Chinese Restaurant In Oregon Essay Essay Help

Business idea This project proposal proposes a business plan, which entails opening a restaurant offering Chinese foods and beverages. The proposed name is for the hotel is Guanxi China Cuisine Restaurant, Guanxi is an important Chinese concept meaning personalized connections or networks. In any business relationship, the Chinese value friendships than any other decree between two parties.

Therefore, the use of this brand name creates the perception that the restaurant is the place where the Chinese would meet other people and establish mutual relationships for future mutual gains. The brand name also presents the restaurant as a place where money paid for foods and beverages offered is reciprocated with value. In the Chinese tradition, Guanxi is all about reciprocation for a good act.

The use of the term Guanxi in the brand name of the restaurant is of principle importance to the success of the restaurant. It reminds the Chinese of their Confucius tradition, which is central to the discourses of Guanxi.

The Confucius culture teaches the Chinese about moral cultivation anchored on paradigms of trust coupled with sincerity. In this sense, the restaurant will offer trustworthy products and services due to sincerity in their production process by paying critical attention to cleanness and hygiene as the restaurant postulates in its advertisements.

Product The restaurant’s product line borrows from the various Chinese restaurants delicacies specialties within China. The Chuan Cuisine and Xiang constitute two important benchmarks for the restaurant. These two cuisines are famous for various dishes prepared using chili coupled with hot red pepper.

Such dishes include delicacies such as Fuqi Fei Pian, Mapo Tofu, and Sichuan Hotpot. For clients who do not prefer spiced foods, alternative dishes includes rice, noodles, bean curd, dim sum, and Shark’s Fin coupled with Bird’s nest soups.

Dim sum is a uniquely Chinese dish, which is offered in almost every Chinese restaurant. Offering this dish is particularly important since it encompasses not only traditional food for the Chinese, but also it represents an eating culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dim sum constitutes small dishes normally served during snack time usually in small portions. They are usually made in small-biting sizes. Traditional Chinese culture does not permit the incorporation of knives on dining tables. The Confucius culture holds that civilizations advance when instruments, which can be deployed in killing, are not used in dining tables.

Noodles are important to the Chinese and longer ones imply longer life. The restaurant offers noodles in the form of egg noodles (mien) or the rice noodles (bijon). Apart from noodles, rice is an important staple food in China and the rest of Asia.

Rice is a significant food in the Chinese culture as they consider it as fun. The restaurant aims at attracting consumption of its products by offering foods that remind customers of their cultural roots. Hence, rice is an important and inevitable food for incorporation in the restaurant’s menu. The restaurant will serve rice in bowls together with meat and vegetable in the form of toppings.

Marketing Having established the products offered at the restaurant, the next important aspect of the business proposal entails establishing strategies for marketing the restaurant and its products. Point of sale is a major promotional strategy for the restaurant. This strategy entails painting of the restaurant’s interior with pictorial elements reflecting the Chinese culture.

This aspect ensures that although the restaurant is established in a nation foreign to the Chinese cultural practices, when customers get into the restaurant, the perception of the Chinese culture emerges. Offering foods and beverages reflecting the Chinese cultural heritage also plays an important part in the creation of the Chinese cultural atmosphere while in the restaurant.

In a bid to direct potential customers to the restaurant, a big signboard is erected on the street leading to the restaurant. I also consider printing coupons, which will be distributed in the streets around Oregon to create awareness of the unique Chinese restaurant.

The target is to build a customer base of 3000 customers per day. Building a large customer base requires heavy investment in marketing of a new service or a product (Menon 19). Hence, although expensive, posters are also important mechanisms of marketing the restaurant.

We will write a custom Essay on Chinese Restaurant in Oregon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the restaurant garners more financial resources, marketing will involve the use of magazines and newspapers. A more important mechanism of advertising the restaurant entails the use of social media. Indeed, the Internet can serve the dual purpose of distribution coupled with communication.

Through the deployment of social networks and websites, it is possible to influence a large customer base for foods and beverages offered at the restaurant. This goal is achievable via ardent communication with the potential customers in an effort to persuade them to seek high quality and hygienically prepared Chinese dishes from the restaurant.

The Internet aids in helping an organization to “focus on enabling customers to find information about services” (Fields 14). Brand image of the restaurant cannot be satisfactorily developed if potential clients are not aware of the existence of the company.

Short message service (SMS) can also be useful in building the restaurant’s brand image. SMS has emerged as a powerful tool for sending many short messages to many users within a short time following the development of the telephony technology (Anbu and Mavuso 317).

Organizational structure The restaurant will be registered under LLC organizational structure. This kind of structure has the advantage of raising funds with ease. It also provides limited individual liability, thus implying that the organization and its owners are two different entities.

The owners of the company are the shareholders. As the founder of company, I will be the chairperson of the board of directors and serve as the risk management director. Other three directors, viz. finance director, human resource, and purchases and chain supplies directors coupled with the CEO of the company will be acquired by means of voting by the Shareholders

All the directors are responsible for leadership in their respective departments, viz. human resource, accounting and finance, corporate management, and risk assessment and control apart from procurement, purchases, and supply chain director who has a number of departments under his/her watch.

These departments are food quality control, marketing, procurement, purchases and supplies, and customer services department. After few months of operation and on recognition of customer responses to the products and services offered at the restaurant, research and design, and IT departments will be introduced.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Restaurant in Oregon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These departments will be instrumental in enhancing creativity and innovation coupled with services and processes improvement to meet emerging customer needs.

Licensing and regulatory requirements Several approvals coupled with permits are required while opening a restaurant in Oregon as discussed below.

Business registration license – Acquiring DBA requires filing of the fictional name of the business. This step is followed by the publication of a classified business name via an advertisement in a local daily newspaper. The filing costs are approximately $15 to $95 while the advertisement would cost between $25 and $75.

A business account – For smooth operation of the business in the future, a bank account is required. It enhances the ability of the company to work with convenience in terms of financial management. Although the board of directors would arrive at a decision on the most appropriate bank account, current account is proposed in this case. Merchant’s card machine is also required to enable customers to pay via credit cards directly into the restaurant’s bank account.

