Table of Contents Job Rotation Activities
Stake holder expectation
Measuring programs effects on performance
Job Rotation Activities These help the employee to become exposed to new activities that can help improve their growth in an organization. Being in one position can create a monotonous routine for the employee and this will likely result in stifled employee growth as they are not faced with any new challenges. This career development strategy is effective when an organization is trying to break monotony. The organization can break monotony by assigning the employee various job functions (Patton
Performance Management Program Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A performance management system to work properly and effectively its design has to be considered carefully and planned well. A good performance management system is purposely for the elevation of employees’ performance and in effect, improves on business productivity hence the management should endeavor to find a good system that delivers the object of the company. Basically, a performance management system should have four benefits (Dun and Bradstreet 1).
It should clearly understand what the job expects.
It should give regular feedback on performance.
Advice on steps of improving performance
Finally, it should reward performance.
Communication is important to any company, as research shows that managers with poor communication and poor interpersonal skills often than not lead to the downfall of the company, therefore, all managers should be trained on how to conduct fair, nonjudgmental and consistent appraisal.
A performance program should provide a guideline for improvement and Institute basic policies, deal with poor performance and employee weakness. In establishing the system you should decide whether you will provide training or mentoring for weak employees and also set guidelines on improvement of timelines. A system should incorporate employee input. The system should also input staff suggestions.
Finally, a well performing employee should be rewarded or compensated. Rewards improve employee morale and generate loyalty within the company and foster improvement. However, performance appraisal and pay hikes are a highly contested issue.critics have been of the opinion that tying the two would be punishing underachieving employees. Employees should be constantly rewarded for their hard work (United States Department of Commerce par. 5).
Discussion The IRS performance management program is a good example of a working system that has improved the performance of IRS employees. The IRS performance management system has established critical job responsibility for frontline employees who align with the agencies three strategic goals. This system provides responsibilities and supporting behaviors on how the daily activities of the frontline employees and managers should reflect the organization’s core values, for example.
The responsibility of customer’s satisfaction aligns with the strategic goal of top quality service to each taxpayer in every interaction. The goal of leadership and equal opportunity supports the agencies’ goal of an open air and fair work environment (General Accounting office 1).
IRS evaluates its frontline employees on five critical responsibilities, customer satisfaction, knowledge, quality business results and employee contribution. All this aligned with IRS strategic goals. The IRS performance management system attempts to assist managers and employees to develop their commitment and hold them accountable for meeting their commitments they are required to be clear, achievable, specific, outcome or output oriented and easy to monitor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A number of initiatives have been implemented by IRS to improve its performance management system. In this, it realized that it needed to redesign its performance management to better communicate the behaviors constituting customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and make sure employees adopt the newly desired behavior in their day to day activities. This has led to IRS undertaking several initiatives, which include;
Conducting an interactive conference with all the employees on the new management system.
Distribution of computer discs for easier access to information and posting of information on the IRS intranet.
And providing interim guidance and templates of simple commitment, self-assessment and summary evaluation.
Conclusion However, on the downside, the IRS monitoring mechanism to assertions of the implementation of the employee performance management system has not been effected properly. The monitoring mechanism could provide useful information properly. A monitoring methodology should be developed, and once it’s set up it can be used for several years. This methodology can help prevent potential problems and can help avoid cost associated with employee performance (General account office 6).
Works Cited Dun
Synopsis of Tort Case Essay essay help: essay help
A tort action is an act of commission or omission that results in a legal injury for which a remedy can be instituted. The case has a number of tort actions that include slander and negligence.
Slander is defined as a written publication of an unjustified false statement against an individual. The statement must have a potential to lower the plaintiff’s reputation from a rational person’s perspective.
For an act to be considered as slander, the statement must have been false, referred to the plaintiff, defamatory in nature, and published in a written form. In the case, Raul published a false statement on a sign. The statement claimed that SureCo Company was stealing from its customers, a statement that is not true and yet taints the company’s image (Miller and Jentz, 2010).
Plaintiff and defendant
The potential plaintiff in the tort case is the SureCo Company. This is because the company is the victim of the defamation. The defendant is Raul who published a defamatory statement (Miller and Jentz, 2010).
Elements of slander that constitutes the plaintiff’s claim
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The actions of Raul satisfy the essential elements of a slander. The first element is the publication of a false statement. Raul published a claim that the company is stealing from its customers. This statement is false because the company did not engage in any of such activities. Actions of the agent that constituted misrepresentation of facts were illegal and did not bind the company. The written statement was further defamatory (Miller and Jentz, 2010).
The possible defense that Raul can use is justification of the statement or an offer of apology for the statement. Justification of the statement would involve proof that the company has been involved in an activity of stealing from its customers. Raul can similarly apologize to the company and use the apology as a defense (Miller and Jentz, 2010).
The case is most likely to be resolved in favor of SureCo. This is because the circumstances of the case satisfy elements of a slander. The possible defenses are also not strong enough, based on the facts of the case.
Another tort action in the case is negligence. Negligence is defined as a breach of duty of care that leads to legal injury (Miller and Hollwell, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Synopsis of Tort Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Plaintiff and defendant
The plaintiff in the case would be Raul who was shot in the eye. The defendants would be the boss and SureCO Inc. SureCo would be a possible defendant on the ground that the boss acted on her capacity as an agent for the interest of the company (Miller and Hollwell, 2010).
Elements of negligence
For a case to be considered as negligence, the defendant must have owed the duty of care to plaintiff. That duty of care must have been breached leading to damage. Generally, every person owes a duty of care to his or her neighbor. Consequently, the boss owed a duty of care to Raul who was in her environment. The duty of care was breached by shooting in the direction of the plaintiff. As a result, the plaintiff was shot in the eye leading to injury (Miller and Hollwell, 2010).
Possible defense in the case include the doctrines of contributory negligence and ‘volenti non fit injuria’. Under contributory negligence, the defendant can claim that the injury occurred only because the plaintiff demonstrated in front of the company’s premises. Similarly, arguments that the plaintiff should have been aware of against him would constitute ‘volenti non fit injuria’ (Miller and Hollwell, 2010).
The case is likely to be resolved in favor of the plaintiff. This is because the defendant used excessive force apart from strong evidence for negligence.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Synopsis of Tort Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Miller, R., and Hollwell, W. (2010). Business Law: Text
Creation: Truth and Myth Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Genesis creation narrative
Genesis story as a myth
The truths in the creation myth
Introduction There have been a lot of contention in regard to how life came into being. Christians and other religious groups have maintained that creation was done by God as described by the Bible and other holy books. Christians have stuck to the genesis account of creation with some modifying it to suit their respective doctrines and disciplinary influences.
Many conservative Christian groups regard the myths of creation that appear in the initial parts of genesis to be literally correct (Frigge, 2009). They do not doubt that it was conducted by God in six days. Many believe that creation was actually done by God exactly as it is described in the Bible and this actually took place circa 4004 BCE as worked out by Bishop Ussher (Frigge, 2009).
Other groups of conservative Christians have tried to bring together the genesis creation version with findings in science. They, therefore, believe that God created the Earth and all that is in it; in addition, they believe that the Earth is billions of years old (Frigge, 2009).
Most liberal Christian groups simply reject the inerrancy described by the Bible (Halbur, 2007). They point out the fact the individuals who wrote genesis existed in pre-scientific times. Even elementary geology, cosmology, astronomy and biology were far much beyond their knowledge (Frigge, 2009).
This group of Christians tends to accept the creation stories described in genesis as imaginative creative works that have no bearing on reality or myths derived from earlier Mesopotamian creation stories that were re-worked by the ancient Israelites (Halbur, 2007).
This paper seeks to describe creation truths and myths as described in different written Christian interpretations. The paper will greatly refer to two written works, the Saint Mary’s Press College Study Bible and the Frigge’s textbook, The Beginning Biblical Studies. References will also be made from the “book of Genesis” (Frigge, 2009).
Genesis creation narrative The creation myth is found in the beginning of the book, in the first chapters. The first chapter describes how God created the whole world within six days through divine speech. The creation included mankind on the sixth day and rested on the seventh day (Frigge, 2009). The second chapter of genesis describes the identity of God as the “God of Israel” creating the first man named Adam, placing him in the Garden of Eden and making the first woman Eve from his rib (Halbur, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically, the creation narrative is composed of these two parts that form the initial two chapters of the Bible. While the second part of genesis is a simple narrative that picks from the formation of the first man in the Garden of Eden to the creation of the first woman and the establishment of the institution of marriage, the first part of genesis stands out due to its organization (Halbur, 2007).
The chapter is organized in eight instances of creation that supposedly took place over a six day period. In the first three days of the creation, according to the first chapter of Genesis, God conducted three important divisions.
During the first day, he separated darkness from light, on the second day, he separated the waters below from the waters above and, on the third day, he separated the sea from land (Frigge, 2009). According to Frigge, in the next three days, God creates the stars and the sun, creates fish and fowl in the seas and skies respectively (2009). On the last day, he creates land animals which include mankind.
Genesis story as a myth It is important to note that myths have varied origins. Many of them are usually fictional but there are some that are based on events that actually took place. Myths, whether fictional or based on actual events are used for different purposes such as explaining things that cannot be explained, to convey religious messages or to keep a group together (Frigge, 2009).
Several texts give an explanation of how a myth develops from a historical event that actually took place. They state that major events that took place in the history of a community are retold and retold to different generations. Eventually, the stories take a deeper level giving rise to a myth. One such myth is the story of exodus (Frigge, 2009).
There have been a lot of controversy surrounding the issue of whether creation is a myth or the truth or whether what is written in genesis is what really took place or it was engineered to suit the needs of the time.
Indeed, many contemporary biblical scholars have asserted that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch (five books beginning with Genesis to Deuteronomy) were written in the late 7th or 6th century BC by the Jahwist source and they were later expanded to incorporate additional narratives and laws from the Priestly source to create the work we have today (Halbur, 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on Creation: Truth and Myth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the view of these contemporary scholars, the purpose was to come up with a monotheistic creation version in opposition to the polytheistic myth that was being advanced Babylon (Frigge, 2009).
In the Frigge’s text book “Beginning Bible Studies”, the challenges faced by the priestly group are clearly outlined. The priestly was at pains to create a writing that would sound well for reestablished but struggling Jews who were just returning after spending more than a century in exile. These people had gone through enough trouble with their creator (Frigge, 2009).
In setting out to do their work, the priestly had to put into consideration the kind of people they were writing for, their questions and their needs at that time.
The priestly group had to devise a writing that would resonate well with them and lead them back to the ways of God. The priestly redactor decided to create a chronological account of the salvation history that would teach the present and future generations the fundamental beliefs about their God (Halbur, 2007). The chronological account had to have a beginning and, thus, the need for a creation myth. This was important in order to address the people of Israel particularly in regard to the situation they were in at that time.
Thus, the creation myth in Genesis was purely designed to deal with questions that could have been raised by the people (Frigge, 2009).
The truths in the creation myth The book of Genesis has two creation stories that fit into one narrative (Halbur, 2007). It is said that the words translated in English do capture the full meaning that was in the Hebrew language. This is due to the fact that the Hebrew language uses verb tenses that cannot be found in the English language.
Other words in the Hebrew language are only used in conversations or writings that are related to God. For instance, the bara refers to creation that is done only by God but English does not have such word that describes creations done by God alone. This implies that the myth of creation contained in Genesis has a deeper meaning when described in Hebrew (Frigge, 2009).
Indeed, the myth of creation contains hidden truths that apply to the everyday life. It is also important to note that the translation of the Bible from Hebrew to English led to a significant lose in the meaning.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Creation: Truth and Myth by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, creation is popularly associated with the creation of Adam and Eve but a closer analysis of the Bible reveals that it does not feature prominently in the first three chapters of the book of Genesis. Another major misconstruction can be seen by carefully reading chapter 1:27 which states that “God created man in his image, in the divine image he created him; male and female he created them” (Frigge, 2009).
This verse seems to be grammatically wrong it was wrongly translated from the Hebrew language. For English, the word “man” can stand for the male sex or whole human race (Halbur, 2007). In Hebrew, there are two distinct words. Ish refers to a male person while Adam is more commonly used to refer to humankind. Thus, the use of Adam in the book of Genesis simply implies that God created and continues to create the Human race.
There is evidence that in ancient Hebrew, the word Adam was used to symbolize all human beings. Thus, in saying that “God created Adam”, the statement refers to the creation of all human kind (Frigge, 2009). On the other hand, the symbolic meaning of the name “Eve” can be found in Genesis 3:20. It refers to the mother of all (Halbur, 2007).
The story of Adam and Eve is usually introduced to people from an early age. The story usually remains ever present in one’s mind through to adulthood. Scholars have pointed out that this wonderful story can have very serious consequences on a person’s spiritual health.
They warn that the story should not be taken for its literal meaning. For instance, in the first chapter of Genesis, man and woman are created simultaneously but, in the second chapter, the woman is created later (Frigge, 2009). Indeed, the two versions cannot be taken to be literally true. They are simply used to reflect on the human condition.
The story of Adam and Eve in the book of Genesis has been taken literally by many putting people in an awkward relationship with God. Many people who take the story literally think that the story proclaims subservience of women to man (Halbur, 2007). The story seeks to establish the fact that no human being can exist on his/her own.
Another controversial issue that comes up in the creation myth is the statement that humankind, male and female, is created in the divine image of God (Frigge, 2009). Christianity forbids humans from comparing anything o God. It is, thus, not always accepted that humans were created in the same way as God.
Biblical scholars are still debating to identify the precise meaning of this statement. Many have sought assistance from the book of psalms. In psalms 8:6, God is praised for creating humans a bit less than God, crowned with glory and honor (Frigge, 2009). It is important to note that in Hebrew language, an equivalent of the word glory (kabod) is often used to refer to God. But, in this verse, it is applied to humans too.
The word kabod or “glory” refers to the manifestation of God that is visible (Frigge, 2009). The book of psalms indicates that in a way God shares his divine nature with humankind. Thus, the statement that humans were created in the image of God implies that there is a part of God that is shared with humankind. According to the scriptures, the main purpose that humans serve on Earth is to manifest the presence of God.
The statement that humans were created in the image of God was evidently applied by the Priestly redactor to contrast the Israel religious beliefs from that of Babylon (Frigge, 2009). In the Babylon creation myth, human beings are created in order to serve Gods just the same way as slaves serve their masters (Halbur, 2007).
The myth of creation also talks of human beings giving care to other humans and all other living things. An in-depth analysis of this finding shows that God involves human beings in his creation work. Thus, man acts as a co-creator with God and also with other humans. These studies show that woman and man corporate to give the breath from God the creator to new life.
The creation of a woman out of the man’s ribs has long been held as implying that women are subordinate to men. However, the careful study of the book of Genesis with apparent reference to the Hebrew language show that this belief falls (Halbur, 2007).
In the first book of Genesis, God instructs humankind to have dominion over all plants and animals. Many Christians have taken this to mean that human beings can exercise power over plants and animals in any way they feel necessary. When this call to human beings to exercise dominion is analyzed in Hebrew, it means something quite different.
In ancient Israel, the human king was like God’s representative on Earth and, therefore, he was required to rule in the same way as God. In regard to this, the call to “have dominion” implies that the ruler should direct all living things to exist in a peaceful, harmonious and justified manner. Therefore, God’s call to Adam to have dominion over plants and animals did not imply that human beings should manipulate other creatures in whatever way they deem necessary (Halbur, 2007).
The call was intended to mean that human beings should act as God’s representatives on Earth and ensure that everything is moving in the right direction. Thus, in as much as humans are required to depend on God at any given moment, they have the power to rule over other animals. They are simply created to assist God and represent him on Earth.
This description of the creation of human beings and their purpose is seen in the first story of creation. The first story is often thought to have been sourced from Priestly own writing tradition. Priestly must have seen this account of creation to be incomplete (Frigge, 2009).
They must have taken a look at how the relationship between God and Israel had changed over the years. Priestly saw that the relationship described in the first chapter of Genesis had not materialized. The initial plan that God for humanity had failed and so Priestly had to create another myth.
According to Frigge, the second story or myth was sourced from the Jewish tradition and it told of how God had made man out of clay from the ground then blew into his nostrils the breath of life (2009). In genesis 2:7, the Bible describes how God formed humans out of Earth. In Hebrew, the word used to represent the wind that God blew into Adams nostrils can be used to mean wind, breath or spirit. Thus, Adam only becomes a living human after he has been infused with the spirit/breath (Frigge, 2009).
The symbolic meaning of this is to portray human beings as being complex combinations of very different things. The divine part of humans can be regarded to be God’s own spirit. Human beings can also be described as weak earthly creatures. But human beings forget that they should depend on God for life and more often they put themselves at the same level as God (Halbur, 2007).
Conclusion This paper sought to describe creation truths and myths as described in different written Christian interpretations. It has been established that the two first chapters of the book of Genesis are made of two contrasting myths that describe how God created man kind and all other things. However, things accounts are only contrasting when the literal meaning is taken. Deeper analysis, with a lot of support from the original Hebrew language, establishes the real meaning of these creation myths.
References Frigge, M. (2009). Beginning Biblical Studies. Winona: Anselm Academic.
Halbur, V. (2007). Saint Mary’s Press College Study Bible. Winona: Saint Mary’s.
Application of Management Theories Essay best essay help: best essay help
Abstract Most successful corporations have applied either employee empowerment theory or the penetration pricing theory. A combination of both theories might also enhance market performance of any given corporation. However, empowerment theory facilitates a culture of employees’ contribution by allowing them to participate and contribute to the decision making processes.
The application of this theory enables an organization to discover the full synergy and power of its employees as regards to problem detection, solving alongside better service deliveries. In contrast, the penetration pricing theory might help a company to evade market competition. It can be applied when a company wants to operate at the least cost possible while setting the lowest product prices.
Introduction Various theories have been applied during decision making processes. The memo however highlights the applications of the employee empowerment and penetration pricing theories as noted in human resource and marketing areas respectively.
Moving towards workforce empowerment culture Workforce empowerment turned out to be a corporate catchphrase in early nineties and the corporate press accord deemed it to be a noble thing. During this periods, the customary view saw workforces as replaceable objects in corporations, individuals who ought to be well trained to execute well defined and narrow tasks as well as people who should be constantly supervised and watched every time (Rehkopf, 2009).
With the advent of employees’ empowerment culture, there has been the necessitation that even the sophisticated and more educated employees have the urge of contributing in their workplaces and to the employers.
Basically, employees’ empowerment in simple term implies the full-fledged cronies in pursuit of high quality levels and better services. Empowered employees are always encouraged to make decisions, think and take personal actions on the basis of the defined corporate guidelines (Rehkopf, 2009).
The organizational management must thus recognize employee abilities and offer the requisite authority and tools which enables them to incessantly advance their performances. The management is charged with responsibility of stating its expectations as regards to the recognition and solving of the problems through empowering the employees to so.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A practical example of empowerment
Very few corporations truly embrace the employees’ empowerment concept. In fact, corporations that adopt this concept have realized the massive synergy and power which could be released when workforces are allowed to fully participate in the assumed operations. A practical example where the concept of employees’ empowerment culture was widely embraced is Ritz-Carlton Hotel.
Instead of marginalizing its employees by failing to listen to them and refusing to have them contribute in the hotel decision making processes, Ritz-Carlton Hotel does exactly the opposite. Employee empowerment is not merely used in guests’ satisfaction, but it is rather intended to crown them imaginary services (Hardina, 2007). Every employee at Ritz-Carlton Hotel has a chance to contribute to the decision making process and they have the mandate from the leaders to act accordingly.
How the employee empowerment concept bring about specific actions
Initially, Ritz-Carlton Hotel did not engage its workforce in the continual process improvement and in the development of work processes. It was thus very difficult to gauge how the indispensable service deliveries to partners could be made. There was equally laxity and non-commitment on the side of employees as regards to service deliveries and goal attainments.
The morale and motivation in the institution was extremely low while the employees were less energized by failure to involve them in the decision making processes. The employees thus felt like they were not recognized and neither were they deemed part of the organization. Thus, they lacked the full sense of entrepreneurial commitment (Rehkopf, 2009).
The theory of employee empowerment necessitates that each employee within the organization must totally sense the commitment of the organization to such an empowerment. Merely saying that the workforce is empowered is actually not real. In fact, the management and all leaders found at different levels ought to act by shunning the mere talks.
This theory requires that the management ought to realize that workforce empowerment is not like the magical gifts that workers receive from the management. The leaders have the responsibility of establishing a pivotal atmosphere and environment where the workforce feels the real empowerment (Ryan, 1998). They should have a feeling that they are emboldened in the decision making process and must be aware of the management backing and support.
Results achieved by practicing employee empowerment theory
After the theory was implemented at Ritz-Carlton Hotel, the employees unleashed their full potentials as regards to service delivery and consequently participated in all the entrepreneurial operations. They aided the hotel management in detecting and solving the emerging problems besides providing guests with legendary services.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Management Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employees felt like they had greater stakes in the hotel and fully remained loyal and accountable to their assumed tasks. Indeed, they equated their respective triumphs and purpose with those of the hotel. There were sky-high morale and motivations in the hotel devoid of sporadic campaigns and gimmicks by the management (Rehkopf, 2009). The employees were passionate about fellow workers and service deliveries to guests.
What I could have done differently
As a practicing manager, I could have aspired to know the employees by their names, share my time with them, treat them like adults and personally look for their welfare. Most important, I could have shared with them my visions and goals for the hotel by thoroughly and frequently communicating with them. Information and guidelines for empowered behaviors could also have been made available to each worker.
Workers who attain beyond expectations could have been rewarded while any emanating member issues could have been instantly resolved. Thus, the employees could have been made and parcel of the hotel. Another theory that could be used in decision making is the self-determination theory. Based on this theory, workers have both external and internal perceived locus of locality which makes them feel that any force initiates and sustains their actions. Such forces might in turn cause motivation.
Penetration pricing theory This concept has been widely employed by most new market entrants when they aim at winning clients and consequently garnering larger market shares from their competitions. The theory derives from the demand price responsiveness by assuming that clients will always move to the novel brands and products whose prices are seemingly low.
The assumption is that provided brand loyalty has been developed, then the set prices might be raised progressively to attain the dominant market price. In case prices are low, then the preliminary goodwill will be generated and hence companies will be capable of holding unto their clients besides gaining other positively referred customers (Baker, 2006).
A practical application of penetration pricing
There are numerous issues that are addressed via applying this theory. As reported in the media, this theory has been extensively applied by Wal-Mart Corporation. The company believed that when higher prices are charged on commodities, market competitors will eventually outperform it by reducing their prices. Since identifiable and distinct prices segment are inexistent in the market while price elastic demand are exhibited, larger products market will permit competition take place.
Prices will eventually reduce thus permitting subsequent price hikes which will operationally offset the preliminary low prices (Hardina, 2007). Wal-Mart applied this theory by setting low prices to help its clients save money and live better lives. The company did this by offering pleasant shopping experience, guaranteeing satisfaction, setting the least possible prices, providing knowledgeable experience and a variety of quality products. It was as a result of price antagonism and market competition that Wal-Mart opted to adopt this theory.
