It was unexpected that the mortgage crisis that occurred in 2007 in the U.S. would have the effects it had on the European economy. The crisis was caused by the financial repercussions of an economy open to borrowing, and with good borrowing terms.
This is to say that poor financial modelling, coupled with the misconception that real estate prices are always on the rise was the main cause of the mortgage crisis. Also among the significant causes was fraud and greed amongst investors (Youngblood 1). This paper is an exploration of the causes and effects of the mortgage crisis that occurred in the United States in the year 2007.
The causes of the mortgage crisis that occurred in the United States can be described as being indirect. After the 9/11 terrorist attack, investors started shying away from investing in the United States. Something had to be done to counteract this lack of interest among investor.
The Bush’s administration lowered the interest rates in a bid to encourage both investment and consumption. After the interest rates reached a record low of 1%, banks put conditions on loans to ensure that money is productively spent (Pritchard 1). Borrowers willing to take mortgages were however exempted from this condition and therefore the number of mortgages soared. People who had bad credit history also qualified for mortgages.
This, in conjunction with the prevailing high demand for houses at the time led to high prices of houses from 1999 to 2005. The result of this was that people soon realized that they were n9ot able to repay their loans. They either waited for banks to foreclose or they walked out. The prices had stopped going up, and thus the investors did not have many options. Most of them had to negotiate their loans for desperate options like workout programs.
As prices had fallen, banks incurred hefty losses as more defaulters failed to finance their loans. This led to very stringent conditions for loans and inter-bank lending which affected the activities of the banks seriously. Banks could therefore not operate normally after incurring serious losses, and this led to failure of a substantial number of banks (Youngblood 1).
The U.S. mortgage crisis had numerous effects on economies world over. One of the effects is the increase in the prices of prices of commodities, which had serious implications for businesses and consumers alike.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A number of parties who suffered serious losses due to the mortgage crisis sought interventions that could help decrease the effects of the mortgage crisis. More complex financial products were developed, and thus the solutions to the mortgage crisis were in the hands of the elite. Consumers and small scale businessmen continued to suffer. Also among the effects of the mortgage crisis is the fact that it became very difficult to sell a house due to the uncertainties in the real estate market.
Prices were low, and owners were reluctant to sell their houses while prospective buyers were aware of the crisis that had affected the real estate market. This saw the economy suffer a meltdown as the level of investment substantially reduced. It is still unclear whether the world has fully recovered from the mortgage crisis of the United States (Whalen1). However, the crisis was an eye opener for the people who are directly involved in financial modelling, especially in large financial institutions like the Central Bank.
Works Cited Pritchard, Justin. “Mortgage Crisis Overview”. 2011 – March 11, 2011,
Whalen, Christopher. “The Subprime Crisis – Cause Effect and Consequences”. At Indiana State University, March 2008.
Youngblood, S. “The U.S. Mortgage Crisis and Its Global Impact”. March 29, 2008 – March 11. Web.
Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement Research Paper college essay help online
Introduction The history of the movement meant to put an end to slavery dates back to the establishment of slavery in America. In the West, millions of African slaves were entrenched in to the American labor force from the beginning of the 16th century and were not freed until the last decade of the 19th century. Unlike the modern day slavery, America’s economy was dependent on the labor of slaves whose masters treated them unfairly.
During that time, very few people spoke against slavery since they were satisfied with the status quo. However, the Quakers from the very beginning came out strongly to criticize slavery, which they viewed as immoral.
Even though some members within the church were slaveholders, they soon banned the ownership of slaves among themselves in a move that they believed would set an example for others to follow. 1 Throughout the slavery period, Quakers distributed pamphlets and staged demonstrations that finally gave rise to the abolitionist movement.
History of the Quakers The Friends Church was begun over three centuries ago. The church was established by George Fox who was an Anglican before he began feeling that there was more to religion than what was being offered by the Anglican Church. When he was only 19 years old, George Fox moved across churches looking for an answer to his questions but he never got them. Apparently, the Church of England, which was the official religion at the time, was too sophisticated for the common person and many people felt that it did not address their needs. 2
This desire to find a connection and inner peace with God led George Fox to establish an association of “Friends” after the exhortation given by Jesus in John 15:15 where he called the believers his Friends.
However, there were people who opposed the changes that this “Friends” were bringing to the church and they branded them “Quakers” after the manner in which they trembled when speaking of their newfound faith. Instead of taking the name in a negative manner, the Friends felt that it complemented them and they decided to adopt the name as their official logo. 3
Since the foundation of the church in 1647, the Quakers focused on passing across the message that Jesus Christ was the answer to all problems. This saw many people who were tired of the formal religion coming forward to join the movement that was offering them something “real” as opposed to what the Church of England was offering. In reality, the one thing that was attracting people to the Friends was their doctrine.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Quakers viewed slavery as unjust and this compelled them to form an anti-slavery group, the first in history. Throughout the 18th century, the Quakers initiated a strong opposition against slavery. This fight by the Quakers saw the number of abolitionists go up and by 1830, the issue had already become a political matter in America. 4
To many people, the Quakers were perceived to be drastic people. The reason for this was their deep sated belief that before God, all people were equal, and every person had the privilege of receiving God’s salvation and wisdom. Additionally, this Society of Friends was against any form of cruelty and they lived simple lives, which differentiated them from the mainstream church.
This conviction led them to view slavery as morally wrong and they spent most of their time preaching against this vice. Just a few years after its establishment, the Quakers Society began opposing slavery and this marked the beginning of the Abolitionist Movement. In 1696, Quakers made a public declaration renouncing slavery and renewed their calls to fight the vice. 5
Before this declaration, the founder of the Quakers group had stated his detest for slavery but never took tangible steps to fight the vice. During that time, there were still leaders in the Quaker group who owned slaves thus making the issue divisive within the church.
Despite this being the case, some of the Quaker leaders such as Benjamin Lay continued to push for the abolition of slaveholding within the church. In one of his searing addresses, Lay termed the practice as “Hellish” and a “filthy sin…the greatest sin in the world, of the very nature of Hell itself, and is the Belly of Hell.” 6 This sharp criticism brought an awakening within the group and soon many members began questioning the morality of the leaders who owned slaves within the Friend Society.
This led to the replacement of leaders who owned slaves with others who abhorred the practice. Although this was a gradual process, it gave way to the enactment of the popular “Act for the Gradual Abolishment of Slaver” in Pennsylvania. By the time that this was happening, all the Quakers were against slavery and they had become members of the abolitionist movement. 7
Key Figures in the Movement
Upon coming to America, Quakers were viewed as dangerous heretics and they often underwent persecution by people who termed them as Witches. Since these Quakers were not welcome in most states, they found asylum in Rhode Island, which had tolerance towards minority groups. The first Quakers who came to America went on to become key figures both in the Friends Society and in the formation of the Abolition Movement. 8
We will write a custom Research Paper on Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More William Penn
William Penn who lived from 1644-1718 is believed to have been one of the most instrumental figures in the Quakers Society in America. With the help of his friends, Penn is said to have aided in the establishment of Pennsylvania colony, which later came to be the center for American Quakers and went ahead to be the first colony to abolish slavery. As the years progressed, Pennsylvania became the only state where people with divergent people would congregate without the fear for reprisals.
Under the group doctrines, Penn insisted that women needed to be accorded their due respect since this was in tandem with God’s view of equality. Being one of the founders of the Pennsylvania State, Penn helped the colony to come up with a constitution that was credited with placing power in the hands of citizens other than concentrating it on the government.
The constitution drafted by Penn also provided a humane Penal Code for offenders and ensured that the fundamental rights for everyone were respected. Under this constitution, many slaves took their masters to court protesting against the inhumane treatment they were receiving. The lenient terms outlined in this constitution enabled the Quaker group to blossom and provided them with a forum for their criticism of slavery. 9
George Keith was an energetic Quaker who was mainly credited with producing numerous pamphlets that spoke against the enslavement of Africans. Even before Quakers began opposing slavery, Keith had already published a pamphlet titled “An exhortation and caution to Friends concerning the buying and selling of Negroes.” In the 1693 publication, Keith criticized the Quakers leadership for its failure to take a strong stand against slavery.
He termed the enslavement of Africans as human rights violation and claimed that those who were supporting slavery within the church were erring and called for their repentance. This statement put Keith on a collision path with the church leadership and led to his disownment two years later. Even after his exit, other members picked up Keith’s message and the leadership of the Quakers was forced to comply with their demands. This made George Keith an important figure in the Abolitionist Movement. 10
After fellow Friends disowned George Keith, things seemed to cool down a bit within the movement. However, another Quaker William Southeby who died in 1720 picked up from where Keith had left and continued making calls for the society to disown slavery.
What made Southeby’s calls weightier was because unlike the others before him he was a Native American. Like Keith before him, Southeby kept on publishing attacks on those who imported and held slaves. Encouraged by his courageousness, other Native American Quakers joined the abolition movement making it even stronger. 11
The Quaker Benjamin Lay came in to the limelight in the 1730’s when he and other Quaker abolitionists led by John Woolman and Anthony Benezet came out in strong opposition to slavery. Before he began opposing slavery, Lay had been a renowned West Indian slaveholder and many slaveholders therefore heeded his calls.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Quakers in the Abolitionist Movement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of choosing the diplomatic way, Lay adopted a more confrontational method where he could kidnap the children of slaveholders apparently to acquaint the child with the grief of slaves. This antislavery tactics made him a key figure among abolitionists and even fellow Quakers. Lay also contributed to Woolman’s 1754 publication titled Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, which criticized the notion of valuing money over the lives of Negroes. 12
Quaker John Woolman was drawn in to the abolitionist movement from an early age. In fact, Woolman spent most of his life traversing the country to preach on the ills of slavery. When he was 20 years, Woolman shocked his friends when he began talking openly on the ills of slavery.
This was in response to a request by his boss to draft a bill of sale for a slave girl to which he complied but not before expressing his thoughts on the matter. Immediately after this incident, Woolman quit his job and traversed the country preaching the abolitionist gospel. 13
Anthony Benezet was also another Quaker who worked closely with Lay and Woolman in their opposition to slavery. Throughout his life, Benezet dedicated his life to the course of abolishing slavery and he had a collection of nearly every publication on antislavery. As an ardent abolitionist, Benezet also corresponded with abolitionists living outside America and kept on updating them on how the situation was on the ground.
His love for slaves led him to establish a school for slave children in his home compound, which went on to become the first Negro school in the United States. Under his leadership, Quakers unanimously resolved to bar any slaveholder from the church in order to set an example to the rest of the world. 14
The Quakers sensitivity to the needs of freed slaves compelled them to devise a safe passage to ensure that the slaves were not recaptured until they got into the Northern states or other places where slavery was banned. To achieve this mission, the Quakers devised an “Underground Railroad” (UGRR), which was simply a means for slaves to move safely from one place to the other. By 1835, thousands of people majority of who were Quakers operated the UGRR.
One of the men credited with devising the UGRR was Levi Coffin. During his lifetime, Coffin who was a Quaker businessperson devoted most of his time to the UGRR a contribution that earned him the title of Presidency for the underground movement. Indeed, the Coffin’s are said to have hidden a group of escaped slaves for more than 21 years. Later, Coffin confessed to having aided close to 3,000 slaves using the UGRR. This made him a key figure in the abolitionist movement. 15
The Reconstruction: Success and Failure Research Paper essay help: essay help
There can be many ways to interpret a historical event, yet the evaluation of the Reconstruction results will depend on four key factors, which are the unwillingness of the President to provide efficient reforms, the lack of funding for further development of the process, the resistance of the white population and the reluctance of the Supreme Court.
The Thirteen Amendment was a great innovation for the USA which meant that the new era of democracy is going to begin. Abolishing the slavery, Lincoln makes the first step towards the new state. Suggesting that the South must gain financial support for further development, Lincoln created the basis of the future reforms.
As Lincoln provided his 10% Plan, it became obvious that serious changes are about to occur. Thus, the 10% Plan featured the following innovations. The South citizen could obtain a full pardon and have their property back with the guarantee to become absolutely free:
In December 1863 Abraham Lincoln offered a plan of “restoration” to the Southern people. The president’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction embodied what came to be known as Ten Percent Plan. After at least ten percent of a seceded state’s voters took an oath to support the Constitution and the Union, the state could legally establish a new government
The Congress responded with the Wade-Davis Bill which was directed to provide the black people with more freedom. Its main concern was that only those taking the oath of loyalty before the new government could be considered the citizen of America. Congress also created the Freedmen’s Bureau.
Designed to assist the former slaves, it provided help for those who sought for employment. It seemed that the new policy would make the segregation of the black people completely forgotten, when Lincoln was killed. Because of losing the one and only man who could act effectively and create the plan to beat the economical depression, the democratic forces slackened the process of reconstruction.
As Johnson took the chair, the prognoses for the future were somewhat change. Because of his cautious and indecisive politics, Johnson was unable to conduct the Reconstruction process in a proper way, abolishing slavery as institution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the Civil War ended with the victory of Grant, both the South and the North sustained great losses. Thus, they were both unable to develop further on and could not focus on the Reconstruction.