Business operation license – For the company to open its doors to clients, a license is required. The application for this license will be made to the City Business in the department of licenses in City Hall. Yearly costs for license renewal are about $70.

Business location approval -The zoning department reserves the mandate of approving the license in terms of suitableness of the location for operation of a restaurant. If the rented building has been housing a restaurant, no extra approval is required.

However, in case the building acquired will open as a restaurant for the first time, zoning department will conduct the necessary reviews coupled with the organization of public hearing in a bid to collect the views of people residing around on the appropriateness of the location for operation of a restaurant.

Permit for sellers – This permit is obtained from the Equalization State board. Before the issuance of this permit, the restaurant has the obligation to report on its sales tax either seasonally or monthly.

Permit from the health department – A county’s health department permit is important since the restaurant will be dealing in beverages and foods. In a bid to acquire this permit, the health department personnel in the Oregon will inspect the restaurant in terms of general cleanness and hygiene of the various appliances coupled with kitchen equipments and appropriateness of the storage facilities for foods.

The qualification for various personnel handling foods will also be inspected before they are given individual health permits to work in the restaurant. Individual health permits will cost $83 while permit for the restaurant will cost $250.

Sign permit – One of the strategies of marketing the restaurant entails advertising through a signboard located on the street leading to the restaurant coupled with erection of posters. Oregon country has various rules for types, sizes, and poster hanging locations. Therefore, it is important to study these rules and make appropriate filings.

County permit – Where the restaurant is located within an area, which is not within the jurisdiction of a given city, obtaining of permits from the neighboring county is crucial.

License for sale of Liquor, beers, and wines – The restaurant mainly deals with serving Chinese foods and beverages. However, some liquor, wines, and beer in small quantities will be served depending on customers’ preferences. This aspect creates the need for seeking licenses for selling liquor, beers, and wines in accordance to the US policy on the sale of the same.

Permit for wastes disposal – Restaurants must produce wastes in the form of foods leftovers and packaging of the raw materials. Considering that Oregon is committed to enhancing environmental sustainability by becoming green, disposal of wastes should be done in accordance to the state’s established rules and regulations on waste management. Hence, the restaurant cannot run without a waste disposal permit.

Fire management permit – Cooking in the restaurant will involve the use of gas and electricity. This aspect means that fire proofing of the restaurant’s facilities by the Oregon’s fire department is of great importance. Assurance that the restaurant is secure from fires and that mechanism of fighting fire adequately are available is important for the purposes of the safety of the restaurant coupled with employees’ safety from both human error and emergency fires.

Environmental protection permit – A lot of refuse water is emitted. Cooking of foods also involves emissions, which are all wastes or by products of the processes of the restaurants. These wastes should be dealt with in accordance to the environmental protection principles. In this effort, the restaurant should acquire a permit from the Environmental Protection Bureau in Oregon.

Risk management, insurance, employee and other matters Risk management

It is within the mandate of the risks management director through risks management department to ensure that the restaurant remains resilient to risks.

Types of risks

Risks encompass all situations that may cause a company to experience challenges in its operations. In a restaurant, these risks include labor boycotts, failure of customers to embrace the offered foods, reputation risks, unfavorable economic climate, fraud, and the existence of political climate unfavorable to the operation of the organization among others.

In the short term, major risks anticipated by the restaurant are adverse economic climate, reputation risks, and acceptance of the offered foods by the target market.

Reputation risks

The restaurant is unique in the region. However, this aspect does not imply that the management should not explore various ways of enhancing the reputation of the brand. Indeed, marketing is one of the ways of not only creating awareness, but also building the reputation of an organization (Rust et al. 112).

While constant and increasing flow of customers may be experienced following the extensive promotion campaign, the risk for damage of the reputation of the organization persists.

Such a risk may emanate from isolated incidences of poor food quality, food safety, mechanisms of handling customer complaints, and effectiveness in delivery of customer service. Competitors may also employ various strategies to ensure that they have captured the market share of the company by presenting the company negatively or even stereotyping it.

Economic situation

Economic climate affects the buying power of customers. In times of the economic downturn, people consider using their incomes in meeting psychological needs only as they increase their savings in a bid to remain secure in an uncertain future.

Eating out in restaurants is part of entertainment; hence, it does not feature in the list of psychological needs. This aspect affects the restaurant in terms of low sale levels. Inflation may also expose the company to financial risks. High inflation means high costs for noble utilities such as electricity, gas, and water coupled with increased employees complains for the organization to increase their salaries and wages.

Acceptance of foods and beverages

The products and services offered in the restaurant are developed with particular focus on the Chinese consumer. However, in a bid to increase sales levels and ensure that the restaurant breaks even quickly, it is important to promote the foods and beverages offered at the restaurant to other consumers from both American and other foreign nationals.

The main risks involved here entails whether other consumers would accept foods offered due to differing emphasis on the foods and beverages’ requirements. For instance, while the Chinese emphasize more on food smell, color, and taste, their American counterparts emphasize on nutritional needs, especially in the era of increased concerns over unhealthy eating habits.

Guanxi is important in all Chinese gatherings. While in a restaurant, the Chinese order and eat food from one plate sitting around a table. This behavior may be unacceptable in western cultures where people order food in separate plates. The Chinese foods are also highly flavored. Other people seeing the Chinese dishes served on a different table may opt not to even taste and leave the restaurant never to return.

Dealing with risks

Mitigation of the above-mentioned risks requires the adoption of a number of strategies. The first strategy is adhering to food and service quality. Food service is of particular importance since it affects customer satisfaction in the hospitality industry (Mullins 107). On the other hand, without high quality and delicious dishes, the restaurant cannot grow.

A successful strategy to mitigate this risk encompasses recruitment and selection of highly qualified workers. All the people engaged in food handling should be licensed in their respective areas of specialization.

