Relationships are the central point that defines the society, and social roles of people. It is obvious that there is always someone who dominates in relationships on different levels and there are always the ones who are subjective to other’s power and intellect.
The last ones, are they victims or criminals? This is the central question explored by the main characters John and Martin in the plays by David Mamet Oleanna and Peter Shaffer Equus. Power, manipulation, dissembling and misunderstanding are the main traits that characterize relationships described in the two plays.
David Mammet’s, Oleanna depicts the professional relationship between teacher and student that are dominated by unequal social roles and power of influence which skips from one to another. Peter Shaffer’s, Equus dives into the dynamics between psychiatrist and patient (a boy who was accused of a terrible crime committed on psychological grounds).
Their relationships are also complex and can be defined through mutual manipulation. As two professionals are individuals that have a responsibility to their professions that they are trained in; however, at times in both plays John and Martin wrestle with were to draw the line between personal feelings about their students, Carol and client Alan, and at the same time, face situations that cause them questioning their choices and overcome weaknesses to hold the leading positions in the complex relationships.
Thus, the power and dominance in relationships, as well as professional responsibility of two professionals that deal with patients and students are the central issues explored by two authors in two most controversial plays of the twentieth century.
The plays reveal early that both Alan and Carol had problematic childhoods and particular psychological traumas that defined their attitudes towards people and society. The events that harmed their souls, played crucial roles in their relationships in the society and defined their attitudes to life.
Both characters are supposed to be amenable as they are in the subjective positions, a female manipulative student who can’t get on well with the teacher’s lections, and a patient with psychological disorders sometimes take the leading positions in relationships and make their dominant professors feel uneasy and weak in front of their patient and student.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, Alan who is supposed to be treated plays tricks with a psychiatrist and, instead of being asked, begin asking his psychiatrist:
“Dysart: Do your dream often?
Alan: do you?
Dysart: It’s my job to ask the question.” (Shaffer 30)
Dysart should protect himself not to become manipulated, as well as John notices that Carol takes a leading position in their conversations when begin using academic vocabulary. In order to save his leading position, professor makes use of physical power.
The professor and child psychiatrist saw their aim to help people within their fields, but in fact, their intentions were different. The rewards for caring about people can come in monetary or personal satisfaction. John appeared fixated on the monetary, whereas, Martin was more concerned about his personal struggle. In the plays the main characters struggle with the balance between a moral responsibility to self, profession, and student or patient.
A psychiatrist and professor success is measured on their ability to help the student and client; however, at what expense? David Mammet refers to John’s need to feed his family often. As John’s student pleads for a chance to improve her failing grade, the phone rings constantly reminding him that he has financial needs to meet at home:
We will write a custom Essay on Characters and the Essence of Relationships: David Mamet’s Oleanna and Peter Shaffer’s Equus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “I think your angry. Many people are. I have a telephone call that I have to make. An appointment that is rather pressing; though I sympathize with your concerns, and though I wish I had the time, this was not a previously scheduled meeting and I” (Mammet 13).
Carol confronts John for help in his office. John is in the midst of talking to a realtor over his home purchase and feels the pressure to get out of the conversation quickly.
The professor tries to explain to get Carol to accept that she is unable to understand the material and not to be ashamed of it. In the conversation John is patronizing Carol. In his mind he takes no professional responsibility for Carol’s inability to understand the material. At this point his professionalism is compromised for the sake of monetary personal gain.
The conversation continues and Carol belittles Johns teaching skills. Carol states his teaching is not for real people. John sees his shortcomings and states “Well, then, that’s my fault.” (Mammet 17) John’s professional integrity wins out and he gives Carol another chance.
John’s job is to teach Carol just as Martin’s in Equus is to make children better, but once again the question is at what personal cost? Martin is also in a fragile professional state not because of monetary reasons, but rather because he no longer feels that children understand the benefits of his treatment. “trt eating him is going to be unsettling.
Especially in my current state” (Shaffer 18). The words are spoken by Martin to Hesther whom chose Martin to professionally treat Alan. Hesther is under a strong opinion that each child deserves to get treatment from their mental anguish. Alan is wrestling with the notion that what he does inflicts more pain to the child; therefore, leaving Martin useless to the profession of Psychiatry.
It is Martin’s notion that Alan is actually happier without the knowledge. Martin has found a perfect justification to abandon his professional integrity. “I shrank my own life no one can do it for you.
I settled for being pallid and provincial out of my own eternal timidity” (Shaffer 80) Martin is reflecting on his life at home and the type of person he has been. His self-reflection is explaining that his life has not been about doing what is right, but rather what is easy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Characters and the Essence of Relationships: David Mamet’s Oleanna and Peter Shaffer’s Equus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A continually theme through Equus is Martin trying to give excuses to Hesther of why he should not treat Alan. The “eternal timidity” that Martin feels in his personal life, has entered into his professional. In addition, he feels that he does something wrong. His point is that he “cuts” children souls and minds trying to make them better and socially accepted.
However, he also understands that he takes their individuality, deprives them of their imagination. Does he really help children, or just make “ordinary things” of them? He compares himself to a chief priest of the Homeric Greece, who “fits the knife and slices elegantly down to the navel, just a seamstress following a pattern.
I part the flaps, sever the inner tubes, yank them out and throw them hot and steaming on to the floor” (Shaffer 17). This is an allusion to his profession and what he actually commits to children’s minds.
Both main characters were in search of finding balance between their own personal lives with lives and the professional relationships with Alan and Carol. The empathy John felt for Carol pulled him in a direction that made him stop and rethink the type of professor he had been. Just as exposing the truth to Alan of what he had done, gave Martin personal insight into himself.
Martin and John spent the early portion of the plays fighting with themselves and their own personal demons. Once resolved to doing their jobs they were able to learn from the people that they were to help.
Martin’s job was to expose the truth of Alan’s actions to himself thus revealing his impure thoughts and leaving him normal. “The normal is a good smile in child eyes- all right. It is also the dead stare in a million adults” (Shaffer 61). Societal pressures were equally compelling for Carol in Oleanna.
The need to seek higher education and escape from her upbringing was a pressure that Carol felt every day. “Economic, sexual, you cannot begin to imagine. And endured humiliations I pray that you and those you love never will encounter” (Mammet 69)
Thus, we can come to a conclusion that every person has his/her own social role which is defined by many factors. Events that took place in the childhood, education, and upbringing are important for shaping our attitudes to the better world.
The plays analyzed in this paper, provide the insight into the character of relationships between people who play different social roles (professor, student, psychiatrist and patient) and how they can manipulate each other using language, power and situations. There are no victims and there are no criminals in relationships, there are different positions and perceptions of the social norms and beliefs.
Works Cited Mamet, David. Oleanna. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1993.
Shaffer, Peter. Equus. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
Hamlet’s Relationship with His Mother Gertrude Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Hamlet and His Mother’s Relationship
Hamlet’s Relationship with Ophelia
Hamlet’s Relationship with His Mother: How Does Hamlet Treat His Mother?
Does Hamlet Love His Mother?
Further Study: FAQ
William Shakespeare, the famous playwright, has addressed the issue of relationships in most of his plays, especially as of family ties. He has in most of his books and in particular, The Tragedies exposed the good and the bad side of family ties, especially between parents and their kids, including oedipal complex issues.
In Hamlet, the must-read chef-d’oeuvre, Shakespeare brings to light the connections between members of a family, namely Hamlet, who is a prince, his late father, his mother Gertrude and his stepfather Claudius. This paper seeks to address Hamlet’s relationship with his mother as brought out in the play though the analysis of the characters.
Hamlet and His Mother’s Relationship In this play, Shakespeare uses a woman called Gertrude, who is among the few women featured in the masterwork. Through her relationship with her son Hamlet, Shakespeare paints a picture of betrayal. Gertrude marries the brother of Hamlet’s father and this why Hamlet is upset with his mother. In his opinion, remarriage is a tremendous act of betrayal.
In the whole book, Hamlet dedicates most of his time and energy trying to take revenge for the death of the king, his father, whom he believes was cruelly treated by those for whom he cared. Therefore, he suffered during his whole lifetime. Hamlet feels that Gertrude hurts the king more by not mourning during the king’s burial.
She instead delights in her new marriage depicting some freedom from oppression that she went through in her former marriage, as the reader can insinuate. As a result, Hamlet develops significant irritation towards her mother, which he manifests through his monologue and dialogue with other people as depicted in the play.
Hamlet is made to change his perception of love after his mother marries his late father’s brother, two months after the death of his father (Shakespeare I.ii.138). As a result, Hamlet concludes that his father truly loved his mother, yet his mother never loved him.
He fails to understand how his mother could so much dangle on his father (Shakespeare I. ii. 140, 143) then marry Claudius so soon after his father’s death. He refuses to admit Gertrude and Claudius’ relationship. He, therefore, resolves that woman’s adoration is so frail and can be changed so easily depending on the situation that the woman finds herself. Faulkner calls women “frail beings not because of their physical abilities but because of their weak emotions” (146).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hamlet’s Relationship with Ophelia According to Hamlet, his mother betrayed not only his father but also the love and the marriage his parents shared. Gertrude’s unrefined actions change Hamlet’s perception of love towards others. He reaches the level of hating Ophelia, the girl who truly loves him fearing that she might be in possession of his mother’s betrayal character.
Because of Gertrude’s evil plans of betraying her once-beloved husband, Hamlet’s love for Ophelia, the woman who he loved and one who gave back an equal share of the love changes, and is significantly affected.
When with her and watching a play, Ophelia comments that the prologue is very brief and Hamlet likens the briefness to a woman’s love (Shakespeare III. ii. 137-138). As time goes by, the gap between Hamlet and Ophelia widens to the level of Hamlet declaring that he does not love Ophelia at all and is not ready to love her anymore (Shakespeare III.i.119-120).
However, after Ophelia’s death, the reader realizes that Hamlet was not sincere with his previous words concerning his faded love to Ophelia since he later on confirms to Laertes that he loved her so much and no amount of love could match his love for her (Shakespeare V.i.254-256).
The reader realizes the reason behind Hamlet’s words that though he knows very well that Ophelia loves him, he fears that it might take after that between his mother and his late father, which was in no doubt fake.
Hamlet’s Relationship with His Mother: How Does Hamlet Treat His Mother? Gertrude’s actions instil a lot of anger to Hamlet who in turn reaches the level of killing any man who seems to take up the position of his late father.
Hamlet ends up believing his mother conspired with his uncle into killing his beloved father. He is filled up with so much rage and hatred until he kills Polonius in his mother’s bedroom after seeing him and thinking that he is Claudius.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Hamlet’s Relationship with His Mother Gertrude specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His temper is fueled by the conviction that his mother by conspiring to kill the king and then marrying the killer caused an offence too great to be forgiven. After mistaking Polonius for Claudius and killing him, his mother calls the action “a bloody deed to which Hamlet replies that a bloody deed is killing a king and marrying the brother” (Shakespeare III. iv. 26-28).
Hamlet’s mother is shocked at this accusation, and the shock is so big until Hamlet begins to doubt if she really killed his father. From this point, though still convinced that she betrayed his father, he changes and starts warning her of her evil actions instead of accusing her. He comes to the full conclusion that his mother never killed her father.
The unacceptable marriage of his mother to his uncle continues to antagonize him. He, therefore, decides to only “speak daggers to her but use none” (Caxton 366).
With this, he speaks to her harshly addressing her as the queen, wife to the king’s brother. He asks her where her shame is and proceeds to compare his father, who he refers to as a combination and a form indeed and his uncle who he calls a ‘mildewed ear’.
Of course, Gertrude becomes defensive, orders him not to speak to him in that manner but he continuous, and warns her to repent her actions and prevent that which is to come (Shakespeare III. iv. 141). He even cautions her against going into her uncle’s bed. He tries to make her mother realize she is not doing the right thing and should feel sorry and stop her unrefined actions.
More on the Topic How is Laertes a Foil for Hamlet? 5 166 What words suggest that Claudius plans to control Hamlet? 5 26 What Does the Ghost Tell Hamlet? 5 58 Which Details in Hamlet Reflect Elizabethan Society? 5 230 What Does Hamlet Mean When He Refers to the “Pangs of Dispriz’d Love”? 5 467 What Incident Serves to Initiate the Conflict in Hamlet? 5 70 The conversation between Hamlet and his mother brings back Gertrude to her senses where she feels guilty and ashamed of her actions (Caxton 80).
It is at this point that she realizes that all along, she had been doing what was not right, and it was a great act of betrayal to her late husband. She admits that though she had never consciously been aware that Claudius had killed his brother, she had never fully approved of her actions.
Gertrude admits that when she looked into her soul, she was shocked by what she saw. Meanwhile, Hamlet has been acting very madly, where he discloses to his mother that it is just but a feigned state, but he will not reveal it to anyone. From this point henceforth, as Horatio points out, Hamlet and Gertrude’s relationship is restored (14). Together now, they begin to seek revenge for the king’s death.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hamlet’s Relationship with His Mother Gertrude by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hamlet continues with his feigned state of madness while Gertrude continues to make Claudius trust that the condition is real, and these actions become of great importance later (Shakespeare IV. i. 6-7).
Claudius hence comes to believe the prince’s simulated state, and he starts fearing what he may do to him. During the fencing match between Hamlet and Laertes, Gertrude shows that her allegiance is with the prince and not with the king for she gives her son her napkin and tells her that she rejoices in his fortunes.
Mother of Hamlet goes on to drink from the poisoned cup that was meant for him and though her new husband warns and orders her to stop drinking it, she continues and finishes it. This shows where her full allegiance is, and despite there still being intense feelings between them, they find their relationship becoming better before she finally dies.
Does Hamlet Love His Mother? It is noted throughout the play that even though Hamlet is hurt by her mother’s act of betrayal of marrying her husband’s brother a short time after her husband’s death, he never wishes to hurt her. His main aim all along is to avenge his father’s death. His quest for vengeance does not compromise his love for his mother, and all through the play, his love for him is evidently displayed.
He tries and succeeds at convincing her to realize that her actions were wrong and together, they undertake to avenge the king’s death. So despite the tense relationship between Hamlet and his mother at the beginning marked with feelings of anger and rage (Friedlander 3), their relationship is restored at the end, and Hamlet finally achieves his objective of avenging his father’s death. It is all a message of hope.
Works Cited Caxton, Charles. Commentary on Hamlet. New York: W.W. Norton
The Effectiveness of E-Bay’s New Marketing Strategy: Analysis Essay best college essay help
Companies that experience rapid expansion and growth usually focus on retaining the traditional customer base while at the same time implementing other strategies to attract new clients. New marketing tactics aim at promoting profitability and enabling the company to stay ahead of the competition.
With increasing technology, marketing strategies focus on expansion of its productivity, increasing its product range and expanding into new markets.
In the case study, e-Bay’s new marketing strategy of diversifying its product offerings and services to suit new customers produced unintended results as the traditional customers were not receptive of the new changes. The company, after 15 years of successful business, introduced a new strategy to expand its customer base and increase its profits.
However, the new strategy failed to take into account the needs of its traditional customers. While it is important for a company to implement new marketing strategies, implementing the strategies within the existing systems is more useful to retain the traditional customers and enhance profitability.
The idea of creating an online open auction market by a software developer, Pierre Omidyar led to e-Bay’s establishment in 1995 with an aim of providing fair and open marketplace for sellers and buyers of treasured items. e-Bay’s rapid growth over a short time is attributed to the novel nature of the idea, which attracted many potential buyers in search of treasures and sellers wishing to dispose off old items.
In addition, the company also focused on generating profits by charging a fee from sellers of items. Other strategies that contributed to e-Bay’s rapid expansion include expansion of its product offerings to cover many categories of items. e-Bay also expanded to include international markets in different countries.
The company also acquired new sub-sites such as shopping.com, Skype, and Paypal, which helped to e-bay to diversify its products to suit consumer needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another strategy that contributed to e-Bay’s early success is the introduction of fixed selling option whereby, sellers put a designated retail price for their products. This trend was different from the earlier auction method whereby the highest bidder purchased the item. The idea was revolutionary in the sense that it allowed sellers to sell their items more quickly and in large volumes.
The new CEO, John Donahoe, introduced a new strategy that focused on selling new products at a fixed price to suit the changing consumer needs, a strategy that produced successful results for the other competitor e-commerce companies like Amazon.com.
However, the new strategy was not welcome by the traditional sellers who formed the bulk of the e-bay customers thus affecting e-bay’s growth.
Donahoe’s new strategy entailed promoting fixed price options for items as opposed to auctions. The strategy reviewed the cost of listing an item, which shifted to effecting charges after the item has been sold.
The strategy also aimed at rewarding the sellers who sold a large volume of items by reducing the charges. Additionally, the new strategy aimed at promoting sales of highly rated items and products in high demand besides providing other after sale services like free shipping.
The new fixed pricing option favored large merchants as the traditional items listed lacked standard pricing, which forced small merchants to seek alternative means of selling their wares affecting e-bay’s growth in profits and expansion to new markets.
The marketplace is dynamic and is affected by many forces requiring new strategies for a business to remain competitive. In the case study, the marketing environment is defined by technology. e-bay pioneered the online marketplace, which allowed buyers and potential buyers to transact business.
We will write a custom Essay on The Effectiveness of E-Bay’s New Marketing Strategy: Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Donahoe’s new strategy also focuses on developing a new technology that gives billing to items based on customer satisfaction rating and their prices.
Globalization also is evident in this case study as e-Bay and its competitors including Amazon.com offer a wide range of products and aim to expand into new international markets. Competition also shapes the marketing environment in this case study. The new strategy proposed by Donahoe aims at providing better services than what e-Bays competitors like Amazon.com provide.
The introduction of a fixed price listing of the items sold through e-Bay provided greater customer value than the traditional auction method. The new strategy introduced favored sellers dealing in new products and in large quantities as opposed to traditional sellers who listed old merchandise.
The customers could buy new products at a specified price rather than auctioning. In addition, the new strategy provided for the free delivery of the item sold by the seller, which was an added advantage to the seller. The new approach also allowed customers to search items that are highly rated and in high demand by customers.
Despite the noble nature of the new strategy of diversifying the products and attracting new customers, I disagree with CEO Donahoe’s assertion that all sellers will benefit from the strategy. The strategy aims at promoting transactions involving new products, therefore, traditional sellers dealing with use products are likely to lose.
In addition, small-scale sellers are likely to lose as they get poor ratings thus affecting their businesses. e-Bay’s strategy will fail to realize the intended goals if it is not corrected at least in part. I would recommend that the rating of sellers be removed to favor small-scale and traditional sellers.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Management of MDD
Introduction MDD is a cluster of syndromes that comprises a mental disorder, which is marked by declined moods, followed by a decline in self-esteem and not being interested in pleasurable tasks. Its features involve a clinical course, marked by major depressive periods. These take like a fortnight, marked by low moods and displeasure. The condition is also referred to as major depression, unipolar depression and clinical depression.
The disorder is disabling and comprises an individual’s lifestyle and family, loss of appetite and sleep distractions, which compromises one’s health (Greden, 2001). The patients of this medical condition end up committing suicide. The reason as to why I chose the topic is because it affects my life and many people around me in school and at home.
Having the condition has affected my lifestyle, school work, social life and has compromised my career since I lose pleasure in all activities. I even devalue life as I find my self contemplating on suicide during the phases of depression.
MDD affects people differently with different symptoms such as weight loss, pessimism, feeling guilty, loss of concentration, insomnia or hypersomnia, sleeping disorders, fatigue, hopelessness, irritability, loss of self-worth, disinterest in life and in severe cases, delusions and hallucinations may result.
The disorder affects more of females as compared to males (Deb
Ways through which space is defined by cultural ornamentation Essay best college essay help
Introduction In architecture and decorative art, ornamentation is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object. Monumental sculpture and their equivalent in decorative art are excluded from the term; most ornaments do not include human figures, and if present, they are small compared to the overall scale. The most common types of architectural ornaments even with the advancement of technology since civilization remain the imitative ornament, applied ornament, and the organic ornament.
The imitative ornament as the name suggest, is a decoration embedded on the structure imitating a form of definite meaning and with a symbolic significant. The applied ornament generally adds decorative beauty in the structure and forms bearing with them. The organic ornaments on the other hand are the inherent decorations of the art representing the piece of art in its organic form.
Of these three major categories of architectural ornaments, the applied architectural ornament remains the most common and widely used form of architectural ornamentation. Different cultural societies have continued to use the applied ornament symbolically to express their cultures and poster their communities globally through their fine arts and decorations.
Architectural ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or painted or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament creating the impression of beauty as aforementioned. Wide varieties of decorative styles and motifs have developed for architecture and the applied arts including pottery, furniture, metal works.
In textiles, wallpaper and other objects where the decoration maybe the main justification for its existence, the term pattern or design are more likely to be used. Textile, especially decoration and design, play an important role because different cultures and communities prefer specific fabric decoration and designs with specific colors and patterns.
These specifications for communities over time have led to easy identification of these communities from the mode of their dressing particularly the traditional attire. For wallpapers, solemnly made for decoration, their designing determines their attractiveness to the target group and therefore expanded demand in the market. Textile and wallpaper decoration designs and patterns have changed with time since civilization as it has been with the architectural decorations due to the changes in technology.
In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian, Sir John Summerson, called it “surface modulation”. This particularly meant that, the application of the common form of architectural ornamentation on the surfaces of structures led to the modulation or modification of the same surfaces creating attractiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Decoration and ornament has been evident in civilization since the beginning of recorded history, ranging from Ancient Egyptian architecture to the apparent lack of ornament of the 20th century modernist architecture.
Style of ornamentation clearly comes out in studying the cultures of different communities that developed the decorations and ornaments from their preceding cultures or modified unique decoration forms from other cultures. Architectural decoration started in ancient Egypt, where civilization started. The first decorations on the walls of buildings with pure natural theme dominated with figures of animals and plants.
Not all welcomed this advancement of decoration and ornamentation. Some critics of the then architectural technological advancement did not imagine that decoration was necessary.
Adolf Loos wrote his famous essay, “ornament and crime” in 1908, dismissing embellished ornaments as merely unnecessary decoration. According to Adolf, there was nothing important in decorating buildings and to him; anyone doing decoration was a criminal and a degenerate in the society.
Furthermore, Adolf compared decorating a building to a person doing tattoo in their faces, which was crime; at least to him. Decorating objects created by people were like tossing them from sides until they ruined and wracked. The ban proclaimed against this extremely harmonious formal language this intersection between high art and folklore, prevailed for almost a century.
Only since the return of the millennium, ornament has reestablished itself as decorative and yet subversive and allusive elements, abstract, and floral patterns adorn and dominate works in the contemporary visual arts. Bespeak beauty and seduction and they also always refer to society and gender – the way reality is constructed.
Culture is looked upon as living ways of various groups of individuals, which may consist of aspects like interaction, social activity, spirituality, thought, Sciences, and arts (Smyth, 2001, p.56). These may be explained as follows: Interaction refers to human contact and social aspects, which include give-and-take, regarding conversations, protocol, negotiations, and socialization.
We will write a custom Essay on Ways through which space is defined by cultural ornamentation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These are useful aspects regarding living ways because individuals are usually dynamic and social in nature; therefore, they have to involve themselves in various interaction types with each other within their environments (Low, 2005, p.15). During these interactions of cultures, people copied decorative and ornamental forms which they modified coming up with better-decorated ornaments.
Social activity is shared pursuits and experiences in cultural communities, which are usually demonstrated, by various life-celebrating and festivity events. These social activities including the celebrations and festivities provide an opportunity for different cultures to interact, exchange ideas, and learn from each other in terms of ornamentation and decoration among other things.
Spirituality refers to belief systems, which help to build moral codes that are usually passed on through generations, which promotes human beings’ well-being. In addition, spirituality is usually highlighted through actions and languages. Thoughts are expressed ways through which people understand, interpret, and perceive the world around. Sciences and arts are looked upon as the most refined and advanced human expression forms (Smyth, 2001, p.48).
Science and art promoted the expression of the skills that different cultures had in their possession and those learned from others during their regular interactions and festivities. Language refers to the earliest human institution or expression medium which is usually sophisticated. These aspects indicate that culture is usually very important within society because it makes it possible for people to understand the various living ways, which exist among individuals.
Cultural studies may be perceived as an area of great importance because of its ability to offer appropriate principles for understanding and explaining human behavior. It is usually among the unique elements regarding contemporary social thought and it is very essential in contemporary social science research and specifically for the study of anthropology in particular.
Ornaments can be conceived in many ways; they appear in different places, colors, scales, and patterns depending on the culture from where the ornaments originate for cultures have distinct and unique colors and patterns symbolizing different themes. In most cases, these ornaments are worn on specific times for a meaning and by a particular class of people. Various are also the reasons to use ornaments, sometimes they are planned, sometimes they occur unintentionally – certainly, however, they are part of the local culture.
Ornamentation on the other hand is usually looked upon as the process or act of embellishing, adorning, or decorating (Low, 2005). Especially where a combination of both color and pattern decoration are applied, the patterns on the form or structure or figure adds interest in form of beauty more so where the image intended is solely imagination.
These decorations and ornaments differ from culture to another and from one community to the other. This brings to our attention that cultural ornamentation is the aspect, which makes it possible for various cultural aspects to be embellished, adorned, or decorated.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ways through which space is defined by cultural ornamentation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This implies that cultural ornamentation involves processes, which make it possible for cultural aspects to be attractive or appear as midpoints of interest (Winch, 1997). It therefore becomes apparent that, different cultures bear different decorative forms, which consequently express different cultural aspects.
From the aspects brought to light above, it is apparent that space according to cultural ornamentation is usually perceived as the various cultural differences, which are experienced amid various cultures (Low, 2005). It is apparent that culture or living ways vary from place to place and these variations are the ones, which are typically perceived as cultural spaces.
The variations in this case are experienced in interaction, social activity, spirituality, thought, Sciences and arts as well as language. These may be put to light as follows. For instance, interaction modes have been perceived as main cultural aspects because individuals have been found to be dynamic and social in nature and they end up involving themselves in various interaction types.
These interactions among different people of different cultures involve also interaction and copying of cultures themselves between the people interacting. These interactions have been found to vary from area to another and therefore cultural spaces exist between various areas.
Secondly, social activities also vary from place to another and therefore justify cultural space existence amid communities (Smyth, 2001). These social activities give a platform or a better forum for the different cultural societies gathering to express fully their arts. It is apparent that various societies have varying social activities and the felt differences in this case are cultural spaces.
Living ways of various communities are highly influenced by factors like surrounding environment and interaction with other communities.
Research has highlighted that, communities that highly interact with other communities end up incorporating their living ways and therefore the cultural spaces between them may end up being trimmed down. However, minimum interaction among cultures brings about limited learning regarding other individuals’ cultures and therefore they end up bringing about increased cultural spaces among them (Low, 2005).
Increased cultural space makes it difficult for individuals to understand cultures exhibited by other individuals due to the limited interactions between them whereas reduced cultural space brings about situations whereby easier understanding regarding various cultures is experienced across cultures.
This insight becomes clear in that the more the societies and cultures interact, the less the space between them reduce. The differences in sophistication of the arts from the two or more interacting societies show the space between the societies.
The regularly the cultures interact; the great the understanding between the two cultures exist. This is usually very essential due to its ability to sustain successfully the respect from other cultures because of the understanding, which is experienced among various cultures or individuals with varying living ways.
Spirituality varies from one culture to another; therefore, it may be used to express cultural space meaning. In spirituality, different people from different cultural backgrounds have different ways of carrying out their spiritual activities and the different forms of arts in their places of worship.
Spirituality in this case is value systems, which are usually passed on through generations (Winch, 1997). These value systems highly determine aspects, which are considered bad or good. Individuals from varying cultures may end up perceiving cultural spaces among them because they hold varying value systems.
African art, for example constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth. Though many casual observers tend to generalize “traditional” African art, the continent is full of people, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture. The definition also includes the art of the African, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa.
The human figure has always been the primary subject matter for most African art, and this emphasis even influenced certain European traditions. Most Europeans admired the cultures portrayed by the beautiful pieces of arts of African human figures and opted to adopt them, because the theme portrayed by these figures shows a rich African culture.
In most cases, these figures in their making signify a particular important cultural aspect for the community from which the piece of art comes from. The human figure may symbolize the living or the dead, may reference chiefs, dancers, or various trades such as drummers or hunters, or even may be an anthropomorphic representation of a god or have other votive function. Another common theme is the inter-morphosis of human and animal.
African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation. This is because many African artworks generalize stylistic norms. Ancient Egyptian art, also usually thought of as naturalistically depictive, makes use of highly abstracted and regimented visual canons, especially in painting, as well as the use of different colors to represent the qualities and characteristics of an individual being depicted.
African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Even many African paintings or cloth works were meant to be experienced three-dimensionally.
House paintings are often seen as a continuous design wrapped around a house, forcing the viewer to walk around the work to experience it fully; while decorated cloths are worn as decorative or ceremonial garments, transforming the wearer into a living sculpture. Distinct from the static form of traditional Western sculpture African art displays animation, a readiness to move.
An extension of the utilitarianism and three-dimensionality of traditional African art is the fact that much of it is crafted for use in performance contexts, rather than in static one.
For example, masks and costumes very often are used in communal, ceremonial contexts, where they are “danced.” Most societies in Africa have names for their masks, but this single name incorporates not only the sculpture, but also the meanings of the mask, the dance associated with it, and the spirits that reside within. In African thought, the three cannot be differentiated.
Often a small part of an African design will look similar to a larger part, such as the diamonds at different scales in the Kasai pattern at right. Louis Senghor, Senegal’s first president, referred to this as “dynamic symmetry.” William Fagg, the British art historian, compared it to the logarithmic mapping of natural growth by biologist D’Arcy Thompson. More recently, it has been described in terms of fractal geometry.