Although Johnson presented his own plan for reconstruction, it lacked certainty and the decisiveness of Lincoln’s suggestions. Among the issues which the plan covered, there were the pardons for all the people who would take the loyalty vow, no matter whether these would be the northern or the southern dwellers, except the high officials; the abolition of slavery; and the demand for eleven states to repeal their secession ordinance.
Since the president’s policy lacked the certainty about the reforms, the population began to express their concern with the new politics. Thus, the Reconstruction started regressing before it took the full swing. Electing Benjamin Butler for the position of the member of a radical Republican party to the Congress was another proof that the Reconstruction was going the wrong way.
Another effect of the Reconstruction was the Black Code which restricted the rights of the Black people to their limit. Composed of four parts, the new law made the black people dependent on the white population again. The Black Code consisted of four parts, each containing limitations for the black people.
The first part, the Apprentice Law, confirmed the dependence of the black employee on his/her employer completely, which meant turning back to the ideas of slavery. Another part of the Code, the Vagrancy Law, concerned all black homeless people, and meant fining people for vagrancy. As Berkin marked,
Pleased by Johnson’s conservative approach to black rights, southern legislators sought to restore the labor controls over their liberated work force by passing a series of laws collectively known as Black Codes
Taking the advantage of the situation, the Code demanded that all the freedmen must do their military service; otherwise the penalty would be imposed. Since it would have taken much time for the freedmen to register for military service, they could be easily imprisoned according to the Black Code.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Reconstruction: Success and Failure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of the lenient reforms of Johnson, the Radical part of the Congress formed the so-called Joint Committee of Fifteen, which was supposed to conduct more efficient policy and supported rather the Congress policy than the one of the president.
Since not all of the South citizens were convinced that the policy of Lincoln and Congress had the point, the specific groups were formed to take revenge on the black population. Calling themselves Ku-Klux-Klan after the sound of a gun reloaded, they were a terrorist organization in Tennessee which committed manslaughters to revenge on democrats and the defeat of the South.
As the Ku-Klux-Klan was terrorizing the black population, the Congress provide the Civil Rights Act despite Johnson’s protests. The Civil Rights Act aimed at protecting the legal rights of the freedmen, among them the right to be heard in court, the right to sue and the right to hold property, as well as giving the black and the white population “equal civil, political and public rights”.
Further on, in 1866, the new amendments to the Act presupposed that the freedmen had the right to vote as well as the white people. Even though Johnson had imposed veto on the act before, the Radicals managed to put these ideas into practice.
One of the greatest events in the history of the Reconstruction was the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Approved by the Congress, it meant that every freedman had the right to be the subject of the States, which meant that the black population could be granted with the freedoms and rights of American citizens.
Another important addition which the Amendment made was the fact that none could be deprived of life, liberty or property from that time on. This ensured that the white people could not harm the newly-freed black people.
Finally, the amendment concerned the issue of the equality in the procession case. Thus, the Fourteenth Amendment attempted to put an end to racial segregation once and for all.
Such changes could not be left without a response from the opponents. In May, 1866 the Memphis rate riot erupted and took away the lives of 46 black people. Demonstrating the protest to share their rights with the freedmen, the white population of Memphis, Tennessee, committed a number of manslaughters. However, such actions gave vent to the sympathy towards the freedmen among the members of Congress.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Reconstruction: Success and Failure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Feeling sympathy for the black population which was suffering severe attacks, the Congress reinforced the powers and the responsibilities of Freedmen’s Bureau. Though the Congress had to act despite the veto of Johnson, the results were stunning, with more than 99,9% male freedmen employed in 1860.Thus, it can be considered that the actions of the Bureau had great effect on the state of the freedmen.
However, the situation was rather controversal, for the more liberty the freedmen were granted by the Congress with; the more severe were the responses from the white opponents. Thus, the reinforcement of the Bureau permissions resulted in another series of manslaughter called New Orleans Race Riot.
Flocking with the police of the New Orleans, the former Confederates attacked the white Republicans and the black freedmen. Unarmed and helpless, the attacked surrendered, but that was of no help – both the white and the black people taking part in the gathering were murdered cruelly. As it could have been predicted, the local police did nothing to investigate the crime and find the real culprits.
While Johnson remained calm and inactive, the Republican demanded that the Reconstruction Act should be provided. Consequently, in 1867 the first Reconstruction Act was introduced to the American society despite Johnson’s veto. According to the First Reconstruction Act, the South was supposed to be split into five military districts. This was what Norton called “social reform through military occupation.”
Such innovation was followed by the announcement that the freedmen were allowed to take part in the elections, e.g. to vote for their candidates. The First Reconstruction Act also presupposed that the South gained readmission after they ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. However, “radical carpetbagger regime” made the black population lose their faith in the reforms held by the white politicians.
The second Reconstruction Act passed shortly after the first one enabled the military forces to control the security of the freedmen in the States. Although Johnson attempted at vetoing this act, like the previous one, it was still put into practice owning to the quick reaction of the Congress.
Following the Second Reconstruction Act, there was the Second Reconstruction Act produced shortly. It stated that the southern territories were supposed to be under the surveillance of the military forces, thus putting the South under their control. The Congress also proclaimed in the Third Reconstruction Act that the Iron Clad Oath would be modified to become even more restricting.
As the Third Reconstruction Act was launched, the situation in the States changed dramatically. Thus, in 1868 the first black man was chosen to represent Louisiana as its lieutenant governor. Such changes indicated that America was ready to become the democratic country, yet some more efforts were needed to make the final step.
As soon as Grant became the president of the States, his administration did not prove as efficient as the Radicals thought it to be. Signifying that the period of Reconstruction was moving towards the end, the reformation process was slowly ceasing.
According to the Fifteenth Amendment which was accepted shortly after Grant became the president, all American citizen, regardless of their color of skin, had the right to vote in the elections period A major breakthrough, this was one more signal that the Reconstruction was breathing its last.
One of the most significant events of 1870 was the fact that a black man Joseph Rainley was accepted as a member of the House of Representatives in the US Congress. This meant that the final step towards the democracy was made and black people could not only vote free, but have the access to the governmental structure of the state. The event of crucial importance, this was the starting point for the new era in the history of the USA.
Considering that everything possible has been done, the government decided that the time had come to abolish the Freedmen Bureau. As the number of the black members in the House of the Representatives grew, the Reconstruction was slowly approaching its logical ending, partially because of the way it started acting: As Cimbala marked, “In the contest over the contours of the new labour system, Freedmen’s Bureau agents were neither passive spectators nor objective mediators This caused another surge of the anti-abolitionism reaction.”
The famous Slaughter-House Cases when the court “upheld a Louisiana law mandating the centralization of slaughtering facilities in New Orleans” as the white butchers complained that they could not pursue a trade anymore signified that the Supreme Court supported the position of the conservative wing of the Congress.
A perfect example of the policy of the judicial power is the one driven by Brandwein: “In the Civil Rights Cases, Justice Bradley cautioned against treating blacks as “the special favorite of the laws”. Thus, local laws implied discrimination, which the white people did not fail to make use of.
Conclusion. In spite of the fact that the Reconstruction Period was started with certain goals to achieve, under the guidance of Johnson, who could not coordinate his politics with the one of the Supreme Court and the Congress, the Reconstruction process could not continue. Due to the arguments between the judicial, the executive and the legislative branches of power, the process of abolishing the racial segregation did not cease, but was only hindered.
Another reason for the Reconstruction to come to a dead end was the fact that the anti-racism policy demanded sufficient financial support which the government could not provide at that time. Deprived of the profit, the entire venture was ripped of its attraction for the people who started the Reconstruction.
In addition, The Supreme Court failed to support the amendments which have been suggested so that the black population could become citizen of the States with all the rights that a free person can have. Without the support of the Supreme Court, the black population could not do anything to become the members of the American society.
In addition, the white population finally began fearing that the black people could make use of their new privileges to take revenge on the white population, which led to the mass protests against giving full rights to the black people.
Thus, it can be considered that the Reconstruction period had both the positive and the negative impact on the society and the state of affairs of the black people. What must be admitted, however, is the fact that the humanist process was launched, and white people finally realized that the black population does not differ from them anyhow and must enjoy the same rights and privileges. It is doubtless that once the government were more persistent in its efforts to abolish racial segregation, the results would have occurred much sooner.
Reference List Berkin, Carol et al. Making America: A History of the United States: Since 1865. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Brandwein, Pamela. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Cimbala, Paul Alan, and Randall M. Niller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. New York, NY, 1999.
Griess, Thomas E. The American Civil War. New York, NU: Square One Publishers, Inc. 2002.
Hume, Richard L., and Jerry B. Gough. Blacks, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags: The Constitutional Conventions of Radical Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2008.
Lincove, David A. Reconstruction in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation: Since 1865. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2005.
Ruggiero, Adriane. Reconstruction. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2006.
Selcer, Richard F. Civil War America, 1850 to 1875. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2006.
Footnotes Thomas E Griess. The American Civil War. (New York, NU: Square One Publishers, Inc. 2002)
Adriane Ruggiero. Reconstruction. (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2006), 4
Richard F. Selcer, Civil War America, 1850 to 1875. (New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2006), 152
Carol Berkin et al. Making America: A History of the United States: Since 1865. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2010), 357
Richard L. Hume and Jerry B. Gough. Blacks, Carpetbaggers and Scalawags: The Constitutional Conventions of Radical Reconstruction. (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2008), 156
Mary Beth Norton. A People and a Nation: Since 1865. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cengage Learning, 2005), 428
David A. Lincove Reconstruction in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. (Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000), 256
Paul Alan Cimbala, and Randall M. Niller. The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations. (New York, NY, 1999), 194
Pamela Brandwein. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 55
Pamela Brandwein. Rethinking the Judicial Settlement of Reconstruction. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 60
Correlation between Multiple Pregnancies and Postpartum Depression/Psychosis Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Risk factors for PPD
Introduction Currently, there is an ever increasing incidence of multiple births especially in the developed nations and this is mainly attributed to increase in assisted reproductive technologies. Such multiple pregnancies have well known risks on the infants as well as risks on the mother, more so related to premature births. Although there is a broad understanding of the risks that present with multiple births, there is paucity of knowledge on how multiple births are related to the well-being of the mother, particularly her mental wellbeing.
There is need to examine the mental well-being of mothers with multiple birth since such parents are exposed to various risks which exacerbate the likelihood of developing postpartum depression (PPD). Such risks include the stress of bearing and looking after multiple infants, the possibility of having high-risk pregnancy, social isolation, factors such as premature birth, cesarean delivery as well as risks related to assisted reproduction techniques.
It is for these reasons that this paper examines the available knowledge on possible association between multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression as well as postpartum psychosis. In recognition of the paucity of information on the relationship between multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression, the paper reviews the likely relationship by understanding the two variables, multiple pregnancies and postpartum depression, in terms of their characteristics.
Possible correlations are then suggested relating the adverse effects of multiple pregnancies and the possible links with various causes of postpartum depression. This paper therefore starts with defining postpartum depression, characteristic symptoms of the condition and the various possible causes which are then related with characteristics and circumstances surrounding multiple pregnancies.
Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a depression condition that is experienced by women within a month to a period of three months postpartum. It is therefore evident that postpartum depression differs from other forms of depression generally due to the time when the depression occurs.
Postpartum depression is usually misdiagnosed with other mental disorders such as peuperal psychosis as well as normal mental and behavioral changes that may occur after birth. Differential diagnosis for PPD should therefore include baby blues, bipolar disorder as well as postnatal psychosis. The main characteristics of PPD include lowered self confidence, increased fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, panic, alcohol abuse and anxiety among others (Blicksten and Keith, p. 740).
The likelihood of developing postpartum depression is higher in women who have had postpartum blues with the prevalence of postpartum depression standing at about 6 percent. The prevalence of PPD is reported to be between 10 and 15 percent in Western nations (Oppo et al, p. 239) with either major or minor depression within one year postpartum being between 6.5 and 12.9 percent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that postpartum depression mainly occurs one to three months postpartum and an individual with a history of depression is at even a higher risk of developing postpartum depression.
Some other risk factors that elevate the probability of getting PPD include deprived social support, failure to breastfeed, and previous pregnancy loss among others. Postpartum depression is mainly characterized by symptoms such as reduced sexual drive, lack of good sleep, feelings of guilt, and poor mother-child bond (Feldman
Summary Atlas Shrugged Part One and Two Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction “Atlas Shrugged” refers to a novel by Ayn Rand. In this novel Rand explores the United States where there is an outcry of renowned renovators against exploitation by the government. The government expresses its spirit of relentlessness in exploitation by maintaining control over the industry. As a result, the whole society collapses amid a mass exit by many citizens who were hitherto pillars of the economy.
The author focuses on the theme of the role of human brain in the ‘being’ of humans. Rand also successfully brings out the philosophy of objectivism by using a number of themes, which are philosophical in nature. Objectivism simply means the existence of truths independent of the mind or perception.
Rand suggests that man’s survival is dependent on how well he/she applies the rule of good deeds and bad deeds. She thus advocates virtues as honesty, integrity, independence, and confidence. Rand prefers realistic characters rather than symbolic ones and insists that they should rise above normal man.
Issuance of sanctions to victims is another theme that Rand clearly brings out. Victim sanctions imply the readiness of what is good to undergo suffering in presence of evil. As such, Rand asserts that evil can only exist if good condones it and that people should be rational in their discipline while pursuing personal interests.