Experienced stewards are most preferred, although the restaurant is also prepared to offer training and development programs for its workers in the bid to ensure that they offer services in a manner commensurate to the Chinese cultural anticipations.

The second strategy encompasses the collection of customer information in the form of after-service feedbacks. This information helps in the development of mechanisms of improving both foods and services to meet concerns of the customers, especially where customers raise some form of dissatisfaction.

For this purpose, the restaurant will establish social media pages and suggestion boxes for customers to register their feedbacks or give suggestions for improvement. The restaurant also provides customer service desk at the reception bay to address customer queries and collect various suggestions from the clients.

The third strategy entails the accommodation of dining habits for the non-Chinese customers who may also love the Chinese dishes. Instead of only focusing on the cultures for order-and-sit-around the table, a section the restaurant will provide a section where people can sit in an alternative way.

In a bid to accommodate persons opposed to the culture of food sharing by way of eating from the same plate, an alternative strategy is to offer take-away food services.

The fourth strategy involves handing risks associated with economic conditions. One of the aspects that make the Chinese restaurants unique in China is their ability to offer foods at low prices. In Oregon, the restaurant will borrow from this model by providing food discounts when household incomes are constrained by economic hardships.

This move will help in positioning the restaurant as an entity that does not only exist to serve its own interests by increasing returns on investments to its owners (shareholders), but also interested in serving the needs of its customers.


Employees’ health insurance and insurance of the entire organization against property damage are important aspects. At start up, the organization will employ about 40 people, which means that SEHI (small employer health insurance) programs will be satisfactory. The program is accessible to an organization employing between 2 and 50 people.

Property insurance ensures an organization’s protection against various types of risks including political risks, floods, earthquakes, and fires amongst others. Among these forms of property insurance, insurance against fire is incredibly important. The organization should be free from risks of employees’ theft or fraud.

This assertion creates the necessity for insurance against employee theft to provide a mechanism of filing claims in the event of theft and other offenses acerbated by employees, which may lead to financial risks to the organization.

Intellectual property protection

The American law recognizes the need for protection of both tangible and intangible organizational assets. Currently, the restaurant does not require innovative ideas, concepts, or even creation of new inventions for its operations. However, there are logos, slogans, and trademarks considered as part of the brand characteristics, which need protection under the US intellectual property law.

Employee laws

In the US, various statutory laws seek to protect the rights of employees and they include minimum wage laws, child labor, over time, social security, medical, and compensation laws. Others include health insurance, employee retirement, and labor law poster laws. Compliance to these laws is mandatory for all organizations operating in Oregon including the proposed restaurant.

Works Cited Anbu, Johnston, and Makana Mavuso. “Old wine in new wine skin: marketing library services through SMS-based alert services.” Library Hi Tech 30.2 (2012): 310-320. Print.

Fields, Erastus. “A unique twitter use for reference services.” Library Hi Tech News 6.7 (2010):14-15. Print.

Menon, Arthur. “Antecedents and Consequences of Marketing Strategy Making.” Journal of Marketing 63.2 (1999):18-40. Print.

Mullins, Leonard. Hospitality Management: A Human Resources Approach, London: Pitman, 1995. Print.

Rust, Ronald, Valarie Zeithaml, and Katherine Lemon. “Customer centered brand management.” Harvard Business Review 82.4 (2008):110-118. Print.


Screw Compressor Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Screw compressors are some type of gas compressors that use two interlocking screws to capture and compress gas. Screw compressors are of two types, the dry running screw compressor, and the oil-flooded screw compressor. Lubricating oil is used in the oil-flooded compressor to facilitate the screwing process. The oil also provides a hydraulic seal that passes energy between the screws.

In the dry running compressor, male and the female rotors maintain a special alignment in a timely manner, such that, one screw drives the other to form a continuous rotation of the screws (Bloch and Soares 76). The interaction of the male-female thread traps air, compresses it, and converts it into energy.

In both types of screw compressors, the air enters through the suction point; the rotors compress it while they rotate, and it finally gets its way out through the outlet as energy. Unlike other compressors that are somewhat noisy, screw compressors are noiseless and they compress air continuously.

The first step in operating a dry running screw compressor is ensuring the power unit has a strong cooling system. Two-screw gear units inside the chambers are shaped differently, but in a manner that they interlock perfectly. While rotating, the screws suck and trap air as they rotate from one end.

The rotation of the screws reduces the size of the chamber and this facilitates the compression process. As the screws rotate, they push the compressed air forward to the next screw to allow the sucking of new uncompressed air. The highly compressed air forces itself out at the discharge point. Compressors work differently depending on whether they are oil free or oil flooded.

There is no oil lubrication in the oil free compressors; thus, the movement of the screws compresses the air without necessarily depending on the oil seal. Such compressors do not give high-pressured power. However, there are multistage compressors that give high-pressured power by compressing air at several screw sets. In the first stage, air is compressed into a few bars to become light and extremely hot.

The light air will thus moves to the succeeding screw bars easily. Every move of the air makes it extremely hot, and this continues until the air reaches the outlet point. In most case, oil-free compressors are made up of about seven bars. For the oil-flooded compressors, users inject oil into the screws. As the screws rotate, the oil finds its way onto the sealing of the cavities to provide some cooling effect.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The oil is also useful in capturing particles in the air during the air sanction process. When the compressed gas gets its way into the discharge end, any oil that is present in the air is filtered and recycled. However, this is not an assurance that the compressed air is free from oil traces.

The applications of screw compressors vary from construction to industrial applications. Oil-injected screw compressors are used in industries that require large volumes of compressed air. Moreover, industries that operate high-powered tools would find it worthwhile to use screw compressors to generate the required volumes of compressed air instead of using piston compressors.

Contractors can also use oil-injected screw compressors to operate the construction machineries, whereas, the wastewater treatment machineries also find it worthwhile to use such compressors in their process because they consume low power. In the case of medical researches, dry running screw compressors would be of great use.