The origins of African art lie long before recorded history. African rock art in the Sahara in Niger preserves 6000-year-old carvings. The earliest known sculptures are from the Nok culture of Nigeria, made around 500 BC. Along with sub-Saharan Africa, the cultural arts of the western tribes, ancient Egyptian paintings and artifacts, and indigenous southern crafts also contributed greatly to African art.
Often depicting the abundance of surrounding nature, the art was often abstract interpretations of animals, plant life, or natural designs and shapes. In Islamic art, unless space is infinite, whatever goes on in that space will have to end at some point. Many have commented on what is taken to be a horror vacuity in Islamic ornamentation. A dislike of the empty, and this accounts for the ways in which space is filled up so comprehensively in Islamic art.
Yet space cannot be filled up entirely, for if it were, there would be no ornamentation.
Geometric patterns are often said to be empty of content, and so to stimulate the mind to think of a deity existing without companions. However, it could also get the mind to think all sorts of thing. How geometric shapes are infinite? There is nothing infinite about a square or a triangle; on the contrary, such a specific shape is precisely finite, with recognizable and visible limits that define it.
That is not to suggest that in Islamic art these forms of ornamentation are not used effectively to produce beautiful designs and consequently objects, but whether they are really supposed to produce particular ideas in us, their viewer, is questionable.
There is no reason to think that we have to see geometrical design as having any religious meaning whatsoever.
There is a saying in Arabic, ‘al-fann ihsas’ (‘art is feeling’). In addition, thought expresses cultural space because individuals from varying communities express varying views regarding various aspects (Winch, 1997).
Thought refers to expressed ways through which people understand, interpret and perceive would which surrounds them. It is apparent that individuals within varying localities and cultures have varying understanding, interpretation, and perception regarding various aspects.
Sciences and arts are looked upon as the most refined and advanced human expression forms. Human expressions differ from community to community, location to location, and among individual groups (Smyth, 2001). These variations are called cultural spaces among the various communities or groups.
Human expression forms are usually influenced by various factors including environment and interactions with other individuals holding varying cultures. It is apparent that substantial interactions among individuals brings about trimmed down cultural spaces whereas minimum interactions yield increased cultural spaces.
Language refers to the earliest human institution or expression medium which is usually sophisticated (Low, 2005). This expresses cultural space because various communities have various opinions regarding varying cultural aspects and they hold varying importance to them. The experienced variations are therefore expressed as cultural spaces among the various communities.
Conclusion From the various aspects exposed above, it is apparent that space according to cultural ornamentation is the variations experienced regarding cultural aspects from one culture to another. The cultural ornamentation aspects, which determine cultural variations, include interaction, social activity, spirituality, thought, Sciences and arts as well as language.
Various individual groups experience varying cultural aspects and therefore the variations demonstrate cultural variations. Cultural space may be either narrow or wide depending on experienced interactions among individuals. Extended interactions regarding individuals from various cultures have the capacity to trim down cultural space whereas minimum interactions yield wider economic spaces.
This phenomenon happens for the obvious reasons that the more people stay together, the more they tend to understand each other; therefore, in the wake of different cultures associating, the cultural space melts down and vanishes without anyone noticing. Culture can define art by determining the type of art produced, by genre or the medium.
In the light of this acknowledgement, it suffices to concur that different cultures will have different types of art, genre and medium and because culture defines all these elements, then it (culture) becomes a determinant and a defining element of art. Art and culture are intertwined.
References Blackmun, M. (2001) A history of Art in Africa, visiona et al. Prentice Hall, New York
Low, S. (2005). Rethinking Urban Parks: Public Space and Cultural Diversity. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Andy Warhol and Paul Young: Contributions, Works and Ideas Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol There are many talented people, who have already died, still, memories about their contributions, works, and ideas make them alive always. One of such people was Andrew Warhola, also known as Andy Warhol. His avant-garde style and attitude to his paintings made him popular around the whole world.
If I had a chance to meet this person and ask one question, I would like to know about the system according to which he chose people for his clique. The question would sound as follows: “Warhol superstars were one of the most popular cliques in the New York City. Why were you so confident in people chosen specially in Paul America or Eric Emerson?”.
The biography of the artist was rich indeed: being a fourth child in the family of immigrants, the boy lost his father very soon and suffered because of numerous diseases as a result of which a kind of phobia to hospitals and doctors was developed.
He lived in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and then he moved to New York where he died at the age of 58 because of serious health problems (Mattern 6). He got his education at one of the schools as well as at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburg and had the special degree in commercial art. To earn for living, he worked in the sphere of illustrating and advertising.
He also tried himself at filmmaking and printmaking, and painting. And all spheres turned out to be rather successful to him. One of his best projects was the development of the clique Warhol Superstars and the studio The Factory where he promoted various actors and musicians.
The main idea of his work was to provide different people with the bright chance as possible because some of them really deserved this chance. The vast majority of his works are interesting to me as they helped to understand that hope and personal beliefs could change the whole world just as Andy Warhol did it.
Paul Young Paul Young is a successful independent journalist, critic, art writer, and curator (Gallery). His achievements into the world of art remain to be rather influential, and his activities are always under attention of many people. One of his latest interests is 3D technologies and their availability to ordinary people. His projects are always unique and captivating.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the questions I would be eager to pose to this person is connected to the ways of how he chooses the themes for his performance. The question is: “When did you understand that 3D technologies could be in demand and were you confident about your success?”. The life of this person does not differ a lot from the lives of many other people.
He was born and continues living in Los Angeles. He got his education in one of the local schools and his final achievement in education was the master degree in film directing. His experience and knowledge provide him with a wonderful chance to earn for living after his graduation.
Though he did not have a day job, his articles appeared in the magazines and journals like The Los Angeles Times, Elle, and New York Times. In several years, he got the weekly column in The Los Angeles Times where he had to highlight the latest news in the sphere of modern art.
One of his projects which are now available to people is SymmetryGates that is performed with the help of 3D technologies. The main theme of this project is not only to introduce how progressive art technologies could be but also to show how changing the world actually is.
Young is the curator who wants to address a variety of ideas in his projects, this is why it is wrong to try to identify the main aspect; still, it is better to enjoy the beauty of the offered performance. It is hard to be not-interested in the works of this person. My interest is based on the possibility to learn the world by means of a variety of details offered in the performance as well as 3D technologies which captivate a lot.
Works Cited “Gallery”. YoungProjects. N.d. Web.
Mattern, Joanne. Andy Warhol. Edina: ABDO, 2005.
We will write a custom Report on Andy Warhol and Paul Young: Contributions, Works and Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Chinese art (Zhang Hongth: Studio visit and Artist talk) Descriptive Essay online essay help: online essay help
In visiting Zhang Hongtu’s art studio in Woodside, in the New York borough of Queens, one is struck by his gentle and lively insight. It is very frustrating for a listener because his English is so heavily accented, but what is understandable of his speech is well worth noting.
In a wide-ranging discussion, he touched on humor, the cathartic value of defacing the iconic image of a dictator, China’s imperiled environment, the dangers of political art in that country, and his feelings as a new immigrant. He showed slides of a number of his works, which all, in some way, reference China.
Zhang Hongtu came to the USA from the People’s Republic of China, in 1982. He had grown up as an outsider. As Silberberg puts it, “the family’s religious and economic background increasingly became a serious political burden in the officially atheistic state.”  His family was committed to the government-suspected Muslim religious minority, and his father actively worked to spread the teachings of his faith.
They were also businesspeople in a regime that discouraged entrepreneurship. The fact that his family was successfully financially made them a target of frightening government oppression.
In China, he studied art, so when he arrived in the USA, his technical skills were well developed. It seems that he was allowed to leave China with only thirty dollars, which may not have been even enough for the taxi from the airport. He told us that he found a job as a construction worker within two days. He was not lonely when he came to the US, he said, in spite of being in a strange country with no money. His website indicates that he also studied art for another four years in New York.
Every work that we looked at related somehow to China. Either it showed the round and serenely smiling face of Chairman Mao, or a scene that evoked a Chinese landscape painting, or monkeys or fish that appeared Asian, but everything referred somehow to China. This was apparently quite deliberate. His painting, he said, reflects his inner self, and his inner self is very determined to critique China’s policies.
In preparing for this visit, I was fascinated by the manner in which he used techniques that reminded me of famous Impressionists but in pictures of unfamiliar places. I was interested in what prompted him to begin blending elements from eastern and western art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He told us that he observes that no art is truly pure. He pointed out that every artist and piece of art reflects a mixture of influences from other cultures, inspiration from other works of art, and that many include a variety of techniques. Thus, his mixing of eastern subjects is, to him, a natural progression.
I see this as a modern version of what happened in the 1700s. During that general period, European art influences, for example, the idea of accurate portraiture, entered China, as we learned in researching the personal art selections of the Emperor Quianglong. Zhang Hongtu brings eastern influences into the west, in the same way.
I was also intrigued with why he was interested in the three specific artists whose styles show up so often in his recent work: Cezanne, Monet, and Van Gogh. He told us that these artists were his personal icons. I also observe that these three are instantly recognizable in style. This may allow him to borrow and mix style and subjects without worrying that someone is going to interpret him as copying. He himself describes these works as, “zaizhi, or “re-creating”” the Impressionist and Chinese classics together.
They have been termed ‘reconciliation’ by Qian. Thus, his brush technique, his deliberate adoption of another’s style, is clearly that of Cezanne when he paints a scene from a traditional Chinese pen and ink drawing and titles it with Cezanne’s name in the title.
He also often includes, in his Shan Shui series of these east-west hybrid landscapes, Chinese calligraphy that instructs the Chinese-speaking viewer to step back and appreciate the painting from a discreet Impressionist distance. It is hard, as a young viewer, not to perceive this as funny.
Several of us were specifically interested in whether he was being deliberately humorous, and I believe that he was clear in saying that humor was not intentional in his work. However, his criticism of the regime, policies, and practices of his birth country seems to all have been quite intentional. For example, he sent a painting to China for the Olympics, executed in immediately recognizable Cubist style and colors.
The image and the text embedded in it evoked the problems in Tibet. The painting, entitled Bird’s Nest, was sent back, rather than being destroyed by the Chinese authorities, but he undoubtedly made his point. He did not get the publicity for the picture that he had hoped for, however
We will write a custom Essay on Chinese art (Zhang Hongth: Studio visit and Artist talk) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At his studio, he showed us some items that are also clearly meant to make political commentary. We viewed some of his works that featured Mao’s image. He mentioned that he experienced what I believe he called ‘catharsis’ when he did this sort of work. For example, using Mao’s image ( he referred to it as ‘cutting it up’) to decorate a Quaker Oats box gave him a special feeling. He mentioned that back in the Bush administration, he had experimented with cutting apart pictures of President Bush.
He told us that there was no corresponding response in his psyche of ‘catharsis’, the way there was when he portrayed Mao. In this series, he has portrayed the communist leader as a girl, or as Stalin, complete with distinctive mustache. This latter image was an explicit comparison between the killings in Russia and the deaths in China, according to what he told us.
When we chuckled at some of the variations he created on Mao’s image, he told us that this was no joke in China. In China, even now, he said, such art would be entirely and dangerously unacceptable.
He showed us a painting of silver fish amongst vertical plants. These creatures all have their mouths open, as though they are gasping for oxygen. He told us that when he painted this, he considered it a happy painting at the time. However, it is hard to avoid the inference that perhaps it also reflects the airless atmosphere for art and dissent in China.
The artist showed us a series of paintings that are similar compositions featuring monkeys and distinctively Chinese mountain shapes, with city buildings shown in the background. These, he told us, represent the rapid growth of human population, and the imminent destruction of the environment. He shared with us that he felt that artists had an obligation to talk about such problems.
As a special treat, he shared with us an animated video of one of his works in progress. This was a magical thing to watch, because it reveals where he goes with his brush, first, second, and from then on. It is not the logical process of a machine, but the deft and intuitive mastery of an expert. He ended our visit on that lovely and visually arresting note.
Zhang Hongtu was very gracious, and exceedingly modest, in sharing his ideas and intentions about his art. There is a certain evocation of eastern philosophy even in his presentation of himself. This reminds me of his statement, noted above, that his art reveals his inner mind.
If this is the case, his inner mind is consumed with the oppression of the Chinese government, and deeply humble about his own gifts. Seeing so much of his art together, and being immersed in it, combined with his spare and cogent comments, was almost a meditative experience, and one that I will long remember. His art is not just beautiful.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese art (Zhang Hongth: Studio visit and Artist talk) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even his pop-art influenced pieces that evoke (for me at least) Warhol, such as his Chairman Mao series, are decorative and attractive as well as thought provoking . His works on the environment are disturbing but appealing even if one does not grasp the polemical message. His Shan Shui series works are often dramatically and breathtakingly beautiful. Seeing his work in his very presence was a true privilege.
Bibliography D’Arcy, David. “Artist’s Pointed Critique is Barred from Bejing.” Wall Street Journal. 2008.
Hongtu, Zhang. “Presentation to students of Chinese art history.” 2011.
—. Zhang Hongtu Homepage. 2011. Web.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise.” Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2011. Web.
Qian, Zhijian. “Over the Boundaries: Recent Works by Zhang Hongtu.” Zhang Hongtu Homepage. 2011. Web.
Silbergeld, Jerome. “Zhang Hongtu: The Art of Straddling Boundaries.” Studio Door China. 2011. Web.
Footnotes Silbergeld, Jerome. “Zhang Hongtu: The Art of Straddling Boundaries.”
Zhang, Hongtu. “Presentation to Students of Chinese Art History”. 2011. Queens, NY. This was one of the times when it was difficult to understand him, but the overall idea is accurately captured.
(Hongtu, Presentation to students of Chinese art history 2011).
Hongtu, Zhang. “Zhang Hongtu Homepage”.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. “The Emperor’s Private Paradise”. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Qian, Zhijian. “Over the Boundaries”. Zhang Hongtu Homepage.
D’Arcy, David. “Artist’s Pointed Critique is Barred from Beijing”, Wall Street Journal.
(Hongtu, Presentation to students of Chinese art history 2011).
(Hongtu, Zhang Hongtu Homepage 2011) These monkey paintings are visible there.
(Hongtu, Presentation to students of Chinese art history 2011).
(Hongtu, Presentation to students of Chinese art history 2011).
Theory of Modern Art Institutions Expository Essay online essay help
It is like time travel to look at vintage images from the 1960s of Yves Klein creating art using the naked bodies of young women, blue paint, and paper surfaces. Watching his process of creation, it is easy to see why some members of the public threw up their hands in bafflement and disapproval at ‘modern art’, and still do so today.
It is also easy to understand the reaction of governments that provide funding for cultural activities. If the daily news is any measure, they often dismiss such displays as antics, immoral, trivial, or simply not constituting art at all.
Institutions of culture, such as museums, may have similar concerns. However, in our decade, they seem to wish to err on the side of accepting as art things that might not be art, rather than risking overlooking a work or an artist that history will show to have had merit.
Klein himself seems to have been trying to detach the experience of art from anything that would engage the viewer, largely in an institutional setting, whether by eliminating multiple colors, focusing on blue to the exclusion of all others, by directing women to use other women’s bodies as paintbrushes, or by proposing buildings entirely without walls or furniture. However, as odd as all this can seem, he has been accepted by prominent institutions, such as the Hirschorn Museum.
His proposals fit into a continuum of detachment from the real and the concrete that has been evident in the art and the writing on art in the 20th century.
In his piece entitled “The Evolution of Art towards the Immaterial”, Klein describes how he arrived at the idea that even two colors were too many. He felt that the presence of two colors would involve the viewer in a visual exercise that he did not intend. After seeing that the viewers responded to a wall of paintings of different colors by trying somehow to form them into one coherent whole, even if he did not intend that to be the interpretation. This phenomenon reflects the institutional locale in which his work appeared.
After all, if viewers were seeing one painting at a time in a private home or a corporate office, they could not make this visual collation and re-interpretation of his paintings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In reaction to this experience, he says, “I precisely and categorically refuse to present on one surface even the interplay of two colors” In this instance, the support of institutions of art actually worked against his purposes.
When one looks at the footage from a subsequent decade, documenting his works using blue women, which are conveniently recorded in snippets on YouTube, it is very tempting to see this as a stunt. However, in light of the readings, this approach to art fits neatly, if bizarrely, into a progression of thought and practice over the middle decades of the 20th Century.
For example, consider Michel Foucault’s adroit questioning of the whole concept of authorship in What is an Author? In the case of the blue women, there is a reasonable question as to whether the author is Klein, the woman manipulating the paint-covered woman, or perhaps even the paint-covered woman herself.
The whole institutions of publishing, where the name associated with a work is crucial, as Foucault notes, and the emphasis on attribution in museums are all called into doubt by the use of such a technique.
As another example of how Klein’s work fits into the mood of the time, consider Germano Celant’s encouragement of “an innocent art’ in his piece entitled Arte Povera. In the context of Celant’s insistence on utter simplicity, nothing could be simpler.
What does the ‘poor’ artist need except a bucket of paint, a surface, and a naked body? Klein’s technique neatly eliminates the need for the whole tradition of academic art training, and associated colleges, trusts, foundations, scholarships, internships, artists’ colonies, not to speak of the entire business sector of art supply stores.
Finally, Klein’s approach to art fits with the egalitarian stance of Joseph Beuys’ essay; I am Searching for Field Character. When he states, “This most modern art discipline – Social Sculpture/Social Architecture – will only reach fruition when every living person becomes a creator, a sculptor, or architect of the social organism”, he could be describing the ultimate logical working out of Klein’s technique. The artist could be the brush if need be.
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of Modern Art Institutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is no need for training, no need for fancy diploma. The individual can simply strip, apply paint to self, and apply self to surface. The random nature of the result is clearly acceptable. Neither talent nor training is needed. Everyone can be his or her own artist. No need for art authenticators, or auction houses, or forensic art experts, and all the institutions associated with them!
In light of these readings, the 1960’s work of Klein can be seen as a logical evolution away from art that one looks at and wonders about to, eventually, art that one lives, perhaps literally.
The readings make clear that the mid-century period was a time in which the relationship of art to all sorts of institutions was being called into question. However, it has been increasingly a time when museums have been more liberal and open to new forms than ever before. Without their support, any artist would have difficulty in publicizing their work and ideas.
This continues to be the case, even in the era of the internet. Thus, there seems to be a continuing tension, observable in the context of these readings and now as well, between a need for institutions and a wish to dispense with them entirely.
Bibliography Beuys, Joseph. “I Am Searching for Field Character.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 929-930. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Celant, Germano. “Arte Povera.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 897-900. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Foucault, Michel. “What is an Author?” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 949-953. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Klein, Yves. “The Evolution of Art Towards the Immaterial.” In Art in Theory: 1900-2000, by C. Harrison and P. Wood, 818-820. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Modern Art Institutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More —. “Yves Klein’s Anthropometries: Selection from Yves Klein: The Blue Revolution.” Hirschornmuseum. François Lévy-Kuentz. 2007. Web.
Footnotes Klein, Yves. “The Evolution of Art Towards the Immaterial”, in Harrison, C., and Wood, P.. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 818.
(Klein, Yves Klein’s Anthropometries: Selection from Yves Klein: The Blue Revolution 2007).
Foucault, Michel. “What is an Author?”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 950.
(Foucault 2002, 949).
Celant, Germano. “Art Povera”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 899.
Beuys, Joseph. “I am Searching for Field Character”, in Harrison, C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 929.
In the Eye of a Boy: Back into the Childhood Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Can two books of different genres share common features. It is quite doubtful that, say, a romantic novel and a detective story can cause the same stir in the reader’s soul.
However, in the case of Robert McCammon and Stephen King, the impossible becomes one step closer. Due to the specific features, the characters’ traits, the settings and other peculiarities of each of the books, the novels seem quite the same.
What drives the reader’s immediate attention to the books and makes the comparison possible is the use of stock characters that each of the authors resorts to. With help of the specific charm that these characters possess, the authors manage to keep their novels alive, as if there was something burning inside them – a smouldering piece of coal that will keep millions of children warm for another bunch of decades.
Who else could enchant readers more than a child living the hard life almost on his own, a little man in disguise? A cross between Huckleberry Finn and the Little Prince, this character will always remain the talisman of teenagers of all epochs.
Both romantic and touching, this is the character that each of readers want to be like, though no one will ever be able to become. Helping the readers believe in themselves, this character is the most loyal friend and the example to follow. It is peculiar that each novel has this true, though a little sheepish, character.
Chris Chambers in Stephen King’s novel and Ben Sears, a quiet and rather slow teenager who never tells the bitter truth of his life, both have the most negative family background, an alcoholic father, yet surprisingly they manage to stay pure and innocent as a child must in the world they live in.
Is that the friendship that helps them stay as they are? Hardly anyone can tell, yet there is one thing that is beyond any reasonable doubt: these two characters add the specific flair to each of the novels, making them lighter and more humane.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another common feature of the two novels is the twists and turns of the plot. Both authors use the storylines that cross at certain points. For instance, the tragic event that Cory’s father witnessed as he tried to save the passenger of the car is quite similar to the shock experienced by Billy. Although McCammon tends to tell his story in much milder way than King, both of them tell in rather open way that the illusions of the childhood disappear easily.
It is also quite a curious detail that each of the novels portrays its lead character and his personal experience in the most striking way. Showing how the illusions of the twelve-year-old boy shatter as he sees that the world is filled with evil, each author emphasizes that, no matter how innocent the childhood could be, the time to step into the adult world will come.
There is very little that can warm one’s heart in the world of the grown-ups, the authors warn. Discovering that the world of the adults is filled with mischief and violence, the boys cannot help feeling intense grief, as well as the reader.
Thus, each of the authors drags the audience through the tunnel of fears and disappointment to show that this is the price for growing up. Painful and depressing, this is yet another step on the way to humanity. Unless the boys in both novels had experienced the shock of cognition, the illusions that they used to have would have veiled the truth, preventing to continue their journey to the future.
Although there is a time gap between the novels, both of them are enjoyed and appreciated by all generations. The authors’ secret is rather simple: they have created their novels for teenagers, which has made their books time-proof. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine that the novels will ever age.
Sometimes shocking and almost frightening, sometimes touching one and making tears well in people’s eyes, the novels tell the readers about the pains of growing up. They are inevitable, and that is why they will not kill. Yet the scars that they leave can stay for the rest of one’s life.
Tornado’s Variations and Formation Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction to Tornadoes
Formation of Tornadoes
Introduction to Tornadoes A tornado looks like a column of air or condensed funnel, which is moving anti-clockwise at high speeds with one end of the column being in contact with the ground and the other touching the heavy clouds (Galiano, 2000, p. 3). Sometimes, the vertical funnels consist of clouds of debris, dirt, objects, or dust.
Conversely, tornadoes occur in various shapes and sizes including rope-like, wedge-shaped, classical, fat cylinders, and conical tornadoes. Furthermore, tornadoes can be classified into several types including supercell, waterspout, landspout, gustnado, dust devil, and firewhirls.
Accordingly, a wedge-shaped tornado consists of straight edges, a non-funnel shape, and its damage path is usually wide. Moreover, its width is much bigger than its height. On the other hand, classical tornadoes consist of funnels that never touch the ground, and thus, the ground surface rises in such a way that the tornado is half funnel and half dirt or dust (Prokos, 2008, p. 10).
During any form of tornado, some vital signs can be noticed such as the occurrence of a dark-green sky, dense and low-lying clouds, unusual loud sounds, and large hails.
Therefore, it is advisable for one to take immediate cover upon observing these weather changes. Thus, some of the safety measures during a tornado include avoiding windows, discussing safety measures with family members, avoiding mobile homes, stopping the car if driving, avoiding trees and tall buildings, and lying flat on the ground or a ditch while protecting the head (CDC, 2007).
To further understand the dynamics of tornadoes, the Bernoulli’s principle has been utilized to explain the principle behind the formation of tornadoes. Accordingly, in fluid dynamics, the principle has it that in some fluids with zero velocity (theoretical fluids displaying inviscid flow), an increase in the velocity of the fluid follows a subsequent decrease in fluid pressure or potential energy.
As a result, the formation of tornadoes can be affected by Bernoulli’s principle since most tornadoes show a local vortex (the wall of the air column) flow whereby the velocity of the flow is greatest at the center of the vortex (Grazulis, 2001, p. 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sound made by most tornadoes involves loud roars, which resemble the sound made by freight trains, waterfalls, or jet engines. According to the Earth Systems Laboratory Study of Sound, the use of infrasonic arrays is effective in detecting tornadoes occurring in high plains several minutes before they can touch the ground.
This study referred to as infrasonics involves detection of infrasonic signatures, vibrations, or disturbed waves with frequencies below the level detectable by the human ear (Galiano, 2000). Furthermore, the study shows that tornado sounds are caused by the tornado vortex winds and the interaction between airflows and the ground dust or debris. Moreover, the funnel clouds have been shown to produce whistling, buzzing, humming, and whining sounds.
Tornado Variations As mentioned earlier, tornadoes occur in many shapes, sizes, and categories. For example, landspout also known as dust-tube tornado is a tornado with lesser intensity compared to supercell tornadoes, and thus, they occur for a short period.
As opposed to supercell tornadoes, which involve thick vertical columns of air rotating constantly at 200 mph (mesocyclone), the landspout does not have any characteristics of a mesocyclone. However, a landspout can generate strong winds that can cause massive damage particularly when the smooth funnel touches the ground (Galiano, 2000, p. 61).
On the other hand, multiple vortex tornadoes consist of numerous vortices, which form the center of the main vortex or part of it. Additionally, the multiple vortices can be seen rotating around the main vortex.
This type of tornado is visible when it is forming for the first time or when the condensation funnel together with the debris or dust is dense enough so that the subvortices can appear clearly.
Conversely, the structure of multiple vortex tornadoes involves a family of vortices that form the wall of the main tornado, which rotates around a common center with the strongest of the vortices lasting for the longest duration (Galiano, 2000).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Tornado’s Variations and Formation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, waterspouts are tornadoes, which occur in water bodies whereby the cooler humid air on the surface of water rotates as a result of the warmer air beneath rising. Moreover, since the humid air is lighter, it whirls skywards forming a column of air known as the vortex (which is the wall of the tornado funnel).
Subsequently, as the water vapor condenses to generate heat and water droplets, the vortex makes rapid rotations upwards, and thus, causes the formation of either of the two types of tornadoes namely tornadic and non-tornadic waterspouts (Grazulis, 2001).
Formation of Tornadoes Most studies note that there is no fully acceptable process of tornado formation to date. However, a typical tornado forms several miles above the surface of the earth within a strongly rotating thunderstorm known as a supercell, which can be detected via the Doppler radar (Grazulis, 2001, p. 20).
Furthermore, a set of weather conditions are required for tornadoes to form. For instance, the interaction of three distinct types of air forms the basis of tornadoes.
Here the favorable weather conditions for tornado formation include, a layer of warm and wet air together with southern winds occurring near the earth’s surface, cool air together with southwestern winds occurring in the upper atmosphere, and temperature and moisture changes between the upper atmosphere and the earth’s surface.
Other favorable weather conditions include changes in the direction and velocity of wind, which causes wind shearing that eventually leads to furious air rotations characteristic of most tornadoes (Grazulis, 2001).
On the other hand, the establishment of a third hot and dry air layer between the warm humid air on the ground and the cooler air at the upper atmosphere, forms a cap that forces the warm humid air below it to become warmer and unstable. Subsequently, a storm that occurs in the upper atmosphere causes different layers of air to rise, and as a result removing the cap and causing the development of explosive thunderstorms and updrafts (Grazulis, 2001).
Furthermore, the subsequent interaction of the updrafts or thunderstorms with the surrounding eastern winds causes upward air rotations similar to those observed in most tornadoes. Sometimes, the rising air columns or funnels consist of water droplets, debris, dust, or objects, and thus, they are visible.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tornado’s Variations and Formation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, some tornadoes fail to touch the ground, thus they are mainly made up of the rotating wind, which may not be visible. Conversely, tornadoes are frequently formed in Central United States particularly around the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains in the western part, and the Gulf of Mexico located to the southern parts.
Conclusions This essay presents a detailed discussion regarding tornadoes. According to the discussions presented above, tornadoes are columns of air or condensed funnels rotating anti-clockwise at high speeds with one end of the funnel touching the ground and the other end reaching the heavy clouds in the upper atmosphere.
The rotating columns of air produce loud roars resembling the sound produced by freight trains, jet engines, or waterfalls.
Since the vertically rotating columns of air contain several objects, dust, or debris, they are a possible danger to people because of their ability to cause massive damage such as lifting roofs or cars. As a result, upon noticing signs such as a dark green sky, heavy low-lying clouds, loud roars, or large hails, there is the need to take immediate cover.
Therefore, during a tornado, it is advisable to avoid windows, tall buildings, mobile homes, stop the car if driving, and lie flat on the ground or a ditch while protecting your head against flying objects.
Reference List CDC. (2007). Emergency preparedness and response: During a tornado. Clifton, USA: Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Galiano, D. (2000). Tornadoes. New York: The Rose Publishing Group.
Grazulis, T.P. (2001). The tornado: Nature’s ultimate windstorm. USA: University of Oklahoma Press.
Prokos, A. (2008). Tornadoes. USA: Gareth Stevens.
Customer Satisfaction Evaluation Essay essay help online
The importance of using the survey questions Getting the feedback from customers is an important thing that managers should endeavor to do. This can be achieved by developing questionnaires to capture the particular aspects that affect customers.
The use of questions is applied because it is not possible to capture the feedback from all customers. The questionnaires help capture the ideas in a summary format. It also reduces the time that may be used to capture the ideas of each customer.
The use of questionnaires is convenient because customers can answer the questionnaires at their own time. Confidentiality is maintained when questionnaires are applied to collect data from customers because the responses are not done to a particular person (Vaus, 2002).
