regarded in the Ancient Greece, where it served as an integral part of everyday lives of the Greeks. This form of art had very a meaningful purpose among the people of ancient Greece, and for that reason, it fulfilled a significance role in the entire Greek society.

As it has been shown, Greeks used a wide range of instruments to improve the sound of their music. It is also clear from this paper that, there were some notable differences between the aspects of music of the ancient Greece and those of the ancient china.

Works Cited Anderson, Warren. Music and Musicians in Ancient Greece, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994. Print.

Bundrick, Sheramy. Music and Image in Classical Athens, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.

Norris, Michael. Greek Art from Prehistoric to Classical: A Resource for Educators, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Print.

Pangle, Thomas. The Laws of Plato, Seattle, WA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010. Print.

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HealthSouth: The Rise and Fall of the Scrushy Empire Problem Solution Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

1. Summary: Richard Scrushy founded HealthSouth in 1984 with $50,000. The company was a privately-held health care franchise of clinics dedicated to physical therapy of elderly patients.

Scrushy became CEO of the company. By 1998 the company had experienced tremendous growth with over 1,900 centers in USA, UK and Australia. Scrushy was particularly fond of entertainment industry and he developed road shows for children and a separate communications department in HealthSouth. During his tenure as CEO Scrushy availed huge perks and benefits from the company. His corporate helicopter was primarily used for personal and family engagements.

After the company went public in 1986, Scrushy began to pressurize management to manipulate earnings in order to meet Wall Street’s expectations. His goal was to maximize stock price and his personal wealth since he owned a large stake in the company.

Every quarter, actual earnings were compared with what the market was expecting and any differences were reconciled by wrongly inflating the numbers. These adjustments were made in contractual adjustment account. Moreover, the accountants also misrepresented income statement by not recording expenses less than $5000 which was the threshold materiality level for the auditors.

The balancing entries were made in the assets account by recording fake purchases. In 2002, a former employee Michael Vines notified Ernst

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Seminar scholarly reflective report Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Impact on professional experiences and involvements

Impact of readings on understanding of obligations as a citizen

Enhancement of skills in the course

References

Introduction Different scholars apply varying definitions to the term “public administration” depending on their use for the same. In essence, the term often describes the various aspects involved in the development and implementation of government policies.

As an academic discipline, public administration refers to the study of the development and implementation of such policies with the aim of enabling scholars to understand and apply such knowledge to their daily undertakings in both their personal and professional undertakings as citizens or public servants.

This paper explores the effect of public administration as an academic discipline from my scholarly experience. It contains a concise description of ways in which readings assist me to understand my professional experiences and involvements, my obligations as a citizen in a free state, and ways in which the course enhances skills such as writing, critical thinking, decision-making, and ethical awareness.

Impact on professional experiences and involvements Readings on public administration, as an academic discipline, have enabled me to understand my professional experiences and professional undertakings and continue to do so in various ways.

Firstly, they have enabled me to understand the processes involved in the creation of policies that affect public administrators and other professionals with links to their offices in different capacities, which is an essential element when applying an analytical outlook to administrative duties (Fredrickson, 2005). It is usually easy for individuals with no knowledge of the creation and implementation processes that public administrators should apply in the fulfillment of their duties to complain and blame the wrong people for failures and delays in certain areas.

Often, such ignorance and misinformation results in delays when procuring assistance on specific issues related to various administrative offices. Information on the duties that each person within the administrative chain performs enables me to obtain help from the right individuals, thus saving me precious time in the resolution of problems linked to the same.

Secondly, readings in the course have so far enabled me to analyze various duties that players in the public administration sector play, which is an essential process when singling out career options.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every year, hoards of scholars study hard with the aim of joining the public administration sector, but they lack concise targets as to which offices they would prefer to join and duties of each office. The readings in this course have enabled me to conduct an analysis on the duties that office holders in the sector perform and single out those that match my preferred skill set.

Such analysis ensures that I do not work too hard to attain skills that I might not need in the performance of a dream career while being careful not to overlook skills that I might need in case the prospects of my dream career do not pan out (Rhodes, 2002). In essence, the readings in this course have broadened my perspective on my career of choice and armed me with skills that I need to make my dream come true.

The third benefit that the readings have for me in terms of understanding my professional experiences is that they enable me to set realistic expectations regarding my career as a public administrator. It is a common occurrence for individuals to experience disappointment and frustration when performing their duties because things sometimes do not turn out as expected.

Through the utilization of the wide variety of reading material that the course offers, I now understand that various bodies in the public administration sector operate as independent entities working towards a common goal for the government and thus they formulate different policies depending on their goal at the time.

I have thus been in a position to adjust my expectations on consistency of operations and standard policy requirements for staff in organizations and keep an open mind on the same. This aspect ensures that I am ready for any eventuality in scenarios where bodies I choose to work for opt for changes in policies (Rhodes, 2002).

Another benefit that the readings afford me, as a scholar with a potential future in the public administration sector, is that they expand my understanding of the impact that policy changes have on public administrators in the performance of their duties. The importance of such knowledge lies mainly in the ability to adapt, whether in a professional capacity as a public administrator or as a professional in another sector of the economy applying such policy changes.

For most businesses, including the government in its financial operations, the ability to adapt to changes in policies ensures that the level of loss remains at its minimum and that the management of such institutions formulates contingency plans to mitigate the effects of such changes just in time (Kozol, 1996).

We will write a custom Report on Seminar scholarly reflective report specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lastly, pubic administration is a multifaceted discipline that comprises various other disciplines including human resource management, organizational theory, statistical studies, policy analysis, budgeting, and ethics (Fredrickson, 2005). The breath of the spectrum of information available on the various disciplines enables me to understand circumstances surrounding situations with a view of the bigger picture.

For instance, when analyzing the budgetary requirements of an organization in the public sector, it is easy for an accountant to overlook possible policy changes that may require the provision of a contingency fund. Application of linkages between different sectors in public administration enables such an accountant to foresee possible social changes such as increase in population, which may render the applicability of such a budget impracticable with time.

Impact of readings on understanding of obligations as a citizen Another important advantage of readings in the course relates to my understanding of my obligations as a citizen in a free state. Currently, numerous individuals lack knowledge on aspects that constitute their rights, freedoms, and those that constitute their obligations to their country as citizens.

Ignorance is one of the main reasons why most people find themselves on the wrong side of the law, especially when it comes to the interpretation of public policy regulations.