Lobe Compressor A lobe compressor has some similarities with the screw compressors, only that the screws in the screw compressors are replaced with lobes. A lobe compressor has two 8-shaped profiled lobe blowers. The 8-shaped lobes rotate inside some somewhat oval casings. The lobes are always 900 apart at any instance whenever they are in operation. The distance between the two lobes allows them to hold as much air as possible.

During operation, one of the lobes acts as the driver. It obtains is power from external sources while the other lobe relies on it to rotate. The oval casings and the system pressure do not allow the discharged air to came back unless under very small spillages.

However, the spillages are negligible, as only small amounts of air would be allowed in case of a slip. With the air coming and going out, there is no change in the volume of the air within the machine. The system’s pressure at a particular time draws in air, compresses it, and lets it out as compressed power.

The air across the machinery determines the temperature levels of the discharged air. It is noteworthy that lobe compressors do not require oil lubrications within the lobes. The lobes run for restricted clearances to deliver compressed air that is free from oil spillages.

We will write a custom Essay on Screw Compressor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As discussed, lobe compressors discharge compressed air that is oil free (Stosic, Smith and Kovacevic 69). Therefore, lobe compressors are used in fish hatcheries and aquacultures to support life.

They are also useful in meat processing systems as they produce compressed air that is free from harmful chemicals. People have also found lobe compressors useful in the printing and paper converting industries, wastewater treatment industries, and in the environmental remediation systems.

Works Cited Bloch, Heinz. A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley


Ecosystem Report (Geelong Botanic Garden) Report best essay help

Introduction Ecosystem comprises of biotic and biotic factors that are present in a given environment. The biotic factors are the living organism such as microbes, plants, and animals, while the abiotic factors are nonliving components like water, air, rocks, soil, sunlight, and topography. The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors in a certain environment occurs in a form of a system due to the flow of nutrient and energy.

In essence, ecosystem examines how biotic and abiotic factors interact as a self-sustaining system (Chapin, Matson,


Begin by researching Shamrock Foods company ( In 250-500 words, address the following: Describe the company and its sustainability model.How has sustainability he argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help In 250-500 words, address the following:
Describe the company and its sustainability model.
How has sustainability helped to achieve the company’s goals and competitiveness with other supply chains?
What are the financial impacts of sustainability on the company?
What are the benefits and challenges associated with sustainability efforts?
Are there any federal mandates in the United States on sustainability? Make sure to include current and future mandates.


Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE Report online essay help

Overview Introduction

Entrepreneurs, regardless of their inherent location or gender, share similar problems in relation to properly accessing sufficient capital to start their business, developing a sufficient cash flow to sustain their venture and a variety of other distinctions that are connected to the process of developing a business.

With the development of new internal policies within the UAE comes an era where women have become more empowered, both in the workforce and in entrepreneurship. This is evidenced by the fact that nearly 54% of all university graduates within the UAE are women and that a growing percentage of them focus on furthering their own careers and the development of their family business or their own business [1].

This is not to imply that women themselves cannot be entrepreneurs within the country, far from it:, women are actually actively encouraged to take part in business and several have become successful entrepreneurs.

However, due to various types of cultural restrictions which are a part of social traditions in the UAE, this creates demonstrates a low rate of female entrepreneurship with only 3 out of 10 entrepreneurial businesses being started by a woman [2], [3]. These restrictions come in the form of:Women needing permission from a male to start a business,insufficient support from the government, Lack of collaboration with other women.

In this research what will be analyzed are the inherent difficulties experienced by female entrepreneurs within the U.AE from 10 year back to now. It is expected that through the various facts and arguments presented in this research, a clearer picture can be developed regarding what difficulties female entrepreneurs experience within the UAE and what processes have been put in place by the government in order to address such issues.

It is expected that through proper investigation and analysis, this research will create effective suggestions as to how female entrepreneurs within the region can best respond to the financial opportunities and challenges they are currently experiencing.

Problem Definition

Ten years ago, female entrepreneurs within the UAE suffered from a string of limiting factors that prevented their expansive growth. This came in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since these factors were in place ten years ago, this research will thus seek to determine whether these problems continue to exist at the present, how female entrepreneurs view such problems and what solutions may be needed in order to effectively address them.

It is based on this discovery that in the following section an investigation will be conducted regarding the current perception of female entrepreneurs involving the problems they face and what possible means of addressing them could be developed. The fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases.

This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs. What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive.

Another necessary examination is to elaborate on the current status of female entrepreneurial funding within the country and how this has affected the success/ failure rates of entrepreneurs. Another question that must be explored into is whether all the recent programs aimed at creating better conditions for female entrepreneurs have been effective or have things remained the same despite their implementation?

The end result of such an analysis is to understand what methods of female entrepreneurial funding would the entrepreneurs like to see implemented so as to create a better business environment that is more conducive towards entrepreneurial activity.

The question of the research is: What are the key obstacles that women entrepreneurs in the UAE believe they faced 10 years ago, and still stands now?

Women entrepreneurs in the UAE face a lot of challenges [3]. Studies indicate that despite the rapid growth of women entrepreneurs in both developed and developing countries as the UAE. The issue of gender equality, particularly within the UAE cultural context, stands not efficiently resolved [4], [5], [6]. Entrepreneurship plays a significant role in boosting economic growth.

We will write a custom Report on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UAE happens to be among the country that shows impressive progress in economic growth, through encouraging entrepreneurship projects. Most of the women entrepreneurs in the United Arab Emirates participate in small-scale businesses, and hence receive socially little support [7]. However, women in the UAE go through lots of challenges running their own businesses [5], [6].

There are several factors against women entrepreneurship in this region. These include cultural factors, religion restriction, opportunity recognition, work-family balance, motivation, gender discrimination, financial support, and performance among others [6].

Recognizing opportunities is a bit hard for the Emirates women, considering that gender differences are linked to the varying variables of human capital. The differences primarily revolve around work experiences and education. In the UAE, men receive more advantagesd than women, considering that their experience in entrepreneurship experience and management of employees is a bit higher.

