Chronic Back Pain And Gate Control Theory Essay Online Essay Help

Chronic back pain is a common disease that affects many people, especially the ones aged 35 – 55. It is quite difficult to detect the causes of this pain, but it is usually considered to be related to the strain in one of the structural components of the back. A chronic back pain is the one that is lasting longer than a month.

It can be caused by many reasons, such as long period of standing or sitting, having a fall, lifting or carrying heavy objects, stress, overweight, etc. There are several ways of treatment of the chronic back pain, including tacking various medicines, physical therapies, surgery, psychological therapy, complementary therapy.

The Gate Control Theory provides the methods of the chronic back pain therapy based on the work of mind and brain regarding pain perception. In this paper, we are going to discuss the methods of pain control based on the Gate Control Theory and how the Gate Control Theory relates to cultural explanations regarding the sensation of pain. We will also consider a possibility to completely eliminate pain by applying the Gate Control Theory.

The Gate Control Theory was developed by Patrick Wall and Ronald Melzack in 1960s. The theory suggests that there are systems in the central nervous system responsible for the transmitting the “pain messages” through the brain. These systems can open or close “gates” that let in or block the pain.

This process can be explained by the work of neurotransmitters: “when a nerve impulse comes to the end of the axon and reaches a terminal button releases a chemical courier called a neurotransmitter” (Ryan, 2011). The Gate Control Theory describes the phenomena of the mental nature, but with regard to the processes that occur in the nervous system.

Although, there are no detailed explanation of how these processes occur and regulated, the Gate Control Theory help explain why different treatments might be effective to manage the chronic back pain, “The effectiveness of nonpharmacological pain-management strategies can be explained by the Gate Control Theory and the processes responsible for the transmission of pain” (Simpson and Creehan, 2007). Thus, acupuncture is one of the alternative medicines based on the Gate Control Theory. However, there are also:

“Opioid analgesics act on synaptic transmission in various parts of the central nervous system by binding to natural opioid receptors. They inhibit ascending pathways of pain perception and activate descending pathways” (Freudenrich, n. d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thought, they can become addictive. The massage is another method of back pain relief. In order to prevent or reduce the back pain, one should combine these methods.

Our sensation of pain can be explained by the Gate Control Theory as it is related to the work of mind. Our cultural background plays an important role. Thus, our beliefs and values, memories of previous pain, upbringing, expectations of and attitudes towards pain affect how we interpret the pain. (“Pain and How You Sense It, n. d.).

Thus, the information mentioned earlier suggests that we can eliminate pain by applying the Gate Control Theory. However, in order to do this, a number of various methods based on the Gate Control Theory should be applied during course of treatment.

In conclusion, it should be said that the Gate Control Theory can provide a basis for the treatment of the chronic back pain. Moreover, with its help, we can explain how f cultural background can influence our sensation of pain. In addition, a balanced course of treatment based on the Gate Control Theory can help eliminate pain completely.

List of References Freudenrich, C. (n. d.) How pain works. Discovery Health. Retrieved from: https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/pain5.htm

Pain and how you sense it. (n. d.) For Healthy Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.mydr.com.au/pain/pain-and-how-you-sense-it

Ryan, M. (Ed.). (2011). Psychsmart. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

We will write a custom Essay on Chronic Back Pain and Gate Control Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Simpson, K. R., and Creehan, P. A. (2007). Perinatal nursing. New York: Lippincott Williams

[supanova_question]

Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Ever since the publishing of Maya Angelou’s autobiographical novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings in 1969, literary critics never ceased pointing out to the fact that novel’s themes and motifs are being concerned with the process of a main character striving to attain the sense of self-identity. Nevertheless, this did not prevent them from discussing the qualitative essence of this process from a variety of different perspectives.

For example, in her article Arensberg (1976) refers to the subtleties of how Maya went about attaining existential identity as such that have been in the state of constant transition: “The unsettled life Angelou writes of in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings suggests a sense of self as perpetually in the process of becoming, of dying and being reborn, in all its ramifications” (277). In its turn, this implies that Maya’s perception of herself never ceased being the subject of continuous transformation.

On the other hand, while suggesting that Maya did succeed with gaining solid sense existential self-awareness, Walker (1995) refers to it as something that came to being as the result of novel main character’s spatially defined intellectual evolvement: “By the end of the book… she [Maya] no longer feels inferior, knows who she is, and knows that she can respond to racism in ways that preserve her dignity and her life, liberty, and property” (103).

In this paper, I will aim to confirm the soundness of namely Walker’s suggestion, while pointing out to the fact that, by the end of Angelou’s novel, Maya did not only become fully self-aware individual, but that such her self-awareness came as the result of novel’s main character having learned how to accept her inborn affiliation with the Black race.

The discussion of earlier mentioned process in regards to three events, described in the novel As novel’s context implies, throughout the early phases of her life, Maya has been experiencing a number of psychological anxieties, due to the sheer extent of her physical unattractiveness. Moreover, there were clearly defined racial undertones to Maya’s emotional uncomfortableness with who she was: “Wouldn’t they be surprised when one day I woke out of my black ugly dream, and my real hair, which was long and blond, would take the place of the kinky mass that Momma wouldn’t let me straighten?” (2).

And yet, as novel’s plot unraveled, Maya was gradually freeing herself of these anxieties. I believe that the following three events, described in the novel, contributed rather substantially towards helping Maya to learn how to take pride in her blackness.

The conversation that took place between Maya and uncle Tommy

In Chapter 10, Angelou refers to the conversation that took place between Maya and uncle Tommy. While sensing that the young girl lacked self-confidence, uncle Tommy did his best to assure her that good looks is not something that solely defines one’s chances to attain social prominence: “Ritie, don’t worry ’cause you ain’t pretty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plenty pretty women I seen digging ditches or worse. You smart. I swear to God, I rather you have a good mind than a cute behind” (68). It is needless to mention, of course, that such uncle Tommy’s remark did help Maya to accept who she was. After all, prior to having socialized with uncle Tommy, Maya used to suffer a great deal, on the account of her ugliness.

And, as the context of further chapters implies, uncle Tommy’s words did have an effect on Maya, as she was becoming progressively less disturbed with her physical appearance. In the article, from which we have already quoted, Arensberg states: “Shuttled between temporary homes and transient allegiances, Maya necessarily develops a stoic flexibility that becomes not only her ‘shield,’ but, more importantly, her characteristic means of dealing with the world” (274).

Thus, it will not be much of an exaggeration, to suggest that Maya’s socialization with uncle Tommy represents a crucial point in the process of novel’s main character being set on the path of self-actualization through acceptance.

Maya’s encounter with Mrs. Flowers

In Chapter 15, readers get to meet Mrs. Flowers, whose influence on Maya never ceased being utterly beneficial, it is was namely due to being exposed to the sheer extent of this character’s sophistication that Maya was slowly learning how to take pride in her racial affiliation: “She [Mrs. Flowers] appealed to me because she was like people I had never met personally.

Like women in English novels who walked the moors (whatever they were) with their loyal dogs racing at a respectful distance… It would be safe to say that she made me proud to be Negro, just by being herself” (95).

It was specifically after having met Mrs. Flowers that Maya acquired taste for learning, as this intellectually sophisticate Black woman never ceased encouraging Maya to read: “She said she was going to give me some books and that I not only must read them, I must read them aloud” (98).

After having been prompted to indulge in reading by Mrs. Flowers, Maya started to realize that her blackness was not something to be ashamed of. In its turn, this facilitated the process of novel’s main character learning how to accept her racially defined sense of self-identity even further.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Maya’s exposal to Mrs. Cullinan’s subtle racism

Chapter 16, contains description of another event, the exposure to which had increased the strength of Maya’s resolution to accept her racial self-identity – namely, the conversation between Miss Glory and Mrs. Cullinan, during the course of which Mrs. Cullinan refused referring to Maya by her real name Marguerite and instead, suggested that the name Mary suits Maya so much better: “Well, that may be, but the name’s [Margarete] too long. I’d never bother myself. I’d call her Mary if I was you” (107).

And, as it appears from what happened to be Maya’s emotional reaction to Mrs. Cullinan’s suggestion, she thought of it as being utterly insulting: “I fumed into the kitchen. That horrible woman would never have the chance to call me Mary because if I was starving I’d never work for her” (107). By expressing her contempt with Mrs. Cullinan’s subtly defined racism, sublimated in White woman’s willingness to degrade Blacks linguistically, Maya had once again confirmed the fact that she was firmly set on the path of racial self-acceptance.

Apparently, Maya was able to recognize the name Mary as being connotative of ‘whiteness’, which is exactly the reason why she refused to be called by this name – after having accepted her blackness as the integral part of her self-identity, Maya could never bring herself back to trying to be just like Whites.

Conclusion I think that the earlier mentioned events do provide readers with the insight on what accounted for the actual subtleties of Maya’s journey towards self-acceptance.

Given the fact that Angelou describes this journey as rather linearly defined, it substantiates the validity of paper’s initial thesis – while being continuously exposed to a number of life’s challenges, Maya was slowly learning that her self-identity could not be discussed outside of what happened to be the particulars of her racial affiliation. And, it is specifically after novel’s main character had accepted this fact cognitively, that she was able to attain emotional comfortableness with her newly acquired sense of individuality.

References Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Bantam Books, 1997 [1969].

Arensberg, Liliane “Death as Metaphor of Self in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.” CLA Journal 20.2 (1976): 273-91.

Walker, Pierre “Racial Protest, Identity, Words and Form in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.” College Literature 22.3 (1995): 91-109.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

Human Resources Essay college application essay help

What unfair labor practices may have occurred? Although Pete Ross went against the stipulation in the Employees’ Handbook that prohibited consumption of alcoholic beverages within the company premises, the company’s supervisor, George, seem to have hoarded some hatred towards Ross. The discharge of peter Ross was unfair labor practice because out of hatred, George requested and supported his discharge.

The plant manager perceived the discharge as routine but rooted for punishment rather than discharge in order to support first-line managers. Furthermore, other machinists read mischief in the discharge of Ross for according to them; it was not just another routine practice.

The machinists had many fears that the company was at liberty to discharge them unfairly, just as Ross and this prompted them to join the union. Despite the fact that Ross did quality work, George ironically blurted to that the company did not need quality but quantity work. This remark underscores the hatred that George harbored towards Ross and therefore it is evident that Ross lost his job unfairly.

Termination of John Briggs was another unfair labor practice. The company terminated him because he advocated for the rights of machinists by encouraging them to join International Association of Machinists Union. John Briggs advised other machinists to join the union as a way of protect themselves against unfair labor practices by their employer.

All through his dealings, John Briggs acted within the law but the employer felt threatened by his efforts thus discriminatively terminated his contract on false grounds that, he was unproductive and continually absent in past year. According to Alberta Labour Relation Board, no employer “…shall refuse to employ … or discriminate against any person in regard to employment or any term or condition of employment because the person is a member of a trade union or an applicant for membership in a trade union” (2003, p. 4).

This provision prohibits employers from preventing or undermining the efforts of employees from participating in their respective trade unions. Therefore, termination of John Briggs due to his participation in the International Association of Machinists was an unfair labor practice.

Should management offer reinstatement to Pete Ross or John Briggs? The company management should offer reinstatement to John Briggs because the employer violated his rights of participation in the trade unions. Unlike Pete Ross who went against provisions in the Employees’ Handbook, John Briggs was advocating for the rights of the employees within the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alberta Labor Relation Board prohibits employers from “…seeking by intimidation, dismissal, threat of dismissal or any other kind of threat, … to compel an employee to refrain from becoming or to cease to be a member, officer or representative of a trade union” (2003, p. 5).

In this case, the employer sought to threaten other employees by dismissing John Briggs so that they (employees) do not join trade union to champion for their rights. If the union could intervene for the termination John Briggs, the employer would be guilty of violating the rights of employees to join and participate in unions voluntarily. Thus, the management should reinstate John Briggs and allow him to exercise his rights.

Moreover, the employer unfairly appraised John Briggs that he had been excessively absent in the past year and had low productivity. If John Briggs had been continually absent during the past year, the employer would have warned him and there would be sufficient documentation to prove it; unfortunately, such proof was conspicuously missing.

This allegation was timely because John Briggs offended his employer when he mobilized other employees to join trade union so that they can protect themselves against slipshod discharge they had witnessed. In addition, John Briggs commended on the quality of work that Pete Ross did yet George, the supervisor never liked. This portray that John Briggs was a very productive employee who deserved promotion and not termination, thus the management should reinstate him.

Was Briggs correct when he answered, “That is none of your business” to the questions about the authorization cards? Given that the management was interfering with employees’ efforts to join union, John Briggs correctly responded to the plant manager and supervisor who grilled him concerning distribution of authorization cards. It was not the business of the management to pry into the affairs of workers and their unions.

Although the remark seem to have offended the management, Smith argues that, “disciplining an employee for using an alleged commanding and disrespectful tone of voice to a manager while he/she was acting in the capacity of a union representative is unacceptable” (2003, p. 3). Therefore, John had the right to command and remind the management that employees needed freedom to participate in any matter relating to the unionization of the workers.

From the perspective of the employer, the interrogation meant to intimidate and prevent John Briggs from issuing more authorization cards to the employees. The employer questioned the validity of the cards in terms of authorizing signature and the issuing authority that bypassed the company management. Since the mangers wanted to suppress the rights of employees, it was futile to inform them about the unionization of the employees, because they were going to undermine the efforts.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management knew that unionization of the employees would eliminate discrimination and unreasoned discharge of employees without any justifiable cause. Understanding the kind of management in place, John Briggs was right to tell off the management that it was none of their business to know matters related to unionization of employees.

References Alberta Labor Relation Board. (2003). Unfair Labor Practices by Employers. Alberta Labour Journal, 1-10.

Smith, G. (2003). Unfair Labor Practices. Journal of Good Labor Practices, 1-12.

[supanova_question]

Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Key Determinants in the Price of Gasoline

Gasoline Market

Crude Oil Market

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Crude oil refers to a combination of organic hydrocarbons that exists naturally. The mixture that forms crude oil is normally separated to its individual hydrocarbon compounds. Such compounds include: gasoline, kerosene and jet fuel. The components of the crude oil are separated by industrial physical process called fractional distillation. Gasoline is another name for the commonly known petrol. It is a highly flammable compound and exists in liquid form.

It is a component of crude oil. This paper seeks to discuss issues that pertain to the crude oil market and the U.S. retail gasoline market with the view of determining whether or not “there exists a relationship between the crude oil market and the U.S. retail gasoline market”. The paper will look into the views that have been held by stakeholders in the two markets with the view of establishing the values, experiences and responsibilities that have led to such views.

Key Determinants in the Price of Gasoline Just like the volatility in the prices of crude oil, the price of gasoline often varies with relatively unpredictable trend.One of the determinants of the gasoline price is the global demand for the crude oil. The trend of the global demand for crude oil is also seen to be a factor in the price of crude oil in the United States.

This view of the global demand of crude oil as a factor towards the price of both crude oil and that of gasoline is derived from the study of the prices of the two commodities in the United States over the time period between the years 2002 and 2008. It was noted that the prices of the two commodities remained high for the mentioned period of time. However, the prices fell in the period of 2008 while the global supply for oil remained the same.

A study of the global economic recession that was experienced during the period beginning in 2008 explained the cause of price changes. It was realized that before the recession, therewas a high global demand for crude oil over the supply of the same. This pushed the prices up with respect to the laws of demand and supply. The fall of global demand following the recession, therefore, led to the reduced prices experienced since the year 2008 (Killian, 92).

Another view that has attempted to explain the high gasoline price in the period between 2002 and 2008 is the actions engineered by the investors in the crude oil. Killian explains that in a bid to exploit the profitability of the oil market, “the investors in search for high returns bought crude oil and stored it in anticipation of higher future prices” (Killian, 92).

This act is commonly referred to as hoarding. In this bid, investors can in anticipation of increased prices or in an attempt to cause price increase of a commodity, buys and store the commodity with the aim of selling it when the prices goes up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This step of buying and keeping suppliers creates shortage of the supply hence increased prices. This view is, however, inconsistent with the data provided by records of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD). The data indicated a supply of crude oil in the period contrary to the uneven data that would have otherwise been realized. There were also general trend of increase in prices of other commodities during the period which further refutes the claim of investor manipulation of the market (Killian 92).

Gasoline Market Another determinant of the gasoline prices in the United States is attributed to the “unanticipated disruption of U.S. refinery output” (Killian, 100). Events like fire that abruptly halts the operations of the refineries have been characterized with “significant increase in the real price of gasoline” (Killian, 100).

These particular disruptions, however,have less significant effects in the prices of the imported crude oil. The phenomenon is expected to have the reverse effect of reducing the price of crude oil as a result of reduced demand which is insignificant in the world market. The factors determining the demand for crude oil and the price of gasoline in the United States such as disruptions results in specified shocks in supply and demand are not easily predictable(Killian, 100).

It has been noted as a problem in the United States that there is lack of facilities to process gasoline. The lack of enough refinery capacity has witnessed a demand for the gasoline product that exceeds the supply. A difference in trend is therefore realized in the case of gasoline and that of crude oil. While the price of crude oil is majorly driven by the international forces, the gasoline prices are further determined by the production capacity of the refining industry.

Another factor in the market of gasoline is the existence of many varieties of gasoline which has “hindered market flexibility” (OPEC 151). Insufficient regulatory measures also lead to disparities in gasoline prices across regions of the United States (OPEC 151). The new specifications established in the gasoline refinery industry that was aimed at improving the quality of gasoline also led to lower supply of gasoline in the U.S. (OPEC 152).

The factors to the price of gasoline have also been attributed to calamities. One of such occurrences was the “damage to the gulf coast drilling wells and refineries” (Out of gas 3). The damages for example would translate to the shortage of gasoline leading to subsequent increased prices.

The high prices of the gasoline can also be attributed to government policies that have over time been oriented to only one aspect of controlling the price. The “chimney plan: to perpetuate the nation’s addition to cheap petroleum” (Out of gas 3) has been criticized as a profit oriented move rather than price control. It is however viewed that steps to reduce the consumption of gasoline would rather reduce the price as opposed to increasing its supply (Out of gas 3).

