Chapter 4 Of Dugan’s Leadership Theory

Chapter 4 of the book primarily focuses on the person-centered theories of leadership. These include strength-based leadership, emotionally intelligent leadership, leadership challenge models, and trait-based leadership frameworks (Dugan, 2017). In the case of the former, the author provides an overview of the standard set of desired traits of a leader. It emphasizes the fact that it is among the oldest leadership models, which retains its relevance even today. It is important to note that the chapter is correctly and appropriately started with trait-based leadership since it can be categorized as the most fundamental understanding of a person-centered theory of leadership. The second leadership theory is the leadership challenge model, which focuses on a commonality of a struggle and corresponding leadership traits (Dugan, 2017). The author identifies the simplicity of the model as its key strength, whereas strong follower and leader distinctions are stated to be weaknesses. However, one might argue that the leader-centric element of such a person-centered model is its main appeal.

The author continues with an emotionally intelligent leadership model, which accentuates the critical importance of the emotional intelligence of EI for a leader. Similar to the previous framework, the emphasis is put on interactions between leaders and followers (Dugan, 2017). However, it can be stated that sole reliance on EI as a primary determinant of leadership attributes might result in overreliance on this factor. Lastly, the author reviews strengths-based leadership models, which focus on one’s innate talents as key traits (Dugan, 2017). The chapter provides several descriptions of what constitutes strengths in leadership and managerial context but fails to reveal that common description used in modern management, which makes the subsequent strategies non-specific or vague.


Dugan, J. P. (2017). Leadership theory: Cultivating critical perspectives. Jossey-Bass.