Information to be obtained from customers The questions are used to get the overall satisfaction of the customers and the areas of improvement that the management should check. Customers provide information about the level of satisfaction they get from the restaurant. The questions will help identify the areas of weakness that the organization has as the areas where the organization is performing well (Hayes, 1998).
The survey questions obtained from the customers can be used by the management to identify the image of the company from the external environment. The general perception of the people outside the organization can be identified by interacting with customers because they are in touch with other external people (Grigoroudis
Feasibility study for a new business Expository Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Money from an uncle versus bank loan
Introduction A good business strategy begins with a capital base whose source must be clearly defined so as not to cause financial problems to the future of the business. There are many ways through which capital is sourced. Notable among them is getting money from relatives and getting bank loans.
It is important for a small business operator to recognize the pros and cons of getting money from each of the viable sources. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of getting money from an uncle to start a business, versus getting bank loans.
Money from an uncle versus bank loan Money from close relatives can be charming and tricky at the same time. In this case, the uncle is willing to give me a capital of $25,000, with a lower interest rate, while the bank is offering me a loan twice the amount, but with a higher interest rate.
The obvious advantage that the money from my uncle has is the low interest rate. The interest of this money is not compounded, which also contributes to the lower interest rate (Balle 2011). The other advantage this money has over a bank loan is that it does not require a complex transaction.
Thus, there are no worries on long term loan application and approval. In addition, money from a relative does not come with strict repayment deadlines. Therefore, if my uncle gave me the money, he may be more lenient in dealing with my repayment record, even when the deal goes sour (Alterowitz
Hidden Intellectualism Essay college essay help near me
Gerald Graff and Michiko Kakutani address the issue of dumbness in the current education system, which leads to the production of half-baked professionals. According to the two scholars, the education curriculum drills students in respect to their careers forcing their mind to become dumb. Additionally, factors like politics in schools also affect the thinking capacity of students negatively.
There is a vast difference between earlier students (1950s-1980s) and the current students (Graff 25). The current education system focuses mainly on professional or class achievements rather than on extra-curricular activities or sporting activities.
Most students are unaware of the political wind in their country or the world. The education system perceives class achievers as bright or intellects of the world. Therefore, the inability to associate with the outside world through engaging in discussion, debates, analyzing arguments or contributing to other people’s view is the main problem the young generation is facing.
Consequently, the minds of the young generation cannot think beyond schoolwork or anything taught in class. Also, the students are not rebellious even in matters concerning their rights or self-respect (Kakutani Para. 16). They focus more on actions, duties, honor, and teamwork rather than words, feelings, rights, and self.
According to Graff, the main problem lies in the current education curriculum and the political system in the society (27). Students learn to be respectful to their elders especially parents and teachers.
Therefore, when any of them engages in an argument or oppose any activity at school, they are liable to punishment and even expulsion. However, the children who attend school and non-school going children appear to have the same form of behavior. They cannot think beyond books, which reduces their innovative or creative skills when they are not in class.
Most school administrations do not encourage their students to engage in extracurricular activities and if so, the time allocation is minimal, that there is no realization of a child’s potential or talent. Unfortunately, there is politicizing of the education system that students hardly engage themselves during the construction of the school syllabus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the leading solution is to encourage children to read a wide range of books like sports magazine and not necessarily examinable material. Additionally, teachers, lecturers, and professors should engage their students during lessons to enable them to think widely.
Teachers should also involve students during debates or discussion and therefore, allow them to discover their talents, passions or level of creativity. Finally, the media, internet services, and parents should encourage students to debate current issues in society.
In summary, Graff and Kakutani explore several issues that dog the current education system. According to the two scholars, the current education system is to blame for the production of non-intellects in society. The difference and inability of the young generation to get along with the old generation are due to lack of creativeness in the current community.
The teachers and parents are also to blame because they do not accept holding discussions or debates with children yet it may open their minds to think widely. Similarly, the school programs drill children to think about examinations, class activities and not other social or extracurricular activities. However, children should read a wide variety of books, engage in discussions or make conclusions on other people’s view.
Works Cited Graff, Gerald. “Hidden Intellectualism.” Pedagogy 1.1 (2001): 21-36.
Kakutani, Michiko. ”Debate? Dissent? Discussion? Oh, Don’t Go There!” Yale Alumni Magazine, 2002. Web.
Increasing of Sex Education in Schools to Curb Teenage Pregnancy Argumentative Essay essay help online free
Change of times has been matched with changes in social, economic and cultural systems. Ancient civilizations have been replaced with technological and educational empowerment.
Socially, irresponsible behavior has been the cause of teenage pregnancy, spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and dropping out of school (Allerston 25). The long term effects have been increased dependency ratio because the affected are usually unemployed.
It is true that the education systems have failed to incorporate adequate sex education in their programs. Whether to increase sex education or not has been the debate recently. This paper discusses why sex education should be increased in a bid to cub teenage pregnancy.
The rate at which teenagers are becoming curious to explore their sexual life is alarming. The adolescent stage is associated with increased hormonal activity, desire to respond to such imbalances and eventually engage in sexual activities (Measor 71). It is, however, unfortunate in cases where teenagers lack wisdom in regards to the ‘sexual arena’.
The results are usually undesirable; increased number of school drop outs, increased HIV/AIDs infection rates and teenage pregnancies. The need to have sex education increased is therefore important.
Increased sex education is important in schools because teenagers receive guidance and counseling from their teachers. It has been revealed that teenagers are easily affected by their environment. A supportive environment helps in averting situations of unwarranted sexual behavior (Measor 74). The teenagers are able to share their problems comfortably and are advised accordingly. In view of this, sex education is necessary.
Increased sex education is important because it emphasizes on the need to abstain and use of contraceptives. Teenagers become aware of the reality and how best they can live to avert cases of teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who find it difficult to abstain are aware of contraceptive methods such as condom use. In addition, teenagers appreciate the negative health effects of teenage pregnancy. Pre-delivery care is also taught (Allerston 27).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increased sex education psychologically prepares teenagers for what is to come in future. Teenagers who abstain find it rather easier to handle major issues before getting into marriage. On the other hand, victims of teenage pregnancy are usually faced with mental unpreparedness. Sex education helps in addressing this effect (Measor 75). The teenagers become aware of what might befall them if responsible sexual behavior is not adopted. They also become aware of pregnancy handling, childbirth processes and parenthood.
Increased sex education in schools is important. Statistically, parents have failed to guide their children in sexual matters (Measor 77). Parents ignore this crucial responsibility assuming that teenagers would learn by themselves. The result has been peer-influenced education (Allerston 28).
Teenagers copy some irresponsible behavior from their peers. The ultimate results are drug abuse, teenage pregnancy and/or spread of STIs. It is practical enough to assert that though parents should inculcate responsible sexual behavior, teachers should do it more. The fact that teachers spend most time with the students strategically gives them an edge over the parents (Measor 79). In this view, sex education should be increased in schools.
Sex education is not only important in curbing teenage pregnancy but also helps in preventing and controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs such as syphilis and gonorrhea (Allerston 30). It is therefore important to increase sex education in schools to avert cases of teenage pregnancies.
The spread of STIs in pregnancy cases makes the situation worse. The teenagers become aware of the situation that may arise if responsible sexual behavior is not adopted. In this view, increased sexual behavior is necessary.
In conclusion, it is important to note that change of generations is associated with increased levels of curiosity. It is rather unfortunate that most teenagers explore the ‘sexual arena’ with a lot of ignorance. The result has been teenage pregnancy, spread of STIs and increased drop out from school. Increasing sex education in schools is necessary to avert all these effects.
Works Cited Allerston, Sue. Sex education. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, 2001, Pp 24-30.
We will write a custom Essay on Increasing of Sex Education in Schools to Curb Teenage Pregnancy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Measor, Lynda. Young people’s Views on sex education: education, attitudes, and behavior. Routledge, 2000, Pp 70-80.
Obama’s speech on 2012 budget cuts Essay best essay help: best essay help
On February 14th, 2011, the president of the United States of America, delivered a speech detailing his government’s vision for the county, alongside the speech, he presented the government’s suggested changes in 2012 fiscal budget (Wasson). This paper analyzes the speech; however, it will focus on the suggested budget cuts.
The speech and budget changes The president through his speech detailed his government’s vision for the country and supported the speech with a presentation of some budget adjustments that will see the country attain the vision as suggested.
Although the budget suggested a reduced expenditure by the government, its main role was to balance deficit reductions with priority investments; it did understand that some sectors budget in the economy could not be tampered with despite the expected changes; such areas included research and development as well as health matters.
In the section named “Terminations, Reductions, and Savings,” the government targeted 212 sectors that would suffer budget cuts; after the cuts, the expected saving in 2012 alone is more than $33 billion (Wasson).
Issues that were discussed Budget cuts
There was a proposed cut on expenditure catered by the government on low-income home energy assistance program (LIHEAP); this has been argued that it is likely to have an effect on over 3.5 million low-income households who are believed to use the program for lightening and cooling. The cut was expected to be about $2.5 billion; it is likely to cause pain among the Americans who are suffering reduced incomes resulting from the world financial crisis of 2007.
Another cut that pained the people were the cuts on community service block grants (CSBG), the sector was expected to lose about $350million; economic analyzers are of the opinion that the programs are crucial in the support of community-building investments; when the budget is reduced, then community development will be hampered (FactCheck.Org)
One area that the speech targeted to freeze some expense is on non-security discretionary spending, the budget suggested a five-year budget reduction that in turn would avail finances to develop other sectors of the economy especially those that can create employment. By the end of the five years, the sector was expected to have its budget at 1.9% of the country’s GDP down from the current rate of 2.7%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More GOP Spending Cuts
The budget targeted to cut expenditure on GOP spending cut; the proposal was the first to have a direct cut on actual spending of a program. The expected savings from the cuttings were $60.8 billion. The Republicans felt that this cuts were detrimental to the economy and was likely to lead to unemployment in the economy.
Decide what the president accomplished or did not accomplish with his speech According to my understanding, the proposed cuts were contraction policies in the economy; however, they were strategically developed for the good of the country. The main areas that were affected were those that yielded minimal return to the Americans; this move was necessary especially in the wake of global financial crisis. Implementation of the actions suggested is what waits to be done, however since Obama’s got in office, over 60% of proposed cuts have been successful so even this is likely to follow suit (Thiess 1)
Conclusion Obama’s 2012 budget cuts continue to raise debates among the Americans; some people feel the cuts would injure the economy while others feel the cuts would facilitate economic recovery from world financial crisis. The proposed cuts are expected to reduce the countries budget expenditure by over $33 billion in 2012.
Works Cited FactCheck.Org. Fact Checking Obama’s Budget Speech. 18th Apr. 2011. Web.
Thiess, Rebecca. President Obama’s 2012 budget: An analysis of the budget cuts. 14th Feb. 2011. Web.
Wasson, Erik. Budget director previews cuts in Obama’s 2012 plan. 2rd Jun. 2011. Web.
Musical Features of Mahler’s III Symphony Analytical Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Musical composition of the third symphony
Peculiarities of the form
Characteristics of acoustic material
Nietzche’s influence reflected in musical features
The Christian joy replacing the quest for eternity
Allusions and quotations in the third symphony
Introduction The third symphony by Mahler is recognized as one of his longest and most amazing works. The third symphony implements the composer’s aesthetical views concerning the structure, contour, tune and acoustic material of musical works and combines the influence of Nietzsche’s philosophical framework with Mahler’s reconsideration of religious imagery.
The third symphony amazingly combines the conventional musical features and original experiments with the form and content. On the one hand, Mahler used traditional patterns for the movements of his works. On the other hand, the prolonged time periods reduce the impact of the listeners’ formal expectations and shift the emphasis towards the musical content of the symphony.
The unexpected contrasts between the acoustic materials within the same movement added special appeal to the symphony without destructing its integrity. Mahler’s outstanding sense of form allowed him to conduct these experiments without fear of destroying the inner working of his composition. He considered the structure of a musical work as a separate universe with complicated inner relations between its segments.
On the other hand, the interpretation of Mahler’s works is impossible without taking into consideration the cultural, philosophical and historical contexts of his epoch. Taking into account the amount of quotations and allusions in the third symphony, it can be stated that this musical work should be viewed not only in its integrity but also within the variety of related contexts.
Along with aesthetical value of the musical composition and acoustic material, Mahler’s third symphony can be regarded as a cross road of trends, while each of its six movements are intended to communicate the composer’s philosophical messages to the listeners.
Musical composition of the third symphony Written between 1893 and 1896, Mahler’s third symphony is recognized as one of the longest ever written musical compositions due to about one hundred minutes with typical performance.
The author’s initial intention was to compose this symphony out of 7 movements which changed up to the moment of the symphony completion, and the final version consists of six movements. The first movement typically lasts for about thirty minutes and can be regarded as the first part of the whole symphony. The second part consisting of the remained five movements has duration of up to seventy minutes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initially, the symphony was accompanied with a program intended to clarify the inner working of the composition and communicate the composer’s philosophical messages to the listeners.
Though Mahler withdrew this program afterwards, it is valuable for getting insight into the architecture of the composition and the role and symbolical meaning of each movement. Entitled as Ein Sommermorgenstraum (German for A Summer Morning’s Dream), the third symphony had appropriate titles for each of its movements.
Thus, the first movement bore the title Summer Marches In, while What the Flowers and Meadows Tell Me, What the Animals of the Forest Tell Me, What the Night Tells Me, What the Morning Bells Tell Me and What Love Tells Me were the titles for the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth movements accordingly (Niekerk 201).
Through the analysis of these titles, it can be stated that in contrast to traditional symphonies patterns, the structure of the composition under consideration is not cyclic, but rather progressive depicting a musical journey through the symphony universe.
The peculiarities of the composition can be regarded as specific structural device affecting the listeners’ perception of the musical themes in general. The six seemingly disjointed movements in fact belong together and are united by complex inner relationships.
The opening movement entitled as Summer Marches In represents an unconventionally slow introduction. The sounds of the eight unison horns intertwined with the outcroppings of recitative contrast to the main violin solo which resembles the spring-like life force.
Later on in this movement, this life force is developed into the traditional march. A pastoral episode with its twittering incorporated into this movement adds some special appeal and produces the impression of a double development section. The opening movement with all its contrasting components introduces the listeners into the universe of Mahler’s symphony.
We will write a custom Essay on Musical Features of Mahler’s III Symphony specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The title of the second movement (What the Flowers and Meadows Tell Me) is aligned with its form. The dainty minuet was appropriate for representing vegetable nature of the discussed processes in nature. This elegant and essentially static form of minuet follows the ABABA pattern and makes this movement ever-changing similar to summer nature.
The third movement entitled as What the Animals of the Forest Tell Me uses a scherzo bustling for rendering the animal sounds. The main allegro of this movement uses the song Absolung im Sommer as its main theme.
Listening to this section, the audience is expected to imagine the dead Cuckoo contrasting to the joy of life in the rest of the animals which is subdued only with the shadow of a man beyond the horizon. The sounds at the end of this movement reveal the animals’ fear which first makes the sounds still, but then unexpectedly ends with final eruption.
In contrast to the three first movements, the fourth one entitled as What the Night Tells Me lacks activity. At first it may seem that the stirrings bring the listeners back to the opening of the symphony, but this impression is delusional. This time the stirrings convey the meaning of warning the man and reveal not the birth of life but rather the birth of intellect.
The musical content of the fifth movement was intended to answer the main question What the Morning Bells Tell Me. Juxtaposing the sacred and profane motives in this movement, Mahler emphasizes this contrast for expressing his controversial religious feelings.
The bell sounds intoned by children reproduce the Angels’ song about the Last Supper. The climax included into this movement appears to be momentarily threatening though does not keep the listeners under pressure too long. After the imaginary storm cloud passes away, the climax is replaced with the joyous singing which is followed by silence.
What Love Tells Me as the title of the sixth movement explains the overall tension as the dominating pattern within this part. Composed from a set of variations, the sixth movement builds up the volcanic pressure and expresses love in all its beauty at the same time. The intertwining melody unites the blocks of the sixth movement with a single theme and intensifies the cumulative dramatic impact.
Regardless of the relative disparity between the moods, structures and colors of the six movements, as a whole, they exhibit exceptional structural unity as it is expected from a traditional symphony.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Musical Features of Mahler’s III Symphony by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Peculiarities of the form Though most Mahler’s symphonies follow conventional patterns, the peculiarities of the form and the manipulation of the structures can be regarded as a separate musical device adding special appeal to compositions.
To begin with, all opening movements of Mahler’s symphonies are based on sonata form. Regarding the massive first movement of the third symphony, the composer admitted that it had “the same scaffolding and construction…as found in Mozart and, expanded and exalted, in Beethoven, but which were actually created by the venerable Haydn” (Freeze 188).
However, as to the first movement of the third symphony, the difficulties with defining its form cam be explained with its huge size.
The gigantic proportions caused the difficulties with making the form of the whole piece apparent to the listeners. For the purpose of preserving the effect of the conventional form, Mahler highlighted the structural divisions through eliminating transitions between the sections and incorporating the musical gestures into the movements’ structure.
Another characteristic feature of the third symphony is the implementation of the rotational form. The rotational form can be defined as the organizational principle based upon the repetition of certain motives. The first set of motives comprises a cycle which is repeated for producing the impression of rotation.
The radical independence between the theme groups is a peculiar feature of the third symphony. Regardless of the stability within the basic sequence, separate motives can be based upon any developmental patterns. The flexibility of the symphony framework allows allotting structural significance to the most distinctive motives.
The large proportions used in the third symphony make the role of the listeners’ formal expectations insignificant. Reducing the role of the background knowledge for the subjective perception of the aesthetics of the symphony, the time scales emphasize the importance of the mutual relations between idioms and sounds. “Mahler gives them unprecedented structural significance: the primary structural marker is idiom” (Freeze 193).
With the climax episodes integrated into the structure of most movements, they can seem as separate complete pieces. However, the detailed analysis of their structural composition allows defining the transition segments which play an important role in establishing the integrity of the whole symphony.
Thus, disregarding the conventionality of the implemented form, the structural composition of Mahler’s third symphony can be regarded as a separate musical feature. Apart from structural significance of particular distinctive motives, the time scales reduce the importance of the listeners’ formal expectations and background knowledge.
Based on conventional patterns, the rotational cycle, the complex structure and the variety of musical gestures intensify the listeners’ impression from the musical composition, making the modified for, and the correlation between the sounds and idioms an impressive musical device.
Characteristics of acoustic material The acoustic material used by Mahler in the third symphony extends the traditional patterns dictated by orchestra. As it has been mentioned above, particular distinctive motives, such as booming drum motives from the first movement, for example, have become structurally significant features of the whole composition. Increasing the coloring of his symphony, Mahler upsets the orchestra balance, crossing the traditional boundaries of classicism.
Mahler’s genius sense of the form allowed him conducting experiments with the structure, manipulating the acoustic material at his discretion and emphasizing the individual voices at the expense of the total sound without reducing the aesthetic value of his works.
In a standard situation, Mahler can afford himself placing a prolonged upper-voice melody, creating contrasting extremes. Despite all the conventional limitations, Mahler combines unbroken upper-voice melody with other elements tough these contrasts were not essential for the overall composition.
Mahler’s peculiar attitude towards the form can be explained with not only his position of innovator, but also his views concerning the inappropriateness of symmetrical relationships to musical themes. Regarding the works of art as separate universes with their unique internal processes and rules, Mahler takes into consideration the impact of the time and space parameters while working on the third symphony.
The discovery of the beautiful coloring of the trombone solo can be considered as an important Mahler’s contribution to the overall musical aesthetics of his epoch. The contrast between the solo trombones and the chorale produced the effect of the deliberated sounds which however were valuable for expressing the main idea of a particular movement.
Disregarding the misbalance between the chorale and the unexpected solos, the musical content of the movements corresponds to the listeners’ expectations as perceived from the movement titles. Thus, the third symphony has become Mahler’s first experiment with solo trombones which made a significant contribution to the overall coloring of the whole musical composition.
Mahler’s nonconventional approach to pauses and rhythm is another significant feature of the acoustic material deserving serious consideration. The rhythm and the over-long pauses are meant to reinforce the overall impression from the melodies and motives. The pauses within the third symphony are frequently defined as prose-like and can be regarded as meaningful.
In general, Mahler’s unique sense of the form predetermined the success of his experiments with the extension of the classical boundaries, combination of the sounds which previously were regarded as incompatible and the prominence of particular solos. The unconventional treatment of the acoustic material increased the overall coloring of the third symphony and became a contribution to the musical aesthetic of the early twentieth century.
Nietzche’s influence reflected in musical features Along with the German Romanticism and particularly its notion of a new mythology, Nietzsche’s philosophical theories have become an important source of inspiration for Mahler in composing his third symphony. Particular instances of Nietzsche’s influence can be found within the musical features of this work of art.
While some theoreticians call Nietzsche the key figure in Mahler’s intellectual development in general, the evidence that the composer was under the influence of the great philosopher while working on his third symphony can be found in the musical features of the musical work itself. “Mahler is said to have read Nietzsche particularly intensively during the composition period for the Third” (Niekerk 207).
Apart from the choice of the title of Die Frohliche Wissenschaft for the symphony as the direct reference to the philosopher’s work, the choice of the main themes and motives developed in the symphony under consideration can be regarded as the results of the Nietzsche’s influence on Mahler’s views and aesthetical sense.
Analyzing the representation of the idea of community within the third symphony, it can be stated that it is not limited to the humanity dimension, but is rather extended to the exploration of all levels of nature for defining the people’s place within it. A similar framework for applying the community concept to the rest of the universe can be found in Nietzsche’s theories.
In that regard, it can be stated that the six movements of the third symphony represent Mahler’s view of the hierarchical order of nature. Analyzing the author’s programmatic notes for the symphony, each movement of the symphony can be interpreted as a walk within a particular hierarchical level of nature.
The first movements of the symphony represent the nature’s ability to produce the sounds without the human interference. Mahler uses special acoustic and structural devices for showing the effect of the man’s appearance in the world of nature and animals’ reaction to it.
The use of the religious imagery in the fifth movement of the third symphony can be regarded as another instance of the philosopher’s influence upon the composer. Thus, the profound philosophical basis and effects of Nietzsche’s influence can be found behind the programmatic notes, main themes and motives developed within Mahler’s third symphony.
The themes of the hierarchical order of nature and the relations between the nature and the human world along with Mahler’s subjective representation of the religious imagery are the main philosophical underpinnings of the third symphony which can be regarded as the reflection of Nietzsche’s influence upon Mahler’s views in general and the aesthetics of the third symphony in particular.
The Christian joy replacing the quest for eternity Regardless of the evident influence of Nietzsche’s works upon the motives and even composition of the third symphony, Mahler has extended the frames of the philosopher’s framework, particularly through replacing Nietzsche’s idea of the quest for eternity with the motives of Christian joy.
The crossroads of different traditions can be found within the symphony’s composition, namely at the juncture between the different song themes (Knapp 152). The motive of the bell rings which was introduced at the first movement obtains a growing significance within the following movements and can be regarded as an indicator of the Christian motives in the third symphony.
The title of the fifth movement which according to various interpretations can be translated as What the Morning Bells Tell Me or What the Angels Tell Me contains the main religious imagery of the whole symphony. The rhythm and contour of this movement as well as the bell rings are supposed to express the author’s attitude towards the musical interpretation of the religious motives.
Analyzing the dominating mood of this movement, it can be stated that the implemented patterns and contrasts within the acoustic material were intended to communicate the idea of Christian joy as opposed to the quest for eternity propagated by Nietzsche.
The cheerful tone of this movement can be explained with the 17th century church hymn which was put into its basis (Knapp 156). The old hymn was focused on the redemption of sins and the relief which can be found in religion.
These themes of finding the relief in religious beliefs were borrowed by Mahler for his third symphony and predetermined the composition and the dominating tune of the fifth movement. The children’s choir imitating the bells was accompanied by the female solo and added special appeal to the instrumental solo.
In general, the fifth movement of the third symphony can be regarded as the crossroad between Nietzsche’s philosophical ideas, the church hymns of the 17th century and the motive of Christian joy replacing the idea of questing for eternity.
Combining the elements of the church song, children’s and female choirs, the composer achieves the effect of the cheerful tune dominating within the movement and reflects the religious imagery of Christian joy.
Allusions and quotations in the third symphony The analysis of the symphony under consideration is impossible without proper consideration of the philosophical and socio-cultural context of the epoch within which the third symphony was created.
In that regard, along with the analysis of separate movements, the internal links between various segments of the symphony as well as the stylistic allusions and quotations from other works need to be taken into account for defining the overall aesthetic value of the third symphony in its complexity.
The tail motive of the second movement can be found in the fourth and second movements, while the tail motive of the first movement is not repeated. This simple melodic and rhythmic contour contributes to the overall integrity of the third symphony though the same motives can receive different interpretation due to the surrounding elements.
Thus, the tail motive of the second movement obtains a different sounding within the context of the fourth and sixth movement. On the other hand, this quotation appeals to the listeners’ feelings for creating the associations with the prior movements and reinterpreting the acoustic material in accordance with the new musical content.
Thus, the internal relationships between the different segments of the symphony and the incorporation of specific quotations of motives into the succeeding movements emphasize the overall integrity of the work of art, contribute to the listeners’ overall impression and demonstrate how the same material can change its sounding and meaning due to the musical context.
Regarding the musical allusions, it can be stated that Mahler’s third symphony contains allusions to military marches and operetta which are recognized by the listeners in the whole composition and cannot be underestimated.
The use of the military marches for depicting the nature processes required proper consideration of the programmatic notes for avoiding the misinterpretation of the composer’s messages and intentions. Though most marches used by Mahler are deformed, their military connotation is obvious and contributes to the general mood of the symphony.
To emphasize the military allusions, Mahler uses trumpets, cymbals and bass drum for creating the military associations in the audience. Operetta music became another significant source for the allusions incorporated into the symphony under consideration and intertwined with marches.
It is significant that for creating the allusions from the light marches of operetta, Mahler uses mostly instruments which are not traditional for the Austrian military band, namely flutes, cellos, oboes, timpani, triangle and others which can be explained with the composer’s intention of creating the contrasts and making certain themes distinctive and structurally significant.
The use of quotations for creating the links between the various parts of the symphony allowed emphasizing the integrity of its compositions and involving the listeners into the process of active interpretation of the music contours and structures.
Along with the internal links between the different segments of the symphony and its inner working, the allusions from the military marches and operetta music have become a delicate touch contributing additional opportunities for interpreting the musical content of separate movements and the third symphony in general.
Conclusion In general, it can be concluded that every element in the structure of Mahler’s third symphony, its acoustic material and movements can be regarded as meaningful and conveying not only author’s aesthetical views, but also his philosophical ideas, mostly drawn from Nietzsche’s heritage, but partially reconsidering the philosopher’s assumptions.
The combination of conventional structural patterns and original musical gestures allowed creating an unprecedented mix of tradition and innovation within the patterns used in a musical work.
Treating the composition of his third symphony as a separate universe, Mahler afforded himself to create contrasts of acoustic materials and incorporate unexpected musical gestures which surprisingly did not destroy the overall integrity of the symphony.
The programmatic notes for the six movements of the symphony convey Mahler’s philosophical ideas which were put into the basis of the work. The beauty of nature, the relations between the animal and humane worlds, the death and relief which can be found in religious beliefs are only some of the motives developed in the symphony.
Taking into account the allusions from military marches and operetta music incorporated into the movements, the programmatic notes are essential for preventing the misinterpretation of the author’s intentions and meaning of particular elements of composition.
As a combination of musical traditions and philosophical frameworks, Mahler’s composition of the third symphony can be recognized as a significant and influential event in the history of music.
Extending the conventional patterns, incorporating the unexpected musical gestures and conducting experiments with choirs, contours and tunes, Mahler managed to express his philosophical ideas and preserve the integrity of the whole work.
Reconsidering the traditional formal and philosophical frameworks while working on his third symphony, Mahler created a separate universe with its inner processes and cannons which was one step ahead of his epoch but cannot be analyzed without considering its historical context.
Works Cited Freeze, Timothy. “Gustav Mahler’s Third Symphony: Program, Reception, and Evocations”. The University of Michigan, 2010. Web.
Knapp, Raymond. Symphonic Metamorphoses: Subjectivity and Alienation in Mahler’s Re-Cycled Songs. Wesleyan University Press, 2003. Print.
Niekerk, Carl. “Mahler contra Wagner: The Philosophical Legacy of Romanticism in Mahler’s Third and Fourth Symphonies”. German Quarterly, Spring 2004, 77(2): 118-209. Print.
In the Rhythm of the Heartbeat: The Genius of Mahler Descriptive Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction: Life as a Constant Struggle One of the most prominent people of the epoch, Mahler deserves being called the man who made the world sound in a different way. Without his enchanting and thrilling compositions, the world of art would have lost its specific flair of greatness.
Tracing the background of Symphony No.2, one will inevitably see the way the music was shaping and realize how many prerequisites this amazing piece depended on. It cannot be doubted that the music possesses the specific peculiar features that make it an outstanding creation of a genial musician.
Speaking of Mahler is impossible without mentioning the epoch that the musician belonged to. Reconstructing the past, one can see that the impact of the then atmosphere on the creations of the composer was immense, each piece shot through with the air of the distant times.
Mentioning that the composer stood at the crossroads of the XIX and XX centuries would be enough to create a general picture of the time in which Mahler lived and created his amazing music.
Being squeezed between the two eras, the one featuring the conventional approach to composing and adhering to the postulates of the classics, the other suggesting all possible innovations that came together with the progress of the humanity, these two centuries brought a conflict between the old and the new, which Mahler would reprint in his works.
The question was, did he do it intentionally? However, is there any musical piece that was composed intentionally?
