China Represents A Very Attractive Market Essay College Admission Essay Help

China enjoys rapid growth of economy and international presence. This is mainly because of economic reforms they have undertaken in recent past. In fact, the government reduced its role in economy to allow for increased private and market participation.

The outcome has been exceptional as it continues to record rapid annual expansion of at least 10%. This has propelled it towards toppling United States as the world’s largest economy. Moreover, it ranks second in the world in terms of imports. China is also considered as the largest exporter globally.

However, it is quite difficult to understand how they have arrived at this with a communist government. As much as the government reduced its participation in economy, it still has complete control over business activities. For instance, foreign companies are allowed to invest and manufacture their produce in China at the expense of their technology and managerial skills. This paper will explore whether companies should go along with China’s business terms or refuse transfer of technology and effectively lose sales (Kuhns, 2011, p. 1).

It is quite important to note that companies such as Boeing, among others experience massive expansions due to their presence in Asian market, especially, China. On the other hand, this comes at a cost, since they have to transfer their technology to Chinese companies.

Transfer of technology is usually good, especially if it is reciprocated. However, in this case, technology is transferred in order to make profit. China offers cheap labor and market for these companies, this helps in improving company sales and profitability (Chapman

[supanova_question]

Foreign investments regulations Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Over the past few decades, developed countries have strived to put in place a multilateral investment agreement to prevent countries from controlling transnational corporations’ investment activities with special regard to portfolio investors. The first notable attempt towards attaining this was the proposal to put in place a Multilateral Investment Agreement. This initiative however failed and was shelved for some time. It has since come up in the category of “Singapore issues” in WTO meetings.

This agreement was supposed to provide a fertile ground for negotiating multilateral trade agreements in the WTO meeting that was supposed to take place in Cancun Mexico in 2003. Developed countries have always stressed on the benefits of trade policies and other policies that encourage foreign investors. From this perspective, they try to push developing countries to sign free trade and liberal investment agreements so that they can also develop.

This essay will outline the purpose of foreign investment regulations by listing and discussing a number of foreign investment regulations. The essay will also discuss issues that should concern management when they are screening potential markets and sites. Moreover, the steps involved in the screening process will be listed and discussed.

What is the purpose of foreign investment regulations?

Investment regulations are meant to promote local productivity and technological development by minimizing unfair competition that is posed by foreign investors in areas that are served by locally owned businesses. This strategy encourages the participation of local companies and helps protect critical or sensitive areas.

Two issues that concern management when screening potential markets and sites

The management of a business enterprise, while screening potential markets and sites they can invest in, should generally try to keep the cost of searching at its level low. They should also critically examine every potential market and location.

List and discuss foreign investment regulations

In the United States, any national is welcome to invest in both direct and portfolio investments. There are no restrictions to foreign investors as witnessed in many other countries.

Non-citizens are free to establish a US subsidiary or branch without much control from the federal, local government or state authorities. However, there are some restrictions in circumstances when a foreign investment intends to enter sensitive areas and highly regulated businesses. Foreign investors, just like the US citizens, enjoy financial flexibility. One is not required to seek for formal approval from financial authorities for them to do business in the United States. Moreover, foreign exchange controls are nonexistent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The foreign investors are free to make their own arrangements as pertaining to financing their business enterprise. One must not register the investment of foreign equity capital or loans. The United States tax authorities can scrutinize interest and royalty rates charged to the company despite the fact that these can be freely established. Business enterprises owned by foreigners in the United States can freely remit profits accrued abroad.

The owners of the enterprise can also freely repatriate their equity or debt capital investment. The United States government is entitled to withhold tax of 30% on dividends, interests, royalties, and service fee that can be freely repatriated abroad. These businesses are only taxed where applicable. A general system for licensing foreign investments does not exist.

Foreign investments with relevant qualifications are free to apply for incentives from federal, state, and local authorities. The incentive programs, at federal level, are meant to promote export of United States manufactured goods.

Such programs are sustained by U.S. Export-Import Bank, Overseas Private Investment Corporation and Agency for International Development. No special federal tax incentives designed to encourage foreign investments exist. However, existing federal tax laws are quite alluring to non-US based individuals especially under circumstances where a tax treaty is involved.

In order to improve the local business environment, state and local government authorities have undertaken to encourage foreign investment by offering incentives. This has been beneficial because through such investments, the authorities manage to increase jobs, create a larger tax base, and reduce social welfare costs. The incentives include offering of direct loan services, tax relief and grants (Goldman, 2006).

There are ownership limits in sensitive and highly regulated sectors like the aviation, banking, communication and broadcasting, defense, insurance, maritime, mineral leases and resources, power generation and utility services, and real estate.

The federal law expressly limits the percentage of foreign ownership in such sectors. Some of these restrictions can be avoided by putting in place a U.S subsidiary. However, in the restricted sectors, the government scrutinizes the nationality of the owners to determine if a United States subsidiary can be established.

We will write a custom Essay on Foreign investments regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Domestic air transport carriers have to be U.S registered. The owners of the aircrafts have to be American citizens or permanent residents and the stocks have to wholly owned by U.S citizens. Foreign corporations that are lawfully recognized are free to register their aircrafts so long as the plane is used in America. For cases or mergers and acquisitions, the approval of Department of Transportation has to be sought.

This implies that the thresh-hold of U.S citizens must just be met. In the banking sector, the input of federal and state government is very significant. Foreign banks must sign certain legal forms and must have a government charter or a license. Before obtaining a government charter, a foreign bank must receive approval from Federal Reserve Board. When a bank is affiliated to a foreign bank, the Comptroller can waive the requirement that all directors be US nationals.

Foreign banks undergo rigorous regulation and supervision. To operate a radio or a television business in U.S., one must acquire a license from the Federal Communication Commission. The Federal Communications Act of 1934 does not allow any foreign government or its agents to be granted licenses. This act also applies to U.S corporations whose capital stock is controlled by 20% of foreigners.

However, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 allows foreign enterprise licenses regardless of the nationality of its owners. The State Public Service Commission is charged with regulating telecommunication mergers, acquisitions, and financing transactions in communicates that involve more than one state. The Public Service Commission handles certification procedures for foreign investors.

Foreign investors have to submit report to them. Companies under excessive foreign control normally placed under close scrutiny, especially when sensitive information is involved. State authorities heavily regulate insurance companies. Such companies must extensively disclose their operations.

For them to operate, they have to seek approval from the State Insurance Commissioner. Some states insist that the insurance companies that want to operate in their localities have to be predominantly owned by US citizens or those under permanent residency. Coastal and fresh water shipping is a preserve of vessels owned by American citizens.

These vessels must be registered in the U.S. Vessels that tow or engage in rescuing operations in American territorial waters have to be registered and owned by US citizens. Mineral lands leasing act only allows American citizens to lease mineral lands owned by federal g9overnment to corporations organized in the U.S. The Atomic Energy Act prohibits foreign ownership of nuclear power plants. States with extensive farming areas have instituted laws that restrict foreign investment in real estate (Goldman, 2006).

With regard to national security, if the President of the United States observes that a foreign acquisition is likely to compromise national security, he has the power to suspend or block the acquisition. This is commonly known as the Exon-Florio Law. Other than these regulations, there are a series of foreign investment regulations like the industrial security regulations, reciprocity requirements, reporting requirements, Buy America Act, and licenses for specific countries (Goldman, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign investments regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More List and discuss the steps in the screening process Steps that are involved in the screening process include country identification, preliminary screening, in depth screening, final selection and direct experience (Doole and Lowe, 2001). The world being a global village, one can choose to do business in any destination he or she wants.

It is very important that before settling on a country, the country’s culture, its political ideologies, and religion are known. Preliminary screening involves examining countries that have been identified outwardly (Johansson, 2000). At this point states are ranked on basis of their currency stability, exchange rates, and domestic consumption levels. In-depth screening is done to countries that make it to the third stage.

These countries are considered feasible for market entry (Keegan, 2002). The final selection involves making a final decision on potential shortlist. Finally, personal experience is very important if one is to consider doing business in another country (Muhlbacher, Helmuth, and Dahringer, 2006).

Reference List Doole, I. and Lowe, R., (2001). International Marketing Strategy – Analysis, Development and Implementation, 3rd Ed. New York: Thompson Learning.

Goldman, M.G., (2006). Chapter 4: U.S. Regulation of Foreign Investment. Web.

Johansson, J.K. (2000). Global Marketing – Foreign Entry, Local Marketing, and Global Management. New York: Johansson International Edition.

Keegan, W.J., (2002). Global Marketing Management, 7th Ed. New York: Prentice Hall

Muhlbacher, H., Helmuth, L. and Dahringer, L. (2006). International Marketing – A Global Perspective, 3rd Ed. New York: Thomson.

[supanova_question]

Play: A Key Factor on an Individual’s Development Essay essay help

An analysis of Dr. Stuart Brown’s Book Play: How It shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination and Invigorates the Soul

Very often when we hear the word-play we frequently associate it with juvenile behaviours and activities of children; the adults caught are usually stereotyped as silly. However, what we are unaware of is that play is not only exclusive to the young ones rather it is highly significant in influencing the lives of most, if not all living creatures.

In his book, “Play: How It Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination and Invigorates the Soul”, Dr. Stuart Brown discusses the importance of play in human development through the enhancement of one’s analytical skills in dealing with problems at work or at home, paving ways for creativity and imagination that may contribute to one’s daily activities for the betterment of the future and may even eradicate dullness felt with the gradual lost of meaning and happiness through the improvement of one’s outlook in life.

The play attitude of human beings is highly connected to that of our ape brothers though the purpose of such acts may not be completely similar.

Play in the human race has been associated with an ability of an individual to interact with another person, group, object or himself which is directly proportional to how he thrives in his life, play also triggers creativity and innovation, summing up the importance of play in the development of human life in general.

Play in human behaviour had been evident many millennia before concrete studies were made on the subject. In their findings archaeologist associate play with that of Ethnologists’ theory on the play of the closest species, the apes (De Waal 2009).

However, though play in apes is quite similar to that of humans such as laughing, tickling and wrestling, the purpose of such may differ in a sense that animals simply play for the purpose of teasing, being friendly or pretend while for human beings, play may also be more complex than that. Human beings’ complex play depends on finding a deeper meaning in life, creativity, imagination or innovating himself which other species fail to exhibit for the simplicity of their brains compared to that of complex human minds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Play is mostly about interaction whether be that with another being or a group of beings, or objects. Studies show that individuals who had a secure attached relationships with those closest to them, are more likely to thrive in times of crisis than those who lack emotional adoration of love and care. In his seminar, Stuart Brown cited an example on the experiment conducted on two groups of mice. One group was left alone to play with each other while another one was stopped in their activity to play by the experimenters.

The study was concluded when the two pairs of mice were taken into a cat inhabited environment where all mice went into hiding. Later it was found out that the first group of mice, the ones that were allowed to play, went out of their hiding place to explore, while the second group, which activity of play was interfered, stayed in their hiding place and die (Brown, 2008). The research suggested that humans have the same tendency to fail in thriving if they are deprived of play.

The importance of play is not only limited to children but also highly advisable to adults in which continuous development is needed in the quality of life in terms of a balance of problem solving skills and intellect coupled by sound emotional upbringing in any environment an individual is concerned or a part of.

Creativity is highly regarded in Brown’s theory that play creates new and innovative ideas. In a modern world creative and revolutionary thinkers are popping out from all corners of the globe. Tim Brown emphasizes the importance of the relationship of play in the development of a person’s creative mind (Brown, 2008).