In addition, the theme of property ownership and individualism brought out when Rands speaks against those interested in taking advantage of what belongs to others and labels them “looters”. In particular, she criticizes governments, which exploit their citizens.
In conclusion, through her novel, Rand seeks to educate individuals on matters concerning their rights as citizens, and their rights to own property without undue influence from the government. She also seeks to educate the societal leaders that in order to retain the pillars of their economies, they ought to respect their rights to ownership and give them the freedom to innovate freely.
Strategic Information Management and Customer Relations Management Argumentative Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Involving all stakeholders in IT decision making
Management of IT risks
Create Proper Awareness
Effective system monitoring and evaluation
Introduction Information Technology (IT) has gained enormous popularity in organizations and as such, management should develop appropriate strategies to reap its “fruits.” Integration of IT into organization’s operations poses significant security challenges both internally and externally.
IT is very dynamic; developments and changes occur so rapidly, making its management a very complicated task. IT plays a pivotal role in any organization’s development and communication and by the nature of its functions exposes the organization to great risks both from the inside and outside.
Poor management of Information system makes the organization vulnerable. Profane Individuals have managed, “to stage mega scandals based on weaknesses of information system operations” (Swanson, 2004). Strategic information management therefore seeks to develop policies and regulations to ensure successful and efficient business processes management (BPM). BPM is therefore no a fad but a literally meaningful change strategy.
Involving all stakeholders in IT decision making IT forms an integral part of the organization’s management; consequently, failing to involve the entire management participants in decision-making would inevitably lead to system failure and largely the business entity. Every stakeholder has an important role to play in the successful implementation and management of the information systems in the organization. When all players participate in formulating policies and guidelines, they would see the need to observe rules and guidelines to the letter.
In addition, the emergence of IT has significantly changed the business landscape, hence the players need to develop appropriate strategies to address these challenges and tap the opportunities as well. Most organizations make significant expenditures in IT and therefore the need for good IT management policies cannot be overstated. Ensuing are but a few reasons as to why it is appropriate to involve all players in IT and policy formulations.
As stated earlier, IT investment expenditures are significant and thus the need to give shareholders the value for their money. By involving the general management, it becomes easy to integrate IT strategies into the overall organizational policies and strategies.
Moreover, the management becomes more conscious of the technological environment to ensure that IT investment decisions made remain relevant into the future. Involving the general management would lead to gaining competitive advantage, management effectiveness and efficiency. IT enables competitive advantage through differentiation of the organization products and services from those of the competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differentiation by IT is realizable through enhanced product quality, shorter product development periods, creation of IT based products and services, and improved customer service delivery. To enhance effectiveness, IT provides decision support at all management levels as well it removing barriers for pursuit of opportunities (Lacity, 2005).
Efficiency by IT would be achieved through decreased internal costs because of automation, shared services, downsizing, communication, and task support. Lastly, BPM would greatly prevent business failure. Management ignorance of IT can lead to devastating effects in the management. Researches have show that, IT system developments fail to yield on target not because they do not meet the required specifications, but because of poor management.
Management of IT risks The risks of running business incorporated with IT are significant and require proper check mechanisms. Risk management involves the systematic analysis of the information system and its environment to determine the actual risks faced and then formulating appropriate policies to bring the risk levels down to desirable levels. To manage IT risks, the following principles are crucial. First, establish a central management unit to address IT system risks (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).
Members of this management group should possess technical expertise to analyze risk information properly on a continued basis. They should thereby inform and provide expertise and technical support to the general management on security issues. To enhance proper implementation of IT security policies, all persons involved should be equipped with technical IT skills through training. Training of the members would reduce resistance and increase their cooperation instead.
Create Proper Awareness The users of IT system should be equipped with the appropriate skill. Since technology is dynamic, management must ensure the users get timely updates on the IT field developments. This should be done by application of user-friendly strategies viz. notices, alerts, seminars, and presentations among others. The continued awareness on information systems by the members enhances their confidence and thereby enabling them to avoid making errors and mistakes.
Effective system monitoring and evaluation Monitoring encourages compliance by the users, holds the management of information system accountable for their responsibilities, and takes corrective measures. System evaluation would involve carrying out test controls and analyzing risk factors and indicators.
In addition, it is imperative to enroll the use of independent system auditors whose reports, findings, and recommendations should be acted upon promptly. Keep record of security incidences and the damages caused this would help in determination of the system weaknesses. The system monitoring and evaluation team should be keen to developments in technology so that the tools and technologies used in the monitoring and evaluations activities are relevant.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Information Management and Customer Relations Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The aforementioned facts form a strong conviction that BPM is a meaningful business strategy and not a management fad. PMP’s key functionality information system is effecting communication, both within the organization and without. Effective information system therefore, should relay relevant information to its users.
Customers are important for the survival of business entities. Consequently, companies should endeavor to attract and maintain a client base as large as they can. Technology has significantly changed the way business entities interact with their customers. With the emergence of online shopping (virtual markets), companies should position themselves strategically to benefit fully. This can effectively be done through BPM, which is not a fad but an imperative management change strategy.
References Lacity, M.C. (2005). Why General Managers Need to Understand Information Technology. Working Paper. Retrieved from
National Institute of Standards and Technology. (1998). Management of Risks in Information Systems: Practices of Successful Organizations. Web.
Swanson, M. (2004). Contingency Planning Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST. Web.
‘Keystone species’ in Information Ecologies Affecting Knowledge Management Process Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Meaning of ‘keystone species’ in Traditional Ecology In the field of ecology, key stone species refer to special species within an ecological system. This species are responsible for ecological balance within their ecology in such a way that their removal produces a “disproportionate effect” on the ecology not commensurate to their relative availability (Bond, 1994, p. 237). This concept led to the understanding of the relative importance of each species in an ecosystem. Conservationists now determine the impact of the loss of a single species from an ecosystem based on this concept.
The term has found wide usage in many fields, which exhibit ecological characteristics. This includes law, computer science, and library science. This means that disciplines with units that interact in such a way that they influence one another can use the term ecology. It is also possible to identify a ‘keystone species’ within such an ecological environment. In IT, the term refers to the interconnected nature of information sources describable as information ecology.
Generic ‘keystone species’ Equivalent in All Information Ecologies All natural ecologies have ‘keystone species’. The very comparison of the information management process to natural ecological systems presupposes the presence of ‘keystone species’ in information ecologies. Natural ecological balance does not rely on the influence of single species.
It is the result of a comprehensive balance of influence from all species present. This applies to information ecologies. The species in the information ecology live with significant tension in relation to each other (Hasenyager, 1996). As the system develops, there is no external influence to ensure balanced influence from each component of the ecology. Rather, there is a natural tension, where each species vies for and commands a certain degree of influence. This process of establishing a natural order ends up producing ‘keystone species’.
Application of the Concept in Relation to Particular Information Ecologies Nardi and O’Day (1999) identify five aspects of information ecology. They are the system, diversity, co-evolution, ‘keystone species’, and locality. This is a useful criterion for identifying information ecologies. To demonstrate this phenomenon, we will use the example of a supermarket. A supermarket as an information ecology provides a place where different actors meet to transact business.
Suppliers bring their products to the supermarket while consumers come to purchase them. The supermarket offers a dynamic environment for the exchange to take place.
They key identifier of a system are, “strong interrelationships and dependencies among different its parts” (Nardi
Teamwork as the Primary Determinant of Success Essay best essay help: best essay help
Regardless of the size of an entity or the nature of activity which a group of individuals are involved in, teamwork is one of the primary determinant s of a group’s level of success. Although sometimes the size of some responsibilities may force that only a single person works on them, because every individual need to be motivated and encouraged by others, teamwork is an essential concept in any working scenario.
The ability of a team to accomplish a task within the set time limit, utilizing the available resources primarily depend on the ability of such individuals to forego their differences and ego, and work in cohesion by proactively sharing responsibilities.
Hence, regardless of how much it may be hard to bring together individuals of different personalities, aspirations, and abilities, teamwork is the prerequisite of any successful endeavor. For teamwork to be effective in working towards achieving some common goal, it is important for the team players to have a set of skill some of which include listening, questioning, persuading, respecting, helping, sharing and participating.
Therefore, because teamwork is one of the primary determinants of whether an organization will achieve sustainable and good results, it is the duty of all individuals in team to ensure that they posses these qualities, because without them the likelihoods of a team succeeding are minimal.
To be a good team player one has to be ready to compromise, listen, share, question, persuade, share, and respect the opinion or views expressed by other individuals. It is very important for any member of a team to have a sharing heart.
Sharing is an important attribute in a teamwork environment, as it is one of the primary methods that individuals can use to know their limitations, fears, and assumptions. In addition, it is through sharing that a team can come up with new and innovative ideas that can help to improve the diversity, mission, vision, and goals of both an organization and individuals.
On the other hand, sharing is important in teamwork, because it can help a team to solve any underlying conflicts, as silence and avoidance may be a sign of some underlying problem (West 30-35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another attribute that is important in teamwork is listening. Listening can help team members to comprehend what others are saying and it is an important tool of making others to feel appreciated. Good listening can also enable members of a team to discover the level of willingness in their teammates’ views and the rational content in the ideas shared by others.
In addition, just like sharing, listening is an important component of any conflict resolving initiative, because it offers teammates a chance of expressing their grievances and creating healthy relationships among members of a team (Victorian Government Department of Human Resources 1-3).
A third important attribute of teamwork is participation. Collaborative participation is one of the primary ways of gauging personal managerial and organizational ability with that of other teammates. In addition, active participation is important in a teamwork environment, because it allows the free flow of ideas in a process called organizational learning (Population Information Program: John Hopkins School of Public Health 1).
In addition to participating, sharing, and listening, questioning is also very important in any teamwork initiative. Questioning provides direction that a team should take, because it helps to determine the level of knowledge of a team; hence, an import management tool. Further, questioning is also important in teamwork, as it can help teammates to evaluate their learning hence, devise methods of filling their personal learning gaps.
Going hand in hand with questioning is persuading. Persuading is important more so when there is need for tasks to be completed within the set time limits. In addition, persuading is one of the primary methods that members of a team can use to convince their teammates to accept their ideas.
This can also be an important attribute to use to ensure new concepts are accepted among teammates, because likelihoods of some team members refusing some ideas are high, considering that team are made of individuals with different personalities, value, and aspirations (Oakley and Krug 1).
A second last attribute that is essential in any teamwork venture is having a helping spirit. Regardless of how much individuals may be experts in their fields of specialization, every person at one point must be in need of help.
We will write a custom Essay on Teamwork as the Primary Determinant of Success specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Helping and caring for other people should be part and parcel of every teamwork initiative, because every input from each member of a group counts very much. In addition, helping can help individuals to share ideas, learn from each, and create healthy relationships that are essential for the wellbeing of an entire team. The final attribute that is necessary for an effective team is respect.
Respect is the greatest of all these attributes, because without respect one cannot offer a helping hand, cannot share, participate freely, listen, and persuade individuals they are not ready to offer their respect. Respect is essential for effective teamwork, because it can motivate a team to assist each other, to develop their full potentials, and information (Savage 1).
Works Cited Oakley, Ed, and Krug, Doug. Questioning your way to better teamwork. 2009. Web.
Population Information Program: John Hopkins School of Public Health. Encourage staff Participation and teamwork. 2010. Web.
Savage, Rhonda. The secrets to successful teamwork: trust and accountability. Reliable Plant. 2010. Web.
Victorian Department of Human Resources. Listening and teamwork. The Victorian Government Department of Human Services. 2005. Web.
West, Michael. Effective teamwork: practical lessons from organizational research. Leicester: British psychological Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2004. Web.
Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws Research Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Jim Crow Laws
Introduction Racism is a destructive form of discrimination. This is because is devalues other people’s identity and denies them their right to exercise power. It destroys the unity within a community and leads to social divisions. It violates the democratic right of equality and the fair treatment of all people.
One has to understand the nature and form of racism that exist if he has to succeed in countering it. It is a world wide phenomenon that has been experienced in many countries and it mainly results from economic, political, and social factors. This papers gives a brief overview of three forms of discrimination (Lynching, Segregation, and Jim Crow Laws) practiced against African American in the United States.
Lynching Lynching can be defined as the illegal killing of an individual by the mob. It is defined as “any act of violence inflicted by a mob upon the body of another person which results in the death of the person” (Barry 218).
A mob is defined as a group of two (or more populace) congregating as one without authorization of the relevant powers that be, for the premeditated intention and objective to commit an act of cruelty against another being. It is a practice that was common among the white and the African. The African were normally executed by the white simply because of the white superiority.
However, the whites who protested against this execution were at very high risks of being executed. Lynching is normally carried out by execution, setting a blaze or shooting the alleged individual in order to discipline, scare, or take control over a certain populace no matter its size. It is a means of social control practiced by the superior community against its minors (Niels 201).
The governing populace used to employ lynching, especially in times of fiscal pressure, as a means of tyrannizing those that opposed them. The vice was also a widespread norm in cooling (social) tensions.
For instance, in America, lynching was used against the African Americans after the American civil war when the Africans were given the right to participate in elections. In 1980s, violence was high especially after the southern Americans regained their political power. More then three thousand African Americans were lynched towards the end of the 19th century (Niels 202).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Towards the beginning of the 20th century, new constitutions were created in America with provisions that disenfranchised most of the African Americans. They were not permitted to vote or to serve on juries. They were also excluded from participating in political activities. However, the Africans resistance to lynching increased significantly with the intellectuals encouraging them to protest against mob lynching.