Inspired from somewhere up above, these compositions cannot be judged as something that belongs to the world of the ordinary; nor are these the frozen pieces of classics – it seems as if the powerful melodies live a life of their own, a peculiar cross between the spirit of the century and the ideas that were haunting Mahler through all his life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What strikes most about the genial musician is the fact that he was writing the music that both reprinted the epoch and at the sane time reflected the soul of the musician. It was truly unbelievable, yet that was the fact.
Mahler’s Symphony No.2 was another stage of the musician’s self-perfection process. It is amazing to learn that the symphony written by the great composer was predetermined by a number of factors that influenced Mahler’s creativity and set the right tone for his pieces.
Plunging into the Ocean of Music: What Stands Behind the Downpour of Notes Speaking of the pieces created by the musician, one must mention the early years of Mahler for a better understanding of his works and the incredible inspiration that stood behind each of his works and led him to the top of the musical Olympus.
It is important to mark that his early years were the time of the most fruitful creation and the period when the composer improvised most. Making the new steps into the unknown, he searched for the new ways to create musical pieces and managed to fin the most unbelievable solutions for the musical ideas that rushed through his head.
It is quite peculiar that, though the ideas that inspired the First Symphony of Mahler were quite clear and well-researched by the musical experts, the ideas that inspired him to crate the second symphony are still a mystery to the world. As Mitchell explained,
It is plain, I think, from the example of Symphony I, that Mahler was fascinated by the potentialities of the Ländler, and sensed it in his musical possibilities; but had not yet evolved his singular approach to the Ländler which both created his unique type of scherzo and represented a sharp break with tradition. (Mitchell 210)
Thus, it becomes obvious that the composer decided not to follow the blazed trail and create his new approach to the music creation. This was rather bold decision for his epoch, it must be admitted. However, this could not stop Mahler. Seized by the mysterious passion to the music and to the idea of the new symphony, he could not stop until his creation could see the light.
We will write a custom Essay on In the Rhythm of the Heartbeat: The Genius of Mahler specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also quite peculiar that the birth of the new music was greeted with much more ardor than the author must have been expecting. This leads to the idea that the world considered Mahler almost a revolutionary in the sphere of music, which means that with his creation, the composer literally broke new grounds in the world of symphonies. Who could ever think that the world of arts could be turned upside down even with such powerful music?
Considered both genial and daring, Mahler was the first man to introduce the idea of classicism renewed to the world of music. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that Mahler’s first attempts were given a cold shoulder – as Mitchell remarked, Mahler’s first works were considered as a “stone wall of musical classicism” (146).
However, as time passed, Mahler’s personality shone brighter – the genial composer put a speck of his own self into each of his astounding pieces – and, as a result, the audience recognized his works.
In view of Brahm’s doubtless aggressive view of Das klagende Lied, his comment after seeing the MS. of Mahler’s Symphony II in the summer of 1896 is of particular interest: “It is not wholly intelligible to me why Richard Strauss is proclaimed music’s Revolutionary; I find that Mahler is King of the Revolutionaries.” (Mitchell 146)
Indeed, in the eyes of the public, Mahler did the unacceptable, making music sound natural and at the same time thrilling. He broke all possible music canons to create the ones of his own, which finally led to creating the Symphony II – the top of what could be called the revolutionary in music.
What makes the creation of Mahler priceless is the fact that he was actually accepting the new ideas, creating his own path to follow. The composer denied the canons that had been set before, blazing the new trail on the way to the musical masterpiece.
Neither did he use the approaches that he resorted when creating his earlier works. It can be considered that Symphony No.2 is an entirely new composition, the piece that made musicians take a look at the other side of the composing process.
With help of his genius, Mahler made the impossible – he broke all possible musical laws to create the most beautiful piece ever. Some critics argue, though, that Mahler used Das klagende Lied to compose this piece; however, Mitchell notes:
Not sure if you can write a paper on In the Rhythm of the Heartbeat: The Genius of Mahler by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such parallels and similarities as exist are not, of course, evidence of Das klagende Lied actively influencing Symphony II; rather it is the case of characteristic C minor music revealing a certain unity of shape and sound, the kind of relation one often finds in a composer’s oeuvre: a specific key and mood can develop their own cross-fertilize otherwise quite disparate works (176)
Thus, it can be considered that the famous Das klagende Lied had very little to do with the Symphony II of great Mahler. Nevertheless, this does not shed the light on the mystery. Did the incredible music pop out of nowhere?
As it turns out, the history of the magnificent piece can be traced rather easily. Since the composer tended to mark each newly concurred stage of his mastery, it is possible to find out what lied in the basis of the great composer’s creation. Thus, Nicholson states,
The manuscripts for Mahler’s Second Symphony provide one of the most extensive, if still far from complete, records of the genesis of any of Mahler’s compositions. At the same time they reflect the long and curiously discontinuous gestation of the work as a whole, and the highly intuitive nature of Mahler’s approach to composition (84).
Therefore, tracing the origins of the symphony is obviously possible. On to the new discoveries!
Inside the Treasure Trove: The Pearls to Find Analyzing the peculiarities of the epoch to evaluate their influence on Mahler’s compositions, one can possibly suggest that the idea of creating the Symphony No.2 rooted from the Symphony No.1. Yet the time gap between the two allows to suggest that Symphony No.2 was not the continuation of the old idea, but something completely new – the next chapter in Mahler’s book of life.
Indeed, there is certain evidence about the period of stagnation in his work, which happened to be the turning point for the Symphony No.2. According to what Mitchell said, “The failure to work on the symphony reflects the advent of a major ‘dry’ period in Mahler’s creative work” (86).
Can that mean that the works of the great composer were the result of the long-suffered fight against the critics and the people disapproving of his attempts to break new grounds in the sphere of music? It seems that such statement has certain grounds to base on. Analyzing the composition, one can track the aftereffects of the depression that seized the musician and made him taste the bitterness of defeat.
Whatever the case, he resumed compositional work only in 1892, with at least six and possibly seven songs in a new group of settings of texts from Des Knaben Wunderhorn. These prepared the way for a return to the Second Symphony in the summer of 1893, five years after the completion of the first movement. (Mitchell 86)
Thus, there is no doubt that the composition was influenced not by the first part of the entire composition, but rather by the abovementioned two pieces – Der Knabe Wunderhorn and Das klagende Lied.
As a matter of fact, the latter had the greatest impact on the entire symphony. As Aries remarked, “The third movement of the Symphony No.2 (1894)(W838) transforms the song “Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt” from Des Knaben Wunderschon” (92).
It can be considered that the author was heavily influenced by the troubles that he was to face, which resulted in the general mood of the composition and made the music acquire the famous tragic depth and the mournful air about the melody.
Speaking about the specifics of the composition, one can mark the incredible expressivity of the piece, which is rather surprising, taking into consideration the epoch and the atmosphere of the century. As Mitchell explained,
Remarks about the Second Symphony by Mahler tend to confirm this contrast between the early drama of the First and the redemption of the Second. Whether this should cause us to view the triumph of the close of the First Symphony as a more temporal overcoming than Natalie suggests is coloured by Mahler’s own use of ‘Dall’Inferno al Paradiso’ as a title for the finale, but it is perfectly natural to consider these images (more cliché than Dante) as metaphors for the highs and lows of an early human comedy. (Mitchell 60)
Therefore, there is certain evidence that Mahler made efficient use of Dante’s allegories and managed to restore the idea of descending from the heaven above into the smouldering fire of the Inferno.
In addition, it is worth mentioning that the composer uses one of the most unexpected approaches to make his Symphony render the hearts of the audience even more – he mixes the comic and the tragic, making it reach the divine. Like the Divine Comedy, it touched the secret strings of people’s souls, helping them reach the peak of the esthetical delight.
However, it seems that there is no one who can define the peculiarities and the specific features of the composition better than the author can. Thus, Mitchell explained further on,
When Mahler sets waltz and Ländler in opposition to each other, as here or in the Fifth and Ninth Symphonies, it becomes difficult to distinguish the elements of parody from the ideal. (Mitchell 60)
Therefore, the mixture of the comic and the tragic gave birth to grotesque that becomes the main characteristics of the work of Mahler in the eyes of Mitchell. Rather tricky issue, this means that the change brought into the classical music by Mahler is tremendous. With help of the specific approach that incorporated the elements of various musical genres, Mahler crated the most adorable fusion. According to what Mitchell claims,
The strain of the grotesque or the fantastic that is already present in the scherzo dominates the march. Whether the listener keeps the image of the huntsman’s funeral in mind is in a scene irrelevant to the experience of the three types of music in this movement. (Mitchell 61)
Indeed, the music created by the famous composer is filled with the passion and the strain that was rather weird for the reserved and conservative century.
Considering the way the author perceived his work himself, one can possibly say that the evaluation of the maestro was quite different from what the critics saw in the piece. It was the mixture of the styles that he created; no matter what the critics might say, he continued his daring experiments.
Thus, Arias mentioned, “Gustav Mahler’s symphonies soften mix grotesque irony and black humor” (92). It can be considered that the heavy, depressing atmosphere of the epoch did not have its effect on the composer, yet it seems that Gustav Mahler tries to create the piece that could balance the gloomy atmosphere of the century and people’s need to strive for optimism.
Such mixture of ideas must have given birth to the specific irony that the Symphony is all pierced through with. Thus, Aries marks that “The Symphony No.2 (The Four Temperaments) (1902)(W858) ends with a joyous depiction of the sanguine temperament” (92).
Such fluctuations of style and tempo of the symphony might signify, first, the uneven and rough pattern of development at the split of centuries, and, second, the hardships of the composer’s own life. Just as grotesque as the melody he created, Mahler’s life was full of contradictions and complicacies that led to the tragicomic misunderstandings and misconceptions.
At the Historical Crossroads: The Last Great Romantic or the First Adventurer of the Century? What could inspire such incredible symphonies? Was Mahler the last romantic who could breathe a new life into the melody, or a musical adventurer who dared to penetrate the holy of holies and break the postulates of classical music?
It seems that the composer was rather inclined to constant change in the tempo, the mood and the overall air of the music. Such changes signify that the composer’s vision of the world was rather complicated and that Mahler could be in conflict between the world and his own ideas.
Rosenzweig explained this phenomenon in the following way: “Re-submersion in world sorrow after ecstatic flights of creative inspiration, as always occurred following the completion of a work, was a characteristic trait of Mahler the symphonist” (36). Perhaps, Rosenzweig was right claiming that Mahler was “a romantic at heart” (36).
However, it must be admitted that, to compose the music that was so different from what the rest of the composers created, one has to possess that certain piece of adventurism, the desire to reach beyond all known boundaries and learn the truth that is hidden beyond the horizon.
That was more than merely a romantic idea of music – that was the beginning of a new exciting adventure into the world of extraordinary, the place where music took completely new, different shapes and mixed styles in the weirdest fashion to produce grotesque.
The castle of Fata Morgana would not look more miraculous than these attempts to transform the old, ossified ideas into the brand new world of the classics. Thus, it is evident that Mahler managed to comprise the traits of a romantic and an adventurer, painting the entire world in his peculiar, grotesque palette.
Perhaps, Mahler was one of those people who could combine the traits of romanticism and adventurism in the most unbelievable way to make their personality ever brighter. Making the romantic mix with the speck of adventurism, Mahler combined the incompatible, which resulted in the most stunning compositions.
For instance, tracing the peculiarities of the Second Symphony, one can mark that the composition possesses both the romantic features and the spirit of adventurism. Rosenzweig marked that “Mahler was a thoroughly romantic nature, all fierce determination and tragic inner turmoil” (Rosenzweig 30).
In Search for the Truth: A Conformist or a Rebel? Another peculiar question is whether Mahler preferred keeping with the views traditionally accepted in the world of music, or if the composer created the path of his own. Although it is evident that the music created by Mahler has now become a perfect specimen of the classical music, it used to produce quite a stir in the spheres of art several decades ago.
Because of his incredible skill to transfer various ideas that emerged in the other spheres of art into the world of music, he managed to create the path of his own, a specific way of composing music that was bound to embody the composer’s ideas of the world and people. Thus, Adorno noted that Mahler transformed various fables and myths into melody and rhythm:
The fairy-tale tone in Mahler is awakened by the resemblance of animal and man. Desolate and comforting at once, nature grown aware of itself casts off the superstition of the absolute difference between them (9)
Why such weird transformations, one might ask. Yet the answer is simple: with help of these manipulations the composer tried to apply to the public’s humanity, their “sapiens sapiens” part, and make them understand what they have already felt in the enchanting music: “Through animals humanity becomes aware of itself as impeded nature and of its activity as deluded natural history; for this reason Mahler meditates on them” (Adorno 9)
Perhaps, the author merely tried to reconcile with the rest of the world, which led to such conflicts and such rebelliousness that his Symphony was saturated 2ith. In his useless attempts to find the golden mean, the one and only Truth, he was raging like a wild beast – or, at least, so did the melody of his compositions – and resulted in the most shocking and stirring music.
Its [nature’s] integral oneness abolished multiplicity; its suggestive power severed all distractions. It preserved the image of happiness only by proscribing it. In Mahler it begins to rebel, seeks to make peace with nature, and yet must forever enforce the old interdiction (Adorno 9).
Thus, it cannot be doubted that the air of rebelliousness that made Mahler’s compositions so emotion-filled was a part of the author’s self, his own vision of the world and his soul. Abandoning the old, hole-ridden ideas, Mahler chooses his own path, which means that he must not resort to the methods of expression created by the other composers. There is no doubt that with help of his unique approach Mahler managed to astound the public and make the classical music sound in a different way.
However, it would be erroneous to claim that Mahler blazed the trail to the world of music completely on his own. It would be more correct to claim that he applied such approaches to the art of music that had been used in the other spheres of art before. Thus, for instance, it was Mahler’s idea to fill the Second Symphony with the magical world of Kafka and the folk songs described above.
Could a man who created the Second Symphony be considered a conformist? It is beyond any shadow of a doubt that the composer would not be able to create this piece unless he had worked on his own theory of the classical music and blazed his own trail in this sphere. Denying the conventional ideas of what classical music is supposed to be, he worked thoroughly on each note to build the powerful cadence of notes. However, the rebelliousness of his soul showed up not only in the Second Symphony. As Mitchell recalled,
When Mahler resigned his post at the Opera in 1907, he, like Otto Wagner, was a much an emblem of an artistic and social establishment as he was viewed as a rebel. Radical conservatives regarded him as the ultimate personification of a Jewish cosmopolitanism which for decades had been destructive to native Viennese sensibilities. (Mitchell 37)
Thus, it was obvious that rebelliousness was a part of the composer. Without this trait of character, he would have never managed to create the Second Symphony. Perhaps, the strength of his character is what the world owes Symphony No.2 to.
Conclusion One of the greatest composers of the XIX-XX centuries, Mahler showed the world what music can be as he introduced his Symphony No.2 to the public. With help of his specific vision of the world, he managed to shape the traditional classical approach to create the music that will last for centuries.
Although he preferred the approach that could not be described as the conventional one, the composer’s work was still accepted by the humankind with gratitude. Since he composed the music in his own, unique way, reworking the music of the past, trying different variations and creating the new ways to make the music sound truly astounding, the composer was considered as a rebel in the world of music.
Seized by the desire to create, he was labeled as the romantic of the passing century, yet his experiments marked that the spirit of adventurism the composer possessed guided him on his way to the classical music.
The famous Second Symphony, the pearl in the crown of the great maestro, was a long-suffered piece. Despite the obstacles that the composer met on his way and the hardships that Mahler had to encounter, the symphony stirred the world to the core.
Works Cited Adorno, Theodor W., and Edmund Jephcott. Mahler: A Musical Physiognomy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Print.
Arias, Enrique Alberto. Comedy in Music: A historical Bibliographical Resource Guide. Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Press, 2001. Print.
Mitchell, Donald. Gustav Mahler: The Early Years. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1980. Print.
Mitchell, Donald, and Andrew Nicholson. The Mahler Companion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Rosenzweig, Alfred, and Jeremy Narham. Gustav Mahler: New Insights into His Life, Times and Works. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2007. Print.
Internet Recruiting Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Less than one decade internet has comprehensively changed the process of recruitment in international corporations and small scale firms. Currently, employers are capable of posting job advertisements in career hubs which can be accessed by millions of people per day. Website also enhances instant, extensive employee recommendation from one company to another.
It also enables firms to maintain departed employees who could be hired afterwards, or they can refer new clients or their friends to the company. Managers who require new employees can visit Google, do a search, and immediately find many resumes on the home pages and Web which comply with their requirements.
Using a single password, the managers can easily log in and find several resume banks instantly, send emails concurrently to many candidates, guide them through online screening icon and program interviews with the best candidates (Foster, 2002). Therefore internet has brought dramatic changes in the human resource department; the paper explores more on those impacts.
Background In the past decade internet has brought remarkable effects on economic and social lives all over the world. It has transformed ways of communication, interaction with other people and even the way of purchasing products. In addition, there have been intense changes on management of organizational businesses mainly the human resource department.
Recent research showed that seventy percent of companies currently use employee self service (ESS) which is done through the internet. This system is used to keep employees records, where eighty percent carry out online recruiting and forty percent employ portals in the Website to communicate HR strategies (Bidgoli, 2004).
There are several reasons why HR prefers using internet to facilitate their processes. The major reason is because it assists companies to retain and attract employees and also promote their productivity.
In addition, researchers argue that internet assist organizations to minimize cycle time, rationalize HR processes, facilitate communication within the organization, promote employee access to information and enhance the ability of the organization to adjust to changes. Even though the internet is believed to have specialized advantages, some studies have claimed that internet might cause adverse risk to personal privacy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, platforms in the Website might enable organizations and individuals to access private information concerning employees. Furthermore, storage of private information online might form permanent marks which could stigmatize some people and prohibit them from getting job associated outcomes such as promotion.
In spite of the increased use of internet in the department of human resource, few researches have been involved in investigating the outcomes of internet in HR processes. There are few studies that have directly assessed the level to which Website HR structure has the capability of infringing the privacy of employees (Stone and Stone- Romero, 1998).
Internet Recruitment This has been described as the method of looking for and obtaining prospective job candidates in adequate numbers and quality in order to accomplish organizational objectives.
The internet is dramatically changing the recruitment process in three major ways: firstly, its assisting in attracting external and internal job applicants, secondly, it provides a fundamental realistic sample of jobs and organizations. Finally, it helps in investigating the efficiency of recruitment process.
Benefits of Internet Recruitment Attracting Applicants
Traditional recruitment materials like job fairs, newspaper advertisements, campus visits and private search companies are still applied in recruiting job applicants. However, internet has transformed how several organizations announce job opportunities. In 1997 about fifty eight percent of the big companies posted job opportunities on the internet, currently nearly hundred percent of the companies announce job vacancies through their personal websites and others on commercial sites (Gueutal, 2003).
The process of using internet in recruiting is referred as e- recruiting. It began as a way of attracting people for technical vacancies in organizations which were regarded as technology driven. Nevertheless, today it has developed and has now included every type of job opportunity. Presently, internet recruitment strategies are believed to be useful to external applicants, international applicants and the overall company.
For instance, external job applicants can simply search in the firm’s website for employment opportunities and then match up their skill, knowledge, and capability levels to the requirements of the job. Furthermore, internet use can expand the traditional searches globally, and job applicants can simply access job opportunities anytime.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Internet Recruiting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Website related systems have led to proliferation of multinational and national job data banks such as Hotjobs.com, which allow applicants to assess and compare several varieties of positions. In addition, some software used in internet recruiting assist in submitting resumes electronically which is very fast hence it is more efficient compared to traditional methods (Bidgoli, 2004).
Companies are able to respond fast to promising candidates in order to set up interviews. Furthermore, they could also use internet to alert the applicants that their education or skill levels did not match the job requirements.
Therefore, internet recruiting assist in reducing the time cycle spent in the traditional recruitment techniques and rationalize labor intensive managerial processes like posting follow up letters, related with recruitment.
Since most applicants evaluate companies according to the effectiveness of administrative processes and time limits, modernized recruitment system might develop a positive image of the company towards the job applicants (Rynes, 1991).
Job posting and Internet recruiting could also facilitate the process of internal recruiting. Before the era of internet recruiting, it was difficult for employees to know a particular job opportunity within a company. As a result of internet recruiting discovery, most companies are posting their job openings on portals in the Websites thus offering timely information to the current employees who can apply for those vacancies.
Since internal applicants provide more advantage than external applicants, (knowledge of the company, earlier trainings and verified job performance) companies might realize that internet recruiting offers important source of unknown, competent internal job applicants. Moreover, it could allow companies to efficiently utilize skills gained by employees through educational or training programs like business administration, managerial information and various degrees (Bidgoli, 2004).
Some Website systems which are employed by large companies such as PeopleSoft have the ability to search the records of the employees automatically in order to determine those employees who are competent for upcoming jobs.
Furthermore, they can also recognize a similar match between employee skill, knowledge, and capability levels and job related profiles. Eventually, they are utilized to inform qualified candidates concerning internal job openings and find out their interests in that vacancy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet Recruiting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, using internet recruiting process might increase employment opportunities for the employees, promote their contentment levels and reduce turnover rates. In addition, using internet enables present employees to become opportunistic. This is because of the rapidly developing EES systems whereby the internet or the company intranet provides them with extensive variety of HR information.
For instance, this system permits employees to ensure their details are updated to indicate the current educational and training levels. It also offers employees an opportunity to evaluate training requirements related with jobs, which assist them to plan their profession and boost their promotion chances in the company (Gueutal, 2003).
Virtual Realistic Sample
Internet recruiting has another importance that it could allow companies to provide a practical realistic preview to the current employees. Realistic job preview (RJP) could be utilized to make sure that the naïve anticipations of applicants are drawn closer to the realities of the company.
Several studies on RJPs have indicated that their application promotes employees levels of contentment and decreases turnover rates. Hence, most companies have frequently used organizational videotapes or brochures to offer realistic preview to the applicants and also the organizational environment.
Internet could be employed inexpensively and easily to provide applicants with preview of the job or explain to them the concept of working with the company. For instance, a popular company called Ford Motor presents to candidates a series of distinctive circumstances which they are likely to face on the job. This ensures that the applicants are aware of what they expect to find in the organization.
Moreover, virtual job previews could provide additional detailed information compared to traditional brochures also enables applicants to personalize the process of recruitment through indicating their priorities on the working conditions. Therefore, use of virtual job previews could assist companies to improve efficiency of overall retention and recruitment processes (Bidgoli, 2004).
Assessing Recruiting Effectiveness
Internet recruitment could also assist organizations in evaluating the efficiency of recruitment processes and approaches. For instance, companies could monitor their competitors’ portals in the Websites in order to determine different types of hiring strategies used. Such monitoring and tracking abilities offer insights which were difficult to acquire previously and might assist companies to continue being competitive in the business industry.
Equally, firms could employ internet tracking to create an internal database of applicants for future opportunities to decrease the cost of upcoming recruitments. Furthermore, online systems could assist HR managers assess the cost, efficiency and timeliness of recruitment process.
For instance, internet recruitment systems could provide supervisors or HR managers with information which would promote their capability of optimizing recruitment strategies. Internet recruiting systems could also assist in minimizing the costs of recruitment through improving the percentage of competent applicants who have been appointed.
Generally, internet could develop recruitment process for the organizations and also the current employees through attracting many candidates, improving the amount and quality of information accessible to the applicants, accelerating the speed and appropriateness of recruitment process and increasing the ability of the firm to assess recruitment process (Noe et al, 2010).
Facilitating Selection Decisions Use of online systems or internet might assist in selection decisions in various ways.
To begin with, online systems could assist in selection decisions by using current software which is used for resume screening. When the resume is received these systems scan the resume by looking for keyword and different search methods to establish whether the candidates meet crucial skills and education requirements related with the job opportunity.
If large numbers of candidates are involved, some companies employ new technology referred as interactive voice response which screens the applicants (Stone et al, 2003).
Therefore, internet related selection might reduce the time required to fill various posts and promote screening process if large numbers of job applications or resumes are involved. Secondly, though many selection systems have always used one to one communication, between the decision maker and the applicant, internet has facilitated access to a lot of information concerning the applicant.
For example, internet has made it very simple to carry out background assessments which identify criminals or monetary related bribes. Equally, it is currently easy to verify licenses, degrees, and carry out reference research based on previous job duties, salary, previous employment dates and past trainings.
Organizations could also perform intelligent tests or measure performance of the job applicants using the same online systems. In addition, some companies have developed self assessment forms which are posted in the websites and applicants could fill to verify if they are competent for that post.
Critics argue that decision support systems (DSS) could be used to enhance selection process through offering interviewers advanced information concerning applicant’s weaknesses and strengths to assist them in structuring interviews. With that data, companies could carry out first screening interviews via online.
This minimizes recruitment costs and saves time for the interviewer. Even though there are several advantages related to internet recruitment, it is important for professionals in HR department to realize problems which internet recruitment could pose to their organization. Therefore the paper further investigates some of internet recruitment disadvantages.
Setbacks of Using Internet Recruitment Implication to Practitioners
Internet recruitment might lead to an overflow of job applications and could be exceedingly troublesome for the HR sector to carry out the task manually.
In addition, a number of ethnic minorities such as Native Americans, Hispanic Americans and African Americans, and some individuals living in low social economic backgrounds might not access internet which causes digital divide. Thus internet recruitment might have adverse effect on individuals from those groups.
Stone et al (2003) claimed that companies should employ internet recruiting together with traditional techniques in order to ensure everybody has equal employment opportunities within an organization.
Moreover, not all software used in internet recruiting that provides equal capabilities. For instance, those systems which do not recognize online resumes directly, rather they force the applicants to rekey their data or cut, paste in order to forward the resume they might hinder applicants from applying for the posts.
Consequently, the extent to which some personal Websites are unfriendly to the user could be a probable disadvantage to some companies. The use of internet recruiting systems could serve as a hindrance to contentment and retention of significant employees in case the company’s policies are not internally organized.
Professionals in HR department should review policies in order to identify probable conflicts prior to introducing techniques of internet recruiting. For instance, those companies with policies that prohibit disclosing of salary ranges or use broad banding income ranges for different job ranks might realize that internal candidates mostly apply for jobs in down grade which are internet posted.
For that reason, HR professionals ought to think about the idea of listing open job systems where salary ranges are clearly stated to make sure applicants are not discouraged or misuse time on applying down grade jobs (Noe et al, 2010).
Furthermore, HR policies should be designed to promote cooperation between members of various departments so that all workers are appreciated as valued asset which require to be developed in their area of professionalism.
Impacts of Internet on Applicant’s Selection
Although internet facilitates selection of applicants, there are associated negative impacts. For instance, HR professionals should be conscious that applicants might respond more negatively to selections done online compared to traditional systems since internet depersonalizes the whole process.
Consequently, the candidates might perceive that it’s impossible for them to share their capabilities through the internet.
Critics claim that selection via the internet might be deindividuating since a true picture indicating the applicant’s abilities and skills is not provided. Therefore, decision makers might fill the gaps created by incomplete or missing information. That could lead to negative presumptions concerning the abilities of the applicant to carry out the job (Stone and Stone, 1987).
Thus applicants might find internet selection as unfair in comparison to traditional systems. Since internet might not provide the correct portrayal of the applicant’s skills, knowledge and abilities, then internet systems ought to be used together with traditional systems to give correct details of applicant. HR professionals ought to be careful in using internet to carry out personality evaluation and ability testing.
According to researches done there is no method which can guarantee the considered applicant is really the one performing the test or the candidate is being assisted by others or not. Therefore, the scores of integrity test, interview responses and personality inventories might be compromised if conducted through the internet.
Effects of Internet on Performance Management
HR professionals should be aware that internet systems might also cause problems in companies since it depersonalize the rating process. Using performance appraisal systems which are accessible online might provide unrealistic image of the employee’s performance and overlook important attributes like good citizenship behavior.
Applicants might also respond negatively to performance evaluations done online since they create more psychological distance among ratees and raters which can cause mistrust between subordinates and supervisors. Therefore, employees might regard electronic monitoring as less reasonable compared to traditional appraisal techniques.
They might claim that such systems infringe their individual freedom since they are inconsiderate and applicants have no control over the situation. Critics claim that individuals normally view electronic performance examination as infringement of their rights except when there is clear justification which should be communicated to the employee.
However, some companies with geographically distributed workers and teams claim that internet systems assist local managers by staying updated with outcomes and various activities hence efficiently managing the performances (Bidgoli, 2004).
Conclusion Internet recruitment has caused dynamic changes mostly in human resource department. Currently, applicants can easily post their resumes on the websites indicating their qualifications and the job they prefer. Similarly, employers could google through the website and look for a candidate who fits their requirements.
The employers could also inform those applicants who did not qualify for the job opportunity. These names could be retained in the database and could be refereed in the upcoming recruitments. This minimizes the recruitment cost and also saves time.
The employers could also book appointment for interview with the candidates who have qualified. However, internet recruitment has some setbacks; mainly the true personality of the applicant is not portrayed. Through, the internet it is difficult to discover some of skills and capabilities of applicants. Therefore the solution offered is using both the traditional methods together with internet during recruitment.
References Bidgoli, H. (2004). The Internet encyclopedia. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.
Foster, M. (2002). Recruiting on the Web: smart strategies for finding the perfect candidate. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gueutal, H. (2003). The brave new world of e-HR, in Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J., Gerhart, B.,
Human Instincts as an Informative Tool Research Paper custom essay help
Instincts can be said to be an animal’s autonomous response to their internal and environmental stimuli. Such responses are very primitive but very powerful that many a times they overshadow their exhibitor’s mental power (Pianka 1).
These responses are more often than not protective, but at times they can be said to serve nature’s interest. Classical examples of the above said are reflex actions that enable an animal to instantly flee from impromptu dangers, and behaviors that make mating possible.
I agree with William McDougall that humans just like other animals do demonstrate instincts but sway a little from his view, in similarity, degree of utility and context in use of such instincts in comparison with other animals.