Often, most people think about what government bodies need to do for them as per the law and ignore the requirements that the same policies have for them in their capacity as citizens. The readings have enlightened me on the existence of such obligations from laws in my capacity as a citizen and an individual living in a free society under the protection of the government.

A good example that helps to explain the effects of ignorance of the obligations of citizens and the remedy that readings in public administration, as an academic discipline, provides concerns protection of property. Most people expect law enforcement agencies to protect their property through whichever means necessary, but they overlook their obligation to report crimes regarding violations concerning the property of other people, as is the case with community policing.

Another scenario similar to the one above is one whereby citizens expect the government to prosecute offenders, but fail to give the same importance to their obligation to testify at trial and bring perpetrators of the said violations to justice. Apart from ignoring obligations such as testifying in court and working with law enforcement bodies to protect property, some individuals misuse their rights under the constitution, thus violating their obligation to obey laws set by the state for their own protection (Jordan, 2012).

For instance, the American constitution, under the fourth amendment, provides for freedom of the press. However, individuals such as the paparazzi often use such freedom to violate the privacy of other citizens for financial gain (Jordan, 2012). Readings on public administration in relation to obligations of citizens have enabled me to relate to such issues and assess situations while taking responsibility for my obligations to the government as part of the same team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Seminar scholarly reflective report by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Enhancement of skills in the course One of the skills that studying public administration enhances is writing. The course has enabled me to filter information when writing and apply language that is easy to understand, which allows the reader to relate to the material without straining.

With regard to critical thinking, studying material in the course relating to various disciplines has enabled me to develop a mode of thinking that incorporates various aspects linked to the subject matter and come up with solutions that are improvements from the obvious. Thirdly, the course has enabled me to concentrate on problems and keep an open mind when formulating decisions on various issues.

Through skills such as policy analysis and solution assessment, I am in a position to make decisions that incorporate more considerations and work out better in the long-term. Lastly, through studying the materials and awareness of my obligations as a citizen, my level of ethical awareness when dealing with matters of ethical awareness is higher as compared to when I first started the course. I am now in a position to perceive situations for what they are without excluding my own actions from the equation.

References Fredrickson, G. (2005). Public Administration with an Attitude. Washington, D.C: American Society for Public Administration.

Jordan, T. (2012). The U.S Constitution and Fascinating Facts About it. Naperville, IL: Oak Hill Publishing Co.

Kozol, J. (1996). Amazing Grace: The Lives of Children and the Conscience of a Nation. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Publisher.

Rhodes, L. (2002). The Public Manager Case Book: Making Decisions in a Complex World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

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How could King be more upset with moderate whites than violent extremists like clansmen? Essay college admissions essay help

According to Martin Luther King Jr., the white moderates are highly irresponsible. Thus, extremists like the KKK are far much better as they take reasonability for their actions and completely express their hatred and racial sentiments for black people. The “white moderates “are impartial, yet claim to be aligned to the woes of the black people in their quest for freedom.

The essay examines the various reasons why King was upset with the white moderates. Considering the events taking place in the United States at the time, as well as how the black people were being treated, Kin could not have phrased his disappointment nay better.

In his letter, King is trying to persuade and win the authority of the white man who in the real sense had acted as a hindrance to the attainment of the various goals of the black people. His greatest displeasure with the white men that he refers to as “white moderates” in the letter is their limited involvement which he terms as lukewarm.

According to King, the greatest stumbling block that black men had towards their quest for justice and freedom was the white men or the white moderates, who were more inclined to ensuring that the country remained orderly, as opposed to ensuring equitable justice. It should, however, be noted that while the KKK were more open with their ethnic preferences and racial segregation in practice, the white moderates were lukewarm, meaning that they did not take a definite stand in the issues that affected the black people.

Based on their conduct, Martin Luther King is forced to state that, “Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection” (Hornsby 39). King further states that white moderates “prefer a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: “I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action” (Hornsby 40). It is this type of reasoning that in every sense overshadows the line of thought of Martin Luther King.

They were additionally marred by the concept of time as they would constantly advice black people to sit and wait for the opportune time to advocate for their rights. While it is easy to understand that the KKK people hated and acted against black people through their racial lines, it is not easy to understand why the white moderates would claim to support black people and still oppose the ways that they approached their quest for freedom.

According to King, “shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will” (Hornsby 41). This means that it is better to outright state opposition for something or someone than to pretend to be with them yet you are far away from them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the statement made by Luther king comes across as radical and ethnic in nature, the main aim was to ensure that freedom to the people was accelerated. It is not that Martin Luther king was not aware of the evil deeds of the clansmen and was talking in oblivion of them, but this was actually a statement that sought to state that the white men could have done better if they so desired to see the black people free.

The phrase as used by Martin Luther king can be termed as an awakening to the white people to do more and act fast. It was not meant to discredit them as a people on tribal lines, but to provoke them to see the need for accelerated freedom for the black people.

Works Cited Hornsby, Alton. “Martin Luther King Jr. ‘Letter from a Birmingham jail.” The Journal of Negro History 71.4(1986): 38-44. Print.

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Movie “The Graduate” Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction It is necessary for filmmakers to use the best tools and ideas in order to make their works spectacular. A good work of art such as a film should have a proper theme, clear message, and at the same time entertain the audience. The film “The Graduate” by Mike Nichols narrates the story of a young man who has just completed college.

At the age of 20, the protagonist realizes that everything is complex and hard than he had thought earlier. This essay therefore explains how the film “The Graduate” utilizes the best aspects of art and design to present useful insights that can help young individuals have a better life. The film achieves this using the best editing, “mise-en-scene”, photography, shots, and storyline.

Analysis of the Film “The Graduate” Summary of the Movie

Mike Nichols is the director of the film “The Graduate”. The 1967 film is based on a novel written by Charles Webb in 1963. The name of the novel is also “The Graduate”.

The actor in the film is Benjamin Braddock, a recent graduate who lacks a clear understanding of life. As a graduate without any aim in life, Braddock decides to befriend an older woman by the name Mrs. Robinson. It is also notable from the film that Mrs. Robinson is married and has a daughter be the name Elaine. Benjamin Braddock eventually falls in love with Elaine, Robinson’s daughter.

From an historical perspective, it is agreeable that the film plays a significant role towards boosting the position of folk-rock in the American society. Produced in the 1960s, the film explores most of the issues that affected the society during the time. Historians and researchers have argued that the film presents a major cultural and historical value to the American people. It adds a sense of beauty to American art and film culture.