We will write a custom Essay on Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bodies are, however, put in place to collect and analyze data with the aim of a better understanding of the trends of the crude oil and gasoline in terms of demand, supply and prices. According to the director of petroleum division at API, “API’s weekly surveys of US oil supply data are essential” to a variety of parties including the US government (Matusic 1). These bodies “collect industry data and disseminate the information”(Matusic 1) that can then be used for planning purposes.

Crude Oil Market In the earlier decades, the rises in oil prices in United States were attributed to political aspects like the wars in the Middle East and embargoes by the Arab states as retaliation to the United States’ support for Israel, which limited supply of crude oil into the United States from the Middle East countries.

The major determinant in the oil sector is still recognized to be its supply relative to its demand. The industrialization of countries like the people’s republic of China and India has put pressure on the global supply of oil due to the relatively increased demand for crude oil. The threat of the United States’ supply of oil has been worsened by the move of oil supplying countries in the Middle East to reserve their oil for domestic use.

The increased consumption by the two giant countries, China and India, has led to increased global oil prices due the increased demand. There is need for “international effort to reduce demand for oil” (Katel 7). With this respect, no solution has been identified to help control the prices downwards. This factor is beyond the control of the United States according to professionals in the energy sector.

According to Medlock, “it is going to be difficult for the energy supply to expand production at a significant enough pace to drive down prices” (Katel 7). The external drivers of the international oil price are passed to the price of crude oil in the United States and subsequently the prices of the separated components of the crude oil of which gasoline is part(Katel 24).

Conclusion The prices of both crude oil and gasoline are seen to be dependent on a variety of factors. The stake holders in the energy industry are all seen to be players in determining the demand, supply as well as the prices of the crude oil and gasoline. Other factors like natural calamities are also identified to be determinants of prices of crude oil and gasoline.

With respect to the extensive exploration of the two subjects, it is identifiable that the price of gasoline has over the past periods of time depended on a large number of factors besides the price or even supply of crude oil. It can therefore be concluded that the market for gasoline and that for crude oil in the United Statesdoes not bear a significantly close relationship to one another.

The market for crude oil is significantly determined by many other factors at the international market while the market of gasoline greatly depends on a large number of domestic factors. It must, however, be noted that since gasoline is a product of crude oil, the market of gasoline in the united states shapes the bearing of the crude oil demand in the united states and not globally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Katel, Peter. Oil Jitters. CQ Researcher. Web.

Killian, Lutz. Explaining Fluctuations in Gasoline Prices. A Joint Model of the Global Crude, n.d. Web.

Matusic. The Energy World Is Powered By Numbers.Research Library, ProQuest, n.d. Web.

OPEC. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, 2004. Web.

Out of Gas. Nation. EBSCO, n.d. Print.

[supanova_question]

Asian American Discriminations in Colleges Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research hypotheses

Research Findings Based on Academic Qualifications

Research Findings Based on Non Academic Sources

Research Findings Based on Admission Procedures

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Most colleges crumple with a challenge of assessing clever strategies for selecting students to join their institutions. Several civil society groups and organizations have come out to strongly oppose perceived discrimination faced by Asian American students in these admissions.

Those vested with the authority to admit students to colleges and universities claim merit is the only factor considered. The puzzle in this fact is whether it is only the Americans who are born bright, while Asian Americans are mainly academic dwarfs. This is quite arguably – intelligence is not a preserve of the Americans.

A recent study on academic performance by Asian and Caucasian students reveals that the Asian students on average perform better than Caucasian students. Some colleges display open discriminatory admission criterion such as setting a limitation to the number of Asian Americans students that they can admit.

Even with this open discriminatory criterion, such colleges have insisted that “there is no such thing as discrimination against the Asian Americans in their institutions and that it would be a serious injustice on their responsibility to propose such measures”(Bunzel and Christensen 52).

Research hypotheses Research conducted on the undergraduate admissions in four leading universities i.e., Stanford, Princeton, Harvard and Brown reveals that the population of the Asian American students is approximately ten percent of the total number of applicants. Two approaches are used when drawing conclusions on the causes of these small numbers of applications.

The first one is whereby a comparison is made between “the percentage representation of Asian Americans in the admittance and/or enrollment pools of their respective colleges and universities with the percentage of the overall population in the country that is Asian American” (Takagi 11).

The second one, mostly used by the opponents of the current admissions procedures makes a comparison between “the numbers of Asian Americans offered admission with the number that actually applies. The main focus in these statistics is to compare the Asian American admission rate” with the Whites (Bunzel and Christensen 54).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Findings Based on Academic Qualifications Research findings on the first approach suggest that “Asian Americans constitutes of approximately 2 percent of the whole population, and they make up more than 8 percent of the freshmen admitted in the four universities that from the basis of this study” (The Princetonian Daily).

Opponents of this study, however, argue that the system is flawed in that it fails to consider the geographical deliberation of the Asian Americans in different states, especially ones that have a metropolitan population. For example, the Asian American community in California is about 6.7 percent, whereas it is about 22 percent in San Francisco.

It would, therefore, be reasonable to have a higher percentage of the Asian American students in Colleges within San Francisco, which is not the case. Second, the number of Asian American students who qualify for university admission is always way higher than that of the Caucasian students. A higher number of Asian Americans also undertake the Scholastic Aptitude Test and achieve high scores compared to the Caucasians.

In addition to this, using racial model does not consider the fact that most of the Asian Americans further their education beyond the age of seventeen. Again using the Asian American percentage of admissions into the universities, which stands at 2.1 percent as the foundation for evaluation of the university and college admissions is misleading.

The procedure fails to consider the actual population of Asian Americans high school graduates who send applications to the colleges. The 2.1 percent would be relatively low if an excess of 20 percent of the total applications were received from the Asian Americans.

Due to these reasons, the Asian American admissions rate which is the second approach seems to be a better statistical criterion for the examination of the issue of whether the Asian American students are being discriminated against in university admissions. In this approach, the rate of admission of the Caucasian students is used as the comparative basis for evaluating the Asian American admissions in the universities.

According to the latter approach, various factors influence the admissions rates. The most of these are the “statistical impact of affirmative action policies which aim at raising the admissions proportion of ethnic groups that receive priority in the university admissions” (The Princetonian Daily).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Asian American Discriminations in Colleges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is thus evident that such groups will have an advantage of the numbers to be admitted irrespective of the total number of applicants. When the group that is not within the preferred frame has a lower percentage of admission than another group under the same category, two things could be possible.

“First, the population of applicants in the former group is less qualified compared to the latter and second the admissions process could be prejudiced whether intentionally or unintentionally against the victimized group. Therefore, the critical question in this research is on whether the low levels of admissions of the Asian Americans are necessitated by low level of their qualifications or is caused by discrimination.

In the history of the United States, Asian Americans have always been subject to discrimination in the education system since the 1960s. Most universities, however, seemed like they were taking an affirmative step toward the elimination of this trend by increasing the number of students admitted from the marginalized groups. The affirmative action appeared to make significant progress in improving the situation as more students from the Asian American community were able to connect university and college admissions.

The affirmative action was perhaps the only strategy that favored them and so the number of high school graduates unable to secure university admissions also remained relatively high. The academic performance of these students persuaded the administration in these universities to admit them based on merit rather than the special treatment advocated for in the affirmative action policy.

Research Findings Based on Non Academic Sources Research on the extracurricular activities of high school students indicated that only thirty percent of the total population of Asian American students participated in sports and other out of class activities. The number of these students participating in scholarly activities was, however, higher than that of whites.

This group also seemed to refrain from community activities which are inclusive of the ethnic and social organizations. From this information, a conclusion can be drawn against the stereotype that students from the Asian American community do not participate in extracurricular activities (Takagi 14). Further research indicated that the lower rate of admission into colleges was not as a result of the supposedly non-participation in non-academic activities but merely as a result of ethnic discrimination.

Besides sporting and intellectual activities, the other non-academic qualifications under consideration include personal habits and character. These could be considered as some of the criterion used in the university admission process. According to Takagi, “Every university’s has the right to reject or accept applications from students suspected of dishonesty and give special attention to students with a high level of intelligence and integrity” (16).

There is little evidence that point out the Asian American students to be less endowed with any of the positive character traits a university would require for student admission. The fact that these traits are personal means that they have nothing to do with the person’s ethnicity. An Asian American student could be fouled up just like a white student.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian American Discriminations in Colleges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research Findings Based on Admission Procedures It has proved impossible to account for the low rate of admissions of the Asian American students in the universities using the reasons mentioned earlier on. The other logical explanation on this issue is the characteristics of the procedures used when admitting students to colleges. There are four main categories of students who are given special consideration in this process.

“The first group is the ethnic minorities who are the target for the affirmative action, second is the athletes, third students from geographical locations that are given preference and fourth students with ties from alumni with legacy, the faculty member and university staff. An increase in the admission of these individual cases implies that there will be limited chances for the other students owing to the fact that most of these universities do not admit students beyond their facilities capacity.

Many university admissions officials hold on to a lot of stereotypes based on racial diversity. One of these stereotypes states that Asian Americans are more inclined to developing their personal careers in ways that most of the times benefit just them rather than the entire community. Another one states that Asians Americans are interested primarily in studying science disciplines and technical fields and fail to recognize other subjects of education.

These stereotypes only indicated the level of ignorance perceived to exist among the Asian American communities. Opponents of these stereotypes point out that most of these stereotypes are characteristics that originated from the western countries and not Asian. Technological advancements, for example, have their roots in the west while the Asians over the years have been concentrating on the development of rational and humanities theories.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that all the explanations provided as an account for the low rates of admissions of the Asian Americans in relation to the other communities are not valid. The only valid reason, therefore, is merely ethnic discrimination, an assertion which most of the universities’ admission officers deny.

A report by Bunzel and Christensen drawn from the Brown University sums up this issue that the “numerical limits were in fact in operation through the use of historical benchmark mechanism” (57). They also point out that this was “a process by which a set of enrollment goals was established using a benchmarked figure anchored on the figures of enrollment of a previous year’s freshmen class” (59).

The outcome of this practice alludes establishing a limit on the number of applicants from the Asian American community being admitted in the colleges. The answer to this problem is complex and cannot be determined by single research. Ethnic diversity should be seen as a blessing to the society though present society fails to recognize this fact.

Many people would rather perceive an increase the number of Asian Americans in the universities to be as a result of “unfair advantages being given to the Asian Americans than the result of unfair disadvantages being eliminated” (Bunzel and Christensen 60).

Works Cited Bunzel, John H, and Christensen, Jeffrey D. Diversity or Discrimination?: Asian Americans in College. London: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Takagi, Dana Y. The Retreat from Race: Asian-American Admissions and Racial Politics. N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

The Princetonian Daily. Student Admission at Princeton University, 1876. Web.

[supanova_question]

The Term Crusade Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

The Crusades

The Arabs View of the Crusades

Arabs Response and Reactions towards the Crusades

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The word crusade is a common word among the modern Christian especially in the developing countries where open air Christians meetings are common. The term crusade in such meetings refers to a meeting or rather a gathering whose main purpose is to convert people to the Christian faith. However, originally crusades referred to the anti-Muslim campaigns that were established in the eleventh century with the aim of restoring Christian control in Europe.

Fought in the period between the eleventh century and the thirteenth century, the crusades involved military actions that were sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church. The actions, however, extended up to the fifteenth century in some European countries. Ideally the crusades were meant to silence the Islamic religion which had just started to spring.

The Roman Catholic Church used its power and influences to stamp its authority on regions which were willing to submit to the church. This paper seeks to discuss the response of the Arabs to the crusades. The paper will look into the events of the crusades, the Arab view of the crusades, their response to the crusades as well as their reaction to the west after the crusades.

Background Information It is worth noting that the Roman Catholic Church was a powerful authority in religion terms and politically. The Roman Catholic Church controlled Europe politically and it was a religion of the day.

The power possessed by the church was so great that its head, pope, could have politically leaders and kings dethroned just by his word. It is therefore correct to say that the church through the pope was the leader of a good portion of the world then. The rise of the Islam religion was technically an opposition to the church thus the need to show that the church was still the leader.

The Crusades The crusades were seen as reactions meant to restore the “holy places from Mohammedam tyranny” (New advent 1). A vow was made to rage war against the “Mohammedans, pagans,and the Heretics” (New advent 1). The description of the crusade war captures the Spaniards war over the Moors, the wars in northern Europe over the Prussians and the Lithuanians.

The crusades were sanctioned in Christian gatherings after summons. People were then given crucifix upon which they were proclaimed to fight for the church. Privileges were offered to such soldiers. The history of the crusades started earlier before the eleventh century. The introduction of the “religious ideas, art and culture of the east” (New advent 1) into the Western Europe such as Gaul and Italy was a significant phenomenon in the history of the crusades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There were also cases of attacks on Christians who went to Jerusalem to worship at the holy Christian shrines. These attacks were made by the followers of Mohammed.The rise of the Seljukian Turks led to further attacks on Christians and a number of territories in Europe. It was due to these attacks that the church moved to what was seen as a step to reclaim the glory of the church and to restore Christianity and the sanctity of its holy places (New advent 1).

A meeting was addressed by the then pope at a mass of people in Auvergne in the late years of the eleventh century. The pope urged the people to arise and save the holy place from the invasions. People then took the vow that was an element of the established movement to protect the church. The pope then undertook communication to the whole Christian fraternity in Europe calling for the crusades.

Large masses were organized and subsequent attacks were made towards the east led by groups from France, Germany and parts of Italy. The victory of the Christians saw the establishment of Christian states which were however surrounded by hostile enemies. The Christian states were laterconqueredand subjected to the authorities of their enemies.

This was majorly due to the division among leaders in the west who as a result failed to offer protection to the Christians who were established in the East. Reconciliation was then struck by the thenpope and the leaders united to protect the Christian states. The crusades continued into the thirteenth century but lost its support from leaders who saw the move as reducing authority over their citizens who joined the crusade movement.

The loss of support from the western authorities led to the capture of the Christians by the Arab East in the late thirteenth century. The final periods into the collapse of the Christian territory in the east were marred by disorganization that saw even Christians fighting themselves. The crusades however continued in other places throughout the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries.Thewhole action of the crusades and its enlisted reactions were rather violent military undertakings (New advent 1).

The Arabs View of the Crusades The Arabs viewed the crusades as a move to conquer and exercise control over the land. The Arabs saw the crusade attacks as inversions that needed to be rebelled against. The war was fought and the crusaders lost the battles to the Arabs. The Arabs have the opinion that after the war, the western crusaders succeeded in exploring the east as trade areas for the west. The Arab word, in their view continued to decline in terms of the development (Crusades 1).

The crusades have of late been viewed by the Arabs as having been the first colonial step by the western countries. According to the Arab world, “poverty, corruption and violence in the middle east” (Madden 220) were just impacts of the crusades and colonialism by the west (Madden 220).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Term Crusade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With respect to this view, the Arabs are blaming the crusades for the negative things that subsequently happened in the Arab world. The Arabs have the view that the crusaders invaded a peaceful land and destroyed it in the event of the war caused by the inversion of the western Christian groups. The Arabs still have the occurrence of the crusades in their minds and they view the United Statesand as the current crusaders into their land (Madden 220).

Arabs Response and Reactions towards the Crusades The inversion of the east by the crusaders had the impact of displacing the Arabs from their homes. The crusaders were on a march to Jerusalem and were destroying property and killing the Arabs as they moved to Jerusalem. There was actually a recorded massacre in the city of Ma’ara as the crusaders moved through it towards Jerusalem.

Rumors also spread as to the actions of the crusaders that included cannibalism (Crusades 1). This sent fear among the Arabs and they fled their homes in attempts to save their lives. It is recorded that by the time the crusaders reached Jerusalem, all Arabs and Muslims had fled the area or those who were found there were killed.

In response to the actions of the crusaders that humiliated the ArabMuslims, action was called to the war of jihad by al-Hawari to counter the Christian inversion. This move was, however, not successful. Another response was a demonstration by the Arabs in Bagdad to call for actions against the Christian inversion which also called for an unsuccessful jihad against the crusaders.

In the bid to win the favor of the hostile crusaders, some of the Arab leaders responded by collaborating with the crusaders in acts considered as treason against their territories and their people. The most significant response is however the rise of the Arabs in Iraq that saw the first defeat ofthe crusaders in the city of Bagdad (Sindi 1).

Another reaction of the Arabs to the inversion by thecrusaders was the later move to remove the crusaders from the Arab world years after their defeat. The move by the crusaders into the east and their subsequent settlement after the end of the crusades did not change the eastern religion which was basically Islam.

After some time, the Muslim leaders developed expressed hatred for the crusaders race in the region and plotted a move to remove them out of the East. The move to eject the crusaders race from the east was initiated by Salah, one of the Arableaders, in the year 1187. In this bid to eject the crusaders form the land, another battle was fought between the crusaders and the Mamluks for more than half a century until the crusaders were defeated and evicted from the land sixty years later (Ham 50).

The Arabs have subsequently perceived the west as intruders who only intend to destroy their land. They have since seen the west as colonialists who are currently being headed by the United States (Madden 220).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Term Crusade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The crusades were a series of sanctioned military actions by the Christian European states against the Arab East. The crusades were used strategically to show that the church was superior. The crusade movement was a step to restore the sanctity and respect of the Christians and the Christian holy shrines which were being undermined by the Eastern Arabs during the periods. The crusades were a military move that led to loss of lives in the fights. As a result of the crusades, Arab community viewed the west as intruders who brought destructions upon the Arab land. The Arabs, in response to the crusade attacks initially resorted to passive measures to save their lives from the Christians but later responded in military actions and finally managed to counter the crusaders.

Works Cited Crusades. The crusades. Crusades, 2009. Web.

Ham, Antony. Middle East. New York, NY: Lonely Planet, 2009. Print.

Madden, Thomas. The new concise history of the Crusades. London, UK: Rowman

[supanova_question]

Why Free Speech Is An Important Freedom Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Freedom of speech is synonymous with freedom of expression. These two terms do not only explain the ability to speak or voice opinions without limitation or interference, but also the use of other means in communicating or impacting information.