Various organizations and clubs were formed to raise funds that were used to protest against lynching. They were successful in their petitions, campaigns, and demonstrations since they helped in combating lynching. Today, lynching has been made illegal in many states including the United States. People who are found executing individuals through lynching are charged in a court of law.
Segregation Segregation can be defined as the separation of persons into racial groups. It may apply in various activities such as attending school, shopping in the departmental stores, taking meals from a restaurant, or in the purchase of a house.
Segregation is a practice that is forbidden but may be permitted by social norms. It is a kind of discrimination common in employment and in the purchase of houses. Certain races are discriminated against when purchasing a rental house or when seeking for employment. In America, legal segregation was permitted in many states especially in matters related to marriage.
The blacks or the minority races were not allowed to intermarry with the whites. The law also prohibited interracial marriages even among the minority groups (Fireside 47). However, with time, some of these activities have been permitted. For instance, close contact (such as allowing people from dissimilar races to work for each other) is tolerable.
Human classification into spatial segments is what is termed as segregation. In this arrangement there are those (educational) establishments as well as hospices that are for the whites and the African Americans should attend the same. Some races are allowed to use these institutions while blacks are discriminated against their use.
This extends even in the business operations where people perform businesses with people from their own race or the preferred race. Social norms prohibit people from interacting with other races and this normally results in racial discrimination (Massey 20).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This occurs in social or political institutions. This occurs when these institutions discriminate the Africans from exercising their rights. These people are expected to conform to certain cultural assumptions which are deemed to reflect the dominant group. This form of discrimination is normally difficult to identify and also to counter, especially when the perpetrators view themselves as non-racist.
The attitude, way of life, and behaviors of the white are extensively discussed over the media because they are seen as being reasonable and common although they do not exhibit the cultural diversity that is evident in America. Through the media, ideologies concerning racism are articulated and later armored through group relations thereby forming a popular culture.
As the government takes measures to address the discrimination imposed on the African American, racist beliefs are given first priority. The discrimination on the minority group (the African) is seen as being positive and confirmatory measures are seen as partisan treatment of one group by another rather than harassment by a popular group of people.
Jim Crow Laws These were state laws enacted (1876-1965) in the US. The phrase Jim Crow is derived from “Jump Jim Crow”, a song about the blacks that was performed by a white actor. Later this phrase was used to refer to the African Americans and that’s how laws pertaining to racial segregation were given the name Jim Crow laws (Barnes 7).
These laws allowed racial segregation in most of the public facilities. This resulted into inferior treatment of the African Americans by the whites. The white Americans received most of the public facilities in terms of education and access to social amenities.
Jim Crow Laws are based on differences that are quite evident in values, customs, color, religion, perception about the world, and how people live. It also extends to the use of language where a certain group of people have negative attitudes towards the language used by others.
Jim Crow Laws were applied in social or political institutions. This occurs when pubic institutions discriminate some groups of people from exercising their rights. These people are expected to conform to certain cultural assumptions which are deemed to reflect the dominant group.
These laws were not related to the Black codes (1800-1866) which inhibited communal rights and liberation of the blacks. In 1954, the Supreme Court declared segregation in pubic schools as unconstitutional and the remaining part of the Jim Crow Laws were rendered unconstitutional in 1964 by the Civil Rights Act (Harvey 50).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Lynching, segregation, Jim Crow laws by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Although law recognizes the cultural rights of different races and gives them the right of speech, the media still recognizes the dominant group whose culture forms the norm to be emulated by other cultures. The government recognizes and appreciates the diverse cultures and allows them to enjoy their rights. However, it has not put strong measures to ensure that they are not discriminated against by the dominant group. These cultural rights are not included in the constitution making it hard for the blacks to fight for their rights.
Works Cited Barnes A. Catherine Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1983.
Barry A. Crouch “A Spirit of Lawlessness: White violence, Texas Blacks, 1865-1868,” Journal of Social History 18 (Winter 1984): 217–26.
Fireside, Harvey. Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism. New York: Carroll
Negotiations with International Organizations or Corporations Essay online essay help
In the current world people, organization, states and regions view various aspects differently. This is mainly based of their interests, religion or even culture. This usually results to diverse opinions. In case different groups are doing something that need the attention of all parties, then the presence of differing opinions usually slows down the implementation. For the smooth running of the operations of the process, negotiations are very essential. There are many issues that are of common interest to different organizations all over the world.
These issues may include subjects like pollution and global warming. Such issues usually affect the whole world and combined efforts are necessary to reduce their effect. This is usually not the case as division usually arises due to contrasting opinions. This paper addresses negotiations with respect to international organizations or corporation, international acquisition and government to government lending. The paper also analyses the implication of globalization and technology on negotiations.
Negotiation is mainly based enhancing understanding among parties with varying opinions about a certain subject. Because disagreements are bound to happen, then the parties should have good negotiation skills. A good negotiator usually takes time to understand and analyze the other party’s point of view before drawing a conclusion. In case of disagreements, a mediator may be needed.
In undertaking negotiations, the parties’ goals as well as the goal of the subject matter should be considered. The negotiations should not be based on emotions. To ensure effective implementation of the negotiation process, there must be a strategy. The strategy usually provides guidelines on how to handle the situation. Adequate preparation for a negotiation is necessary and all the ideas and views should be collected. The best negotiation should provide a long term solution to the problem rather than a short term solution.
The reconciling body should identify the objectives. These should include both short term and long term objectives. These objectives should be derived from all aspects such as political, economic and social among others. To come to a good conclusion there is need to strike a balance between all the objectives.
The most pressing ones should be prioritized and a consideration of the available resources taken into account to ensure smooth running of the process. The different needs should be considered whether they are realistic or not. The parties should be dynamic and not static to their point of view. This usually hastens the process and thus allows the consensus to be reached easily.
Throughout the negotiation process, there should be a consideration on the probable consequences of failing to come to a consensus. This thus brings the need for alternatives. From the many lists of alternatives available, then the most suitable alternative should be given priority. The alternatives should be set aside even before the negotiations starts to be conducted. Because the outcome of any negotiation is not usually certain but based on a mater of probability, the parties should have an open mind on whatever the outcome may be.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the predicted outcome may vary from the actual outcome. Setbacks can occur at any point of the negotiation. When they occur, it is usually good for the concerned parties to have prior information of such probability so that they are able to maintain their focus on the problem at hand.
Communication in negotiation is very crucial. It is thus very important to ensure that the information is presented in a way that it is understandable to all the participants. Incase a point is not clear to any of the members; it is good to rephrase it in a manner that everybody understands fully. In case of a large number of organizations or groups, each group can choose its spokesperson(s) that will air their views.
Some information is usually best revealed at specific points of negotiation. This usually helps to avoid unnecessary disagreements and arguments which may even paralyze the whole process. The presence of comments from outsiders is inevitable. These may include news agencies and their probable impacts should be taken into consideration. Thus it is important to be prepared in advance for anything that may happen during the negotiation process to ensure its smooth completion (BNET, 20101).
In the successful accomplishment of any negotiation, proper preparation is very necessary. This is because improper preparation could make the parties concerned to disagree completely which would lead to the termination of the negotiation and may cut short the probability of future negotiations.
Planning is usually facilitated by the use of negotiation plan. In designing the plan, various matters must be considered. These matters usually take into account the goals and various aspects to be encountered. In planning, the strategy to be followed should be well formulated and outlined to minimize the chances of any failure that may occur. The plan should be flexible and should take into account the factor of time.
It is usually good to understand the other parties in a negotiation. This should be on various aspects such as its objectives, goals and priorities among others. It is usually very wrong to make assumptions. In the case of using a mediator then he/she should not be inclined to any side.
It is also good to make the parties feel comfortable with the location of the negotiations. No party should feel disadvantaged about the location. The location should provide security and confidentiality to all. Every member involved should clearly identify their roles. The negotiation style adopted should be credible. Trust in the process is very important.
We will write a custom Essay on Negotiations with International Organizations or Corporations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Globalization and technology play important role in negotiation. Globalization has resulted in various interactions between various organizations. This usually leads to conflicts of cultures or economic aspect but on the other hand provide a chance for mutual interaction.
Technology has improved communication and the means of tackling things. This has increased mutual interaction as well as helping overcome some minor wrangles that may have occurred. Technology and globalization have brought together different people who usually get to know about each other through social sites.
When conducting negotiation, in the presence of differences in language, an interpreter may be used. Some of the persuasion methods include communicating persuasively, self expression and storytelling. The negotiations are usually concluded with the summary of the agreements achieved which are written. After this the parties should complement each other for the various roles they have played (Baker
Lessons from Stand and Deliver Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Directed by Ramon Menendez, Stand and Deliver is a chef-d’oeuvre based on true story of Jaime Escalante. As the film opens, Jaime A. Escalante takes up a teaching job at Garfield High school. He leaves his regular, steady and peaceful job to teach mathematics in a rowdy school.
He dedicates his time and efforts to change rebellious and rude students to be achievers hence have a better tomorrow. On the other hand, teachers have already dismissed the students as failures. Will Escalate be able to compel his students to ‘stand and deliver’ as he is determined to?
Escalante is determined to change uncontrollable and disobedient students to work hard for brighter future. Although other teachers demoralize him, he does not give up. In addition, he receives threats and mockery from the students but he does not yield to their demands.
From the behavior of Escalate, I learn that to achieve any goal in life I have to be aggressive and overlook all obstacles that come my way. During his lessons, he is able to uncover the potential of his students and transform the troublemakers in class. From the students’ transformation, I learn that indiscipline heralds failure hence to pass any tests in life I have to uphold the virtue of discipline. I learn commitment is result oriented, as the students are able to discover their potential if only they remain focused in their studies.
When Escalante arrives as a new teacher, the students mistreat, disrespect and taunt him, a phenomenon that underscores the conflicting expectations of students who view him as an enemy. In addition, the teachers are more concerned with the discipline nature of the students rather than their academic performance which paints the integrity of the students as a being poor one.
There is strained relationship between teachers and students that always lead to conflicts. The social behavior of students both at home and at school is unbecoming hence leading to conflicts.
The film highlights several issues that could increase chances of students dropping out of school. Although the students fail due to indiscipline, the poor family backgrounds also contribute to their failure in life. There is racial discrimination in school, neighborhood, and work places.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ironically, the government participates in the racial discrimination by discouraging students to forge ahead in education, which leads to dropping out. Additionally, most of them are teen parents who are unable to balance between schoolwork and family duties hence dropping out of school. As aforementioned, most students come from poor background hence due to economic strains they work besides attending school hence eventually may drop out of school.
As the movies ends, Escalante’s slogan ‘stand and deliver’ is achieved when student pass the Education Testing Exams. This happens immediately after the students’ change their attitude towards Escalante and views him as a mentor. Some students even attend Calculus lessons during the holidays.
Unfortunately, their achievement receives criticism from education system because of their race and poor family backgrounds. Escalante also manage to uproot indiscipline from students to instill industry and courtesy in students and as result, all students, despite of indiscipline, race and economic status pass the exams. Therefore, his statement that students will reach the level of expectation finally comes true.
In a recap, Escalante’s determination to help the poor, undisciplined and hopeless students takes his career to a High school teacher. Although he receives disheartenments and ridicule from his fellow teachers and from the same students he wants to help, he does not give up.
The urge to achieve his goal changes students to good, hardworking and responsible people. He sidelines factors like economic status and racial discrimination to achieve his goal. In summary, he proves all other teachers and the entire education system wrong when his students pass excellently.
Energy Needs in the United States of America Essay online essay help
To Drill or Not to Drill? The current crisis in energy supply has raised a number of concerns in the United States of America. Different people have come up with opposing views over the best method through which the problem of energy shortages can be handled best in the country. Some people propose that the United States should search for oil in areas that oil has not yet been exploited. For instance at Gulf Coast, Alaska and other places which has not yet been exploited in the country.
On the other hand, some people propose that instead of drilling oils in other places, the United States should shift to other alternative sources of energy. These include wind, solar energy among others. However, this is opposed on the ground that adoption of a new source of energy will be expensive to the country.
Through critical observation of both arguments, the one on the need for the country to reduce its overdependence is the best alternative. The country should rather adopt other renewable sources of energy like wind and sun. Overdependence on the oil has reduced energy security in the country. It has also significantly affected the economy negatively.
Despite the fact that shifting to these new sources of energy is expensive, it is less expensive when viewed at the long run perspective. Once the country adopts these alternative methods, it will significantly supplement the oil sources of power. This will significantly help in reducing energy shortages.
Explanation of Key Habits That Hinders My Thinking When Looking At the Opposing View and When Defending My Own There are several habits that pose a major hindrance in my effort in looking at the opposing view and defending my own ideas. One of the habits is own biases. Biasedness is a major hindrance since it makes it difficult to come up with the best views. Biasedness tends to divert our thinking through the perception that our views are the best. It affects us while evaluating other people’s views.
This habit significantly affects our thinking while looking at the opposing view in relation to our own views. These habits can also be overcome through diversity thinking (Bacon 3). This ensures that the decision made is free from any kind of bias.