The use of various technical aspects of film production has made it a spectacular piece of art. For instance, the producers used the best mise-en-scene, close-shots, long shots, sound track, and editing to present quality scenes to the audience. This has made it easier to deliver the targeted message to the audience.

Lawrence Turman and Joseph Levine produced the film in 1967. The producers managed to present various themes that can educate different members in the society. The first theme in the film is the idea of “coming of age”. In the film, Benjamin and Elaine are two youngsters who are unable to make the best decisions in order to address the issues affecting them. This explains why Benjamin encounters various challenges and obstacles because he is “indecisive” and incapable of coming up with the best solutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theme of “rebellion” is also evident in this film by Mike Nichols. The film presents a “radical mood” whereby Benjamin rebels against many things and ideas in the society.

For instance, he appears to ridicule the existing social norms. This occurs when he befriends Mrs. Robinson after finishing school. He also rebels against the social ideas in the society. As well, the movie demonstrates a strong sense of opposition. This is the case because Benjamin rebels against the ideas of the older generation, social conventions, and the upper class in the society.

The theme of “infidelity” is also evident in the film. This occurs when Mrs. Robinson decides to befriend Benjamin while knowing she was already married to Mr. Robinson. Benjamin goes further to date Elaine without considering the issues and consequences that might arise from the decision.

Although the audience is aware of Benjamin’s thoughts and ideas, it becomes evident that he continues to befriend Elaine in an attempt to achieve his dreams. Benjamin also realizes how the relationship might be horrible. This explains why such kind of indulgence by Benjamin is the most scandalous event in ‘The Graduate”.

Personal Views

The film by Mike Nichols is definitely one of the best works of art ever produced. The film presents a wide range of ideas and concepts that can help individuals live a better life. There are certain factors that make the movie admirable. To begin with, the producers have used the best strategies in order to make the film appealing to the audience.

The film embraces the idea of cast combination in order to make it entertaining. The timing of the film is “perfect” because it explores the issues that affected the American society in the 1960s. This explains why the film captures the “true spirit” of its era.

The other reason why this film is admirable is that it relates closely with its time of production. This explains why many people would consider the film as culturally and aesthetically momentous. As well, the film goes further to present some critical themes and lessons that can help the viewers address most of their problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Movie “The Graduate” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The film explains how young individuals can address most of their issues arising from indecisiveness. The film is also a classical work of art. It is admirable because it employs all aspects of film production such as “editing, mise-en-scene, and close-shots”.

I would also say that most of the parts in the film are attractive. For example, the film begins with Benjamin who has graduated from college. His parents and friends are interested in Benjamin’s plans for either a career or joining school for further studies. The unfolding story reveals most of the challenges facing many people at this age. The director has made the best decisions to make the film successful and entertaining to the targeted audience.

The film conforms to the “Classical Hollywood Narrative” style for film production. Movies that use the style tell a story in a “chronological order”. The style follows a “cause-and-effect” approach. By so doing, the producers have used a principle known as “continuity editing”.

The approach requires that the editing and sounds are “invisible” to the audience. That being the case, the producers gave the “desired attention” to the storyline and not to specific elements such as photography, editing, and sounds. The approach helps the producers and the editor present the best film to the targeted viewers.

Conclusion The movie “The Graduate” is definitely one of the best works of art produced in the 20th century. The film narrates a story that is culturally and historically significance. The producers have used the best tools and approaches in order to come up with a classic piece of art.

The film educates people to make appropriate choices in life as they work hard to pursue their dreams. It is agreeable that the film by Mike Nichols presents new ideas, themes, and lessons that can be applied in our lives. Personally, I have found the film meaningful because it combines different aspects of design and production. It also encourages people to make the best decisions and eventually overcome the challenges affecting them.

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Personal Information in Social Media Platforms Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Implications

Individual dependency

Conclusion

Works Cited

In a modern day world, technology has undeniably become an indispensable tool in the day-to-day operations of the human beings. However, this digital age has come along with its perils that confront millions of people around the globe. One of the threats is privacy.

The internet seems to record everything and forget nothing thus posing a threat to one’s privacy and reputation. Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace collect and share inappropriate and embarrassing personal information to other users, which comes to haunt people thereafter. Online photos, status updates, blogs have completely lost the power of reflecting an individual’s freedom of expression.

Living in an era, in which whatever you say or whatever others say about you is stored in permanent and public digital files, is threatening. The storage of this information does not give one an option to reinvent him or herself to a new beginning and overcome the checkered pasts.

In traditional societies, human beings were given the capacity to learn from the past experiences and adjust their behavior. However, in the modern society missteps are always recorded making them impossible to be forgotten thus offering no room for second chances.

Implications Using social media platforms has both personal and professional implications. There is an emerging trend of the social media platforms shifting from privacy to transparency in what they term as recognition of the social norms (Rosen 4).

The user profiles (user’s friends, relationship status, and family relations) that had previously been private would become public and accessible to other users. Facebook has already ascribed to this recent development. This would inevitably affect marriages, relationships, and family ties. Professionally, the internet have far reaching implications.

For, example majority of the recruiters and human resource professionals do conduct an online search of the candidates by not only scrutinizing the social-networking profiles of the applicants, but also using the search engines, photo- and video-sharing sites, personal web sites, and blogs. Some observers and scholars have argued that it is illegal for employers to fire or refuse hire anyone on the basis of legal off-duty conduct revealed in Facebook postings or Google profiles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Professor Paul Ohm observes that “It is not fair for employers to know what you have put in your Facebook status updates”. Ohm suggests that there should be laws that prohibit employers from refusing to hire people based on Facebook pictures, status updates, and other legal but embarrassing personal information.

Individual dependency In human history, all the activities and endeavors of people were fixed on rigid societal expectations. However, as time went by, people started drifting away from their social roles to become more individualistic. According to Rosen, “people perceived themselves increasingly as individuals, their status becomes a function not of inherited categories but of their own efforts and achievements” (Rosen). This individual dependency has been propagated by the narcissism that redefines the identity of the modern man.

Conclusion From the foregoing discussion, it is evidently clear that as people continue to experience the drawbacks of living in an internet-driven world, they should learn to hesitate before posting information, sharing photos, uploading pictures, joining online groups or blogging as that can drastically affect their personal and professional reputations. As we still wait for the technological, legal, judicial, and ethical solutions, one needs to be very careful to avoid the unforeseen negative impacts.