This includes the use of expressions, music and art like painting, photography, and performing. In many countries, this freedom is provided for in as a basic freedom. Under the Universal Declaration of human rights in the United Nations there is a provision for this freedom. There are many genuine reasons why free speech is an important freedom.

Reasons Expressing oneself is a basic and important aspect of life and is also part of the basis for communication; it is more instinctive than learned. Throughout childhood and life, freedom of speech supports the learning of an individual through the acquisition of new views, ideas, concepts and theories in scientific, social and other fields of education.

One is able to participate in healthy debates and discussions, learn how to win and persuade in arguments and tolerate or even accept other people’s perceptions and ways of thinking. When an individual is able to express their ideas and opinions, it enables them to relate with others, participate in and enjoy interaction and bonding with other members of a group, team and community.

The main importance of speech learning and development is to facilitate expression and help an individual to live in harmony with other people in society, making sure that there needs are met and their rights, values and principles are not violated. Limiting or interfering with the freedom to speak and express oneself is a big violation of the basic rights of an individual and it restrains an individual from living a normal, productive and independent life.

Freedom of speech is an important aspect of social life in a civilized and democratic society. It enables people to make decisions on their rulers, systems of development and administration and initiate debates and discussions on important issues that concern public policy and governance.

People can voice their concerns over any problems or issues on accountability, responsibility and transparency of leadership. Freedom of speech is essential in the maintaining of law and order and making sure that there are checks and balances on individuals or groups which violate the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although there has been debate on the justification of freedom of speech, it is important to realize that society cannot develop or advance when imparting of and access to information is impeded. In some instances privacy, control and protection of information is required but this does not mean that information should be completely barred from the public.

Freedom of expression is also important where social and cultural issues are concerned. When people are at liberty to express their opinions on critical issues concerning social values, norms and standards, social harmony and order is achieved.

In order to facilitate effective change which is inevitable, sensitive Issues concerning social life, like abortion, aesthesia, divorce, parenting, marriage etc. should be open to debate whether there is consensus or not. It is obviously clear that not all forms and means of freedom of expression that supported and defended but in order to prevent social tension and chaos people should be free to speak.

Conclusion There are many reasons why free speech is an important freedom. Most societies agree that there should be clearly set guarantees on protecting and defending of this freedom without very little limitation except when it is very necessary and there has been general consensus on taking action against disbursement of information.

[supanova_question]

Fair Enough? Big Business Embraces Fair Trade Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Main arguments for and against the involvement of big businesses in fair trade Arguments for

Fair trade has promoted goods production for the reason than, since its inception, various certified products have found their way to chains of big retail markets, thus global marketing and enhancement of online shopping that minimizes on involvement of intermediaries.

Arguments against

Why are there lower tariffs on the supplies that do not need processing as opposed to processed products? Major brand like Nestle’ support fair trade through the ‘Partner Blends’, but fail to support producers by supporting tariffs that may encourage them to produce, process and export their labelled products.

They offer good tariffs for green coffee beans and higher tariffs for the roasted beans. The big business/retailers fail to encourage investing on processing facilities for producers, yet this is the only way that producers can enjoy better profits. Arguably, from this point of view, big retailers attempt to promote fair trade is just a cynical way of cashing in as opposed to an ethical commitment to promote or appreciate supplier’s efforts.

What would the purchase of fair-trade certified products and changing the label of the final product indicate? Fair trade is about protecting and promoting producers from possible supplier’s abuses. If major brands are allowed to boast their labels on these products, consumers are made to believe that these companies always promote fair trade.

To the producer, fair trade compromises the quality since the current standards fail to specify criteria to determine quality of products.

Critics over involvement of major brands in fair trade Statistics indicate that although most fair trade good are in major brand’s or specialized stores and within mainstream distribution channels. The major retailers also offer online shopping for the certified brands thus promoting the products. However, the process lacks justification due to the pricing factor. Ethically the situation creates a huge imbalance between the producer and consumer.

Minimum pricing of fair trade goods means that if it were above normal equilibrium price, then supply of the products would exceed demand, consequently majority of products would end up being sold through the free markets. This is a common scenario today and the producers would rather sell through free markets, other than lose while waiting for fair trade. It is not ethical to have a policy meant to promote production that end promoting free trade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Major brand groups are using the fair trade in their advertisements to achieve significantly. They draw out ethical conscience of consumers in developed countries by indicating that fair part of the price goes back to promote the producer’s standard of living. Is it unethical for consumers to buy free-trade goods and donate some equivalence to charity?

Relevance of consumer prices on fair treatment of producers Although Fair Trade is enabling customers to understand and appreciate both the organic and fair-trade label of products, consumers are made to believe that the high prices they pay go to the good will producers especially in developing countries. Fair trade is currently based on dialogue, respect for produces and transparency, therefore high pricing does not necessary translate to better global equity, fair treatment or better compensation of producers.

Only a small percentage of the prices directly reach to the producer. Majority is supposed to benefit the community through promotion of development projects through cooperatives. However, the cooperatives pay high annual registration or certification fees to the fair trade labelling organizations. The situation is not fair enough since the additional costs leave the farmer with very little profit gains. Furthermore, in fair trade, guaranteed prices do not mean support for a certain quantity of produce.

Responsibility of ensuring producer’s protection Although free markets are promoting ways of reducing exploitation by the intermediaries, protection of grower’s interests mainly depends on the producers. A well-established free trade that lacks infringing barriers of trade for instance the harsh import fees or tariffs would certainly improve the product prices.

The challenge of managing exploitation can be catered for through entrenched producer’s cooperatives. They would also be in a position to manage fluctuation of prices at the international commodity markets. The situation would lead to a balance between supply and demand.

[supanova_question]

Law Enforcement after 9/11 Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The terror attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, popularly known as 9/11, changed the world’s view of terrorism forever. In the aftermath of these attacks, the Bush administration declared war on terrorism, this war was aimed at capturing Osama bin Laden and smashing al-Qaeda operations around the world.

These actions were taken in order to prevent future terrorism attacks and to avoid the emergence of other terrorism networks. The US received support for the right to defend itself around the world, and even by the UN Security Council Resolution 1368.

Stringent measures aimed at law enforcement and fighting terrorism were implemented in the wake of these attacks, most of which had not been applied prior to the attacks. Domestic response to these attacks included the enactment of several legislation that have proved successful in curtailing terror activities. Notable legislation amendments included the creation of the Department of Homeland Security whose main aim was to combat terror. Improvements in aviation security have been successful too in the fight against terror.

The response of the US government in the wake of September 11 was important and has proved to be effective in averting terror acts. It is our obligation to support the government in its attempts to fight terror, as this will make our streets, buildings, and the transport industry safe.

Legislation that have been successful in Averting Terror Activities Domestic response to 9/11 led to the amendment and enactment of several legislation aimed at fighting terrorism. The President signed into law the Homeland Security Act of 2002.This created the Department of Homeland Security, which was charged with the responsibility of identifying and combating terrorism acts. Congress again passed the Patriot Act, the legislation would help perceive and fight terrorism and other offenses.

The Bush administration also instigated a National Security Agency operation to “eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant” (Smith

[supanova_question]

Employee Retention in Workplace Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors contributing to high turnover rates

How to retain employees

What rewards do employees want

What makes a good workplace

Conclusion

References

Introduction According to Prakashan (2008, p.1-51), “employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage the most productive employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time” or up to completion of their projects. Additionally, Carsen

[supanova_question]

Human Resource Management in Japan Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management

Analysis of japanese management

Professional experience

Bibliography

Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management The Japanese management system is based on the traditional values of the Japanese society in combination with the measures taken by the enterprises to attract qualified working force t the business in the post-war period after the Second World War. In this respect, the nature of the business relations in Japan is fostered by the traditions and historic circumstances.

However, it is necessary to compare the way the business is ran in Japan and in the Western world and find out whether these two types of business are interchangeable and whether there is a slightest necessity for applying the Western type of business management to Japan. At the same time, globalisation is the concept that facilitates the process when the borders blur between cultures which also concerns business, the management tactics, and corporate culture.

The image of a company man is distinguished in Japanese business model in terms of employment and management. As indicated in the case cited in the study by Beardwell and Claydon (2007), “…company man may be on the way to extinction in Western firms…” (p. 571).

In this case, the concept of ‘company man’ is referred to as a person who is on the lifetime employment and has an extremely high level of corporate culture and corporate commitment to the work, company, other individuals that work there, and the goals set and reached by the company as a whole.

So, it can be understood that the skills and achievements of every person are not important whereas the main thing that counts is the company’s achievement and financial performance. Therefore, the lifetime employment can be considered an advantage and a disadvantage in the framework of changing roles and priorities in global business.

Analysis of japanese management The main HRM roles in Japan. The main human resource management roles in Japanese companies have a little different function than in other countries of, for instance, Western world. For example, the supervision is a typical role executed by an HR manager in all countries but only in Japan the manager should contribute greatly to the solution of the problem rather than become a part of the problem and simply report about it.

In this respect, every manager should be aware of what is going on in the company, especially related to the sector of his/her direct supervision. The system of payment and bonuses does not depend on the performance levels of employees. So, rewards and benefits are distributed in accordance with the age, seniority, and length of employment principles making the promotion on the professional ladder almost impossible for young colleagues in spite of the effective performance or extraordinary skills applied to practice (Tayeb, 2005, p. 41).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As reported by Debroux (2003), “…top managers in large Japanese companies think that the main role of management is to increase capital efficiency and maximize shareholder profits” (p. 68). As such, the roles of Japanese human resource managers are not clearly defined from management perspective because the corporate culture blurs away the differences and borders.

Pros and cons of solving the case from HR perspective. The company man case can be solved from the human resource perspective but it will take a lot of time to adjust people’s way of perception and the hierarchy they got used to in accordance with the principles promoted in the Western companies.

The pros of solving the case from human resource perspective include a wider range of opportunities for personal and professional growth within the companies. As such, graduates of universities who obtain a position in a corporation would not be trained during the entire career in one corporation and the training programmes would be more focused on acquisition of the basic skills and knowledge for successful performance and financial benefits for the company.

The cons of solving the case from human resources perspective include the relations between the traditions and loyalty in Japanese companies and effectiveness of performance. As claimed by Tayeb (2005), “the Japanese loyalty is to the group to which they belong and for which they are prepared to sacrifice their personal interests” (p. 65). So, it is possible that implementation of the new HRM model would influence the performance of Japanese companies in a negative way.

Difficulties in the case. The most difficult issues in the case concern the promotional patterns applied to Japanese companies as contrasted to the Western firms where the abilities and skills contribute to the professional achievements and, consequently, enable employees to attain their career ladder goals and increase of the wages.

In this respect, the main problem that should be solved concerns the management roles and the structure/hierarchy of the company based on the age-related issues where seniority is the reason for promotion and not the achievements that contribute positively to the image and performance of the company in whole. As soon as management problems are solved in the companies, pay and bonus functions of HR managers can be reconsidered after introduction of changes into structure of the company.

Tactical questions in the process. The issues of primary concern include the context in which the problem occurs because Japan is the country with solid history and traditions that are part of this history. Besides, every employee is aware of the strategic and tactical plans of the company and fulfils his/her functions in order to make a contribution to the final goal.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Resource Management in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The behaviour of employees is the key factor to the corporate success of Japanese companies due to the loyalty and commitment principles promoted through the career-long training, seniority-based promotion, and seniority-based wages and bonuses that do not depend on the professional qualification of employees.

In this respect, the situation is difficult to approach with or without human resource perspective because it is closely related to personnel and would influence people and their work as well as corporate performance in whole.

Professional experience To handle the case from different managerial perspectives, it is necessary to be aware of the typical principles in the country where the problem occurs because the origin identifies how the case should be approached and what strategies better suit the situation in terms of the managerial functions, management roles, and corporate culture.

For instance, in Japan every employee who works for a large corporation is either a part-time/seasonal employee or was recruited right after graduation and overcame training within the corporation to understand the principles of work and become qualified in his/her professional sector. Lack of knowledge about the national rules of business operation may lead to inadequate approach chosen for the case.

To conclude, every national have specific traditions and rules that become either influential for the behaviour or the basis for business conduct. As such, Japanese companies should solve the problem of redundancy of employees without influencing the employment status of currently employed workers.

Bibliography Beardwell, J., and Claydon, T., 2007. Human resource management: a contemporary approach. 5th ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.

Debroux, P., 2003. Human resource management in Japan: changes and uncertainties: a new human resource management system fitting to the global economy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Tayeb, M. H., 2005. International human resource management: a multinational company perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Management in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

Tourism in New York Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Tourism refers to the scenario whereby individuals known as tourists travel and stay in places different from their usual environment for at least a day or at most o year for the purposes of recreation business New York is one of the states in the United States with a total of sixty two cities.

Each of these cities plays a significant role in the tourism industry in the New York State. New York was the origin of the tourism industry in the United States at around 1820, and it arrived in the United States at a surprising rapidity. Earlier on, most of the Americans spent their leisure time visiting tourist attraction sites in Europe (Gassan 2).

Tourism emerged in the United States from the Hudson River valley, north of New York City in the 1820’s. It was triggered by the confluence of historical accidents as well as the proximity of the valley to the New York City which was then one of the fastest growing cities financially and population wise in the United States. The valley also had remarkable scenery and a favorable geographic position since it connected the country’s most sought after destinations as a water way (Gassan 2).

The Role and Significance of Major Cities Major cities inside and outside New York state plays a major role in the tourism industry in this region. Most of them are densely populated such that they are a source of the many tourists that visit the many tourist attraction sites in New York. Major cities in New York have significant tourist attraction sites that play a major role in the number of tourists that visit New York each year.

They also have good infrastructure mainly in the transport and communication system that makes it easier for tourist to operate from New York since they are able to move from one tourist site to the other at ease. Furthermore, these major cities have been developed with good housing and other facilities such as hotels that accommodate tourists in their stay during their vacations as they move around the state visiting tourist attraction sites.

Apart from being the largest city in New York State, New York city is the largest city in North America and it harbors ever 15 million people in its metropolitan area.

The city’s international profile rose drastically since the September 11, 2009 terrorist attack of the world trade center which left thousands of people dead and it since then entered the list of the world’s top ten most visited destinations (Boniface

[supanova_question]

19th Century Norms of Marriage Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Views on 19th century marriage norms

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Most feministic writers view the institution of marriage as a deliberate creation by the society to oppress women, as revealed through their works, which always have characters that represent their views on the issue. The writers are mostly radical in their view of the norms that shape the marriage institution.

Women are exposed to unbearable situation in their marriages, only because the society requires them to be married. The works of Kate Chopin, Mary Wilkins Freeman, and Willa Cather, exposes the nature of marriages, suggesting deliberate attempts and positive attitudes towards reforms encouraging women to have second thoughts when joining the institution.

Views on 19th century marriage norms The 19th century marriages remain hit by problems ranging from infidelity through pretence to oppressions as the paper unfolds. In Mary Wilkins, “A New England Nun”, the woman character Louisa is compelled to wait for her suitor for fourteen years in order to get married.

This is quite oppressive considering the fact that Joe has another girlfriend and wants to Marry Louisa because he has promised so. Louisa has to leave her solitary life of happiness to go and live with Joe in his place as dictated by the marriage. She is to sacrifice her happiness at the altar of the marriage institution (Wilkins 9). When she gets the opportunity to dismiss it, she does so without any regrets recovering easily.

Through satirizing the marriage institution as one shaped by the governing norms, the women writers are advocating for a system that is more flexible for women to pursue their happiness beyond the confinements of marriage. Willa Cather has her males portrayed as weak since the women have to work in order to support them (Cather Para.33).

Louisa in Wilkins story, associates the presence of the man around her and having to do some roles shaped by the norms within the oppressive marriage institution. She has to wipe his muddy boots as well as placing a chair for him. These are some of the duties that the woman is compelled to undertake that these writers seem opposed to, hence their campaign for reforms.

Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” gives a description of the events of infidelity that take place during the storm. The story portrays the marriage institution as fake and full of pretence. Through the description of the sexual encounter between Alcee and Calixta, who are both married to different people, Chopin satirizes the serenity that appears from outside when viewing the marriage institution as bogus.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two characters seem to satisfy each other best feeling restricted by the rules of their marriage, which they keep stable by simply lying to their spouses (Chopin, “The Storm” Scene II). Rather than staying in marriages only to regret, Chopin implies that it is better if people can only pursue their happiness even if it breaks the norms that have been set forth by the institutions such as marriage.

Minutes after having sex with another man, Calixta welcomes her husband and pretends to be happy when presented with a gift. She even goes further to give him a casual kiss on his cheek as a sign of appreciation. The husband does not suspect anything and so does Alcee’s wife. This depicts the network of pretence and lies incorporated in the marriage institution.

Marriage is an institution that lacks freedom as seen in the manner that the character Louise in Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an hour” reacts to the news of the death of her husband (Chopin, A Story of an hour” Para.10). She whispers to herself that she is free at last only to die when she discovers that her husband is not actually dead.

Conclusion Most critics of the 19th century marriage norms base their arguments on the organization and formulations that shaped the then marriages. This is in the sense that to them marriages meant that a person had to lose his/her freedom absolutely to the other and that however dissatisfied one felt, there was no way out.

Works Cited Cather, Willa. Paul’s Case: A Study in Temperament. London: MacMillan Publishing, 1906.

Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1894.

The Storm. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1898.

We will write a custom Essay on 19th Century Norms of Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilkins, Mary. A New England Nun. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1912.

[supanova_question]

The Libyan Conflict Essay (Article) custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Parties in the Libyan Conflict

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The Libyan conflict pits the supporters of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, on one side and the anti-Gaddafi forces backed by the international community. It began as peaceful protests that later degenerated into a rebellion after use of excessive force on the protesters by the supporters of the government opposed to the revolution. Both sides of the Libyan conflict struggle to gain control of the country’s leadership.

What began as peaceful protests against the autocratic regime, degenerated into a full-blown conflict that has even attracted involvement from the international community. The perception of the citizens that the regime is oppressive and dictatorial encouraged the mass protests. The pro-government forces on the other hand are opposed to the perceived involvement of the international community and the Western countries to impose regime change in their country.