Lack of adequate confidence is another habit which hinders critical thinking while analyzing opposing sides. Confidence is significant in critical thinking as it assures a person of his or her reasoning abilities (Paul 2). This significantly affects individuals in decision making.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Things to Do To Overcome Those Habits That Are Hindering My Thinking There are several ways through which the habits that hinder critical thinking while looking for the opposing sides can be overcome. One of the ways through which these habits can be overcome is by being flexible while viewing both sides. Flexibility is important as it help a person to accommodate, adapt, change or modify ideas and thoughts (Paul 3).
These habits can also be overcome through reflective thinking. This is thoughtful observation and meditation of the subject at hand in order to have a deeper understanding of certain issues. In other words, there is need to make an effort to understand the opposing issues in order to come up with the best alternative.
Open-mindedness is also of great importance in overcoming these habits. According to Paul, one should be receptive to opposing views and ability to realize our own biases (par 7). By understanding our own biases, it will be easier to avoid such habits while making decisions.
In conclusion, this debate has clearly shown that there is a need for the United States to adopt other forms of energy in order to improve security in energy supply. This will also help the country to improve on its balance of payments.
Works Cited Bacon, Barbara. Transforming Critical Thinking: Thinking Constructively. New York: Teachers College Press, 2000.
Paul W. Roberts. “Critical Thinking Habits of the Mind.” Foundation for Critical Thinking, 1992. 12 Mar 2011.
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou Essay essay help online: essay help online
Maya Angelou’s novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings recounts the hardship and traumatic ordeals that she encountered growing up black, female and orphaned in the southern United States in the 1930s.
Though classified as an autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings stands rather as a historical record of American racial tyranny at a time when the Jim Crow segregation laws were in full effect. The novel harkens back to a time when the black community in the United States suffered brutal economic and social suppression, violence with no access to legal recourse, minimal access to basic education and human rights, and limited access to health care.
This essay highlights one event in the novel related to the struggles faced by Maya and her family in regards to health care, wherein the town dentist Dr. Lincoln refuses to treat Maya’s toothache on the basis of her skin color. Maya’s solution to the racist treatment she and her grandmother receive at the hands of Dr. Lincoln is to fabricate an imaginary revenge scenario in which the dentist comes under the power of the grandmother.
Maya’s understanding of the racist attitudes of the town dentist renders shock when she discovers that her grandmother intends to take her to him. Maya expresses surprise when she learns that her grandmother intends to take her to the white dentist for treatment, as evidenced by the following quote: “Momma said we’d go to Dr. Lincoln, right in Stamps, and he’s take care of me. She said he owed her a favor” (Angelou 186).
Maya’s sense of what medical care was available to her as a black child has already been ingrained in her – she expresses no surprise when her grandmother urges her to change into clean clothes to prepare for the visit. “I had never been to a doctor, so she told me that after the bath…I had to put on freshly starched and ironed underclothes from inside out” (Angelou 186).
Even though Maya knows that her grandmother regularly lends money to whites in the community, she still doesn’t expect to be seen by the dentist. “I knew that there were a number of whitefolks in town that owed her favors. Bailey and I had seen the books which showed how she lent money to Blacks and whites alike during the Depression, and most still owed her…but I [never] heard of a of a Negro’s going to him as a patient” (Angelou 186).
Maya’s solution to the challenge of the racist dentist’s harsh refusal to treat Maya is to create a revenge fantasy wherein her grandmother claims the position of power. When the dentist’s assistant closes the door in her grandmother’s face, Maya experiences a familiar sense of humiliation. “Momma knocked on the back door and a young white girl opened it to show surprise at seeing us there…Momma said she wanted to see Dentist Lincoln and to tell him Annie was there. The girl closed the door firmly” (Angelou 187).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To solve the problem of the racist dentist who rejects Maya with the cutting remark that he would rather put his hand in a dog’s mouth than in the mouth of a black child, Maya conjures a fantasy wherein the Momma and the Dentist exchange power roles and the dentist becomes obsequious.
“You knave, do you think you acted like a gentleman, speaking to me like that in front of my granddaughter? She didn’t shake him, although she had the power…No, ma’am Mrs. Henderson ” (Angelou 190).
Maya rationalizes her grandmother’s acceptance of the racist treatment with the following: “I didn’t ask you to apologize in front of Marguerite, because I don’t want her to know my power, but I order you, now and herewith.
Leave Stamps by sundown.” (Angelou 190). Finally, Maya invests her grandmother with an elevated command of language to show her dominance over the dentist. “Her tongue had thinned and the words rolled off well enunciated. Enunciated and sharp like little claps of thunder…She could afford to slip into the vernacular because she had such an eloquent command of English” (Angelou 190).
Maya’s comprehension of how her grandmother dealt with the situation in reality offers her less emotional satisfaction that the fantasy. Maya hears her grandmother explaining to Uncle Willie that what really happened with the dentist was simply that she called in her loan: “If you paid me my money I could afford to take her…Even though by rights he was paid up before, I figger, he gonna be that kind of nasty, he gonna have to pay for it… Momma and her son laughed over the white man evilness and he retributive sin. I preferred, much preferred, my version” (Angelou 193).
Maya’s solution to the racist treatment she and her grandmother receive at the hands of Stamps dentist Dr. Lincoln, a man indebted to her grandmother’s innate sense of Christian charity, is to manufacture an elaborate imaginary revenge scenario wherein the dentist comes under the thrall of the magical grandmother. However, in reality Maya is disappointed by the grandmother’s tactic, without realizing that the grandmother compromised her Christian principles in order to get proper health care for her charge.
Works Cited Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 1969. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Discipline or Formal Punishment of Juveniles Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts
Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources
Brutal and Strange Punishment
Lack of Due Process in Juvenile Courts
Alternatives to Formal Punishments
Introduction The juvenile court was first implemented in 1899 based on the understanding that juveniles were different from adults and should be tried separately from adults. The juvenile court system has changed significantly since its original formation.
While court decisions have granted minors more rights, the proliferation of drugs and guns as well as other changing social conditions has created a rise in juvenile crime that has in turn led to tougher laws and increased the number of juvenile transfers to criminal courts. Both factors have caused the juvenile court system to behave more and more like criminal courts over the years and until now the system is almost indistinguishable from its adult counterpart.
Whether one favors emphasizing rehabilitation efforts for juvenile offenders or taking the route of punishing those who break the law, both sides have expressed the opinion that the current system need to be changed. This paper looks into the problems (social, economic, and financial) experienced by the juvenile courts that make them unsuitable for handling delinquent behaviors among juveniles. It also explains why discipline rather than formal punishment is the best way to deal with juveniles.
Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts Regardless of the small number of teenagers in the society, the fraction of young people processed through the juvenile court and the juvenile corrections system continue to rise. This rise is owed to more official and corrective juvenile justice policies that create more court transfers and extended use of confinement and juvenile imprisonment. Declining resources in the child welfare system have driven more upsetting adolescents to the juvenile justice system.
The demand for institutional beds and out-of-home residency is mounting. A case in point is the large proportions of youths held in custody in a number of large California counties pending the accessibility of foster or group home beds. Because many juvenile justice clients and their families also are served by child welfare agencies, the dwindling social service budgets lessen the juvenile court’s already scanty treatment resources (Hess, 2009).
These demographic, economical and fiscal forces mean that the juvenile justice system will handle many more intensely distressed adolescents in the next couple of years. The solution to this problem would be the introduction of discipline measures such as in-home supervision rather than confinement in prisons which often lead to congestion.
Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources The nation’s experience with prisons and jails demonstrates that exclusive dependence on building new beds hardly ever solves congestion. Above and beyond problems with overloaded and out of date buildings, the juvenile justice system faces the pressing need to employ and train new personnel. The juvenile justice system, like most corporations struggles for a declining pool of experienced workers in the subsequently two decades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Salaries in the juvenile justice system conventionally have been lesser than similar salaries in the adult justice system and well below salaries in the profit private sector. Training funds are very limited for juvenile justice personnel (Siegel
The Great San Francisco Earthquake Essay essay help
Introduction An earthquake is essentially a quiver which resulted by sudden energy release from the earth inner surface. The release of energy causes a ripple of seismic waves that are felt in the form of shaking. The damage caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and the length of such earthquake. (U.S. Geological Survey2008, April 22).
The length however depends on the size of the wave since the larger the wave the larger the area affected and consequently the longer the period of time taken. Each year the earth experiences up to half a million-earth quakes of which only 100, 000 can be truly felt. The probability of occurrence of an earthquake depends on the nature of the locality as well as its geology. South California alone experiences up to 10000 earthquakes a year.
History of earthquakes in San Francisco Earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 the worst of them all was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. There have been severel other smaller earth quakes that have hal minimal impact and even gone unnoticed. Others which have been of a greater impact
Situational analysis and probability of an earthquake in the near future Research has predicted that there exsists a 25% probability of an earth quake with a magnitude of up to 7.0 occuring within the next two decades in sanfrancisco. Based on the historical data as well as computer simulations it has been suggested that there is an even more greater chance that an earthquake of an even greatter magnitude will occur in the next 45 years.
The death toll is estimated at a shocking 5,800 deaths if the magnitude is at least 7.0. this means that the value could be higher if the ripple effect is of agreater magnitude(Abercrombie and Brune1994)
Sanfrancisco notably lies on the san andreas fault which is considered the most vulnerable to such earth quakes. The last time such an event occured in 1989 it left 66 dead and 3,757 injured. It only lasted fifteen seconds but the damage to property was indisputably large with the San Francisco Oklahoma Bridge collapsing. This damage went to the tune of 6 billion in property damage. The then United States president George bush issued a 3.45 billion package that was to act as relief for the affected.
The effect could have been even more grave had there been a tsunamic effect. This would have resulted in flooding of the coastal towns sweeping away their homes and destroying their productive farms. The earth quake would damage the regions leeves bearing an effect similar to that of harricane katrina.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The damage would even be worse after the earth quake as the flood water contaminates the fresh water supply that is mainly supplied though an over land aquaduct that would cost even more to repair. It is estimated that at least 24,000 homes were damaged and 100000 left homeless after the floods caused by snow melts hit sanfrancisco back in 1997. Up to 50 leeves were damaged (United States Geological Survey 1999, October 15)
Even more compelling scientists from the United States geological survey suggest that there is a 70 % chance that at least one or more earthquakes with intensity not less than 6.7 will in the next 30 or so years strike San Francisco bay. This is equated to one that occurred in 1994, which left 57 people dead, and others wounded and caused destruction to the tune of $ 20 billion. (Seismological Society of America, 2008, April 17)
General effects of an earthquake Earth quakes are categorized among the top ten most deadly natural disasters. They have the following effects
Shaking and ground rupture -This is the single most probable effect of an earth quake. The intensity of the shaking will depend heavily on the magnitude size as well as the distance from the epicenter. It will also depend on the geology of the area in question. Geological concerns go to the nature of the superficial soils in the subsurface of the earth.
Landslides and avalanches -Landslides also bring along volcanic eruptions which may cause serious storms and wild fires. Landslides are specifically dangerous to both the affected and those who make attempts at providing rescue services.
Fires – Shaking causes damage to power lines and gas pipe systems which are a remedy to massive fires. The effects of these fires were typically felt in the 1906 San Francisco earth quake. The destruction by fire or any other human motivatied factor such as stampedes accidents and collusions would participate heavily to the increased casualties. These however will depend on the level of awareness of the poplation as well as the preparedness.
Soil liquefaction – This is a situation where sand and other granular material owing to the saturation of water temporarily loose strength and dissolve into liquid making the foundations upon which buildings and other rigid structures stand on to become loose causing the building to collapse or tilt. In the Alaskan earth quake the effects of soil liquefaction were immensely felt. This would however e an unlikelyeffect on sanfrancisco due to its geology.
We will write a custom Essay on The Great San Francisco Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tsunami – Tsunamis are often mistaken for tidal waves that rock the seas due to oceanic currents. The mechanism behind tsunamis is much more different. A tsunami is essentially caused by unusual sudden movement of water volumes in the open sea. The sudden movements could be caused by an earth quake in the submarine soils as well as landslides
Floods -Earth quakes that occur in the open sea cause a tsunami effect that leads to seeping of water from the open sea and into the mainland causing floods. Sanfrancisco would be hardly hit by these floods due to its proximity to the sea.In the mainland they cause destruction of dams and water barriers leading to flooding.
Human impacts -Earth quakes have a toll on every aspect of human life. They bring along a death toll besides the destruction caused to the infrastructure. They also cause disease owing to lack of necessities. Financially they lead to high claims for compensation besides the relief costs occurred in resettlement (The Virtual Museum of San Francisco, 2011).