Works Cited Rosen, Jeffrey. “The Web Means the End of Forgetting.” The New York Times. The New York Times Mag., 21 July 2010. Web.

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Diversity in Business Organizations Term Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Summary

Conclusions

References

Introduction If an organization adopts diversity management, the performance and output are bound to increase. Conversely, if an organization doesn’t pay much heed to managing people from diverse cultures and ethnicities, the results can be drastic and appalling. When it comes to relationships, they are mutual (equal response from both sides).

So if employees don’t get proper response and acknowledgement it is quite possible that they too will be indifferent towards their organizations. This particular situation is more relevant in organizations where employees are from different cultures and ethnicities. So if an organization wants to prosper, it should give due importance to the diversity management policies.

Literature review Having diversity in an organization is very beneficial. In today’s business environment, where companies are going global, diversity recruitment becomes all the more crucial. Managers have to tackle their diverse subordinates in a very delicate and professional manner. Companies have to do buying and selling throughout the world.

It is human tendency to favor people of the same ethnicity and culture. In such a scenario, if organizations have employees from various ethnicities and cultures, it will be easy for them to do their business. Suppose if a British Company has business interests in India and has Indian sales personnel, it will be easy to convince the Indian buyers.

Moreover, the Indian sales personnel will have an idea of the mentality of Indians and will have the tactics to convince them. This particular aspect will become all the more important in the ensuing years when companies, due to saturation at home markets, will expand their businesses to other countries.

People from different countries have different perspectives regarding the ethics of work. For instance, the Germans believe that truth is the key to success, according to the Chinese truth is not absolute, and the British don’t want unnecessary trouble (Shakhray, 2009). This aspect should also be considered while making policies pertaining to diversity management.

By creating a harmonious work atmosphere, where diversity is irrelevant, managers can augment their company’s reputation in the placement market. This will help the company in catching the attention of qualified and efficient workers. In the long run such diverse employees may prove to be beneficial for the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the managers are efficient and if they follow the company’s diversity management policy, they can generate such a work atmosphere where all the employees would consider themselves to be important and appreciated. Rewarding the better performers, irrespective of their diversity, will further infuse motivation among the employees and as a result, they will work more enthusiastically and will involve themselves more.

Diverse workforce is an asset to any organization. In absence of workers from around the world, organizations may find it tough to penetrate foreign markets. One of the peculiar aspects of diversity management is that it should be “particular rather than universal” (Dass

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The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Question for Investigation

Marriage Traditions of Wolof People

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The population of the world is constituted by an array of cultural groupings and ethnicities. The cultures of the different ethnic groupings have been a subject of research for a long time. Scholars carry out these research studies in the quest to trace the historical development of the different cultures because it is believed that humankind descended from a single ancestry, and thus all people must have shared one culture at one time.

However, in the contemporary times, different parts of the world are littered with different cultural groupings. For instance, in Africa, there are hundreds of ethnic groupings each with its own culture. However, scholars and historians have increasingly raised concerns over the authenticity of today’s cultures, for as the world continues to open up due to phenomena such as globalization, many cultures have been waning and becoming a hybrid of several cultures.

Consequently, most cultures exhibit elements of different cultures from other parts of the world. Scholars have thus carried out studies to document the ways of almost all cultural groupings across the world for posterity. This paper seeks to explore the culture of the Wolof people with emphasis on their marriage traditions. The Wolof people are an ethnic grouping in North Eastern part of Senegal, parts of Mauritania, and Gambia.

Question for Investigation The Wolof culture is one of most affected cultures by Western influence in comparison to other cultures in the region (Diop 101). This aspect causes one to want to know the kind of social environment in which this culture is practiced and why it would be subject to more Western influence than other cultures in the region. The Wolof people are the largest ethnic grouping in Senegal as they form about 35% of the Senegalese populace and about 12% of the Gambian populace (Diop 112).

Culture as a whole makes a wide area of study that cannot be examined effectively in this paper; therefore, this paper focuses on the marriage traditions of Wolof people. In a bid to explore the topic exhaustively, the paper poses three fundamental questions that it seeks to address. These include the role that marriage plays in the family formation in the Wolof society, what the economic background of the plural marriages is, and which traditions describe the marriage ceremony of the Wolof culture.

Marriage Traditions of Wolof People The institution of marriage is an intrinsic part of the Wolof culture. This assertion implies that to the Wolof people, a family is an important unit, which forms a building block for other social units into which the Wolof society is organized. In order to form a strong and stable family among the Wolof, it was traditionally believed that cross-cousin marriage (young man marrying a maternal uncle’s daughter) was the best form of marriage (Gamble et al. 31).

This preference hinged on the idea that such arrangements provided the best and most stable marriages. Although it was traditionally permissible for a young man to marry a paternal aunt’s daughter, the importance attached to the stability and success of the family unit among the Wolof ensured that the first priority was given to marriage to a maternal uncle’s daughter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally, most marriages among the Wolof emerged from mutual agreements between the parents of the groom and the bride (Gamble et al. 31). Although this scenario has slightly changed with time, this practice is still prevalent in rural areas albeit with some minor adjustments.

Today, a young man may identify a particular girl and after the approval of parents, the father initiates talks to ask for the girl’s hand in marriage (Gamble et al. 31). In some cases, the rigid traditional systems in which the parents make all the decisions concerning matters of marriage are still witnessed (Melching 68). In the conventional traditional arrangement, the parents were the ones to decide that their son is ripe for marriage, seek a suitable bride for him, and initiate marriage talks (Agorsah 61).

Under such marriage arrangements, the bride and the groom did not have much of an influence over what happens. This practice was founded on the idea that parents were more suited to choose what was best for their children due to the accumulated wisdom and experience (Mbaya 226). An intriguing aspect of these arrangements was that the intervention of diviners was sought to determine if the marriage was feasible before marriage actually took place (Gamble et al. 31).

After identifying the right girl, the father of a young would man would enlist the help of a third party to serve as a go-between. The go-between’s main duty was to find out the position of the girl’s family concerning the interest in their daughter (Gamble et al. 32).

The go-between carried kola nuts from the groom’s father during this important errand. If the girl’s family accepted the kola nuts, that was an indicator that they granted the groom permission to court their daughter. At such a point, the boy was expected to furnish the girl and her mother with gifts to win their affection (Gamble et al. 31).

For the girl’s father, the young man was expected to assist in chores such as weeding and harvesting among other masculine endeavors. These acts gave the girl’s family room to assess the character of their prospective in-law. Once it was decided that his character was good, further gifts would be presented to the girl’s family to seal a covenant that left the young man as the sole suitor.