Animals unlike humans are fully dependent on instincts to survive and to propagate life, sole reason being that their brain power is very primitive in conscious applications, and that they can survive without consciously using it at all. Humans on the other hand have a fully developed brain, engineered to perform intelligent functions, like reasoning and decision making.
Use of instincts in humans is most applied at child birth, in neonates and early child hood when the brain is underdeveloped to perform the basic survival functions like locating mother’s breasts and suckling, crying when troubled and sleeping when comfortable. Dependence on instincts diminishes on ward as they grow and as their brain develops.
Adult humans’ use of instincts is very limited to the basic biological functions and is very common to what is exhibited by other animals in the same family. Love, sympathy, modesty, hunger, sex and self-assertion are some of instincts that humans posses, according to William MacDougall. Love as feeling of affection when fully developed cannot be branded an instinct since it bears aspects of choice.
The very first attraction of one person to another is what is similar and universal to all other animals and purely depended on senses. What happens after the first instance of attraction is what distinguishes man from the rest of animals. Even as animals use this instinct of attraction to express love through mating, feeding and protecting their young ones, they cannot be said to be conscious of their actions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example is a faithful dog that singles out its owner from a big crowd but fails to pass the mirror test, implying that it is completely unaware of itself. Man after the first momentarily instance of attraction goes ahead to employ his mental power to determine whether his object of desire is worthy his committed pursuance (Pianka 1).
The other human instincts quoted by McDougall i.e. sympathy, modesty, hunger, sex and self assertion follow the same. Man usually takes them to another level of mental processing; to act on them, refine them, control or stop feeling them altogether. A man feeling and expressing sympathy for his suffering friend may remodel the feeling as common sense may demand, to empathy to be able to help his friend out of his troubles.
Animals on the other hand may experience a short lived sympathy, a good example is chicken which looses all its brood to a predator, it immediately demonstrates short lived actions of distress, soon afterwards it forgets and perches ground as if with its brood.
Hunger, sex and self assertion are some of the instincts that man carries with himself to adulthood, there is much remodeling to these, this comes with continuous development and application of his mental power. The way an adult man responds to drives of hunger and sex differs a lot from the way a child will, and much more from the way animals do.
Animals’ response to hunger and sex is instant given the opportunity and right instincts; a child’s response to instincts of hunger is instant with or without food. An adult’s man response to these will be more determined by his mental prowess than his mare instincts.
Self assertion and modesty are classical examples of instincts that man carries with himself without much interference by his mental power. Such instincts can be said to be borne more in his subconscious faculties than his conscious mind. These can be branded adoptive instincts because they will enable man behave differently in different environments.
For instance, a man will act in an assertive manner if feels intimidated or when reproached. A man will carry himself with modesty in respectful environs, like religious centers, and respectful authorities. Few animals exhibit modesty as an instinct.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Human Instincts as an Informative Tool specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Man uses instincts mostly as an informative tool to acquaint himself with the changing environment; whatever actions he takes in respond to such bodily inputs is determined by many other factors like the mind, timing and available opportunities.
Man instincts can be said to share same qualities with other animals in the bodily inputs of information with the changing environment, but sharply differ in the timing, level of consciousness and manner of response to such bodily inputs.
Works Cited Pianka, Eric. Can Human Instincts be controlled? 2009-April 22, 2010. Web.
Secure Border Initiative: Components and Technologies Utilized Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Secure Border Initiative (SBI) program
What the SBI Program Entails
Introduction As the world’s biggest economy and a land full of opportunities, the United States of America has been the dream destination for many people who seek economic empowerment.
As a result of this, the US is home to millions of illegal immigrants with thousands more continuing to seek ways to enter the country. The US-Mexico border has been the biggest conduit for illegal immigrants with an estimated 6million of the 13 million illegal aliens in the US, being Mexican (Suarez-Orozco
Impressionist Music and Art Essay essay help
Impressionist art is an artistic style that focuses on the viewer’s impression of the painting rather than the image itself. The impressionist movement planned by French painters in 1874 was meant to promote the freedom by artists to focus on other unique aspects of painting apart from realistic representation.
The pictures in impressionist art are painted with bright and bold colors to bring out an actual representation of the object in the picture (Herbert 14). The main aim of impressionism is to show the artist’s perception of the situation at hand. The pictures painted using the impressionist style do not have many details but the colors are expertly used to bring out the subject matter.
Modern impressionism entails the use of color physics in coming up with the exact impression the color and tone of the picture (Herbert 27). The effects of light and color are very important in the exact representation of an object. This paper will discuss the general characteristics of impressionism as applied in music and art.
Impressionism was invented with an objective of changing the traditional painting styles used to focus on the object and not the viewer. Impressionist art considers the kind of impression the painting leaves the viewer with.
Impressionist art is considered an emotional style because it emphasizes on the impression the image creates rather than focusing on producing a replica of the object being painted. Since impressionism does not pay attention to the intricate details of the picture, artists use bright colors that are painted with short strokes.
Light is very important in impressionist art because it helps in capturing the viewer’s impression on the object. Light is used by impressionist artists to show the different impressions of the subject matter (Clancy 12).
Impressionist art entails the use of visible strokes to create different physical and visual texture using a variety of colors. The short and thick strokes are very important in showing the exact mood of the subject matter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An impressionist painting always portrays different moods at different times of the day because of the changes in the lighting pattern (Clancy 12). A single object can appear as if it is a series of paintings.
A perfect example of pictures dedicated to lighting is the haystacks painting by Monet. The early afternoon light that is always bright makes painting look as it is has yellow and gold streaks and the same haystacks appear to have black and blue streaks in the evening light.
Impressionism advocates for blurry and subtle lines with breaks between shadows being optional. This gives the painting a foggy effect that is a true characteristic of impressionist art. Impressionist art also uses a combination of soft lines that are normally visible together with solid lines that are very striking.
These lines help the artist in manipulating shadows and lights to create different impressions on the viewer. Impressionist art is also characterized by foregrounds that are very sharp and bright with blurry backgrounds (Clancy 24). The colors in an impressionist painting are normally bright and vibrant a thing that makes impressionist painting to appear fanciful.
The colors are meant to represent different tones in the original image. It is very possible to break the colors in an impressionist painting into a variety of elements. Different paintings of the sun can be created by playing around with different colors to create different impressions.
Impressionism focuses on making the scenes look sensational. The set up of impressionist art is normally done outdoors away from the normal studio setting. This gives the artist the freedom to create a variety of impressions using light. Impressionist paintings are usually done in a weather that is quite unique with skies that are lovely and fascinating (Herbert 18).
The natural light appears in a variety of types which gives the impressionist artist much freedom to alter the details of the objects in the painting using the natural light in different types.
We will write a custom Essay on Impressionist Music and Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Impressionist artists observe the manner in which the natural light strikes the object in a careful manner. The fleeting effect is often preferred by many impressionists. Waves and moving objects clearly illustrate the behavior of light in different scenarios. Leaves are a perfect example of moving objects and are known to flicker in the presence of direct sunlight. Movements in impressionist art are very fundamental.
There are special effects in impressionism that are applied by artist to create the impression of movement. Impressionism tackles ordinary matters that affect our daily lives through paintings. Impressionist artists are always supposed to be natural and creative.
Most paintings in impressionist art are always unplanned but artists come up with new ideas in the process of painting. Impressionists like quick painting as opposed to the slow procedural studio painting (Herbert 42). Most impressionist paintings are often finished in one sitting.
In impressionist art, colors are never blended because impressionists are always aware of the variety of colors found in light. A blue color that is painted next to yellow tends to create an impression of color green in the in the mind of the viewer because of the optical illusion brought about by light (Clancy 16).
The initial impression is more important in impressionism than the object details. The paintings are normally dried using the impasto style because of the quick way in which the paintings are painted. During the drying process, the painting is normally in a raised position.
Edges in impressionist paintings are made by placing light colors next to dark colors to create the impression of an edge. Impressionist art does not allow the use of dark lines in creating edges (Gunderson 20). Soft edges are created by placing wet paints next to each other.
The placing of wet colors next to each other helps a great deal in mixing the colors. True impressionism is against the use of black paint. The use of a black paint should be minimal incase it is compulsory to use it. Dark impressions are created by mixing a gray paint with another strong color. Dark tones can also be generated by mixing two or more complementary colors (Gunderson 23).
Shadowy effects in impressionism are clearly brought out in paintings when the paintings are done in the evening. Impressionist paintings have opaque surfaces with minimal or no application of thin paint glazes that normally makes paintings to look transparent in nature (Clancy 18).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impressionist Music and Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects in impressionist art are brought about by light hence making it unnecessary for artists to use thin paint films as a way creating effects in the painting.
Generally, impressionist art relies on color reflection to create the desired impression in the mind of the viewer. The colors in impressionist paintings are often applied side by side. This style leads to a very vibrant surface with a good appeal to the eye of the viewer (Gunderson 27).
The impressionism movement also had a great effect on the classical European music apart from visual arts. Just like in arts, musical impressionism is completely different from the normal program music. The main focus in impressionist music is actually the atmosphere the music creates and the suggestion in it.
Normal program music focuses on the emotional part of music and the depiction of the musical story. Musical impressionist came into place as a reaction to the then excessively romanticized music (Clancy 17). Musical impressionism entails the use the whole tone scale and other scales that are very unfamiliar.
Impressionist musicians prefer to use dissonance instead of major and minor scales which are dramatically used in program music. Impressionist musicians’ compositions are normally the short form. Examples of these short form compositions include prelude, nocturne and arabesque (Clancy 17).
There are a lot of similarities between impressionist music and art. The shaping of new sound effects in impressionist music was greatly influenced by the color factor in impressionist art. Some of the unique effects in impressionist music include the accelerated piano dynamics and the long accords.
The combination of the two effects makes the music sound very interesting with an articulation that is very specific. The other common characteristic that has become very popular with impressionist music is the use of a glimmering sound (Herbert 34). The glimmering sound was created as a result of harmonic experiments by musical impressionists.
Impressionist musical harmonics are created by the use of a pentatonic scale and other modal scales. The texture of impressionist music is always clear as a result of utilizing unusual features of instruments that include the rarely used registers. The dynamics of impressionist music are achieved by the exposure of the dynamic effects that are very subtle (Clancy 23). The subtle dynamic effects play a big role in making the quality of the sound very sensational.
Impressionist music utilizes a variety of piano hues combined with written notes. The titles of impressionist music often refer to poetic pieces to demonstrate the variety of emotions associated with this kind of music.
Most of the subjects in impressionist music are mostly concerned with nature to bring out sensual effect. Impressionist music utilizes the bitonality technique which facilitates the use two harmonies at the same time. Bitonality lead to the creations of harmonies that are fuzzy contrary to the traditional clean and straightforward harmonies (Gunderson 29).
A perfect example of impressionist music that is played using two different harmonies is the piano piece titled La Puerto Del Vina by one of the most popular impressionist musicians known as Debussy. Two hands are used to play different keys to create the bitonality effect.
The piano literature in impressionist music is very extensive and requires a skillful use of pedals in performances. Impressionist musicians use pitch, tone and volume variations to create visual images. Impressionist music greatly emphasizes on the tone and mood created by the music. Impressionist music pays less attention to the formal musical structures (Gunderson 30).
The melody of impressionist music varies according to the kind of mood the musician wants to create. The melody in impressionist music is always aimless with a few instances of long lines. The harmony of impressionist music focuses on a specific individual chord which gives the music some direction.
In impressionist music, rhythm is often replaced by orchestration, harmony and texture. Impressionist music employs a large orchestra to give the music a variety of sounds and not necessarily for volume and power (Gunderson 30). In comparison to impressionist art, the dissonances in impressionist music are not prepared in advance but are made in the event of playing the music. Impressionist music often uses chromatics and exotic rhythms which dissociate it from the traditional program music (Clancy 57).
The impressionist style values chord according to their specific sonorities and not on their relationship with other chords. Most of the concepts in impressionist music are influenced by impressionist art. Most impressionist musicians compose their music as a result of the revelations they get from the artistic paintings (H erbert 27). The general objective of impressionist music is to create descriptive impressions in the mind of listeners rather than form the actual pictures.
In conclusion, impressionism is an artistic movement that has brought about a change in the creation and perception of art and music. Impressionist art focuses on the use of light and color to create different visual impressions on their paintings.
Impressionist music is greatly influenced by impressionist paintings where the real picture of the subject matter is not given much emphasis. Impressionism gives artists the freedom to fully expose their creativity.
Works Cited Clancy, John I. Impressionism: Historical Overview and Bibliography. New York: Nova Publishers, 2003. Print.
Gunderson, Jessica. Impressionism. New York: The Creative Company, 2008. Print.
Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism: Art, Leisure and Parisian Society. New York: Yale University Press, 1991. Print.
Does ADHD Exist? Analytical Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
ADHD is real
Effect of western culture on ADHDs
Side effects of the used drugs
Introduction ADHD stands for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder which is a mental disorder that results into a mixture of behaviors that are disruptive. It is common in children at their early stages of growth. Usually, these behaviors result into a child’s difficulty in development, social life, family relationship and performance in any activity it engages in. Major symptoms for this disorder include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
At times, hyperactivity is not present and at this juncture the disorder is referred to as DH or HD inattentive where the child has some abnormal behaviors such as not thinking before acting, fearless, impatience, inability to sit or stick in a job for a long time, problem in paying attention, inability to control emotions and difficulty in following instructions, as such the child has problems in his/her social life.
Although these characters are common to all children, the intensity and extent in child’s life development is what raises concern. Many factors contribute to these disorders such as failure in child’s attempt to do something like in education, desperation from death of a parent or divorce and such like circumstances that might adversely affect the child’s mentality.
Medication is not an adequate solution for such disorders and the environment in which the child is exposed has a big role to play in improving these disorders (Holowenko, 1999). ADHD is a disorder that is real but does not necessarily require medical attention for its correction.
ADHD is real Diagnosis has shown that this disorder is real and it is caused by neurological and biochemical processes which are responsible for attention payment and right reasoning due to brain functioning problems.
The maturation period for the child’s neurons, level of lead poisoning and genetic inheritance are all factors contributing to how a child behaves. This behavior can either cease at a certain age or continue up to childhood. Though the disorders are common with all children, one can be right to conclude that ADHD does not exist but the level of their exaggeration makes the disorder real.
In some cases this order can be inherited from parents and it is possible for more than one kid in a family to have to have it. In this case, the child’s behavior is determined by the biological make up of the brain and the neurons. Such disorders are humiliating not only to the victims but also to the close relatives. It is good to diagnosis for this disorder immediately the symptoms are noticed. Diagnosis is supposed to be done by a qualified psychiatrist.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In as much as the child behavior is not at free will, parents have a big role to play so as to improve the conditions. Exposure to the right type of environment at both home and school can play a great role in treating such kind of disorder. Encouragement and counseling cannot be left unmentioned as this will help the child understand the situation he/she is at and this can yield positive results.
Free will is a situation where by one freely chooses on what to do. It is an important factor in psychology because the brain functions to choose on what to do without any external force. If ADHD was a free will situation then no one could have chosen on either of the symptoms but because it relays on determinism, the state becomes more natural and real (Kalat 2010).
Effect of western culture on ADHDs According to statistics, more boys are vulnerable to this disorder than girls although, at the current, large number of children has been diagnosed with this disorder. There various cultural factors that determine the development of a child’s brain in the western culture such as lack of support from the parents and this leads to mental torture.
In child development, a child requires a lot of attention from his/her parents who give directions and advise on how things should be done. Also in school, the children are put into a lot of pressure in order to perform excellently in academics.
This may be a negative impact in that the child feels inadequate as she/he struggles to achieve the required requirements. Currently, the society is too busy to take care of the children and to give them guidance on how to live. Competitiveness and individualism is highly encouraged and this means the child is left alone to carryout his/her own activities even at an early stage. There is also a failure on the side of mothers who fail to take their responsibility of teaching the children morals.
Moral decay in the society is also a contributing factor towards these disorders. These cultural practices have been proved to contribute towards ADHD through various researches carried out. This can be true though on the contrary, these disorders are said to have been caused by biological factors in such a way that they can be passed from parents to their children. The frontal hemisphere of the brain is concerned with coordination and a delay in development in this part of the brain can lead to such kind of disorder.
Side effects of the used drugs In western culture, once a child is diagnosed with this disorder, medication is prescribed in form of stimulant such as Ratlin which acts to improve the impulsiveness and the inattention in a child.
We will write a custom Essay on Does ADHD Exist? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This drug is to be taken for 7 to 8 years and in the begging the drug seems effective but with time, the disorder symptom reoccurs. The drug is not meant to improve the child’s knowledge or activeness but it helps improve the conditions for this improvement for a short duration of time.
To most psychiatrics, this behavior can be corrected by use of either depressant or stimulants. These drugs are believed to activate the brain functioning incase of stimulant while the depressants are used to reduce the rate of brain functioning thus keeping the child’s brain at par with those of other children of the same age.
However, this is not true as such practices will eventually lead to some kind of resistance to the drugs thus leaving the condition the same or worst. Instead of concentrating on the child’s abilities, a lot of reliability has been laid on doctors who give prescription; this has led to pharmaceutical making abnormal profits.
Many are the side effects associated with these drugs such as mood swings, weight loss, appetite loss, irritability, insomnia, uncontrolled emotions, dizziness, retarded growth, lack of creativity, headaches, problem in body movement , stomachs’ and many more (Litchblau 2010). This is contrary to what has been published indicating that the drugs used have no known side effects.
Conclusion ADHD is a type of disorder that can be caused by either biological or environmental factors, although all children have these characters at their early developmental stages, their degree of persistence in a child’s life and level of exaggerations as compared to those of other children of the same age calls for concern for such disorders.
Diagnosis for this disorder is of great value though use of drugs cannot have a long lasting solution. It is therefore advisable to look for other ways of treating or avoiding such cases that may lead to these disorders. Use of drugs is dangerous due to the side effects they lead to. ADHD is real and it exists.
Reference List Holowenko H. (1999). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multidisciplinary approach. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Kalat, J. (2010). Introduction to Psychology. Wudsworth: Cengage Learning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Does ADHD Exist? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Litchblau, L. (2010). Psychopharmacology Demystified. Wudsworth: Cengage Learning.
Management Functions at Toyota Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The management of an organization is what determines whether the organization will achieve its goals. Toyota is a multinational organization that was established in 1936.
Today, Toyota is the leading seller of automobiles in the whole world. This success is owed to its management commitment to achieving organizational goals. The management of Toyota has a clear vision of the future, and that is what has enabled the company to plan for future events.
At the moment, the company is already developing car models that are eco-friendly; the cars do not emit carbon at all and if they do, it is minimal such that it is less harmful to the environment.
The management of Toyota has been observing the environment for quite some time and has realized that in today’s world everybody is looking for a way of preventing the pollution of the environment and that is why they have come up with hybrid vehicles, which is necessitated by proper delegation of functions.
This is because safeguarding the environment is a corporate responsibility of the company that’s closely monitored by the management.
The management of Toyota is up to its task because plans are underway to venture into different products such as airplane manufacturing. This is commendable because for this company to remain ahead in business, it must identify what its competitors are not doing. It is the role of the company management to make the necessary arrangements for such ventures to actually take of, otherwise, just speaking about it is one thing and implementing the plans is another different task (Moon, 2010, p. 2).
One expects that the management of this company is engaging in research to find out what is required for the new projects to commence. So far the company is already manufacturing hybrid vehicles, but a keen observation of their goals is to start making electric vehicles by the end of 2012.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All these goals are derived from strategic planning which entails looking for possible future changes and identifying how the company will cope with the said changes (Bateman
It’s Just the Way the Game Is Played”: The Move from Adulthood. An Interpretation of Benjamin Percy’s Story “Refresh, Refresh. Essay writing essay help
The story by Benjamin Percy “Refresh, Refresh” is one of the most affecting and thought provoking fiction stories produced in the recent years. Indeed, it is a masculine story, as it deals with the aspects of men’s principles, life and fates. The author provides the observation of lives of two friends whose fathers were sent to Iraq and who were trying to grow up while their fathers were fighting on the front.
This is the story about the effect of war on people who were at home, boys in particular, the writer shows that connection between boys and their fathers are strong and that two young adolescent boys try to grow up and be as strong and fearless as their fathers and be adamant to face the situation that war made them to face. Briefly, it is a story about searching personal identity and way of life.
The two boys are growing in Oregon where almost all “fathers” were taken to the war. The author describes how war influenced lives and characters of the boys and how it changed their visions of life.
Josh and his friend are trying to adapt to the harsh reality, as they understand that if they are taken to war as their fathers, there will not be mercy and place for kindness, “If you stepped out of the ring, you lost. If you cried, you lost.
If you got knocked out or if you yelled stop, you lost. Afterward we drank Coca-Cola and smoked Marlboros…” (Percy 3). The boys fight on the backyard, and the rules are stick.
They are similar to the rules on the battle field: one wrong step, one missed gesture, one second of weakness and you killed. This is how they were preparing for cruel life and, possibly, to going to the war.
However, it was not the only reason for their fights. The author shows a strong connection between father and son. The e-mails from fathers to their sons were the best value and, as the author mentions, “sometimes, on the computer, I would hit refresh, refresh, refresh, hoping” (Percy 8) Hoping that everything will be fine and that if the boy is strong, it will add courage and power to his father and help him fight the enemy and survive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, hope is the only thing that supports the ones who are in the war and the ones who at home and think about their relatives who can be killed any time.
Furthermore, strong connection of fathers and sons can be seen in the way boys behaved and felt about their fathers. The two were fierce and they put themselves against nature, other men in the town and situations they faced. The boys new they should be ready to something terrible that could happen with them or with their fathers.
They wanted to be ready to overcome the ones who could hurt them, to give a response to offend. In such way, they wanted their fathers to proud them, “this is what we all wanted: to please our fathers, to make them proud, even though they had left us” (Percy 4). These strong words demonstrate the “masculinity” of the story and real male characters.
Finally, the boys are trying to grow up and find their identity while opposing themselves to the odds in their town. They do not have support from their fathers as they are far from and do their duties.
The boys are trying to establish justice when kidnapping a military recruiter and impend to kill him. This was done in the attempt to show him how their fathers were feeling in the war and what the boys felt at the moment.
This was an attempt to show that they are ready and strong and different from the ones who sent their fathers to war, and unlike them, they were courageous and ready to face the enemy:
“We got on our bikes and we drove to Bend and we drove so fast I imagined catching fire like a meteor, burning up in a flash, howling as my heat consumed me, as we made our way to the U.S. Marine Recruiting Office where we would at last answer the fierce alarm of war and put our pens to paper and make our fathers proud” (Percy 20).
We will write a custom Essay on It’s Just the Way the Game Is Played”: The Move from Adulthood. An Interpretation of Benjamin Percy’s Story “Refresh, Refresh. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And thus, they grew up. Now, they were sure that they were real men and they grew up, as they would never allowed themselves to cry in the moment of danger in front of the enemy.
The story provides the way boys grew up and established their individualities. They passed the way from boxing matches to readiness to “answer the fierce alarm of war” (Percy 20) as men.
This was the way from a child to an adulthood that was determined by the situation of war. The boys had two solutions: to be weak as kidnapped military recruiter, or to be strong and courageous as their fathers. They choose the variant that was the most appropriate for them, they choose the ways of “real men”.
Works Cited Percy, Benjamin. Refresh, Refresh: Stories. New York: Graywolf Press, 2007.
Inequality’s Philosophical Description Critical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents The Master and Slave Concept of Nietzsche
When examining the statement “there is hardly any inequality among men in the state of nature” by Rousseau one cannot help but think of the concept of the Ubermensch developed by Nietzsche.
Nietzsche describes human beings as being in a phase of intermediate evolution between apes and the overman wherein due to this intermediary state humans can thus be broken down into two distinct categories of master and slave (White and Hellerich, 39).
For Rousseau his argument focuses on the apparent equality of all human beings at the point of being born and it is only when outside environmental factors are introduced that the state of inequality among men occurs.
This can take the form of having parents who are more economically well off, being born in a 1st world country or being within an area that fosters better growth and education. Rosseau does not mention factors relating to physical or mental superiority since for him such factors are developed as a result of environmental consequences and are not inherent in a person at the time of birth.
It is only when sufficient environmental influence is enacted on the growth of an individual that true inequality occurs. As such, under the ideas of Rosseau can it can be presumed that if two men were born in exactly the same situation, in the same environment and with the same background and economic circumstances then these men would continue to be equal.
Taking this particular viewpoint to its zenith it can thus be stated if a large enough population were born also under the same circumstances, environment, background etc. then everyone in it would be equal as well. This particular conclusion can be arrived to by assuming that the state of nature mentioned by Rosseau means a state with absolutely no outside interference and letting the natural progression of human growth take its place.
The Master and Slave Concept of Nietzsche The inherent problem with the proposed concept of Rossaeu is that it fails to take into account the possibility of inequality naturally occurring as a result of the need for concerted effort in order to achieve a particular end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nietzsche argues that humans can basically be divided into two distinct categories namely that of the master and the slave which in essence are distinctions used today in the concepts of leaders and followers (White and Hellerich, 39).
It can be stated that from a certain sociological standpoint the concept postulated by Nietzsche does in fact have a basis in the way society is organized.
For example, a progressive society cannot be composed entirely of leaders since someone has to be the one to actually follow the orders of the leaders on the other hand a society composed entirely of followers would be unguided and thus would not be able to actually effectively commit to a goal requiring concerted effort.
While such a concept agrees with the statement of Rosseau that “there is no inequality among men in the state of nature” it based more upon physical and biological characteristics rather the psychological (Beyond Good and Evil, 1).
By its very nature the concept of leadership places a person above another; Rosseau is actually erroneous in believing that the state of nature does not create inequality when in fact nature itself creates various examples of inequality.
For example, packs of wolves have a leader who is the same physically and biologically as all the other members yet is made a the leader due to the necessity for most groups, human or otherwise, to have a guiding force behind the groups actions.
This notion is applicable to humans as it is to animals since any concerted effort requires a certain dominating personality to be able to control individuals towards a particular goal (Allen, 386 – 402). Thus it can be seen that the concept of inequality occurs naturally in nature (Allen, 386 – 402).
We will write a custom Essay on Inequality’s Philosophical Description specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of interpreting the state of nature as being an environment with no outside interference towards development inequality will still develop since if there need of any concerted effort in such an environment the concept of a leader will inevitably arise thus resulting in creation of a system of inequality where there is an individual dictating others what to do.
Conclusion Based on the findings of this paper I can say that I disagree with the statement of Rosseaus since for me inequality is still evident in most states of nature. I can even go so far as state that inequality is even a necessity in the grand scheme of things.
Works Cited Allen, James Sloan. “Nietzsche and Wilde: An Ethics of Style.” Sewanee Review. 386-
402. University of the South, 2006. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
“Beyond Good and Evil.” Ethics (Ready Reference series) (1994): 1. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
White, Daniel R., and Gert Hellerich. “The Ecological Self: Humanity and Nature in
Nietzsche and Goethe.” European Legacy 3.3 (1998): 39. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.
Concept of Intersectionality Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Intersectionality is a concept in sociology that is applicable in the analysis and study of human relationships and interactions within the society.
It stipulates that conventional models of repression in a community, for instance denomination, gender, tribalism, social caste, and other indicators of discrimination act in an entwined web. Additionally, the theory examines how various social and cultural constructions of discrimination normally interact and consequently result into methodical social imbalance in societies.
Consequently, because individuals networked in several groups, their composite identities shape particular ways in which they encounter these prejudices. There are set of cultural systems of prejudice, which are in connection and predisposed by communal intersectional systems.
Issues of sexual category and race for example, may combine to dictate a woman’s destiny. This concept simply describes the manner in which different forms of repressions occur concurrently in a given setting.
The concept of Intersectionality is widely used in the investigation of feminism and womanly relationships. It also includes the analysis of other markers of repression, in which sociologists largely refer to as the isms. Its analysis appreciates the fact that females encounter discriminations for varied reasons. There is uncertainty that there exists a single form of oppression.
There are primary or contributory factors like age, religion, disability and other markers of prejudice. Gender may not be the principle aspect shaping the females’ fate. Feminism refers to advocacy of equality in both sexes in terms of political, human rights, economic, social, and all other rights that a human may be entitled to in a society.
Feminist theories comprise the generalities and explanations about the various sources of female discrimination. They examine the existing gender related prejudices and how they impact on and vary in different environments that females confront.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Liberal feminism addresses personality equality amongst the sexes, focusing on political and legitimate considerations within a particular community.
Liberation is a vital aspect of women empowerment. Intersectionality postulates that feminism only occurs within a context in which additional markers of oppression may interconnect and manipulate the circumstances. Therefore, we cannot generalize experiences whether in advocacy or sympathizing with any condition.
Human rights, justice, personal choices and resolutions, race and tribe all are potential influencers that are unique in every context; moreover, generalities will create a bias. Liberal feminists thus are much likely to suppose various factors of Intersectionality that exist in different communities.
It is imperative to note that radical feminism regards the male dominated entrepreneurial ladder as the cause of females’ discrimination and supports the complete reconstruction of the general society. The main theme here is the oppression of the females by the males due to their constructive positions in capitalist societies.
In analyzing the relationship of Intersectionality and oppression, it is apparent that there is no hierarchy of subjugation though all of them have interrelations. The powers causing the oppressions continue to exist because of guilt and challenging such systems would completely eradicate the oppressions.
There is room for the isms as described by Intersectionality since the hierarchy of males might be due to societal structural arrangements that keep fueling their dominance. It is important to approach Intersectionality with care as this may eliminate the discrimination of others, causing great threat to the oppressed groups.
Socialist feminism associates female oppression to factors such as extortion and work. It recognizes the structural oppression that cause biased opportunities and reduce a category of society members. It denotes capitalism plus patriarchy as the approaches to oppressions. Here, patriarchy as well as capitalism interacts to abuse females while favoring men.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Intersectionality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, Intersectionality also recognizes the intersection of situations or the markers of isms to make individuals vulnerable. Men dominate crucial decision processes and have elevated ranks, which consequently transcribe into huge benefits.