Researchers indicate that women have less human capital to invest in businesses compared to men [8], [9], [10]. This makes it hard for women to identify opportunities and utilize their potential skills, experience, and power.

The restricted structure in labor markets of the UAE, demotivate women entrepreneurs on grounds of gender inequality. The cultural and religious factors to some extend play a significant role in denying women right to own businesses without the support of their male partners.

On the contrary, the women’s entrepreneurship experience in other countries such as Jordan and Kuwait is quite different. The recognition of women’s entrepreneurship’s contribution to economic growth is higher in these Arab countries compared to that of UAE. For instance, the Kuwait Economic Society implements projects that empower women.

These projects enhance trade and investment [11], [12]. They also focus on creating a business environment that supports women entrepreneurship. For instance, an already established KES program in Kuwait provides women with opportunities such as training, sharing of experience, business networking, and growth among others.

In Jordan, there are numerous funded projects that create awareness of issues surrounding business environments. Here, women receive training concerning entrepreneur issues such as performance and decision making processes [12]. This promotes their entrepreneur projects. Jordan and Kuwait also strengthen legal awareness of issues surrounding women entrepreneurs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This increases the depth of their skills, techniques and offer capital to women for starting new businesses. This all in the long run contributes a lot to the economic growth of the country [14]. For instance, Saudi Arabia offers them 3,000 Saudi Riyals every month to start new businesses [15].

There are several measures that should be put in place to help women entrepreneurs in UAE to overcome challenges in businesses. These include education, training, and support of the UAE governmental funds among others [15]. The UAE should copy some practices from countries like Kuwait, Jordan KSA, and other developed Arab countries, which encourage women entrepreneurship [16], [17].

These countries understand the importance of women entrepreneurs in economic growth, and employs strategies that influence them to become entrepreneurs. However it cannot be denied is clear that the UAE has made a progress in addressing issues associated with the Emiratis women.

For instance, the Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Foundation in collaboration with the American University of Beirut came up with a plan supporting women innovation and entrepreneurship in 2008.

New programs have also been introduced in the country enabling the emergence of many partnerships of women entrepreneurs and large corporations. In 2009, the chamber of commerce and industry registered more than 4,160 women as members [18].

Motivation and Relevance to Masdar/UAE

Since Masdar City is a clean, green and sustainable city, this atmosphere requires innovational yet responsible business ideas. The UAE Women entrepreneurs could try translating, their creative business ideas to sustainable technologies, producing useful products, providing environmentally friendly services or maybe help with creating new jobs in Masdar.


The primary objective of this paper is to compare the situation of female entrepreneurs within the UAE 10 years ago with their current situation in 2013. Through this analysis, this research will be able to show whether sufficiently positive developments have been enacted that would be conducive towards developing a better environment to encourage female entrepreneurship within the UAE or not.

In this research what will be examined is the current state of SME’s within the UAE and the situation of female entrepreneurs in 2014 as compared to how they were ten years ago. This paper will be able to determine whether sufficiently positive changes have been implemented resulting in a better overall situation for the growth of female entrepreneurship within the UAE.

Through this section, a greater understanding will be developed regarding the various factors that restricted the growth of female entrepreneurship within the region and if such factors continue to take a dominating role in gender based entrepreneurial growth.

So far, what this section has shown is that the problems female entrepreneurs currently face within the country come in the form of traditional cultural practices, insufficient government support and lack of proper access to financial institutions.

When comparing the data from the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan with current academic articles examining the state of female entrepreneurship within the country, it was shown that the issues have remained roughly unchanged from the time that the Haan article was written.

It is based on this that the primary objective of this paper is to expound on such issues and determine how they can be resolved.

In conclusion the main objective of this research would be to attempt a 10-year review of Haan’s study results to see whether the same conclusions apply today – after many innovational attempts nationwide were formed or not. What factors faced women in the past get improved, and which still stand and needs further investigation, action or regulation.

Some ways to inspire and assist woman entrepreneurs in the UAE would be:

Empowering UAE’s woman entrepreneurs to seek collaborations with educational and research institutes that promote development of novel innovative and practical business ideas.

Educating enterprising entrepreneurs on development and creation of creative innovations that have high chances of legalization, with potentially big impacts on the economy where ready market is available.

Empowering woman entrepreneurs with knowledge of identifying the processes and procedures those innovative ideas must pass through in order to be socially accepted as viable and worth investing in.

Educating entrepreneurs on ways of getting government funding and reaching out to non-governmental organizations to fund their innovations and noble ideas; entrepreneurs fail to venture into markets due to inadequacy or complete lack of funds and under-informed on available sources of funds.

Literature Review

Entrepreneurs in the developed countries (USA, Sweden and Finland)

Although government policies, infrastructure and large markets provide vast investment opportunities in developed countries, young entrepreneurs continue to face challenges [8]. [15] Point out that the decline in economic growth has resulted in decline in entrepreneurship opportunities and constant increase in business’ start-up costs.

Young entrepreneur’s sale their ideas to capital ventures and find themselves exploited as capital ventures benefit and leave them with nothing [19]. Other scholars argue that the content of entrepreneurship in the local education especially in Finland is so wide; the methods of teaching entrepreneurship in schools are poor and the goals of the entrepreneurial education conflict with the local business environment [7], [18], [19].

According to MoniaLougui, young entrepreneurs in Sweden and in the developed countries face entry barriers; these are obstacles that promote existing firms to make constructive economic proceeds while making it difficult for new firms to make impacts in the market. They also face financial barriers and cultural and value barriers [17], [20], [21].

Entrepreneurs in Gulf Countries

The Gulf region has attracted a lot of attention in the recent past due to its rapidly growing economy, especially Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Researchers suggest that the main obstacles facing young entrepreneurs in the Arab world is having access to capital [21], [22], [23].

Saifur Rahman [24] further says that despite Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) contributing greater percentages in national GDP, they are highly neglected and Lending for SMEs in the Gulf Coast Countries is very low and access to finance is the Greatest Challenge.