A brief marriage ceremony was then performed by an Imam (the Wolof people are largely Islamic) after the routine Friday prayers at the mosque (Gamble et al. 32). This ceremony demanded the presence of representatives from both families and witnesses.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the ceremony, a small payment consisting of kola nuts and money was made to the bride’s family, thus making the marriage legally binding (Gamble et al. 32). Agreements would then be made on how much further payments (marriage money) needed to be made and when the time for its payment came, other gifts were also given to the bride’s mother, father and peers. Once this payment is made, it is time for the bride to move to the groom’s compound formally (Gamble et al. 32).

This would be accomplished after colorful traditional wedding rituals meant to free the marriage of evil and make it fruitful and successful. The bridal party would then make its way to the groom’s compound. Traditionally, on the morning following the bride’s first night, a blood stained cloth would be displayed to show that the bride was a virgin (Agorsah 80), which was a great source of pride that inspired praise-filled songs for the bride and her mother. Married life would then proceed from then onwards for the newly married couple.

The typical marriage age for the Wolof was the early twenties for boys and late teens for girls (Gamble et al. 32). This trend was the norm in the rural settings, but there have been adjustments where young people residing in towns marry at later ages.

Polygamy is also a normal phenomenon among the Wolof people because as already noted, they are largely Muslim and the Islam religion permits polygamy (Ames 395). In addition to religion as a causal factor for polygamy, the traditional Wolof culture considered many wives as a sign of wealth and consequently, a source of pride and prestige; consequently, about 45% of Wolof men are polygamous (Ames 396).

Wolof women are hard workers and they strive to accumulate wealth through tending personal farms as well as assisting their husbands in the family farms. This observation implies that in a home with many wives, the man takes the credit for the wealth that belongs to all his wives. As would be expected of any other woman anywhere in the world, Wolof women show jealousy towards their co-wives and rivalry among co-wives is a common sight.

Once a man and woman get married, it is the primary duty of the woman to make her husband happy. She may be forced to go to great depths to ensure that she ensures the happiness of the husband and consequently the stability of her marriage and family.

Married women exist in closely-knit friendship systems, which ensure that it is extremely difficult for a woman to engage in acts of infidelity (Gamble et al. 32). This system together with the teachings before and after the wedding ensures that women place their husbands first and obey them completely.

Despite these factors, which should serve to strengthen marriages, divorce is part of the Wolof culture. If a woman at some point feels that her marriage life is unbearable, she can go back to her kin and refuse to come back. Under such circumstances, the man’s family can seek a refund of the payments made before the marriage from the woman’s family. If the payment is made in full, the couple is considered legally divorced and may remarry without any problems (Gamble et al. 32).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Marriage Traditions of Wolof Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children remain with their mother until they are of age before they can go back to their father. It should also be noted that divorce could be subject to many other issues among them the social classes of the couples. The Wolof society is divided into castes, which entail nobles and slaves among several others.

Marriage between the two groups is generally not permissible. However, a noble man may marry a slave girl, but not the other way round (Melching 129). If a marriage takes place across this social system without the knowledge of those involved and the truth comes out later, a divorce is inevitable.

Conclusion Culture defines people’s lifestyles and it sets the platform upon which people can relate with other cultural groupings in a given place. The marriage traditions of the Wolof people show a clear picture of how the Wolof people regard family relationships and their expected contribution to the wellbeing of society.

It defines their perception of how the world should be inhabited. Clearly, the family unit is a fundamental unit of the Wolof culture, and apart from being a building block for society, it defines the economic status of a man. This aspect makes family a very important dimension in the economic wellbeing of the Wolof people.

Works Cited Agorsah, Koffi. Marry me in Africa: African Foundations, Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2012. Print.

Ames, David. “The Economic Base of Wolof Polygamy.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 11.4 (1955): 391-403. Print.

Diop, Elhadji. Trainee Wolof manual, Dakar: Peace Corps, 2012. Print.

Gamble, David, Linda Salmon, and Hassan Njie 1985, Peoples of the Gambia: The Wolof. PDF file. Web.

Mbaya, Maweja. “Linguistic Taboo in African Marriage Context: A Study of the Oromo Laguu.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 11.2 (2002): 224-235. Print.

Melching, Molly. Ndànk-ndànk: An introduction to Wolof culture, Dakar: Peace Corps, 1981. Print.

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Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 Analytical Essay cheap essay help

The United States has gone through several challenges to be what it is currently. The following story shows that the country has come from far as far as political development is concerned. Between 1850 and 1859, compromises were made to prevent secession and subsequent wars that would follow.

Within the period, five bills were enacted, particularly in 1950 leading to the diffusion of the war that had lasted for four years. The period is considered one of the chaotic in the American history since the slave states of the South engaged in confrontations with the Free States of the North. The two regions differed over the ownership of the new states acquired through the Mexican-American War of 1846.

The Whig senator Henry Clay of Kentucky introduced the compromise document while Clay acted as a mediator. The Democrat representative Stephen Douglas participated in drafting the document, which prevented secession and continued conflicts that threatened the peace of the country. The compromise document had several provisions, even though each party had issues with certain clauses. The 1850s compromise pushed the country towards war when Texas was convinced to drop its ambition of acquiring New Mexico.

The key events of 1850s, such as the drafting of the Compromise document and the Kansas-Nebraska Act complicated the security of the country because states were unwilling to drop their ambitions of controlling major resources in the neighboring regions. The Compromise document of 1850 suggested that southern states had to do away with slave trade, but they were allowed to hold slaves. The north was unhappy with the idea of helping the south control slaves.

The south saw it wise to fight for its rightful place instead of relying on the government, which was reluctant to offer any form of help to the region. The sudden death of Taylor complicated the situation further because he had been relied upon to prevent the interests of the south, but the incoming president was opposed to slavery.

The South ensured that the Wilmot Proviso was avoided implying that the New Mexico Territory and Utah had the powers to decide whether to be free states or slave states in the future. The Missouri Compromise Line had banned slavery in the northern territories several years ago implying that there was no way Utah could become a slave state. The land around Utah was unfertile and it could not accommodate any form of agriculture. Additionally, the inhabitants were not southerners hence they were never interested in slavery.