How penetration pricing concept bring about specific actions
The theory of penetration pricing helps customers to recognize each other. Any company that draws on penetration pricing stands a better chance of countering the competitors’ actions and has exceptional positioning strategies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Management Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, Wal-Mart applied this theory in its business operations and the corporation has had the chance to utilize economies of scale. Economies of scale in turn helped the company to produce numerous goods at the least cost possible. The end result is a reduction on the charged prices, avoidance of market competition and becoming a market leader (Winninger, 1994).
Results achieved by employing penetration pricing theory
When Wal-Mart applied this concept, it created a positive impression which made clients to believe that the corporation truly provides the lowest priced products. The created image overshadowed various clients’ expectations by creating a price loop. The company effectively applied penetration pricing to an extent that clients deemed it an imperative factor when making their product choices (Hardina, 2007). Therefore, while the suppliers assume low pricing strategies, the company offers better prices to ensure low sourcing costs.
What I could have done differently
Given that Wal-Mart employees and suppliers show their ill-treatment grievances at the company, the company is in the verge of being negatively portrayed. However, to make all market participants’ and employees happy, I could have offered the clients’ quantity and product loyalty discounts. The cost of production could have been reduced via economies of scale which in turn could have allowed the setting of low prices.
Conclusion Employee empowerment can be applied to ensure performance improvement. It is considered as an important element for managers who are in quest for outstanding services. Any effort put towards employees’ empowerment could possibly give results beyond expectations. Conversely, any company that applies the penetration pricing theory stands a better chance of making its products to be recognized by the clients. The theory helps in creating a positive brand image in the minds of clients.
References Baker, R. J. (2006). Pricing on purpose: Creating and capturing value. Sudbury, MA: John Wiley and Sons.
Hardina, D. (2007). An empowering approach to managing social service organizations. Florence, KY: Springer Publishing Company.
Rehkopf, E. (2009). Club resources international: Making employee empowerment a reality at your club. Retrieved from http://www.clubresourcesinternational.com/media/8651/employee empowerment.pdf
Ryan, J. (1998). Giving people the chance to sparkle. Journal of People Management, 1(13), 40-42.
Winninger, T. J. (1994). Price wars: How to win the battle for your customer. Ontario, CA: St. Thomas Press.
Reading the American Past by Michael P. Johnson Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents The fundamentals of Michael P. Johnson’s work
The thesis statement
Some interesting points
The most widespread theories
The fundamentals of Michael P. Johnson’s work First of all, I would like to point out that Reading the American Past is considered to be one of the most important books about American history. Zoltan is of the opinion that “Reading the American Past Vol. 2 from 1865 can only enhance any readers understanding of American History and the reader provides a great match when paired with any U.S. history textbook” (par. 9).
The author wants to draw the readers’ attention to the events, which took place during the Second World War and other important points of the US history. When reading Michael P. Johnson’s work, one can make a conclusion that this war is recognized to be the most cruel and destructive all over the world.
The thesis statement America’s participation in the World War II causes many contradictions concerning the support the most powerful country provided the victims of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich with. Thus, one of the diverse questions is America’s relation to the Holocaust until 1942.
Some interesting points In my opinion, the most important aspect, which is to be highlighted, is Jews’ mass annihilation. When I was reading the work written by Johnson, I’ve remembered terrible events I read about, – the events, which occurred in Auschwitz. “Of the victims, 1.3 million were Jews and 300,000 were Gypsies, Polish Catholics, and Russian prisoners of war” (“The Holocaust” par. 2).
However, the most interesting fact I would like to point out is that the policy of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich was not only to eliminate Jews and other imperfect nations, but also to annihilate people with disabilities, homosexuals, tramps, etc.
In his work, the author describes 1942. This makes me to remember one interesting point. Earlier years of Holocaust are omitted as America “adopted a policy of Isolationism, preventing their involvement in other country’s domestic and international conflicts” (“The United States Sits in Silence, Where Was the US During the Holocaust?” par. 1). However, one is to keep in mind that during the World War II America had great power.
It was the most economically developed country. For this sense, the most essential question, which is still to be discussed, is the reason of America’s denial of horrible realities. There are numerous theories, which can be used to answer the question; however, I suppose that it was the so-called isolationist policy, Americans wanted to keep to. Other studies include Anti-Semitism approaches, and ignorance factors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Lauran Freeman is of the opinion that “While many Americans would not physically harm a Jew, they had negative internal feelings towards them. Throughout history, Jews have been continuously looked down upon, and have been used as scapegoats” (par. 2). So, in my opinion, such explanation is also possible.
To be honest, ignorance factors give rise to doubt. For instance, there is an opinion that America was unfamiliar with the events, which took place during the Holocaust. “If we the idea that the American press was not given correct information, it is fair to state that it was not in denial about the realities, but instead as ignorant” (Wexler par. 3). However, I don’t believe that America, the most powerful country at that time, could be unfamiliar with the horrors of the Holocaust.
The most widespread theories The relation of America to the Holocaust is still considered to be rather ambiguous question. There are many theories concerning the Holocaust in the United States. The most widespread theories include isolationist policy, Anti-Semitism policy, the American press disinformation, and the Holocaust denial in the United States. Carly Wolf describes the last point in the following way: “Denial served as a way for Americans to look the other way in order to avoid complication or involvement” (par. 6).
Works Cited Freeman, L. Anti-Semitism, 2003. Web.
“The Holocaust.” Digital History. Web.
“The United States Sits in Silence, Where Was the US During the Holocaust?” Ucsb.edu. Web.
Wexler, K. Ignorance, 2003. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Reading the American Past by Michael P. Johnson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wolf, C. Holocaust Denial in the United States, 2003. Web.
Zoltan, M. Reading the American Past Vol. 2 from 1865 by Michael P. Johnson, 2010. Web.
The Public Service’s and Commercial’ Broadcasting in the UK Essay essay help
Adorno and Horkheimer argue that the culture industry “impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves” (Adorno, 1991, p.6). This section will discuss how this perspective has influenced the field of audience research. Adorno and Horkheimer argue that individuals are fed information through the media that makes them forget about independent thoughts and views that they might want to make.
The view proposes that the media present consistent information which has been presented in a manner that ensures people feel that everything is proceeding on well without hitches even when this is not the case. Adorno felt that individuals in the society usually have to sacrifice their own beliefs which they believe so that they can agree with the beliefs of the society, especially those that are perpetuated by the media.
Audience research usually targets a specific group of individuals so as to find out what their interests, tastes, attitudes and knowledge might be concerning a particular item. Using such audience research, companies can usually be able to market and target their products or services towards a specific group of people so as to get maximum returns for their business ventures.
According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the society has agreed to sacrifice their own beliefs and judgments so that it can fit into the views and perceptions of the media about certain cultures. If the confusion in the society translates to trying to fit in into the society, then individuals would answer questions in audience research in a manner that would be expected of the individuals of that particular culture and might not genuinely reflect the true beliefs of such individuals.
The media has a very strong on individuals in the community and almost every person in the individual wants to ensure that they are perceived in the “correct” manner in the society. Therefore, when field researches are conducted, the researchers already have preconceived ideas about how the respondents should answer and this might interfere with the results of the researcher.
The researchers are bound to be biased towards giving the politically, academically and economically correct answers that are expected of certain cultural groups that might be involved in the interview processes for the audience research. This concept is in agreement with the impediment of self-awareness of culture, individuals and free thoughts of individuals and conscious decisions made by individuals in the society according to Adorno and Horkheimer.
In this section, I will discuss the public service broadcasting and commercial broadcasting in the UK, focusing on the characteristics of their funding system and differences in their relationship with audience in terms of their programming and scheduling.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major difference between public service broadcasting and commercial broadcasting in the United Kingdom is that the public service broadcasting is funded and regulated by the government. The commercial broadcasting system is funded through advertisements from private companies that want to reach a large number of individuals.
The more audience that a particular television has, the better and higher the number of private companies that are likely to approach such companies because the advertising message from such a company is likely to reach a wider audience translating to higher sales. The public service broadcasting service allege that the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is owned by the government and is made freely available to individuals.
In contrast, the commercial broadcasting corporations in the country are privately owned and some of them require people to pay subscription fees to access their services. The public service broadcasting systems promote the agenda of the government with the interest of the larger public in mind while the agenda of the commercial broadcasting companies is promoted which might be the agenda of a few rich people who own and control the company or the advertisers who control the resources of the broadcasting company.
Most of the programming in public service broadcasting is usually educational or news on all areas that affect the citizens of the country are; political, health, financial and weather. Such public services are watched by individuals to receive reliable news on events that are happening across the country and all over the globe.
Most of the commercial broadcasting stations in the United Kingdom usually air programs that attract a wide audience such as soap operas, sports shows and fashion news. Broadcasting news that is highly preferred by many individuals ensures that the commercial companies get a wide audience.
If research indicates that commercial broadcasting companies have high ratings in terms of audiences, such commercial companies are highly likely to get business in form of advertising companies to pay the commercial stations so that they can air adverts and try to increase market share for such companies in comparison to competitors.
The third question will Outline and evaluate the media effects model of audience research. Using the concept of the active audience I will use contemporary media examples to illustrate the argument.
We will write a custom Essay on The Public Service’s and Commercial’ Broadcasting in the UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media effects model of audience research proposes that individuals are passive members of the advertisements process whereby, they get information that is transmitted by the media and offer no resistance in form of question or arguing with what is communicated to them through the media.
The media effects model of audience research proposes that the target audiences are manipulated to do what the advertisers want without taking into account the opinions, intelligence or decisions of the audience. Proponents of the media effects model claim that it is efficient and that most audiences are composed of passive individuals that want to be told what they should do or the kinds of products that they should consume.
Due to hero effects that are observed among individuals, the media usually uses selected individuals that the population respects such as respected musicians, sports players or Nobel Prize winners to endorse products so that audiences can get validations of the products or services that consumers want to purchase.
To some extent, the media effect model seems to be true after observing the high number of overweight teenagers that spend almost most of their time watching music shows and young girls that want to starve themselves thin so that they can appear like their favorite musicians on the television. Most of these children also want to dress like the celebrities that they observe on the television and they also want to eat the foods that are advertised on the television.
In contrast, the active audience model proposes the argument that audiences are different. The media fails to take into account the differences between individuals, such as differences in age, gender, economic and social differences among people. The media also fails in their assumption that people will perceive the intended message in the way that the media intends for it to be perceived by the particular target audience.
The medical drama grey’s anatomy has a female lead actor which is unlike the message that is usually portrayed by the media that males are greater achievers in the society in comparison to the men. The program also portrays the characters in the television drama as having flaws which is unacceptable. The pre-modern period portrayed most of the characters in television programs as being perfect which is unrealistic.
The fourth question evaluates Stuart Hall’s (1981) encoding/decoding model and the idea of polysemic texts. One media example will be anlysed to illustrate the role of audiences play in meaning-making.
Hall is famous for having introduced the concept that not all of the intended message will be taken by the audience. This is because everyone has different views based on their social, economic, cultural, religious and economic backgrounds and all of these play a part in decision making and translation for audiences that observe the media.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Public Service’s and Commercial’ Broadcasting in the UK by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hall made clear observations that the meaning of the media message is not necessarily determined by the individual that sends it because people perceive different things in different ways. He also proposed that most media representatives do not know what they mean to pass on to the audience.
Most of the time, the intended message is usually “hidden” and it is up to the audience to decode the message and utilize the meaning. Hall finally proposed that audiences for whom the messages are usually intended are active listeners that think, analyze and make conscious decisions from what they observe from the media.
The producer of the message portrayed in the media is usually the encoder while the audience is usually the decoder. Polysemic texts usually involve encoding and decoding whereby, the producer usually has an intended message for the audience and the audience decodes the message in a particular manner depending on their perception, tastes, likes and preferences. An example of a message in the media involving encoding and decoding would be a documentary on married women that are battered by their husbands.
The producer’s main goal would be to show how women are in bad situations while in their marriages, but the decoder who is the active audience might not sympathize with the women and instead feel that it is the women’s fault that they experience such abuse because they have the ability to get out of abusive relationships. Although the encoder might show valid reasons as to why the women stayed in the marriages, such as lack of an income to take care of young children and the audience might not understand.
The fifth question will critically discuss the news and agenda setting theory, using an example and three news stories. The issue of the news and the agenda-setting in the media is very important as it determines what is aired in the media.
The media has a very important responsibility in the society because it has the power to shape or change the attitudes of people about certain factors in the community. Agenda setting also influences social, economic, political and academic aspects of citizens of a nation because it drives the setting of the agenda for corporate, government and personal policies. News that are aired on stations or printed in different types of media and should abide by set rules.
Media organizations usually belong to regulating bodies which have certain rules whose failure to follow should attract penalties or disciplinary measures such as being taken off air for radio or television stations that air pornographic content. Forming of agenda-setting involves analyzing the kind of media outlets that people subscribe to and forming ways through which the intended news can reach those individuals.
The media can transmit news that easily influences the public through in a certain way. The individuals could already have an opinion about an issue that is on the news, but framing of the issue by the media stimulates the public to think about the issue further and in a way that affects the public.
For example, a newspaper might print a story that would influence a public debate and make the public pressure the government to act on a neglected issue in a country. The aspects that the media focuses on give the public the impression that those are the important issue in the local, regional and international scene.
Therefore, media houses should ensure that they are professional and gain the respect of individuals if they want the news that they air or print to be considered relevant in the lives of individuals. An example of agenda-setting would be the Bill Clinton case who was the president of the United States who had an affair with one of his staff members. The issue was aired on all television stations and pictures of the former president and Monica Lewinsky were in pages of newspapers all over the world.
This made the public feel that this was an important issue in the world. The issue of the terrorist attacks on September 11 in the United States was all over the news which made people focus on the issue and may be even think about probable terror attacks elsewhere. The issue of president Barrack Obama getting into power as the first African American president of the United States of America was all over the news, which made it an issue to focus on.
Public Speaking by American Politicians Expository Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Kennedy’s Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association Kennedy’s speech primarily addresses the American cove values that should not be related to person’s religious beliefs. At the very beginning of the speech, the future Presidents states that the state and religion should be absolutely separated from each other because being Catholic, Protestant, or Baptist is each individual’s own business.
In this respect, Kennedy’s emphasizes that the President will never rely on church while introducing political, social, and cultural reforms to the United Stated. At the same, Kennedy’s assures that his religious judgment will never affect his attitude to people from diverse religious group because he focuses primarily on the idea of human equality and religious tolerance of the highest priority.
To underscore this position, the future Presidents highlights the controversial issues of people’s judgment who believe that religion can have an impact on government because he was the first Catholic president. However, his notice about people’s negligence of other Presidents’ religious beliefs showed that personal perceptions do not influence the objectivity of their policies.
To make the speech more persuasive, Kennedy refers to the idea of religious groups should not be connected to political and economic affairs in the country because religious diversity is more associated with personal beliefs. The candidate manages to explain that the U.S. Constitution does not uphold any religious oaths and, therefore, it is the President’s obligation to adhere to democratic and equality principles.
Presenting his objective and transparent views on the American social structure, Kennedy effectively expands on the concept of freedom, liberty, and loyalty to people, rather than to church. At the end, Kennedy addresses American people and makes them judge his actions rather his personal religious position.
Analysis of Introductions and Conclusions of Speeches Introducing a specific topic should attract readers and provide them with the reason for listening to the speech up to the end. Therefore, the opening part of a speech plays an essential role. In this respect, most speech start either with a concrete story, or a provoking thesis that is unknown and intriguing and that generates more questions than answers.
Several speeches have been analyzed – Barack Obama’s Campaign Policy Speech on Iraq, Movie speech presented by Russell Crow in Beautiful Mind, and Abraham Lincoln’s speech on Second Inaugural Address. All the spokespersons applied to different strategies for attracting the audience. Hence, Obama’s speech starts his address to the audiences by referring to the historical facts and comparing those with present situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such a manner, the President manages to establish credibility and review the main thesis of a narration (Obama n. p.). John Nash in Beautiful Mind starts his speech with asking a tricking questions which captures the audience and makes them focus on further narration. Finally, Abraham Lincoln hooks the listeners with a controversial and even negatively colored issue (n. p.). All these techniques are effective for gaining attention.
Similar to the opening parts of the narration, the concluding parts have also presented a logical continuation of the main idea. Hence, Obama makes use of a thematic frame and ends his speech with disclosing historical facts that have been mentioned at the beginning. John Nash provides an extensive answer to the question that he posed in the opening part (n. p.). Finally, Abraham Lincoln refers to similar sentence structure to bring in a concluding idea.
Language Choice and Its Contribution to the Effectiveness of Speech Language reflects cultural and social context of a particular country and, therefore, the effectiveness of the speech heavily depends on this aspect. Specific attention is paid to the connotative meaning of words rendering the main idea of a narration. While reviewing the text of the speech delivered by Margaret Chase Smith, many stylistic and rhetoric devices can be noticed.
At this point, speaker refers to a number of metaphors like “national suicide”, “word of bitterness”, “congressional immunity”, as well as peculiar stylistic devices, such as anaphora presented in the following passage: “I speak as a Republican. I speak as a woman. I speak as a Untied States Senator. I speak as an American” (Smith 1).
The presented devices are used to intensify the main idea and highlight the seriousness of the described problem. Hence, Smith focuses on the national problem and reveals her discontent by introducing short repetitive sentence. In such a manner, her speech implies a calling for the American to take resolute actions.
Aside from stylistic and lexical devices, the spokesperson makes use of short paragraphs by transferring from idea to another. The approach allows to keep the audience focused on the main idea. Different viewpoints, as well as fluctuation in stylistic also captures the attention and interest.
Interestingly, mostly all adjectives and nouns presented in the speech are negatively colored, which also imposes a specific tone and idea. For instance, one can come across such words as “unworthy”, “restraint”, “frustration, “irresponsible”, “harm”, “selfish”, etc (Smith 2). Once again, the lexical meaning enhances the main argument of the speech.
We will write a custom Essay on Public Speaking by American Politicians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited A Beautiful Mind. John Nash: 1994 Noble Prize in Economic Sciences Acceptance Address. American Rhetoric. 2002. Web.
Lincoln, Abraham. Second Inaugural Address. American Rhetoric. 1865. Web.
Obama, Barack. Campaign Policy Speech on Iraq. American Rhetoric. 2008. Web.
Smith, Margaret Chase. n. d. Declaration of Conscience. PDF file. Web.
Advertising research report: Twisters Restaurant and Coca-Cola Report a level english language essay help
Importance of a Market research to Twisters Restaurant Restaurant industry is very competitive. It is highly competitive because every restaurant tries its best to establish a competitive edge over its rival brands. Those restaurants that have succeeded in branding themselves appropriately had done so by employing diversified strategies to win bigger market shares. McDonald, Starbuck and King Burger are some of the most popular restaurants in the World.
These restaurants have used strategies such as differentiation, strategic pricing as well as proper branding through appropriate advertising to promote the awareness of their brands. Advertising is considered as one of the main strategy that is very instrumental in promoting company’s products/services (Katz, 2010). In order for any advertisement to be highly effective, there is a need to conduct a market research before selecting the kind of advertisement to adopt.
Advertising research helps to identify the advertisements that are extremely efficient in motivating clients to purchase products or services. An advertisement research is very important as it indicates the most appropriate medium to use when advertising (Lake, 2012). There are different medium that can be used to effectively brand products or a services. The choice of the medium to use mostly depends on the behavior of the targeted people.
Advertisements are nowadays published mainly on magazines or a newspaper, they are also broadcasted on Television, radio or published on the internet. Thus, in order to establish the most suitable advertisement for a particular company, product or service, it is advisable for such undertaking to be preceded by an advertisement research in order for effectiveness (Honomichl, 1986).
Twister’s Pizza which is a newly founded restaurant has initially undertaken a very important step of promoting itself as well as its products and services through advertisement.
The restaurant had greatly benefited from the advertisement that its agency had initially launched. The restaurant had benefited from increased sales that helped the restaurant to realize high revenues. The later discontinuation of the advertisement resulted in performance of the restaurant. Therefore, the loaming decision for Twister’s advertising agency to use the same advertisement it was initially using to brand the restaurant is subject to debate.
The management can opt to give its advertisement agency the go ahead to launch the same advertisement they had used there before as a result of its past record of success in motivating customers to use the restaurant’s facilities as well as to buy its products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By doing so, the management of Twisters restaurant and the advertising agency will assume that the new advertisement will be successful in bringing in more new customers into the restaurants as there before. Nevertheless, it is imperative to note that the new advertisement was meant to advertise a new restaurant that was not in existence there before. In addition, it is also important to factor in the ever changing customers likes and preferences.
Although the former Twister’s advertising was very effective in bringing in new customers to the restaurant, it is apparent that those customers that visited the restaurant disappeared with the discontinuation of the advertisement. This was not in order since these customers were supposed to continue visiting the restaurant, despite the discontinuation of the advertisement as they were conversant with the quality of the services as well as the products offered by Twister Restaurant.
Similarly, these customers were supposed to be more customers into Twister Restaurant through referrals if they were happy with its dishes and services. Therefore, that is why it is necessary for an advertisement research to be conducted to determine the nature of the advertisement the Twisters advertising agency should design and use to advertise Twisters Restaurant.
There are two kinds of research that are conducted by companies in order to establish the most appropriate advertisement to undertake. Syndicate is one of the researches that is conducted by a company and is made available to other companies. Customized research is the other type of research that is conducted and is usually founded on certain criteria and is mostly conducted for a particular company and its results are private.
Therefore, Twisters Restaurant requires conducting a customized research that will be tailored for the company and its results only available to appropriate stakeholders. The managements should recommend for a pre-testing type of customized research that indicates in depth efficiency of an advertisement before it is officially launched.
It is noted that the more the pre-testing is done the more it becomes easier to predict its results. The pre-testing research that will be conducted will help Twisters management as well as Twisters advertising agency note the level of attentiveness that customers show, brand linkage, motivation as well as entertainment ad communication that are most suited for the advertisement.
This will be realized after the breaking down of the flow of emotions and attention and studying them separately in order to integrate them accordingly in the advertisement being developed. This will help to identify the weak points in the advertisements being developed and replace them. The tests are advisable to be applied during the storyboard phase of the ad that is being development. Introducing the tests at this early stage increases the predictive of the ad being developed.
We will write a custom Report on Advertising research report: Twisters Restaurant and Coca-Cola specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At this juncture, the images generated will be selected and used as incorporated campaign print ad for greater reliability of the final advertisement produced. Moreover, the post-testing research should follow the pre-testing study. These studies can either be syndicated or customized. After conducting the pots-testing research over a long time span, it will show how the developed advertisement will promote the Twisters Restaurant products and services prior to its actual administering.
This research will be very important to Twisters Restaurant as it will help to understand its brand linkage, awareness, preference, performance as well as product attitudes and usage. This research will either be conducted by telephone or internet and it indicate whether the finished advertisement will be able to achieve its intended objective (Young, 2005).
Thus, it is imperative that the management of Twisters advertisement should request first for an advertising research to be conducted. Although this will cost the Restaurant extra costs, it will help to increase the reliability of the advertisement being used by making sure that the final advertisement developed will be very effective in motivating customers to visit Twisters Restaurant.
This is because the advertisement research conducted helps the advertising agencies monitor the advertisement development in order to facilitate the effectiveness of the final advertisement. The high cotemporary changes in tastes and preferences of customers are difficult to track, but it is imperative for every single advertisement being developed to be preceded by an advertisement research in order to enhance the quality of the advertisement.