Emergency Planning Options. Citizen based approach
This a proactive and reactive approach which involves two basic components; Leadership which involves appointment is disaster management managers who will be vetted based on willingness aggression and objectivity and partnership which involves embracing an integrated vision and mission and letting the community be part of the campaign
The approach recommends the cooperation between government agencies and the people living in San Francisco. The government formulates a plan that requires the engagement of the people partially or as a whole. Government departments such as the police accept suggestions and receive volunteers who are trained and licensed as local disaster managers. The people are collectively involved in the
The strategic approach
The approach collects together all available resources and coordinates manages motivates the implementation of the awareness campaign. It encourages the building of an integrated programming system e.g., school based curriculum and emphasizes on capacity building and empowerment
The strategy adopted will among other things require the change of policy to accommodate the budgetary concerns of the implementation process. It will also require cooperation from all participants and interested parties including investors and development partners. The partnership will help diversify the information platform and increase the level of awareness. The integration of the measures into the various programs such as the school-based curriculum will require training for the implementers who include teachers and administrators. (Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC) 2008)
With the objective of a better disaster management system the government should undertake in research to improve the understanding of the earthquake process its likelihood and impact. It should also develop cost efficient ways of combating the effects on individuals as well as improve the level of resilience in the population. There is a lot of information available in the various sources concerning the effects and consequences of an earthquake. Every citizen should develop a need to know to ensure that they make informed decisions in areas such as construction development and investment
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great San Francisco Earthquake by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Abercrombie, R.E., and J.N. Brune. (1994). Evidence for a constant b-value above magnitude 0 in the southern San Andreas, San Jacinto and San Miguel fault zones and at the Long Valley caldera. California. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21 (15), 1647-1650.
Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC).(2008). Strategic Planfor the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Fiscal Years 2009–2013. Web.
Seismological Society of America. (2008, April 17). New Hazard Estimates Could Downplay Earthquake Dangers. ScienceDaily. Web.
The Virtual Museum of San Francisco. (2011). San Francisco Earthquake History 1915-1989. Web.
U.S. Geological Survey (2008, April 15). California Has More Than 99% Chance Of A Big Earthquake WIthin 30 Years, Report Shows. ScienceDaily. Web.
U.S. Geological Survey. (2008, April 22). Earthquake Hazard Maps Show How U.S. Shakes With Quakes. ScienceDaily. Web.
United States Geological Survey. (1999, October 15). 70 Percent Chance That Large Earthquake Will Strike San Francisco By 2030. ScienceDaily. Web.
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health (ASRH) is a very important subject that needs to be address differently from the normal Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). The main reason being that adolescent are exposed to greater risk that come with sex and the possible negatives consequences afterwards.
Even though most adolescents are now getting a lot of information concerning sex, how to protect themselves from the sexually transmitted diseases or unplanned for pregnancies, they do not adhere to this knowledge (Schutt-Aine
Bipolar Disorder Paper Research Paper cheap essay help
Bipolar disorder is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by changing moods and energy levels that affects the ability of the patients’ memory to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The effects on the brain depend on the periodic episodes of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) asserts that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002, p. 3). The disorder disrupts neuropsychological coordination resulting into cognitive impairment.
The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect neuropsychological functions in patients making them to have abnormal behavior. During depressive episode, the patient experiences low mood and loss of interests in the daily activities because of depression on cognitive abilities.
The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include depression, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, suicidal feeling, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier,
Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam Term Paper scholarship essay help
Democracy in Indonesia It wasn’t until the year 1998 that Indonesia saw actual democratic rule, even if it had attained independence years back. This country began experiencing the democratic rule after General Suhart stepped down following threats to overthrow his government. In a period starting from the year 1998 up to 2003, this country went through “the slow transition to democracy”.
However, as Ward notes, “contrary to countries where popular uprising has led to the natural formation of political parties and a ‘grassroots’ democracy taking shape, democracy in Indonesia was imposed from the top-down by its political elite” (Par. 5).
In the year 2004, the country’s first “direct presidential elections” enabled Susilo Bambang to take over leadership of the country. This leader was formerly an army general. From the time Susilo took over power, he has been seeking to make the democracy of the nation to be stronger. Following his popularity among the Indonesian people, he has been able to go for the second term, which started in the year 2009.
In considering the indicators of how strong the democracy of this country is, voter turnout can be one of these indicators. However, even if ‘voter turnout’ is indicative of a particular level of lack of interest in a nation’s “political system”, this indicator can not be considered as being one that can be relied upon for indicating the ‘democracy strength’ of Indonesia.
The Wolrd Bank makes use of a number of other indicators to measure the strengths of democracies in various countries all over the world. Basing on these indicators, beginning from the year 1998, the country has shown quite a number of improvements is such issues as “guarantee of personal freedoms….anti-corruption measures and the regime’s own accountability, but only because it began from such a low level …it still ranks below most of other East Asia democracies” (Ward, Par. 7).
In regard to the strength of the rule of law in Indonesia, Indonesia ranks lower than the rest of the Asian democracies.
However, Under the current president, Yudhoyono, this country has gone on to realize improvements on a gradual basis in, as Ward points out, “all aspects of the World Bank’s democratic indicator’s, and his second term will therefore be closely watched for indications that the fledging democracy is becoming more firmly entrenched in all levels of Indonesian society” (Ward, Par. 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general terms, Indonesia enjoys freedom of press, and there is guarantee of citizen’s civil rights among others.
Democracy in Thailand Considering the case in Thailand, the differences that exist among the “political ideologies” go on to have a destructive impact on the stability of the country.
Claims are presented by the “Red Shirts Movement” that it has been engaging in a fight to have “real democracy” and that Abhisit’s government should surrender power because this leader ascended to power just through “a backroom deal shaped by powerful military rather than a popular mandate” (Chachavalpongpun, Par.1). In response to this, Abhisit presents an argument that he has intentions to save the country’s democracy from “the irrational demonstrators”.
This leader directs accusations towards the “Red Shirts” of just being a replacement of the Prime Minister, Thaksin, who was earlier on in power but later overthrown. At the center of all these arguments creating a crisis lies, “the deep-seated conundrum in Thai politics: that is, the widening gap between the Thai poor in the remote regions represented by the Red Shirts and the Bangkok elites whose power position has been guarded by the current royalist government” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 2).
Democracy in Thailand, as it might be looked at from anywhere in the wolrd, still stands to be a concept that is manipulated. This democracy has turned out to be a “victim of elite interests”. For about fifty years, Thailand has gone through several kinds of tyrannical rule.
“The holy trinity of the established forces consisting of the monarchy, the military and the bureaucracy, has long called the shots….even under a civilian regime, the elite in Bangkok oversee every move in political life” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 5). While this has gone on, the poor people in Thailand have been neglected.
When Thaksin came in to power in the year 2001, he opened the political space in the country. He employed his “political skills” to take advantage of the gap that exists in the society in order to be backed up those living in poverty. He did this by “challenging the dominance of power by the established forces” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 12). He uplifted the living standards of the poor people. As a consequence, this leader became popular among the have-nots but a threat to the elites in Bangkok.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mean while, as Chachavalpongpun points out, “Thaksin’s tilt towards authoritarianism while serving in office and even becoming a despot before he was overthrown allow the Bangkok elite to claim some kind of justification for the 2006 coup and its continuing aftermath” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13).
The effort to adjust again the “political equation” has resulted in to the current clash between the two opposite forces in Thailand. The political leaders work tirelessly to make their regimes stronger and to protect their wealth but at the same time making claims that they are protecting democracy.
However, in the case of Thailand, the truth is that, democratization has not actually paid attention of the citizen’s real needs. The aspiration of the “Red Shirts” has been to “to reverse democratization so that it becomes a bottom-up process” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13). In Thailand, generally, there are no guarantees of the citizens’ civil rights, there is no enjoying of free press and also, there are no free and fair elections.
Democracy in Vietnam The present “socialist democratic regime” in Vietnam is “the first ever democratic regime in the country’s political history” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 1). The country’s very start of the first democratic regime was marked by the “Declaration of the Independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).
Earlier on, “the economic and socio-political life was controlled by such systems as the colonial system, feudal and semi-feudal systems” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).The well-known aspect associated with these systems was that the citizens did not possess any right to take part in whatever political life of the nation. This implies that, there existed a very minimal number or no mechanisms for setting up implementation of democracy. The rights and fate of an individual in the nation rested in the hands of the society or the crowd.
This country’s “first democratic regime” came in to existence in the course of the “national liberation revolution” and this regime resulted from “entire people’s struggle for liberation under the leadership of a communist party” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 7). The regime brought the basic rights to the people, including the right to life. Under this regime, the people acquired the right to be citizens of a liberated and self-governing nation and the right to take part in the “political life” of the nation, among other rights.
However, basing on the historical background where this country commenced on the journey of setting up and developing democracy, it can be realized that this country must continue working hard to completely understand “the nature of socialist democracy” so that it can be able to identify the incomplete features of the present democracy (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 9).
It is true that, “Vietnam has been undertaking the building of the socialist democratic regime in the context of a tiny, underdeveloped economy after enduing wars to defend national independence and reunification for dozens of years of dealing with several socio-economic structural upheavals” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 10).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under such conditions, it is quite obvious that this country has not yet set up a democracy that is perfect and therefore should consider taking appropriate measures to make the gap between the goals the country has set and realty to be narrower.
However, it can be clearly seen that, even if the socialist democratic regime in Vietnam is still undergoing construction, “this regime has brought in to full play its pre-eminent characteristics” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 12). The socialist democratic regime in Vietnam has moved along with the nation in the course of fighting for independence and freedom and has made a contribution, at a significant level, to “socio-economic development’.
The people of the “Socialist Republic of Vietnam” are assured of all “fundamental rights to freedom, including the rights to equality before the law, free and fair elections, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, complaints and denouncements”(“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 33).
Comparing and ranking the states of democracy in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam The Indonesia’s state of democracy is seen to be higher than that of the other two countries. This country is “stable and tolerant under a mature president, with better growth prospects in the region” (Hartcher, Par. 10). Hartcher further points out that the United States “think tank Freedom House” has described this country as “the only free and democratic country in South-Asia” (Par. 10).
According to Hartcher, this point is also emphasized by Andrew Maclntyre and Douglas Ramage where they give a description that “Indonesia in 2008 is stable, competitive electoral democracy, with a highly decentralized system of governance, achieving solid rates of economic growth, under competent national leadership, and playing a constructive role in the regional and broader international community” (Par. 11).
More so, Indonesia enjoys freedom of the media and a judicial system that is uneven, but currently undergoing improvements. Democracy in this country has turned out to be concretely legitimate, having “generals and mutifs” battling it out through the ballot box and not fighting in the streets.
This whole situation is contrary to what is happening in Thailand. In Thailand, the poor people have been neglected. There is a crisis in this state where we are having two opposing forces. The urban elites are against the protection of the poor in remote areas. “Thailand is now suffering a constitutional crisis, emergency rule and an investment strike”(Hartcher, Par. 9).
In essence, the basic difference between the two countries is that the “Indonesian power elites” have a universal respect for the “legitimizing power of democracy” while those elites in Thailand do not. More so, Thailand does not enjoy free media the way Indonesia do.
On the other hand, looking at Vietnam, this country is making the necessary efforts to perfect its democracy. Unlike in Thailand where we have a strong conflict between two forces, here every concerned party is determined to ensure people enjoy freedom in the country. However, Indonesia seems to be ahead of this country in regard to the state of democracy. Vietnam is in the process of improving its democracy after going through a long history.
Considering these three countries, according to my personal judgment, Indonesia stands in the first position, followed by Vietnam and Thailand comes last. Indonesia has done all its best to improve democracy in the country and it is even seen to stand above all the countries in the region.
Vietnam, despite the long journey it has travelled, will soon also realize great improvement in the state of democracy, especially when it will be offered adequate support from friends. On the other hand, the wrangles that are seen in Thailand where by some sections of the society are neglected makes it to be less democratic compared to the other two countries. This country has a long way to go and it has to learn from Indonesia in order for it to improve the state of its democracy.
Prospects for further democratization in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam In each of the three countries, there are prospects for further democratization. Starting with Thailand, in order for the state of democracy to be improved, there should be institutionalizing of the democratic structures and the democratic process in the country is supposed to be designed to be more relevant to the large majority of the people of Thailand.
“The legacy of past authoritarian regimes can only be overcome by greater popular participation and community mobilization” (Muntarbhorn and Taylor, Par. 2). It must be ensured that the state does not go beyond the boundaries of its powers.
It is the duty of such parties as the civil society and the NGOs to carry out this. A balance should not just be established between the state organs but also between the state and the “non-state actors”. The state organs refer to such organs as parliament, the executive, the military, and the judiciary. On the other hand, the non-state organs may include the NGOS, the business sector and the community as a whole. By taking these steps, Thailand will be able to take its state of democracy to a whole new level.
On the other hand, Vietnam is making an effort to improve its democracy state. This shows a move towards a positive direction. What this country needs is to obtain understanding and support from friends regionally and internationally in order for it to realize its goals. In the case of Indonesia, even if this country has a better state of democracy, it needs to carry out further improvements in such areas as the rule of law in order for it to climb to even a higher state.
Works Cited Chachavalpongpun, Pavin. Thailand’s manipulated democracy. Asia Sentinel, 2010. Web.
Hartcher, Peter. Thailand turns in to Indonesia – and vice versa. National Times, 2009. Web.
Muntarbhorn, Vitit, and Taylor, Charles. Roads to democracy: Human rights and democratic development in Thailand. 1994. Web.
“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”. Vietnews, 2010. Web.
Ward, Rich. The state of democracy in Indonesia. 2010. Web.
Religion: Islam Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Islam belief
Islamic banking system
Religion is defined as an institutional system of belief of superhuman power or powers; that are believed to have control over humanity: there are a number of religions existing in the world with Christianity and Muslims as the most dominant. This paper discusses the Islam religion.