Through the compromise document, the southern states approved the Fugitive Slave Act, which permitted slavery in the region. However, slave trade was proscribed and it could not be one of the forms of business in the country. Based on this, slaves could simply be used in the production process, but not as goods of trade. Finally, the draft document banned slavery in the country’s capital Washington D.C. The implementation of the compromise document was faced with several challenges because the government was reluctant to support it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sudden death of President Zachary Taylor facilitated the application of the compromise document. The president was slave owner, but he never approved slave trade in the country. Henry Clay first tabled the compromise document in 1850, but both the pro-slavery legislators and southern democrats shut it down. The Illinois senator Stephen Douglas took it upon himself to break down the bill into several pieces, which were passed without much opposition

The congress resumed its sessions on 3 December 1849 and the Whig senator Henry Clay delivered a powerful speech urging the house members to compromise in order to prevent the breakage of the union.

The bill could not be adopted right away because of the nature of the document, something that forced the Illinois senator to break it into smaller pieces. Through this, the smaller bills were approved separately. Clay was overpowered and his influence could no longer be felt in the congress, something that forced him to invite the services of Douglas.

The Northern Whigs, including William Seward, had separate views as regards to the compromise document. Seward delivered a speech on the higher law that challenged the credibility of the compromise. His main concern was the fugitive law and the existence of the Wilmot proviso in the west. The president Zachary Taylor kept off from the issue during his 1848 presidential campaigns, but came in strongly to support the admission of California as the Free State.

The president surprised the southerners because they never expected him to support antislavery policies, having been the slave owner for several years. The discussion of the compromise document nearly turned violent in the house when Senator Benton took on the Vice president, accusing him of trying to force the passage of the bill. On his part, the floor leader of the bill Foote of Mississippi threatened to shoot Benton if he continued misbehaving in the house.

At least nine slave-holding states from the south sent a powerful delegation to the Nashville Convention to establish the next course of action in case the compromise document was to be implemented.

Most of these delegates preferred secession because abolition of slave holding was a threat to their survival, but a few of them suggested further compromises. One of the options was to extend the geographic dividing line that Missouri Compromise of 1820 designated. Clay combined several bills into a single omnibus bill, something that his fellow Whigs opposed.

We will write a custom Essay on Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He could not continue fronting the bill because of the deteriorating health. With the death of the president and the subsequent accession of Fillmore, the passage and implementation of the compromise bill was inevitable. The new government was in full support of the compromise. The advocates of the bill were able to marshal support by talking to the Northern Democrats and requesting the southern Whigs to vote for the compromise document as soon as it was table in the house.

In the history of the United States, secession has always been prevented by opting for other options. In this case, the Compromise solved many issues that could have to major divisions in the country. For instance, the problems related to boundaries were getting out of hand and the federal government was unable to tackle them effectively.

The compromise played a major role in ironing out some of the issues that could have brought serious conflicts leading to wars and claims of secession. Additionally, the compromise resolved the issue slavery because it allowed the southern states to use slaves in their plantations, but they could not sell them to other regions.

Ghost of Civil War Present (1860-1861) The actions of the southern states were unacceptable upon the election of Lincoln meaning that the 1960 presidential elections triggered the secession movements because several compromise documents never convened their major aims. The southern states ensured that they seceded before Lincoln was sworn in as President because he opposed slavery. One of the Compromise proposals presented after the election of Lincoln as President was the Corwin Amendment.

The amendment was expected to prevent the occurrence of any war and help states achieve their ambitions in order to drop their secession claims. The president was against slavery and he had indicated clearly in his campaign message that slavery was demeaning the status of the United States. Therefore, the southern plantation farmers were convinced that the president would ban slavery leading to its extinction.

To worsen the matter, the slave states had become the minority in the House of Representatives, something that convinced them to seek self-rule through secession. The north had become powerful in both houses. Because of this, seven states withdrew their support from the union and decided to join the Confederacy before the swearing in of Lincoln.

The first state to declare self-rule and secession was South Carolina. The state adopted the statement titled declaration of the immediate causes, which induce and justify the secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union. South Carolina advocated for the rights of the Southern states as regards to ownership of slaves.

Additionally, the secessionist states were against the Fugitive Slave Act, which prevented workers from seeking refuge in the northern states. Based on this, the northern states were accused of not fulfilling their constitutional mandates of helping the south return back fugitive workers. The seven states formed a southern government before Lincoln was sworn in, having seceded from the union to form the Confederate of America on 4 February 1861.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ghost of Civil War Past 1850-1859 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The outgoing president James Buchanan never prevented the secessionist states from taking over the ownership of federal resources in their respective regions. Buchanan was sympathetic to the southern states because he declared that they had no sufficient reason to seceded, but went on to claim that the congress had no power to prevent any state from withdrawing its support to the union.

For instance, the army commander in Texas was forced to hand over the entire garrison to the state government whereby the military leader was convinced to join the Confederacy. All southern legislators in the senate and the house resigned, which gave Republicans from the North an opportunity to pass bills that had been blocked for several years. For instance, changes were brought in to adjust the Morrill Tariff. Furthermore, the Homestead Act was passed and the transcontinental railroad was commissioned.

The southern states expected some form of assistance from Britain because slave owners were mainly from the United Kingdom, but the deal never materialized because the British government never wanted to destabilize the American government. The seven Deep South states that were popularly known for producing cotton seceded in February 1861, including South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.

The states formed the Confederate of America, with Jefferson Davis serving as the first head of state. The administrative structure was similar to the one contained in the US constitution. In the same year, Fort Sumter was attacked, something that forced President Lincoln to request the states to volunteer their armies. Towards the end of the year, four southern states seceded to join the Confederacy, including Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.

Unfortunately, Virginia encountered internal resistance leading to the formation of another state referred to as West Virginia, which decided to remain in the Union. On the other hand, at least twenty-three states decided to remain in the union, including California and Kentucky. Secession was affecting the fulfillment of the American dream because the south accused the north of trying to interfere with its interests while the north criticized the south for misusing human labor.

This could not be tolerated further because conflicts were witnessed on daily basis, with the president controlling only the states in the union. The Confederate states could engage in unlawful activities, yet the federal government could not intervene to bring sanity. While the union tried as much as possible to convince states to join the federal government, the Confederacy resisted such attempts through military intervention.

Ghost of Civil War-Yet to Come (1861-1865) The North and the South prepared amicably for the war with both the Confederacy and the Union preparing their soldiers and militias to engage in the battle. Governors were instructed to mobilize resources in the north while the south organized their militias. President Lincoln requested the well-wishers in the north to offer their services under the volunteer program.