It is from this line that Twisters Restaurant does not have other better option, but to recommend for an advertisement research to precede the development of the advertisement in question. Through this way, the advertisement that will be used by the Restaurant will be very effective.
Importance of Coca-Cola advertisement in its branding process Coca-Cola is known as the most famous and biggest selling soft drink in the world. It was created in Atlanta, Georgia in 1886 by Dr. John S. Pemberton and patented in 1887. It was registered as a trade mark in 1893. Surprisingly, after two years later, it had proliferated to the United States of America. Nowadays, Coca-Cola has become a universal soft drink in the World where it is sold in all regions in the globally.
Coca-Cola is thus regarded as the most persistent and highly loved brand in history. It is also regarded as the longest surviving brand that we have currently. The success of Coca-Cola can be attributed to its highly effective advertising and marketing strategy. Coca-Cola has ever relied on its advertisement to promote as well as to market its brand. That is the strategy that Coca-Cola has used to remain at the top as one of the l present leading successful company.
Coca-Cola has been in the market for more than a century (Arandilla, 2012). Its advertisements have been very effective and thus affected the pop culture as well as the World at range. The first Coca-Cola advertisement published in a newspaper did not show a lot of creativity as well as art work. The second newspaper advertisement that was published was an improvement of the first one and it was longer and more persuasive ad than the first one.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertising research report: Twisters Restaurant and Coca-Cola by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ad promoted Coca-Cola as a refreshing, exhilarating, delicious as well as invigorating drink. During this era, there were no acts that regulated advertisements that were being used. Thus, the ad was tailored in such a manner to exaggerate about Coca-Cola. The developed claimed Coca-Cola as an intellectual beverage, temperance drink that was considered to cure headache as well as neuralgia (Krugman, 1977).
The Coca-Cola ad continued to improve with time. Because of the government regulations, Coca-Cola marketing department stopped using information such as Coca-Cola can cure headache that was deceptive. Instead, the advertising agency came up with strategic slogans such as ‘I can buy the world a coke’ which were very instrumental in selling Coca-Cola within America as well as in the other parts of the World.
In 2006, Coca-Cola came up with a very instrumental campaign ad whose theme was on encouraging people to consume Coca-Cola. The campaign provoked people to take Coca-Cola in order to feel happy and to be positive. The ad encouraged people to love everyone and view the world in full color. This message touched many people and many people embraced Coca-Cola brand as it promoted a very essential value of love to the society (Thorson
Monarchy in Canada Essay scholarship essay help
There have been numerous debates on whether to abolish or retain the monarchy in Canada. This essay gives the reasons why the monarchy in Canada should not be abolished.
The first reason why the monarchy in Canada should not be abolished is that it creates stability and continuity in the country. The current queen has been on the throne for a period exceeding fifty years. During this period, she has witnessed the coming and going of many Prime ministers (Jackson 145). The country has experienced political instability many times but the Queen has always remained a constant figure during such moments of instability.
The monarchy traces its roots back to the sixth century and has endured all along. As a result it links the country with its past well, which is a valuable component of the country’s national identity.
Canadian politics have been in the past accused of dealing with extremists. The presence of the monarchy in Canada which is the highest elected office, shields the country from communist dictatorship. In comparison with other European countries that have overthrown their ruling monarchies, Canada has remained stable throughout the twentieth century.
The second reason why the monarchy should not be abolished is its impartiality. The queen of Canada does not take political sides and is therefore regarded apolitical. She hardly expresses what she thinks about government policies. As a result, she qualifies to be a perfect figurehead to be presented to the world.
A neutral monarch is instrumental in building good relations with countries that have political scenarios that are completely different from that of Canada. As a representative of Canada in other countries, the monarchy earns the country reasonable revenue through tourism. Every year, many people tour the palaces to learn more about the monarchy (Tidridge 79).
The third reason why the monarchy in Canada should not be abolished is that it promotes patriotism. Monarchs are naturally patriotic than presidents or prime ministers. They exhibit great love for their country and are always committed towards doing the best for the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This implies that unlike presidents or prime ministers, monarchs never have conflicts of interest. Ideally, they put a lot of effort in promoting patriotism. In a monarchy, a lot of contribution is channeled towards building the nation hence the undying love for the country. Patriotism interests are therefore served well by the monarchy thus it should not be abolished.
Historical studies that have been conducted throughout the world have attested to the fact that the monarchy plays a critical role in building the civilization of Canada. It is almost impossible to think of civilization in Canada without focusing on the part played by the monarchy in promoting it.
The monarchy is associated with building great things for the country. On the contrary, republics are characterized by destruction. Some are established through bloody means where thousands of people lose lives. For instance, Iran, Serbia and Kosovo among other countries have experienced unrest as a result of destroying monarchies. For the sake of civilization and continued peace, the monarchy in Canada should not be abolished (Trottier 4).
The monarchy in Canada should not be abolished in favor of other forms of governance. This is because it has many advantages that are beneficial to the country. Its destruction may plunge the country into unrest as it has been witnessed in other countries.
Works Cited Jackson, Robert. Politics in Canada. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print
Tidridge, Nathan. Canada’s constitutional Monarchy. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd, 2011.Print
Trottier, Jackson. Canadian Monarchy Debate Rekindled: Should We Dare to Depose Our Foreign Head of State. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Monarchy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Ideological Genesis of Needs and Authenticity in the Age of the Poseur Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Summarizing the Main Theses of the Articles
Themes and Arguments
Summarizing the Main Theses of the Articles The articles under analysis reflect on the role of commodity cultures in shaping people’s attitudes and values. Hence, in the article called Ideological Genesis of Needs, the author refers to the idea of consumption as a sophisticated set of subjective relations and as a product of our consciousness and dream work (Baudrillard, 2000).
Specifically, consumption is confined to the logic of symbolic exchange values signifying abstracted notions, but not the empirical objects. In contrast, the article called Authenticity in the Age of the Poseur provides an analysis of commodity narratives through the signs of authenticity (Goldman
Grass Farming in “The Omnivore’s Dilemma” by Michael Pollan Essay (Book Review) essay help
Table of Contents Grass: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Pasture
The Animals: Practicing Complexity
Slaughter: In a Glass Abattoir
The Market: Greetings from the Non-Barcode People
The Meal: Grass Fed
Impact of reading the Omnivores Dilemma
Thesis Statement: Has the study of the book “Omnivores Dilemma” Impacted on the way people eat?
Grass: Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Pasture This section stipulates that the grass farmer utilizes some of the oldest farming practices. It adds that the grass farmer should not just be treated as a traditional farmer but he should also be regarded as the one who has taken all the knowledge that people have acquired over the years and used it in a completely revolutionary manner. The grass farmer grows different species of crops and rears different breeds of animals then allows them to work together so that they can flourish.
The grass absorbs sunlight and converts it into energy. Cows on the other hand graze on the grass and in turn fertilize it. Chickens then utilize the bugs that they get from the fertilized soil and thus eliminate pests. This study is important in that it helps people to understand how farmers utilize the different methods of crop production to produce crops and rear breeds that are of high quality (Pollan 54).
This study is significant in that it has notified different farmers on how they should allow fertilization to take place naturally in order to ensure that their soil remains productive and free from pests. It is true therefore that traditional farming and rearing mechanisms are efficient in terms of maintaining the productivity of the soil.
It is also important for farmers to put into consideration the issue of successful grass farming. For grass farming to be effective, a farmer should ensure that he rears different breeds of livestock to graze in the field which then put natural manure to the field. Farmers should try as much as possible to refrain from applying man-made manure into the field as this would have the long run effect of destroying the fertility of the soil (Pollan 55).
The Animals: Practicing Complexity This section describes the manner in which raising of cows, chickens, Larvae, grass, and bacteria play an important role in preventing the need for fertilizers, wormers, and antibiotics. This section is significant in that it demonstrates that all animals depend on each other to achieve specified goals which are specified by farmers.
For example, chickens act as the cleaning crew, while the pigs are used to spread manure in the field. This is a complex system and in order for people to catch up with it, they invented the wheel whose goal is to simplify the complex process that is used by chickens and pigs (Pollan 57).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Slaughter: In a Glass Abattoir This section reflects on the Omnivores dilemma. It argues that if people do not have the ability to feed the animals that they have, then they should refrain from eating them. The section notifies people that death is part of life the animals being slaughtered. They should therefore give animals a good life and death. This implies that people should show appreciation for the animals that they rear and slaughter them using recommended tools.
The Market: Greetings from the Non-Barcode People Organic food substances are described by many people as being elitist. This means that it is not possible for the average American to afford organic products. Research has shown that people are very much willing to use their money to meet the needs of their cell phones, giant TVs, and high speed internet but they cannot afford to meet the costs of organic food which have been raised sustainably (Pollan 45).
This therefore shows that people do not value the products that add value to their health. They choose other pressures over organics that would add more value to their health.
The Meal: Grass Fed Most people love consuming products that are not only local, sustainable or organic, but they also love consuming products that are produced on a seasonal basis. It is said that those foods that are grown in seasons have higher nutritive value compared to those foods that are present throughout the year.
Seasonal products also add quality and taste to food (Pollan 46). Many people therefore have different experiences in the tastes, enjoyment, and quality when they consume a product that has been produced seasonally. Food that is produced seasonally has a higher nutritional value because of its nature.
Impact of reading the Omnivores Dilemma The book “Omnivores Dilemma” has a very significant influence in determining the way people eat. The book lays its emphasis on whether people should eat fast foods or organic foods. Pollan stipulates that the health of children and the environment plays an important role in sustaining life on earth (56). Pollan’s readings have also had significant influence on the way people eat.
People have therefore found it necessary to consume food that adds more value to their health and hence enabling them to minimize incidences of acquiring health related complications. Pollan’s writing style therefore induces people to adopt more healthy eating habits in order to increase their survival rate. It is therefore advisable for a person to ensure that he reads more of Pollan’s books since they inspire people to adopt healthy lifestyle.
We will write a custom Book Review on Grass Farming in “The Omnivore’s Dilemma” by Michael Pollan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, New York: Penguin Group, 2006. Print
Analysis of “Sonny’s Blue” Of James Baldwin Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction “Sonny’s Blue” is a story about two brothers who see life in a different way but later find understanding in each other. Music brings this understanding. The story begins as the narrator is on his way to his teaching job when he finds out that is the younger brother is in jail (Baldwin 2). Sonny has been caught dealing drugs.
On his way home, the narrator meets sonny’s friend who tells him about the challenges of his brother’s drug addiction. However, the narrator does not make any attempt to help his brother. After some time, the narrator’s daughter, Grace dies. The pain and anguish of this ordeal inspire the narrator to communicate with his brother. Their communication continues until Sonny is released from jail.
The narrator then welcomes Sonny into his home. Though Sonny appreciates his help, he feels uncomfortable at his relative’s home and turns to music. It is an outlet where he expresses his feelings. We can learn from the Sonny’s Blue that music and art is a source of conflict and understanding. This paper examines how music and art affect the two brothers. It further discusses why music and art make the love between the siblings coherent.
How music and art affect the narrator and Sonny Conflict
Sonny’s passion for music is a source of disagreements. After their mother’s funeral, the two siblings discuss Sonny’s expectations. When the narrator asks Sonny what plans he has for the future, his answer dismays the narrator. Sonny tells his brother “I want to play with-jazz musicians” (Baldwin 12).
He tells his brother about his vision and dreams but the narrator dismisses these ideas. They argue about it for a while before they part ways. In another incidence, music causes conflict between Sonny and his sister-in –law’s mother. While living in their house, Sonny gets into a habit of missing School.
When he is confronted, he discloses that he was hanging out with the musicians in Greenwich Village. This revelation evokes a conflict between the two parties. Later, Sonny is sad because he recognizes that his dream is a burden to the people he loves (Baldwin 17). His passion for music causes them grief. Sonny enlists in the navy following this argument. After his return from the war, the two brothers argue again because of Sonny’s choices. Sonny becomes furious with his brother and shouts at him.
Despite the fact that music is a source of conflict, it brings understanding. While sonny is living with his brother, the narrator has an urge to search his room for signs of drugs or mischief. As he thinks about his actions, he witnesses a street revival and reflects on its importance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the evening, Sonny invites him to attend one of his music concerts. Sonny explains that in music, he finds an avenue to express his pain and release his fears and struggles. In the club, the narrator realizes that his brother has earned the respect of the people because of his passion for music. He is a common figure among the people. Throughout the night, the narrator watches his younger brother struggle while playing music.
He becomes part of their family through his music. He then understands that Sonny’s problems emanates through his music. The narrator realizes that his brother is giving back to the society. He says “And he was giving it back, as everything must be given back, so that, passing through death, it can live forever” (Baldwin 25). This incidence brings understanding. The narrator finally comprehends Sonny’s identity and personality. He is proud of sonny’s undertakings as a musician.
Why music and art make the love between the siblings coherent The love between the narrator and sonny is coherent because the narrator believes that it is his responsibility to look after his brother. The narrator loves his brother, but he feels that, by becoming a musician, Sonny will fail. In one of the flashbacks in the story, the narrator recalls his mother asking him to watch out for sonny.
His mother reminds him that when his father was young, he witnessed his brother’s murder. He was knocked by a car, and the occupants of the car did not bother to check on him. His father never recovered from that the incidence and his mother did not want the same thing to happen to the narrator.
His mother’s words encourage him to be his brother’s keeper (Baldwin 9). As a result, the narrator feels compelled to ensure that his brother is safe. This obligation strengthens their relationship. However, the narrator still feels like music is not the best option for Sonny. The narrator wants only the best for his brother. The narrator has a loving family and a respectable career, and he wishes that his brother will find the same success in something else other than music.
Music makes the love among the siblings more coherently because of the narrator’s feelings towards musicians. The narrator believes musicians are lazy people in search of a way to escape the issues of life.
Furthermore, the narrator thinks that musicians are drug addicts who lead immoral lifestyles. He relates this lifestyle to his neighborhood. Both of them are brought up in Harlem where, they endure the same poverty and hopelessness that engulf their neighborhood (Baldwin 10). The narrator decides to be a teacher while sonny desires to be a musician.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of “Sonny’s Blue” Of James Baldwin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When he finds out that his brother is arrested, he does not attempt to help him because he is torn between love and disgust, apprehension and distrust. He is frustrated because Sonny has no intentions of leaving the poverty in Harlem. Music represents a cage that keeps him locked up in Harlem. He fails to comprehend why Sonny still goes back to the same lifestyle. This assumption and fear make his relationship with his brother coherent. He dismisses his dreams of being a musician because he believes it is a poor choice.
Conclusion Music and art affect the relationship between the narrator and Sonny in many ways. They fight because of music, but in the end, they understand each other because of the same. The narrator does not appreciate the lifestyle of musicians. He believes they are lazy people without a vision. For that reason, he disapproves Sonny’s decisions.
He associates music with poverty and does not comprehend how musicians can become successful. The narrator loves his brother, but he is frustrated with his choices. He wants his brother to rise above poverty and hopelessness. He feels a sense of obligation towards him and desires the best for him. Music is a source of conflict as well as understanding of this story.
Works Cited Baldwin, James. Sonny’s Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Ernst /Schulbuch, 2009. Scribd Net Library. Web.
Human Development Theories Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Freud developed theories that assist in understanding the developmental stages of individuals. He approached psychology in a three split entities such as “id”, “ego”, as well as the “super-ego.” “Id” is the primary drive with the “ego” and the “super-ego” providing a control for the drive. In addition, the “super-ego” acts as the alternate of the “id.” The super-ego ensures that an individual behaves in an efficient and socially acceptable manner. The purpose of this essay is therefore two-fold.
First of all, it seeks to establish how emotions and desires help individuals develop defense mechanisms. Secondly, it provides an explanation of the role that attachment theory plays in an individual development of the adulthood. Finally, a summary of the effect of emotions and desires on development, as well as the influence of attachment theory on development to adulthood are also provided.
Sigmund Theories Individuals become anxious and get into trouble because individuals seek to maintain a balance among these impulses. The super-ego entity performs the task of suppressing and controlling the desires, and at the same time, protects the personality. As a result, the urges and the desires are forced into the unconscious mind in order to stop any damage of the individual. However, when the issues receive no attention, they may result into psychological disorders.
This results into a process termed as defense mechanisms. Individuals in their everyday life bury unwanted experiences and thoughts as their defense mechanisms. The common form of defense mechanism is repression. In this case, an individual locks his/her thoughts plus memories unless there is a specific need to retrieve them. Essentially, this form is applicable as an appropriate device in instances of crime.
Reaction formation is a different defense mechanism where an individual convinces him/herself that he/she does not feel in certain way by acting in a way that is completely different. Sublimation and projection create other forms of defense mechanism where individuals shift their frustrations to third parties.
Freud maintains that the individual’s emotions and desires play two roles in either helping them survive or be protected from destructions. He further maintains that, even though individuals suppress their feelings, they tend to reveal them in their dreams.
For instance, an individual enrolls in school because of the defense mechanism to search for a better survival, money/finances, and increase the possibility of getting a life partner. Furthermore, individuals demand security, safety, and health in order to fulfill their desires and emotions. In fact, the individual’s emotions and desires help in the development of the defense mechanism (Salkind, 2004, p. 53).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Attachment Theory This theory maintains that the relation between a caregiver and infant is essential during the development stage of the infant. The attachment bond takes place between the mother and the infant. It points out that the bond plays a crucial role in preparing the infant for adult relationships. The infants are born with a bundle of emotions such as fear, irritation, sadness, and happiness.
The infant also encounters a bonding relationship with the caregiver through nonverbal communication as part of the interaction. As such, the bonding will influence the way they deal with other individuals during their lives. This is because the bonding develops a foundation for all forms of communication in individual prospect relationships (Ivey, Andrea and Ivey, 2012, p. 61).
On the other hand, Individuals who experience perplexing, worrisome, or wrecked emotional communication at some stage in their formative years are prone to emotions and feelings understanding difficulties during their adulthood. As a result, they experience difficult times in initiating and nurturing successful relationships.
In general, the bonding between mother and infant is in charge of shaping the failure or achievement of prospect close relationships; the aptitude to sustain emotional balance; the aptitude to locate satisfaction in ourselves and in groups; and the aptitude to bounce back from dissuasion, dissatisfaction, and misfortune.
The role of the attachment bonds is scientifically justified in shaping ones brain. The bonding overwhelmingly influences the infant brain. This is because the adult copes with life challenges and mishaps such as stress, dealing with stress, conversing through sentiment, sharing joy, quiet the infant, and letting off easily. It leads to a secure attachment of the nervous system of the infant.
The existence of a strong basis for attachment bond creates an opportunity where the child become self-confident, optimistic, relaxing and trusting whenever he/she faces a conflict. As a result, the adult will develop traits such as flexibility, creativity, optimism, and hopefulness as well.
The secured attachment will ensure development of abilities that ensure that individuals are safe, relate well with others, manage stress, balance emotions, encounter security and comfort, adventure the world, develop memories and expectations concerning relationships, and make their lives sensible. Conversely, when infants grow in an environment with insecure attachment, there is a higher likelihood that they will have difficulties in their adult relationships.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Development Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, the individual’s emotions and desires play a crucial role in developing ones’ defense mechanism through their objectives of ensuring their survival, and, at the same time, the need to protect them from any destruction. In addition, it is essential for a caregiver to maintain an emotional-full environment in order to facilitate an efficient and proper development of an infant into adulthood. Attachment bond plays a vital role in ensuring the development of brain and nurturing communication skills.
References Ivey, A E, Andrea, M J and Ivey, M B 2012, Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: a multicultural perspective (7th ed.), SAGE Publications, Los Angeles.
Salkind, N J 2004, An introduction to theories of human development, Sage Publications, Los Angeles.
Analysis of The Outsiders from the Perspectives of Social Work Theories and Applications Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Summary of the Book and Analysis of Characters’ Relations
Approaches Related to the Case
Applying Approaches to Solve Social Problems
Conclusion: Social Perspective and Outcomes
Summary of the Book and Analysis of Characters’ Relations The Outsiders is a book that narrates about social struggles premised on differences in social outlooks, wealth, and cultural beliefs (Hinton, 2005). The rivalry between the two gangs – the Greasers and the Socs – turns into the struggle in the context of social problems. Thus, the story represents a microcosm in which people with problematic backgrounds confront social challenges.
The main protagonist Ponyboy is a 14 years old boy who lives with his elder brothers – 16-year old Sodapop and the eldest brother Darry. The latter takes responsibilities for his brothers because their parents died in a car accident (Hinton, 2005). Ponyboy, along with his friends Johnny and Dally, confronts Bob and Randy, the members of the Socs, after returning from the cinema with Socs’ girlfriends Cherry and Marcia. Later, Bob and Randy decide to revenge on the Greasers and threaten Panyboy to kill him.
In a struggle, Johnny kills Bob because the latter attempted to drown Ponyboy. Both Johnny and Ponyboy decide to escape and hide in a church. However, when the church got on fire they rescue a group of children, but both teenagers are seriously wounded. Learning about the rescue of children from church, local newspapers proclaim Johnny and Ponyboy as heroes.
In a hospital, Johnny dies because of serious injuries whereas Dally suffers from Johnny’s loss and decides to commit suicide while confronting the police. After the accident and recovery, Ponybody returns home and leads a normal life, but his grades in school leave much to be desired. Then, he writes a term paper based on the story of his life, which later turns into a novel.
The book reveals a complex interaction between representatives of different layers of society resulting in rigorous struggles between the rich and the poor. The story is also about complicated family relations, as well as how family background influences teenager’s outlook on social interaction and communication.
In this respect, the three brothers – Ponyboy, Sodapop, and Darry – are left without parents’ attention and, as a result, they have to take on extra duties and responsibilities. Ponyboy is irritated by Darry’s extreme care. He befriends Johnny and shares his outlooks on life.
Sodapope is a handsome and carefree high school student who gave up studying. Along with his best friend Steve, he works at the gas station and knows everything about how to steel hubcaps. All these relationships are presented in the context of specific behavioral codes dictated by external constrains. All the members of the gang, therefore, are committed to the idea of honorable actions, which implies readiness to stand for each other in front of the Greasers’ enemies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Johnny has also a problematic family history with his abusive mother and father paying insufficient attention to their son’s education. Therefore, he is vulnerable enough to the external environment. The three brothers are also left without attention and, therefore, they are ignorant of generally accepted codes of behavior in a community.
Exercising violence against other social groups seems to be the only means of protection accepted by the characters. In addition, there are also cases of substance abuse that can be seen the way drunken Socs attack Ponyboy and his friends.
Approaches Related to the Case From a social worker perspective, many theories and approaches are applicable to the case. Particular attention should be paid to the social theories related to the analysis of the place of gangs in society, as well as the nature and causes of social struggles (Heinonen
Colonization and Aboriginal People’s Loss of Connection to the Land Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Indian Act
Introduction At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Aboriginal People inhabiting the modern territory of Canada encountered significant cultural and traditional losses, as well as disruption of their ethnic and national identity. This historical disaster had emerged after the contact of the first European arrivals who had attempted to conquer the land and impose restrictions on the rights of the Aboriginal People.
In the process, several acts and treaties were signed to ensure that the indigenous population lived in peace and harmony. However, these Acts and Treaties led to the Natives losing their lands. The British invaded their land, segregated their families, and abused their rights.