Generally, socialist feminists override the Marxist theories. Intersectionality supports this concept by stressing that there are unique circumstances that make some persons vulnerable to conditions. Therefore, the compounding consequences of being in largely deprived societies change a person’s familiarity with repression.
Post structural feminism involves the application of a range of academic currents for feminist matters. According to the premise, gender is never explicable outside its social configuration in a culture.
With consideration to Intersectionality, it recognizes the fact that certain concepts and ideas only gain meaning in particular contexts and are limited to that context. No generalization exists, as every society is unique from another. Intersectionality here influences the gender structure in diverse communities thus creating the hierarchies of power.
Consideration of the female as the other gender gives them an inferior position. This is constructed through the Intersectionality process and do not naturally exist as presumed.
Intersectionality also supports the stipulation in the post cultural theory that power and character is shaped by the way socialization and is set by cultures. Socialization only occurs when various factors intersect to create an agreed manner of human behavior pattern.
Queer theory deals with study and analysis of all manner of sexual practices, whether deviant or normative. It relates to persons as having individual characteristics rather than group identity in terms of race, religion, or sexual practices. Any person whose mannerisms or appearance differs with the conservative gender practices is a transgender.
Queer theory studies knowledge and social practices that structure a society as a unit by hetero sexualizing or homo-sexualizing bodies’ desires, acts, identities, social relations, knowledge, culture, and social institutions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Intersectionality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The queer and transgender theory thus considers all the markers that might intersect to set a level of interaction and association of different sexual behaviors.
Any transgender group is likely to experience some oppression as determined by inherent factors in that society. There is Intersectionality that influences adoption or inclusion into such behaviors by individuals.
In conclusion, it is crucial to note that Intersectionality have both supportive and negative influences on the feminist theories. In addition, it is important to appreciate the uniqueness in all societies and analyze the various Intersectionalities to help prevent social injustices.
Bibliography Berger, Michele.
FDI Confidence Index Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
When an organization wishes to invest in a foreign market, it is advisable to analyze different countries and identify the one that has the greatest potential in investments.
By ignoring this task an investor would lose greatly because things may be different, and it is therefore important to carry out thorough investigations by engaging the people on the ground. This is because they are the most knowledgeable, which is advantageous to the investor.
The need to employ FDI confidence index comes in because different countries have different cultures and by analyzing those cultures an investor can tell which countries provide favorable environment for investment.
China is at the top of the FDI index and this is probably due to its high population that provides adequate source of labor. Atkearney argues that this is a very crucial factor because without sufficient labor, a foreign investor would have to import labor from his country which is very expensive.
In addition, the foreign employees would take a lot of time before they get used to their new location and this would have a negative impact on their performance. Since the population of china is high it is most likely that the rate of unemployment is very high and thus, employees will not demand for six figure salaries.
Certainly, the US and India have the highest literacy levels. This is because a population that is comprised of learned individuals is ideal source of labor. In fact in India there are so many people who are learned, but they do not have jobs and they would be more than willing to get somewhere so that they can provide for themselves. These are just a few factors that causes a country to be rated at the top of the FDI index.
The stability of a nation is what attracts high foreign direct investment and this stability is reflected by a country’s economy. Unstable economy means that the currency of the host country has a very low value, and this would have a negative impact on the profits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because no one wants to invest in a country that has a collapsed economy. Foreign investors observe the stock market and other sectors for some time before making the decision to move into a given country.
FDI is derived by rating the countries involved according to their infrastructure and availability of labor; the latter has been discussed in the previous paragraphs. Infrastructure is quite vital in attracting FDI because it enhances the movement of goods and services from the manufacturer to the consumer.
Countries with poor infrastructure do not attract much FDI even if they have adequate supply of labor because poor transport systems make investors to spend a lot of money in transporting raw materials and the finished products, and the chances of making profits are narrow.
Advanced infrastructure causes the price of commodities to come down because the investor spends less money on transport. Furthermore, the employees that would be hired would spend more time while commuting, which affects their working hours and productivity.
FDI is also affected by political stability because a country that is experiencing civil unrest is not appropriate for FDI. This is because business does not take place as usual because at such times everyone focuses on saving his/her life.
Similarly, a country that has political stability attracts the most FDI because investors feel safe to inject their hard earned money into a country where they are sure politics will not affect their venture.
Work Cited Atkearney, Inc. Foreign Direct investment (FDI) Confidence Index. 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Assessment on FDI Confidence Index specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Level of Internet Adoption in Saudi Arabia Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introducing the Sites Already Available in Saudi Arabia
Overall evaluation of existing problems.
E-government websites and online banking infrastructures
Exploring Online Services Offered in Other Countries
Gaps to be fulfilled in the sphere of online services
Summary of Reviewed Literature
Introduction The Internet has introduced a wide range of opportunities for organizations, businesses, and citizens in terms of communication, cooperation, and social interaction. Being one of the greatest contributions, it has also presented new options and services that can substitute physical infrastructures with online presence of the above-mentioned systems.
Certainly, such innovation has considerably improved social and cultural interaction, yet some countries are in extreme need of these introductions that significantly them from successfully communicating at the international level.
Public and private organizations, government, and citizens in Saudi Arabia also realize the core benefits of using the virtual space for overcoming the problems with delivering services, selling products, and competing with other, more progressive international companies (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010).
Unfortunately, the problem is that not all online services available for the Arab users are worth relying on, which creates the problems of confidentiality, security, and credibility of information delivered online (Aladwani, 2003, p. 18).
Specifically, the Saudi websites are commonly created by the governmental organs and ministries, banking systems, and educational establishments that can offer high-quality online services.
Other economic segments, such as e-customer services, attorney services, healthcare services, renewing passports services are not developed enough in Saudi Arabia.
Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the identified gaps through the analysis of existing services in Saudi Arabia and those in other countries to evaluate the level of Internet adoption and define the area that should be more advanced in that matter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introducing the Sites Already Available in Saudi Arabia The adoption of electronic services in Saudi Arabia is largely carried out by governmental and banking infrastructures as presented by Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (2011), Saudi Government (Online Services, 2011), Portal of Ministry of Health (Electronic Services, 2011), Ministry of Higher Education (2011), etc.
All these websites are secured enough to provide valid information. As per the other sectors, insufficient attention is paid to the problems of insurance, confidentiality, and accessibility for commercial activities performed online.
It should also be stressed that the contemporary community can offer a wide array of online services among which are those that are not available in Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the increasing rates of globalization process have had a potent impact on the commercial system in the country.
According to Oxford Business Group (n. d.), a 2008 period was marked by significant rise of customers using phone handsets to purchase product and services. Increasing potential is observed within Business-to-Consumers (B2C) e-commerce environment that creates greater opportunities for global integration and for penetrating to the international market (Oxford Business Group, n. d.).
Overall evaluation of existing problems. The studies presented by Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) shed light on existing problems in the sphere of online services whose accessibility is not of the highest level.
Particularly, the researchers identify the major problems of Internet adoption. One of such problem consists in presence of a considerable gap between the increasing number of internet users and development of security systems for online databases. Similar challenges are considered by Aladwani (2003) who believes that the purchasing power of the Arab world currently depends on the quality and availability of online services.
However, specific political, cultural, and religious ideology negatively contributes to improving the situation. More importantly, the research suggests that improper analysis of language, traditions, history, and values established in the Arab countries makes it impossible to define the main what improvement should be made to reach greater accessibility and security.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Level of Internet Adoption in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another problem is that Saudi Arabia does not have enough resources for creating a well-secured online system ensuring great potential and options of Internet users. In this respect, both Aladwani (2003) and Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) are more concerned with shortcomings of online system which is more oriented on governmental and political needs.
E-government websites and online banking infrastructures In the studies provided by Abanumy, Al-Badi, and Mayhew, P. (2005), the problem of e-government accessibility is evaluated in terms of guidelines provided, tools applied, and underpinnings of human factors introduced.
While evaluating these key areas, the researchers try to outline the problems connected with the integration of Information and Communication Technology aimed at improving the agencies service and enhancing the internal development of the organization. The introduction of more advanced communication technologies will contribute greatly to transforming e-government websites and making them more citizen-oriented.
Impetuous diffusion of the Internet has dramatically changed the distribution channels utilized by the financial systems. Many banking infrastructures are currently referring to online technologies much more frequently in order to provide customers with wider opportunities to participate in retail banking operations (Aladwani, 2003; Al-Somali, Gholami, and Clegg, 2009).
According to Al-Somali, Gholami, and Clegg (2009) “round-the-clock availability and ease of transactions and avoidance of queues and restrictive branch operating hours” are the basic reasons for preferring online presence to the physical ones while carrying specific banking procedures (p. 1).
Importantly, the studies also prove the idea that social influences and reluctance to change significantly prevent the banking website from normal functioning. With regard to this, extreme necessity for the introduction of online services to all spheres of life is predetermined by the rigid competition on the e-market arena.
According to the Oxford Business Group (n. d.), online “[a]ccession has led to the creation of new laws for all sectors from banking and insurance to telecoms and distributions, enabling the creation of a plethora of new companies” (p. 39). Interpreting this, the country will be able to stand a competition only when effective online services are introduced.
Exploring Online Services Offered in Other Countries Though Saudi Arabia gradually enters online infrastructure, the Internet adoption considerably lags behind other developed countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European countries. The explicit gaps exist in the sphere of passport renewal, e-commerce, legal considerations, and healthcare system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Level of Internet Adoption in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The broadband in Saudi Arabia is not developed enough to introduce renewing passport and driving license services, which is heavily practiced in the United States (Travel.State.Gov, n. d; Australian Government, n. d.). Hence, the service enables the users to renew their passports via e-mail by fulfilling a number of simple procedures.
This introduction would greatly contribute to the online communication systems developed in Saudi Arabia and provide more opportunities for the Arab women who can freely participate in certain procedures without male’s consent.
With regard to the above, Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick (2003) present a comparative analysis of political environment impacting the formation of global e-marketing to reveal that Business-to-Business commerce is usually caused by external, or global forces whereas Business-to-Customers marketing is more determined by local influences.
Despite global orientation, international companies still pay closer attention to the individual demands and local diversity issues to work out more effective strategies of online marketing (Oxford Business Group, n. p.).
Therefore, the primary focus should be made on considering consumer values and preferences, national culture and peculiarities and distribution system that differ considerably across countries and these differences identify the global perspectives of development.
In addition, Gibbs, Kraemer and Dedrick (2003) insist on the idea that telecommunication optimization seems to have the most tangible impact on e-marketing by providing more affordable Internet access both to consumers and firms. As a result, the necessity for introducing consistent system of e-commerce legislation is indispensible to favorable development of online services in Saudi Arabia.
In general, a cross-country examination of the e-commerce websites as well as quality and security of information delivered online provides a clearer picture of existing gaps in Saudi online services systems in terms of options and demands. Specific emphasis should be placed on considering customer’s needs and preferences, cultural peculiarities, and security and reliability of online network in Saudi Arabia.
Gaps to be fulfilled in the sphere of online services Due to the fact that the Internet usage is dramatically increasing in Saudi Arabia, many government ministries and leading companies have an Internet presence and, therefore, new e-commerce strategies should be adapted to meet social and cultural challenges, specifically those caused by Western influences.
First of all, direct cost, extensive investments, and introduction of active business models will be the best contribution to advancement of online services quality in Saudi Arabia (Aichholzer G., Schmutzer R., 2000, p. 380).
In addition, e-marketing strategies should also be oriented on creating effective advertising campaigns that would attract more consumers who are the core indicators of marketing success. Without consumers’ demand, e-commerce will be nothing, but a bulk of hardware and software platforms.
Second, online website should involve more people to participate in online forums and discussions where each question asked by a consumer should be immediately answered by online operators.
With regard to this, human resource management should be adopted to provide a sufficient support to customers and create a more reliable ground for seller-buyer interaction within the virtual space. Third, the above-presented review of sources provides more reasons for integrating more effective e-commerce law as established in countries having more experience in online marketing.
Summary of Reviewed Literature In literature review section, such aspects as analysis of existing online services, assessment of e-government and online banking infrastructures in Saudi Arabia have been examined to relate them to the global trends of Internet adoption.
A cross-country analysis contributes to presenting the most sophisticate problems and challenges that Saudi Arabia online services currently face. While assessing the current options, the review has also provided a number of gaps to be fulfilled in online systems in terms of accessibility, quality and credibility of information delivered, and options offered.
The results of literature review and surveys have shown that significant emphasis should be put on creating e-commerce infrastructures regulated by e-commerce legislature, websites offering the attorney services, and sites providing other specific services, such as passport renewing and drive licensing.
Saudi government should be aware of the benefits offered by the virtual space and in order to introduce technological advancement in the identified spheres, it is imperative to re-consider political, social, and cultural issues that have a potent impact on the formation of a more globalized online services system.
Reference List Abanumy, A., Al-Badi, A., and Mayhew, P. (2005). E-Government Website Accessibility: In-Depth Evaluation of Saudi Arabia and Oman. The Electronic Journal of e-Government. 3(3), pp. 96-106.
Aichholzer G., Schmutzer R., (2000). Organizational Challenges to the Development of Electronic Government, IEEE Press, pp. 379-383.
Aladwani, A. M. (2003). Key Internet Characteristics and e-commerce issues in Arab Countries. Information Technology
Thien Hau Temple, A Temple that is dedicated to Mazu Essay college essay help online
Traditional Taoism is the oldest system that contained the past beliefs of the Chinese. During that period when this system was applicable when both the shamanism and pantheism were common.
Some of the components that were in this system include the repeated occurrence of seasons, life and death of conscious human beings and their continuous generations. Another major component of this system was the mystery of the life origin. In the traditional Taoism, there were some scriptures like the I Ching where most essential readings appeared.
This scripture was composed of 64 hexagrams with each one of it carrying six yang lines. In this scripture, the readings included images, solutions of some problems, and the interpretations of the readings.
Due to the challenges of the ever-changing world, the people who were responsible in to providing solutions started seeking for unity and continuity among the people. High expectations of finding solutions in Tao were among the traditional thinkers. There were three known sources of Taoism in the traditional china, the first source was the ancestor whose name was the yellow Emperor who came up with the use of traditional Chinese medicine.
His wife was also famous through her act of teaching other women on how to obtain silk from silk worms. Through yellow emperor and his wife, there was introduction of the first Chinese characters. The second source of Taoism is the book “Tao Te Ching” the old book that contained supernatural issues, and its author was Laozi.
The third source was Chuang Tzu together with his book that was eponymous. Apart from these three major sources, other sources came up later introducing other traditional aspects to the system.
Taoism has influenced the culture of china for long period. The influence of Taoism came in different forms for instance, by philosophy, literature, and at times use of arts. Taoism also made some emphasize on getting the freedom for the human kind, understanding the human nature, and tried to obtain human retirement from the social works.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taoism as well tried to bring the mystery and many questions relating to religious into light for everyone to understand. By use of arts, Taoism divided the life of the educated people into two groups such as social group and a private one.
The life of the educated people made use of the arts during their free time to pass different messages to other people in the community. For instance, a person may volunteer to make use of calligraphy or paintings to express a certain idea to the illiterate people in the community.
The use of poetry by these people was also common to interpret or clarify a certain aspect of life to their fellow leaned Chinese. Some educated Chinese went to an extent of conducting some researches on medicine that was useful for human use, and later passing the findings to the others through use of arts.
Between 1940 and 1982, Taoism faced many challenges in china whereby most of its operations remained stack for a long period. Most of their priests and other men who were working in church found themselves working in odd places as casual laborers without receiving any recognition as priests.
There were mass destructions of the infrastructure that were using, together with their holy sites. In 1982, some leaders started recognizing the importance of this tradition religion, and some of its aspects began restoration. Some of the Taoism temples started their operation, and continued to preach peace and unity among the Chinese people as it was doing before. Up to date Taoism is still a common belief in china because it has more than one billion followers. Globally, it is the second largest religion.
There was a major debate about the Taoism whether being a philosophy or a religion. Most of the people from western see Taoism as a philosophical aspect because Lao Tse and Zhuang Zi did not talk anything about worshipping or performing rituals, and they are the major people in Taoism.
On the other hand, some people refer it as a religion because the work of Lao Zi involved some rituals, and mentioning of works of gods. The debate leaves the relationship between the Taoist religion and Taiost philosophy being hard to understand. In this debate some sense of religious practices are present, and some arguments of philosophy are there. However, most of the religious practices originate from the background of Taoism.
We will write a custom Essay on Thien Hau Temple, A Temple that is dedicated to Mazu specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thien Hau Temple is among the most popular places of worship in china, it mostly devotes its worshipping activities to Mazu who is the goddess of the sea, and other cultures that relates to the sea like fishing or sailing in a boat. This temple was originally a church but later became a temple for celebrations, receiving blessings, and giving offerings as well as performing rituals.
The religious activities of this temple are also devoted to Guan Yu who is the famous god of resolving conflicts, righteousness and promoting a good relationship among people.
The other god that is involved in the Thien Hau Temple is Fu De who is the god responsible of the earthly materials like wealth and other beneficiaries. In this temple, the Buddhists have a site of worship.
The management of this temple is under Camau Association of America although it receives some other support from East Asian communities. One of the most important celebrations done in the temple is the celebration of the Mazu birthday on March 23 of every Lunar Calendar.
Many believers from all over the world come together, to share the happiness of this important day. The day is marked with different types of foods, lion dances, and other interesting games. Birthdays of Fu De, Guan Yu, and Dizang are also performed in this temple but not as big as of that of Mazu.
Another difference between the traditional Taoism temple and Thien Hau Temple are the activities that take place in each temple. In Thien Hau Temple, members from different societies meet in the temple to receive blessings as they perform some religious rituals. Many people gather to praise deities, while lion dancers perform continuously as a way of chasing evil spirits.
There are representatives from over 25 families who are supposed to gather with the rest of the community to light the firecrackers at midnight as a sign of celebrating Chinese New Tear.
Starting from the first day of the year to the fifteenth day, the ceremony continues out side the temple. Experts play drums and bells, as people specialize with vegetarian foods. On special days, people slaughters a big animal like a pig, roasted but they eat it away from the temple as a way of showing respect to the Buddhists.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Thien Hau Temple, A Temple that is dedicated to Mazu by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Once the first fifteen days are over, people from different communities come together again to show their money needs to Mazu, as they give her what they had promised towards the year-end. Thien Hau Temple hosts even other types of ghost festivals for the communities to celebrate. The honor given to Mazu in Thien Hau Temple is out of her silence, which came from the fact that she did not cry when she was born.
Mazu was the seventh daughter in her family and her father and brothers were mostly fishermen. She was very courageous to take care of the fishing tools that her brothers were using. She used to guard even during the most risky moments. After her death, several fishermen and other sea workers decided to honor her acts.
Her identification color is red, which she used to wear most of the time. During her celebrations in Thien Hau Temple, her courageous acts are an inspiration to many people within the community.
Guan Yu is another god, a famous historical figure in East Asia, well known by his efforts during the civil war that resulted to the end of the Han Dynasty in china.
His efforts and contributions assisted in setting up the kingdom of Shu. That is why people called him the god of war, and receives much respect as he showed loyalty and righteousness. His symbol is a warrior with long beard, and holding weapons with his face painted red as a sign of loyalty.
His involvement in this royal fight did not lead to destruction of the kingdom but to the improvement of it. Some people expected the worst from this conflict but Guan Yu fought a fight of wisdom and full of righteousness. Many people honored him and that is why he is a celebrity in the Thien Hau Temple up to date. Fu De is a special earthly god worshipped by both the religion worshippers in the Thien Hau Temple and the Taoists. He is a god of wealth and riches and commonly found in every village to cater for the common affairs.
The major challenges that faced most villagers were agricultural and weather related problems. Although his powers were minimal, villagers were nowhere to turn for help. During the hard times of drought and famine, Fu De was the only hope for the people within the community. To some extent, his powers saved people in several cases, and that is why people decided to be honoring his acts.
Today his image is preserved in several altars, and house doors, where people go to beg him for wealth and their family wellbeing. His image portrays an elderly man, with white beard, executive hat, and a robe to show his administration aspects.
The Taoism Temple devoted most of its activities to Laozi who was the known author of Tao Te Ching book. His popularity came because of the fact that his conception took place while her mother was looking at a falling star. Another extra ordinary fact about him is that people believe that he stayed in his mother’s womb for 62 years.
There was also a super natural power during his birth as his mother was leaning against a tree. During that time, people knew him as a grown man, with grey hair and some physical appearances that showed his wisdom and ability to live long.
Some people regarded this as being reborn. According to her famous traditional sources, he is referred as the keeper who took good care of the royal court records. Through keeping watch of this royal court, he learned a lot from the Yellow Emperor and other wise people.
Although he was a man full of wisdom, he did not open a school but many people were seeking knowledge from him. He was a teacher to many students who were admiring his life, and wanted to be like him in their future lives.
Even royal disciples followed him for some pieces of advice and knowledge. Laozi had a wife and a son who later became a famous soldier. Although a great debate took place over whether Laozi issues were true or force, he remained someone worth celebration.
Most of people claimed that it was hard to prove his history, although some of his acts remained memorable up to date. Laozi is celebrated, as he was the founder of Daoism, a major religion that has many followers. During the time when Daoism became strong and gained some followers, people started recognizing his efforts and he became a god.
A sector for Daoists that was performing religious rituals and worshipped god emerged through which the Daoist tradition grew and developed. It reached a place where people started seeing Laozi as a personification of Dao, but Laozi claimed to have gone through many challenges to reach to such a point.
Despite all the arguments against Laozi, he became famous day after day especially because he founded the Daoism. He is the major god in Daoism who these believers trust and solves much of their problems.
The Time Machine Conflict of Class . Wells’ Book Analysis essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Conflict of Class
Introduction Written by Hebert George Wells, The Time Machine is a novel that represents the struggle of different social classes. There are two different social classes in the book, the Eloi’s class, and the Morlock’s class.
During his adventures, the traveler encounters the Eloi creatures and luckily gets along with them. On the other hand, he is at loggerheads with the Morlock, and a fight emerges between them. Similarly, the Morlock and Eloi do not get along, a fact that separates them. thus, The Time Machine conflict of classes will be explored in this paper.
Therefore, Darwin’s rule survival for the fittest controls the classes, however, the struggle for survival leads to conflicts and division between the classes. On the other hand, critical analysis of the novel’s characters reveals that Wells focuses on the way of life of people in his society, whereby there is a clear-cut line dividing the poor and the rich, which births conflicts.
Conflict of Classes in The Time Machine The time traveler reveals the conflict that exists between the social groups. During his adventure with the time machine, he meets a group of feeble and weak creatures, the Eloi. The Eloi live on the earth’s surface while the Morlock are underworld creatures and can be controlled by the Uber Morlock telepathically. The Eloi are unable to work hard and live in fear, especially at night.
The aspect of capitalism prevails where the ruling or rich people occupy the best or fertile land while the others live in abject poverty, and this highlights inequality in society hence conflict. The Morlock live in the underworld and only to appear during the daytime to hunt for the Eloi and feed on them. The fact that one class feeds on the other underscores the height of conflicts in such a society.
Due to lack of creativity and innovation, the Eloi do not view the importance of the time machine. Their weak bodies hinder them from lifting the machine; they only observe it in amazement, and they eventually desert it. The author highlights the consequence of laziness, as it is the case with most rich people.
The rich people always depend on the poor people for labor; therefore, the dependence on the lower social class to carry out skillful jobs gives the lower class workers an upper hand to be innovative or creative as it exposes them to challenging situations in life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, the upper social class lags in matters concerning innovation and creativity, especially during industrialization of warfare. Wells describes the Morlock in The Time Machine as tough creatures living underground in well-built, durable structures.
The narrator is unable to unlock their doors when they steal his time machine. In comparison with the Eloi, who have both weak bodies and houses, the author shows the consequences of dependence and lack of unity in society. The two classes are at loggerheads; therefore, the upper social class lack skills in the construction and maintenance of their buildings.
For instance, Weena, from the Eloi social group, dies when a conflict emerges between the time traveler and the Morlock. The lack of strength and skills to escape from fire leads to her death. Although the upper class enjoys their lifestyle, the inability to protect themselves and be dependent describes them as the weak creatures.
In addition, as the summary shows, it is due to exploitation that, the Eloi and Morlock are at war and do not face each other. The groups, as explained, live in different worlds; underground (Morlock) and on the surface (Eloi). The Eloi fear the dark while the Morlock only appears at night to hunt for food. Surprisingly, they feed on Eloi, who cannot defend themselves, leading to further division.
The existence of warfare, dictatorship, and exploitation between the groups decrease unity among them and increase tension. The time traveler comments that “the gradual widening of the merely temporary and social difference between the capitalist and the laborer was the key to the whole position” (Wells 60).
However, due to the exploitation and oppression of the workers or laborers, the lower social class may revenge against their leaders, as it is the case with Morlock. They will hold demonstrations demanding their rights and recognition from the upper social classes. Similarly, bitterness, suffering, and frustrations may compel the lower social class to kill, rebel, or terrorize the upper class, and the world may go to war. Through such a scenario, Wells manages to highlight the themes of conflicts of class struggle.
As is clear from The Time Machine conflict analysis, tThe author highlights the struggle for survival, especially for the lower social class in society. The Morlock live in the underworld, and they steal the time traveler’s time machine. When the time traveler decides to get his machine back, a war breaks out.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Time Machine Conflict of Class . Wells’ Book Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accidentally, he lights a fire that kills most of the Morlock. The compulsion to retain the machine cuts short their lives. On the other hand, the Eloi do not care about the machine and overlooks it. Additionally, Wells highlights the consequence of conflicts and their resolutions in society. The urge to possess or own property may lead to loss of lives as it is the case with the Morlock (Huntington 5).
The upper social class continually posses a lot of property while the lower class has to engage in fights to own property. When the time traveler learns about the way of life of the Morlock, he notes, “The rich had been assured of his wealth and comfort, the toiler assured of his life and work” (Semansky 2).
The loss of lives of the Morlock’s group in the ending is a good representation of the lower social class, who despite fighting or working hard in their lives, they still end up with nothing. Occasionally, they die or end up in poverty, yet their life is not a bed of roses a clear indication of class conflict in society.
Conclusion The conflict of classes in H. G. Wells’s The Time Machine was explored in this paper. Since ancient times, the existence of social classes runs deep in society. The upper social class isolates the poor and occupies the best land. The rich live in comfort without worries at the expense of the poor who work as laborers.
On the other hand, the lower social class lives in hardship areas and continually struggles for survival. The rich or ruling class exploit, oppress and overwork the poor; however, the inability to work exposes the rich’s fragility, and lack of creativity in society.
As a result, conspicuous differences between the two social classes births conflicts in society. The moral lesson that can be drawn is that, uUnfortunately, the conflicts and separation of the two social groups widen the gap between the poor and the rich in the society.
For instance, from the novel, Wells pities the Eloi, who are a representation of the upper social class and contemplates the lives of the Morlock, who represent the poor people in society. Inequality underscores the persistent conflicts in society, and Wells succeeds in highlighting such conflicts and delivering this message by exploring the relationship between the Eloi and the Morlock in the novel.
Works Cited Huntington, John. The Logic of Fantasy: H. G. Wells and Science Fiction. New York: University Press, 1982.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Time Machine Conflict of Class . Wells’ Book Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Semansky, Chris. Critical Essay on the Time Machine, in Novels for Students. The Gale Group, 2003.
Wells, H. George. The time machine. United Kingdom: William Heinemann press, 1895
“The Time Machine”: the Movie’s and the Novel Differences Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Key differences in the movie and the novel
How these differences are faithful or unfaithful to the theme
Introduction Time machine is an old narrative that was both written and filmed. Of great concern is the fact that over the years, the movie has become increasingly distant from the Novel, in the process, affecting its focus on the theme of the story.
For instance, communism and capitalism conflict, the present age presents exploitation of workers, while the future presents a world in which one group preys on the other. This paper will try to investigate the key differences between the two and explore their effect on theme.
Key differences in the movie and the novel The time Machine, film by George Well, is a factious fascinating futurist movie and novel. The setting is based on a small area near London suburb, although this is unusual as time moves from one setting to another.
They narrate about the fourth dimension in human life, which is separate from length, height and width. The protagonist in both the novel and movie narrates about their invention of a time machine that would take them to the future or past at will.
The movie and novel have several major conflicts that remain a huge contrast. Firstly, the novel’s protagonist has no name, while the movie’s protagonist has, in the name of George, yet they are supposedly performing same tasks.
The protagonist becomes the narrator in the novel and takes over narration for one week during which his time machine moves him through the future to year 80270.
The number of visitors in the new eve meeting in the novel differs from the one in movie; the movie adds a new person context. Further differences are observed when the movie presents Eloi group as normal human beings even though in the novel, they are described as having undergone several transformations that makes them significantly distinguishable from a normal human.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie presents Weena, the Eloi girl George helps from drowning, to understand English, while in the novel it is well documented that communication was quite difficult as the Eloi are uncultured and uncivilized, looking like adults and children at the same time. Furthermore, we see Eloi killing a Morlock, and a Morlock carrying a whip, something missing in the novel.
We also see the talking rings in the movie, which narrates the past of both Eloi and Morlock. This is not the case in the novel as there are no rings to narrate anything; in fact, the protagonist tries to explore the origin of these to groups.
How these differences are faithful or unfaithful to the theme Themes that is clearly portrayed in both the Novel and Movie and are critique of capitalism and pessimistic of technological advances. One of the few positive themes is on relationship, as well as sympathy, which seems to survive all these transformations and time to join the weak Eloi to the protagonist against Morlock.