He conducted a few exercises during his seminar and pointed out that play for adults is a ridicules act. He noted that adults are afraid to share their bold ideas to their peers often finding it silly by laughing as compared to children who are very proud to share their perception of things. When people become adults they begin to be conscious of what others might think of them, losing their sense of freedom (Brown, 2008).

In order for individuals to pour their creative juices out, trust is a very important factor to consider. In gaining trust, Brown pointed out that building a friendship is one aspect and that to gain such relationship people are contended in an act of play releasing tension, making individuals feel relax which is also a factor in the unleasing of creativity (Brown, 2008).

Stuart Brown through his book supported Tim Brown’s idea by identifying his findings on how JPL’s younger engineers were having problems in finding solutions to their cases as compared to the older ones. Through the investigation conducted by the company, it was found out that the older engineers were more oriented in playing with their hands during their younger years compared to the newly hired ones from top universities (Brown, 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on Play: A Key Factor on an Individual’s Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Play is one of the most important aspects in the development of creative ideas and innovation on our world today. It is important for people to play for the sake of developing a sense of exploring new things and ideas leading to creative thinking that may materialize in innovative outcomes (De Wall, 2009).

Academic systems in the past had always been biased in terms of their students. Conservatives gave priority by recognizing those who excel in math and sciences more and failing to recognize those who are in the music and arts.

Ken Robinson pointed out that conservative schooling systems kill creativities among their students by failing to recognize them as an asset and dismissing them as an illness needed to be cured (Robinson, 2006). Stuart Brown highlighted the story of the great choreographer Gillian Lynne, who is famous for her works in the musicals Cats and Phantom of the Opera.

Lynne, as a child had difficulty in paying attention to her teachers thus the school saw her as mentally ill and was suggested to take drugs to cure her sickness (Brown 2009). It was in this light that her mother together with a specialist discovered that Lynne was a unique child whose calling is in dancing thus the story of one of the most talented individuals who walked the earth today was born through that single act of letting the child play in the form of dancing.

Dr. Stuart Brown’s book is about understanding the role of play and the way it affected our lives in the past, present and future. The book presents and examines the act of playing in its core in shaping people’s behaviour, outlook, thinking and reaction in life. Play is not only exclusive to children but is very important to adults in order to release the tensions and weights of the world they had been carrying, enabling them to revive what they had found as children.

References Brown, S. (2009). Play Play: How It shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination and Invigorates the Soul. New York: Penguin Publishing Inc.

De Wall, F. (September 2009). Bodies in Sync: Contagious Laughter, Yawns, and moods offer insight into empathy’s origins. Web.

Brown, S. (2008, May) . Play is More than Fun [Video Recording]. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Play: A Key Factor on an Individual’s Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Brown, T. (2008, May). Creativity and Play [Video Recording]. Web.

Robinson, K. (2006, Feb). School Kill Creativity [Video Recording]. Web.

[supanova_question]

Usefulness of Play Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The importance of play in cognitive development of children cannot be ignored. It has been established that children learn the various uses of objects when they are allowed to play with them than when other means of teaching are used. This indicates that play plays an important role in the process of learning among children where the children are given platforms to try the various ways that an object can be put into use.

This paper seeks to examine the relationship that exists between playing among the children and how play helps develop their imaginative skills. The paper also examines the relationship that exits between psychological coping and resiliency, and how this relationship may help a child when confronted with a dangerous situation. Lastly, the paper examines whether the strategies adopted at childhood are still useful in adulthood or at advanced stages of childhood or adolescence stage.

As noted by Hardman, Drew

[supanova_question]

Reinhard Heydrich’s Role in the Holocaust Term Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Reinhard Heydrich’s role in the Holocaust

Decision to murder Jews

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Introduction In 1933, the population of people belonging to the Jewish race stood at above nine million in Europe. Majority of this Jewish population lived in the countries that Germany deserved to occupy and or have impeccable influence during the Second World War.

The holocaust[1] entangled “the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators” (Gilbert 1986, 13). Germans who came to power in 1933 believed in a big way on the racial superiority of the German as compared to other people coming from different races. They considered the Jews as racially inferior[2].

Consequently, the people had advocated for mass slaughter of Jews. In fact, the word holocaust refers to the “sacrifice by fire” in Greek. Because of the perceived beliefs of racial inferiority, the German authorities also targeted other races not related to Jews. Such groups included disabled, gypsies, Russians among others. About 200,000, gypsies, about 200,000 physically or mentally challenged patients from German race were also murdered.

Additionally, “…other groups were prosecuted on political, ideological and behavioral grounds, among them communists, socialist, Jehovah’s witness and homosexuals” (Dawidowicz 1975, 3). Many of the people belonging to holocaust target group, particularly the religious leaders and those whose behavior did not much some of the prescribed social norms principally died out of starvation, mistreatment and or neglect.

Reinhard Heydrich was one of the Germans high-ranking officials who played proactive roles in the Nazi government[3] holocaust incident. Perhaps his inspirations for his involvements in the holocaust were long inbuilt within him right from the age of sixteen. Gilbert, reckons that “At the age of 16 Heydrich took up with the local Freikorps and became strongly influenced by the racial fanaticism of the German Volk movement and their violent anti-Semitic beliefs” (1986, 33).

After two years, he abandoned Halle in an endeavor to a career with the German navy at the capacity of signals officer. In fact by 1926, he had risen up to the “rank of second lieutenant in the Baltic Command of the German Navy (Admiralstabsleitung der Marinestation Ostsee)” (Dawidowicz 1975, 11).

It is while serving at this capacity that he made his initial encounter with “admiral Wilhelm Canaris of the German military intelligence” (Dawidowicz 1975, 11)). Although the two became influential friends they latter ended up being enormous foes. On being accused of being involved with a woman, sired a child and later refused to marry her, his dreams of becoming an admiral within the German navy hit a dead end. On dismissal, from the commission, he joined the Nazi party[4].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the age of 27, in 1931 he became officially a member of SS. Gilbert reckons that “It wasn’t long before his Aryan looks and strict attention to detail caught the eye of the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, with whom he managed to secure an interview for the role of SD Chief” (1986, 18). Borrowing from his experience as a signals officer, he was able to pass the interview.