Many Americans volunteered to offer their services to an extent that both the Confederate and the Union lacked the capacity to train and equip them. All young men and women aged between eighteen were recruited under the compulsory conscription program.

In 862, the Confederacy passed a law that made it compulsory for all men aged 18-35 years to train with the militias. The Civil War attracted foreigners, with over one-seventy thousand Germans and one-forty Irish citizens joining the war. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation act was enacted allowing the states to recruit slaves as soldiers. The locals were forced to fund the war through heavy taxation and direct deposits to government covers.

Secession led to Civil Conflicts that cost the lives of many people and loss of property. The government should never allow secession because it does not help any party. Whenever a state feels that its objectives are not being met, it is encouraged that dialogue is embraced because it facilitates compromises instead of rising up to fight one another.

By 1865, the United States was facing serious humanitarian crisis because many people were in need of assistance. The government failed to offer protection to the citizens because of the existence of militias controlled by the secessionist states.

The south lost the battle whereby it was forced to abandon Shiloh, New Orleans, Antietam, and Vicksburg. When it lost the major battlefields, the south had no option, but to stop for the day and surrender to the Union forces. President Lincoln seized the opportunity to draft some of the most important policies that would prevent the civil war in the future.

The president read a Gettysburg address whereby he affirmed that there is no superior race or individual in the country, but instead people had to embrace equality. In this regard, several constitutional amendments had to follow to ensure that slavery is never exercised in the country.

Additionally, strong laws had to be enacted to ensure that peace and security is preserved in the country. The emancipation proclamation freed all slaves in the country and it was declared illegal for any individual to hold another as slave. On 17 June 1865, the last Confederate hanged boots at Trans-Mississippi Theatre and the president appointed Starkey as the governor of Mississippi. In the same year, peace was restored in the state and fire-eater Edmund Ruffin died in his firm.

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Physical Therapist Assistant (major) Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

My major is physical therapy. Physical therapist assistants perform their duties under the supervision of physical therapists. Core duties of physical therapist assistant include assisting patients to recover from illnesses, injuries, and surgeries. These are procedures, which help patients to manage pain and regain balance during movement.

In addition, therapies are developed to enhance mobility, reduce permanent physical disability, and improve general conditions and fitness of patients (American Dental Education Association 1). Patients could be persons with short-term or long-term physical disabilities, heart conditions, head injuries, back pain, cerebral palsy, or arthritis.

A number of reasons have influenced me to major as a physical therapy assistant. Physical therapists have high–levels of education in the anatomy, locomotion, and operations of the body. Knowledge gained in physical therapy education helps the therapist to lessen aches, assist patients to move, avert permanent disabilities, and re-establish physical functions.

Hence, a physical therapist is an important part of patient care. Foundations of therapist’s work are practical training and therapeutic activities. Patients have different needs based on their conditions. However, physical therapists aim to initiate movement or operations by activating joints or working on muscles. In addition, physical therapists also apply other methods like ultrasound, hot packs, electrotherapy, and ice to treat their patients (Kilgore College 1).

Career as a physical therapist has great rewards. These specialists make a difference in individuals’ lives. Physical therapists work with patients closely and watch their progress through various stages of treatment. A physical therapist remains a rehabilitation specialist who promotes the patient’s maximal recovery and functions. The job also involves restoring mobility through fitness and wellness therapies, which improve the patient’s overall health and active life.

A career as a physical therapist offers a job security. The job is resilient to economic downturns and struggling job markets. Today, the large number of aging Americans has driven the demand for physical therapists. Specifically, American baby boomers have become prone to chronic conditions and common health problems, which require them to seek services of physical therapists.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that the demand for physical therapists would rise by 46 percent between the year 2010 and 2020 (Bureau of Labor Statistics 1). This rate of growth is faster than the average rate of growth in the job market because of health care needs of the aging population. This is good news for students of physical therapist assistant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The job leads to a feeling of self-fulfillment among practitioners. Physical therapists help others to regain or attain their normal movement abilities and conduct their daily life activities. Surveys have shown that physical therapy job has an overall highest job satisfaction level (American Physical Therapy Association 1). More than a three-quarter of physical therapists who take part in surveys report that they are ‘very satisfied’. Certainly, this is the only best performing health care profession in terms of job satisfaction.

Physical therapists can perform their roles in any location with clients of different ages. As a result, they have a wide range of areas and settings for work, which may include outpatient clinics, private offices, hospitals, schools, sport facilities, health and fitness centers, and home health care facilities among others.

Finally, physical therapy education would elevate me to be my own boss. A large number of physical therapists work as private consultants or own their physical therapy facilities.

Education is necessary for physical therapy assistant. Students should get a CAPTE-accredited two-year associate degree program (American Physical Therapy Association 1). This allows graduates to sit for a national examination for the license and allows them to join the profession of physical therapy with the necessary skill, behaviors, and knowledge. Most states need the certificate or license in order to work as physical therapist assistant.

Education would ensure that a physical therapist assistant is competent, adaptable, knowledgeable, and self-assured to provide physical therapy services.

Physical therapy assistant education ensures that the graduate can perform the job, gather patient’s information, ensure safety, and respond to all instructions as provided by the physical therapist in a manner that that meets legal, ethical, effective, and safe practices of the profession.

Moreover, a physical therapist assistant requires education in order to learn how to communicate with other stakeholders, client’s family, and caregivers, as a team and cooperatively with others in the health care sector.

We will write a custom Essay on Physical Therapist Assistant (major) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The career of a physical therapist assistant is exciting, flexible, and highly rewarding, but students require necessary qualifications to join the profession.

Works Cited American Dental Education Association . Physical Therapist Assistant. 2012. Web.

American Physical Therapy Association. Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) Education: Overview. 2013. Web.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition: Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides. 2012. Web.

Kilgore College. Overview of Physical Therapist Assistant. 2013. Web.

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Student development and extra-curricular activities Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The learning process does not end with the classroom experience. Rather, a complete learning process involves personal development and healthy participation. This analytical treatise attempts to examine the significance of student development and extra-curricular activities on a student’s academic achievements.

Extra-curricular activities and academic performance Extra-curricular activities are vital towards positive academic performance. According to Stephens and Schaben (2002), “a study by the United States Department of Education revealed that students who participate in co-curricular activities are three times more likely to have a grade point average of 3.0 or better” (Stephens

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Micro financing your content strategy Essay (Article) essay help

Blogs are proliferating at the astounding rate of over 100,000 per day. They reflect both the both urge to communicate and the changing face of marketing. Funding a blog can be challenging, especially when you are starting out. However, micro-financing web content promotion is possible – so micro that it could be free!