Parties in the Libyan Conflict The conflict started with low-level protests against the government, which retaliated with violence against its citizens. The protesters gradually gained support even from within the “pro-Gaddafi community leading to the establishment of the Transition National Council based in Benghazi” (Cimmino, 2011).

The main interest of staging the revolt was to topple the oppressive regime and establish a democratic rule. The response of the Libyan leader and his supporters opposed to this revolt involved use of excessive force to quell the violence. However, the protesters have gradually continued to gain support from the citizens and the international community. The international community’s involvement is to protect the civilians and establish a peaceful environment to settle the conflict.

The incompatible goals in this conflict lie in the opposition to Gaddafi’s oppressive rule. The government’s counteroffensive response characterized by heavy use of military weapons and threats by the pro-government forces against the rebels show the government’s determination to remain in power moreover; the government also censored communication media including the social media for fuelling the conflict. The protesters want to end the oppressive and corrupt regime that is accused of infringement of human rights.

The conflict was fueled by poor economic theories coupled with corruption and tribalism, which have contributed to low living standards of the citizens despite the country’s rich oil reserves.

The conflict underwent an escalatory spiral from a peaceful protest to violent conflict attracting the involvement of the international community (Folger, Poole,

[supanova_question]

Russian Icons in Religion Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The major religion in Russia is the Russian orthodoxy, though Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam are part of the religious legacy in Russia. In Russia, religion and political systems are very much interrelated in that, since time in memorial, religion especially the Orthodoxy and its icons have been shaping politics and the government through their influence on the Russian people.

These important roles of the icons led the Soviets to order their destruction during the revolution, highlighting their relevance in the history of Russia. From more than one thousand year since Prince Vladimir introduced the Orthodoxy to the people of Russia, icons have influenced a significant part of the history of Russia[1].

The first icons were introduced in the country from Constantinople, through the Byzantines the Greek icon painters and were able to work in Russia, eventually leading to emergence of groups of Russian icon painters.

It is believed that Prince Vladimir emissaries were very impressed by Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia icon, importing it together with the Byzantium’s artistic traditions of fine arts and Christianity[2]. With time, the Russia icon painter, following Byzantine art modules and styles modified the art and style, thus producing their own unique identity as icon painters.

Background of Russia icons Andrei Rublev, one the most recognized “15th century Russian icon painters, brought a new style to Russian icon painting”[3]. His paintings including the icon Spas, or the Savior that brought a new style of painting characterized by “use of color and the attitude of serenity and humanity portrayed in the faces of the figures depicted”[4].

Rublev lived in a monastery with other monks with whom he developed this new style. Although new style developed the traditional Russia, icons mostly lacked individual pictorial taste and creativity that was found in the Western European countries. With the Western influence sweeping through Russia during the 17th century, the Russian Orthodox Church separated into the Conservatives (Old Believers) and the States Church (New Believers).

The Conservatives adhered to the traditional styles while the new believers accepted the Western art forms, leading to paintings reflecting personal feelings and reality and a mixture of Russia styled and Western styled icons. This development liberated the art of icon painting to some extent in Russia. From this point on, painters were able to include personal expression, add value, and modify the standard traditional styles, producing new icons but still being within the biblical references and the laid down tradition for the icon paintings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the era of Peter the Great in the 18th century, reverence to icons remained but there was sudden reduction in the art of icon painting due to influence of western arts. In the second half of the 20th century, interest in icons and icon painting increased and currently, there are several painters using the traditional styles of the old icon masters[5].

Majority of Russia icons are small wooden paintings with a few being made of copper; however, there are also bigger forms that are mainly found in churches and monasteries. Generally, the Russian icon tradition is more spiritual rather than the pictorial tradition of the Western Europe. In Russia, icons are intended to help in contemplative prayer by implying meditative harmony, inspiring reflection and self-examination, rather than emphasizing on the aesthetic value[6].

The role of Russia icons in religion and culture Russia population consists of several minority ethnic groups spread all over the country. Around 79 percent of Russians identify themselves as Orthodox, with religion and ethnicity being well connected[7].

In addition, there persists a consensus among the traditional religions in Russia in that the Tartars are Muslim, the Burjaats are Buddhist, and Jews are Judaist[8]. Icons form a central part in the practices of the Russian Orthodox consequently influencing culture of the minority ethnics.

With religion influencing the community way of life, norms, and structures, the icons are destined to make much contribution towards the culture of these people. The Orthodoxy calendar controls major events of the people of Russia such as marriage, birth ceremonies, family relationships, and burial ceremonies.

In the Russian Orthodoxy, the material aspects of religion such as altars, icons, and relics are very valued over the theological aspects that are sometimes difficulty to grasp[9]. In creating of the icons, the icon painters are very keen to create icons that will impart religious aspects and theological ideas to people reflective of the scripture messages.

Generally, the Orthodoxy services involve use of ‘the beauty of God’s Creation, the beauty of the Uncreated Light, the beauty of the choir, the liturgy, the icons and the incense to communicate the religious lessons in similar fashion the sermon or word based services preach the gospel’[10]. This practice of Orthodox venerating the spiritual and visible aspects of icons as always has been a subject of criticism from other Protestants and other religions.

We will write a custom Essay on Russian Icons in Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homes are essential parts of communities and human life. In the Russian tradition, icons have a special designated place in the house for home rituals: ‘newborn were touched to them, people were blessed with icon before a wedding, a journey, becoming a soldier, and before the icons people swore blood-brotherhood oaths or made vows to God’s name’[11].

At home, people prayed standing facing the special place called the red corner or beautiful corner (krasnyi ugol) which is the eastern or southeastern corner of the hut or house[12]. Sometimes, they were placed facing the closest church and in this place, were two wooden shelves or a cabinet. The icons could never be hanged on a wall; they have to be placed on a shelf in observance of the Orthodox traditions.

The shelves were decorated with embroidered clothes without covering the face of the saints on the icons. In addition, the icons were placed in a defined order on the shelf that sometimes reflected the event or purpose for which the icons will be venerated. For example, an icon of Holy Spirit is kept at the centre of Christ on the right, that of Mother of God on the left and those of apostles behind them. A lamp or a candle is also placed in the red corner to illuminate the icon(s).

The icons displayed at home were sometimes customized for personal use by including picture of a specific saint, the owner is named after, or a relative is named after, besides the main icon figure. Due to presence of icons, a Christian home served as a form of a church blessed by the sacred icons. In the churches, icons are kept in special palaces called iconostasis.

One of the traditions of the Russian Orthodox is the consecration of icons. The consecration involves performing special prayers and blessing the icon with the holy water. The icons are consecrated to become holy, thus possessing power that is more spiritual. The consecrated icons are highly regarded and that is why they are kept in the special places.

The consecrated icons are believed to possess spiritual power and some are associated with special miracle works. For example, the miraculous case involving the Passion icon of the Mother of God that occurred in Moscow on 20 February 1547 in which houses were burning in Kitai-Gorod and only a single wooden house containing the passion icon was left intact in the entire region[13].

The Russian icons are worshipped through kissing them, bowing in front of them, and saying special prayers. It is believed that, in worshipping them, you are worshiping the figure painted on them for intercession. These figures are mostly saints, apostles, and exalted Russian priest. In addition, these figures are associated with unique powers to intercede in specific instances and are prayed for specific needs. For example, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker icon is prayed to offer protection and surveillance to people who are traveling.

In the soviet era, when religion was prohibited in Russia icons, most icons were hidden in the safety of peoples’ homes and the famous Russian Orthodox icons regarded as artifacts were kept in the historical museums. After this period, people uncovered their icons and currently, there are numerous Russian icons and Orthodoxy paintings in the churches and cathedrals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Russian Icons in Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Russian icons form essential part of the Russian culture, so people visiting Russian churches and museums have an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the Russian culture. In summation, the Russian icons are mainly for religious purposes but they also form part of the Russian culture and they are regarded as unique artistic works and historical relics[14].

The role of Russian icons during the revolution In the history of Russia, there have been two major revolutions: the 1905 revolution and the 1917 revolution. Since religion and the politics were very much integrated in the Russian set up, the role of the Russian icons in the revolution can be clearly understood by first understanding the causes and the outcomes of these revolutions.

The 1905 revolution

The 1905 Russian Revolution began with a peaceful protest on January 22 “led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle”[15]. Through the protest, they were petitioning the tsar Nicholas II to help them regarding their condition. Surprisingly, Nicholas ordered the soldiers and the police to shoot the unarmed masses and eventually hundreds were killed or wounded, and the day was named the Black Sunday[16].

What ensued from these events was series of workers strikes and public protests throughout the country. In October 1905, a general strike took place paralyzing all activities in Russia; consequently, Nicholas yield to pressure and agreed to form Duma (parliament). Indeed, Formation of Duma cooled the situation for some but Nicholas continued gradually limiting the powers of Duma leading to the events of the next revolution.

The push to the 1905 revolution was due to rapid socio-economic changes, suffering witnessed during tsar monarchy and craving for more freedom, religion played a major role in enhancing the success of the cause. First, the protest was led by a Russian Orthodox pries, signifying religion was at forefront in advocating for change.

Secondly, the Russian icons formed a crucial portion in the petition protest and the resulting strikes as witnessed during that period ‘… a great demonstration for Sunday, January 9, 1905; workers would march to the Winter Palace, carrying religious icons, and portraits of Nicholas, to present a petition asking for redress of grievances’[17].

Lastly, with religion being intertwined with the protests, people would express their religion through prayer for their grievances and by kissing and bowing to Russian icons to seek help from the saints.

The 1917 revolution

After the 1905 revolution, the economy of Russia continued to deteriorate, with famine striking the country and Russia was losing the battle with Germans. The tsar was making wrong decisions such as firing several prominent leaders from the Duma and replacing them with unsuitable ones.

People believed that the tsar decisions were very much influenced by a mysterious Siberian monk named Grigory Rasputin[18]. In December 1916, people within the Palace murdered Rasputin in order to stop revolution from occurring. In late February 1917, the Russian people revolted, and following the revolt in March 15, a provisional government was established with Prince George Lvov as the leader.

Several soviets held a meeting to discuss the government’s progress; however, prior to this meeting, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin were gaining popularity especially among the workers and during the meeting, they advocated for the power to be added over to the soviets[19].

In July 1917, an uprising failed, with the revolutionaries being arrested. Lenin, a Marxist, fled the country to Finland and Alexander Kerensky replaced Lvov as the prime minister. From that time, the push for revolution continued and in October 25, another revolt was staged[20]. Kerensky fled the palace and Lenin ascended to power. Unlike other revolts, the Lenin October revolution was well planned and there was no bloodshed or destructions.

In period following Lenin October revolution, the Russian Civil War began between the communists and other groups opposed to communism. The communists won in 1922 founding the Soviet Union and Lenin died in 1923. The Communist Party continued to rule up to 1991, marking the disintegration of the USSR.

The Lenin October Revolution marked the beginning of the communism in Russia. The communist government was much based on the Karl Marx principles and it immediately banned religion, as it believed religion was opium for the poor. From this point onwards, Soviets declared war on religion, with many icons set for destruction, others were lost forever, and others were saved or spared like the Rublev’s Spas[21]. Moreover, the Lenin faces become the face of communism replacing the place for the icons.

Marxism played a crucial role in banning of religion as it was characterized with aggressive commitment to atheism and scientific materialism, rejecting all religions[22]. During the period of revolution, the Bolsheviks ensured that Russia’s spiritual underground did not play a crucial part to Lenin’s revolutionary cause. Later, the government changed its policy on religion and icons became public through personal displays and museums.

Bibliography Anon. Russian Art

[supanova_question]

Rationale and Interactivity Design Essay online essay help

Introduction The propagation of wireless technology has brought in a variety of mobile devices such as the Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and the wireless handheld phones that have a wide range of applications such as video messaging, three-dimensional games and other software. A mobile device such as an iPhones or a tablet PC incorporates various programming languages such as a Java program.

The program is familiar due to its ability to manage virtual machines by allowing some reasonable amount of accessibility to underlying functions of the devices. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and wireless Java toolkits provides both user-friendly interfaces for easy manipulation and object oriented designs for easy development of mobile applications (Gookin, 51).

Current Mobile Interfaces Current mobile interfaces are able to offer clear audio as well as video contents and the formats make these devices more applicable for various portals. They are also able to handle deeper or wider multimedia contents. The multimedia contents are presented in three main categories namely, downloadable applications, virtual streamed content, which is transferable in real-time and immediate content that is transferable on demand.

Mobile downloads come in various codes and applications for current mobile devices such as tablet PCs, ipads and iphones support majority of these formats. Currently, the packaging formats for both audio and video codec, depending on the application-developing program or team.

The most common form of video or audio compatibility option for the hand-held devices include the MPEG-4 (MP4), Flash Video, MIDI, WAV,MP3, 3GP2, Real Audio, MOV, AVI and 3GP. Some of the format names originate from the manufacturers’ identity for instance the 3G companies. The current applications such as the Windows Micro-media player on personal computers are able to incorporate majority of these formats, at high qualities (O’Reilly, 3).

Designs of mobile Information Devices There are new set of challenges for User Interface (UI) designers and software developers, especially when developing software for new Internet-enabled wireless mobile phones or the two-way pagers.

In accordance with Fling (89), when designing a consumer product or developing a software application, various aspects ought to be considered. First is the ability to supports a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which will make it friendlier to the consumer. The GUI should accommodate multiple windows simultaneously. Secondly, the input functions must handle data in a fast and easy way. This does not mean that the product should be very complicated, because not all consumers feel at ease with complicated interfaces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the most important aspect during development of a mobile application is to ensure use of the right applications and features, which must suite purpose of the device. Various designers have been able to produce a simple and realistic application suite to guide them when coming up with Mobile Information Device (MID) applications:

The minimum MID profile should be 96 pixels wide and 56 pixels high and 1-bit in depth(black and white)

The device should support a one handed or two-handed input mechanism.

A one handed keyboard has the numbers 1-9, an asterisk (*) and a pound sign (#).

A two handed keyboard is elaborated by a QWERTY keyboard style like the personal computers.

The MID profiles made of User Interface (UI) or Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are divided into two parts; high and low level APIs (O’Reilly, 82). High-level APIs are designed for writing an application or service that a network provider needs to deploy during high-level abstraction.

The use also helps to different products by shape, colour or font. “Low level APIs are designed for applications that need precise placement and control over graphics. This is because they provide very little abstraction” (O’Reilly, 37). Games are programmed using the low level API since the screen must interact freely with the user through its GUI. The four types of screen used in MID profile include list, alert, text box and a form (O’Reilly, 37).

The designing of the System application is initiated by the Manufacturer. Many products like the Microsoft applications have command buttons that send a certain signal when pressed. A keyboard is mainly used as a device for providing shortcut options, but in cases of mobile devices such as iphones, the command buttons send certain signals to the operating system, which includes camera, Music player, radio and the internet.

The operating system of current mobile devices prioritizes some commands and sets others to be performed later. This indicates that manufacturers have to decide and test their devices before marketing them, in order to determine their functionality. Developers use high-level abstract commands when programming applications that use programs like Java Language, in order to develop products that offer competitive market value (Books Llc, 7). Mobile applications are thus designed with a lot of creativity and uniqueness to satisfy the UI requirements.

Common rationale behind mobile multimedia designs WURFL Technology The ability to deliver multimedia content through a mobile device depends on properties or file formats. The capability of the mobile devise determines its capacity to hold complex capabilities such as full-file downloads or capacity to play file features as they download using HTTP streaming. According to Pernici (34), majority of the mobile applications fail to work with the multimedia files because they are generally huge. The incompatibility therefore determines the sellers’ decision to include such files that may slow down traffic of data flow. Downloads that take too long to load may be of high costs for the client, who may end up unsatisfied due to the streaming delays. Direct downloading techniques is almost compatible with all the mobile devices especially the iphones and the tablet PCs that utilize the android setups.

Web Technology

Not all the mobile devices have embedded multimedia setting; therefore, their display units constrain some features and only allow audio outputs (Fling, 89). Various applications such as the flash players or flash-Lite are compatible with mobile devices and the flash video formats (FLV) mainly used in recent technological mobile devices such as ipods, iphone, tablet PCs as well as palmtops.

We will write a custom Essay on Rationale and Interactivity Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At present, it is possible to compile the flash player 8 for a mobile device and retrieve information with different formats for instance the YouTube version. Desktop applications works well with devices with enabled Flash-Lite 3 (Fling, 89). Mobile applications are also able to play videos or show images using different programs such as the QuickTime Player that opens on its own without being embedded in a browser like the YouTube.

Streaming

Reference video clips are created in special applications such as iOS and safari, which work well with various applications such as QuickTime. Streaming highly depends on the strength of the signal since the receiver continues to use the file while it runs from the provider’s end. Mobile devices mainly working on the wireless technology suffers from delays (the satellite hops), therefore application developers have difficulties in implementing the concept of streaming video and audio in mobile devices (Setchi, 261).

The compatibility of streaming into various mobile devices therefore requires use of different or special platforms along with strong technologies. Currently, devices such as the blackberry or window mobile have a strong support for real-time streaming of files including video files.

The applications use the Real-Time Streaming Protocols (RTSP) that assists in launching of a default player such as Real Player or Window Media Player whenever a streaming link is accessed. This application enables the live broadcasts to occur, for instance reality TV shows, discussion forums or sporting events. The protocol is standardized to provide and control establishments between linked workstations (Setchi, 261).

The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) also allows video or audio streaming for delivery of live events or other multimedia content as per users’ demands. There is lack of streaming services on various mobile devices due to lack of functional application in support of the provision, for instance special flash player for the mobile technologies (Setchi, 262).

The Flash Lite 3.0 devices and different recently manufactured iphones are compatible with various applications that support streaming such as the Adobe Flash server, Red5, Helix Media and the QuickTime streaming server. The apple company has also come up with the Darwin Streaming server for its mobile devices (Setchi, 262).

The use of UDP or TCP protocols for mobile devices streaming causes some proxies problems associable with redirecting to or from the HTTP setting. Direct streaming from the HTTP setting therefore has an advantage. During live streaming, HTTP also suffers some overhead problems compared to the other protocols, therefore if the mobile device uses the direct HTTP streaming, the device might have to download the entire file before playing as opposed to download and play simultaneously.