His tenure at the SD saw the organization grow from a small entity into a gigantic organization capable of controlling nationwide informants’ networks. As Dawidowicz notes, “He collected information and created files on Communists, Trade Unions, Social Democrats, wealthy industrialists, Jews, even Nazi party members and SA leaders” (1975, 37). With aid from Goring and Himmler, he organized for the fall of Ernst Röhm: the SA leader. During this incident, many SA leaders were murdered.

This saw the end of SA term in power. Through this incident, he gained an enormous reputation for being a merciless and efficient mass killer. Gilbert posits, “When Hitler needed a pretense to invade Poland he turned to the master of intrigue and Heydrich delivered” (1986, 19). This reputation perhaps saw him appointed as the president of Interpol in 1940. Reinhard Heydrich chaired the Wannsee conference in 1942 while still serving as the president of Interpol.

The main agenda of this conference was to come up and lay strategies for the ‘ final solution’: deportation coupled with extermination of every Jew who occupied territories that deserved to be solely occupied by Germans. This is what is termed as holocaust. This paper presents his role in the holocaust around the Wannsee conference shading light on the affects it had on the holocaust. It also unveils whether the murdering of the Jews was an incident already determined before the holding of the conference.

Reinhard Heydrich’s role in the Holocaust Reinhard Heydrich was among the holocaust engineers. He took orders and answered to all matters involving the extermination and deportation coupled with the imprisonment of Jews[5].

Such orders and queries emanated from his bosses Himmler and Hitler. In 1938, “During kristallnacht, he sent a telegram to various SD and Gestapo offices, helping to coordinate the program with the SS, SD, Gestapo, uniformed police (Orpo), Nazi party officials, and even the fire departments” (Dawidowicz 1975, 41). The telegram permitted the destruction, as well as acts of arson against Jewish synagogues together with their businesses.

The telegram also gave direction to remove all archives material positioned in the synagogues and community centers belonging to the Jews. According to Graber, the telegram also insisted that “as many Jews – particularly affluent Jews – are to be arrested in all districts as can be accommodated in existing detention facilities” (1980, 9). Soon after the conducting of his arrests, there was the need to contact the necessary concentration camps according to the telegram.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Reinhard Heydrich’s Role in the Holocaust specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This endeavor aimed at ensuring the placement of all the Jews in the camps in the shortest time possible. The directions given in the telegram well indicates that he had the capacity to manipulate and control the Nazi government tools of governance[6]. Any attempt by the law enforcers to concentrate all the Jews in the concentration camps consequently, arguably were conducted at his command and influence of the powers conferred to him.

Reinhard Heydrich had an impeccable ability to control the police and tools of state security. With the help of his boss: Himmler[7], they used political forces to influence the police in an attempt to ensure the consolidation of the Nazi administration in the entire nation of Germany[8].

In 1934, he was chiefly responsible for running the largest political police force: Prussian Gestapo. As Ron reckons “In 1935, he described the police as “the state’s defensive force that could act against the legally identifiable enemy” with the SS as “the offensive force that could initiate the final battle against the Jews”” (1998, p.13).

The final battle was perhaps the early stages for holocaust. Even as the initial violence constructed by the Nazi regime principally to attack Jews begun in 1938, Reinhard Heydrich still headed the police force. His orders were mainly “”Whatever actions occurred should not endanger German lives or property; synagogues could be burned only if there was no danger to the surrounding buildings” (Ron 1998, 27).

On 21 September 1939, he called a conference in which he reiterated the significance of confining Jewish population in the fewest possible concentration camps[9]. As a prerequisite for facilitation of this call, he gives an authority for the establishment of Jewish elders’ council. This council had the chief mandate of ensuring the execution of every order given to the Jews without giving excuses. If the council failed in the realization of this noble duty, the “were to be threatened with “the severest measures” (Ron 1998, 29).

During the 12 November 1938 meeting, Reinhard Heydrich insisted that measures to ensure restriction of the “external sub humans”: There were no adequate strategies to get rid of them completely. Later in January the following year, Goring asked Reinhard Heydrich to tackle the Jewish problem through evacuation coupled with emigration strategies[10].

In June 1940, Heydrich “wrote to the Reich Foreign Secretary Joachim von Ribbentrop that emigration alone could not take care of all the Jews and that “A territorial final solution has thus become necessary[11]” ( Ron 1998, 35). Reinhard Heydrich joined the German navy when his country had just been defeated during the First World War. He thus had the opinions held by his parents of blaming the Jews for the defeat. Consequently, he could have done anything to ensure the incapacitation of the Jews who were to survive the holocaust.

Goring offered him a position to head the ‘central office for Jewish emigration’. While working in this capacity he incredibly dedicated a lot of effort to ensure coordination of differing initiatives geared towards fostering dominance of policies that favored SS, as opposed to Jews. He also credited a lot of his time to work on the initiatives that would facilitate the ‘final solution’.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Reinhard Heydrich’s Role in the Holocaust by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, while still serving as the head of the central office for Jewish emigration, in 1939, “Heydrich sent out a teleprinter message to the Chiefs of all Einsatzqruppen of the Security Police with a subject of “Jewish question in the occupied territory””(Dawidowicz 1975, 65). This telegram contained a detailed instruction addressing the appropriate strategies on how to round up the Jewish population for the purposes of placing them in ghettos[12].

It also addressed and advocated for the formation of Judenrat coupled with an order to conduct an urgent census. This census aimed at unveiling the much-desired information about the actual number of Jewish population occupying the German territories. The telegram also ordered for the “Aryanization plans for Jewish owned business and farms” (Graber, 1980, 45).