Khalid Al Ameri argues that that the Middle East education system has not shifted to meet the needs of the current technology and young entrepreneurs may not have enough knowledge about the business environment [23], [25].

HanifaItani, Yusuf M. Sidani and ImadBaalbaki [17] support Khalid Al Ameri saying that insufficient managerial and financial information and lack of government support are major obstacles to UAE SMEs and entrepreneurs. Bruhn et al point out that lacks of managerial capital is the key restriction for young entrepreneurs in most developing countries [26], [27], [28].

Entrepreneurship Development in the UAE

The main measures of entrepreneurship skills are scores on motivation, personal attitude and aptitude. Action planning in entrepreneurship is of importance to create solution oriented task and strategy implementation function for quantifying task orientation levels [30], [31], [32].

Thus, a budding entrepreneur must possess task orientation leadership skills at an individual task management level in reviewing actual and expected outcome of any business opportunity [33], [34], [35].

With the number of entrepreneurs supplying or dealing with similar products and services on the rise, it is imperative for entrepreneurs or businesspersons in UAE to understand factors influencing the consumer purchase decision in order to design the best strategy for meeting consumer demands [32], [37] [36].

Elements of Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

Scholars in the field of economics have approached entrepreneurship from different perspectives with numerous views regarding entrepreneurships and innovation. Peter suggests that entrepreneurship goes in hand with innovation, changes and opportunities for innovation [38].

On the other hand, Steve Blank, a business school professor avers that entrepreneurship is about getting out into the world and doing and not basically researching and writing [24]. These scholars do agree that entrepreneurs face difficulties of finding the right opportunities and the needed innovation, creating competitive brands using strong products and finding the right markets [39].

Rob and Marry postulate that innovation involves doing things differently or doing different thing in order to arrive at large gains in performance at micro and macro level of entrepreneurship [36], [37], [38].

The two authors further recognize that lack of capital and funding is the main obstacle for innovation. Others however contrast with Rob and Marry by associating innovations with the rise of technical inventions such as the computers and steam engines [10], [34].

As opined by Schawbel [35], [36], [37] an excellent entrepreneur should possess transformational leadership skills that identify a range of problematic situations that an individual faces in his or her social environment, and generates multiple alternative solutions to those problems.

Besides, he/she should lay a series of procedures that are necessary to achieve desired results rather than postponing response strategies [38], [39]. The three building blocks of situational management skills include learning intra personal performance, supportive learning environment, concrete learning processes, and practice leadership that reinforces performance [40], [41], [42], [43].

Consumer Behavior in UAE and Entrepreneurship Development

Consumers in UAE exhibit a particular sequence of purchases or proportion of purchases that may be predictive of consumer behaviors such a brand loyalty due to their unique Islamic culture. Consumer behavior can be determined through listening carefully to what the customers say about a product or service.

The focus here is to consumers feeling through assessment of her voice and comments about a product or service [44]. Understanding of consumer behavior facilitates effective entrepreneurship and promotion resources through ensuring that such activities are well planned in order to yield the desired result in the most efficient and effective way possible [45], [46], [47].

Consumer behavior in UAE is not only of great importance to entrepreneurs but also crucial to consumer protection agencies, ethicists, public policy makers and regulators and consumer advocacy groups who protect consumers from any unsafe offerings or decisions by marketers [46].

Understanding consumer behavior in UAE enables entrepreneurs to strategize on the best way to reach out to the clients. It also assists in establishing ways of changing unfavorable consumer behaviors as well as reinforcing positive behavior patterns [48], [49].

Challenges Facing Swedish Entrepreneurs

Rojewski [34] shows that entrepreneurship and small firms play a significant role in economic growth. Entrepreneurship is considered as innovation. It drives people to create their own jobs, and hence improves their living standards [11]. The author identifies the obstacles that entrepreneurs go through, when starting businesses.

Most of the Swedish entrepreneurs, particularly the women, find impediments and challenges when starting businesses [21]. Through the use of a multinomiallogitmodel regression, the author confirms that administrative costs and financial problems are the primary barriers to success of new businesses in Sweden [29].

In addition, the self-employed individuals who invest in manufacturing industries face many obstacles during the early stages of product development. In relation to the Emirates women entrepreneurs, it can be confirmed that women entrepreneurs in most parts of the world, particularly those in the developing world face lots of problems when starting their businesses.

Considering that the link between entrepreneurship and economic growth is positive, countries all over the world should modulate entrepreneurship. The UAE, for instance, needs to call off the cultural and religious barriers that restrict women from starting their own businesses.

Economic growth enhances high living standards, and hence improves the lives of women who would have otherwise been left to depend on their husband for everything [30].

Factors Undermining Entrepreneurship Development in UAE

The detrimental of insourcing to entrepreneurship attitude in UAE is often negative. The outsourcing UAE government has lost considerable taxes when only the foreign entrepreneurs carry out insourcing services. The outsourcing government cannot claim revenue on taxation because this benefit ends up with the foreign country that insources [51].

In addition, there is great concern regarding the rate of unemployment of local countries that outsourcing some activities to the insourcing countries. The situation became even more critical when developed countries compose the insourcing team as is the case in UAE. As a result, the rate of entrepreneurship development in UAE has been slow [51].

UAE has a reputation of setting high legal expectations of a business which is a repellent to internal and external entrepreneurship investors. Federal law of 1975 no. 5 on commercial registration makes verification of a business difficult since it has to pass many a lot before approval [4], [5].

Federal law drafted in 1992, no. 37 defines the provision of patent and trademark rights in UAE has helped eliminate the chances of fraudulent attempts on a company’s product to ensure that the company is not disadvantaged.

Besides, federal law no. 13 drafted in 2007 defines the legality of import and export business to ensure that entrepreneurs are protected [4], [5]. We could take up this as an assurance of the protection to be offered to their products against illegal dealers though the registration process is very expensive in time and cost.

For the social dimension of the evaluation of the UAE market for entrepreneurship products, it is necessary to tailor such products to suit the acceptable cultural norms. This way, it is necessary for the entrepreneurs who are carrying out the research to evaluate the literacy levels of the UAE people.