You may be blogging for the sheer joy of sharing your ideas, or to mobilize action on a favorite cause. Alternatively, you could be blogging for pay, promoting something you or someone else sells.

Commercial blog is a growing category. These days, almost any product, service, or cause should probably have an associated website and blog to let prospective customers or supporters know about it.

Such commercial blogging’s growth reflects drastic changes in marketing. Many traditional channels for promotion such as network (and even cable) television, print periodicals, and broadcast radio, are giving way to online alternatives. Even print Yellow Pages effectiveness has fallen prey to the switch away from landlines (up to 75% of some demographic groups).

These factors pose a challenge for you as a blogger. You face a challenge in alerting your target audience that your expertise exists. Your audience also needs to be able to find you from any and all devices.

This, then, is where promoting your website content (as differentiated from promoting your product, idea, service, or cause, which the blog itself accomplishes) becomes crucial. How can you promote your website content cheaply? Some tools cost quite a bit, but others, happily, require no expenditure except of your time, energy, good writing, and marketing acumen.

The most fashionable buzzword in web content promotion right now is ‘native advertising’. No less an eminence than the New York Times has announced native advertising for their online edition. A separate writing and production studio will ensure that only high quality “continuously scrolling multimedia storytelling pages“ will accompany hard news, and look like them too, while promoting the advertiser.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This disturbingly parallels science fiction’s dystopian vision of future ads irritatingly tailored to a reader’s idiosyncratic preferences. Native advertising, however, while definitely cutting edge, still seems a bit high end, and you probably don’t possess a fully equipped studio like the Grey Lady of journalism!

Now, can you accomplish something similar for little or no money? Yes, and here are several rules of thumb to keep your own website busily promoting itself.

You need to generate content that is worth reading:

If your blog promotes without cessation, it will be decidedly unappealing. The challenge is to find new ways – consistently – to discuss topics related to your website content in ways that are useful to your readers. Solve problems, illuminate unanswered questions, untangle unresolved mysteries, amuse, instruct, and point your reader in new and hopeful, helpful directions. A really useful web page, like Thomas the Tank’s ‘really useful engine’, will be a happy place to which a reader will wish to return frequently.

You need to learn what content your readers want so you can promote it better:

This involves using social media to the maximum to connect with your readers. You can talk about your blog on Facebook, LinkedIn, and let your readers talk about it too. Just be careful not to impose on your contacts. This sort of interaction with your audience is termed SMO, or Social Media Optimization.

You need to make yourself findable via SEO The web’s spider bots need your help to find you. Use best SEO techniques to give them ample signals of your presence. Exploit all potential spots in your website to cleverly slide in keywords. Keyword choice is its own science, and it requires that you know what your readers are seeking (see above regarding reader interaction).

We will write a custom Article on Micro financing your content strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opportunities to feature your keywords pop up in a variety of places. These could include:

Title tag

The META description tag – in the first 150 characters

META keywords tag

In headers and sub headers within the body of the text

Content itself, with a density of no more than 3-5% keywords, with a ratio of one page of content for one keyword.

Any text you have hyperlinked

The ‘breadcrumbs’ you included to remind readers how they got to this page, e.g., writing/editing-> resumes-> prices

Alt attributes – these describe embedded images for those readers who are using accessibility software

Title attributes – These clarify what an HTML element in your webpage does

File names, whether of images or other files embedded in your webpage.

In anything you do using SEO, you need to avoid imposing on your readers with too many keywords to allow for readability. The task of SEO-oriented copy-writing is not, by the way, a universal talent. There is no shame in not being able to create graceful text incorporating keywords attractively and unobtrusively. You can get help on this task from a global pool of talented writers, at shamefully low rates of pay.

The important function of promoting your web content can be micro-financed. If you can afford native advertising on other webpages – wonderful. However, cheaper options exist. You will need to invest some energy and creativity, and exploit all the available SEO and SMO tools, but the result – increasing traffic, should be worth the investment.

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Negatives Effects of Social Network Sites Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Whenever social networks are mentioned most people think of social interaction and relationships. Indeed these sites have played a foreground role in facilitating social interaction and relationship between various people around the world.

The sites enabled people to communicate, share ideas, and provide opportunities for learning. Moreover, assessment of social network sites has mainly focused on the positive sides. However, the negative effects of social network sites have been ignored. This study will therefore look at the negative effects of social network sites.

The effects of social network sites have been discussed in various contexts. Moreover, the implications of the effects are also known by most people in the community. Social isolation is one of the serious effects of social networking sites.

Isolation has not only been associated with suicide, but also with other social problems such as mental illnesses, poor development of cognitive skills among the youths, and poor physical health. In this regard, the negative effects of social networking sites should not be trivialized since they can lead to loss of life (Masuda, Kurahashi and Onari 4).

Suicide especially among the youths in the contemporary society has become a serious issue due to the increasing rates of deaths. Individuals who are addicted to social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter have a lower tendency of interacting and associating with others in the physical world.

Interaction with other people in the physical world such as peers and members of the family is important since individuals get the opportunity to share their problems. This also enables individuals to be identified with various social groupings in the society (Elphinston

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Factors Influencing Perception on Same-sex marriage in the American Society Essay cheap essay help

Abstract The topic of the same-sex marriage has attracted heated debate over the years in the USA. The protagonists and antagonists of this marriage institution have always clashed over the tenet of the same-sex marriage against the moral standards of the society. This paper supports the argument that marriage of homosexual couples should be allowed holding this view as a dependent variable.

Through case study research, this paper explores the independent variables of gender, ethnicity and religious affiliation and their influence on homosexual marriage. The scope of the research is restricted to perceptions of the participants of the research case studies on homosexual marriage.

Introduction In defining homosexual marriage, anthropologists formulate valid cross-cultural variations of modern and traditional forms. Same-sex marriage, just like any other form of marriage, is a union of two adults, though of the same sex, in a domestic arrangement with each member having defined roles to play. Over the years, homosexual couples have raised debates in the conservative American society (Baker, 2010).

Specifically, religious and conservative groups have been the most active in opposing homosexual couples getting married (Hunter, 2012). Despite these divergent opinions, homosexual couples have spread across several states of the USA and is now legal in the states of Iowa, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Vermont and Massachusetts (Sherkat, Vries

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