There was the issuing of orders for evacuation of Jews from the Eastern provinces by Reinhard Heydrich. These were evident in the 29 December telegram sent by him in 1939. With regard to Lehrer (2000), the telegram described “various details of the “evacuation” of people by railway, and giving guidance surrounding the Dec 1939 Census which would be the basis on which those evacuations were formed” (79).

During the Prague meeting held on 10 October 1941, he was among the invited senior official of the government. In this meeting, the members present discussed the agenda for deport 50,000 Jews occupying of Moravia and Bohemia protectorate. They were to hand over the Jews to the ghettos of Riga and Minsk[13]. Additionally, the meeting tackled yet another crucial agenda. This entailed the decision to hand over about 5000 Jews Rash and Nebe.

Arguably, these two agendas were immensely consistent with the concerns of the Wannsee conference. The main idea was to get rid of the Jews immigrants who the people deemed racially insignificant as compared to the native Germans. As Lehrer (2000) comments, the conference discussed “The creation of ghettos in the Protectorate, which would eventually result to the construction of Theresienstadt, where 33,000 people would eventually die, and tens of thousands more would pass through on their way to death in the East” (76).

Amid being part and parcel of the officials dominating this meeting, later in 1941 he was appointed to take the responsibilities of implementing another essential decision that would help Germany deal with the perceived menace of the Jews presence in their territories by Himmler.

To this end, he was to facilitate the task of forcefully relocating the Jews to Lodz ghetto situated in Poland from Czechoslovakia, as well as Germany. The involvement of the Reinhard Heydrich in these meetings perhaps lays the foundation for his selection as the chair of the 1942 Wannsee conference that would result to holocaust.

During the 1942 conference, he presented to the German government officials the detailed plan that he deemed vital for dealing with the Jewish population. His plan perhaps well exemplify his reputation in possession of the capacity to conduct mass killing and ruthless interventional strategies to deal with anyone who happens to step on the spot forbidden by the Nazi government.

Jews happen to step on this spot: the German territories. Perhaps quoting from his speech, Graber posits, “Under suitable direction, the Jews should be brought to the East in the course of the Final Solution, for use as labor” (1980, 11).

As part of the final solution, mass moving of the Jews to areas that required heavy labor inputs was to follow. This happened with both sexes distantly separated. Reinhard Heydrich added that “the Jews capable of work will be transported to those areas and set to road-building, in the course of which, without doubt, a large part of them (“ein großteil”) will fall away through natural losses” (Graber 1980, 12).

Natural causes were used to avoid direct mentioning of the terms starvation combined with hard labor, which would have anyway killed the Jews rather than direct execution. The main intent here was to ensure that all the Jews died, if possible. Perhaps Reinhard Heydrich’s speech during the Wannsee conference reinforced this concern.

He argued that “The surviving remnant, surely those with the greatest powers of resistance, will be given exceptional treatment, since, if freed, they would constitute the germinal cell for the re-creation of Jewry” (Graber 1980, 12). Special treatment, or “special action” or “treated accordingly” as deployed in different connotations of varying Nazi correspondences, implies that the remnant Jews were to be killed through firing or gassing.

The SS squads had the obligation of arranging this nature of execution of which Reinhard Heydrich had full control[14]. Furthermore, considering the way Reinhard Heydrich constructed his language in an attempt to disguise the actual actions, it evident that he took critical roles in the doctoring of the strategies presented to the government officials at the conference.

One evident concern of this speech is that Reinhard Heydrich was a racial stereotype. He seems to advocate for his proposed strategy to end the races that appeared as unimportant in comparison to his German race. This way, through his contributions in Wannsee conference, he acted to propagate racial hatred, which would then result to more increased mass exportation and killing of people belonging to Jewish race.

As a way of example, in his speech regarding the issue of the special treatment, he argued that “The person of mixed blood of the second degree has a particularly distressing police and political record that shows that he feels and behaves like a Jew” (Graber 1980, 27). This perhaps portrays well and justifies his merciless treatment of Jews in the due cause of the final solution decision of the implementation process[15].

In fact, the Nazi government had a dare need to control the reproduction of Jewish people. Some of the other official present in the Wannsee conference like Dr. Stückart, the then state secretary went on to advocate for forced sterilization, as a way of ensuring that the second-degree Jews hardly reproduced.

To him this would have permanently curtailed the replication of Jewish trait in Europe. In this extent, his proposal was well consistent with the dilemma that faced the Nazi regime: dealing with the high population of the Jews occupying its protectorates, especially as the Germany contemplated on getting into the World War II. Reinhard Heydrich was principle person mandated to ensure successful implementation of the final solution.

As Kimel posits, “State Secretary Dr. Bühler stated further that the solution to the Jewish question in the General Government is the responsibility of the Chief of the Security Police and the SD[16] and that his efforts would be supported by the officials of the General Government” (2008 Para.5).

Reinhard Heydrich happened to the person holding this post. Indeed, at the end of the conference, members agreed that he had the noble responsibility to ensure a successful handling of the Jew question. They thus vowed to provide the necessary support.

Apart from his role as the holocaust mastermind, Reinhard Heydrich was the man solely charged with the implementation of the plan. Kimel posits, “The man entrusted with implementing Hitler decision to eradicate the Jewish population of Europe was Hitler’s deputy- Reinhard Heydrich” (2008 Para.1). Consequently, he was part of all phases of the final solution including his selection to chair the Wannsee conference.

A major part of the final solution entailed creation of concentration camps where the Jews would accumulate awaiting transportation to the killing centers or deportation to the areas where their death was to take place. In this extent, Reinhard Heydrich “created the master plan, organized the ghettos, trained and supervised the Einsatzgrouppen[17]” (Kimel 2008 Para.1). In fact, he took proactive roles in the endeavors to ensure the resettling of the Jews in gas chambers.