The aim of this study is to show the Aboriginal people’s loss of connection to their land and identity. This paper focuses on the fur trade, Indian Act, Treaties, and educational sphere to define how it contributed to the loss in connection to land. An in-depth analysis of facts and report has revealed that the indigenous population of Canada experienced the loss of culture and traditions, disruption of family structures, and marginalization.
Fur Trade The French and the English colonists arrived at the North America because they were involved in fur trading with the First National People. To establish favourable relations with indigenous people, European traders provided them with tools and weapons for hunting. The established unions were also represented as mixed marriages of Europeans with Native Americans which resulted in merger of cultures, as well as loss of the First Nation ethnicity.
The children of such unions had a mixed biological ancestry because they possessed elements of their parents’ cultural heritage. It has been found that, “many mixed-ancestry children grew up and raised their own families in communities that were both biologically and culturally mixed European-Indian” (Lawrence, 2003, p. 14). Involvement into economic relation with European nations contributed greatly to the loss of the land connection for the Aboriginal people.
As it has been mentioned previously, the history of fur trade is of particular significance to process of shaping Métis ethnicity. Two largest fur trade actors – the North West Company from Montreal and the Hudson’s Bay Company – the two competing interests striving to interact with the First Nation people (Lawrence, 2003).
The history reveals, “…the proliferation of posts inland brought more people into direct contact with the European trading system and European life styles” (Francis
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Term Paper college essay help online
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Definition of TCP/IP
TCP/IP is an abbreviation for the Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is often regarded as a protocol matching set that was named subsequent to the pairing of dualistically essential protocols namely, IP and TCP. Thus, it can be defined as a primary communication element applicable through the internet.
It represents network protocol sets that offer support to networked computers to easily link up with the others. TCP/IP which is a universally known internet protocol suite is comprised of sets of layers whereby every layer is in charge of a specific network task while at the same time offering specific services to the upper layer. Internet Protocol Suite was first developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the fiscal 1970s.
Applications and uses of TCP/IP
Basically, TCP is commonly applicable during the transfer of data files and emails. The lower layer protocols of the TCP/IP functions at levels which are adjacent to the user and handles abstract data. IP and TCP became the initial protocols to be well-defined under the Internet Protocol Suite standard.
It is as a result of these protocols that the name of the protocol suite materialized. Conversely, the Transmission Protocol Control functions on the internet protocol suite known as the transport layer where it offers the networked computers with dependable facilities for communication. As a network protocol, IP is used to communicate data above packaged switch network. IP facilitates the transfer of diagrams founded on the IP network hosts addresses while operating on the protocol suite internet layer.
In the TCP/IP protocol pile, the highest level protocols are the application protocols. In fact, the application protocols are the visible user interface to the protocol suite of the TPC/IP and always communicate with other internet hosts applications. Each application protocol possesses features similar to others (Helmig n.p.). The features which exemplify their uses and applications are as follows:
TCP/IP protocols are applications transported and standardized with the products of TCP/IP or user written applications. The protocol suite for TCP/IP incorporates application protocols namely internet mailing system called Simple Mail transfer Protocols, and collaborative terminal telnet which allows admission into the remote internet hosts. These application protocols either use TCP or UDP as transport mechanisms. TCP offers connection oriented, reliable streams, flow control enabled and congestion friendly protocols.
As a peer to peer link leaning protocol, TCP has neither subordinate nor master correlations. Nevertheless, for communication purposes, the application normally draws on the server/client model. Servers are applications in TCP/IP which provide requisite services to the internet consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Users only need to invoke customer application segment that in turn creates requests for specific services and send them to the application server segment via the transport vehicle, TCP/IP. The program (server) accepts requests, execute the requisite services and propel the outcomes back in form of reply.
Any server in the TCP/IP often handles multifaceted requesting customers and requests simultaneously (Panko 267). Therefore, it is apparent that TCP/IP has been widely used in server and clients models and in the provision of access to various other networks via gateway, bridge and router.
Standards for TCP and IP
TCP/IP has been widely recognized by users and developers alike due to its everlasting regeneration and integral openness. Similar facts hold true for the open communication network, internet. Nonetheless, such openness can certainly become helpful or harmful if there are no controls.
Even though there no general bodies which could govern the issuance of internet regulations and directives, there are mutual cooperation control. Under the organization and management of Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Society (ISOC) is mandated to standardize the internet community. From these organizations both TCP and IP are regarded as standards (Cisco Networking Academy 91). That is, the TCP as a standard is denoted by RFC 793 while IP is represented by RFC 791.
RFCs are numbered serially as they are issued. After a document is consigned an RFC number and issued, that number is certainly not reprocessed, even if the RFC is reviewed. In this respect, there has not been any question of having the most current versions of a specific RFC. Currently, RFCs are numbered up to 1609.
The term RFC is an incongruity. While most RFC biographers certainly will not mind if you give your views about the article, RFCs habitually are not actually demanding for any comments at all. In fact, they are descriptions or statements. There are three types of RFCs: Informational, which offers beneficial information; Experimental, which describes an experimental protocol and Standards Track, which stipulate Internet standards path protocol for the entire Internet community.
How TCP/IP protocol works TCP/IP comprises of layers while each and every layer plays a significant role of carrying out some processes on the received data. After the operations have been performed, the data is passed to the advanced layers. Every protocol layer handles specific issues that are linked with data transmissions and at the same time rendering particular services to the developed layers.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A detailed TCP/IP description is illustrated by the reference model in the appendices (Architecture diagram). The functioning of the protocol can be gauged via looking at the protocol layers of TCP/IP.
The protocol layers of TCP/IP
TCP/IP is actually sculpted into layers just like any other networking software. The layered sign gives rise to the protocol stack term, denoting the protocol suite layers. The TCP/IP protocol suite can be positioned using the stack protocol against other network systems including Open System Interconnection (OSI) and the System Network Architecture (SNA) model. The protocol stack divides the communiqué software’s into various layers.
Thus, allowing for the capacity to generate alternate implementation layers, simple code testing and implementation as well as division of labor. The implemented layers communicate with any other layer that falls either below or above through the abridged interface (“How TCP/IP Works” par.1). Layers in this regard offer services for any layer that falls right above it by utilizing services tendered by any layer that is underneath.
The four architectural layers that allow TCP/IP model to properly transmit data include transport, network, application and the internet layers.
Transport layer: This layer offers end to end transmission of data. This is possible as it can deliver data from a particular application to a specific distant peer. There is simultaneous support for several applications. TCP is the most applicable transport protocol layer. TCP allows for flow control, duplicate data suppression, link-oriented dependable data transfer and congestion control.
User Datagram Protocol is another component of the transport protocol layer. This protocol allows for unreliable, best effort and connectionless services. Any application that uses UDP as its transport protocol must therefore craft its specific control, end to end integrity and flow control. UDP is utilized by applications which can endure some data loss and require a quick transport mechanism.
Application layer: Programs using TCP/IP protocol to communicate offers this type of layer. It is an operator process associating with other processes normally under the unlike hosts. Notable examples of the application layer are the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Telnet. The interfaces amid the transport and application layers are well-defined by the number of sockets and ports.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Network interface layer: This layer is similarly referred to as data link layer. It is the interface that leads to the concrete network hardware. In fact, the interface might or might not offer dependable transfer and might consequently be stream or packet oriented. In this regard, TCP/IP protocol seems not to stipulate the protocols. However, it may use nearly several network interfaces that are accessible, particularly those that demonstrate IP layer flexibility. Examples include SNA, FDD, IEEE and ATM.
Internetwork layer: This layer is similarly dubbed as the network or internet layer as it offers virtual internet network images. The layer plays a critical role of shielding upper planes from the underneath physical system architecture.
In this layer, the IP is deemed as an imperative protocol. It does not accept any dependability from the subordinate layers given that it is a connectionless protocol. Functions such as error recovery, flow control and reliability are not proffered by the IP and must thus be offered at advanced levels (“How TCP/IP Works” par.4).
In summary, every layer is made of protocol sets that are bound to function at that particular layer level. The available network or connection layer protocols play the role of attaching the network nodes. The transport protocol layer manages the data packet transmission amidst the host destination network and the source. Conversely, the internet layer comprises of methods, specifications as well as protocols which are drawn on when transporting packet data through the established networks (Torres 2).
The uppermost TCP/IP layer is the application layer which unswervingly interacts and also connects with service applications. It is hence true that TCP/IP operates in each and every communication level situated within the network components. Sincerely, it emerges as the core and hub of the communication network.
Components: The required Hardware and software devices
The traceable components of the TCP/IP include: SYSTCPIP applicable in TCP/IP internal incident tracing; SYSTCPIS used to detect and trace the TCP/IP intrusion services; SYSTCPRT used in the protocol for OMPROUTE tracing; SYSTCPRE used in the TCP/IP to resolve tracings and SYSTCPDA applied in an IP package tracing.
The Serial Device Server is equally a TCP/IP protocol component. Other trace selections seem to be solely and habitually applied because of the advanced or IBM support personnel instructions (IBM par.1). However, SYSTCPDA packet trace is the most essentially applied component trace.
The name TCP/IP protocol suite comes from the notable two essential protocols namely the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Internet Protocol Suite is the name that is often used. The architectural model for TCP/IP is comprised of internetworking, and the already discussed TCP/IP protocol layers and the applications.
TCP/IP was mainly designed to build networked interconnections dubbed as the internet or internetwork which offers global communication amenities over a diverse physical network. Such internetworks are beneficial in that they enable communication amid hosts located in diverse networks that are probably disjointed by large geographic areas. The phrases internet and internetwork emerged from the interconnected network phrase. Internet as used in TCP/IP has numerous network groups including local networks, commercial networks, backbones and regional networks.
These networks are usually limited in size based on the maximum geographic area that can be spanned by a given network, the total number of users belonging to the networks, and network applicability in some settings. Ethernet for instance, is integrally partial with respect to geographical scope. As a result, the capacity to hierarchically interconnect volumes of networks in organized fashions facilitates the communication between two hosts that belong to such internetwork (“How TCP/IP Works par.2).
TCP/IP internetworking also creates standardized communication mechanisms abstractions which are offered by each kind of network. All physical networks have their own dependent technological communication interfaces known as programming interfaces which offer primitive or primary communication functions. From its structural composition, it appears that TCP/IP proffers communication services running amid user applications and the programming physical network interface.
This independently supports joint interface applications devoid of the basic physical network. Therefore, it is apparent that the physical network architecture is concealed from both the application developer and the user. The application just requires the standardized communication abstraction code so as to purpose under any kind of operating platform and the physical network.
From the diagrams in the appendices, it is clear that any interconnection between two networks is only possible if the computers are attached to each of the available networks. This will ensure that packet data will be easily forwarded from a given network to another via a router. In most cases, the IP router term is applicable given that the routing purpose is a component of IP segment of the Transmission Protocol Control/ Internet Protocol suite.
This is well-illustrated by the protocol layers of the TCP/IP diagram, found in the appendix. However, to easily recognize the internetwork hosts, every host must be consigned an IP address (Helmig n.p.). If a host possess numerous networked interfaces or connectors such as routers, all interfaces ought to have inimitable IP addresses. Thus, the IP address is usually made of two components:
IP address =
Within the IP address, the network number segment distinguishes the network system inside the internet. The central authority plays the significant role of assigning the network number while ensuring that it is distinctive all through the internet. A segment of the IP address host number is assigned by an authority residing with the controlling organization which identifies the network number.
Strengths and weaknesses of the TCP/IP protocol TCP/IP has numerous strengths and weaknesses. These are as explained below:
TCP/IP Strengths: TCP/IP has the capacity to check errors, it can simultaneously transfer data and is considered very reliable, higher volumes of data can be held by the TCP/IP at once, it allows internetworking and has the capacity to establish connections amid various servers or computers.
TCP/IP Weaknesses: The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite can occasionally be slow while the protocol has a very multifaceted structure or setup.
Conclusion Generally, the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite has developed into a standard de-facto for computer communications in the current interacted universe. The permeating application of a particular network standard seems to have actually given rise to a far-fetched reliance on any application that is supported by the protocol. In the contemporary society, people utilize the Internet and the TCP/IP protocols not merely for information and entertainment, but equally in conducting everyday businesses.
Even though the protocol has manifold strengths and weaknesses, it plays the critical roles relating to gateway, routing, internetworking, bridging besides acting as a server and clients model. Hence, it is true that TCP/IP operates in each and every communication level situated within the network components. It emerges as the core and hub of the communication network.
Appendices Architecture Diagram (how it is put together physically or logically)
Packer header decode
Snapshot of the real thing in operation
Works Cited Cisco Networking Academy. IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software Lab Manual. McKinney, TX: Cisco Press, 2010. Print.
Helmig, Johannes. “TCP/IP Basics”. 2002. Web.
How TCP/IP Works. 2003. Web.
IBM. “Tracing TCP/IP components”. IBM Corporation 1990, 2010. Web.
Panko, Raymond and Panko, Julia. Business Data Networks and Telecommunications. New Delhi, India: Pearson Education, Limited, 2010. Print.
Torres, Gabriel. “How TCP/IP Protocol Works”. 2007. Web.
American History During World War Two Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
American history during world war two
Introduction Japanese attack to the Pearl Harbor made the USA government fight back. This consequently led to the Second World War. President Roosevelt criticized the attack the following day promising to protect his people. The USA was deliberately pout under attack by air forces and naval of the empire of Japan.”
The Speech was enlisting to the Americans to support him in that declared war” As commander, in chief of the army and navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for self defense”. The attack mainly left the navy and military unstable.
American history during world war two The Nazi under the leadership of Hitler is ready to kill all the Jews as witnessed in the atrocities against them. European countries especially America is ready to use its wealth and strong army to retreat. This strong deposit of wealth and material helps the citizens to remain calm since they have trust in their security.
A journalist report reveals the Massacres of the Jews led by the one anti-Semitism Hitler. Variant Fry reports the increasing numbers of the Nazis in Germany who did no other than to persecute the Jews. A social journalist helped the Jews escape from France. This shows how he sympathizes with the Jews. The anti-Hitler joined hands to destroy this movement by the Nazis.
It is believed, that the white European would not join in atrocities aimed at destroying other people’s lives. People describe them as heirs of the humanist tradition making it impossible for them to do anything dirty. The US government had confidence in their defense that they even ignored the threats coming from the Nazis. The result of this was a massacre that would be prevented earlier.
The nuns were raped, forced prostitution in Belgium and many more atrocities due to the ignorance. This lead to change of mind since the Nazis had taken power. Everywhere the Jews were dealt with; from cafes to buses where their blood was flowing. A song was even composed. The same people in the 20th century would never allow such barbarism to take place in their view.
The Nazis did not respect the holy places either and social ones too. This anti-social and unacceptable behavior even by the culture left over two million European Jews dead and over five million under Nazis control. They were starved, deported, poisoned, burned and machine gunned. The richness in material by the Nazis enabled them to execute these atrocities comfortably. This shows how richness in the material can be destructive to the social life even to the historical context.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More President Roosevelt was advised to speak out against the ordeal, Catholic Church to excommunicate those in the barbaric acts, US to offer asylum and donate food to the Jews being starved by the Nazis. Richness in material possession can also be of considerable importance as demonstrated by USA.
The USA also used propaganda in their skepticism to capture the attention of the citizens that what they heard was not the truth. The richness in material possession had the citizens believe in demonstrating the power of resources. This demonstrates the high significance that materials fit into social and historical context.
Conclusion The Second World War left indelible marks in the hearts and memory of the people of the time. Lack of love for one another, life and greed for power and control led to the war. Hitler demonstrates and represents the people without value for life. The Second World War was, therefore, as a result of personal interests.
Works Cited MICHAEL, JOHNSON. Reading the American past. Selected Historical Documents. 1865. Print.
Independent Study: Tim Burton Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Introduction “A pale, frail-looking, sad-eyed man with hair that expressed much more than last night’s pillow struggle… I remember the first thing I thought was, ‘Get some Sleep,” writes Johnny Depp, a long time associate actor of Tim Burton, in his forward to Burton on Burton (Burton, Salisbury and Depp, Burton on Burton x).
The image that Depp puts forth is that of a man-child who inspires through his camera, images of gothic landscape and images of demonic clown along with the Dickensian downheartedness and loneliness of a socially unaccepted protagonist as in Edward Scissorhands, Sleepy Hollow, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.
Burton in his work puts forth an absolute mess and as self-described as “happy-go lucky manic-depressive” (Breskin), in the same way, like his physical description penned down by Johnny Depp. Tim Burton has brought forth a style of films that transcends conventional genre and explanations (Burton and Fraga vii).
In his first short film, Vincent, Berton recalled the tale of a young man who dreamed of becoming a prince but was trapped in his suburban home, the story of a fairy tale gone wrong.
This shows his love for the queer and the odd. Laurent Tirard points out that Berton “grew up fascinated by vampires, zombies, and cheap horror films,” which created an everlasting influence on his romanticizing with the “weirdness as embodied by all sorts of hilariously marginal creatures” (Moviemakers’ master class: private lessons from the world’s foremost directors 91). Berton is particularly definite in portraying these magical creatures and he almost becomes the spokesperson of the queer.
His movies are visual poetry that shows the beauty behind the demonic and the beast-like creatures. Burton himself confessed that the ideas he gets are a “little too dark” that represents his personality’s “negative side” (Tirard 94). So how far are the ideas and images reflected in the films created by Berton reflects the real him, and how has come out of the influence of his upbringing and childhood.
Alternatively, is it that Berton sees things in a dark, gothic, manner, almost like a vision that renders a novel portrayal of the comic book characters or those from classic texts? Burton’s genius as a creator is skillfully described by Johnny Depp as “an artist, a genius, an oddball, an insane, brilliant, brave, hysterically funny, loyal, nonconformist” (Burton, Salisbury and Depp xii).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These qualities penned down by Depp about Burton are true and are reflected in his films. In this paper, an attempt is made to understand Burton as a rebellious and nontraditional artist and filmmaker.
This paper is a study of the life and work of Tim Burton. The paper tries to understand what Burton spoke through his films and how and why he was influenced to make such dreamlike (almost nightmarish) movies that transcend viewers into a gothic paradise of satire, horror imagery, and a post-modern rendition of classic fables and texts. Burton’s movies ushers a new culture of film that inspires awe as well as amazement.
His use of animation in movies to portray whimsically magical creatures that were otherwise marginalized in the original story points to a new marginalized world. The paper takes a deep look into Berton’s early life had an impact on the films he made. Further, the paper also analyzes the movies of Berton and tries to unravel the mystery elements of the movies and bring out the salient features that make Berton’s movies belong to a very different class of its own.
Early Life Tim Burton was born on 25 August 1958, in Burbank, California (Lee 13). Burton belonged to a lower-middle class family and had a younger brother. Burton as a child was an introvert and felt like a misfit in the suburban society. He grew up listening to punk rock and watching cheap horror movies.
His early idol filmmaker was Vincent Price. Though Berton did not shine in traditional academics, his artistic talent and penchant for creativity surfaced early when he used to paint decorations for his neighbors during Christmas and Halloween to make money. Later, at the age of 18, Berton received a scholarship to attend California Institute if the Arts.
In 1979, Burton joined Disney as an animator and started working on his first project Te Fox and the Hound. Then he started working as a concept artist but his ideas were rarely used as it was considered too dark for Disney’s peppy image. In 1982, he directed his first short film Vincent, which was a stop-motion animation film about a seven-year old boy.
From the very first movie Burton exposed audiences with his unique visions and gothic imagery that later became signature style for the filmmaker. In 1984, he made Frankenweenie that recounted story of a young Victor Frankestein who breathes life into his dead pet dog. It was not until 1985, after leaving Disney; Burton received commercial success with the movie, Pee-wee’s Big Adventure.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Independent Study: Tim Burton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This movie built his initial reputation as a commercial filmmaker. Burton’s love for the horror and weird continued with Bettlejuice (1998) which was a bigger commercial hit. This movie brought Burton to international fame as it won an Oscar for best make-up. Burton’s fame erupted more with the release of the 1989 Batman movie.
However, Burton’s artistic talent as a filmmaker was established with Edward the Scissorhands in 1990. This movie reiterated the significant dark imagery typical of Burton’s movies. The film was based in suburban America of Edward, a maddeningly original character, who had been artificially created. The movie brings in along with Edward, a typically suburban American life in the 1950s with stereotypical pulp fiction characters.
His other films released in the 1990s were Batman Returns (1992), Ed Wood (1994), Batman Forever (1995), Mars Attack! (1996), and Sleepy Hollow (1999). In the 2000s, Burton directed movies like Planet of the Apes (2001), Big Fish (2003), Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005), Sweeny Todd (2007), and Alice in Wonderland (2010). These films received mixed critical reviews and popularity. However, Burton’s ability to create a unique form of film that brings forth a vision of the dark and queer cannot be doubted.
Every film has been categorized to represent various facets of the culture, gender, biographical, etc. are discussed in greater detail when we try and understand what Burton’s movies speak of in the next section. Burton’s movies are believed to be his expression of his rebellious nonconformist attitude, his love for the queer, and influence of pop culture and art. The paper will analyze a few movies by Burton to understand what he tried to express as an artist and what influenced his non-conventional style of filmmaking.
Burton’s Creativity Art, Pop Culture, and Burton
“I think best when I’m drawing.” – Tim Burton (McMahan 20)
In his early childhood at Burbank, Burton was a product of a “benignly dysfunctional family” (Burton, Magliozzi and He 9). He had an “odd” relationship with his father. In his early childhood, Burton describes himself both as a practical joker and an introvert (9). His favorite pastime was to hibernate to his room and eventually moved in with his grandmother. Burton was never a reader, even of comic books as he felt there were too many words and “Drawing and visual media were his pain-relievers” (10).
The early childhood scrapbooks of Burton demonstrates that even as a boy Burton was a voracious consumer of the pop culture through his collection of greeting cards, lists of sci-fi and horror movies, sketches of his favorite star Vincent Price, and posters that he created for horror films (Burton, Magliozzi and He 10). His collection of newspaper cartoonists such as Henry Syverson (Saturday Evening Post), Gahan Wilson (National Lampoon), and Angelo Torres (Mad Magazine) show his interest in the satire of the culture and the conventional.
All these cartoonists brought forth their caricature of the American way of life through wry witness of the battle of the sexes, cultural satires, and adult cartoons. These cartons left a lasting influence on Burton’s sensibility through his efforts to imitate their drawing styles. His school assignments also helped in inculcating the pop artist in Burton.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Independent Study: Tim Burton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1975, an assignment was given to Burton to write a paper on “Humor in America”. It was apparent that Burton from his very early childhood wanted to be a non-conformist, a rebelled against the “ordinary way of life” that Burbank fathers so cherishingly upheld (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 10).
Burton was then accepted at CalArts that provided an unique opportunity to him to explore and exploit his artistic talent. Though his classroom sketchbooks contain conventional still lives and art instructions, but it provided Burton with the environment to explore many possibilities of his rebellious imagination that helped him create creatures such as “bizarre aliens, humanoid insects, and battling dinosaurs.” (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 10).
His artistic talents were dubbed to be “the kind of raw talent the Disney instructors expected could be trained to serve the company.” (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 10) Burton’s graduation project a four minute animated film named The Stalk of the Celery Monster (1979) showed a story of a mad torturing doctor’s chamber to a dentists’ clinic. The short movie is a whimsical sketchbook that demonstrates his love to merge the gothic with the real world.