The key differences brings confusions regarding them, for example, the fact that Eloi looks more like humans than the Morlocks does not make sense, Since in the novel they are completely different from normal human. It therefore does not support the theme. However, despite these differences the theme of love for humankind remains, as the protagonist sympathizes with Eloi and defends Weena.
As much as the protagonist criticizes capitalism, he still realizes that communism is also affected since, the Morlocks considers Eloi as food and not fellow beings, in effect exposing social class, and effects of communism. These differences are therefore faithful and unfaithful to the themes of the story.
Conclusion The movie and novel contain several key differences thereby exposing conflicting themes, such as critique of both capitalism and communism. Depending on the theme chosen, differences between the time machine movie and Novel are either for or against those themes.
Organizational behavior terminology Analytical Essay best essay help
Objective Many organizations that command a massive market share in their areas of operations have put in place organizational behaviors that work to their advantage. This essay gives a detailed explanation of organizational culture, organizational behavior, diversity, and communication.
It also undertakes to describe each of these concepts’ observable aspects. It will also give a brief analysis of culture and behavior in an organization of choice.
Organizational culture entails values, both cultural and personal; the experiences of a people; psychological endowment; and attitude of persons that belong to an organization. It is founded on the values that people or groups that belong to a particular organization cherish and how these values impact the way they interact with people outside that organization (Schein, 2004).
There has been no consensus on what exactly should be the definition of organizational culture. However, there is unanimity on aspects touching on its holisticity, its social construction, and its historical nature.
Organizational behavior involves study of behavior of persons that belong to a given organization or a business enterprise. Such studies are done using systems approach where aspects of how people relate to organizations are brought into perspective. This approach is supposed to enhance better relationship between the people and the whole organization.
It also helps in attaining organization’s human and social objectives. Organizational behavior indeed integrates aspects of individual human behavior, change, and leadership (Davis, 1967).
Organizational behavior boasts of its inherent elements, models, and social systems. An organization can operate out of myriad organizational frameworks. Autocratic organizational model is where much power is vested on the managers. Employees are left with no option but to be obedient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Custodial framework entrusts the managers with the responsibility of looking after the economic resources where as employees are oriented towards organization security and benefits.
Collegial and supportive organizational frameworks are other examples of organizational frameworks. These organizational frameworks normally overlap and it is absolutely impossible for organizations to run exclusively on one type of framework.
On countless occasions, many people have taken organizational diversity to imply equity at work place. However, its meaning is not only limited to the confines of equity but it also encompasses creation of environmental values and differences while maximizing individual employee potential.
This helps in enhancing employee creativity and innovativeness. A satisfied employee will offer quality services to the customer. This will translate into increased productivity in an organization. Organizational culture adopted by a corporate body should be one that supports its diversity (Laura, 2005).
This calls for integration of elements such as needs analysis; goodwill from the organization’s management and administration; education and training of the staff; revamping of organization’s culture and its management system; and continual evaluation exercises (Axley, 1984).
An organization that I was once attached at had a system where a close relation with the customers was highly emphasized. Autonomy and entrepreneurship were also highly emphasized. The organization put into place strong corporate values and emphasizing on what they do best and adopted both centralized and decentralized organization forms. Besides, the management was open to change.
Conclusion Culture is a very important element of any organization because when an organization does not possess a healthy culture, it can encounter several challenges in its daily operations. Culture is important in decreasing employee turnover. It helps in altering the employees’ behavior, improve the company’s image, and generally improve service delivery towards achieving the goals and objectives of the firm.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational behavior terminology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Axley, S. (1984). Managerial and organizational communication in terms of the conduit metaphor. Academy of Management Review, 9, 428–437.
Davis, K. (1967). Human relations at work: The dynamics of organizational behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Laura, M. R. (2005). Changing Faces: Professional Image Construction in Diverse Organizational Settings. Academy of Management Review, 30 (4), 685 711.
Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: John Wiley
How Hitler Compares to Stalin Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Plan of Investigation
Summary of evidence
Evaluation of sources
Plan of Investigation This paper seeks to investigate and compare leaders of countries that were “single party states” (Weinberg 23, par 2). Therefore Hitler who ruled Germany and Stalin who ruled Russia about the same time will be compared in terms of the leadership styles and the overall effects they had on their respective societies.
Hitler led by Nazism which can be identified as a form of fascism while Stalin was a communist, however, their effects on their respective societies is significantly comparable (Bullock 3). It is important to note that both countries (the USSR and Germany) were single party states.
Summary of evidence Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin “(1878-1953) was the General Secretary of the communist party of the Soviet Union’s central committee for 31 years since” 1922 to 1953. (Gellately 57) He won this elective position mainly due to the important role he played in the Soviet Revolution.
Initially the post of General Secretary was not so powerful in the party; however, following the death Vladimir Lenin who had led the communist party from 1917, Stalin strengthened the opposition by eliminating opposition within the party (Bullock 4).
During his semi retirement times, Lenin had written disparaging statements about Stalin. He was particularly against Stalin’s rise to power due to his behavior, which he described as being rude, ambitious and power hungry (Harrison 137).
To strengthen his influence in the party Stalin formed an alliance with allies Zinoviev and Kamenev who were members of the central committee in the party. After the death of Lenin, Zinoviev and Kamenev began to disagree with Stalin, thereafter they found themselves isolated as Trotsky (Bullock 45).
In the years that followed, Stalin gained a lot of power such that he begun to run the party as a one man show. In the 1930s he spearhead radical economic reforms that saw the Soviet Union take a U turn from the near capitalist state it was becoming (Kuper 134).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His policies are thought to have been the main cause of the deadly famine that caused millions of deaths between 1932 and 1933. As time went by Stalin consolidate a lot of power, he orchestrated the expulsion of several members from the party, subjecting some of them to banishment and execution (Lewis 34).
For instance, he executed Kirov because he was becoming more popular. Later in the same year Stalin passed a new law on “Terrorist organizations and terrorist acts” (Harrison 138, par. 2).
After the passing of the law, multiple trials followed by torture, deportation or execution took place in Moscow and elsewhere in the USSR by operatives of the NKVD. Most of the original members of Lenin’s cabinet were executed during this purge.
The NKVD detentions and executions grew to include all opposition groups, all foreigners and the peasant farmers who were seen as an outlawed class (Snyder 135). An estimated number of between 3 and 30 million people are thought to have been killed during the terror. Stalin died in 1953.
Adolf Hitler (1889- 1945) “was the leader of the National Socialist German workers party (NSDAP) or Nazi and the Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945” (Kershaw 5, par.6). Hitler begun to rise after the First World War in which he had excelled as a fighter. He ventured into politics as an extremist angered with the way Germany was being ruled.
Hitler later took part in an attempted coup, imprisoned for five years but later released after a year. Following his release Hitler decided to follow the long legitimate path to power. While in prison Hitler wrote the book “Mein Kampf”, a book that played major role in his rise(Payne 23).
The Nazi party had no solid philosophical basis and its ideology was much likened to fascism. It however had some basic principles which depicted it as being; socialistic, totalitarian, anti democracy, anti communist, anti Semitic and anti international capitalism (Weinberg 34).
We will write a custom Assessment on How Hitler Compares to Stalin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A series of conspiracies, manipulations, threats, promises, alliances and betrayals saw Hitler become an all powerful head of state. Hitler moved fast to effect national socialism in Germany. Sweeping reforms were undertaken to boost industry and agriculture to win support for Hitler.
The education system was changed to favor National Socialism. Judges and other workers were only employed if they favored Nazism. The Arrests and punishment of political prisoners was undertaken by the SS (a special security force) (Bullock 169).
The persecution of Jews in Germany begun after Hitler took power in 1933. It started by wide spread arrests and public humiliation by members of the SA or the brown shirts (Harrison 65). Initially the Jews were excluded from the civil service, their shops and buildings smashed or looted and boycotted.
The final solution for the Jewish problem was organized by the Nazi in 1941 through mass deportations into extermination camps. At the end of Hitler’s reign up to five million Jews had been killed (Snyder 35).
Hitler’s quest to regain all German speaking nations led to the Second World War in which over 50 million people were killed. Hitler committed suicide in 1945 following the Germany’s defeat in the Second World War (Weinberg 201).
Evaluation of sources Two important books were used in this analysis. The first book which is titled “Conflicts the Twentieth century” offers a precise account of all the conflicts that took place in the last century (Harrison 1). The book written by Scott Michael Harrison offers a detailed factual description of the events surrounding conflicts in the last century.
The book has visual illustrations that have been carefully selected. The illustrations indeed clarify and provide more evidence to the written accounts.
The book is also reinforced by direct quotations from written accounts by individuals who witnessed the events. On Hitler and Stalin, the book provides a detailed account of events complete with the dates, pictures and description of the symbols.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How Hitler Compares to Stalin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the four arms of the Swastika are described as meaning: Nationalistic; Totalitarian and anti-democratic; Anti-Semitic; socialistic and against foreign nationalism. The book provides accounts of what the leaders ideologies were about. For instance, the Chapters on Adolf Hitler have several excerpts from his book “Mein Kampf” (Harrison 68, par. 8).
For instance, to show how Hitler hated the Jews, this quote has been lifted from the book, “Was there any shady undertaking, any form of foulness, especially in cultural life, in which at least one Jew did not participate?” (Harrison 68, par 9)Similar detailed accounts are given on Stalin.
The book is not biased in its approach but it gives a sort of summary of the events that took place. The second book used for this analysis is titled “Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives” (Harrison 46). The book which is written by Allan Bullock offers a detailed biography of the two men who can be described as the most evil in the 20th century.
The book offers a precise description of how the two lives are indeed parallel. In different chapters, the book describes how the two sought, achieved and then used power for their own evil nature (Bullock 2). Through the chapters that are reinforced by quotes from first account sources the book describes how the two men legitimately rose to power.
This book is a valuable source as it concentrates on the two leaders who are coincidentally the focus of this investigation. However, the book may be biased as it is mainly seen to draw comparisons between the two leaders. A list of other vital sources has been used in this investigation to support what has been identified in the two main books.
Analysis There is no doubt that the leadership of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are comparable in many aspects. Hitler can be said to use the Fascist political ideology to wage war on the Jewish population in Germany and elsewhere.
However, he did not stick with the Fascist principle that requires the commitment to the interests of the nation, and thus he is seen to have been hell bend in seeking to control the entire Europe (Harrison 69, par 5).
Nazism, which can be described as a variety of fascism was the main ideology with which Hitler’s Nazi party ruled. It was characterized by biological racism and anti-Semitism (Bullock 23).
The Nazi ideology that proclaimed the supremacy of the Aryan race was hell bent on creating a powerful pure Aryan nation. Thus the Jews were seen as the greatest stumbling block in the attainment of this object. Stalin did not stick to the basic principles of communism that entails free association and common ownership of means of production.
Stalinism betrayed the communism ideology by hiding into the fact that he was adapting to the changing needs of the Soviet society (Kuper 5). Stalin applied the theory of class struggle to repress hi political opponents. It’s important to note that both Hitler and Stalin had secret security agents or forces, the SS and the NKVD respectively (Overy 56).
The SS was mainly used to; instill fear in people and discourage opposition, and systemically perpetuate atrocities against the Jewish. The NKVD was initially used to crush opposition but was subsequently expanded to commit atrocities against civilians, especially those of foreign origin.
The analysis of Hitler and Stalin cannot be limited to there adherence to party ideology a lone as the two are arguably remembered as the most evil leaders of the twentieth century. The two leaders committed crimes against humanity which can be described as wholesale destruction of civilian life in their societies. However, there rise to power was similar in many fashions.
Both were veterans of war in their respective countries. Hitler was a war Veteran in the First World War while Stalin had played an important role in the Soviet revolution. They were also master politicians who, in their quest for power adhered to the rule of law and endured years of patience with precise strategies and manipulations (Weinberg 5).
A clear distinction comes in the nature of their ambition. Whereas Hitler seemed to be obsessed with keeping Germany pure while expanding his rule into other neighboring countries, Stalin was more concerned with consolidating power within the USSR and with timid foreign ventures.
It’s easy to point out that the two men were so much attached to what they perceived as their important historic roles in the realization of new order in their respective nations (Bullock 112). Stalin was particularly skeptical about the motives of other political figures and he would detain torture or execute them.
In the end both Hitler and Stalin caused a lot of suffering for their own people and were responsible for the deaths of millions of people they were supposed to safeguard as leaders (Bullock 120). It’s imperative to note that the two leaders ruled in same time and even signed a pact, and fought each other in the Second World War.
Conclusion This paper sought to investigate how Hitler compares to Stalin in terms of leadership style and effects of their leadership to their respective societies.
It has been identified that Hitler and Stalin were leaders of single party states namely Germany and Russia respectively. Hitler ruled by Nazism which can be identified as a form of Fascism while Stalin’s Russia had communism (Kuper 33). Both leaders came to power through legitimate means but ended up being dictators who caused untold suffering to their own people.
Their leadership was characterized by systematic elimination of civilians by terror squads that operated as special security forces. In the end each of them had committed crimes against humanity in their countries and beyond and the two were responsible for the deaths of millions of people (Bullock 44).
Works Cited Bullock, Allan. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. Print.
Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe . London: Knopf, 2007. Print.
Harrison, Scott Michael. World Conflict in the Twentieth century . London: Macmillan, 1987. Print.
Kershaw, Ian. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. New York: Arnold publishers, 2006. Print.
Kuper, Leo. Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century. Yale : Yale University Press, 1982. Print.
Lewis, Robert. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1994. Print.
Overy, Richard. The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered . London: Routledge, 1999. Print.
Payne, Stanley. A history of Fascism. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1995. Print.
Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books , 2010. Print.
Weinberg, George. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1995. Print.
Acceptance of Death Penalty in the United States Argumentative Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Death penalty is not new in the judicial system of the United States. The state of Virginia was the first to apply it to captain George Kendal who had committed the offence of being an emissary of Spain.
It surprises to realize that the penalty has been there since the year 1608. During this time, the penalty covered all the people who had committed any of the 25 criminal offences specified by the judicial system where the offenders met their death through drowning, piercing with a sharp stake, excruciation, and blazing or beating to death among others.
However, there stands many questions concerning the penalty and in particular the people whose crimes pass for the penalty. As the paper reveals, the penalty does not serve as a deterrent to crimes.
The death penalty does not at all serve as an impediment to criminal offences. As Caxton (2008) observes, the penalty is quite “ineffective as a deterrent to lower crime rates” (Para. 1). The efficiency of the penalty ought to depend much on the type of the felony committed as well as the psychological state of those who commit it.
Majority of those who commit slaughter crimes do it based on their psychological challenges. For instance, insane people might decide any time to kill innocent people. Therefore, even if the judicial body subjects this penalty to this group of people, it will not deter the criminal offences since the crime doers cannot think logically.
In countries like the United States, crime rates are comparatively high. The observation follows several reasons one being the fact that majority do it unaware of the corresponding repercussions. Therefore, as Schaefer (2009) points out, “…they will continue to commit the crimes as long as they do not face the necessary consequences of the action” (p. 176).
Another reason behind the high crime rates is the fact that the death penalty covers some, but not all the crimes. Therefore, even if the penalty is put under operation, it will leave a space for some other crimes, which usually outweigh the ones it covers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different countries have responded differently towards the penalty with some rejecting it and others welcoming it. For Instance, some like Germany and Switzerland have declared the penalty unworthy thereby abolishing it and coming up with some other penalties in place of the death punishment.
They have adopted the life sentence where the offenders stay under arrest for an unknown length of time thereby going through rehabilitation. However, others like Singapore have accepted the penalty claiming that it effectively hinders criminal offences. In fact, Jeralyn (2011) confirms this.
He says, “Singapore’s law provides the death penalty for anyone caught with more than 15 grams of heroin (Kong had 47) and provides no exceptions” (Para. 1).
However, based on my opinion concerning the penalty, I do not accept it. Instead, it ought to be abolished and declared illegal because it is against the eighth amendment act, which forbids such punishments like the death penalty since according to it, they are no more than bizarre sanctions.
In addition, based on the misconceptions behind the penalty, some people have faced it unfairly, not based on the nature of crime, but based on their inability to cater for the expenses of their lawyers who in turn abandon them leaving them to defend themselves. In such situations, the judges end up declaring the offenders guilty and worth the penalty.
Youths, who have committed violent crimes, ought not to face the death penalty based on their value, not only to their families, but also to the world at large. The society expects a lot from them since they are energetic and quick of understanding.
Therefore, as a way of punishing them, the judiciary needs to rehabilitate them by instilling in them skills, which they will apply to sustain themselves and their communities, a plan that will leave them with no time and reason to commit such crimes.
We will write a custom Essay on Acceptance of Death Penalty in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Caxton, G. (2008). Death Penalty in the United States. Web.
Jeralyn, C. (2011). Singapore’s Mandatory Death Penalty: Yong Vui Kong. Retrieved. http://www.talkleft.com/story/2011/1/30/63652/1953/deathpenalty/Singapore-s-Mandatory-Death-Penalty-Yong-Vui-Kong
Schaefer, R. (2009). Sociology: A brief Introduction. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Teamwork Survey by Tuckman’s Model Analytical Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Stage of the Team
Introduction The stage of development in teams usually defines their future. Any team that is able to identify its stage of development goes on to succeed since, they know where they are and what they need to move on to the next level.
Most of the times teams ignore activities such as evaluation of their progress and at times they do it as a routine without the intention to accept or act on the results. Nonetheless, it is quite important to note that the more a team’s or a group’s performance is evaluated, the higher their chances of improving.
Several methods and models have been brought forward to help in team evaluation and development, among these include Tuckman’s model, which has helped determine the stages of numerous teams and groups. This paper will endeavor to evaluate this group using Tuckman’s model (Clark, 2010, p. 1).
Stage of the Team Tuckman formulated a teamwork surveying model, which has been used by several groups to determine their level of developmental stage. The model is designed to spot the current stage of a team or a group.
The model is designed in the form of a questionnaire, each question has at least a point, which range from 1 to 5. The scores awarded are based on behavior of the team. These points are then summed up to determine the stage of a team.
According to Tuckman’s model, there are four stages of a team, these are Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing stages. The lowest attainable score is 8 and the highest is 40. The rules governing determination of a stage states that the highest score of the four stages gives the most likely stage of a group, while the lowest gives the least possible stage.
In addition, a team is considered to undergo transition when two scores are very close, unless they are both high in forming and Storming stages or in Norming and Performing stages, in which case, they will be considered as Storming stage or Performing Stage respectively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, in case all scores of the four or at least three stages are almost similar, then the team is considered volatile, or without clear perception, in most cases it would be the storming phase (Clark, 2010, p. 1).
According to the questionnaire filled in Tuckman’s model, this group attained the following results. Forming stage (22 points), Storming stage (23 points), Norming stage (30 points) and Performing stage (38 points).
These scores show that the team is in the Performing stage, since the highest score is 38 and the highest possible points are 40. At the same time, when both Norming and Performing scores are checked, they are all high.
The close scores between Forming and Storming are therefore less important since there are high Norming and Performing stages. Moreover, it is also important to note that according to Tuckman’s model, any score above 32 points indicates the highest probability of the stage of a team (Clark, 2010, p. 1).
Performing stage is the fourth level of group progress. At this stage, our focus is to offer the best teamwork ever. It is characterized by productivity, harmony and participative leadership among others. Creativity is the main driving tool at this level with all participants focused on how to further this development (Clark, 2010, p. 1).
Summary Several methods and models have come up for use in determining the levels of development in teams. Among them is Tuckman’s model, which was used in identifying this group’s stage. The highest score was 38, consequently the stage of the group is the Performing stage, which is the best of them. The focus at this stage is to offer the best teamwork ever (Clark, 2010, p. 1).
Reference Clark, D. R. (2010). Leadership Activities: Teamwork Survey. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/teamsuv.html
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Philippe Starck as the Great Designer of the World Opinion Essay online essay help: online essay help
For the French, the world widely knows them better probably in design, art and fashion. For years now, the French have almost taken a leading role as market leaders in the clothes, hotel, art, winery and cooking industries not to mention natural sciences and philosophy.
Although France may not exclusively claim for the one of the best positions in the world in comparison to other giants like Spain, Italy and Britain, it however warrants its own space and mention in such a work. Emanating from this view, France therefore comes into light though in general.
In specific terms though, France as a nation has got nothing to take credit for unless in the dissection of its citizenry and great individuals who have poised it to the tip of the mountains. In this respect therefore this work focuses on Philippe Starck among the many great designers of the world and from France.
Philippe Starck was born in Paris in January 18th 1949 to an inventor and aeronautic engineer father. It is through his father’s works and life that he desired to become a designer and creator thus the birth of the New Design Style genius Starck. Born almost immediately at the end of World War II, Starck’s arrival could not have been any better.
At this period design had come far back from the Industrialization period. In the course of development, design had started from simple carpenters using hands to industrial designs using the invented machines each unique era characterizing its own genius behind.
Starck who had already started ‘designing’ as a child besides his father thus was educated at the Ecole Nissim de Camondo in Paris (Hauffe, pg 164). In his pre star years, Starck worked to produce inflatable designs in the notion that they are usable and must not extend to the higher levels of live that a common person may not afford.
The difference between him and other designers of his or before his time was that he was interested in designing for the mass rather than for the elite. In this concept therefore, Phelipe acted and doubled as his own marketing manager without paying fro such profession as is often the case as others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dealing in products and goods that had an impact to every day house hold usage and significance endeared him to the world and thus he won many hearts. Notable among such was the French President Francois Mitterrand who he designed for the interior private Elysee apartments thus propelling Starck to his heights in his career.
In 1969, after a stage of probably trial with bad boy reputation and after a stint in designing houses and imitations he become of his own class and he set up his first firm. In the combination of style, streamlining and organic look Starck has had this rarity of making unusual materials work together like plush fabric combining with chrome or glass joining with stone.
Starck as he was insatiable to national and international recognition could not be destined for great things. Starck has set himself apart a star designer who despite being pleasant in his works includes practicality, simplicity and beauty as one piece of aesthetics easily noticeable.
His career as art director would lead him to owning his company in 1979 after years of designing inflatable objects. Starck’s drive all along can be explained by the fact that he spent years in his father’s workshop and under his drawing board thus ideas in aeronautics and science have greatly shaped his view.
As Houze and Lees-Maffei (46) postulate, the coming into existence of this great star is warranted and accountable back from his childhood and thus shapes his current status as a star designer.
By 1980s shortly after founding his Starck Company, he already had gotten international recognition as an expert interior designer, architect, ecologist and hotel designer, furniture guru and other usable objects like kitchen utensils, computers door handles and frames.
In the famous Juicy Salif design Starck inverts the conventional way of extracting juice from a lemon to Alessi’s behest stunning him and the world. Starck is into an opposite thinker but fits perfectly in his view.
We will write a custom Essay on Philippe Starck as the Great Designer of the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though drawing criticisms from such geniality use of his talents, Starck has not stopped with a one hit wonder. This was just the case for personal request specifications not to mention others.
As an artist he rises above the par on the context that he is interested with the usable real designs and thus solves or seems to, the world challenges in such refined brilliancy and finesse. In the ensuing challenges of political, economic, moral and social perspectives Phelippe’s work is apparent in a unique yet desirable way.
Starck’s personal life as an international expert is also characterized by the same flair he has in his work. He has got homes in Italy, France, Britain and America. And as if this is not enough Starck’s marriage life spans in the same formula. He has been married about four times siring four children. He has been a lucky parent in the sense that one of his children has taken after him and this is just a chip off the old.
Looking at him as an interior designer he designed the interiors of La Main Bleue” bar in Montreuil in 1976 and “Les Bains Douches” in Paris in 1978 and later the Café Costes in 1984 and this augured well with his already international reputation on the world stage. He has not stopped and seems filled by demons that take him higher and higher in this career.
One after the other Starck would combine forces with an entrepreneur Schrager to re-invent the Royalton and Paramount Hotels in New York.
These hotels captivating appearance and the seeming invitation to pleasure and relaxation have served as a mark of excellence in the hotel industry attracting international and even royal personalities for pleasure and even design. Keeble and Sparke (223) describe his work as mismatched furniture and yards of fabric combined beautifully with spaces of lightness and darkness that is worthy of a stage.
On this note Starck occurs as a designer who escapes criticism due to his high level understanding of images, shape and colour in the making of interiors.
His is a combination of design, decoration, ensemble and celebrity spiraling away and breaking from academics and traditions to bring home special natures of designs that allow designing its fresh approach and frees from age old traditions thus new design style (Keeble
Congresswoman Donna F. Edwards Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Health Care System
Introduction A few women join the congress in US; however, Donna Edwards constitute such few persons. Born in North Carolina, she attained elevated levels of education. Consequently, she defined her career, which focuses on enlightening the public about their rights. She fought in the quest for rights, as evident in her actions in countries like Sudan.
It is imperative to assert that Donna launched her political career in 2006 thus overthrowing Wynn as evident in 2008. She has reformed the healthcare system in Maryland, thus enhancing the state of women (Edwards). She equally strives to reform the education sector by initiating superior programmes that aim at offering competent graduates.
Background Information Donna F. Edwards was born in 1958 in North Carolina, and had six siblings. Her father was a member of the Air Force throughout the warfare in Vietnam. It is significant to note that Donna was among the few women academics during that time.
This is factual since she completed her first degree at the Wake Forest University where she was among the few colour women present in her class. Later on, she proceeded to study a degree in law at the Franklin Pierce Law Centre (AFN). Donna has since involved in diversified careers mostly working for non-profit oriented organizations.
For instance, prior to her congress job, she was an executive director in Arca foundation where she helped champion the need for ending capital punishment, promote labour and human rights, as well as ensuring independence of the judiciary.
Furthermore, she was involved in the effort of concluding domestic violence in America. It is remarkable that Donna involved herself in the demonstration against genocide in Darfur, outer surface of the Sudan Embassy where they were protesting against the refusal to offer humanitarian aid to the victims.
During that remonstration, she was arrested after breaching police orders of maintaining a line, which was meant to protect the embassy (Bartlett).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her first political conquest was in 2006 where she contested in the democratic primary for the Maryland seat. She lost by a thin margin to Wynn but that did end her desire to represent Maryland. In July 2008, Donna Edwards again declared that she would face off with Albert Wynn for the Maryland seat.
She criticised Wynn regarding frequent support on republican proposals, for instance 2002 vote that was in support of Iraq invasion by the United States.
She claimed that the bush administration was not sensitive to the wishes of Americans and with this notion as the campaign slogan; she began her onslaught on Wynn. She embarked on an effective low profile campaign based on her connections with local groupings.
Despite the fact that her rival managed to spend excessive money on his campaign, she managed to defeat Wynn on the 2008 January primary achieving a decisive 22% points. On his defeat, Wynn opted to resign rather than finish his period of office. This gave way to a special election in which she received weak competition from her republican opponent.
She comfortably won the election by gaining 81% of the total votes (AFN). The officials swore her in to serve the remaining term of Wynn. In November 2008, she contested for a full term in the United States 2008 elections where she defeated the democratic candidate, Peter James, by gaining 85% of the total votes.
Issues Proposed Education and healthcare form backbone of the society and adequate tackling of these issues would mean a better US. It is notable that education system has since diminished in the contemporary America, and other overseas nations are surpassing the home standards.
Healthcare is another important element of the society that the congressperson should present to the senate for discussion and subsequent passage of laws. The existing healthcare scheme is not addressing the health concerns of the current populace. Striking matters include the cover by the insurance firms, as well as women’s health.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Congresswoman Donna F. Edwards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Health Care System Donna has shown commendable work in health care system in the US. She has influenced moderates’ efforts to make sure that the health care legislation is more progressive. It is important to note that Donna has strongly advocated for the enactment of a health care scheme that would help in tackling issues of racial inequalities.
For instance, she advocated for a government sponsored medical care that would help in providing health care to individuals despite of their social and fiscal status. The desire to amend a broken health care system, which was only dominated by insurance companies’ profits, was one of her major inspiration to run for the congress seat in Maryland.
Her contribution to the health care legislation targeted checking the ever-rising insurance deductions (Edwards). She determined to offer a better, accessible and a cheaper healthcare for the millions of American who are not capable of accessing services due to their financial constraints and disparities.
Some of the contributions she made in the legislation included the ability of parents to insure their children up to the age of twenty six years, prohibiting insurance company from stopping offering insurance cover once someone gets sick, offering tax exemptions to the small businesses with the aim of making them afford insurance cover among others.
She claims that the health care system does not take care of the various problems relating to women. An example of the many problems that face women is domestic violence. Insurance companies deny many women suffering from domestic brutality coverage.
They cite that such violence is considered therapeutic condition that has already been existing; therefore, it is not viable for coverage (Edwards). Other problems facing this bias include pregnancy and caesarean section. It is her belief that the continued discrimination on these problems would turn many women live without medical cover.
To examine this discrimination tendency of insurance firms, she further claims that majority of black women lack access to the basic primary healthiness care.
This has also brought in the notion that the minority, who include the people of colour, have difficulty in accessing the basic health care. Statistics from the Office of the Minority show that African American women together with other females of colour are likely to die from cancer in comparison to their native counterpart.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Congresswoman Donna F. Edwards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is factual as they lack easy admission to the required diagnosis facilities and treatment of cancer (Edwards). This leads to the increase of cost of medical treatment in the end and sometimes may result into the death of the infected.
Further research by the “Joint Centre for Political and Economic studies” shows that the cost of health inequalities and premature death totalled $1.2 trillion, and further advised that eliminating such disparities would help reduce the medical expenditure of this same group.
This is the same reason as to why she is advocating for a reformed health care to expand the access to basic care and reduce the deduction of preventive care.
According to her, the elimination of these inequalities and discriminatory insurance practices that affect minorities and women is cost effective and is the right direction.
In order to achieve this, a combination of cover reforms that would hold cover companies answerable and strong health indemnity meant for the citizens that would provide the required competition, which will lead to the reduction of cost of medical care.