Apple has been able to bypass the internet protocol and produce a live HTTP streaming application for its mobile devices. iOS 3.0 supports this Apple streaming application on iphones. The iphone applications also get accelerated live streaming services from Akamai and influxis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rationale and Interactivity Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The procedure requires repackaging and buffering of the data into smaller packets for transmission to clients. The switching of bandwidth to accommodate different qualities over HTTP setting provides a great advantage of ability to pass through various proxies setting and firewalls without suspicious blocks (McNamara, 219). The current mobile device applications also allow users to upload files including video files to the internet, to steaming websites like YouTube through use of an internal flash player application.

Comparison between Mobile and Computer Applications

Mobile devices such as the tablet personal computer are an evolution of the computer technology, which have various technical applications for better performance levels. Majority of today’s devices are controlled trough touch screens, digital light pens or finger calibration.

This means that some of the earlier applications of the computer systems have been rendered obsolete. The main aim of establishing new applications is to enhance the concept of mobility. When every need is catered for through a hand-held device, there is ease of operability as well as mobility. Common mobile devices today include the iphones, convertible tablets, booklet tablet, slate, and hybrid tablet PCs (Setchi, 263).

Common Application on Various Mobile Devices

Advanced data entry systems such as touch or voice recognition system means that currently, applications are catering for intelligent systems. The ability to enhance connectivity such as the universal connectors, Bluetooth, infrared and other wireless connection to various peripheral devices is a clear induction that technology of application is on a steep modification procedure (Jacko, 34).

Mobile devices especially the communication devices like computers or phones have similar appearances that often offer preferences of usage attributable to support for advancing technology such as internet television or video broadcasting. The importance of having internet on a mobile device also requires a special form of applications for easier interpretation (Jacko, 34).

Conclusion Mobile devices are emerging day-in-day-out, and the applications are under a constant revolution to cater for high technological functions anticipated by users. The devises are hybrid because they cater for various features of related products as well as features on some of the earlier devices. The application support adaptable features and this is evident from current usage such as the use of iPad that was launched in mid 2010. The applications therefore have various features borrowed from both personal computer and earlier phone models.

Works Cited Books Llc. Tablet Pc: Ipad, Joojoo, Comparison of Tablet Pcs, Microsoft Courier, Hp Touchsmart, Itablet, Adam Tablet, Hp Compaq Tc1100. New York, NY: General Books LLC, 2010. Press

Fling, Brian, Mobile Design and Development: Practical Concepts and Techniques for creating mobile sites and web applications. California, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. Press.

Gookin, Dan. Laptops for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2010. Press

Jacko, Julie. Human-Computer Interaction. Interacting in Various Applications Domains. Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 2009. Press

O’Reilly, Tim. Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide. California, CA: O’Reilly media Inc. 2008. Press

McNamara, Joel. Netbooks for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2009. Press

Pernici, Barbara. Mobile information systems: infrastructure and design for adaptivity and flexibility. New York, NY: Springer, 2006

Setchi, Rossitza. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Berlin, Germany: Springer. 2010.

[supanova_question]

Utilitarianism Theory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

What is utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is a theory used to explain consequentialism. The consequentialism theory states that one has to determine what is “intrinsically valuable” in an action.

The good in the action is what is focused on and not what it leads to. In regards to this theory, founded by Jeremy Bentham (18th century), and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill (19th century), the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight. Bentham argues that the outcomes of an action are what determine whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Bentham strongly believes that the “ends justify the means”. However, to this perception a question is posed, what is the end?

Both Bentham and Mill agree that there is one intrinsic good (pleasure according to Bentham or happiness according to Mill) and one intrinsic bad (pain) according to Bentham or misery/unhappiness according to Mill. However, their agreeing on principle ends there as Bentham states that terming or referring to an action as good, has to have arisen from receiving pleasure from that action, and is mostly experienced in the physical sense.

This is just an echo of Socrates’ sentiments in Plato’s “Protagoras”. Mill disagrees with this perception that it turns utilitarianism into a “pig philosophy” and argues that quality of the action matters a lot. This is in disregard of Bentham’s thought that pleasure is the same qualitatively and the only thing that matters or is vital is quantity.

Utilitarianism tends to assume that happiness or pleasures found in humanity are equal across all people, for example: that one person’s well-being is not more important than any other one person’s. Consequently, its quest is to creating “the greatest good for the greatest number”. The theory thrives and succeeds on the actions that are able to create a balance between happiness and misery and this is therefore taken as the morally correct action.

Strengths and weaknesses Utilitarianism gets its strength from its perception of actions and their impact on an individual. The ‘expected’ result of a specific action is the principle of measure and not the actual result itself. Utilitarianism has other strengths which include: impartiality- the theory asserts that everyone is equal and their happiness counts equally, it does not allow room for egoism and provides insight into Bentham’s notion. The theory also justifies most of our moral conventions. It is flexible, and offers for a larger moral community.

This theory falls short along the way, as questions come up to try and find an answer to the issue on morality. According to the theory of utilitarianism, if the morality of an action depends on its results, how do we know when the “results” are done? How can we thus know the answer? This ends up being a weakness in the whole theory and perception of utilitarians.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It could be simply explained that “expected” result of a particular action is the criteria, and not the “actual” result, but the followers of this theory are not in agreement with this. For that reason, this brings out a weakness where its own believers do not agree with it fully. It does not answer the question on morality, and as it is known, morality is a very vital aspect of the society and an individual.

A notable weakness of this theory is its assumption that the happiness or pleasure of each human being is equal to every other individual’s. Utilitarianism does not really address the issue of morality and what determines actions as good or bad. The ease at which Kantianism opposed Utilitarianism thinking in ethics and morality issues shows a huge weakness and lack of faith in this theory. Both this two theories form the two major “rules-based” approaches to ethical theory in the modern era.

In spite of this, Kant emphasizes on the form of an individual’s ethical reasoning, and argues that it must follow a certain rationality to ensure its rightness. On the other hand, according to utilitarians, the measure of the rightness or wrongness of an action could only be determined by the consequences of the action (greatest good for greatest number).

This greatly shows where the Utilitarianism theory falls short of adequately addressing ethics and morality within an individual. The theory leaves the determining of good or bad to the majority and the outcome of an action. Therefore the individual has no control of reasoning out what is good or bad.

Bentham/Mill debate: what/why The theory of utilitarianism founded by Jeremy Bentham and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill comes across as the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight and that reaction to an action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Although they both agree on the contextual basis of it, they have come out in disagreement on principle of what really is utilitarianism.

According to Bentham, the ends justify the means. On the other hand, Mill disagrees with Bentham and terms his philosophy on utilitarianism as a “pig philosophy”, according to him he prefers a state where an individual is “better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a pig satisfied”. His argument on this matter is driven by the fact that the level and intensity of happiness (referred to as pleasure by Bentham) is wholly driven by quality.

A disagreement occurs in this as Bentham is utterly convinced that what matters to an individual’s pleasure is only quantity and these pleasures are the same qualitatively in all individuals. The degree of measuring extent of pain or pleasure, happiness or misery and so forth is still indefinite and Bentham’s answer to this whether plausible or not does not shed any more light to the issue.

We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarianism Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disagreement between the two proponents of this theory leaves a question in our minds, is utilitarianism even practically feasible? Does the amount of deliberation on its impact, the problem of egoism and self-sacrifice and so forth answer the question on morality?

How then do we know that “happiness” or “pleasure” is the ultimate good? Mill tries to give insight to this by attesting that when an individual is asked what he/she wants in/out of life, it constantly comes down to happiness/pleasure, for that reason since every individual says that is what they want then they ought to get exactly that.

This puts into disrepute Bentham’s notion that happiness/pleasure is equal across all human beings and that the outcome of the action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Mill’s position on the theory of utilitarianism comes more superior to Bentham’s as he provides more explanation on what the intrinsic good is and morality within an individual.

Gene Hackman’s challenge: response Is it justifiable killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer/find a cure?

Gene Hackman’s challenge on whether killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer and find a cure for them plays with what is right and what is bad. Bentham’s assertion that the outcome determines the right of deciding good or bad can be used to try and justify this. It is a question that tries to find a balance between ethics and morality within an individual, in the society.

Killing is out rightly wrong within the society and is not morally accepted. But the question is, does saving the lives of many justify sacrificing the life of one? Kant tries to offer insight into this debate by saying that the actions of an individual should be left to the individual’s own reasoning. Utilitarianism argues that the “ends justify the means”. But is it right?

The question of taking another person’s life is not justifiable in any way or form even if it is to save others. Laws have been put in place to put a check on the taking of life (killing), but there are instances where it is acceptable but still under very cautious circumstances. Hackman is faced with a question on his professionalism. Do professionalism and the oath sworn to uphold the ethical conduct of an individual have a play in reasoning and determining what is good or bad?

This leaves us asking ourselves whether the good of the many gives an individual the right to make choices on behalf of the group. In my opinion killing one to save many is not justifiable and goes against ethical and morality aspect in the society. But yet again all this is left to the reasoning of the individual to decide what is good and what is bad.

Many people argue that saving the lives of many innocent people justifies the act of taking life, but yet again the life being taken is innocent and they have a choice of whether to give into the cause or hold onto their life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarianism Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The choice of taking a life should not be given to someone to decide for an individual but rather to the individual it belongs to. In this way the good and feeling of pleasure is obtained by an individual as he/she has been left to reason on the impact of their worth to the society. Consequentialism tries to justify the taking of life but Kantianism argues against this and puts the decision solely in the hands of an individual.

[supanova_question]

The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Paulo Freire made an astute observation when he said that the teacher-student relationship has a narrative characteristic and therefore in the process of teaching: “The contents, whether values or empirical dimensions of reality, tend in the process of being narrated to become lifeless and petrified” (Freire, p.318). This is the reason why the author contended that a conventional teaching style is ineffective and downright boring.

However, the actual use of narration is not the main culprit; Freire pointed out that it is the “banking” style of teaching that explains the ineffective and lifeless teaching outcome. But when pressed for an alternative Freire’s response cannot be considered as the best solution to the problem. Thus, it is best for teachers to learn to adapt between the “banking” type of teaching and the “problem-posing education” methodology that was proposed by Freire.

In almost every classroom in the world today one can see a teacher speaking to a classroom full of students. The classroom can be “virtual” but still there is one single voice of authority that the students listen to as if under the influence of maestro conducting a symphony.

They nod their head in agreement to every word that comes out of the mouth of the teachers and seldom can one hear a dissenting voice that challenges the ideas thrown to the class. According to Freire, “This is the ‘banking” concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposit” (Freire, p.318). There is very limited interaction between students and teachers.

In reaction Freire said, “Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students” (Freire, p.319). In other words equality must also be demonstrated in the classroom and not just in the political realms.

However, Freire made it clear that “Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other” (Freire, p.320). Aside from the lack of creativity and the inability to inspire the students to go beyond the syllabus, this type of teaching sends a negative message. Freire contends that this system mirrors the inner-workings of an oppressive society (Freire, p.320).

This means using techniques to develop docile minds and perpetuate an environment of conformity and mediocrity. Think of North Korea, Taliban controlled Afghanistan and it is evident that authority figures can produce students that cannot learn beyond what was taught within the four walls of the classroom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In societies wherein democratic ideals are not part of the norm then this problem is multiplied in a significant manner and produces a society that cannot break free from the shackles of poverty and backward thinking. If Freire is absolutely correct then he can prove that the conventional method of teaching is not productive.

There are many writers and educators who support this view. This is especially true in Third World societies were the evidence of oppression requires no imagination to understand. According to one scathing remark, “Perhaps we should not be surprised that education end up like banking … after all, once the IMF (International Monetary Fund) has squeezed national education budgets across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, it is the World Bank that steps in and offer loans to help fill the gap” (Archer, p.29).

It is a cycle of defeat because money that was loaned to these countries were not put to good use. It seems that the World Bank is part of a scheme to make these countries utterly dependent on loans.

Freire was correct when he said that students must not be viewed as mere repositories of information. If students are treated this way then they will behave like a banking institution, meaning that they are like inanimate objects unable to interact and understand concepts taught them and appreciate them to the point that they can use it to enhance their lives and the people around them.

Freire added, “The banking approach to adult education, for example will never propose to students that they critically consider reality” (Freire, p.320). The most important thing is that no new knowledge is created and obviously this is not good.

The evolution of mankind as a species requires breakthroughs in the science and the arts. There is indeed a need to develop a kind of system that allow students be more creative, to help them develop the skills for problem solving and not just a mode of behaviour adept in the art of memorising data without even knowing how to utilise it to create a better world.

The alternative solution is labelled “problem-posing education” (Freire, p.323). In this system students are made more aware, making them more conscious about the issues and the problems that surround them. According to one commentary, “Through critical, dialogical investigation, participants begin to understand their world in a depth hitherto unknown to them: that which was once hidden, submerged or only superficially perceived begins to ‘stand out’ in sharp relief from other elements of awareness” (Roberts, p.295).

We will write a custom Essay on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is in sharp contrast to the teaching style that was criticised by Freire. More importantly, learning is facilitated through dialogue characterised by a symbiotic relationship wherein teachers and students learn from each other.

The only problem of this view is that there are fundamental truths that has to be learned before one can develop the higher cognitive abilities personified by philosophers, inventors, scientists, and creative designers. Moreover, there is the need to establish a learning environment for the purpose of learning fundamental skills and not necessarily the discovery of new knowledge. In this context the narration and “banking” type of teaching methodology has found its purpose.

This can be seen in learning basic skills such as carpentry, typing, baking, weaving etc. It is foolish to let students learn on their own when it is obvious that knowledge had been sifted and clarified through the ages so that no one has to go back to the drawing board and learn how to make a chocolate cake once again. The teacher simply has to make a deposit into the hearts and minds of students or the apprentices willing to learn the basics of a particular trade.

Another problematic issue when it comes to Freire’s ideas can be understood in the context of the recipient. The application of the “problem-posing education” methodology seems only practical when it is used on adult literacy education (Gottesman, p.391). The problem comes to the fore when scholars applied Freire’s theory to K-12 schooling systems (Gottesman, p.391). This simply reinforces the previous discussion that revealed the impracticality of the “problem-posing” technique when used in certain learning environments.

Nevertheless, it must be made clear that Freire tried to delve into issues much bigger than education, “One should certainly look to Friere for guidance and inspiration in thinking about how society can build movements for radical social change” (Gottesman, p.393). This is one of the most important lessons that can be gleaned from Freire’s writings.

The importance of adopting a middle-ground approach between these two types of teaching system can be seen in the study of very complex ideas and concepts. There is a need to have a “banking” system for the sake of having a voice of authority that serves as a useful guide to learning.

On the other hand the “problem-posing” method is also important because in studying complex ideas the learning process has to be left open and not made rigid by those who believe that they are the only “authority” when it comes to a particular subject matter.

Take for example the study of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. This is a topic that requires a great deal of mastery and dedication in the study of physics, astronomy, and mathematics. It would be senseless for a teacher to allow a student with zero knowledge about astrophysics give a lecture in front of a class full of physics majors. With this kind of topic, there is a need for an authoritative voice to lay down the foundation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If this is not done then the student will waste time chasing after non-related ideas. In other words useless experimentation and duplicate research is eliminated. A competent teacher can therefore guide the students to areas of study that requires further investigation and increases their knowledge by carefully depositing ideas relevant to the topic.

However, allowing the teacher to dominate the discussion is not the best way to go all the way in attempting to learn more about Einstein’s theory. Thus, the teacher has to maintain an open mind and after depositing a great deal of information about the subject, the teacher must then use the “problem-posing” technique proposed by Freire. There must be a two-way communication between student and teacher in order to facilitate learning and more importantly to initiate an action that will hopefully lead to the discovery of new knowledge.

Freire has a point in his criticism of conventional modes of teaching. He was quick to point out the link between oppressive societies and the teaching techniques used in most schools. He said that students have to be more aware about the world and the significance of the concepts and ideas that were taught them.

However, his ideas have limitations because it seems only applicable to adult literacy education and not in learning environment suited for primary schools. It is therefore important to learn how to navigate between the two streams of thought.

Works Cited Archer, David. “Education for liberation.” Adults Learning 18.9 (2007): 28-29. EBSCO. Web.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006.

Gottesman, Isaac. “Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education.” Educational Studies 46.4 (2010): 376-399. EBSCO. Web.

Roberts, Peter. “Structure, direction and rigour in liberating education.” Oxford Review of Education 22.3 (1996): 295-316. EBSCO. Web.

[supanova_question]

The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh

Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction To comprehend history, a person has to go beyond the timeliness of trade, names and periods of wars and other significant events, for people who make history are the ones who lived it. Hence, Elizabeth Marsh in her book, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh, gives any enthusiastic reader a moving history of colonialism, trade and transnational during the 18th century.

The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh links the story with a universal curve of history and illustrates the forces shaping it. For instance, she illustrates how common belief of royal Morocco and Britain wedged the nature of Marsh internment and the ability of British women to engage native womenfolk as domestic workers underwrote the former achieving broader autonomies in India than back home in their native lands.

Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh Elizabeth was born in 1735 in England to mixed-race parents. During her teenage years, she made extensive travels across the world. Her first trip was to England, her father’s birthplace. According to Colley (2008), her father was a prominent ship carpenter whereas her mother was from Creole ancestry widow. Through these travels, she was enthused by growths than the cosmic popularity of men.

Elizabeth Was betrothed to James Crisp, an apt business person of indeterminate affluences, she used a considerably longer time travelling and living independently. During 1756 on her way to Morocco, a ship she had boarded was attacked by Moroccan seafarers. She was forcefully taken to Marrakesh, and imprisoned by the Sidi Muhammad, the acting Sultan. Elizabeth’s arrest was motivated by political interests. Besides, it appears the element of sexual lust was a determination of the then Sultan, Sidi Mohamed to take her as a hostage.

However, Elizabeth was set free; physically unscathed. However, her honor was compromised, prompting marriage to her fellow expedition colleague. Colley (2008) asserts that, Elizabeth’s details of her involvements made a pioneer woman to write and produce about Maghreb in English. Consequently, she is the first pioneer woman to have made extensive trip in Southern and Eastern India. As a woman of diverse frontiers, she spends much of her life in Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, Menorca and London.

Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled The marriage of Elizabeth was made up of many challenges. Though her husband was a risk taker, this either did not solve anything. Thus, travelling was envisioned as an option to calm her from her marriage. One of the most places she travelled was India. Colley (2008) illustrates that Elizabeth arrived in Madras in 1771 with two children.

Travelling to India was necessitated by various factors. The first was bankruptcy. Her husband’s businesses had gone down hence what they had saved was too little to put up with life. Secondly, Elizabeth loved travelling thus; going to India was a sign of fulfilling her obligations. Lastly, Elizabeth was interested in land deals, India being a British colony, it was easy for her to acquire land and sell it to potential and wealthy buyers from Britain and other interested parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nechtman (2010) alleges that, India was an important region during this time. It was a trading center for British trader’s en-route the Middle East and larger part of Asia. They securely erected go-downs to protect their trading wares. To protect the go-downs, building of forts was enhanced,thus creating armies.

This chapter also made the British to disorganize the already established kingdoms with a view to securing an opportunity for colonization. Thus, this proved possible because the British accrued more power and wealth. The British to improve their security in the region, they trained the local Indians and offered them opportunities in the army.

The British colony also practiced slavery whereby they would seize Indians and forcefully supply them to other British colonies across the world. The slaves worked in rice, sugar and tobacco plantations. Moreover, trading activities in India were centered on East India Company; this was a large scale combined company with offices in India. The ships owned by this company primarily traded in textiles, tea and bullion with Bengal (Nechtman, 2010).

Besides trading activities, this region was a typical British colony. The British acquired raw materials such as cotton, foodstuffs and others and transported them to Britain where they were manufactured and returned back to India for sale. The British enjoyed these valuable undertakings thus they became a formidable power in Asia where they launched physical and economic threat to China during the opium wars. Besides, the senior Indian caste was compelled to embrace British culture and Christian way of life.

Elizabeth was one of the few women pioneers of Europeans descent to arrive in Madrasa. Her husband was an astute businessman who dealt in diverse business interests; however, his businesses slowly began to crumple. Thus, after a mortifying insolvency, there was urgency for a new life in Bengal, India.

In India, life began on a good note, however, along the way, things started to go awry. James Crisp, her husband, got a job with East India Company as a salt agent in 1777 after docking in India (Colley, 2008). He also increased his involvement in illegal business i.e. liquor, dried fish, and maritime trade of tea and anything which could earn money.

James had international business contacts which he and her spouse had overtime gathered during their travels across the world. James was a hard worker and thus in India, by the help of his wife, he strengthened his illegal trade. His business, however, did not last long because of global snags beyond his predictions, hence in 1767, he was a bankrupt man.

We will write a custom Report on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trouble did not forgive him either he was dismissed from his regular employment with East India Company after absconding his workresponsibilities. Marsh recognized the financial constraints they faced were engulfed in and thus to salvage her husband and family financial condition, she cleverly delivered a remark of a senior company official archived in an Indian office Library located in London (Colley, 2008). This was to indicate the notion of racial supremacy.

The note read that “a white European on Indian subcontinent, with no employment”. This was a terrible extremity to Elizabeth and her husband. However, the intervention design Elizabeth does not produce results as her husband dies in 1779 with much debt as asserted by (Colley, 2008).

According to Nechtman (2010), long before her husband death, their marriage had grown apart. This was as a result of exploration nature of Elizabeth. She had on several occasions left him and sort leisurely tours in eastern India with the unmarried men. Marsh’s analogy with the East India Company, and global trade allowed defining new dimension in India and wherever she explored.

Elizabeth highlights a streamlined design of Western supremacy and overseas belligerence. The instantaneous onset of globalization stirring her exploration in India guaranteed her evolution connections thus her philosophies were repetitively fashioned and refracted by the society and actions outside Europe as affirmed by Nechtman (2010).

According to Colley (2008), Elizabeth encompassed romanticism in her journeys across the world. She had a habit of having multiple affairs wherever she travelled. In Asia, Nechtman (2010) asserts that Elizabeth left her husband in Dhaka, and began a long journey in Southern part of India. She toured Palanquin, accompanied with an entourage of more than 40 coolies.

Elizabeth was also accompanied by a cryptic acquaintance with whom she is alleged to be a cousin. But in real sense this man was undoubtedly her lover. Consequently, Elizabeth was a flawed woman. To achieve fame and world recognition, she engaged her daughter in an unhappy marriage. She did less to help end the British illegal trade and slavery while in India. Her travel and exploration of India elucidates embracing the society diversity, geography, gender and class.

Conclusion The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh helps to bring out an amazing re-establishment of the 18th century of woman’s unbelievable and turbulent life. It is not only the history of Elizabeth, but to similar travelers of her time. The book also underwrites the pace in which the world is transforming.

Marsh experiences in places such as India, London, Menorca, Cape Town, Morocco and Gibraltar among the many places she travelled brought about developments in terms of economic, social and political well- being. Moreover, her lifetime led to the creation of new links being established across the countries, continents, empires, slavery, trade and navies; all these developments transformed and distorted her progress towards the people who happened to be close to her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Colley, Linda. The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History, New York: Anchor Books, 2008

Nechtman, Tillman W. Nabobs: Empire and Identity in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010

[supanova_question]

Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management Essay (Article) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Article Summary Written by Kazaz and Serdar, Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms seeks to establish the policies that Turkish construction companies employ in strategic management. The research uses a questionnaire to collect relevant information from the companies. The research established many ideas that professionals need in strategic management.

The researchers define strategic management as the use of systematic approaches to lay down a course that an organization should follow and outlines benefits gained by managers for using it as a management tool. Besides, the researchers touch on crisis and risk management as well as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis and its usefulness in strategic management.

The research also compares construction companies based on planning. Finally, the research endeavors to distinguish between two interrelated management policies: project management and strategic management

Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management The researchers identify crisis and risk management as an important tool in strategic management. The measures managers should take during and after crisis include expenditure reduction; avoidance of credit debts and bank debts after one has paid beyond the interest; “shrinkage through retrenchments, avoidance of new projects and departmental closures; growth control and diversity in business” (Kazaz and Serdar, 192).

The SWOT analysis, which is a summary of key business issues and strategic position of the company, is an important tool for planning future actions.

Private companies are quick in planning since fund releases are quicker, unlike their counterparts in the public sector. For professionals to prosper in their work, they distinguish between project management and strategic management. Project management is a functional strategy that uses projects to implement the strategies while strategic planning involves use of preventive measures to avoid crises.

Works Cited Kazaz, Aynur, and Serdar, Ulubeyli. “Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms.” Journal of Management in Engineering 25.4 (2009):185-193.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

[supanova_question]

Regression analysis Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Types of regression

Simple regression

Multiple regression

Other applications of regression

Introduction Regression analysis refers to a tool that is used in statistics to establish a relationship between variables, two or more. The aforementioned variables are quantitative, and they include the explanatory variable, also known as the independent variable, and the dependent variable. This relationship between the aforementioned variables is usually represented in form of an equation, or it can even be represented graphically.

The function of regression analysis is thus to establish a relationship between the variables using information available about the explanatory variable, and predict values of the dependent variable for decision making. It is therefore apparent that regression analysis is a very useful forecasting tool.

Types of regression There are two main types of regression. These are simple regression and multiple regression. In both simple and multiple regression, a regression model is constructed which is presumed to follow a certain distribution. Therefore, regression models can be developed with linear, exponential, or even logarithmic equations.

Simple regression This is the type of regression in which there is only one dependent variable and one independent variable. That is, the regression relationship is based on only tow variables. In this case, the explanatory variable is the only unknown in the right side of the regression equation. An example of a linear regression model for simple regression is:

Y ^ = bo b1X

Where Y is the dependent variable, X is the explanatory variable, and bo and b1 are constants. The constant bo and b1 are determined by using historical values of X and Y. This gives them values, and therefore, future values of Y can be determined if one has the value of X. To exemplify the applicability of simple regression, consider a case in which population is assumed to have a linear relationship with time. In this case, population can be represented by the variable Y, and time can be represented by the variable X.

Historical values of population can be used to get values for the constants, making predictions of future population possible. If the stated historical values are plotted, bo is given by the y-intercept of the graph, while the constant b1 is given by the gradient of the resultant line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multiple regression Multiple regression is the regression in which there is more than one explanatory variable. An example of a linear regression model for multiple regression is:

Y = bo b1X1 b2X2

Where Y is the dependent variable, X1 and X2 are explanatory variables/predictor variables, and bo, b1 and b2 are constants. The aforementioned constants are determined as in the case of linear regression above, although in multiple regression, multiple predictor variables are used.

An example is a case in which population in a given year is assumed to be predicted by time, and number of births in the previous year. In such a case, Y will be the population, and either X1 or X2 will represent time or number of births in the previous year.

Such a variable, like the year, that make data to change, are known as dummy variables. Another example of a dummy variable is gender. Standard deviation, which is denoted by Syx, is calculated using the historical values of Y and X, and it represents the error of the regression equation, which is measured with a specific confidence level. Theoretically, it is wise to take large samples as they have less error. R 2, known as the true coefficient, is used to check the variability of the sample data with the regression line.

Other applications of regression Regression can be applied in a myriad of other situations. For instance, it is very common in businesses, where business indicators are predicted using business drivers. A good example of this is a case in which the sales of a business enterprise can be predicted using the amount of money invested in advertising. This is just a simple example. A real situation will have the sales volume being predicted by multiple variables by the use of the principles of multiple regression.

[supanova_question]

Death, Loss, and Grieving Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Human Experiences

Grieving Process

Conclusion

References

Introduction Death of a loved one within the family, a distant relative or someone in the society is an irreversible loss that leads to grieving. Due to the diversity of cultural religious beliefs, different people respond uniquely to death, which causes loss and subsequent grieving. Although death has been occurring since the creation of the world, it has confounded the meaning and the purpose of living, and it still scares everybody even today.

Death is a mystery that human beings strive to unravel because; unfortunately no one can predict or control its occurrence in humanity. The death of loved one is a great loss that one can experience in life and it takes the process of grieving to accept the fact that loss has actually occurred.

Attig argues that, “…human experiences of bereavement and grieving … recur throughout our lifetimes and serve as lenses through which we can see many meanings of death, human existence, suffering, the life of the deceased, the life of mourner, and the love” (2004, p.342). Human experiences due to the death and loss of loved ones have different perceptions and responses in the society; nevertheless, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross gave a typical model that explains five stages of grieving.

Human Experiences Death and loss are constant human experiences that people encounter in the course of life. The experiences surrounding death and loss of loved one depend on religious and cultural beliefs, which define the nature of life and death in the society. Without religious and cultural beliefs in the society, the death would still be a remote and mysterious incident that strikes human beings obliviously.

Research findings revealed that there is “…ethnic differences in the character of death attitudes, with American whites reporting greater fears of a protracted and painful dying process, whereas American blacks were more fearful about what transpired after death itself, including fears of being buried alive” (Neimeyer, 2004, p.10). Such disparity in ethnicity and beliefs determines the perception and understanding of death in the society. Death is a scary reality in that people are struggling to deny and run away from it.

Human beings face great challenges in understanding the nature of death and accepting its occurrence. Since death is a mystery that has instilled fears into humanity across all ages, discussions regarding death or news about death are scary for they remind people that they are going to die.

According to Attig, death has diverse meanings and “…an expansion of focus within the field to encompass consciousness of death across the lifespan and to foster a vision of our place in the universe to guide us in facing and integrating the certainty of death” (2004, p. 341). Therefore, expanding death phenomenon for people to understand its psychological intricacies would help humanity to attain meanings of life, suffering, and loss associated with death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When death occurs in the society, there are varied psychological and emotional reactions that the bereaved experience. These responses depend on the cultural and religious assumptions that form part of the grieving process.

Given that there are beliefs and assumptions regarding the process of grieving, Wortman and Silver argue that, “…depression is inevitable following loss; that distress is necessary, and failure to experience it is indicative of pathology; that it is necessary to ‘work through’ or process a loss; and that recovery and resolution are to be expected following loss” (1989, p. 349).

Therefore, for people to accept the reality of death and the loss that occur therein, they must pass through the process of grieving to receive psychological and emotional healing.

Grieving Process Grieving is the process of accepting and acknowledging the reality of death and the loss that has occurred due to death of a loved one in the society. This occurrence is the most crucial process that an individual must undergo for effective resolution of psychological and emotional conflicts associated with the loss.

Attig argues that, “…our lives are woven together with the lives of those we care about and love and we cannot change the event when one of them dies, bereavement challenges us to take constructive action in response” (2004, p.242).

The process of grieving is constructive response that enables the bereaved to come into terms with the loss and accept that the loss is real and irreversible, hence must continue with their normal lives in spite of the challenges. According to Kubler-Ross Model, denial precedes anger before someone enters into bargaining which leads to depression, but finally one accepts the truth and these are the five stages of grief that the bereaved must undergo during the grieving process.

Denying the fact that death of a loved one has occurred is the first stage of grieving that people experience. Friedman and James argue that, “in cases of sudden, unexpected deaths, it’s possible that upon receiving the news, a surviving family member may go into emotional shock, during which time they are in a suspended state, totally removed from events in the real world” (2008, p.39). At this stage, the shocking news of death triggers emotional and psychological responses that throw the bereaved family and friends in a state of disbelief.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the shocking news of death, the bereaved become defensive against reality of death by denying that they have lost the loved one. They perceive that they are in a dream and what they are experiencing is not reality. The experiences of denial and unbelief are short-lived after which reality dawns on the bereaved.

When the reality of death dawns on the bereaved, they become angry about the cause of death; this is the second stage of grieving. At this stage, individuals direct their anger to people who appear to be responsible for the death of their loved one. For example, if death occurred due to accident, the bereaved direct their blame to driver for careless driving, or if death occurred in hospital, they blame the doctors for medical negligence.

Grieving is not a passive response to death as Morrow argues that “…we don’t simply react passively or automatically to death and bereavement, …we engage with the loss, come to terms with our reactions to it, reshape our daily life patterns, and redirect our life stories in the light of what has happened” (2009, p.16). Thus, anger is an active response that tries to attribute and justify the cause of death.

The third stage of grieving involves bargaining where the bereaved consult the Supreme Being to bless the deceased and give them hope and strength to cope with the challenging times ahead.

At this stage, the bereaved come to terms with the reality of death, and since they are helpless about the loss of loved one, they only look upon the Supreme Being for comfort and encouragement. After bargaining, the bereaved enter the stage of depression where they experience loss of concentration, weakness, loss of appetite and irregular sleep patterns.

Wortman and Silver argue that, “it is widely assumed that a period of depression will occur once the person confronts the reality of his or her loss and that the person must ‘work through’ or process what has happened in order to recover successfully” (1989, p.351). In this the stage, resolution of psychological conflicts pertaining to death occurs and proper resolution is critical for healing to be successful.

Acceptance of the loss and reality of death is the fifth and the last stage of grieving. Grievers at this stage have undergone denial, anger, bargaining and depression stages, and have finally realized that death and the loss of loved one is a reality that happens in life. The bereaved at this stage begin to perceive death as part of humanity and develop positive perspective about life, which make them to live normal lives despite the great loss they have suffered.

Concerning acceptance, Attig argues that, “it is about opening ourselves to and making ourselves ready to welcome unexpected possibilities and to pursue meaning down unanticipated pathways” (2004, p.355). Thus, acceptance is about realizing the meaning of death as an inherent part of life that needs endurance as life goes on in the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Death is a mystery that still scares people because no one has ever unraveled its nature and occurrence in the society. Different cultures and religious beliefs have helped people in ascertaining the meaning of life and death, therefore shedding some light to the purpose of life and living. The diversity of beliefs concerning death determines the perception of life and subsequent grieving as a way of defining the nature of life.

Thus, life is very complex because death of the loved ones makes people undergo a long period of grieving in a bid to unravel the mystery of death, which causes irreversible loss. According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, grievers undergo five stage process of grieving in order to attain psychological and emotional healing.

References Attig, T. (2004). Meanings of Death Seen Through The Lens of Grieving. Death Studies, 28, 341-360.

Friedman, R.,

[supanova_question]

Henry David Thoreau Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Henry David Thoreau was born in the year 1817 in Concord Massachusetts where he grew up. He graduated from Harvard University in 1837. Between 1835 and 1836, he was a teacher in Canton a school in Massachusetts. He contracted tuberculosis in 1835 and which finally caused his death in 1862.

David’s writings have contributed a lot to today’s literature. His works provided people with knowledge in some aspects of life, which are still valuable in today’s society. Based on the works that he did, Thoreau should be included in the modern literature. This is because his works are closely related to that of modern writers since he used the same styles that are being applied in today’s writings.

Discussion Thoreau wrote his first book “A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers” in 1849.The book was about a journey he had taken with his brother john from Massachusetts to New Hampshire. Unfortunately, the book failed to sell as he had anticipated and therefore in the end, he remained with many copies, which were a great loss to him both in terms of money used in printing and time he had put in to write.

The journey was divided into eight sections, the concord river and other seven sections showing activities of the week. The first section describes the flora, fauna and the location of the river. In his trip, they made use of a hand made boat, which they had designed. He gave description of the marine and plant life that he had came across in the sea. He carefully thought about matters of religion, nature and poetry.

He compared ancient gods in traditional religion with the modern religion based in the belief of Christ. In his book, he compared eastern and western ways of life. This work is important in modern literature because it makes use of metaphor an important stylistic device in writing modern literary works.

The book is actually not about a journey. The story is used to show changes in aspects such s region, which took place in England because of industrial revolution. Thoreau is against the occurrence of those changes because they contributed to changes in societal values (Thoreau 45).

In 1849, he wrote another essay entitled Civil disobedience. This book is about a particular night in 1849 when Thoreau was taken to jail because of his refusal to tax. He wanted the Mexican war to be ended as well as slavery and that is why he rejected to pay taxes. He taught people and wrote articles about the disadvantages of slavery as well as organizing for the release of then slaves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people were leading desperate lives because of slavery. He praised himself for being able to stand against negative changes in his life. One of his principles was that, individuals should reject the desires of the government if they are against their own desires. According to him, people should follow their interests.