Burton had a close connection between his visual and performing art. Art no doubt had a lasting impact on the way he conceived his films. His inspirations came from the cartoon strips from newspapers from his early childhood to the cartoons that studied women, men, and couples, and watercolor and pen and ink renditions of the 1980s.
Burton through his love of art and the weird created a pop Cubism. In the 1980s Burton created a wonderfully pencil illustrated animation. These represented his ability as an adept storyteller whose voice was overshadowed by Gothic characters and visual effects.
Burton as a child was introvert and in a maintained a socially alienated life. His characters right from the very beginning (e.g. Vincent , Edward Scissorhand, etc.) shows that he had a “loner mentality” (Burton, Magliozzi and He 13).
He was greatly influenced by the Pop Surrealist culture that evolved during the phase of Burton’s childhood and his professional career in form of tattoo art, pinups, comics, toys etc. this art form removed itself from the conventional modern abstract paintings and art to demonstrate a more representative art form.
Burton too was influenced by the Pop Surrealist culture that developed during the time and its influence can be remarkably found in his films and personal projects such as his paintings (e.g. Blue Girl with Wine, 1997) and his extra-large Polaroid photographs (Burton, Magliozzi and He 13).
It is believed that the flow of the fluids in his films as in the rivers of chocolate in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) or the gushing blood from Sweeny Todd: The Demon barber of Fleet Street (2007) represent Burton’s homage to the Pop Surrealists. Further in his depiction of physical mutilation in characters such as “stitched Sally, the tattooed Blue Girls or the pierced Pin Cushion Queen” (14) in Nightmare, Burton reveals his affiliation to the punk body art capturing the pop Surrealist art. He adopted other pop Surrealistic characters:
In line with the figurative nature of Pop Surrealism, Burton delights in the exaggerated manipulation of the body. Japanese transformation toys were important early influence and his drawings often picture anthropomorphic creatures – part man, animal, and machine – in the grip of some transformative emotion.
His attention to the creature-like qualities of his characters is a way for him to access their humanity: the cartoon concept art for Batman and the Joker emphasized their damaged psyches; the drawings of Edward Scissorhands’s sinister bondage gear and jack Sellington’s freakish emaciation translates to their soulfulness on screen. (Burton, Magliozzi and He 14)
Most of Burton’s characters a hidden behind masks and armors that re-emphasizes the “creatures lurking within” as observed in the expressionist attire in the Batman series, Planet of the Apes, Sleepy Hollow, and Scissorhands.
Another specific character of Burton’s work is its carnivalesque nature. Often his movies presents an imagery of a circus or a fair ground entertainment. This carnival inspired drama is present in movies like Batman trilogy, Pee-wee, Beetlejuice, Mars Attack!, and Charlie.
The presence of puppets, toys, clowns, scarecrows represents his love for the carnival and circus entertainment. Further, his sensibility for the carnival is reinforced with use of contrasting primary colors, stripes, and question marks. Typical of Burton’s movies, a carnival, a parade, or a large sign usually attracts sinister intentions.
As observed in many of his movies a merry parade ends in a scene of mass destruction, as is Batman. A visit to the chocolate factory in Charlie leads to corrupt and physical abuse. In Nightmare Burton even suspects, Santa Clause as a “colorful clown” and the Christmas holiday too is put under scrutiny. Burton’s affinity for clowns as the most misunderstood creatures puts forth the human hypocrisy and duplicity and opposing the stereotypical believes of man (Burton, Magliozzi and He 14).
His movies are strewn with scenes where there are direct conversation between adolescent and adulthood that actually rebels against authority. And the last, but most notable aspect of Burton’s creativity are his heroes who are creatures of varied spheres be it a forsaken loner sculpting ice and shrubs in Scissorhands or surviving the Wonderland or slitting throats. They are always a fair glimpse into the artistic and imaginative mind of Tim Burton.
An interesting term has been coined by Alison McmAhan, author of the book The Films of Tim Burton, called pataphysical cinema (The films of Tim Burton: animating live action in contemporary Hollywood 3). Pataphysics is the port modern version of French surrealism and Dadaism.
Such films are characterized by their anti-institution feeling that tries to make a satire of the existing academic or scientific system, have an alternative narrative, use of a lot of special effect, and movies are made on thin plots and thinly drawn characters (McMahan 3). Tim Burton is considered to be a pataphysical filmmaker (McMahan 7).
These movies are representational cinema that floats through the corridor of mainstream cinema. There are a lot of messages inscribed in these films in term of political message. This understanding of pataphysical films helps understand more of filmmakers like Burton who are a non-conformist race in the Hollywood.
It is believed that Burton’s storytelling through his films undercuts the conventional Hollywood movies. In a way, these movies run in parallel with the natural storytelling with very little plot and an animated or special effect filled ‘other’ anti-establishment message. These special effect filled sections of the movies defies the conventional avant-garde idea of art in theatre, films, or any other form of visual arts.
One can argue that pataphysical cinema came into filmdom from as early as the early twentieth century by George Méliés who first started making trick films. These movies are caste with a spectacle behind its cinema. These movies acknowledge that animation and video games are an alternative method of storytelling. New digital technology has amazingly made the line between animation and live action indistinct (McMahan 10).
The drag driven model or the animation in films serves as a voice against the institution and becomes a model for the pataphysical cinema (McMahan 11). Burton’s films are fine examples of pataphysical cinema, as argued by McMahan, travel the fine line between animation and live action, and successfully mix genres and trends of filmmaking.
In Burton’s early movies, such as Vincent and Frankenweenie this post-modern element is found in abundance. These two movies are prototypes of pataphysical cinema with their thin narrative that are planned around portions of silence. Both the movies in a way are mockingly challenge the suburban traditionalist attitude and dull way of thinking.
Burton actually uses animation and special effect to present a character that is nurtured by psychological motivation and is devoid of any classical trait. This makes Burton’s movies so different in approach. Burton adopts animation and special effect to highlight the anarchic plots that are structured around dazzling sequences.
In a conventional way, all films are structured around small sequences like musicals. But what makes these genre of films different is that the comedy described in these films are comedies that differ in the conventional aesthetics of a comedy. In this section, a better understanding of Burton’s movies is delineated through the glasses of pataphysical cinema as described by McMahan.
Both Burton, et al. (Tim Burton) and McMahan believe that visual art, pop culture, and surrealism have a strong influence on Burton’s work as an artist and a filmmaker.
His imagination is strewn with the unthought-of and rebellious anti-institutional characters. Nevertheless, are his films really as eccentric and surreal as is observed by the above-mentioned authors? Are they representative of Pop Surrealism and pataphysical cinema? Further analysis into the films of Burton is done in the following sections to unravel and rebellious, pop culture addict, weirdo-influenced imagination of Burton.
Burton’s Movies Tim Burton’s movies give a different feel to conventional stories. The gothic element, use of carnivalesque elements, genders, and many other elements make them distinct from other dark movies. However, the most important factor that sets Burton’s movies aside is their psychoanalytic perspectives. In the following section I will discuss the movies directed by Burton.
Dark animation movies were the beginning of s signature style of Burton that he carried forward in his later movies. This section discusses a few cartoon movies made by Burton that shows the inspiration that he draws for his films. His career began as an animator with Disney though Burton himself states, “Disney and I were a bad mix.” (Burton, Salisbury and Depp 9).
He directed The Black Couldron (1985) was a medieval fantasy of a magical cauldron that could produce armies of the undead (Burton, Magliozzi and He 11). Burton produced a series of “satiric killing machines” that demonstrated his liking for the gory.
The movie showed “monsterous baby incubators that use infants as ammunition, and other radically un-Disney-like, anthropomorphic creatures.” (11) during his stay in Disney, Burton created a lot of projects such as Nightmare before Christmas, Trick or Treat (1980), True Love (1981-83), Dream Factory, Hansel and Gratel (1983), and Vincent.
Burton in his career as an animator had made innovative and successful use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional animation. His 3-D animation begun with Vincent wehre he used “2-D cel animation and 3-D stop-motion animation” (McMahan 81).
Vincent begins with a 2-D sequence for its title with Gothic lettering for the title on the wall. The next sequence shows a cat runs in and jumps into a 3-D house therefore showing a seamless transition from 2-D to 3-D. as the cat enters the house Vincent picks it up and the voice over narration relates: “Vincent Malloy is seven year old. He’s always polite and does what he’s told.
For a boy his age he’s considerate and nice. But he wants to be just like Vincent Price” (McMahan 82). Saying so, the scene changes with Vincent-the boy transformed into Vincent Price the mad, scientist persona. The cartoon movie had a distinctive theme of death running throughout the movie.
Burton himself says that at one point when Vincent is asked by his mother to go outside and enjoy the sunny day, Vincent says “I am possessed by this house/ I can never leave it again.” (McMahan 85) This is reminiscent of the Gothic undertone of the movie so characteristic of Burton’s movies. Vincent’s final vision of his undead wife and a killer dog and his eventual collapse on the floor, shows that he was fantasizing of his own death, as explained by Burton himself (McMahan 85).
The main theme of the movie is death though no killing or murder sequence is shown in the movie. Burton cleverly does not show any killing but definitely shows the aftereffects or the feeling of killing and death throughout the movie. The animations created by Burton had a great impact on the movie he made in his later career as most of his movies were reminiscent of a distinctive cartoonish character.
Pee-wee’s Big Adventure (1985)
The first movie directed by Burton was Pee-wee which has gained a cult status in moviemaking. It is one of the most cartoon-like movies created by Burton that is actually a live-action movie.
Actually, the movie uses two cartoon sections and several stop-motion animation scenes. Pee-wee is important as it parodies almost all genres from 1970s television shows and soaps to late night commercials for kitchen products: “… from the sporting event opening, the product placement shots of the bike … the police series … soap opera series like Dynasty, and underwater action sequences from Tarzan.” (McMahan 52).
The movie is about Pee-wee who has an obsession and feeling about his red bike. The movie opens in a dream sequence with Pee-wee winning a cycle race on this bike. When we wakes up there is a grown up man who actually resembles a pubescent boy with childish antiques and a distinct fear for women.
At times, he is also shown as a mechanical genius with an elaborate machine set up on the breakfast table and his childish liking for magic tricks. Pee-wee’s bike is the envy of all the boys in the bloc and when he refuses to sell it to the local bully Francis, the latter manages to steal it from him.
Then Pee-wee emerges on an adventure to look for his bicycle. The episode of searching for the bicycle takes the audience through a world of animation, fantasy characters, and special effects. The characters and the incidents are definitely cartoon inspired – the way Pee-wee enters a café with two large dinosaur statues, he hops on a freight train and sings hobo songs, ultimately reaching Alamo but not finding the bicycle.
The whole movie is based on narrative style of a cartoon with little connection or logic to what is being done by the characters. Critics have often stated that Burton’s movies lack a classic narrative style however, they often judge Burton’s movies benchmarked on classic Hollywood narrative style. However, Burton does not confirm to this style. In the Hollywood classic narrative style, the protagonist usually has a moral revelation that alters his/her life, however, in Pee-wee no such thing occurs.
On the other hand it denies the normal behavioral pattern followed by Hollywood movies that Pee-wee, despite his self-absorption, makes a lot of friends wherever he goes. In a way, the plot of Pee-wee is “circular and episodic” indicating that each of the events and scenes are “structured around a gag or a series of gags” expressing the cartoon like character of the movie (McMahan 54). In a way, with Pee-wee Burton ushered in a new genre of movie making which has been termed as pataphysical films (McMahan 58).
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1999)
The story of The Legend of Sleepy Hollow was set in 1799. It is about Ichabod Crane (Johnny Depp) who is a forensic detective with the police department. He is a scientist in the Victorian style, caught in the schema of “Gothic revival America” (McMahan 68). However, the police department reluctant with the methods of Crane, sends him to a remote village of Sleepy Hollow where a series of mysterious murders have been reported.
But as Crane enters the village, which reflects a bucolic farm village with Dutch architecture, all the doors are closed at his approach. Incidentally, he enters a house that was hosting a party and gets introduced to the other characters i.e. Katrina Van Tassel and Bram von Brunt. Katrina’s father, Baltus Van Tassel, who is also the wealthiest man in the village invites Crane to stay in his house as long he has to solve his mystery.
Crane meets the elders of the town who tell him that a headless equestrian who was killed two decades back in the Western Woods was responsible for the mysterious deaths in the village. The mystery once unraveled shows that Lady Van Tassel, second wife of Baltus’, had initially entered as a nurse to care for his first wife (Katherine’s mother) to avenge a grievance to her family and to get rich. Soon she kills Baltus’s first wife and seduces him to marry her.
She was a witch who uses her powers to bring back the dead Hessian who kills anybody at her bidding. She also makes hessian kill all Ichabod meets the first night at Sleepy Hollow. Ichabod a man of science at first rejects the stories of Hessian but when he witnesses the death of Magistrate Philipse he realizes that it is actually true and appears to have a nervous breakdown.
However, once he regains consciousness he declares that even though the horseman is supernatural, he is controlled by a human and goes ahead to investigate the case from a rational and scientific perspective. His method makes him first suspect Baltus, who is killed by the Horseman, and then Katherine. But then his reasoning makes him suspect Lady Van Tassel and he returns to the village just in time to save Katherine from death. In the end, the Horseman carries Lady Van Tassel to hell (McMahan 70).
The movie is strewn with Gothic elements as it has been stated that Sleepy Hollow “was the first Gothic horror movie in Tim Burton’s career” (McMahan 71). But even in this movie Burton is found to make a “hybrid genre film that combines two structures – fairy tale and horror” (71).
The fairy tale like element is seen when Ichabod is sent on a quest to look for the missing links between the murders and the Horseman. He eventually solves the problem and links the fairy tale like magic element of the Horseman with his scientific forensic reasoning. Here Burton uses to show masculine as the hero in Ichabod and his scientific methods and the feminine is the witch and her witchcraft.
The horror influence is seen at its best in the creation of the character of serial-killer-psychopath incarnated Lady Van Tussel who is a typical character out of any low budget horror flicks. In Ichabod too Burton presents a contradiction of his scientific love of rational investigative forensic and his distaste for “dirty, messy, insect-like, or at all scary” (McMahan 73).
According to Burton in Ichabod he portrayed a teenage girl: “male action adventure hero who’s portrayed like a thirteen-year-old girl” (McMahan 73). This is a similar approach that Burton shows as in Pee-wee where a grown up man shows the characters of a pubescent boy.
Sweeny Todd (2007)
Sweeny Todd is an adaptation of musical and theatrical drama based on a serial killer from London. The movie begins one night with a ship that brings the characters into London. London is shown as a dark city accentuating the Gothic elements of the movie. The real name of Todd is Benjamin Barker, who has been framed by Judge Turnip, sexually abused his wife, and took his daughter into his care whom he intends to marry (Lee 68).
The world depicted by Burton is a world of men where the strong and powerful can easily ruin the life of the less privileged men. Todd takes revenge on his vindicator through a series of murders that are shown in the film. One of the striking elements of the film is its adherence to cannibalism especially transformation of Todd’s victims into meat pies that are devoured by Mrs. Lovett’s customers. Todd initially intended to take revenge on Turnip but starts getting pleasure out of his killings.
The movie takes a more morbid turn as Mrs. Lovett and Todd emerges on a killing spree that evades their desire to rebel against the unequal class system in seventeenth century England. But the taste of murder makes them forget their desire to bring equality, rather they too are engulfed in the cruel society and brings out the cannibalistic idea of serving “human meat to other humans” (Lee 71). Therefore, their idea of brining equality is to serve the same food to all indistinctively but also at the cost of cruelty against the innocent.
Burton made a number of movies with his characteristic treatment and discussion of all may not be possible in this paper. However, all these movies show a definitely distinct character and use of certain elements are continuous in all of Burton’s films. The next section discusses the various elements of Burton’s films.
Analyzing Burton’s Movies This section analyzes Burton’s movies based on a few broad characters that are distinctly observed in Burton’s movies such as use of themes such as Gothic, fairy tale, gender and pop culture.
Tim Burton’s love for fairy tales has been observed in most of his movies where his gothic characters often assume fairy tale like character. The elements of fairy tale is most observable in Burton’s romantic fantasy tale of Edward Scissorhands. The movie is about a mild natured young man who was a creation of scientific experimentation gone wrong and was fitted with long scissors.
The young man, Edward, was marginalized from normal society due to his queer appearance and therefore was rejected by society. This movie was shot in a sunny suburban neighborhood of America unlike Burton’s signature love for dingy, dark urban labyrinth.
The movie is strewn with pulp-like characters out of a comic book (like the neurotic housewife, a religious fanatic, and a hairstylist who was a nymphomaniac) are largely grotesque. In the end of the movie, Edward saves a child from being hit by a car. As he was trying to comfort the boy he accidentally cuts the face of the child, which irate the townspeople who try to kill him.
Edward and Kim (his female friend) escape tot eh castle where Edward used to stay and as they try to kiss Kim’s jealous boyfriend Jim, who is killed in a struggle with Edward, interrupted them. In the end Kim tells the townspeople that Edward was dead too. The movie is a fairy tale or parable and is shown as a story being told by a grandmother to her granddaughter. The grandmother tells the granddaughter that it never snowed in the town until Edward came to the town.
The movie ends as slivers of snow are blown out of the castle window onto the peaceful town. The movie has a characteristic ending of a fairy tale. In his other movies too, Burton played with fairy tale elements and presented them in a dark background as observed in Sleepy Hollow or Sweeney Todd. In his own words Burton says that fairy tale is mostly misrepresented by popular culture as “all white” which is actually a misinterpretation of the tales:
I think it does have to do with whatever that young impulse is – whatever you want to call that. Who are we? How are we created? What else is out there? What happens when you die? All that stuff is unknown. Everything is under the umbrella of life and death and the unknown, and a mixture of good and bad, and funny and sad, and everything at once.
It is weirdly complicated. And I find that fairy tales acknowledge that. They acknowledge the absurdity, they acknowledge the reality, but in a way that is beyond real. Therefore, I find that more real. (Burton and Fraga, Tim Burton: interviews 66).
In Scissorhands Burton depicts a fairy tale in the narrative structure of the film. However, in a more sophisticated manner with humor and pathos mingled with the basic story. Burton’s work from Scissorhands to Big Fish is reminiscent of the fairy tale narrative structure. In a way, Scissorhands could be called Burton’s version of Beauty and the Beast.
In order to understand the Gothic elements in Burton’s movies it is unavoidable to understand what is meant by Gothic. In the 17th and the 18th century, as science and its predominance in man’s thinking became predominant, it emerged an era of enlightenment that questioned age-old social and religious teachings. The forbearers of Enlightenment wanted to bear the light of rational thinking on the magical and gullible thinking of the past.
In other words, from the scientific rational, the Gothic was chaotic and the new enlightened way of life was more orderly. In a way, the Gothic was therefore, connected with the “dark” side of human life. Therefore, with the advent of the twentieth century cinema, Gothic themes had always enthralled the audiences and the filmmakers. This new genre of films created a horror movie genre.
The creepy Gothic feel in Burton’s movies is a signature style that can be found in all his movies starting from Vincent through Sweeney Todd and Alice in Wonderland. Gothic imagery are indisputably present in all of Burton’s movies. In Edward Scissorhands, Edward is found in the attic of a Gothic castle that is found to be the dwelling place of the protagonists in many of Burton’s creations.
The visual elements of Sleepy Hollow and Sweeney Todd are Gothic in character. Burton’s films based on fairy tale narrative such as Edward Scissorhands, The Nightmare Before Christmas, and Sleepy Hollow and his myth films such as batman, Batman Returns, Ed Wood, and Planet of Apes are all set in modern Gothic background and have been called examples of modern Gothic (McMahan 67).
The reason being in the predominance of a “gloomy and mysterious settings, menacing or nostalgic soundtracks, the oppressive weight of the past upon the present, supernatural and human evil, and a set of décor that is usually an excessive combination of medieval and rococo design style.” (McMahan 68)
Classic Gothic tales were characterized by human evil in form of a father figure as in case of the creator of Edward Scissorhands and Bela Lugosi in Ed Wood or the aristocrat as oppressors as shown in Judge Turnip in Sweeney Todd. The use of Gothic imagery is clearly found in all of Burton’s movies, which were essentially gothic in character in their very inception. Burton’s movies show his likeness for the dark and light facets of human life.
In Vincent, Burton pays homage to Vincent Price, Edgar Allen Poe and other horror films made in of the mid-20th century. The animation movie is drawn on the Expressionist horror movie style and Burton uses a stark contrast of a black and white palette.
The movie shows the horrors in human mind through Vincent who is a boy who conforms to the otherwise conventional way of a “normal” life. Vincent’s association with the darker side of life and his experimentations to reveal the darker side of life is Gothic in character. Further, use of dark background also helps in accentuating the Gothic feel.
In Edward Scissorhands Burton makes full use of a Gothic narrative and grapples with the fearful unknown that lies underneath the perfectly ‘normal’ suburban life. It therefore, brings in the two worlds together the dark, dejected world of Edward with the bright sunny life of the townspeople.
In a way, Burton experiments with the idea of the classical Gothic and transcends its meaning as the classical Gothic and Burton’s re-invention of a modern Gothic in the mind and heart of the townspeople is collided in the film. Here on the key ideas taken from classical Gothic narrative is putting normal people in weird and extraordinary situations.
However, with the Edward being brought in the depthless life of the pastel colored town, Edward is asked to conform to the ideals set for him by the normal understanding of the townspeople. But he is soon dejected as a freak when Edward exposes mask of normalcy behind which the suburban town hid itself.
In Ichabo, in Sleepy Hollow, Burton creates a Gothic-style hero who fights with the superstitious unnatural magic that encumbers the village of Sleepy Hollow with his own belief in science and rational thinking. The Gothic element in the movie is accentuated with Gothic style background, castle, and the woods. This movie is reminiscent of the Gothic mingling of rational scientific mind and the unnatural, irrational, old age superstitions in magic and the supernormal.
Burton’s portrayal of Gotham city is also a depiction of the Gothic hero in batman who is a solitary soul roaming around in a bat-suit at night and through the dingy alleys of Gotham City.
Sweeney Todd is dark movie at its best that unveils the evil residing in human conditions. As seen in Lady Van Tussel in Sleepy Hollow who unleashes on a murderous road with the headless Horseman, in Sweeney Todd the protagonists too walk the path of a murderous rampage and unleashes the demons residing inside their soul. The fire of revenge consumes the protagonists in the film. The reason, like Batman, is a past trauma in Todd’s life that left him a divided being.
This desire for revenge disassociates Todd, as well as Batman, from being the man he used to be therefore traversing the path of bloodlust. In the barbaric rendering of Sweeney Todd, Burton re-emphasizes on the Gothic theme of the movie. Like the classic Gothic tales that infuses nightmares, Sweeney Todd infuses nightmares of cannibalism, an inexplicable human crime and the ultimate treachery of tricking the unwitting to commit this demonic act.
Another feature of Gothic tales is a disconnect with the things that are normally accessible to human beings. In case of Sweeney Todd is the disconnect of the natural human feelings due to the past tragedy and separation with his family. His wronged past suffocates of all humane feelings from him and disassociates him from the man he once was.