Islam belief According to religion survey conducted in 2009, the religion has a total number of 1,571,198,000, people; this represented 22.9% of the world population.
In the last couple of years, Muslims have been associated with a number of negative perceptions; because of what some other Muslims have done, terror attacks in different parts of the world has been blamed on Islam religion in what is referred to as holy war; these terror attacks have made people hold different opinions towards the religion. For example in the story, The Alchemist , section one the writer says, “When Santiago first travels to Africa, and the reader sees his vaguely skeptical attitude toward the Muslims he meets.
While in the bar, he hears the call to prayer and watches the Muslims prostrate themselves on the ground” (Coelho 1), when they are praying they are facing Mecca where they believe their God stays. It is the fastest growing religion with and the second largest religion in the world. Muslims tried a lot to change the bad image of Islam, but with no benefit. Islam has many concepts and people have different thoughts about it.
Islam is Arabic word, which means “peace.” Muslims believe that Islam came from God and the prophet Mohammad is the last prophet; in the religion, there is a lot of emphasis on the meaning the religion, this portrays the religion as a religion that has its strong holds in peace development. Just like the religion of Christianity put more emphasis on love.
Prophet Muhammad, who is the main character in the religion in his works, put more emphasis on mercy. He was the last and greatest of God’s messengers, who were mandated to continue the works of Abraham, Jesus and Mosses. He preached to people to have mercy on each other. He did emphasize on the need of mercy to the less fortunate in the society. This goes in line with the strong holds of the religion, peace.
The religion call their God Allah, this means God, the true God. The character of the lord is that of peace and mercy. In the article by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names page two, the writer notes that “For Muslims, All¥h is the most inclusive of God’s names, embracing all his other names and attributes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In accordance with conventional Arabic usage, All¥h can be applied only to the Creator and cannot be assigned to any other being, angelic, human, animate or inanimate, real or imaginary” (Abd-Allah, 2), this implies that Allah is a holy name that need to be respected. The article recognizes Allah as the primary name of God. It tends to illustrate that the name of the lord illustrates who he is and defines the religion, he is seen as the peaceful one and one who is merciful. The name of God in either the Muslim or other religion is respected.
In the article, by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names, finds that the ideology that either Christianity or Muslim derived the name was the same or similar. This is in that the Biblical Elohîm (God) and h¥-Elôh (the true God) of Moses and the Hebrew prophets or the Aramaic Al¥h¥ (God, the true God) of Jesus and John the Baptist the recognition of the supremacy of the lord is recognized. From the spirit of the article then it can be derived that the God that either the Muslim or the Christianity worship is the same.
The article emphasis on living ethically like the life is of the early prophets of God. The word name is seen as the most beautiful name in the two articles. The prophet Mohammad was told the Quran by Gabriel. Quran is Islam holy book. Muslims follow what is written in the Quran and they believe in it. Four kinds of Muslims that are Sony, Shah, Sofuh and Whabies, All kind of Muslims are almost the same with no big different.
People have different thoughts about Islam. There are two kinds of thoughts about Islam. Firstly, the kind of people who have a background about Islam, and know the concepts of Islam; they understand that all Muslims are not the same. In addition, they know terrorists are not real Muslims and they do not follow the concepts of Islam.
Secondly, the kind of people who have negative ideas about Islam; those people think that Islam is the religion of terrorists. The problem is they do not know anything about Islam; they just believe what media will say. Because of the media, many people got negative thoughts about. I believe Islam is a religion of peace, justice and tolerance. Islam is the only religion that believes in other religions.
As God said in the holy Quran, Muslims should believe in other religions that came from God such as Judaism and Christianity. In addition, Muslims should believe in all other prophets who are sent by God like Abraham, Jesus, and Moses. Because of the order of God, Muslims cannot fight or kill other people even if they are not Muslims. God sent the prophet Mohammad with Islam to complete the monotheistic religions (Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq 1-10).
In the books, The Alchemist, the superiority of men over women as it is perceived in the Islam religion is shown when Santiago dreams, pursues Fatima, the religion has the belief that marriage should be respected and it is holly. The man is seen as the one who should initiate the relationship and the women follows.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion: Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A woman is not supposed to show directly that she is in love with a man. In section five, the writer says, “Fatima, Santiago’s love interest, tells him that she would rather him achieve his Personal Legend than stay by her side. Her reasoning is that she loves Santiago and therefore must love his dreams as well” (Coelho, 5). This shows how love is valued in the religion.
Islamic banking system Lately the world is experiencing a rapid growth of Islamic banking alongside with the conventional banking. This tread has made some countries to amend their banking to accommodate the increasing tread. Islamic banking operates slightly different from the conventional banking and an in-depth understanding of its operations is required. Islamic banking is a mode of banking like any other conventional banking systems however it activities are governed by Islamic laws.
The Islamic laws are called Shariah and the banking operates according to Islamic laws of transactions called Fiqh al-muamalat. Firstly, what the sharia provides is banking services without the payment or acceptance of interests from its customers or to the bank. The interest is referred to as Riba. Interest in conventional banking can be seen from two angles, one, the interest paid on savings by the bank to the customer and the interest paid by a customer when he has been financed by the bank.
The theory of the interest is that the customer has allowed the bank to use his money and thus need to be compensated, the rate is agreed on when the contract is made or the bank has a set rate that always is applicable. The banks provide the two services but does not charge or pay interest. The question is how does the bank make profits? How does it attract savings? In addition, how does the customer benefit? We will examine that later. Secondly, it prohibits any financing or even involving in any illegitimate business activities.
The holy book called Quran prohibits this. some businesses that are directly prohibited by the sheria laws not to be engaged in by one who practices the Muslim faith, a good example on this is selling of pork and its products the banking system cannot deal with a person who engages into the business. Another form is what is called games of chances, this include gambling and betting.
It does not finance. Lastly, the sheria prohibits financing of high risk businesses with high uncertainty. Another question that comes into our minds is whether the customers are only Muslims faith practitioner, that was the idea however since the business want to attract more resources in terms of saving and the benefits of lending. It opens its doors to other faith holders to have accounts with them on the condition that they will be fully compliant with the sheria laws governing banking.
For advises mostly on the following of the law there are numerous firms offering the service under Shariah advisory councils. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of Islamic banking starting with a brief history of it emergence, it will also expand on some of the products that are available in the system and in line with that it will be comparing it with the conventional banking system.
In conclusion, people have different believes and thoughts; some believe in God and some do not. The most important thing is ethics and the personalities of people. Many people are looking for peace like Muslims, but they do not know how. The world should try to accept Islam like any other religion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion: Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On page seven, Abd-Allah notes that “Arabic prayer formulas and recitation of the Qur’an. For us, All¥h has a direct emotional and spiritual efficacy which no other word for God can replace”, this implies that the religion is a religion of peace (Munir 34-45).
Conclusion Different people hold varying perceptions and attitudes towards Islam religion: some believe that the religion is responsible for terrorism attacks experienced in the world while others believe it is a religion of peace. Prophet Mohammad is believed to be the founder of the religion: Muslims belief that Islam is a religion of mercy and love.
Works Cited Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq. One God, Many Names. 2011. Web.
Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist (Coelho) Summary and Analysis. 2011. Web.
Munir, Ahmed. Islamic Banking: A Success Story.” Economic Review 35.4 (2004) : 34-45. Web.
Integration of Nation States Essay essay help online free
There is an ongoing debate among political scientists about the current and future trends in international relations. The key question is whether the world of nation states becomes more centralized and interdependent or it grows more fragmented and nation states tend to be more separated from one another.
This paper will defend the argument that international politics is more inclined toward unity rather than fragmentation and that despite numerous conflicts and disagreements, nation states try to find some common denominators in their relations with one another.
To some extent this argument supports the theory of political liberalism which postulates that the policies of a state are inevitably affected by the interests of other players (Griffiths, O’Callaghan
Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Different religions are studied with a motive of understanding people from other parts of the world. Since some individuals are characterized by religious fanaticism, it is crucial to appreciate their beliefs in order to try to understand them.
Western religions are mostly monotheism and are separate from the western religions which are generally distinguished as polytheist. generally, western religions such as Christianity are based on the believe of a supreme being or one deity while western religious such as Hinduism common in India are animistic i.e. they belief that inanimate things such as nature, the universe and nonliving matter are conscious just like the belief of the Native Americans.
Western religions emanated from the western culture and reinforced through Christianity i.e. Roman Catholicism which was segregated by the Great schism into Protestants who formed a diversified into movements such as Neopaganism, evangelicalism and spiritism as compared to the western religion whose great influence was Hellenistic religion. This paper shall explore Christianity as a western religion in comparison with Hinduism which represent the Eastern religion.
Comparison of Hinduism and Christianity Differences
One of the most significant teachings of the Hinduism is reincarnation which elaborates on origin as well as fate of humankind. This concept awards meaning to .life since it explains that man has existed in other lives and on death, he or she will come back to live on earth as another being or a creature depending on his previous actions.
Reincarnation comforts those individuals whose lives arte dictated by their actions and assures them of yet another chance of living to become perfect (Jones 86). This contrasts with Christian teaching about the origin of man as creation and his fate as a judgment by the supreme deity who may condemn one to eternal death or eternal happiness in paradise.
Reincarnation elaborates on not only why people live but also on the reason for their distinction and diversity such as being impoverished, disabled, and wealthy. This is attributed to prior life which is dictated by Karma in the current existence. As a result, reincarnation establishes the meaning of reward or punishment in the present life as having dependent on previous deeds (Hufner 7).
There are vast differences between the two religions in that Hinduism is based on polytheism or plural gods in which there is are also goddesses within Brahman. This is unlike Christianity where there is a single higher being that created, maintains life and will ultimately judge man in accordance to his deeds. Moreover, Hinduism points out that whatever that contains life is a personification of Brahman hence, dictate the inner self (Jones 85).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, Christianity points out that God created all living creatures in heaven and on earth and awarded man with the gift op freewill. Thus man chooses his or her deeds and should be guided by the bible in appeasing God who cares and values man. Thus there is a distinction between man and the Supreme Almighty, the only one worth of worship through hymns and prayers because he provides life full of goodness (Beck 78).
According to Hinduism, when a man sins he owes it against his own self and not against god. Therefore man suffers for his deeds as he reincarnates until he is feed of Nirvana. This is opposed to Christianity where God has set rules which are meant to guide the ways of man who freely chooses to obey or disobey.
Sin offends God who punishes man through distancing himself from him or causing him a spiritual death. Additionally, in accordance to Hinduism, salvation is marked when one fails to undergo reincarnation meant to make individuals better through various successions, to achieve perfection and unite with Brahman (Hufner 8).
On the other hand, Christianity teaches that salvation is a free reward from God to be embraced and not earned and was marked by the death of Jesus Christ as a ransom for mankind’s sins. Finally, Hinduism recognizes and appreciates presence and importance of other religions such as Christianity which in contrast, emphasize that there is only one true religion and therefore nullifies or disregards the others.
Similarities that exist between Christianity and Hinduism includes presence of alter in places of worship, the concept of trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) which compares to Vedic trinity comprising Shiva (one who puts to destruction) , Vishnu (Who sustain life) and Brahma as the one who created with Lord Krishna being the most supreme. Like Christianity teaching on long suffering, Hinduism teaches of spiritual tolerance. Through ancient practices animal sacrifices were paramount for forgiveness of sins in both religions.
This reflects that Christianity and Hinduism advocate for righteousness whose failure to abide results to punishment or accountability (Hufner 2). The two religions also incorporate music in their practices. For instance, Christian hymns signify worship, a prophetic call for spiritual transformation as well as a personal or community’s creed of salvation and commitment to obeying God (Beck 79).
Hindu songs express strong emotions such as divine love and different melodies are used for meditation as individuals pursue self recognition (Beck I19). Besides, Hindus have scriptural writings recognized as revealed and others as remembered. The scriptures are keen on religious practices to be followed. The most supreme gods are Upanishads and Vedas. Similarly, Christians have the Bible which forms the scriptural base for most of their teachings.
We will write a custom Essay on Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion There are many differences than are the similarities between Hinduism and Christianity. It is surprising how individuals are willing to sacrifice their lives due to religious fanaticism defending believes which lead to many religious wars in the world such as the jihad. Therefore, it is essential to really understand other religions for the purpose of cultivating tolerance and esteem for all humanity.
Works Cited Beck, Gay. Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 2006. Print.
Hufner, Katharina. Hinduism from Within and Without. Germany: GRIN Verlag. 2010. Print.
Jones, John. India: Its Life and Thought. Middlesex: The Echo Library. 2009. Print.
Catherine the Great Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Sophia Augusta Fredericka also known as Catherine the great was a Russian empress who reigned in the period 1762-1796. She was born on 21st April, 1729 in Stettin, Prussia which is now known as Szczecin, Poland. Having been born of Prince Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst and princesses Johanna Elizabeth of Holstein- Gottorp, she was automatically a German princess.
It was after her conversion to orthodoxy that she adopted the name Catherine and was married to the heir to the Russian throne by the name the Grand Duke peter in 1745. The marriage was however not a happy one. The marriage problems nevertheless did not deter her intellectual and political interests and capabilities and Catherine made some efforts in the removal of her husband from the throne and she later took power as the queen hence the title Catherine II.