His message inspired Mahatma Gandhi who mobilized Indians to fight against the Britain population, which had already occupied their land forcefully. Ideas of this book are still important in modern literature because they acted as an inspiration to the people, that they should not allow the government to oppress them. If people do not agree with the policies that the government passes, they should feel free to demonstrate.

The book teaches about individuals rights. Issues like high taxation rates and slavery should be abolished in societies. In addition to this, people should be ready to achieve their rights under whatever situation. Being jailed did not stop Thoreau since he did not surrender. Through his writings and teachings, his ideas influenced people. In them it way, works of modern literature should contain information, which passes important ideas to the people (Thoreau 145).

Walden an American book written by Thoreau was about declaration of his personal independence, the experiments that he did and spiritual discovery journey. The use of irony as a stylistic device is common in this book. The book contains his details over 2 years, between1845 and 1847.

He stayed alone in a cabin, which he had constructed near a Walden Pond in Concord owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson his friend and a teacher. He did not want to seclude himself from other people because he was oftenly visited and he too visited them. What he wanted was to isolate himself to get a better chance of learning and understanding the society. He wanted to live a simple life and be in a position to satisfy his own needs. He took two years, two, months and two days staying in a simple house (Thoreau 90).

He wanted to demonstrate the importance of living a simple life. He was in a position to cater for the four basic needs including food, clothing, shelter and fuel through the help of friends. Mr. Ralph and his wife employed him, which made it possible for him to build a small house.

He also planted crops in a small garden he had cleared. He managed his income well and he was in a position to cater for his expenses. This book is helpful for societies and people who do like the idea of civilization. Civilization involves adoption of modern changes (Krutch 60).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Henry David Thoreau specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example in the civilized nations, traditional religious systems have been replaced by modern religions like Christianity. Thoreau was very ironical because there is no way, in which he could have learned about the society, and yet he was living alone. In order to learn the society well, he should have stayed closely with the society he intended to study and interacted with people. Staying alone makes it hard for him to be self-sufficient.

He has to be assisted in some issues by other people. On the contrary, Thoreau disagrees with the notion that poverty makes people inferior. Poor people should make use of available resources, which will boost them economically. One does not need to be employed to be in a position to get his basic needs. This work is important in modern literature where unemployment cases are high. It is not a must that people get employed since self-employment is very useful in modern societies (Thoreau 106).

The Bedford hand written by Diana Hacker provides literature writers with the knowledge in writing good grammar in essays, citing documents and analyzing texts. The book is divided into several where samples of essays are given. The book contains samples of essays, which make use of the main citation styles in writing. These include MLA, APA, and Chicago. This book is of help in essay writing as it teaches people on good use of grammatical words.

For example, where and when to use “a” which is usually confused with the article “an’”, the first section teaches about the processes of writing. It highlights the process of exploring a topic effectively and creating a draft before the final, presentation of work. It is also about composition of good sentences and paragraphs. The design of the document depends on the style it uses. For example, the format of a letter is different from that of a resume. Ideas on how to write different essays are clearly elaborated.

Sentence structure is very important in writing (Krutch 66). For example, different ideas are joined together with a conjunction. Sentences should be neither too long nor too short. Phrases should be used properly in a sentence so as not to lose the meaning of the sentence. The largest part of the book is covered by grammatical usage in sentences. Verbs and pronouns, conjunctions should be properly used in a sentence.

The subject should agree with the verb in a good structured sentence .Other important sections include proper use of abbreviations, punctuation, numbers and capital letters. Knowledge of writing argumentative papers as well as evaluating arguments is conveyed in the book. Finally, the book has examples of citing articles, magazines and books in APA, MLA and Chicago (Hacker and Sommers 25).

Conclusion This book is very useful in writing modern literary works. Henry David Thoreau based his works on the above aspects. This made his works influential and famous. Based on the principles he used in writing, he should be included in the modern literary canon. Most of these topics are in use in the modern world. His works are interesting and they carry with them meaningful information just like any other literary work (Hacker and Sommers 25;Krutch 66).

Works Cited Hacker, Diana and Sommers, Nancy. The Bedford handbook. London: Bedford Books, 1998.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Henry David Thoreau by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Krutch, Wood. The modern temper: A study and a confession. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956.

Thoreau, David. Civil disobedience. Washington: Hayes Barton Press, 1964.

Thoreau, David. Walden. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1854.

Thoreau, David. A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers. London: Ticknor and Fields, 1868.

[supanova_question]

The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas Essay best college essay help

Communication plays an important role in people’s lives. For instance, Japanese people who suffered from the quake were terrified because they felt isolated without any communication (Fackler 2011, p.A11). Reportedly, people who were deprived of electronic means of communication relied on such means as announcements from loudspeakers, or sirens.

Admittedly, verbal and non-verbal communication is essential for every individual. It goes without saying that every situation requires specific ways of communication, otherwise the major aim of communication will not be achieved. Thus, even informal private communication should be effective, and this can be achieved if the major principles of effective communication are taken into account.

In the first place, it is necessary to point out the major communication objective. Basically, communication objectives “include the effective exchange of ideas and opinions” (Tonn 2010). People are sharing ideas in the workplace and in their personal life. For instance, the conversation between David Carr and A.O. Scott who commented upon Oscars ceremony can be regarded as a private conversation (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The interlocutors feel free.

It is important to note that both of them pertain to one culture (they are Americans) which simplifies their communication since no cultural barriers exist between them. In fact, culture plays a very important role in communication since culture shapes individuals’ values and beliefs which influence greatly people’s behavior, which in its turn is essential when communicating.

Witsel (2009, p. 170) also stresses that cultural differences influence the effectiveness of communication greatly and it is essential to take into account these cultural peculiarities when sending and receiving messages. The present conversation is free from issues concerning cultural differences.

The communication between Carr and Scott is effective since the interlocutors manage to share their ideas. They send their messages waiting for the feedback, and they get the feedback since the interlocutor is an active listener. Both, Carr and Scott, support or refute arguments of each other, which is a very effective technique when communicating (Ulrich 2009, p.583). It is necessary to point out that sometimes the interlocutors interrupt each other, so certain barriers or, so-called noise appear.

They do not listen to the speaker attentively because they start talking and articulating their ideas (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The noise can lead to miscomprehension and it can also lead to less effective communication (Witsel 2009, p.135). However, there are only two cases of interruption, so it does not prevent interlocutors from communicating their ideas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present dialogue is a valuable example of the significance of non-verbal communication. For instance, the interlocutors use illustrators, “gestures that go along with” speech (Witsel 2009, p.170).

Carr and Scott laugh and nod, they make direct eye contact and these non-verbal means of communication (which are “very positive messages in US culture”) create a friendly atmosphere which is favorable for communication (Witsel 2009, p.163). Thus, it is possible to state that the dialogue can be characterized by effective communication since the interlocutors share their ideas on certain topic in a friendly atmosphere.

In my opinion, the dialogue is effective because the interlocutors had an idea about certain peculiarities of effective communication. It does not necessarily mean that they were studying those effective means of communication, but the majority of verbal and non-verbal means they used are determined by culture.

Thus, as far as non-verbal communication is concerned, smiles, nods and laugh are signs of active listening in American culture. Both speakers make use of these non-verbal means. As for verbal communication the interlocutors conveyed their ideas in explicit way so that their receiver could easily understand the message and provide his feedback.

It is necessary to point out that the work of Witsel (2009) was a very valuable source of knowledge which enabled me to learn about communication theories and, what is more important about their application in the real life.

For example, found out about the importance of paying attention to such four factors as feedback, channel, type of communication, language source (Witsel 2009, p.135). The right choice of each element is beneficial for reaching the major aim of communication. Thus, it is essential not to confuse formal or informal communication since every type has certain rules to follow.

Nevertheless, I believe that information about non-verbal communication, revealed in Witsel’s work (2009) was of primary importance for me. I acknowledged that this type of communication plays a very important (and sometimes crucial) role when sharing ideas. Many non-verbal signs can lead to misunderstanding and failing communication.

We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, I now understand that before communication your ideas to some person or people it is essential to find out more about their cultural background. This is extremely important in the modern globalized world.

In conclusion, it is necessary to point out that communication theories help understand the major principles of communication and what is more important to reach communication aims. For instance, analyzing an example of informal conversation between two Americans, it is possible to identify the main principles of effective communication.

The example is quite valuable in terms of communication analysis since the dialogue reveals effective means of communicating ideas, used by the interlocutors and their drawbacks. Basically, I learnt much about verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Now I should admit that non-verbal communication have become essential in the modern globalized world since people from different countries should share ideas effectively and cultural differences can negatively influence communication.

Reference List Fackler, M 2011, “Quake Area Residents Turn to Old Means of Communication to Keep Informed”, The New York Times, 28 Mar. 2011, p. A11.

Oscars: Youthful Audience. The New York Times Video, video, The New York Times, .

Tonn, VL 2010, “Meanings, Images of Interpersonal Communication, and The Iching.” China Media Research vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 94-103, Expanded Academic ASAP.

Ulrich, B 2009, “Engaging in Crucial Conversations.” Nephrology Nursing Journal vol.35, iss.6 (2009): 583. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web.

Witsel, M (ed.) 2009, Communication in Organisations, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

[supanova_question]

George Orwell’s 1984: Winston custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Winston and Julia’s Relationship

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) is a compelling novel regarding science fiction in the twentieth century. It is written by George Orwell, a renowned writer, and reflects on various aspects of the society at that time. It outlines some elements of how the state could use its power to dominate or influence the lives of people primarily through the aspect of cultural conditioning as the Party can manipulate and control the people through totalitarianism policies.

This can be seen clearly by how Winston Smith’s personality is manipulated to the extent that he is not only integrated into the Party’s image but also comes to adore Big Brother though involuntarily. According to the author, the novel is intended to enlighten society on the kind of society they should desire. This critical essay gives an insight into Winston and Julia’s relationship and its credibility.

Winston Smith and Julia’s Relationship Winston Smith belonged to the outside Party from Oceania, which represented America and England in reality. He, for an extended period, kept his feelings to himself until the latter due to fear of being punished as the state was ruthless. His rebellion against Big Brother results in his arrest and mistreatment. Julia, on the other hand, is a young, beautiful, and strong woman, a kind which does not in any way attract or interest Winston, and this makes him hate her so much.

However, Julia seems interested in Winston through her acts. At the end of it all, we find Winston and Julia being in love , though they were quite different regarding various aspects of life, most specifically the intellectual capabilities, although they were both rebellious of the Party. Their reasoning, perspectives, and inspirations were entirely parallel due to some differences in age, among other factors.

For example, Winston thought of how the future generations could have a much better life free from the influence of the Party as it was before the Party took over leadership, but Julia could not think of this since she did not know of life before the Party. Julia’s reasons for rebelling against Big Brother were different. She was rebellious just for the sake of being against the Party but nothing much. Their love story started in a very peculiar manner where Julia falls, and Winston offers to assist her just as he would do to any other person.

It was at this moment that Julia gets the advantage of airing what she had longed for a considerable time by giving him a note in which she had written that she loved him. Although Winston had been unreceptive towards women and particularly Julia, he was touched by the words in the note, and their love affair kicked off, although they kept the affair secret for a long time (Brodeur and Orwell 1995).

The love relationship between Winston and Julia in 1984 does not seem genuine and credible due to the circumstances that surround it. There appear that there is no complete love between them, and there is a lack of emotional connection, although they both have the desire to love one another, as one can see through their desire to stay together.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Winston and Julia being in love was founded much on the idea of companionship, absent in the Party’s society, rather than love. The political act of rebellion was the foundation of their affair, and passionate love was lacking.

The existence of the common idea of being against the Party is also a contributing factor towards their togetherness as they can easily confide in each other in their struggle to rebel against the Party and in so doing, avoid being lonely. The love relationship between Julia and Winston did not go far, and they eventually departed as they both betrayed each other, which could have been avoided if they truly loved one another.

They could even end up marrying each other (Katifer 2008). Winston Smith and Julia’s relationship is a good one and makes the novel fulfill its purpose. In the relationship, Julia teaches Winston the idea of love, and the love feeling is then manipulated and directed towards Big Brother.

The connection also brings out the human nature where there is usually a mixture of love, relationship, and betrayal. Loyalty and commitment are aspects that can be linked to the relationship between them, and this differentiates Winston and Julia’s relationship from those that have been influenced by the totalitarian state that was in power during their timeline (Amadae 2003).

Conclusion Winston Smith and Julia are the main characters of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The plot of the novel, aimed to demonstrate large-scale social contradictions, unfolds around a private story of Winston and Julia’s relationship. The essay makes an analysis of the credibility of this relationship. It is questionable due to the basis on which it is founded. Political rebellion is, however, clearly shown through their relationship, and the society at that time is well depicted. We find the two actors betraying each other even with the knowledge that their staying together would play a significant role in freeing themselves from Big Brother hence proving their rationale.

Reference List Amadae, S. M, 2003. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. The USA, University of Chicago Press.

Brodeur, K, and Orwell, G. 1995. George Orwell’s 1984. USA, Research

[supanova_question]

Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

“Is Iago purely evil, or is Othello incredibly gullible? How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting?”

Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragic play written at around 1603 by William Shakespeare, which addresses the encounters of Othello, the protagonist. Othello is a Venetian military general and who falls prey of Iago’s devious schemes, which are triggered by jealousy, deceit and quest for power (Hundley 4).

Shakespeare’s Iago is amoral character who drafts devious plans to lure others into his vengeance mission. Equivocally, I ago is a significant character who participates greatly in Othello’s misfortune. He is also accountable for Emilia, Roderigo and protagonist deaths. He contributes to plot development in the play in that he relates to other characters significantly.

His most important role is to accomplish the tragedy of Othello, which brings out the themes of hatred, envy and vengeance. In addition, he distinguishes Othello’s character and that of Desdemona to expose dramatic irony for the audience to be occupied (Kolin 8).

Is Iago purely evil? Yes. His inherent evilness is seen when Iago makes friends to hate each other by taking advantage of their trust toward him. To attain his mission, he uses their worries and anxieties to “make the net that shall emesh them all” (Shakespeare II. iii. 321-2). His evil motives are mostly a soliloquy that are never attained and becomes forgotten entirely. His scheme is initiated when he desires Cassio’s position of lieutenancy, which he wanted to be his.

He is envious of him and claims that he deserves and will fit into that position. Therefore, he plots a scheme to deceive, rob and eventually kill Cassio to fit in his lieutenant position. He aspires to replace Cassio’s work as a lieutenant by taking advantage of Desdemona’s naivety. He dishonors Cassio by inciting him to finish Roderigo and free him the lieutenant position when he states that “Cassio, I love thee, But nevermore be officer of mine” (Shakespeare II.iii.242-244). As a result Cassio was become unaware of the outcome.

Iago’s devious plans persist when he tactfully makes Othello to believe that his wife, Desdemona, is cheating on him with Cassio even without any evidence to show for it. Iago accomplishes this mission by ensuring that Othello’s thoughts concentrates on the fact that he is being cheated on, an aspect that leads to his tragedy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Othello instead fall into his scheme and his furry makes him hate his wife whom she doesn’t believe. Significantly, Iago awards Othello with the evil thought that he could kill his wife Desdemona, which will accomplish Iago’s vengeance mission (Hankey 5).

His devious plan is manifested when he claims that Iago had had an affair with Emilia, Iago’s life. To ascertain this fact, Othello points out that “And it is thought abroad that t’wixt my sheets/ He’s done my office” I know not if’t be true/ But I, for mere suspicion in that kind; / Will do as if for surety”(Shakespeare I.iii.381-385). Iago’s paranoia is tremendous to an extent that his insanity is portrayed when he deludes Othello to kill his own wife.

As if that is not enough, Iago robs his friend Roderigo. He uses the funds awarded to him by Roderigo to entice Desdemona. On noticing that Iago kept the money for himself, Roderigo makes threats to Iago and becomes furious about his actions. Unexpectedly, when Roderigo is informed of the scheme to entice Desdemona, his mind is eroded to forget about the money and instead, kill Cassio, whom Iago is envious of and is supposedly having an affair with Desdemona (Hankey 8).

These instances show that Iago has no conscious and therefore amoral, as depicted through his actions. He is deceptive to his wife and friends, which emphasize his evilness. He is tactful in carrying out his schemes, which however portrays his diabolical capability allowing him to erode his friends and his fife’s thoughts.

His intellectual ability is astonishing to the reader since he achieves and gets away with his devious schemes. He is able to win over other’s thoughts by targeting their desires through twisting, playing and eventually brainwashing their psychological power. These instances clearly portray Iago as having no conscience therefore, purely evil (Hundley 5).

Is Othello incredibly gullible? Yes. Othello on the other hand is a gullible character unlike Iago, who falls into the trap of Iago and falls into prey of his evil tactics. Othello’s character is dynamic having been a villain in the beginning and.

His jealousness is exposed after Iago deceives him to become vengeful and kill his wife. Othello angrily point out that “`Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her, damn her! Come go with me part. I will withdraw To furnish me with some swift means of death. For the fair devil. Now are the my lieutenant’” (Shakespeare I. iii. 122).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This susceptibility and jealousness causes his tragedy. Othello’s weaknesses is exposed by the allegedly wife’s infidelity which he takes as being unclean and disgusting. This is because he observes sex as a unifying force which bloats his paranoia. Iago’s quest to become powerful is manifest as he pursues to destroy Othello who is a Venetian military general since he is envious of his status. Iago in disbelieve wonders how easy it is to brainwash Othello and even appreciates how easy it was to do so (Kolin 203).

How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting? To start with, Othello falls short of knowledge on brewing power and is therefore doomed to fail. He is in the military as a general and therefore has authority over war such as the Turkish fleet, an aspect which should be reflected in his life but fails to (Vaughan 35).

Othello’s faults indicate that his tragic end is justifiable although he did not deserve it. Being a ‘god of war’ he should have done better than having his several flaws dictates his tragic end. By doing this Shakespeare achieves the reader’s sympathy towards the protagonist.