As the chairperson of the famous Wannsee conference, he sealed the decision to solve the Jewish question. As notes, after this conference “he ordered the creation of the Ghettos in Poland, at railroad junctures to facilitate their future “resettlement”, he was in charge of rounding up and transportation of the Jews to the Death Factories” (2008 Para.5). This process required hefty mobilization of the German tools of maintenance of laws and order. Heydrich turned out as a gigantic genius at this.

His reputation as a mass killer perhaps gave him additional enthusiasm to execute his roles. His involvements in the holocaust are, additionally justifiable since “Heydrich had an incredible acute perception of the moral, human, professional and political weaknesses of others and he also had the ability to grasp a political situation in its entirety” (Kimel 2008, Para.9). Such a negative perception of the Jews values as compared to the Germans stands out based on the manner in which he classified Jews- first class and second class.

Those Jews who never had the German blood at were to face the weirdest treatment: executed immediately. He had an intense racial hatred that was essential for ruthless actions against the Jewish population[18]. Gilbert, concurs with this argument adding that “His unusual intellect was matched by his ever-watchful instincts of a predatory animal, always alert to danger and ready to act swiftly and ruthlessly” (1986, 45).

Reinhard Heydrich was an ardent centre of evil in the Nazi administration. He changed the responsibilities of the police as dictated by the totalitarian states from tools for enhancing law and order into lethal weapons of the state. In this regard, Breitman claims that the police acted as instruments of “oppression of the citizens[19]” (1991, 121).

He also deployed enormous steps to ensure that the police hardly acted in accordance to the interests of the state. Consequently, Reinhard Heydrich enabled the police to violate human rights[20]. In fact, he provided an absolute assurance that they would not convict for their acts. The decision to murder Jews was a state engineered policy and hence police had to enforce it.

Reinhard Heydrich had proved in other instances as a merciless cold killer. According him the responsibility for implementation of the concerns of the final solution, guaranteed both his senior Himmler and Hitler incredible success of the decision to mass eliminate the Jewish population amounting to about eleven million. He was thus the disguised pivot upon which the Nazi regime oscillated. As Kimel (2008) notes, “The development of a whole nation was guided indirectly by this forceful character” (Para.7).

By noting that he had an immense power to manipulate all political centers of Nazi regime administration, his contribution to doctoring and subsequent implementation of Hitler decision was conspicuous. Fleming reckons, “He was far superior to all his political colleagues and controlled them as he controlled the vast intelligence machine of the SD[21]” (1984, 56). The circumstances giving rise to the holocaust are arguably chiefly attributable to his position and perceived capabilities by his superiors particularly Hitler.

Opposed to somewhat many anticipation that the final decision: being one of the critical decisions made by Nazi government, to have more of the most senior administrator’s follow up, Reinhard Heydrich was responsible for the follow up of its proceeds. This was perhaps because he was an impeccable manipulator.

He even manipulated Hitler leave alone Himmler. Additionally, he employed “his extensive knowledge of the weaknesses and ambitions of others to render them dependent on himself” (Fleming 1984, 57). An introspection of his earlier life perhaps exemplifies his magnitude of atrocity against the Jews.

When he served in the army majority of his comrades initially thought that he was a Jew. He disputed immensely these allegations. As Graber reckons, “When Heydrich was a child in Halle, neighborhood children made fun of him, calling him “Isi” (Izzy), short for Isidor, a name with a Jewish connotation” (1980, 81). Such allegations made him incredibly angry especially when he served in the navy[22].

He, in fact, challenged everybody who made such allegations for tarnishing his personality. His hatred for Jews was thus a long-term concern. Now that he had the opportunity to wipe out this long hated race, people expected the holocaust perhaps to be even worse than it was.

The responsibility of the implementation of the final solution was not by coincidence that it landed to the hand of Heydrich. He was brilliant in giving witty ideas during the meetings between Hitler and Himmler. He, in fact, outshined Himmler in terms of ideas. As Fleming (1984) reckons, “He made Hitler dependent on him by fulfilling al his most insane schemes, thus making himself indispensable.

He supplied Himmler with brilliant ideas so that he could shine in conferences with Hitler, and would do it so tactfully that Himmler never suspected that these ideas were not his own” (57). Holocaust was evidently on Hitler’s insane scheme whose implementation was squarely dependent Reinhard Heydrich for its successful implementation.

Reinhard Heydrich made proactive steps towards solving the nightmare problem of Jewish population destruction. He initiated the steps to ensure that the fabric bonding the Jewish community was substantially torn. To do this, he adopted the strategies of starving, brutally mistreating the Jews, and making use of his foes (Jews) to initiate their process of self-extinction.

As Kimel notes, he “camouflaged the gas chambers as showers for disinfection, incited starved people to volunteer to “resettlement” by offering them bread and sugar and brought Jews from the west in first class railroad cars with dining cars to Auschwitz” (2008, Para.9). A vast myriad of dirty tricks against the helpless Jews had Reinhard Heydrich name conspicuously written behind them.

Reinhard Heydrich had the ability to covert masses of people other than police into murderers. As Kimel notes, “he personally selected the Einsatzgrouppen from ordinary people, not psychopaths; they were bankers, policemen, clerks and even one pastor” (2008, Para.11).

He perhaps managed to accomplish this through the aggravation of racial discrimination amongst the native German population. In this context, Jews stood out as lesser human beings who only served to deprive the native population off their rights. Killing them on a mass scale was then not a significant issue.

Reinhard Heydrich constituted one of the gifted Germans who would pursue whatever responsibilities accorded to them to completion. He would do anything to ensure the realization of his desires. During the holocaust, his desires changed from the roles that he had assumed in overthrowing the previous regime, to extermination and extinction of Jewish population. In fact, he was the most lethal person in Germany.