The public insurance option will be able to provide the middle class and the working family with a wide range of choices and benefits that would include preventive care and long-term medical care. The public insurance option should be attached to a medical doctor and this would make the patients and doctors in full control instead of leaving it to the exploiting insurance companies.
Education Education is the most crucial aspect of ensuring the long-term success of every child. Her priority is to guarantee that all the children have admittance to quality education from nursery to high school. Furthermore, she strives to improve “science and technology sector and mathematics curricula, and increasing the chances of students to join college and vocational schools”.
Her continued drive to improve the education system in Maryland has made the state offer worthy education system and, the award that was given to Maryland in 2011 in recognition of its public education system confirmed this.
Her stand on education is the availability and access by everyone despite the differences in race, ethnic or financial status (CDFE). She recognises that education is the fundamental element for ascertaining that children can be successful in this world.
It is crucial to declare that Donna has commenced some school programmes in Maryland that aim at strengthening the education system. She introduced the after- school meal program whereby she campaigned for funds to help in the provision of free lunch and dinner to students who take part in the after school programmes.
Her view is that most children are not able to afford nutritious meals because of the financial restraints experienced by their parents. Through this, the students would have little distraction in their learning process as this would aid in their acquisition of good health, development and increase their ability to learn hence improving the quality of education.
Student aid would enable the have-nots counter financial constraints that limit their access to education. This aims at ensuring the minority races in America have chance to schooling. The student aid act would provide education to significant proportions of Americans who are not able to pay for edification. It is believable that this would be the highest investment programme in college aid history.
It reforms the federal student loan system whereby it ensures grants are available to students, as well as finance to the community colleges to help in the development of their career training programmes. This would ensure that Maryland train skilled graduates who are able to offer an effective workforce that compete fairly in the global marketplace (CDFE).
By making significant investments to improve the basic research, science and technology, and foster innovation, The Completes Reauthorization Act would help in the creation of jobs opportunities in America (CDFE). Furthermore, it should augment innovation capabilities and strengthen America’s scientific and fiscal headship for many years.
Through this Act, she was able to campaign for the less represented minorities and teachers to ensure that they receive special consideration when it came to awarding grants. To her, this Act would go a long way in ensuring that education is available to all students regardless of their social status or financial background.
Conclusion It is certain that Donna Edwards has played some pivotal roles in the lives of several Americans and others. Her education status, coupled with champion for human rights have helped her rising to the seat of congressional representative of Maryland. Donna has made remarkable steps in streamlining the healthcare and education systems of her state.
Works Cited AFN. America’s Future Now! 2010 Speaker Biographies. (ND). Web.
Bartlett, Anne. Rep. Donna Edwards Arrested in Darfur Protest. The Washington Post. April 27, 2009. Web.
CDFE. Congresswoman Edwards Applauds Investments in Education With Race to the Top Competition. CDFE. November 17, 2009. Web.
Edwards, Donna. Health Care Reform: What’s in it for Women? The Washington informer. October 22, 2009. Web.
The Best Social Networking Tool for Me Research Paper college admissions essay help
Introduction Choosing the best social networking tool requires a decision process. The paper highlights the cognitive process that will assist one to select the best networking tool based on different alternatives. The steps followed incorporate output of the planning stage decision making that precedes the actual decision making exercise.
Issue Identification Making a Decision
Social networking tools have different features, and thus, one ought to choose a tool that is easy to navigate and customize. In addition, the tool should offer maximum benefits and have minimal consequences (Boyd
De Beers Group Strategy Analysis Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
De Beers Company is recognized as one of the leading diamond company that specializes in diamond mining, manufacturing, and trading. What is more significant is that the company actively participates in business operations of every industrial category of diamond mining, including underground, open-pit, large-scale alluvial, deep and coastal sea. The mining operations take place in such countries as Canada, South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana (De Beers, 2008).
De Beers Group has received recognition on the part of the International Chamber of Commerce World Business Awards because De Beers HIV/ AIDS program that has been selected as the best one among other 10 business projects (PJM, 2004, n. p.). Having an unrivaled expertise in mining, exploration, and marketing, the company takes great care of the human and ethical principles while implementing specific projects and financial support.
In this respect, our company is experienced enough while dealing with specific aspects and problems of social responsibility and, therefore, it is able to provide viable recommendations to the Local Network on increasing and strengthening the compliance with Global Report Initiative according to PR1: “Life cycle stages in which health and safety impacts of products/services are assessed for improvement”; and to PR5: “Practices related to customer satisfaction, including results of surveys measuring customer satisfaction” (Global Report Initiative, n. d.).
In effectively managing health, safety, and customer privacy issues, the company is engaged in specific activities and projects aimed at advancing technologies and leveling up the quality of services and products. In order to analyze the strategies, it is possible to review the details on the Compliance table presented by De Beers Group (2009).
These include: 1) Increasing company’s sustainability for producing more favorable environment for employees; 2) providing support and assistance to customers while delivering services and products; 3) increasing health and safety standard both within external and internal marketing processes.
Arising from our experience, it has been turned out that the third aspect is the most effective in meeting the needs of the customers and creating a favorable ground for the workings of the organization.
I. Establish a favorable environment for creating an added value for customers in a sustainable and safe manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits and implications
The presented principles provide wider opportunities for De Beers Group to initiate more effective and competitive policies aimed at increasing health and security standards;
Sustainability and development can also be achieved through the presentation of specific programs and projects, like HIV/AIDS project;
II. To continue sustainable development and improvement through partnership;
Benefits and implications
The introduction of sustainable development and partnership entails the analysis of existing legal and ethical standards;
Taking wider responsibilities and liabilities will contribute greatly to the analysis of social, economical and political situation in the country;
Improving decision making process and stronger cooperation with our partners will ensure that these natural resources will be considered the signs of economic wealth. Our products can also contribute to the quality of life and to the community prestige.
III. Addressing poverty and economic aspects of development
Benefits and implications
Meeting social and economic needs of the community will contribute to enhancing the quality of education and training.
The principle will ensure the success of diamond manufacture as well as provide more incentives and opportunities for the community to develop their capabilities and skills;
IV. Providing beneficial conditions for eradication diamond conflicts and presenting healthier environments for business operations and performances
Benefits and implications
We will write a custom Report on De Beers Group Strategy Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflict elimination is another approach for improving the social and economic welfare of the nations.
The principle will help create more communicational channels and establish fruitful relations with other partners.
These recommendations will greatly contribute to the improvement and strengthening Company’s world infrastructure and cooperation with other partners as well as create more favorable climate for building relations and eliminating conflicts.
Enhancing sustainable development and advancing quality standards as proposed by the GRI is the core solution for improving social performance and product quality. While considering diamonds conflict, Levy (2003) states that the introduction of transparency, conflict monitoring, increasing accountability of public services and informing communities about the process of conflict management can meet all the above established goals.
Benefits of PR1 and PR 5 Compliance
It should be stressed that PR1 and PR5 provide much more incentives for meeting health and safety needs of community because these are one of the basic needs of customers. Increasing the quality of products and services, the company will manage to advance the standards of production and organizational culture (Hayes, 2008, p. 58). This principle will allow to construct efficient approaches to coping with all organizational and marketing problems.
The most challenging issue in meeting the recommendations may be faced while dealing with diamond conflict that sometime may amount to the conflict between nations. Therefore, this part of the above-established goals should be tackled with extreme diligence and accuracy.
Conclusion De Beers Group acknowledges that PR1 and PR5 compliance is extremely challenging, specifically when it come to conflict resolutions. However, the development of sustainability and information management as well as establishment of socially oriented programs will create a solid foundation for measuring customer’s needs.
References De Beers (2008). The Families of Companies. Web.
Global Reporting Initiative (n. d.) Social Performance: Product Responsibility. Web.
GRI Compliance Table (2009). De Beers Company. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on De Beers Group Strategy Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hayes, B. E. (2008). Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty. US: ASQ Quality Press.
Levy, A. V. (2003). Diamonds and conflict. Hauppauge, New York.
PJM (2004, May). De Beers Group Wins Awards for HIV/AIDS Projects. Archives, Daily News. Web.
Accounting: Absorption Costing and Variable Costing Research Paper scholarship essay help
Introduction Direct costing, which is also known as variable costing has been used most predominantly as an alternative to absorption costing over the last 70 years.
Even though absorption accounting, as suggested in accounting textbooks, must be employed in preparing income tax reports, financial statements as well as in defending pricing models, a number of times, variable costing has served the same purpose up to and including defending the price practices.
It is claimed in some quarters of the corporate world that, some companies are shifting to variable costing to achieve some form of consistency between the way decisions are made since it relies on variable costing and the way these decisions are reported by financial accounting systems.
This paper will therefore try to compare and contrast absorption costing and variable costing, giving details of the advantages of the latter and weaknesses of the former. It will also endeavor to explore the reasons why absorption costing is preferred despite its weaknesses (Schiff, 1987, p. 36-39).
Absorption costing vs. Variable costing Definitions
Absorption costing, also known as the traditional costing is a commonly accepted accounting principles for external reporting. It entails all the tools of manufacturing, variable and fixed overheads as well as direct materials and labor. It refers also to full costing. Variable costing on the other hand, entails only the variable tools of manufacturing , that is, variable as well as direct labor and materials (Schiff, 1987, p. 36-39).
Both absorption costing and variable costing can be used preparing financial statements, income tax reports as well as in defending pricing practices. Variable costing has been used for the past 70 years as an alternate to absorption costing even though their differences widens when it comes to analysis.
While absorption costing includes all manufacturing tools, variable costing excludes fixed manufacturing overheads. In this regard, absorption costing does not differentiate between variable costs and fixed costs thus cannot be used in (CVP) Cost Volume Profit analysis; on the other hand, variable costing which does differentiate between variable costs and fixed costs is much suited for (CVP) Cost Volume Profit analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, variable costing is undesirable for peripheral reporting as never complies with the prerequisites while absorption costing does. Variable costing does not consider fixed costs in analysis, absorption costing does (Schiff, 1987, p. 36-39).
Advantages of Variable costing Variable costing has several advantages, for instance; it reveals the relationship the exits between volume, price and cost. When applying variable costing, changes in the inventory does not affect profit, also, it is employed in CVP analysis, pertinent in decision making, identifies fixed costs and when in use, changes in production volume have no effect on the income (Wink
First Grade: Classroom Analysis Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The paper presents the summary and analysis of the observations of the classroom and school environment second grade school. The key issues that the given paper addresses are psychosocial development, motivation, behaviorism, constructivism, cognition, intelligence, and diversity in the classroom and school environment.
The class under analysis was composed of 18 students of diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Age 6 – 7.
The classroom was big with all necessary equipment for the class activities. It was also decorated with plants, arts, rugs, posters and pictures drawn by students. The layout included five large tables with four seats.
There were also several individual desks for individual assignments. The space provided the opportunity to change the location of tables for various activities. In general, the environment of the classroom was engaging and comfortable for organizing different activities.
In the first grade students are not very independent and not very used to new learning activities. In order to organize and motivate children, teacher used a variety of learning styles taking into consideration group and individual characteristics of every student.
During different lessons, he made use of learning through seeing, using hand-outs, videos, illustrations, etc.; through listening, moving and doing, as well as combinations of these strategies. Assignments that included various physical activities were very effective.
The teacher also successfully used the knowledge about psychological development of children of age 6-7 to incorporate it in lessons. “Perception of differences among other ethnic groups arises between the age of 6 and 8 years. At this time, children begin to group people together to understand what people are alike (Martin
The Divorce Effects on Сhildren Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Divorce involves restructuring of the family where parents separate. When people get married, they get children in the union and who are under the care of both parents. Divorce causes emotional and psychological strain among the parents. The process of divorce is very involving and parents end up as opponents and seek to be independent (Roderick 6).
After divorce the parents reside in different houses and have to settle with the other about the custody of children. In most cases the children remain in custody of the mother. Although some people believe that parents absorb the major effects of divorce, I believe that divorce has a big effect on children than parents.
Discussion on how effects of divorce on children are more than effects on the parents Emotional effects
According to Friedman (17), when parents divorce the family members are affected. The children as well as the parents have to adjust to changes and may take up to two years to settle down.
They often have emotions that are triggered by the divorce. In cases where children exposed and saw the parents engage in conflict, children find it more comfortable to live with a single parent and be not see the parents engage in quarrels.
On the other hand, some parents keep their differences secret from the children. When they divorce, such children usually have a harder time to cope with the change than children who knew their parents differences. Therefore parents can live in a marriage for the sake of the children.
Children encounter difficulty
Children from divorced families portray differences from those who grow up in stable families. Divorce affects children’s social life because some have difficulties relating with other members of society when compared with the others.
Roderick (pg 8), argues that some children from the divorced families may learn skill of copping with difficulties and therefore may end with less problems than those from non divorced families.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The recovery from divorce of the children is depended on the pace of the parent to pull through the difficult times. As Wilson (pg 10) argues, in cases where parents recover quickly, the children were able to cope with changes while those parents who took long to overcome challenges posed by divorce, their children continued manifesting problems like regression.
Unprepared to deal with change
Young children find it unbearable to deal with divorce of the parents because at their age they have not learnt how to muddle through changes and are thereby not fully ready to handle separation of one of the parents. Most often, boys have a harder time than girls when parents divorce.
When they develop problems, the divorced wife poorly manages the son’s problems and may liken him with the father besides having her own problems. The problem may include the fact that they had a relationship with the father which is no longer present.
Children are affected by the separation of parents. O’Neill (Para 2) reveals that the father figure or the mother figure is important to children. They lose the connection and some support they got from the parent.
Loss of one parent Children end up spending limited time with parents. The divorce makes the children live with one parent and may see the other parent at another time. This makes them fail to experience the love and care of the parent who is away. The parents may enter into other relationships where they have to spend some time with the new found partner. The child does not fully enjoy the company of both parents as the parents may be committed to other relationships.
Failure in effective parenting Some parents change their style of parenting after divorce as Hughes (Para11) mentions. They abandon some practices that would have benefited the child positively. For instance parents may fail to assist in home work since they relocated due to the divorce. The abandonment of the practices affects the child more than the parent because the child needs quality parenting which they are denied.
Children are largely affected by the process of divorce where both parents are adverse enemies. They are affected more than the parent when the two parents extend the fights in court about who is to provide care for the children. The child changes in the way they handle situations and may become irritated easily.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Divorce Effects on Сhildren specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They may become criminals and at times attempt to take their life. They may also deliberately neglect authority and at time run away from their home. In some cases children feel insecure and uncertainty about their future.
Children suffer when the parents involve them in the divorce cases. Because parents need someone to confide in, some parents end up discussing their problems with the child. The child gets hurt when they become awre of their parents antagonism towards each other. They get feeling of helplessness since they both parents are important to them.
Roderick (Pg 14) supports the claim then process of divorce is traumatizing to the children. For this reason single parents living without divorce are viewed as healthier than families that are conflicting. Moreover, children love to live in a peaceful family rather than a family with violence.
Economic effects Children have more problems than parents when affected by changes in economic support. Divorced parents may have economic challenges as suggested by most of the authors. Due to inadequate finances following divorce, the single mother of father may relocate and the children change the school they attend as a consequence (O’Neill 16).
Children lose relationships and friendships that are already and may be required have difficulties copping in the new environment. They may also change their lifestyle due to economic constrains.
Psychological effects Children are psychologically affected by divorce. The memories of a good family, when the conflict began and became worse, the divorce process and later the experiences after the divorce remain in the child brain.
Another experience that remains to distress children with divorced parents is the movement from one parent’s residence to the other. Such children suffer because they consider that if the situation would change they would have one home (Friedman 27)
Divorce is stressful and not pleasant. The parents may understand and be willing to go through some changes as a result of the divorce. Children suffer more than the parents because they are neither prepared nor do they understand why they should put up with some changes. The encounter is more unbearable when the parent marries again and divorces again.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Divorce Effects on Сhildren by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Change in organization of family Some divorces causes greater loses of relationship with extended family members as well as the organization of a family (Wilson pg 9). The child may lose conduct with the other parents kinsmen like lovely grandparents and only meet them less frequently. During annual parties like a birthday, the child may feel the loss of important members of the extended family and the absence of one parent.
Recommendations Children are affected by divorce more than parents because it has negative impact on the child’s maturity. Considerations made when parents choose to divorce do not include the feelings and opinions of the children. Thus children are forced into separating without being involved. Tension increases when one parent influences the child to side with one parent.
Friedman (Pg 15) notes that both parents should be committed to follow the progress of their child both in education and in social life. Additionally, parents can make efforts to see their children most often as the children need the figure and emotional support from both parents. Furthermore, parents can also consider staying in the marriage for the sake of the children. This is because children suffer even more than the parents for due to the divorce.
Conclusion The effects of divorce cannot be under estimated because children are affected more than their parents. Based on the words of Wilson (pg 1) we can learn that children of divorced parents are affected by the loss of one parent, financial changes that cause change of lifestyle and relocation.
They are affected emotionally and psychologically and may end up with low self esteem and a feeling of helplessness. In addition, stress and memories concerning the divorce remain high among the children and hence they are affected more than the parents.
Works Cited Friedman, Debra. Towards a structure of indifference: the social origins of maternal
Custody. New York: A. de Gruyter, c1994.
O’Neill, William. Divorce in the progressive era. New York, New Viewpoints, 1973
Roderick, Phillips. Putting asunder: a history of divorce in western society. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Wilson, Mike. Divorce. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, c2009
Individual Rights vs Common Good – Essay with Examples essay help online free
Table of Contents Discussion
Relationship between Individual Rights and Common Good
Racial Victimization of Women
Gender Victimization of a Woman
Discussion Both individual rights and common good must be protected. Ideally, if a few people go suffering in a community, majority of members of such communities are more distressed than if many suffer in so far a way places (Fitzgerald, 21). Furthermore, individuals not only mind more about people of their own communities, but maintain that they are justified in doing so.
To protect the common good, an individual has a higher level of obligation to his own community than all others. In Beloved, Morrison examines vividly the period of slavery and the suffering of black slaves (Morison, 24). This paper examines how individual rights affect common good. Individual rights and common good are equally complementary
Relationship between Individual Rights and Common Good In classical sense, people should be maintained as holders of collective rights. Both good of a person as an individual, and as a member of community are both goods of one and same person. These goods can be differentiated but should not be separated. Thus, rights intended to secure each of these goods cannot be separated either.
This happens even though they can be differentiated one from another. Both individual rights and common good must be recognized if the rights of the whole person are to be respected. This affirms that a common good cannot be separated from individual rights of a person who is part of that society (Purdy, 50).
An individuals share in the common good is the highest proper good of that person. Though not a sufficient condition for the promotion of the common good, individual rights are nonetheless a necessary condition (Fitzgerald, 25). Without individual rights, it is difficult to begin to promote the common good.
Consequently, there will be no protection of individual’s share in the common good without the protection of individual rights. Thus, there must be a recognized relationship of individual rights and common good. This linkage should be anchored into law (Paine, 46).
When Morison speaks of relationships that should exist of mother to daughter, this right must be understood as part of broader common good to provide children an upbringing according to the dictates of their consciences. This occurs even when their consciences are in error as to what, in specific instance, constitutes what is good, bad or ugly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Morrison carefully builds the story with background of slavery as justified by community as common good (Morison, 47). She grounds her story on historical records. Black women historically, preferred to kill their children sometimes rather than let them experience the brutalities of slavery.
Whereas the slave owners justified women’s victimhood, comparisons given between wives and slaves is important to suggest sexist and racist oppression. Women tend to seek and discover solace in motherhood. For black slaves, however, it is a source of enhanced sadness (Purdy, 23).
Racial Victimization of Women Individual rights require persons not to be discriminated against by race. Violation of the right to equal racial recognition consequently affects the common good in society.
Morison explores the most painful period enslavement blacks by whites in black history (Morison, 105). Slavery has in fact been a racial-based institution in the history of USA, Morrison writes the book Beloved as a dedication to this violence on the black race. Beloved is set before and immediately after emancipation (Morison, 106).
Individual right to an education, in the broad sense, to children is a natural right (Purdy, 27). This should be a priority right of State. This does not mean that rights of parents to their children are arbitrary. Their right to acquire an education is subordinate to natural and divine law. The execution of this right should not entail suppression of this right.
Morison espouses articulately denial of education to black slaves in America. Education was found not necessary, at worse, unlawful for black people (Morison, 104). The individual rights of blacks were completely violated; as they were considered beings that were not conscious (Morison, 193).
Gender Victimization of a Woman Individual right to freedom, in the wider sense, to black women is an inalienable right (Paine, 25). The state should not have sanctioned acts of slavery. For instance, individual rights of persons to be free from slavery produced the common good of their emancipation from slavery. Individual rights directly affect the common good.
We will write a custom Essay on Individual Rights vs Common Good – Essay with Examples specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Slavery curtailed freedom of black women (Morison, 23). It was easy for black women to achieve womanhood standards due to societal restrictions imposed by State. Womanhood is the common good that is inalienable to every free woman.
Slave owners did not accord women freedom and triumph because they were black and were not male. The skin of black women categorized them within the bracket of an inferior race. Their gender on the other hand, confined them to be regarded lowly in society.
They are regarded as brainless even by majority of black men. Black males strive always to stump their authority over black women to feel reassured of their manhood. In these circumstances, black woman survives motherhood as the most painful period in her slavery life (Purdy, 234).
Person’s have individual rights to be accorded protection by divine law. Invincible ignorance is not allowed as an excuse of violation of the common good (Purdy, 23). Protection and safety of children is a common good which the state has the right and duty to impose. In Beloved Denver is a victim of child abuse (Morison, 253).
Her childhood in initial years is spent in prison along with her mother. Her individual rights are blatantly violated She is mocked by the society for the crime committed by her mother. She spends most of her childhood in fear of being killed by her mother.
She is a scared psychologically (Morison, 255). She wished to get a way from her mother who has been sentenced by law and society which has condemned her on sins committed by Sethe (Morison, 256).
Morison depicts the influence of individual rights on the common good (Morison, 6). Children have individual right to care and stable family. All her children were sold in early infancy so she finds Sethe’s act too proud and egocentric (Morison, 45) For Baby Suggs, Sethe has underestimated her luck.
She has her whole family with her and has the chance to see her offspring grow up whereas she has vague memories of her own children, sold in their great majority before their weaning time (Morison. 5). In fact, Sethe in her need to unify her family is caught by her slave owner.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Individual Rights vs Common Good – Essay with Examples by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She refuses to let him sully them as he has done to her, so she kills her third child, a baby girl and hurts the two elders. Her strong feelings are contrary to the slave ethics as it is stated by Paul (Morison, 45). But Sethe has made up her mind; she will not let the white men sully her children like they have already done with her (Morison. 251).
Conclusion Indeed, white and male rudeness has led women to end as murderous like Sethe. Sethe for instance, instead of letting her children return to Sweet Home and then live later the atrocities of slavery, has chosen to kill them one by one before killing herself. She kills her baby girl before being stopped and injures her two sons (Morison, 203).
Then, individual rights do not, on every circumstance serve as a means of pursuing the common good. Individual rights are presupposed in pursuit of the common good.
The common good is the good of society as a whole and each of it components, that is; of all individuals who make up that society (Purdy, 64). Therefore, individual rights enhance the common good to the extent that each person in that community is a holder of those rights.
In addition, it they promote the common good to the extent that their exercise enhances social harmony and balance (Maachem, 300). The primacy of the common good over private goods means the importance of collective rights if and only if due protection is given to individual rights (Paine, 46).
Works Cited Fitzgerald, Scott. The Great Gatsby. New ork: Wiley
McDonald Expansion in China Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Immediately after the Second World War, various political stands which encouraged international trade were undertaken. Particularly, the signing of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947 played the major role in opening the doors for global business expansion. The agreement provided an efficient trading platform for member states.
Additionally, modern transportation, communication, and technology innovations are increasingly making the world a global village. As more opportunities for expanding into other market rather home markets becomes present, companies are quickly learning that new global strategies are needed.
Unlike in the familiar home market, the new foreign market might possess unfamiliar challenges. Such challenge might include cultural diversity, need for a specialized knowledge or skill, legal and political implications, just to mention a few (Morgan, 2008).
Forming a strategic alliance is a common and highly preferred strategy of expanding globally. Strategic alliance can be defined simply as a form of collaboration whereby two parties enters into an agreement to pursue certain set of objectives and/or goals.
Obviously, each party of agreement believes that the relationship will provide them with an opportunity to accomplish more with a relatively minimum effort as oppose to when they strive to achieve a certain goals on their own.
An organization seeking to expand its operation in an unfamiliar market should carefully analyze the potential partners; measure the feasibility of the alliance taking into account all the factors that can either make the alliance successful or unsuccessful.
It should establish its main need of entering into an alliance and hence chose a partner that can fulfill these needs. For instance, if a multinational company wishes to overcome cultural barrier, it should chose a local firm that is well vast with the cultural influences that might affect consumer preferences (Morgan, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Case of McDonald McDonald is the leading US fast food retailer. Its undeniable success was evident by 1963, whereby through its franchises it was selling approximately a million hamburgers each day.
Two years later in 1965, the company listed its shares at price of $22.50 a share, few weeks later the share price more than doubled to trade at $ 49; clearly this was an indication of its strong financial performance and growth prospects. For sure, the investors’ confidence on the company was not misplaced since in 1972 the company for the first time reached a billion dollar in sales.
As in the US, the company has strived to replicate this success in other countries where it has expanded its operation. As result, the organization has become a reputable multinational brand (Ko
Effects of Global Warming on the Environment Report (Assessment) cheap essay help
Introduction The universe is composed of an exceptional community of life, humanity being part of it and other ecological systems. Existence in this source of life to many creatures, plants and other organisms is vital, demanding and uncertain, probably due to the forces of nature.
In the process of acquiring survival techniques and well-being, depletion of the earth’s ecological system becomes increasingly irrepressible. This depletion is detrimental to life and is ever more becoming dangerous to the environment, thereby reducing survival chances on earth.
This is mainly due to flexibility of the society of life and welfare of humanity, which lies upon preservation of a healthy biosphere as well as its ecological systems, such as clean air, fertile soils, affluent mixture of animals and plants, and pure waters, among others. This paper will try to define environment and describe the effects of global warming on it.
Environment and Global warming Our environment encompasses all that provides the fundamental conditions of life, without which, survival ceases. The natural environment is therefore critical in ensuring survival for humanity and other ecological systems.
It entails all the aspects of the world that is found outside artificial constructs of man and is essential to our continued existence. These include ecosystems, biodiversity, the atmosphere, plant life, water and animal life.
Humanity therefore, relies on the ability of earth to support it, yet it concerns to see how much humanity has eroded other living creatures by altering the balances of the atmosphere. This, combined with other natural causes, has led to climatic change, which have in-turn resulted in global warming.
Global warming refers to the increase in the mean temperature of the air near the surface of the earth and oceans, which started in mid-20th century as well as its anticipated prolongation. During the 20th century, assessments have shown that global temperatures of the surface increased by 0.74 degrees Celsius.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is believed to have been caused by human activities like deforestation and burning of fossils, as well as the ever-increasing concentration of green house gases such as carbon dioxide, among others.
Effects of Global warming Global warming has had a great impact on the environment with the future survival of the earth’s habitat put in jeopardy as a clean environment signifies better life and vice versa. The environment has undergone various transformations due to increasing temperatures. These effects include:
Rise in Sea Level
Since global warming raises the average global surface temperatures, this causes polar ice caps and glaciers to melt, thereby leading to expansion of water bodies. In essence, sea levels continue to rise and predictions point to the fact that it could rise as much as 88 centimeters.
Reduction Sea Ice
With the expected melting f ice caps and glaciers, it is expected that about 60% of glaciers and Ice caps will melt. This is likely to be of great concern in Greenland and Antarctica.
Due to the continuing rise in sea level because of global warming, and the corresponding increase in amount of green house gas emissions such as carbon dioxide, precipitation is increased. This is of great concern as carbon dioxide easily mixes with seawater, acidifying the ocean water, and the result is a bleak future for ocean life.
Forest fires have been devastating as they destroy the ecosystem; pollute the environment, ultimately causing drought and uncontrollable repercussions in form of famine, malnutrition, and even death. As global warming continues, it is predicted that rainfall will gradually decrease in mid attitude areas. This would lead to drought in such areas, and drought is known to cause and spread more forest fires than other causes.
As has been stated earlier, while global warming continues, there is rise in sea level and corresponding increase in precipitation. This will change the climatic weather pattern of the earth; thereby leading to weather that is more adverse.
We will write a custom Assessment on Effects of Global Warming on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Massive storms have been experienced in the past, and it is predicted that with increasing global warming, even much worse situations will be experienced in the future. Tropical storms are the most likely and hurricanes, with tsunamis making headways in destroying coastal regions, especially in earthquake active areas.
Such extreme weather is already taking place, since rainfall associated with cyclones is already observed in areas such as USA. Low-lying coasts are at a greater risk as was witnessed in hurricane Katrina. Higher rates of evaporation due to occurrence of frequent droughts in sub-Saharan Africa are likely to enlarge areas experiencing desertification.
Moreover, more rainfalls that are uneven will cause flooding and soil erosion, with inadequate resources to combat such situation surfacing.
Effect on Ecosystems Global warming has affected all ecosystems and the United Nations predict that if this continues, then by 2075 only some locally endemic species are anticipated to survive. Furthermore, it is also expected that within the next 30 years, about 20% of mammals that exist on earth will be extinct, as well as 12% of bird species. This has caused many species to move towards higher latitudes.
Conclusion Global warming has had a great impact on the environment, which sustains all that is in it. This is detrimental to its balancing, causing its depletion and climatic change. Of great concerns are the environmental impacts on ecosystems that survive on earth.
Concisely, Effects of global warming on the environment include, rising sea levels, increasing forest fires, extinction of vast species of the ecosystems, ocean acidification, reduction in ice and glaciers as well as severe weather conditions.