All these movies have a definitive Gothic feel and Burton accentuates and plays with the normal and the Gothic to bring forth the darker side of human mind and heart rather than the scene or background. Therefore, the Gothic elements in Burton’s movies are more in the darker side of human mind than in the landscape and architecture.
In Sleepy Hollow Burton portrays the supernatural and the magic as female characterized through Lady Von Tussel while the male lead character Ichabod portrays the scientific reasoning.
Gender portrayal in Burton’s movies run from wicked witch to dutiful daughter to the wicked child. In Sleepy Hollow, Ichabod stands between these women and their claim over the patriarchal society. Lady Van Tussel is a classical portrayal of women who hunger for power as their own and not through a man as irrational, conniving, and heartless.
Burton shows Tussel as a dangerous feminist who uses the man she betrayed to do the killings the she herself wishes to commit. Tussel demonstrates an anti-patriarchal force but not actually a feminist. She actually uses her anger to meet personal goals rather than for all female race. On the other hand, Katherine uses her power to protect her father and Ichabod.
In other movies like Pee-wee Burton shows Pee-wee’s fear of women and in Edward Scissorhands women in the town are portrayed in a typical pulp-comic like characters each with a distinct and unnatural character.
In Sweeney Todd again Burton brings forth the heartless Mrs. Lovett who aids and actually gives the idea of cannibalism to Todd. As in Alice in Wonderland Burton depicts women as one who lack identity through shape shifting. Gender though transcends stereotypical roles in Burton’s movies; it has a distinct character with usually women playing the evil character.
The influence of popular culture and its adaptation in Burton’s movies are evident. Burton in his movies have shown a clear influence of fairy tales, fables, horror movies made in the mid-nineties and the pulp (comic) fiction.
Burton’s adaption of these styles are distinct in his movies as he makes a parody of pop culture comic characters in depicting his female characters in the suburban town of Edward Scissorhands with distinct characters of a nymphomaniac to a religious fanatic. The use of Gothic style horror background and the pastel shade in Edward Scissorhands that as if comes out of the comic strips.
In his animation, movies Burton experimented with proportions and in a way created pop cubism that are distinct style of his animations (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 12). Such character is observed in certain movies as in case of Mars Attack where he shows self-inflated people and a group of giggling Martians who destroys the incompetent political, media, and military machinery of the US (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 12).
Burton’s movies also are reflections of Pop Surrealism that Burton experienced as a child (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 13). The Pop surrealism is portrayed in Burton’s movies through the depiction of exaggerated body in Burton’s movies.
Burton was influenced by Japanese transformation toys in depiction of half human and half animal characters of his drawings (Burton, Magliozzi and He, Tim Burton 14) Burton’s movies shows a characteristic masks that demonstrates the lurking of the evil creature within. As in case of movies such as Batman films, Planet of the Apes, Sleepy Hollow, and Edward Scissorhands the use of mask and armor are evident.
This explains Burton’s love for the mingling of the carnivalesque and his use of comedy and grotesque juxtaposing each other. The carnival infused comedy and drama representing surrealism is shown through Burton’s use of clowns, puppets, and scarecrows in Pee-wee, Beetlejuice, Mars Attack!, Big Fish, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.
Conclusion The imaginative ideas as themes of Burton’s movies are characteristics of this man-child director. His movies are a combination of fables, fairy tales, horror flicks and pop art. His movies represent fairy tales and the Gothic. Burton uses pop surrealism to present his idea of imagination and the duality in human heart masked by their outwards appearance. These are the running themes of Burton’s movies.
Works Cited Breskin, David Watson A. “Tim Burton (Cover Story).” 23 July 1992. Rolling Stone. Web.
Burton, Tim and Kristian Fraga. Tim Burton: interviews. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005. Print.
Burton, Tim, Mark Salisbury and Johnny Depp. Burton on Burton. London: Macmillan, 1995. Print.
Burton, Tim, Ron Magliozzi and Jenny He. Tim Burton. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2009. Print.
Lee, Sun Hee Teresa. How to Analyze the Films of Tim Burton. Minnesota: ABDO, 2012. Print.
McMahan, Alison. The films of Tim Burton: animating live action in contemporary Hollywood. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Print.
Tirard, Laurent. Moviemakers’ master class: private lessons from the world’s foremost directors. New York: Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Business That Have Adapted to Mobile Coupons Report argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Increases in Profit from Reeling in Student Demographic
E-mail Coupons Attract Larger Customer Database
More Publicity for Growing Small Business
Better Idea of Most Popular Items
Companies Using Mobile Coupons
Mobile coupons are essentially coupons sent, stored and redeemed via electronic means. They are becoming more popular and many businesses are embracing the idea of mobile coupons because they boost customer loyalty (Rosen, 2012). Today almost every adult in the developed world interacts with the internet or phone daily, in a variety of ways. Mobile devices are becoming common tools for shopping, allowing customers to research product quality, opinion, reviews, and location.
Increases in Profit from Reeling in Student Demographic Approximately one in five smartphone owners redeem a mobile coupon every year. Future estimates show that in a year’s time, 30 percent of mobile device users would be redeeming discounts on the go (Emarketer, 2011). Currently the student demographic is the most active on social media.
Since social media already offer brand presence, mobile coupons come in handy to promote direct conversations around the products. The media shrewdness of the student demographic and concentration of students in campuses provides an ideal target for marketing with mobile coupons (OnCampus Marketing Team, 2012).
E-mail Coupons Attract Larger Customer Database The basic and most common form of this interaction is email. In fact, email serves like an online identity and shipment address for internet transactions. In addition to the scale of reach available through email, businesses have the advantage of time. Electronic communication is instantaneous to almost any part of the world. Mobile coupons require users to enroll and this allows marketers to develop customer profiles.
Later the databases become handy for tracking redemption patterns, and consumption behaviors. For businesses, use of mobile coupons makes it possible to track market data and deliver better product campaigns in future. Use of mobile coupons ensures that business receive demographic feedback of their market campaigns fast and efficiently.
More Publicity for Growing Small Business Consumers opt for mobile coupons because of the savings held within them; however, companies using coupons are now attaching multiple purchase requirements for qualification. Therefore, while mobile coupons increase in popularity and their face value increases to entice customers, sellers are still benefiting from the low average value offered on multiple products compared to the face value of one product.
For small businesses, the return on investment offered by mobile coupons is hard to pass by. They result to the movement of two to three different items because of their multiple purchase agreements. Here, small businesses collaborate with larger ones to offer their products as part of the multi-purchase settlements.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Better Idea of Most Popular Items Other than attracting customers with their discounts, mobile coupons also encourage consumer interactions with business and more products. In a way, mobile coupons help organizations to introduce new products or divert attention from less profitable products. In addition, cheap marketing options like pay-per-performance lead to bigger savings for businesses.
Fewer dealings with paper translate to fewer hassles for customers and make a business that uses mobile coupons friendlier than others do. Primary grocery shoppers are turning to mobile coupons to minimize their family budgets. These shoppers choose brands based on the coupon offerings and in turn go on to develop attachments to the new products.
Companies Using Mobile Coupons The adoption of mobile coupons is happening to all kinds of companies like retailers, restaurants and even gas stations. For example, Procter
Love is illogical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Love has been described in as many ways as there are stars in the sky or sands on the beach; it has been described as eternal, fleeting, constant, abrupt, logical, illogical, biological and even psychological, in fact there are so many concepts, descriptions, words, phrases and even piles of poetry that attempt to define love that attempting encapsulate it into a single phrase or line is to ask for the impossible (Riley, 1).
Yet the common theme for all literature and oral traditions that encompass the concept of love is that they all state that love is something deeply personal and as such is based on personal perspective. This would probably explain why there are so many definitions of the concept since if every individual is unique then the ways in which they interpret love must be unique as well.
As such, based on my personal perspective love is something that comes from seeing that special someone and wishing them nothing but happiness, for me love is neither emotional nor fallacious rather it is the willingness to cast away all logic, all feeling and even common sense in favor of truly seeing someone that you care about happy.
On the other hand my own personal experience with love is that it is a torture beyond all tortures, it is sacrificial with no actual compensation in the end and it is even at times incredibly stupid blinding a person to what is in front of them. Evidence of this can be seen in the main character of the story “Love is a Fallacy” since love apparently blinded him to the true nature of Polly Espy (Shulman, 1).
It is actually rather interesting to note that in many modern day retellings of love it is either shown that love is blind or that love is sacrificial yet few ever delve into the concept of love being cynical in fact I can even say that to love someone in reality is to understand the difference between fantasy and the real world.
It is often the case that that the popular concept of love portrayed in films and modern day literature is far from realistic and represents an ideal reality that people yearn for yet one that is nothing more than fantasy for the rest of society.
A twist of fate causing an ordinary boy and rich girl to fall in love, a young woman changing the heart of a beast to that of a man, two of the most unlikely people in the world getting together, love conquers all, and the concept of sacrifice being the ultimate expression of love are all themes seen in many of today’s most remembered and adored stories of love yet are any of these themes truly realistic? For many of us living in reality the account of the main character in the short story “Love is Fallacy” is something closer to what love is like.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More You see someone you like, you try to court them and in the end they break your heart and choose someone that’s completely illogical and who doesn’t seem to truly love them (Shulman, 1).
This is the story that a lot of us have lived, with the dramatization of love seen in modern day literature and movies being the ideal that most of us wish that love was truly like. A lot of girls want to be treated as a princess, ordinary guys want to have a chance with beautiful girls, and people want to feel special, wanted and even to experience the sort of love that they only hear about.
Yet as I mentioned before this desire is connected to the concept of the “ideal” sort of love which represents the perfect possible outcome people can achieve. Unfortunately we live in an imperfect world where the ideal is often unreachable, impossible and unlikely to happen to the vast majority of the population.
As such if I were to compare present day stories such as those seen in “Titanic”, “the Little Mermaid” and “Shrek” I would say that they represent an unrealistic ideal with stories such as “Love is Fallacy” being the true nature of love wherein people make mistakes, get hurt and lose the person they care about.
In the story “Titanic” the ongoing theme of love within the movie is that it can conquer all and that true love is one based on sacrifice as seen in the scene involving Jack and Rose where he stays in the water in order to make sure that she survives. While it may be true that true love can indeed induce such a degree of sacrifice it is at times hardly believable that someone would sacrifice his life for a girl he just met and entered into a relationship with in just a few weeks.
A more realistic account can be seen in the story “Love is Fallacy” where it is shown that Polly Espy doesn’t truly love the main character since she’s only been with him for a few days. In fact it can even be seen that the main character in the story placed Polly on a pedestal and completely ignored all her faults resulting in his utter and complete disappointment later on when she chose to be with a person on the basis of him following a fad.
The basis of the formation of a relationship in “Love is a Fallacy” is similar to that of the delusion many of us attribute to our crushes where we create a perfect picture of them in our mind and create all sorts of wonderful scenarios only to have them crushed in the end.
We will write a custom Essay on Love is illogical specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Titanic we see two people that immediately fall madly in love resulting in the sacrifice of one for the sake of the other, hardly realistic, will probably never happen in reality and undoubtedly would be the sort of movie many people would love to watch since it portrays the “ideal” love which they could never attain through their crushes.
In a way, the continued portrayal of ideal love in popular culture could be described as an understanding by film makers and authors that people desire for the impossible and work towards something they will never reach.
For example, the main character in the story “Love is Fallacy” aspired to mold the character of Polly Espy into his ideal woman yet from the earlier part of the story all the way till its latter half it is evident to readers that such an action is futile. In the film Titanic it is shown that Jack and Rose are madly in love yet it also equally evident to the audience that it is truly impossible for them to get together.
From my point of view people read books and watch movies on ideal love since for them they will never truly attain it, it is something that continues to torture them and the only way they can feel some sort of closure is by watching movies where the main character embodies their efforts and actually succeeds instead of failing like they had done.
One of the more ironic aspects of the story “Love is a Fallacy” is that despite the fact that Petey traded her for a raccoon skin coat Polly still chose him over someone that seemingly truly loved her. For me a fallacy is something that truly doesn’t make sense and the outcome of the efforts of the main character is rather fallacious wherein Polly accords the same value of a potentially successful young man to one that is probably destined to a life with no notable claim to fame and will probably become poor.
Despite the fallacy it is often seen that women make the worst decisions when it comes to those they love where situations such as those seen in the movie Twilight where instead of being brutally murdered and drained of blood the main character Bella actually becomes a vampire through ideal circumstances. From this perspective it can be seen that people do indeed wish for the best in their ideal love yet reality often results in people choosing the worst situations for apparently the stupidest reasons.
Conclusion Based on the various views and accounts provided, it can be seen that the portrayal of love in modern day film and literature is often unrealistic and is nothing more than a means of appeasing the desire of people to see their ideal love.
People want and need the ideal love in their live yet accounts such as those seen in the story “Love is a Fallacy” is often what they get. As such, it is no surprise that movies and literature portraying the ideal romance continue to be so popular since they serve as a means of giving hope to people that the ideal love is out there despite the fact that it will probably never come true for them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Love is illogical by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Riley, Miles O’Brien. Love : It’s An Inside Job. Alcazar Audioworks, 2008. Audiobook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web.
Shulman, Max. “Love is a Fallacy.” Asknlearn. N.p., n.d. Web.
Analysis article on a Katie Orenstein review on the book In Darkness written by Nick Lake Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The political, economical, and social problems of Haiti rarely become the main theme for the depiction in books, especially in works for children. Moreover, the difficulties which the Haitians experience every day stayed beyond the focus of the public’s of attention during a long period of time, since the Haitian revolution of the 18th century. That is why it is significant to pay much attention to the peculiarities of Nick Lake’s novel In Darkness and to its analysis in the review provided by Katie Orenstein for The New York Times.
Katie Orenstein has developed a review on the book written by Nick Lake which title is “Haiti Rising”. Thus, the title of the review gives the prompts on the main idea of the analysis which should be provided in the article. The review can be divided into two logical parts in relation to the aspects which are discussed in them.
Thus, the first part presents the Orenstein’s interpretation of the peculiarities of the main character’s personality and his visions of the reality in Haiti. The main character of the novel is Shorty, “a 15-year-old gang member entombed in the rubble of a collapsed hospital” (Orenstein 6).
The author also emphasizes the features of Lake’s presentation of the Haitian history through the boy’s eyes in connection with Toussaint L’Ouverture’s perception, “Shorty passes time by recalling his violent childhood in the slums, and shares a psychic (read: voodoo) connection with Toussaint L’Ouverture, the rebel slave leader and hero of the 18th-century Haitian revolution” (Orenstein 6).
The second part of the review is the analysis of the novel from the point of the historical and social context with references to the peculiarities of Nick Lake’s style and language. The author strictly separated these two parts, and the logical structure of the review was broken.
In spite of the fact that the analytical part of the review discusses all the main points of the novel, the analysis of the character which goes before the main part does not allow perceiving the review as the whole one combined by a single idea. However, Katie Orenstein uses several signal words which help to follow the message. They are ‘violence’, ‘reality’, ‘blur’, ‘zombie’. These words emphasize the main aspects on which the author wants to focus in her review.
The main advantage of the article is the analysis of the book as the contribution to the youth’s development, and its discussion from the points of the historical and social meaning of those cruel events which become the part of the everyday reality for the Haitians. “In Darkness works on multiple levels by blurring realities – telescoping across time, between dreams and waking, and (perhaps less intentionally) between the depiction of Haiti by the artist and Haiti itself” (Orenstein 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Katie Orenstein logically examines the main aspects of the novel with paying attention to the significant issues, ideas, and concepts (liberty, violence, darkness). She also concentrates on the tone of the novel with references to the mythological issues. These considerations help to come to the conclusion of the review which focuses on the idea of hope which is controversially represented in the Haitian vision of the mythological figure of zombie.
Nick Lake’s novel In Darkness is the discussion of the main problems which the Haitians experienced every day during many centuries. In her review for The New York Times, Katie Orenstein has analyzed the major ideas of the book with concentrating on the peculiarities of the story’s presentation and the main character’s depiction.
Works Cited Orenstein, Katie. “Haiti Rising”. The New York Times 10 Feb. 2012: 6. Print.
Fallacious Love Essay college essay help online
While deliberating on the concept of love, many definitions come to the forth. Love can be a physical sensation, chemistry between two persons that can be explained logically. At the same time, people are aware of impossibility of staying apart from their bellowed; they become frustrated and even depressed.
Therefore, love can be defined as something that stands beyond logic and emotion. It is a complicated mixture of both combined with other intangible senses. Perhaps, the hidden sense explains why people consider love irrational or even fallacious, as well as reveals individuals’ hidden possibilities.
At the same time, love cannot be subject to a false dichotomy because there are some many examples demonstrations crazy deeds of beloved trying to stay together forever. In particular, a Chinese famous love story called Butterfly Lovers accounts on the reading for self-sacrifice for the sake of love. The author depicts the feeling as something eternal and not subject to logic. It is an overwhelming feeling that contradicts the laws of logic.
Hence, the story has nothing in common with Max Shulman’s funny and ironic narration Love is a Fallacy. Specifically, Shulman shows that a relation between a man and a woman can be based on logic; while deliberating logically, the protagonist believes that it is possible to find a woman that would fit his position and requirements. Moreover, he compares himself to Pygmalion who is able to find a girl and make her fit the established standards.
In contrast, the legend about Chinese “Romeo and Juliet” provides an idea that the union between a man and a woman is created beforehand and, therefore, it cannot be the result of logic deductions. Moreover, it presents that there is no reason and logic at all to live if the person whom you love dies.
Shulman presents the protagonist who believes that his perfect match should be a woman with a number of obligatory qualities, whereas the main heroes of the Chinese legend do not try to adhere to specific reasons and standards to fall in love with each other.
In the short story Love is a Fallacy, there is no place for romantic relationships but for the educating process of a girl being a potential wife for the protagonist. Using examples of improper reasoning, the main protagonist applies to logic as the main instrument for building relationships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the main hero firmly believes that being smart and intelligent, possessing grace and beauty are the main attributes can are worth of love and attention. Assuming this, he fails to conquer the attention of Polly –the object of his courting. The main protagonists of the Chinese legend – Liang and Zhu – feel a strong affinity to each other, although Zhu is a young woman disguised in to a young man.
Here the logic is beyond the relations because it fails to explain the emerged feelings. Unlike, Shulman’s main hero, Zhu does not pay attention to appearance and character traits that make her fall in love with Liang. The only description that is possible to track is the one associated with emotions and sensations of the main heroine.
Despite different angles of discussion presented in the both texts, both narrations represent the idea that logic and love as incompatible notions. Thus, the main protagonist is contrasted to his roommate Petey whose judgment are more based on emotional perception. Similarly, Polly, the hero’s object of attention, is also more concerned with the things generating such emotion as joy, pleasure, and happiness.
Her behavior is nothing but a splash of chaotic feelings that serve as a reaction to the narrator’s actions and talks. Such an emotional behavior cannot be explicable, which irritates the hero and makes him think over the ways to make the girl think and reason: “I wanted to find out just how much work I had to do to get her mind up to the standard I required” (Shulman n. p.).
So, the hero tries to reveal the qualities that he would be fond of and that would be worth of his love. While comparing, the hero’s attempt at changing Polly’s mental process, and subject her to reason, Zhu does not even try to change his beloved because her utmost and committed love manages to hidden all the disadvantages, if any. Zhu does not need to discover the reasons for her love; neither has she established specific standards for a person whom she loves.
An interesting interpretation of relationships between logic and love can be found at the end of the story when the narrators cannot find logical reasoning for Polly’s refusal to date with him. He fails to conceive the logic of preferring Petey to him merely because the former has a raccoon coat.
Once again, the logic is defeated by emotions when it comes to personal preferences. Similarly, the story of Zhu and Liang has also proofs that logic cannot prevail over emotion. Even if when Liang dies, Zhu do not want to marry another person and follow the rules of logic. She would better die than stay alive and live without her beloved. So, neither of the stories provide logical reasons for choices made by the story heroes.
We will write a custom Essay on Fallacious Love specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, both stories provide different perspectives of false dichotomy. Hence, a reasoned action represented in Shulman’s narrations provides a false dichotomy created by the protagonists. Specifically, the main character creates an imaginary ideal woman that would be a perfect match for his position in life.
He relies on stereotypes and logic while thinking over the “model” of his future wife: “successful lawyers … married to beautiful, gracious, intelligent women” (Shulman n. p.). Thus, a false dichotomy based on logic has been created. In the Chinese legend, the established dichotomy was far beyond logic. Zhan believed blindly in her feelings and sensations and struggled against the logic and reasons imposed by her parents.
Judging from the above-presented narrations, both stories have similarities and differences in representing their outlooks on love and reasoning, as well as their connection to a relation between a man and woman, between a heart and a mind.
The established relations and false dichotomies have revealed that logic and love are two incompatible things that cannot co-exist together. Hence, the attempts of Shulman’s hero to find logic in relationships with women have failed, just like the attempts of Zhu’s parents to make their daughter to marry a person whom she does not love. In addition, there is also contradiction between logic and emotion when it comes to searching for a perfect match.
In this respect, Shulman’s story presents searching for a woman with specific qualities predetermined by stereotypic reasoning whereas Zhu and Liang do not confine their affinity to personal qualities that stand beyond reasoning. In such a way, it is possible to believe that a true love is the one that do not conform to the standards of logical reasoning whereas a fallacious love is an attempt to match a person with the desirable qualities.
Works Cited Shulman, Max. “Love is a Fallacy.” n. d. Web.
Democracy Movement in the Middle East Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Background information
This report provides the history of Middle East and how democracy movement came to be in the Middle Eastern countries. According to Steele, 2009, Middle East is a broad term that involves approximately sixteen countries in Western Asia and North America. Middle East has been a vital centre for most of the worldly affairs.
The region is said to be the main origin of religions like the Islam, Christianity and Judaism. The most widely spread being the Muslim religion in some of the countries. It is said to be the most ancient region for human civilisation (Bernard, 1996). This is one of the regions that is said to have dominated by the European culture mostly in the past because before the 20th century it was highly dominated by the European colonization.
Middle East possesses an arid and hot climate hence people in this region can only survive under irrigated agriculture with water provided from the major rivers. This is only done under a limited region in the whole of Middle East. It was also the first for introduction of year round agriculture. Currently, Middle East is characterized by strategic, economical, political, cultural and religious based regions.
Middle East has been the centre for serious conflicts from the Persian-Greek Wars to the Crusades to the Iran-Iraq War. Democracy movement in the Middle Eastern countries tackles the issue of the current development of democracy and political systems. In this report, several significant ideas and issues will be addressed. A section of this will cover the results for the successful introduction of democracy in to the Middle Eastern countries (Friedman, 2006).
The other sections will address matters concerning the introduction of democracy in a traditionally based country or region and associated with political systems that do not favour liberalism. In addition, the sections will highlight the assumptions of conflicts of Islamic religion as far as democracy is concerned.
Finally, threats of religious terrorism and extremism will be thoroughly examined and the binding ties of any effective response to terrorism which has a direct impact to the democratic movement success in the Middle East (Paya
Critical media review Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help
Rationale The news item chosen for analysis is presidential candidate, Mitt Romney’s wealth. This was an ideal theme because the presidential nominations are an important part of the country’s current events. It is insightful to know about how Americans receive information from their media sources concerning various campaign issues.