Catherine had always been ambitious and intelligent and had the desire to be the head of the Russian empire despite the fact that she was born in German. She used various tactics to gain the support of the Russian people for instance through her loyalty to Russia and the Russian orthodox (Streeter 4).
It was in the year 1761 25th December, when Empress Elizabeth died and peter became the emperor, Peter II, hence making Catherine the great to be the empress. Peter was faced with a lot of political, military and even church related problems.
There were even attempts to overthrow him and placing his son Paul on the thrown while at the same time having Catherine as the temporary ruler until the son reached the optimum age of being a ruler. This plan however did not consider the fact that Catherine had a very strong desire to be a ruler by herself and that she could not stand the position of being a background figure as she awaits her son Paul to be of age but rather she had to fight intelligently.
It was on the 28th day of June the year 1762 that Catherine combined efforts with her then lover, Gregory Orlov and brought together the troops of St. Petersburg to her aid and declared herself as the solitary ruler of the Russian empire hence the name Catherine II. Peter was arrested and after a short period of time he was killed and nothing could deter Catherine’s determination of ruling the Russian empire.
Although Catherine was very ambitious and had great plans in regard to improving the domestic and foreign matters of the country, she concentrated much on securing and laying a firm foundation of her position during her initial years of her reign.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because she was aware of the fact that a majority of people were not for her idea of being a ruler but rather considered her son, Paul, to be the appropriate person to take on the leadership position. She was also viewed by many as having seized her husband from power illegally. She therefore saw these people as a threat and had to do everything possible to gain their support and trust and make her stay as a ruler comfortable and appealing to many.
She was very keen not to cause any further disparities but rather to unite the people, for instance, she understood that the people needed to rebuild Russian peace before she could indulge on homeland affairs. A foreign policy was necessary and Catherine placed Count Nikita Panin in charge of foreign affairs to implement the policies and was successful.
It was two years later, 1964, that Catherine was now ready to perpetrate reforms as she now felt secure and had gained the trust of the majority through her loyalty.
The reform acts and agendas set by Catherine were driven by the enlightenment and education idea. Her first notable reform for instance was facilitated by the enlightenment spirit. She advocated for the change of the Russian legal system as she considered it ineffective based on the fact that the system relied on old code of laws which were long passed by time making them ineffective.
She aimed at bringing positive changes in the legal system for instance through enactment of laws and policies that ensures that there is equal protection for all individuals without any form of discrimination. She also advocated for the prevention of participation in criminal activities as opposed to the imposition of cruel and harsh punishment of the offenders as prevention is always better than cure and more so less costly for the particular country.
It was in June 1767 that Catherine the great established a legislative commission that was supposed to take part in the revision of the old laws and although she was very hopeful that the commission would do its best and achieve the expected results, there were very little positive achievements to an extent that Catherine suspended the activities of the commission toward the end of the year 1768.
Apart from being involved in domestic affairs, Catherine also dealt with the foreign affairs, for instance, she made it possible for Russia to access the black sea coast without restrictions (Henry 1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Catherine the Great specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Catherine the great is a very significant figure in Russia as she is associated with the expansion of the Russian empire for instance to the central Europe and the black sea, the improvement in the administration and management practices and also her vigorous persuasion of the westernization and modernization policies.
It is under her rule that Russia was able to have strong foundations to an extent that it could now rival with Asia and Europe. Catherine dedicated her time and capabilities to issues associated with the domestic affairs specifically the functioning of the government.
Education and enlightenment was also a major aspect that Catherine the great promoted in Russia. She was actively involved in the expansion of the Russian education system for instance she established a plan that aimed at expanding and improving the education system in Russia in 1786.
Although she did not live to make the plan a complete success due to her death, she saw to it that there was an increase in the number of the educational institutions including elementary and secondary schools after which other aspects of the plan were carried on by his son.
She also advocated for improvement in arts for instance theatre, painting and music and also sciences in schools and the society at large as she saw this as a source of recognition and good reputation for the country hence a source of civilization. It was in 1796 that Catherine the great died and her throne was succeeded by her son by the name Paul (Lewis 1).
Works Cited Henry, Cavendish. “Catherine the Great Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011
Lewis J. Jone. “Catherine the Great.” About.com, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011
Streeter, Michael. Catherine the Great. London: Haus Publishing, 2007.
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Automated Teller Machine’s Manual and Usage Essay college essay help near me
Introduction An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a computerized banking machine that allows clients to access basic banking operations such as deposits, withdrawals and balance checking among others functions. ATMs are very convenient since they allow the clients to access their accounts without the hustles involved in traditional banking processes (lining up and filling multiple forms). As such, they save the clients a lot of time and money.
In addition, they are efficient accurate and fast as compared to the banking tellers. However, in as much as ATMs have proven to be convenient in our lives, a number of risks have developed over their usage. The most prominent threat is that ATMs give criminals a chance to get to our money especially if ATM users do not take precautions while using the ATM machines.
Even though people can avoid such risks by using common sense, it is always a worthwhile endeavor to review some proven tactics periodically in a bid to avoid mishaps, all the while improving your chances of averting risky situations. Lannon and Gurak (2010) assert that manuals are among the best tools to ensure that clients use products and services conveniently and safely. In this regard, following these six steps will improve your chances against various risks associated with ATM usage.
Ensure that you look around the ATM location before you decide to approach it. The purpose of this step is to ensure that there are no suspicious people larking around the ATM or standing too close to you while you transact your business. In addition, ensure that you use an ATM that you are familiar with. A trusted ATM is more secure than a ‘new’ one.
Ensure that you have all the requirements needed to use an ATM machine. Make sure you have your ATM card, you know your business in the ATM, and most important of all, you have memorized the correct PIN number (eHow, 2008). Covering such details ensures that you take the least time in the ATM thereby lessening the chances of experiencing further complications while at the machine.
Inspect the machine before Inserting Your Card
Incase you see something unfamiliar on the ATM machine; do not use it because it may be part of an elaborate scam. Any additional equipment may be used to compromise your bank account. Such add-ons include card readers and hidden cameras.
Card insertion and usage
After inserting your card into the ATM machine, use the interactive and simple instructions that will display on the ATM screen as your guide. If you have any concerns, ask the assigned ATM attendant for assistance. The attendants are thoroughly vetted and can be trusted to help you have an easy and secure ATM experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Get Cash Out of Sight
Whether it is little or a lot, cash can be tempting. As such, do not attempt to count your cash at the ATM; ensure that you get it out of sight. Pocket or fold it in your hand until you are in a safe location. This will lessen the chances of an abrupt attack from other people.
Automobile ATMs: security
You are a likely victim of a carjack when you have cash in hand and in a stopped car. Therefore, take a few seconds to lock your car and roll up your windows when using an automobile ATM. This will ensure that you are safe from such crooks.
Conclusion Even though ATMs have proven their worth in our livelihood, they are not perfectly safe. In this regard, ensure that the ATM you use is safe and you have all the requirements needed to use the ATM. In addition, follow the on-screen instructions at the ATM and ask for assistance where required.
After using the ATM, ensure that you hide your money. As precautionary measures: DO NOT share your Personal Identification Number (PIN) with anyone. In addition, do not write it down instead, ensure that you memorize it and change it regularly. Incase of any complications, ask the ATM attendant or contact your bank for assistance.
References eHow (2008). How to Use an ATM. Web.
Global Warming: Causes and Effects Cause and Effect Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of Global Warming
Effects of Global Warming
Introduction Global warming is one of the greatest problems facing the world today, because of its frightening effects that are evident in the present world. Global warming is the tremendous increase of the global temperatures, which results due to the trapping of heat in the atmosphere. Signs of global warming are evident all over the world with the increased temperatures, unpredictable climatic conditions, disappearing of some species of birds and animals, and an increase in the sea level.
Although people are not only aware but have also have tasted the impacts of these effects, very few individuals have taken the required action to save the earth from destruction, as most people still embrace practices that are the primary causes of global warming such as the use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the use of chemical fertilizers.
Therefore, although some natural factors have contribute to global warming, human actions are the primary causes of global warming and unless such practices are controlled, likelihoods of Saving the earth from effects of global warming, for example, drought, flooding, and extinctions of some species of flora and fauna are minimal.
Causes of Global Warming The primary causes of global warming are the most cherished human practices that have existed since time memorial. One of the primary causes of global warming is the increased amount of the carbon dioxide emissions in the environment.
With the ever-increasing use of electricity as one of the primary sources of energy in most sectors of the economy, there has been a continuous release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Electricity is primarily produced from burning of coal in power plants, and because it is very hard to survive without it, likelihoods of such gases filing the earth are high.
Carbon dioxide is one the gases that trap heat energy in the atmosphere, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures. Another cause of global warming is the ever-increasing emission of greenhouse gases from burning of gasoline. The modern car culture is one of the primary sources of green house gases, as most transportation and manufacturing industry rely on fossil fuels as its primary source of fuels.
Global warming is also a product of some agricultural practices such as planting of rice in paddies. Although agriculture is the backbone of most global economies, some agricultural practices are primary sources of some dangerous greenhouse gases such as methane, as a result of the breaking down of bacteria in areas with limited supply of oxygen (Essick 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to increased use of fossil fuels and some agricultural practices that release dangerous gases into the environment, other human practices such as deforestation have also contributed to global warming. Although nowadays most individuals use cooking and other environmentally friendly sources of energy in their homes, the use of forest for fuel is common, because of the numerous trees that are cut daily for charcoal and wood.
Further, the need for land to accommodate the ever-increasing population numbers has forced most societies to encroach into forested or protected land. Deforestation destroys trees that are the primary air purifiers, as they help to remove carbon dioxide from the environment. On the other hand, the use of chemical fertilizers that are rich in nitrogen have also contributed to global warming, as nitrogen compounds have one of the greatest heat-trapping capacity (Markham Para. 1-5).
Effects of Global Warming As a result of the numerous contributions of human actions to global warming, human beings must bear the brunt of their actions, which unless they accept to control, the wellbeing o future generations will be at stake. One evident effects of global warming is the rising level of the sea level, caused by the melting of the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. The effects of such increases are evident, as floods and massive storms have become one of the most prevalent calamities that face most societies year in, year out.
In addition, there has been an increase in other deadly calamities, such as droughts and tropical diseases that are connected to global warming; hence, the need for individuals to cooperate and save the world. Further, as research studies show some species of birds such as the Adélie penguins have drastically reduced in numbers, a case that is likely to become worse if people do not take responsibility for their actions, as most species of flora and fauna will find it very hard to adapt to new ecosystems (Jones 1).
Conclusion In conclusion, considering the deadly nature of the effects of global warming and because global warming is primarily a product of human activities, there is need for collective responsibility to save Mother Nature. Failure to do this can lead to numerous devastating calamities that will greatly jeopardize the wellbeing of both present and future generations.
Works Cited Essick, Peter. Causes of global warming. National Geographic society. 2011. Web.
Markham, Derek. Global warming effects and causes. Planet Save. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming: Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Jeremy. What are the effects of global warming on earth? 2010. Web.
Assessments for English Language Learners Analytical Essay argumentative essay help
Assessing is an influential tool in determining the learning outcome in students. Therefore, it is the responsibility of teachers to utilize the various assessment ways in order to determine the progress of their students. This paper seeks to explain the value of diagnostic, formative and summative assessments for English Language Learners (ELL). It also goes further to summarize the five alternative assessment formats and the importance of each feature.
Diagnostic assessment involves evaluating the individual current knowledge and skills in order to distinguish the appropriate learning program for him. This is particularly important to the English Language Learners since it helps them in assessing of their own self. Another form of diagnostic assessment includes forward looking assessment which helps in assessment of the individual future events. It is worthy to mention that diagnostic assessment is a form of formative assessment.
Formative assessment is done throughout the learning process. Formative assessment involves the activities that are performed by the students and the teachers which results in information that is used as a feed back to improve the learning and teaching process.
This type of assessment is usually used by teachers to review their approaches in teaching and also determine the next step of the learner. Formative assessment does not necessarily involve grading of the students but its main aim is to help in learning of the subject (English) (Chappuis, 2005).
The formative assessment is characterized by; improved quality interactions in the classroom, students are involved in the learning process, feedback is issued between the students and teachers in order for them to improve on their work and sharing criteria between the students and the teachers.
Summative assessment involves analyzing the learning outcomes and consequently reporting the outcomes to the parties concerned (Chappuis, 2005). This is usually done at the end of the class, term, course, semester or the end of the year in order to summarize the achievements of the student. Students are normally graded according to their respective performance in the subject undertaken.
The most used English language proficiency (EPL) test in the school is ACCESS for ELLs (Stiggins, 2007). ACCESS test is used for assessing communication and understanding of English language among the people who use the language. It has an aim of developing the standards of English language through the test and instructions issued to the learner. The standard of this test is graded according to the performance indicator that has five clusters of grades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ACCESS tests have got advantages in that it is more secure as compared to other shelf tests, ACCESS tests are based on the standards of each country and ACCESS tests emphasizes on English as a social language.
However the main drawback of ACCESS tests is that it fails to recognize the knowledge of the student i.e. it fails to assess if the student has comprehended the use of English language.
Assessment in classroom can take various different forms (Stiggin