Specifically, it is recorded in the World Fact book of the CIA that literacy level by 2003 was at an average of 97% among young generation who are the target of entrepreneurship activities. [50], [51], [52]. This will include the evaluation of the education system and levels. Most importantly is to link the findings to the target market of entrepreneurship products.

By doing this, entrepreneurs in UAE will establish the level of awareness of the people of UAE. Several questions may pop up during this feasibility study. Comprehensively, it would be necessary to establish how conversant the people of UAE are to technological advancements constantly changing a cross the global arena [53], [54], 55].

The answers to this question could be relative as it depends on the country’s technological advancement. Research has it that UAE though very populous, have a high percentage of the literate in its population [56]. UAE has a high number of literate young who would be the target consumers for entrepreneurship products [57]. This is as a viable business opportunity.

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE

Haan [58] gives a clear explanation concerning the UAE women entrepreneurs, their experiences in the field, and the roles played by public and private agencies in modulating entrepreneurship [59]. The author provides an analysis and a survey of 30 UAE women entrepreneurs.

The survey involves in-depth interviews concerning how they run their businesses, the challenges they face, and the support they get to pursue or continue running their enterprises. The Haan’s article provides a study about two different segments namely, the modern and traditional activities in the UAE women-managed enterprises. The latter is engaged in the most recent economic activities.

In incorporates advanced information and communication technologies and updated practices of businesses [60]. It is in most cases run by young UAE women, educated and business-oriented [57]. On the other hand, the traditional activities segment consists of simple manufacturing and trading [56].

The study in Haan’s article analyses the constraints faced by the UAE women entrepreneurs, and gives suggestions for the most appropriate recommendations. For instance, there is a need to formulate policies and create institutional capacity that promotes women entrepreneurship. There is also a need for pursuing specific support services for segments, as well as the government support and other agencies in the UAE [51].

Entrepreneurship, Emirati perspective

[26], [55] narrate that globalization, technological advances, and innovations among others are instrumental in the transformation of societies in the world [32]. However, there are challenges and opportunities associated with the aforementioned shifts particularly in women entrepreneurship. According to the authors, for the UAE to become a fully transformed entrepreneurial nation, it has to inculcate entrepreneurship at an early stage.

This should include teaching children at their early age about it, incorporating it in the education system, and using awareness platforms to inform, educate and influence people, particularly women, on the need to pursue entrepreneurship [33].

There is also a need to formulate policy insights to give policy makers a direction to assist them formulate efficient policies and programs to support the UAE women entrepreneurs. As mentioned earlier, the UAE has shown an impressive progress in the recent past with regards to social development and economic growth sustainability [38].

For instance, in 2011, the GEM study survey in 54 economies confirmed the UAE as one of the most innovation-driven country in the world. However, the nation needs to continue making immense progress in strengthening entrepreneurship, particularly women entrepreneurship [39].

This will not only help them become creative and create new jobs, but also enable them to empower others to do the same. This will ensure that the future generations of the UAE will be vibrant both in entrepreneurship and in growing the country’s economy [40].

Women business owners in the UAE

In the article “Women business owners in the United Arab Emirates” it is clear that the UAE women entrepreneurs are more educated than those from Jordan, Tunisia, and Kuwait among other countries [37].

According to the survey conducted in UAE, more than 89% of women entrepreneurs have an optimistic outlook towards their businesses and the country’s economy at large [38] [39], [40].

More than 73% of the women surveyed focused on growth and expansion, but needed financial opportunities. Only 8% felt that running a business was disadvantageous for them. This confirms that most of them love managing their own businesses compared to those from other Arab nations [39].

Female business students in the Middle East

Hossan, Parakandi, and Saber suggest that there are several barriers that restrict female students in the Middle East from pursuing entrepreneurship interests [23]. The authors analyze the strengths/opportunities, weaknesses/issues and challenges that these students get exposed to in the country.

From their research, it is evident that despite having potential to start ventures, these students lack enough knowledge about the organizations that support ventures [68]. Prior work experience and different entrepreneurship barriers, which are based on gender discrimination, deny women opportunities to participate in business ventures [23].

Current Attitudes Regarding Business Financing

Based on the article “Small Enterprises: Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan, it was noted that women within the UAE rely on their own personal savings as their primary method of creating startup capital [4]. This is an incredibly laborious and time consuming process which would of course slow down the process of entrepreneurial activity within any country that utilizes such a system [5].

Such a situation is in stark contrast to the way in which the entrepreneurial sector in other countries such as China, the U.S., the UK and even in certain sectors in the Middle East work since it is often seen that investing in entrepreneurs creates numerous beneficial actions, such as a: A better local economy, gGreater amount of bank deposits and hHelping out what could potentially develop into a larger enterprise [13].

Banks generally think of entrepreneurs as “safe bets” when it comes to loans due to the attitude of entrepreneurs in paying back what they owe even if a particular business did not turn out as successful as expected [4].

Thus, startup capital in such situations often comes about through bank loans resulting in a far quicker level of business creation. After conducting an analysis of the Erogul (2011) article which examined the current situation of women entrepreneurs within the UAE, it was revealed that female entrepreneurs still continue to rely on their own slowly accumulated capital as compared to merely taking out a bank loan [3].

This shows that from 2004 till the present, there has been little change in the cultural attitude regarding entrepreneurial financing among women [8]. One of the potential reasons behind such a state of affairs has been connected to the currently arduous process of taking out a loan within a bank wherein a male sponsor is needed in order to sign and guarantee all aspects of the loan [13].

Since female entrepreneurs have to rely on a sponsor who may not always be there, this further impedes the process of business development which actually discourages women from relying on banks as a source of capital 10]. It was seen that in the article “Small Enterprises:

Women Entrepreneurs in the UAE” by Hans Christian Haan that in the case of the UAE, family played a crucial role in the funding and development of small to medium scale business ventures for women wherein more than 25% of local businesses started by female entrepreneurs were a result of family members contributing towards the initial starting capital of the entrepreneur and actively gave advice regarding the proper management of the business [10].