In Germany, it was almost impossible to gain power without using some black mail. Even though, Reinhard Heydrich had the immense ambition of becoming Reichsminister Minister and if possible the next top most leader of Germany he was not of much threat as compared to, Himmler before the eyes of the Hitler. The most positive way of dealing with Himmler was to subdivide his responsibilities. Implementation of the final solution happened to be one of the responsibilities deemed suitable for multiplication.

Without the contribution of Reinhard Heydrich in the implementation coupled with evaluation of the final solution, mass killing of Jews was not possible. As Kimel notes, “Heydrich was nominated by Hitler as the Protector of Czechoslovakia, and in this post he performed a remarkably admirable job[23]; Heydrich introduced a series of liberalizing moves, decreased the level terror, increased the food rations” (2008, Para.9).

Czechoslovakia government ordered the killing of Reinhard Heydrich. This order excelled. What followed was his assassination in 1942. Upon his death, the implementation of the final solution was now to go to Himmler. As MacDonald notes, the “…cunning, bluffing and superior intelligence of Heydrich was gone” (1989, 12).

Consequently, amid brutal approach in the implementation of the final solution by Himmler ended up not being such a success as compared to Heydrich’s case. Consequently, some Jews survived in Hungary, Bulgaria and France. In October 1944, Himmler suspended the killing of Jews because of “disregarding Hitler’s orders and overruling the objection of the head of Gestapo, Miller” (MacDonald 1989, 15).

Evidently, it stands out safe perhaps to make an assumption that if Reinhard Heydrich was alive, hardly could have any Jew have remained. The manner in which the killings ended additionally justify that Reinhard Heydrich was the main architect and implementer of the final solution. His death resulted to non-completion of the aim of the final solution. Only around six million Jews died out of the targeted eleven million.

Decision to murder Jews Right even before the holding of the conference to seek the final solution, in January 1942, the Nazi government had a clear intent to conduct mass killing of the European Jews. As Fleming (1984) notes, “The decision itself, to exterminate the Jews, was presumably taken before the conference was held.

People had approximated the number of Jews murdered before the Wannsee Conference took place to be 1 million” (1). The meeting, additionally, lasted for only ninety minutes. With the immense factors worth considering when making a decision, it was impossible arriving at ways of handling the possible threats posed by the Jewish people to Germany and the European territories it controlled within this short time span.

From the situation that was on goings in Poland and other territories in the Soviet Union, the conference hardly discussed or came up with new strategies of handling the Jewish question.

In fact, new extermination camps were in place at the time of holding the conference. As Cesarani reckons, “Fundamental decisions about the extermination of the Jews, as everybody at the meeting understood, were made by Hitler, in consultation, if he chose, with senior colleagues such as Himmler and Göring, and not by officials” (1999, 181).

Consequently, it must have been evident to the majority of the participants that the decision on the Jewish question had already been made. Reinhard Heydrich was thus acting within his capacity to brief the conference attendants on some policy under implementation.

Perhaps Reinhard Heydrich main purpose of convening the conference was mainly to make sure that conflicts such the ones experienced upon mass killing of Germans with Jewish blood was conducted in Riga. As Cesarani observes, “The simplest and the most decisive way that Heydrich could ensure the smooth flow of deportations was by asserting his total control over the fate of the Jews in the Reich and the east, and [by] cow[ing] other interested parties into toeing the line of the RSHA” (1999, 187).

Majority of content of the speech delivered by him happened to be news for the better part of the attendants. Again, they took remarkably little time to answer technical question regarding the strategies for solving the Jewish question. This perhaps well indicates that such decisions must have come from a non-disputed authority. This authority happened to be Hitler.

The decision to murder Jews was not arrived upon convening of the Wannsee conference. The chief purpose of holding the conference was perhaps to seek legitimatization of the mass killings of the vast Jewish people in Germany, as well as its territories.

On the closure of the meeting, he appeared to have managed to convince the participants on his strategies of dealing with the Jewish question. Many of them not only admitted having thought the plans as effective, but also promised to offer assistance that was within their capacity. The conference was thus a final step toward advocating for ruthless actions against the Jews. The aftermaths of the conference gave rise to an immense catastrophe on the Jews.

As Fleming notes, “They deported them in considerable numbers to the ghettos in the east and murdered them after the conference” (1984, 5). For the case of German Jews, this was a new thing, only that the magnitude of the exercise of this exercise was aggravated upon the convening the Wannsee conference.

Right from 1941, Reinhard Heydrich has sort for authenticity of plans to exterminate and murder Jews. Goring had as a repercussion accorded this authority European Jews deportation having yielded success. His main intention to call the conference was no predominantly depended on the need to come up with a plan mad by the top official, of the government.

This also appears as the thought of Cesarani who laments, “the main purposes of the conference were to establish the overall control of the deportation program by the RSHA over a number of significant Reich authorities, and to make the top representatives of the ministerial bureaucracy into accomplices and accessories to, and co-responsible for, the plan he was pursuing” (9).

In fact, special approval by the transportation minister was vital since the process of deportation entangled hefty logistical needs. With the existing economical difficulties, this was necessary since the appointment of the rail transport was essentially for this purpose.

Ron Rosenbaum, a journalist author, reveals that the term final solution had been used much earlier in the Nazi party documents even before the Wannsee was held. As at 1931, the Nazi party documents incorporated the terms to refer to putting the Jews forced labor entangling cultivation of swamps, which were predominantly administrated by the SS division (Ron 1998, 23).

This is perhaps giving rise to the Nuremberg laws. The proposition of the final decision was thus arguably implementation of Nuremberg laws in the extreme manner.

Hitler, on the other hand, on 16th of December 1941 in a meeting with the top government officials, had given hints on the decision to murder Jews well in reasonable time before the day of the conference. He had priory called for incorporation of plans to handle the Jews mercilessly. In this regard, he argued that the Germans had no need to spare the Jews or even any other person in the world, apart from their fellow Germans in one of meetings with his senior official in the Nazi government.