It may have been reasonable to consider other ‘typical’ themes like healthcare and education, but these do not reveal much about the American psyche. They are also not as controversial and divergent as the topic chosen. Most analysts acknowledge that American voters are some of the most well-informed in the world. Additionally, they pay attention to some of the most unlikely qualities of a particular candidate.
This interest can be seen from the way comments about Romney’s wealth have been linked to his campaign efforts. One’s net worth is an important issue among the electorate in this country, so the analysis will reveal how the information is dispensed in various media sources.
Method The research started with newspapers, blogs and other articles that covered the election. At this point no clear theme or focal point was evident.
Any issue could prove to be useful in the analysis; some of the topics noted in the media sources include “Obama’s foreign policy apologies”, “Leading candidates in the Republican nominations”, “Candidates’ health care plans”, “Tax increases after the country’s general election.”, “Republican candidates’ economic plans”, “Oil subsidies and their effects on the consumer”, “Gay marriage law in Maryland”, “Tax decisions in congress and many more”. In order to decide on the right topic, it was necessary to settle on those issues that affected all American citizens; therefore, a topic such as the gay marriage law in Maryland was automatically scrapped off since it was geographically confined.
The concerned topic also needed to have momentum, or it needed to represent a matter that would yield immediate results. Issues such as tax decisions in congress and oil subsidies were all interesting, but they had a long-term orientation. Therefore, political news that focused on the campaign were the best bet. Not only did these events receive wide coverage, but they captured the very essence of the country’s political landscape.
Some of the sources that were useful in this investigation were blogposts, newspapers, and articles from non-profit organizations on the internet. Newspaper articles were the largest sources because they dedicate a lot of their media space towards any particular issue. As the research continued, it became evident that many authors thought that Mitt Romney’s wealth was important. However, they all depended on various facts or assertions to make their conclusions. Furthermore, these media sources treated the impact of his wealth differently.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The common perspective that emerged was that Romney did not know how to talk about his wealth (Hunt 2012, A4). Additionally, most sources believed that the issue could hurt his campaign rather than strengthen it. Several articles cited campaign utterances to support their assertions and they attempted to place those assertions in context. None of the articles attempted to present the issue in black and white as the topic had many subtexts around it.
How the different genres approached the topic Blog posts generally focused on recent events that pushed this issue into the news. It is likely that the writers chose such an approach because they have limited space on their websites. Few of them looked into the history of presidential candidates’ wealth in depth. Large circulation news prints, however, provided greater detail on the history and the context behind the issue.
Commercial media sources such as the Washington Post and Wall Street Journal were different from not for profit sources like NPR because they were more blunt in their statements. When quoting some of the things that Romney said in campaigns, NPR was subtle about these (James 2012). The newspaper articles quoted him directly; they also preferred to start with those controversial elements.
What the media sources revealed about the Romney’s wealth in the campaign In the analysis, it was clear that Mitt Romney is one of the wealthiest presidential candidates to grace the country’s political scene (Goodman 2012, p12). Nonetheless, he is not the only affluent presidential candidate or politician. Other individuals have used their affluent status to their advantage; however, Romney does not fall in this category. The candidate’s inability to use his wealth tactfully could ruin his campaigns.
The media sources revealed that focus on specific utterances and campaign statements can alter the way a candidate is perceived. They also illustrated that when the historical context of a certain political topic is known, then it may cause readers to prioritize important issues. By relating Romney’s wealth to his campaign strategies and comparing to it to other politicians, it was possible to realize the complexities of political headlines.
Whether it was surprising The coverage of this topic did not come as a surprise because the American population is a highly sensitized public. This is why authors must provide greater context for every topic. It was also not surprising that commercial sources were blunter than the not-for-profit organizations because they need to grab attention.
What I learnt American media culture tends to focus on very detailed components of politics. Some issues that are quite personal can take centre stage. Furthermore, the electorate’s opinion about a certain theme can alter their perception towards the candidate. All these emanate from the choices made by media sources.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Critical media review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Goodman, R., 2012. How Romney’s wealth can shake up American politics. The Washington post: p 15.
James, F., 2012, Romney’s wealth ‘gaffes’ seem less about money and more about him, weblog. Web.
Hunt, K., 2012. Romney’s wealth proves rich vein for rivals’ Wall street journal, 21 Januray, A4.
Federal Budget Simulation Essay essay help
Federal budgeting is a complicated process as a number of aspects should be included. Thus, to make sure that all the items are considered while federal budget simulation, it is crucial to remember the following, the budget consists of spending and revenue sections and the ability to make those balanced is an art of budget development. However, each year the budget of California suffers from deficit.
This encourages many economists and politicians to bother themselves with the budget development. It is impossible to reduce the budget deficit by only cutting spending, the revenue should be raised as well as only in this case the balance may be achieved and the participants of the budget formation are not going to suffer too much.
The main aspects which are to be covered in each of the sections are as follows. The spending of the budget should cover education (K-12 education, community colleges and US $ CSU support), healthcare, human services, criminal justice, pension and retiree health.
The revenue section includes different types of taxes such as income and sales taxes, corporation taxes, business and individual tax credits, car and property taxes, and other taxes. Thus, considering closer each of the aspects it is possible to get to know which items are to be cut and what sections may be increased in financing.
To make sure that the future of the state is in safety, it is important to increase the spending on K-12 education by means of paying attention to each of the pupils which will help to raise the learning outcomes. The country needs professionals to continue its development and financial success in the future. Community colleges are also too important for the society to save on them.
Thus, it is necessary to get the budget on a more secure financial footing by means of financing the college programs. UC and CSU programs should also be supported and additional finances should be stored with the purpose to avoid tuition increases. Healthcare sector should also suffer some changes that are to result in providing the revision of the Medi-Cal, Healthy Families and Adults Health Care.
Even though the government is bothered with budget deficit, the healthcare is important. Thus, to make sure that the programs considered above are followed, the cut of the financing of the current and future workers should be held along with the increase of the employee benefits on the retirement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will increase the long-term expanses, but cut the costs in the short-term period. The government is to limit the spending on the CalWORKs childcare program for those have already been participating in one of the federal programs. Additional costs should be spent on disabled people.
Criminal justice should be financially supported by means of the increasing financing of the rehabilitation programs. The hybrid retirement plan should be confirmed aimed at sufficient long-term savings. Therefore, the spending section of the federal budgeting should have the already discussed vision.
To make sure that the budget is balanced and usefully developed, the revenues should be discussed. The income tax should be raised for those who have income over $1 million (1%) and $2 million (3%). This revenue should cover the spending in educational sphere. Sale tax on legal, environment, and personal services should be raised, however, the corporation tax should be reduced. The government should provide a credit on hiring new employees and reduce the taxation on the income that is going to be spent on college education.
The government is to eliminate the vehicle license altogether as the poor are imposed with the higher percentage than the rich under the current conditions. Nothing should be changed within the current property taxation. Considering the other taxes, the taxation on cigarettes should be increased.
On the one hand, people may stop smoking due to the increase price of the cigarettes; on the other hand, the taxes got from this tax should cover the spending of cancer treatment. Thus, the revenue to the state budget should be either left unchanged or increased in some cases to cover the spending in the previous sections. The calculation and simulation has allowed us to create the ideal budget for California as in this case the budget is balanced and it does not overstep the deficit threshold.
Therefore, it may be concluded that having discovered an appropriate mix of spending cuts and revenue increase the budget deficit may be eliminated. The balance should be based on the legal documents and cuts and increases should not be spontaneous.
Having followed the budget simulation tool it was discovered that the balance in the budget might be achieved by means of the increase of the expenses and increase of the revenues, still, in some cases the expenses should be cut as well. Thus, the federal budget simulation conducted and discussed in this paper makes it possible to draw the conclusion that only a balanced cutting spending and raise of the revenues may help the state to get rid of the budget deficit and to create a successful budget for 2012-2013.
We will write a custom Essay on Federal Budget Simulation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Feminism and Evolution or Emergence of Psychology Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Contribution to Psychology
Impact of Feminism on Psychology
Introduction Feminism has contributed in the formation and shaping of developmental psychology. In addition, feminist study has made its most important contributions to the learning of child maturity in the areas touching on research and theory with regard to sex responsibilities as well as socialization (Crawford 26).
Contribution to Psychology The past records, structures as well as the events surrounding the feminist movement are strongly connected to the particular protests of that time, individuals, and the broader alterations witnessed in the American culture. This movement labored and goes on to labor against the American society status quo (Kinser 64).
Feminism may be referred to as the resistance of sexist repression. For that reason, it is essentially a great effort to eradicate the philosophy of dominance that filters through the Western culture on a variety of stages, as well as a dedication to restructure the society in order to ensure that the self-progress of individuals is taking preference over economic growth, imperialism, and material wishes.
Feminism mainly targeted gender disparity in culture and laws. It developed on issues that had been accomplished in the initial wave, and started adapting these very thoughts to America. These ideas were adapted to be appropriate not only to the femininity responsibilities of women in the family unit or at their jobs, but also their sexual orientation (Davar 56). Beauvoir laid down the quality for afterward feminist supposition.
The feminist lobby group has been a continuous feature in American culture, and the faction of women targeted at the foundation of this initiative has since been altered. The commencement of the feminist lobby group was perceived as limited in that, the subjugated women felt that the only reaction to white, hegemonic supremacy of feminist lobby group is to reject, dismiss or trash feminism. This contributed a lot to the progress and development of psychology from feminism (Winnifred 77).
Impact of Feminism on Psychology The impact of feminism on psychology is immense. Some of the effects include: the breaking down of the “male-as-norm” custom by the feminist scholars.
With regard to this step, the feminists have enhanced the assessment of females as individuals with value, the acknowledgment that smaller amount of sex disparities exist as judged against the past, and the conception that quite a number of the sex variations that do exist are brought about by the diverse socialization models of boys and girls (Gwyn 86). The feminist research has also helped in the lessening of “mother blameworthiness” in accounting for kid’s actions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The whole social universe of the child, including peers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, daycare, schools as well as biological composition and inclinations are, at the moment, recognized as vital influence on kid’s behavior. Lastly, feminist intellectuals have aided to re-conceptualize the kid’s gender- responsibility in the socialization circle. This has been achieved by both re-interpreting the present theories of gender-responsibility in socialization circle and by coming up with novel theories (Matlin 102).
Conclusion Feminism has played a great role in the development of psychological evolution. The enlightenment of women with regard to their rights in the society has enabled them to fit in the society by enhancing mutual respect from their male counterparts. From the past feministic contributions, Psychology got a basis for development. As a result, the success of psychological growth is entirely linked to the past feministic contributions.
Works Cited Crawford, Mary. Women and Gender: A Feminist Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Davar, Bhargavi. Mental Health from a Gender Perspective. New York, NY: SAGE Publications, 2001.
Gwyn, Kirk. Women’s Lives: Multicultural Perspectives. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Kinser, Amber. Motherhood and Feminism: Seal Studies. New Jersey, NJ: Seal Press, 2010.
Matlin, Margaret. The Psychology of Women. New York, NY: Wards worth Publishing, 2011.
We will write a custom Essay on Feminism and Evolution or Emergence of Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Winnifred, Tomm. The Effects of Feminist Approaches on Research Methodologies. New York, NY: Calgary Institute, 1989.
Reasons why the Black women Population did not Consider Themselves a part of the Ongoing Feminist Movements Research Paper best college essay help
Background of the Study The experiences of black women in the U.S. have challenged feminist scholarship to rethink the relationship between race and gender for everyone. Since the middle of the 20th century, women’s studies scholars have increasingly acknowledged that differences among women arise from inequalities of power and privilege. For African American women, gender is a part of a larger pattern of unequal social relations; how gender is experienced depends with how it intersects with other inequalities (Hooks 8).
Research Question What was the position of black women in U.S. society and the reasons why the black women population did not consider themselves as a part of the ongoing feminist movements (in 20th century)? (Hooks 10).
From the research question, I intend to explore the gender ideology of the Black Power Movement, the participation of women, the effect of the fight against racism together with an increased level of race consciousness on gender awareness, and the cultural changes inspired by black power.
Although women’s activism throughout America’s history is evidence of emerging feminisms, I intend to focus my research on the emergence of radical feminism in which black women question not only their oppression in society but also the very nature of the gender hierarchy and the hegemonic gender system (Hooks 11). This paper is meant to open debate on how women viewed the much-hyped feminist movement.
Significance of the Study I have found the work of Bell Hooks (15) useful in understanding the construction of hegemonic gender orders with hegemonic versions of masculinity and femininity. Hegemonic gender constructs perpetuate the idea that gender roles are somehow natural and therefore immutable.
They are developed in such a way to maintain control of and appeal across class and race by displaying essential ingredients to all groups. Until men and women challenge these hegemonic structures, which are continuously being reinforced by the media and other forces and institutions, gender equality cannot fully evolve.
Some women activists in the Black Power movement, while fighting against racism and class discrimination, began to question their own oppression but did not go to challenge these structures. An examination of the gender in the Black Power movement and the subsequent development of a feminist movement make a critical contribution to the study of gender in America. There are important similarities between the experiences of women in the Black Power movement in the U.S. including the construction of black masculinity (Hooks 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical Approach and Methods The Black Feminist movement emerged as a response to the Black Liberation movement and the Women’s Movement. During this period, the term “black” was often used to refer to black men while “woman” was used to refer to white women. As a result, this led to the neglect of the existence of black women and their needs.
The main goal of the movement was to come up with a hypothesis that could deal with the way race, gender, and class were interlinked in their lives and to take measures that could halt sexist and classist discrimination. There have been arguments that the Black Feminist movement fought for the freedom of everyone in the society since it sought to eliminate racism, sexism and class subjugation.
The Feminist Theory is one of the theories that emerged as a result of this movement. There has been known to exist a special bond between Black Feminists and post-colonial feminists since both fought for the recognition of both the men in their own society and the Western feminists. (Hooks 35).
Literature Review No one-research study identified examines how Black women addressed the barriers attributed to race, gender, and social class during the black feminist movement. This literature review will provide insight about the political identity of Black women through the lens of Black feminist thought.
This section will begin with an overview of feminist theory to offer a context and visualize the origin of Black feminist thought. The literature review will also connect issues of race, class, and gender with the critical variables of self-determination and self-definition as fundamental components of Black feminist thought. To embrace the uniqueness of Black feminist thought, the study will define and describe the outsider-within phenomenon that has plagued Black women since their enslavement.
Feminist Theory The purpose of this section of the literature review is to offer a comprehensive understanding of standpoint theory. One should have a firm grasp of this theory‘s tenets to have the proper foundation to understand Black feminist thought theory. There exists multiple related and yet distinct feminist standpoint theories. They are grounded in one original idea, which is that knowledge is socially located and arises in social positions that are structured by power relations (Hallstein 32).
Standpoint theorists (McClish
The Examination of Warfield’s Case Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Examination of Warfield’s Case
The Possible Verdict
Introduction Criminal law can sometimes be very complex and determining what to charge can present great challenges to judges. However, the case of Warfield presents an interesting scenario of having prior knowledge of the intention to commit crime and failure to act beforehand.
The Examination of Warfield’s Case From a dissection of the case study, it is revealed that Warfield could fall the same fate as that of his friends. In fact, he needs a great attorney to shield him from facing the full face of the law as an equally guilty party for robbery with violence, intent to cause bodily harm, and forced abduction.
This is more if examined from the legal perspective that Warfield was part of the group that entered the house. The first step in determining whether Warfield is equally guilty is to determine Warfield’s prior intents and knowledge beforehand that his friends were planning to commit crime. In the event that the responses to the issues raised above are positive, then Warfield is equally responsible.
In fact, analyzing this from the legal perspective that Warfield also went into the house places a number of complexities in absolving him of the crimes. Proving that he was innocent and a victim of circumstances remains a very tough option to achieve. This is further complicated by the fact that Warfield fled when the police noticed some unusual activities. His prior knowledge on the intention of his friends to commit crimes and intent can be presumed.
Despite the fact that headlong flight alone does not constitute a crime, it is an indicative of the fact that Warfield was not only part of the group; he was also guilty. These issues raise reasonable grounds for justification of engagement in the robbery. According to Lasson (1937, p.47), “headlong flight is an indicative of criminal activity to a point of suspicion.”
Once Warfield witnessed the crime, the only decision he would have made was to withdraw, leave the house and report the crime. According to Siegel (2009), “withdrawal in this perspective is similar to renunciation.” However, in the event that Warfield manages to convince the Supreme Court that he was not part of the group, there is still the element of omission for a crime.
Warfield’s failures to attempt to stop the crime or report the intention to commit a crime constitute a crime and may place Warfield to be treated as a principal offender. These are serious self-incriminating issues, which attract the attention of keen judges and form the basis of determining the charge against the accused.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Possible Verdict Despite the fact that his defense team may prove otherwise, Warfield could still be charged as others. The most serious charge he may face in this case is robbery with violence. This only requires a finding of probable cause to consider Warfield as equally guilty. However, a strong defense team may prove otherwise and Warfield could be lucky to escape with a less serious charge of failure to report felony.
References Lasson, N. B. (1937). The History and Development of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Siegel, L.J (2009). Introduction to Criminal Justice. LA: Cengage Learning
Lack of Quality Management during Hurricane Katrina Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Given the devastating outcomes that may accompany calamities associated with storms, it is dangerous to downplay the importance of monitoring, evaluation, and quality control which are very critical to ensuring the success of any rescue efforts. Many times, however, organizations tend to forget the aspect of quality management in the planning and sadly, this leads to unpreparedness when the disasters strike (Leitmann, 2007).
A regular update of the disaster preparedness and emergency management will ensure that response teams are able to deliver as expected when the time comes. According to Haddow, Bullock and Coppola (2008), the natural disasters always prompt stakeholders to recreate their response plan and devise new ways of responding to disasters.
The challenges faced during Hurricane Katrina clearly pointed out that better response mechanisms must be developed and followed fully (Brooks
Aviation Fire Risks and Safety Analytical Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Aerodrome and licensing requirements
Standards of fire safety
Storage, use, and transportation of fuel
Introduction Aviation is an operation that entails travelling in space. Largely, aviation involves planes and either cargo or passenger planes. It is important to have a high level of safety in aviation because the occurrence of accidents could be highly disastrous as witnessed in several plane accidents. When looking at aviation risks, we find that, fire risks are the most common and therefore there is a great need to prevent them.
In case an accident occurs, it is good for all affected to have the required information and skills on how to prevent massive destruction. Pilots and the entire plane’s crew should be well trained in order to minimize the occurrence of spacecraft accidents through human error. There are international standards and safety measures, which have been set regarding fire safety and are highly recommended by the aviation fire and rescue services.
These measures are undertaken in case of fire in the aviation sector to avoid great damages and losses (Jarvis, 2006). For a high level of safety to be achieved, it is essential that the training and development of fire and safety within an aviation organization be effective. Safety facilities and personnel should always be available and easily accessible at all times, since risks can occur at any time.
Some of the resources and facilities used in aviation such as fuel are dangerous whenever handled without care. Therefore, measures should always be put in place regarding the manner they are handled. Considering all these, it could be beneficial for the local authority fire rescue services and the aviation fire rescue services to join hands in trying to curb the risks associated with fire outcomes.
Aerodrome and licensing requirements An aerodrome is a location in which space craft’s operations normally take place. Aerodromes thus comprise of airports, airfields, and military airbases. There are standard operations procedures outlined for use in an aerodrome. The aerodromes are categorically grouped into two. One category involves the unattended aerodromes in which flight information is currently being provided.
The second category of aerodromes involves the controlled aerodromes. In matters concerning fire risks in aerodromes, pilots are required to make turns towards the direction of the traffic circuit unless otherwise instructed by ATC in control. This helps avoid clashes with other planes, which can easily cause fire breakouts, since the planes were in motion.
The overhead circuit joining procedure should always be followed in unattended aerodromes or in cases where a pilot is not familiar with the given aerodrome (Civil Aviation Authority, 2007). In controlled aerodromes, pilots are supposed to notify the operating ATC on the nature of movement that they intend to undertake. This applies to both departing and arriving airplanes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pilot is also required to have an aerodrome control clearance before landing or taking off. The speed required for the pilots to operate within in any aerodrome is usually published in the specific aerodrome publication. It is mandatory for all pilots operating within a given aerodrome to comply with the given speed limits.
If unable, the pilot is supposed to notify the ATC early in advance. Licensing of aerodromes requires that the aerodrome be able to provide quality skills in fire fighting, supervisory and management. Evidence is also required by the CAA that the aerodromes have suitable systems for aviation operations to take place.
For example, fire-extinguishing facilities are required to be in place (Civil Aviation Authority, 2011). Knowledge and skills on how to deal with fire cases should also be available. This is to mean that the available training should be of high quality such that the fire rescue personnel in an aerodrome are competent enough. The air accident investigation branch looks into the causes of air accidents in order to apply the best method of rescuing the affected.
For example, during the accident that occurred on 18th July 1996 in Oxforshire, the investigations and the help rendered by the Air Accident Investigation Branch led to the survival of all the six passengers who had bordered the private plane. The Air Accident Investigation Branch is always ready and accessible in case of an accident, since the branch provides a 24-hour line that can be used to report any cases of accidents. The branch also has a set of recommendations to be followed by all for the safety of air travel.
Standards of fire safety Combining the efforts of the Local Authority Fire Rescue Services and the Aviation Fire Rescue Services requires that we examine the standards of operation in matters regarding competence and safety measures. This is because the two are separate organizations and are bound to have different standards. The major difference in standards of competence between the two branches is that, the personnel of Aviation Fire Rescue Services, have a deeper knowledge in aviation matters that the Local Authority Fire Rescue Services.
They have more knowledge on the different parts of planes in which fire can occur. Combining the two branches would give the Local Authority Fire Rescue Services a chance to be more conversant with aviation fire rescue, thus increasing the available personnel for dealing with fire breakouts in aircrafts. The two branches have quite a number of similar standards of competence.
First, the two branches require that in case of an accident occurrence the members of the branches should be dedicated to saving the endangered lives. According to the Aviation Fire Rescue Services, it is has been mapped as a subordinate role, which should be undertaken with much consideration and competence (Civil Aviation Authority, 2007). This ensures that the people whose lives are at the greatest risks are rescued by rushing them immediately to the available medical care attention unit.
We will write a custom Essay on Aviation Fire Risks and Safety specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prior to this, first aid services should be provided as medical attention is sought. In case of fire, the two organizations require their staff to be ready to extinguish the fire. This is to mean that there are facilities available for extinguishing fire. Proper training on the use and operation of these facilities is normally provided to all in order to ensure that everyone is conversant with each facility as well as their effective use.
It is an operational standard of competence for all the workers of both the Local Authority Fire Rescue Services and the Aviation Fire Rescue Services to maintain operational readiness and management of resources.
All should be ready to serve without fear and use each resource for the purpose it is intended for. There should be no fear whenever compelled with a situation requiring action. This allows for quick serving, which is essential to put off fire easily and save many lives.
A very important standard of competence that is exhibited by the Aviation Fire Rescue Service is the prevention of emergencies through proper management of aerodrome risks as well as hazards. This means that the possible risks have to be identified and measures taken to ensure that the risks are kept at minimal chances of occurring (Civil Aviation Authority, 2007).