In addition, Othello lives in his own world since he has distinct race and culture since he is not conversant with traditions in Venetian women and even marries Desdemona irrespective of her father’s disapproval. Besides, He takes women as being holy or as being filthy based on their degree of fidelity. His naivety is reflected as he does not believe his wife since he has witnessed her deceive her father before, a deception that she allegedly transfers to the matrimonial bed.

Moreover, Othello has immature communication skills leave alone his expression of personal thoughts, aspects which exaggerate his inadequacy. He says to Brabantio and Duke that “Rude am I in my speech and little blessed with the soft phrase of peace (Shakespeare 1.ll. 81-82)….. And little of this great world can I speak, More than pertains to feats of broil and battle (Shakespeare 1. ll. 86-87).

He uses violence instead of persuasion when addressing women and murders his wife for a single unproved reason of infidelity. This indicate Othello is unable to multitask and has no flexibility of reason as he trusts Iago, since he has proven to be sincere and friendly as well as being loyal to Emilia His wife.

He does not conduct introspection to evaluate his inner self but believes Iago’s incitement and insinuations blindly, becomes emotional, which leads to his irrational thinking. His gullibility ignites jealous which overwhelms him and controls his actions. Eventually, Iago accomplishes his evil schemes of destroying Othello and his wife who were deeply in love.

In conclusion, Othello’s imperfections justifies his tragic end an aspect that Shakespeare implants in the reader to depict that Othello and his like are not the best people to lead the world due to their inherent imperfections. Although he defends the residents of Venice in war, through his victories and abilities, he emerges a tragic hero since he lacks a sound reason and falls into Iago’s plot. This guilt haunts him and ultimately drives him to commit suicide as he sees it as a means of sacrifice to pay for the death of his beloved wife.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Iago’s quest for power, vengeance is accelerated by jealousy and this does not benefit him in any way. As a result, Intellectual power is necessary to enable one to have a rational and an independent thought before carrying out an action. Othello’s predicament awards sympathy to the reader, which appears more real than fiction (Vaughan 5). Therefore, Iago is purely evil while Othello incredibly gullible since he falls prey of Iago’s devious plot.

Works Cited Hankey, Julie. Othello. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2005. Print.

Hundley, Sterling. Othello. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 2005. Print.

Kolin, Phillip. Othello: New Critical Essays. New York: Routledge. 2002. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Othello: By William Shakespeare. New York: MobileReference. 2008. Print.

Vaughan, Virginia. Othello: A Contextual History. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1996. Print.

[supanova_question]

Knowledge as perception or opinion Essay online essay help

Socrates was a Greek Athenian philosopher who was known for his contribution to western philosophy. His students, Xenophon and Plato, accounted for most of his work in some of their dialogues and writings.

He is credited for his contributions in ethics. In the dialogue, ‘Theaetetus’, Socrates gets into a serious discussion with a student of Protagoras on knowledge. A similar discussion is witnessed in Russell’s book ‘The Problem of Philosophy’. Protagoras defines his statement that ‘man is the measure of all things’ by arguing that truth is relative and depends on an individual.

To illustrate this he gives an example of a blowing wind where an individual can only feel the warmth in the wind if he or she has a temperature which is lower than that of the wind and vice versa (Burnyeat , 12). Similarly he uses this argument to defend his opinion on knowledge. According to Theaetetus, knowledge is perception, an opinion that is disputed by Socrates. Socrates puts it clear that knowledge is an opinion that is beyond stimulation of the senses.

Theaetetus, being a student of Protagoras, must have shared the same definition of knowledge with Protagoras. At the same time the theory of Protagoras has implications of perception being true. A large part of the conversation is about setting up definitions of knowledge and science.

The conversations move from lower to higher stages with three main clear issues of discussion. These issues are reasoning, opinion and perception and they are thoroughly examined. Socrates first removes the doubt and confusion that exists between types of knowledge and the idea of knowledge. Theaetetus defines knowledge by giving an example of knowledge. This quickly finds rejection by Socrates with the argument that it is not sufficient enough to define something by giving an example of that thing

He compares two sensations and argues that this has implications of a higher principle beyond knowledge. This principle resides in the mind meaning that knowledge is a true opinion. It is possible for an individual to be able to sense something that he or she does not know. While at the same time one can have the knowledge of something that he or she cannot feel or sense in any way.

For instance, according to Socrates’ arguments, you can know that a friend or anybody you recognize is standing next to you when you see them there. If you close your eyes immediately you cannot see them but you are able to know that they are still there meaning that knowledge is a mere opinion that is viable and true at the same time it is beyond sensation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Socrates expounds further on his position by asking Theaetetus if it is true that whenever we see or hear things we already know them. It is impossible to assume that someone can know a foreign language he has never heard before by hearing somebody else speaking it. Yes it is true that it is possible to hear the words but one cannot know what is being said (Burnyeat , 162b).

Socrates clearly disputes the definition of knowledge as perception. Since perception is as a result of stimulation of the senses, and the senses only give us the appearance of objects not there reality (Russell , 7), then it is wrong to consider perception to define knowledge. Similarly knowledge cannot be derived from our daily experiences because we experience through perception and feelings.

But however it has been agreed that experience to some sense can derive knowledge and at the same time, perception is not only the sensory stimulation or awareness of things (Russell , 4). Sometimes we could perceive divine things. There are several deceptions that can come as result of perception.

Russell in his book uses an example of a table and critically analyzes it in terms of the change in appearance as a result of change in condition. If the lighting condition is changed, the table changes its color. This creates distrust in what our perception, in this case the eye, tells us. All these changes in appearance with changes in condition may claim to be the reality. So we are uncertain of what exactly is real.

Protagoras explains knowledge as perception and expresses it alternatively as man being the measure of things meaning that all men judge what is. Knowledge depends with the individual and he explains his definition with an illustration of a cold wind that blows on an individual’s face.

The difference in perception of the coldness of the wind depends with the internal temperature of the individual. If Protagoras admits that all opinion judged by man to be true then any opinion against his own is also true. But however Socrates refuses to agree that the opinion of Protagoras to be true

He disputes the claim by saying that the word ‘is’ used in this statement implies ‘appears’ and ‘appears’ implies feeling. It is incorrect to refer to perception, appearance and feeling as being. Being is a phenomenon that exists beyond the natural sensation.

We will write a custom Essay on Knowledge as perception or opinion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It involves the mental and mind and knowledge is more than perception meaning there is no way that we could have a true opinion by relying on our feelings. We can only perceive using one means or instrument at a time. We cannot use our ears to see a color neither can we use our eyes to hear any sound. Perception is limited to the power used for perceiving but knowledge is beyond these instruments of perceiving.

The only sure thing that we can know we know is nothing, according to Socrates. He says that his wisdom is limited by his ignorance. He was of the opinion that wrong doing is as a result of ignorance and the people who do wrong are only doing it from ignorance. Personally such an opinion is incorrect.

Every action of human beings is not as a result of ignorance but choice. People make choice to do what they want whether wrong or good. Wrong actions are defined wrong because they are deficient of love. According to Socrates love seems to be that one thing that he consistently knows. He refers to love as the concept of loving wisdom. Socrates loved wisdom because he linked wisdom to philosophy.

Still on the dialogue of Protagoras, Socrates explains that all is motion and motions takes part in two forms: passion and action. From these two forms, infinite concepts and ideas are created and sense is given birth. The eye is designed to sense whiteness while objects are filled with the sense of whiteness.

The object gives birth to sensation of whiteness while the eye gives birth to whiteness. There is no other element that can produce a similar effect meaning that things are not, but instead they become. Hence there is no name that can really define something.

Socrates never used to refer to himself as a wise man in fact he says that he has no wisdom of his own and he is only offering the wisdom of men. His intention in the dialogue is to deliver Theodorus and Theaetetus of something. Personally, his explanation on the falseness of perception is very true and has a strong ground. Madness and dreaming are cases where perception does not hold. We spend a huge part of our lives a sleep and dreaming.

Dreaming not only occurs when we sleep but it is possible to day dream in full consciousness. It is also not verifiable if at this very instant we are dreaming or not dreaming. Mad men when they fantasize, do they having a true opinion or false opinion? There are different perceptions produced in every patient. Socrates explains this by illustrating that he may be sick or well. When he drinks his favorite wine when sick, it tastes different from the moment he drinks the wine when he is well. It actually tastes better when he is well.

To criticize Socrates’ arguments, it seems that he relies mostly on dispute rather than reason to put across his points. He seems to be attempting to trip opinions that he does not agree with. He fails to recognize that dispute and reasoning are not the same thing and there is a distinction between the tow.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Knowledge as perception or opinion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With reasoning, some one makes an effort to understand an opinion before beginning to identify errors made in that argument. Most of his explanations to dispute Protagoras were based on one aspect of sensation which is the sense of sight. Other critics of Socrates identified him as not as a proponent of philosophy but some one with bad intentions of undermining the society of Athens.

Socrates also had some good virtues that personally I tend to identify with. He believed that people should spend more time trying to develop their lives rather than accumulating material wealth which is absolutely useless. He always encouraged people to be focused on building friendship and truth in their communities. He ended up becoming a philosophical martyr because of sticking to his believes. In most of his teachings, he emphasized that virtue is the most expensive of everything.

Works Cited Burnyeat, Myles. The Teaetetus of Plato. Trans. Jane Levett. Hackett: Indianapolis, 1990.

Russell, Bertrand. The Problem of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press, 1912.

[supanova_question]

“Never Marry a Mexican”: Theme Analysis cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents How It Began

Sandra Cisneros: “Never Marry a Mexican” History of Creation

Long Way to the Insight

“Never Marry a Mexican”: Summary

Negative Mexican Stereotypes and Consequences

Never Marry a Mexican: Analysis

Critics’ Assessments

Conclusion

References

Sandra Cisneros’s women reflect the Mexican immigrant’s struggle to assimilate the parts of themselves that negative cultural stereotypes have taught them to hate. “Never Marry a Mexican” analysis shall be provided in this paper.

How It Began In 1954 author Sandra Cisneros was born in a low-income family of seven children, based in Chicago, Illinois. Her mother was Mexican American, and her father, a full Mexican. Cisneros grew up the only girl among six brothers and has described this experience as “being similar to having seven fathers” (Yudin

[supanova_question]

Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Gay Marriage

Statistics

The origin of a Marriage Institution

Improper Family Set up

The Need for Correction

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The issue of gay marriages and gay institutions has attracted much attention and arguments with each passing day strengthening and intensifying the arguments.With modernity and civilisation creeping in to the contemporary society,the current stance seems to be taking a new perspective.

Should we or should we not allow gay marriages as civil unions? This is the question that many people would like to get an answer for. This essay gives an argumentative approach to this question by discussing the current stance on the issue as well as reasons as to why gay marriages and unions should never be legalized.

Gay Marriage Gay marriage refers to the marital union between two males. Traditionally, the marriage institution consisted of only heterosexual unions but things have changed and with modernity and civilisation the issue of what constitutes a marriage has been questioned as more people strive to have the interpretation allow for marriage between people of the same sex.This issue carriesa lot of weight and significance in the society.

Statistics Diverse societies all over the world take this issue differently with some societies opting to fully support gay marriages as civil unions.Others have decided to remain neutral while others have taken a strong stand against the issue. A recent report by NCSL indicated the diversity of the issue of gay marriages and unions. The report presented the following conclusions:

States which license gay marriages areMassachusetts, Connecticut, California, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, District of Columbia; states which acknowledge gay unions include Rhode Island, New York, Maryland; states which support gaycivil unions include Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey; states which allow full spousal rights to domestic gay partnerships include California, Oregon, Nevada, Washington and states which allow limited spousal rights to domestic gay partnershipsinclude Hawaii, Maine, District of Columbia, Wisconsin. (NCSL 1)

These statistics are a clear indicator of what the society thinks about gay marriages and unions.It may be justified to respect the thoughts and feelings of other people based on the fact that we are all different and we view issues from different perspectives.A critical look at all the facts and perspectives of the marriage institution makes it apparent that gay marriage legalizationneed to be questioned or better still be discouraged and banned altogether.

The origin of a Marriage Institution The first question that we need to ask ourselves is, where exactly did marriage institution begin? Come to think of it, all the theories of creation, be it evolution or creation all depend on the structure of heterosexual relationships. Evolution would not have brought us to where we are withoutheterosexual concept.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creation theory from all religions and cultures began with male and female including animal and the plant kingdoms and through heterosexual relationships the world came to be what it is today. Why did creation or revolution not start with two men or two women? Glenn put it straight and strongly opposes this opinion (Glenn 4). The answer is simple; nature does not recognize gay marriages or unions, a fact indicating how unnatural gay marriages are and why they should never be legalized.

Do gay marriage supporters fully support the whole idea? Surprisingly they don’t. Suppose we all woke up one day and agreed in unison that all people get into gay marriages. Definitely that would mark the end of mankind and that is why gay marriage supporters want to have adoption rights; to adopt children from those who obey natural laws of nature or have multi sexual relationships.

Dulle has a strong argument against homosexual relationships “homosexual ‘families’ of whatever type are always and necessarily parasitic on heterosexual ones” (Dulle 1). And since they are parasitic, who would certainly want to be the victim of such parasitism? Definitely not me, and that is the reason why I will not support such parasitic gay unions (Dulle 1).

Improper Family Set up Imagine yourself being brought up in a gay set up where both parents are men.Seeing other kids cling passionately with love to their sweet mothers while all you have is two men in your life. How would you go through puberty and adolescent issues as a girl without having a natural motherly love to lean on during those trying moments?

The fact is that it would be a traumatic experience for children to grow up in such a family set up. It is argued that“the marital family is also the foremost setting for the education and socialization of children; children learn about the world and their place in it primarily from those who raise them” (Dulle 1). This is one big reason anyone should agree with me as to why gay marriages should never be legalized.

Proponents argue that the society defines marriage and as such its definition should change with the changes with time. What is wrong with such an argument? Logically speaking marriage is not defined by the societybut rather acknowledged as the basic building block of the society.

Marriageought to build a family intofamilies and the families in turn make a society. That is the reason why cultures, religions and legal structures do not recognize gay relationships. Ever seen a building made of stones alone or cement alone? Society made of men alone or women alone would not certainly be the best for you and that’s the reason why gay institutions should not be legalized (Newton 50).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is argued that legalizing the act will only bring to light what is usually done in the darkness. But does legalization make things right? I don’t think so. Just because you can now eat ash doesn’t make ash a new wonderful type of a delicacy. Ash will still remain ash however legal it might be and it will never benefit the body.

Likewise legalizing gay marriages will never make them right and on contrary it will only make matters worse by opening up avenues for experimentation which is so detrimental for the well-being of any society. Legal systems are societal protective mechanisms against any threats to its existence by encouraging good ethical behaviors and discouraging potential unethical behaviors such as gay marriages. That is the reason why legal systems should desist from supporting gay relationships (Newton 51).

Proponents argue that gay marriages promotes faithfulness by fulfilling ones desires the best way one may see appropriate. But we all have our own desires to do things some of which are not moral. It then becomes a moral question, whereby we have to exercise high degree of self-control for moral purposes.

If we allow gay marriages because they have that kind of sexual orientation then we should as well allow man animal,grownups versus children, brother sister marriages or more still legalize things that we feel in ourselves as good to us irrespective of whether they harm the society or not. We all have feelings some of which might not be the best for the social fabric but we suppress them and we still remain human and happy. To make the point even clear, the legal system ensures that we stick to that which is moral.

Hargrave shared the same sentiments “I don’t deny the reality of those desires, or their strength – heterosexuals feel them as well;for the social good, they should either control their desires, or satisfy them discreetly” (Hargrave 1). From this argument gay marriages then depict weakness and lack of goodwill to exercise self-control at least for the sake of respect of nature. You agree with me that legal systems should help them exercise self-control just like the rest of us by prohibiting gay unions.

The Need for Correction Proponents of gay marriages claim that gay people are born that way and that it is genetically entrenched in them. Research done to find proof of this claims concluded there is no such gene. To make it clear we all know there is no gene for killing, stealing, bestiality, pedophiles, rapists let alone gay people.

Same sex attraction is not genetic but rather a social behavior which according to Hargrave “is the behavior of persons with child and adolescent Gender Identity Disorder” (Hargrave 1).If a child develops rickets,it is not because of her own making or genetics do we then satisfy her need for quality life by implementing rickets sports and rickets lifestyle? Certainly not but on the contrary control the rickets and make the society rickets free. The same argument applies to gay people.

By understanding the root cause of this contentious issue and finding a permanent cure would be a celebrated achievement rather than trying effortlessly to accommodate this unnatural, unethical and uncultured behavior that we ourselves as a society have created by poor upbringing of our kids.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been argued that prevention is better than cure and as such we should never legalize gay marriages instead use the energy resources to treat the root cause by of course letting our children grow in the best society possible. It is evident that by a gay union cannot make up a family.

Gay marriages by default cannot have children that can be claimed to belong to the family biologically. As argued from above therefore such kind of marriages cannot sustain a society. It is worth noting that if suchkinds of practices are allowed to take gain strength in the society then there is a likelihood that after some considerate period of time the society will likely be affected with an issue of under population.

Conclusion Much debate, campaigns and arguments have taken sides. A closer look indicates that the society is divided across the board on whether to agree or disagree and to what extent. By a critical look at the issue and calculated argumentative thought it has become clear that gay marriage and unions should be phased out of the society and such acts should never be legalized.

Some of the reasons that were evident in the arguments were that gay relationships are against laws of nature, gay institutions are unnatural and parasitic hence only work to complicate family institution and furthermore gay marriage institutions were never the plan of God, nature or even evolution. Root cause of gay affiliations hasbeen attributed to adolescent gender identity disorder which needs to be addressed. These and other facts clearly validate the argument why gay marriage and gay unions should never be legalized.

Works Cited Dulle, Jason. An Argument against Same-Sex Marriage. Plain Site,2011. Web.

Glenn, Stanton. Marriage on Trial: The Case Against Same-sex Marriage and Parenting. London, U.K., 2010. Print.

Hargrave, Joe. A Secular Argument against Gay Marriage. American Catholic, 2010. Web.

NCSL. Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships. NCSL, 2011. Web.

Newton, David. Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. New York, NY: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.

[supanova_question]