Ron expounds on this and records Hitler to have having commented that “if the combined forces of Judaism should again succeed in unleashing a world war that would mean the end of the Jews in Europe…I urge you: Stand together with me…on this idea at least: Save your sympathy for the German people alone” (1998, 67).

This call aimed at drawing the support for the mass killing of the Jews-holocaust. Additionally, Hitler noted that he was involved in a discussion that would finally see the Jews relocated to the east. Although, not all the 3.5 million of people were possible to shoot, according to Hitler, they had to do something about them[24]. Additionally, he commented, “…is scheduled to take place in the offices of the RSHA in the presence of Oberqruppenfuhrer Heydrich.

Whatever its outcome, a prominent Jewish emigration will commence” (Ron 1998, 69). Hitler’s comments about the strategies of copping with the Jews menace perhaps gave the take and the decision to murder Jews well before the time of Wannsee conference. The argument here is that, Reinhard Heydrich was only reading the harsh decisions against the racially considered outfit group of people: Jews, during the Wannsee conference.

Conclusion Upon losing in the first war, Germans associated the loss to the people who Heydrich termed as inferior subhuman: Jews. In 1933, the popu lation of this inferior race, stood at around even million. These Jews occupied the area that Germany thought it was its right to occupy and or influence.

Consequently, Goring directed Heydrich to solve the Jewish question through evacuation and emigration. On evacuation and emigration of around 200,000 Jews, Heydrich thought that evacuation and emigration was not adequate strategy for ensuring that the Jews entirely got out of the German colonies.

Consequently, he brought up the idea of the final solution. In the paper, it has been argued that Heydrich was much close to Hitler than Hitler was to Himmler: the boss to Heydrich. The paper continued to argue that Heydrich was part of the initial planning of the final solution decision, which translated to holocaust.

This line of argument is largely justifiable since as the paper has noted, Heydrich was an impeccable brilliant influencer, who influenced even Hitler. Whenever any plan to execute dirty deals, including the blackmails that saw Hitler come to power, Heydrich was there for Hitler to ensure successful implementation of the plan.

His roles in the holocaust were particularly significant. Right from the preliminary arrangements that saw mass killing of Jews emerge even before the convention of the Wannsee conference, Heydrich was largely involved with them. It is also apparent that the Wannsee conference aimed at briefing the senior members of the Nazi regime administration on the strategies worth taking to solve the Jews question for the last time.

The implementation process of the final solution solely fell in the hand of Heydrich. As the paper argues, the implementation process would not have been as successful as it would have been if pioneered by his boss Himmler. Perhaps this is incredibly justifiable by the manner in which the implementation process came to a dead end upon the assassination of Heydrich in 1942.

Bibliography Breitman, Richard. The architect of genocide: Himmler and the final solution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

Cesarani, David. Holocaust: from the persecution of Jews to mass murder. New York: Rouledge, 1999.

Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War against the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975.

Fleming, Gerald. Hitler and the final solution. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984.

Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe during the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986.

Graber, Gyn. The Life and Times of Reinhard Heydrich. London: Robert Hale, 1980.

Kimel, Alexandra. Holocaust understanding and prevention. Web.

Lehrer, Steven. Wannsee House and the Holocaust. North Carolina: McFarland Jefferson, 2000.

MacDonald, Callum. The Killing of Reinhard Heydrich. New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Ron, Rosenbaum. Explaining Hitler: The Search for Origins of His Evil. Harper Books, 1998.

Footnotes In its strict sense, the term Holocaust implies a Jewish affair. Therefore, despite the presence of other races, the holocaust strictly targeted the Jews

This is the reason as to why the found it easy to carry out any evil activity against the Jews

This government also tortured other categories of people like the homosexuals. However, the degree of torture towards the Jews was pronounced

This happened immediately after the first world war

He was there to implement the plan put forth by Himmler of clearing the Jewish people from the face of Europe

People referred him to as a genius who could successfully implement any plan given to him including orders

He was appointed Himmler’s deputy in 1931

This administration was entirely against the Jewish people. It could not tolerate anything that the people did, whether good of bad

According to them, the Jews were inhuman and had not valid reason of living. Therefore, the only possible option was to exterminate them

This was an activity done along the lines of racism

He had identified the weaknesses of the Jews from all perspectives: morally, politically and even professionally. Therefore, according to him, these people were weak and useless. They could not bear any fruits in the European continent

This was the best place where they could be tortured without affecting other people

While in these places, the Jews could not access food, medicine, clothes, and or any other basic requirement. Therefore, besides the physical torture, they were also tortures in terms of their rights

He had altered the duty of the police: instead of performing their noble role of maintaining law and order, they had become oppressive tools whose major duty was to kill, steal and destroy

According to him, what he did and said was right and worth implementing. In fact, there is one instance where he literary impregnated a girl and declined his marriage promise that he had made to the girl. This paved way for another style of torture to the Jewish girls: raping

Heydrich was the organizer of this service despite his being unemployed

His pronounced wits made him stand a chance to manipulate both his boss, Himmler and Hitler. He had the ability to control them as he did to the central service system

He even did these evils acts himself like raping girls

They did every sort of evil to disrupt law and order for the Jewish people who had no powers to defend themselves

They carried out acts of terror, blocked food from reaching the starving Jews, exposed them to stern environments and duties despite their deteriorated bodies

In fact, he could even use the Jews to harm themselves unknowingly through the unhealthy foods he ordered to be given to them

In fact, many people attribute his ruthless actions against the Jews to this name. He did not like it and consequently the Jews. The name significantly influenced his character.

The admirable job in question included the organization of the arrest of massive number of people including the Catholic political aspirants. In fact, they say that the available accommodation space in the jail was inadequate following the massive arrests

Arguably, this indicates the possibilities of inculcating some strategies of execution of some Jews

[supanova_question]