In fact, it was noted by researchers such as Mostafa (2005) that it is the strong interfamily ties within the country’s culture that limits the export market of the UAE. This is due to the development of a business culture where it has become preferable to deal with family members or friends of the family when it comes to joint business ventures and business opportunities.

This in effect severely curtails the ability of a business to expand beyond its current market due to the inherent hesitance in dealing with the unfamiliar [5]. While there is nothing inherently wrong with family based methods of capital financing, studies such as those by Mostafa (2005) stated that it often came with certain conditions related to the types of business that can be gone into by female entrepreneurs [5].

This often entailed clothing, textiles, and manufacturing that were often detailed as the “traditional domain” of female entrepreneurs within the UAE.

This conditional funding through family based methods of capital development can actually be considered a limiting factor in the capacity for female entrepreneurs to establish themselves in new types of business and, as such, can be considered a detrimental feature of the current “entrepreneurial funding” system within the UAE [13].

Analysis of Government Policy Initiatives

An analysis of government policy initiatives that were mentioned in the Haan article showed the presence of gender specific barriers in entrepreneurship wherein male sponsorship, male networking and overall male assistance was required when it came to women entering into any form of entrepreneurial activity.

The problem with the implementation of male sponsorships is that it is not needed in the case of women entrepreneurs since males basically just sign their signatures on a piece of paper [59]. They are not partners in the business nor do they take an active role in it; basically the Haan article shows that men are just there to show that there is a level of biased gender supervision occurring.

Through the work of Madsen (2010), it was revealed that at the present, there have been no government policy initiatives to address such issues with the same policies continuing to exist [60].

Contributing to this problem is the lack of sufficient government funding in the development of female support networks which are there to help women in connecting with each other and developing the necessary relationships to grow and expand their business.

While it may be true that the UAE government states that it actively promotes female entrepreneurship and even gives awards to prominent female entrepreneurs, the fact remains that the current policy system within the region suffers from significant gender specific biases. This creates barriers towards the creation of a better business environment for female entrepreneurs [6].

In a presentation, a number of things have changed over these ten years, yet the issue concerning women in business somehow remains just as unsolved as it used to be, mostly because the basic initiatives still revolve around introducing agencies that will help regulate the issue within the market.

However, certain changes are definitely worth being mentioned. While the issue regarding women in the UAE business still leaves much to be desired, considerable concessions have been made over the past decade.

To start with, the formation of the Khalifa Fund can be considered the stepping stone of female empowerment in business in the UAE. Khalifa Fund was created in 2007 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The fund was originally intended to help SMEs and encourage the development of small businesses across the country.

Offering to invest in new and promising industrial and service sectors within the Abu Dhabi area, the fund allowed for small business growth. Funded by the government, the organization reflects the attempts of the latter to change the UAE business landscape. In 2012, the organization announced its determination to invest in microbusinesses [61], [62], [63], [64].

In fact, the given organization can be considered by far the most supportive and efficient of all; being one-of-a-kind project, it provides “venture capital, training, development, data and consulting services, and even marketing support” [3], which is very impressive.

However, financial assistance does not have a tangible impact on the Emirati society and its concept of women in business: “However, unlike other countries, there is a lack of support targeting female entrepreneurs in UAE” [4].

Recently, the organization has been paying special attention to women in business. In 2013, nearly 30% of $14 m was provided to allow for more options for UAE women in SME. At present, the Khalifa Fund is tackling the issue quite efficiently.

However, there is still a long way for the Khalifa Fund to go in order to provide UAE women with the same options as men have in business.What is necessary is the development of better policy initiatives in not only removing gender barriers in entrepreneurial activity, but also in developing the necessary networks for female entrepreneurs to thrive [65], [66], [67], [68].

Research Plan Methodology

The methodology that will be utilized within this particular research will be, a serial of questions sent to a variety of female entrepreneurs within the UAE. In order to determine the various difficulties they experience on a daily basis when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. To achieve statistical significance results and conclusions, we chose the initial number of surveys distributed to be 200 with the goal of obtaining 100 useful responses.


In wWomen business owners in the United Arab Emirates, 2007 paper, a44 survey questions were analyzeds in their study [21]. Haan conducted a survey of 30 questions in his UAE women entrepreneurs’ paper [13]. In this research a similar set of questions will be incorporatedin the survey.

To provide solid and statistically useful data, around 200 candidates will be asked to answer these questions. Then an analysis of the results obtained in this step will be made. This all will help us perform a sampling campaign for candidates of the next step.

Personal Interviews

Thenwe will narrow down the number of candidates, to a reasonable number of candidates from UAE women business owners, to conduct personal interviews with them in order to obtain qualitative assessments of the factors explored in the survey. We will be choosing candidates who follow a certain pattern, to better measure the problem in hand.

The candidates will be sharing their experiences before and after they started their businesses. For instance they will talk about the challenges, opportunities, and the support they needed to make their businesses a success. Mentioning strategies that helped them succeed as entrepreneurs, despite the constraints that acted as barriers. Again all information gathered will be analyzed for the in depth interviews.

In Depth Interviews

This will be the last step on the methodology, and the number of candidates will get even smaller than step 2, because the questions in this stage will get more specific and detailed and more personal. All information that will be obtained via any method of the data gathering will be kept strictly confidential.. Their feedback would give a huge impact on the recommendation section of this research.

The Gantt chart demonstrates the monthly milestones of the research for spring semester.

Gantt Chart

Spring Plan Jan 2014 Feb 2014 Mar 2014 Apr 2014 May 2014 Gathering Information Review literature

Conduct surveys

Conduct interviews

In Depth Interviews

Integrating findings Analyzing Results

Giving Conclusions

Giving Recommendations

Thesis Defense Thesis Writing References Y. Itani, S. Yusuf, and I. Baalbaki. “United Arab Emirates Female Entrepreneurs: Motivations and Frustrations.” Equality, Diversity