Although this standard is not found in the Local Authority Fire Rescue Service, the organization gives guidelines to all the encountered places prone to fire hazards, on how to prevent similar occurrences. Another essential standard is the mobilization of resources in order to achieve highest response to an emergency. This means that, all the available resources, which can be used during an incident, should be incorporated.
This is because it ensures maximum performance. In cases of fire, any equipment that can reduce the effects of fire spreading should be used to put down the fire. An important factor, which is also a requirement for the two organizations, is the availability of fire fighting vehicles. These vehicles are designed in a special way for fire fighting. They possess mounted fire fighting facilities as well as space for the store of fire fighting equipment. In case of fire, these vehicles are recommended for use since they possess safety facilities.
The Local Authority Fire Rescue Services and the Aviation Fire Rescue Services have set it as a standard that the supervisors and managers should always lead the support persons in resolving operational incidents. This means that, even if they have been given the role of supervising or managing, they should always be on the forefront in ensuring that all the support crew is at its place and performing their duties for the safety of all.
In order to avoid and prevent further damage, materials that can cause an increase in the effect of fire should be avoided. It is through this standard that, spillages such as of fuel, which can worsen the situations of fire, should be avoided at a very high degree (International Fire Service Training Association, Williams
Globalization Features and Consequences Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The Origin of Globalization Globalization refers to the increasing intensity of trade and other forms of relations between different countries and continents. Currently, people are living in a constantly changing environment that is becoming more interconnected. As such, the process refers to various forms of changes other than the increase in import and export businesses. It is essential that an individual establishes the origin of globalization in order to appreciate the term; however, the process is difficult due to several notions of when the process began (Rebt, 2008).
According to reputable sources, Columbus’ trip to the American continents (late 1400s) is established as the earliest momentous step in globalization. In addition, a trade route from Europe to Asia was initiated by Vasco de Gama at nearly the same period. This resulted in the creation of strong trade routes that opened up communication fronts between several countries and different continents.
Over the centuries, globalization strengthened, and its speedy climb continued through the 18th century into the industrial revolution. The effect of globalization became so powerful that several weak countries started adopting ideas from the advanced nations (Rebt, 2008).
In the long run, the whole world went through the process of globalization, which is referred to as westernization. Westernization resulted in various advantages such as the development and use of steam powered locomotives for faster movements. These developments, therefore, enabled the faster movement of products and persons over lengthier distances than during the earlier times.
The constant sharing of ideas resulted in improved technology such as the internet, mobile communication, air travel, satellites and several others that have taken the world’s interconnectedness to another level (Rebt, 2008). As a result, these discoveries have created a platform for fast transfer of information and products; hence, enabling an effective worldwide association, outsourcing and immigration.
The Main Features of Globalization One characteristic of globalization is the action that different individuals and organizations make investments in nations other than their local nations (Agrawala, 2010). The idea tells that there exists an unrestricted access within the global markets, and without physical, fiscal, or other limits set by the government.
As a result, global customers emerge searching for high-end products and value for their money without being exposed to any regional restrictions. In addition, large manufacturing plants search and purchase their raw materials from various parts of the world. Consequently, the resultant products are sold within the country of production or exported to all other parts of the world without bias.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, globalization needs various resources such as finance, technology, and raw materials in order to grow into another level. In that sense, globalization is characterized by the easy and cheap access to finance, latest technology, and quality raw materials. Also, the process of globalization involves the production of sub-assemblies of finalized goods within several country-branches, which are owned by the concerned organization (Agrawala, 2010).
This approach enables different individuals to collaborate and develop new products, as well as manufacturing processes. Moreover, the process results in the creation of job opportunities that are posted in several regions other than the host countries. For that reason, there is free movement of managerial personnel and business people that account for mergers, takeovers, and structural associations among several countries.
Furthermore, globalization is characterized by remarkably fast economic growth in numerous developing nations including China, India, and Vietnam (Agrawala, 2010). Therefore, there is the rapid creation of jobs in cheap labor markets, which is followed by an improved purchasing ability of the population, as well as resultant job opportunities.
Globalization is also characterized by a quick transformation at the industrial level of nations such as the United States, Britain and Germany, which were originally principal manufacturing nations. The process of globalization has effectively altered the economy of Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Dusseldorf as steel, and auto production employment opportunities varnished into the developing countries such as China.
This is also the same with technical opportunities in computer software development, hardware production, as well as in computer service industries. In particular, the scenario results in long-term economic alterations and redistribution of the workforce to different regions of the globe with cheaper markets, and higher profits margins.
The Influences of Globalization on Culture Apart from several benefit of globalization, there are several issues that are raised against the process such as its apparent impact on local culture (Tandon, 2004). According to several reputable sources, it is feared that the spread of globalization will eliminate local cultures by regrouping different societies all over the world.
Apart from the United States, several nations across the globe agree with the previously mentioned effect that globalization may have on local culture. Several people including the British, the Germans, and the French have issues tolerating the United States cultural penetration that globalization demands.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization Features and Consequences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, globalization has several benefits along the cultural platform such as the understanding of different lifestyles and unification of people.
As a result, the process would improve individuals’ relationships; thereby, reducing any conflicts that crop up from cultural misunderstanding. In addition, an improved understanding of different cultures may boost an individual’s confidence and pride in their original culture and heritage; consequently, allowing individuals to interrelate well and assume a greater level of mutual understanding (Pieterse, 2009).
In that manner, people will be exposed to diverse forms of life and thought, which will play a momentous task in increasing the worldwide awareness and appreciation of man’s unity from all perspectives. Unfortunately, it would be significantly difficult to realize such benefits with the exposure of only a single side. For that matter, it may be noted that cultural understanding is a two-way traffic just like everything else.
Globalization allows for the realization of an improved level of individualism since individuals will be rated based on advantage and achievement (Pieterse, 2009). In countries such as Japan, the process has already taken effect since group achievement overtook individual performance.
This resulted because of the intense competition Japan received from other successful multinational companies. At the moment, individual performance and accomplishment have replaced superiority as the single method for promotion and recognition.
In addition, globalization improves the level of relations and adjustment among different civilizations (Tandon, 2004). Since people learn and develop through constant relations, different societies and cultures will be improved through effective interaction, observation and mutual sharing of ideas. For example, the Japanese culture was improved in several ways due to constant relations with the Chinese people.
Therefore, globalization allows for the establishment of a plural society such as the monolithic state structure, which is commonly used among several developing nations (Pieterse, 2009). An improved level of economic activity in these nations will generate several institutions, interest groups, and civil society that will promote the interests of their respective constituencies; thus, create a pluralistic society (Tandon, 2004).
Negative consequences of globalization Globalization and health
Globalization has played an immense role in the spread of the world’s deadliest diseases form one country to another. In Asia, for instance, one-third of Europe’s population succumbed to the Black Death disease that occurred in the 14th century (Wikipedia, 2012). While modern forms of transportation enable several people and products move around the world, they also expose the airways to transcontinental transfer of deadly infectious diseases.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization Features and Consequences by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More HIV/AIDS, for instance, is one such infection that has spread across the world and rated among the world’s leading epidemics. As such, globalization poses a significant danger to the lives of people globally, as much as it is essential and valuable for successful relations.
Increase in Corruption
The increasing level of corruption among different nations of the world has been tremendously influenced by the rapid spread in globalization. In particular, the highest level of corruption has been associated with countries on the African continent where leaders are involved in massive corruption deeds.
A study conducted in Uganda (a country in East Africa) revealed that only 27 cents of each dollar donated for educational functions reached the institutions within the country (Knowledge, 2011). However, the level of corruption in any country depends on the values, norms, cultural practices, and beliefs of such a nation.
While globalization allows the immigration of people from one region to another, there are increased levels of interaction and sharing of negative values from the affected people. As such, the population may absorb such values and start practicing the vices in order to secure the most for their selfish purposes.
Increase in Drugs and illicit goods trade
Over several years, globalization has played a key role in increasing the incidences of drugs and trade of illegal goods around the globe. In 2010, for instance, the UN office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported that worldwide trade in drugs generates more than $320 billion in government revenues with above 50 million frequent consumers of heroin, cocaine, and several synthetic drugs (Wikipedia, 2012).
This is made possible due to the effects of globalization that allows for a fast and secretive execution of drug deals by established drug lords. On the other hand, the use of parts from endangered species for traditional rituals resulted in a black market where poachers hunt for such animals because of the high returns. These trades have existed for long durations, but the rapid spread of globalization increases the gravity of the situation.
In some poor countries, globalization has caused severe brain drain as skilled workers from such countries search for high-paying jobs, which are offered by rich countries. For instance, nurses from some developing nations leave their countries to search for better paying job opportunities that those offered within their local countries.
In Africa, the scenario costs more than $4.1 billion as the continent secures 150,000 expatriates, on a yearly basis, as a compensation for the loss of its nurses: While India loses $10 billion on a yearly basis (Wikipedia, 2012). In conclusion, globalization favors the rich and developed nations because the most qualified individuals are absorbed by such economies.
References Agrawala, K. (2010). Social Sciences: What are the Features of Present day Globalization? Web.
Knowledge, Y. (2011). Negative Effects of Globalization: Corruption. Web.
Pieterse, J. (2009). Globalization and Culture. Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman
Discussing the parameters of a children’s book that talks about death and dying Essay essay help
Introduction Death education is considered an awkward topic to discuss in quite a number of ways. What makes it even worse is when it comes to explaining it to children. Over the years, parents have found it hard to discuss the topic and have largely resorted to lying or completely avoiding the topic.
As a result, children have had to deal with death later on in their lives in different ways without any prior knowledge on the topic. Studies have shown that introduction of the topic at an early age has less stressful effects on individuals as they more familiar with the topic and can comprehend the basic truths about life and the effects of death or loss of a loved one. Various authors have tried to cover this topic and a large contribution has been made by Bryan Mellonie and Robert Ingpen.
Lifetimes: “The beautiful way to explain death to children” is a children’s book that is suitable for all ages and is well illustrated and simply explains the life cycle of all living things. It clearly describes life outlining its beginning, living in between and ultimately its end.
As a result, the book is very beneficial to both parents and children in its attempt to explain the reality of death in a straightforward way. The book considers the sensitivity and complexity of this topic and gives attention to children in an attempt to make them understand death, dying and bereavement (Worden, 2008).
For a long time in society, this topic has largely been on the list of ones to avoid when it comes to explaining the concept of death to children. Parents are now able to easily explain death to their children thanks to this book. In all ways, it is definitely a good read for children of all ages as it is beneficial toward a child’s development towards coping with death and loss in the future.
Erik Erickson’s autonomy versus doubt Autonomy versus doubt is the second stage in Erik Erickson’s stages of psychological development. The stage involves children aged between 18 months and two or three years. This age group is ideally an important part of the age group covered in the book which mostly pertains to children. According to Erickson, it is at this stage when children begin to seek a sense of self -worth. Children learn to control their bodies and master skills such as talking, walking and even feeding themselves. It is an opportunity to build self esteem and autonomy from the parents.
If the parents are too harsh, overprotective or demanding, then the child may be affected in a negative way and experience extreme doubt and shame. The sense of autonomy fostered in the child and maintained as they grow plays a huge role in the child’s perspective of future life in general.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Erickson believed that the childhood of an individual is a very important factor in their personality development. It is, therefore, important for a child to understand about death and dying from a very early stage as it is essential towards their future development.
Piaget’s pre-operational stage theory Piaget, on the other hand, also promoted a stage approach to development. He stated that children under three years experience life through direct experience. They can tell the emotional distress of their parents or that something wrong has happened. In reality, even children who have not yet learnt how to speak can fell the absence of a loved one (Moos, 1989).
Similarly, Piaget also considered the same age group as that one which the book is written for. The topic of death and dying, from Piaget’s perspective, is essential to a child and that they are born with the innate ability to feel the emotion and effects of death around them.
However, Piaget’s main emphasis is that children mostly learn about death from personal occurrences in their lives. Worden (2008) stated:
The child’s mind is not a miniature model of the adult’s mind and theorized the idea that the child’s mind develops by organizing and interpreting information. He believed that infants aged below three years old (the pre-operational stage) are unable to perform simple logical operations and are egocentric but can realize the emotion and absence of a dear one (p. 59).
The four dimensions of death education The cognitive dimension of death deals with the provision of factual information about death and its experiences and tries to help us understand those experiences (Worden, 2008). Another topic that is also covered in this area is suicide. For a very long time, the topic of death has been incorporated into different civilizations and cultures.
Consequently, death education has uncovered new ways of organizing and interpreting death patterns. This dimension of death is slightly beyond the younger group for which the book was written. It, however, applies to older children such as teenagers who are able to comprehend and apply statistical findings to everyday life.
We will write a custom Essay on Discussing the parameters of a children’s book that talks about death and dying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effective dimension of death deals with emotions, attitudes and feelings towards death and bereavement (Kastenbaum, 1998). Death education tries to equip those who have not experienced death with the complexities and depth of emotions that come after the loss of a dear one. In simple terms, death education is used as a tool to help one who has not experienced death to understand the intensity and reality of the matter.
As this deals with knowledge acquired mainly from the experience and not personally, the effective dimension of education in the field of death may not work for children in this category. Part reason for this is that children of that particular age may find it difficult to put themselves in other people’s shoes especially when it comes to death. The child may understand the concept of death but not realize the depth of emotion and grief that are followed by death (Kastenbaum, 1998).
Knowledge and information about how people behave in death related situations is covered in the behavioral dimension of death education. The age group covered by Mellonie and Ingpen are victims of the findings related to this dimension. It is found that most people or society in the whole tend to pull back from the death topic and bereavement. In fact, most people have no idea what to do when faced with the death of a loved one.
This dimension of education offers advice on how to understand and deal with such persons. The bereaved should not be left to deal with the death alone; the presence of a caring person to listen to the bereaved and give them company is what is required in such situations. For that reason, death education in this dimension may be sort of abstract for children of the age group for which the book was intended.
Death education, in its valuational dimension portrays the essence and basic facts about life and death. As long as life exists, so will its alternate, death. The concept of death as a part of human life is the main emphasis in this dimension. Children of all ages should be made aware of the consequences and causes of death as this it is a common element of life as we live.
This, in turn, engraves reality into the child’s mind, hence, enabling them to deal and cope effectively with future losses and misfortunes which are ordinary in life. The targeted individuals of this book can easily benefit from death education in this field in different capacities according to their developmental stage and understanding.
Culture, ethnicity and socio-economic community The book (Lifetimes: The beautiful way to explain death to children) is very essential as it is based on an inevitable part of human existence. It is like a course for both children and parents on death and dying and has in mind the goal of enabling children to understand the details and, in different ways, how to deal with death, dying and bereavement (Rando, 2000).
Death is a topic that is largely avoided by most cultures and ethnic groups if not all. An important observation to keenly note is that the diverse cultures, ethnic clusters and socio-economic communities are conforming to the same preferences, acts and beliefs. An example of this is the globalization of economic blocks around the world and similarity of social patterns.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Discussing the parameters of a children’s book that talks about death and dying by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the evolution of communication patterns and transportation, different ethnic entities are now able to interact with ease resulting in unification of various practices such as similar education and political systems. Based on this development, it is right to assume that the book would attract the global community irrespective of their cultural or socio-economic differences.
We realize that the book covers a topic that is indifferent in all cultural and socio-economic divides. Whether it is Asia, Europe, America, Africa or any other continent, the issue of death is present. The book can be used all over the world to guide both children and parents in their understanding of death and how to communicate or deal with the issue.
Key elements in the death related concepts that relate to the book One of the key elements of death as a phenomenon that is covered in this book is that it is irreversible and separates us from our loved ones forever. It is the termination of the physical form of existence and the book clearly outlines the resultant effect of death in a manner that children can understand at a young age.
Another key element is that understanding of death comes in stages and as a child goes through the different developmental stages, so does their understanding of death (Rando, 2000). In this respect, the book covers the understanding of death from an early stage right through the stage where they have great knowledge on the topic.
Children have to know the basis or concept behind the situation they are in when it comes to death. For instance, in a scenario where a child has lost a sibling, by knowing what has happened around him/her, one may decide how to behave or tolerate certain behavior from people around them.
In true essence, this is the main ideology of the book as it tries to stoop lower to a child’s level of understanding and communicate about death (Doka, 1989). Children are, thus, more capable of handling death, terminal diseases and bereavement by virtue of the knowledge gained from the book.
Helping a bereaved or grieving child cope with death The book takes into consideration that the child may be aware of the emotional distress around them or the absence of a loved one irrespective of whether they fully understand exactly what has happened. Moreover, the book takes into account the level of understanding of the child.
Clearly laid out diagrams of animals and living things enable a child of young age to easily understand the concept of death. Infants under two years may not understand the death of a loved one but their other behaviors may be affected by a change in routine or grief of other members of the family.
Children aged between three and five have a very poor sense of time and this may mislead them to imagine that death is reversible. At this stage, it is very common for kids to have misconceptions or misunderstandings about death. A common sign is by constantly asking of questions about death or expressing worries that someone close to them may die.
From about the age of six to twelve, the child has a clear understanding of death. The concept of permanency of death is clear to the child. However, questions may be on what happens to the body after death. It is at this age that the book begins to give clear meaning to the reality of death and its inevitability being living beings (Corr, Nabe,
Pay Motivating Employees Analytical Essay essay help free
There are many ways to motivate employees to perform highly. Amongst the common approaches used to motivate employees perform well is financial incentive. It is the common belief of employers that high salaries and commissions motivate employees to perform highly.
This theory has worked in some cases since pay increases have generated desirable outcomes such as high performance, low turnover rates and high demand in the labor market. When employees perceive that they will be well remunerated for performing in a certain manner, they strive to achieve the targets set by their employers.
The theory that ‘pay generates motivation in employees’ originated from the belief that workers go to work so as to earn money. This means that the primary drive for laborers is money since that is the reason why they go to work. What has been established so far from past studies is that pay indeed motivates employees to perform highly (Cameron, 2006).
Pay does not however guarantee that there will be high performance from all employees since people react differently to stimuli. Whereas some respond favourably to pay packages, others want job security, recognition or improved working conditions. Pay therefore without a doubt motivates employees to perform highly but it does not work a hundred percent on all workers. It cannot be used as the only motivational factor that is applied so as to bring about high performance in the workplace.
Pay does not successfully bring about desired outcomes because it shifts focus from the job to money. If employers make it a rule that high performance is rewarded with increased pay, employees perceive that the only reason why they work hard is to receive high income.
Hence those employees who are contented with their pay get no reason to put in additional effort in their jobs. Pay as opposed to other sources of motivation is money centered and not job centered. Even though pay increases performance in the short term, it cannot be relied upon for long term sustenance of performance.
Eisenberger, Rhoades and Cameron (1999) brought out that if performance reward expectancy is to be relied upon, there must also be high levels of job satisfaction amongst employees. If employees do not show interest in their day to day routines, then only those who desire to remain controlled will respond to pay incentives. This is not desirable for companies that try to instigate employees to practice self leadership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs can be measured through a three stage action plan that includes: setting standards, measuring employee performance and giving feedback (Neely, 2001). Measuring the effect of a motivational program starts with the setting of objectives and standards against which performance can be compared. Comparing performance vis-a-vis standards should be done regularly and accurately so that the results can be reliable when used for rewarding employees.
Giving of feedback is also particularly important during appraisals. Regular feedback ought to be given to employees so that they can be aware of their progress or weaknesses throughout their performance record. When measuring the motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs, it is important to set challenging standards which are realistic, achievable and related to the company vision.
In summary, the role of compensation plans in the motivation of employees is dependent on the nature of job, employees and effectiveness of their implementation. Pay motivates employees if it is used strategically to boost performance related employee appraisals. The motivating effects of the organization’s compensation programs can be measured through setting standards, measuring employee performance and giving regular feedback.
References Cameron, J. (2006). Rewards and intrinsic motivation: resolving the controversy. Charlotte: Information Age Pub Inc
Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L.
Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect Report essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Guess Shadows Play
Hand Shadow Figures
Shadow Tag Play
To bring up a creative and active person, it is necessary to pay attention to the peculiarities of the child’s development from the first days of his or her life. It is known that the most important processes in the child’s development can be observed when he or she just a toddler. Toddler is a child in the age between one and three years, and it is the period of the most intensive cognitive, emotional, and social development of this little person who tries to know as much as possible about the world and his or her everyday surroundings.
It is significant to note that a toddler gains this knowledge while playing different kinds of games and developing any types of physical, emotional, and mental activities. Thus, the playing activity can be considered as the most important part of a toddler’s everyday life which contributes to his or her effective physical, social, cognitive, and emotional progress.
Shadow and light games are a kind of the toddler’s indoor and outdoor activities with the help of which parents and teachers have the opportunity to develop children’s abilities to communicate with each other, to develop their creative skills, to broaden their visions of the world and physical phenomena which are the part of their everyday life.
Shadow and light games can be considered as one the most successful ways to focus on children’s cognitive, social, and physical development with the help of the common things and natural phenomena. Thus, such indoor activities as Guess Shadows Play, Hand Shadow Figures, and Shadow Puppets can be discussed as the effective ways to concentrate on the development of a toddler’s imagination, creativity, and memory.
These games are necessary for the emotional and cognitive development of a child (Johnson et al., 2005). The effect of light and shadow can also be used for the physical and social development of a toddler. Such outdoor activities as Shadow Tag Play and Shadow Dancing require several participants for the game. That is why they are important for the development of communicative skills among children.
Guess Shadows Play Guess Shadows Play is an indoor activity which can be successfully used by parents and teachers in order to play with one person or a group of toddlers with the help of the objects which surrounds children everywhere. This game is helpful for the development of children’s skills to recognition when the situation for it is changed (recognition of the objects according to their shadows).
To play this game, it is necessary to create a white screen for which a large white sheet can be used. It is required to attach this sheet in such a way to make a screen from the ceiling to the floor. The next step is choosing the objects used in the everyday life which can be recognized according to their silhouettes. Then it is necessary to switch off all the lights and use only one light source which should be put behind the screen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The toddlers should be organized from the other side of the sheet in order they could have the opportunity to see the shadows of the objects which the adult holds in front of the light source. The children’s main task is to guess what objects are used for making this or that shadow. It is possible to use any number of objects and to determine the winner among those children who can guess the majority of the objects used.
Therefore, when adults use this play they have the opportunity to develop children’s ability not only to use their knowledge for the recognition of the items and develop their memory and cognitive skills but also to react in the situation of the competition with the other children ant to contribute to their social interaction (Johnson et al., 2005).
Hand Shadow Figures Hand Shadow Figures is one of the most popular games among the children of different ages because of its easiness and the possibility to use creative thinking. This play is also effective for the development of a toddler’s abilities in thinking and imagination. The effect of the game depends on the way it is used by parents and teachers. Thus, children can be just entertained with the demonstration of hand shadow figures used as the part of the shadow theatre.
In this situation they can be passive participants of the game, and it can be considered as less effective for the children’s development. Toddlers can also be engaged in the play when they try to guess what figures are act from the other side of the screen. However, the most effective way to use hand shadow figures is to try to teach toddlers how to create the easiest variants using their own fingers.
Many toddlers use their fingers and hands for entertaining themselves when they are alone. They can examine them and make definite figures. It is the stage of their examining their bodies and physical appearance (Johnson et al., 2005).It is possible to use these toddlers’ inclinations in order to develop their creativity and imagination with the help of using light and shadow.
Children can be involved in the process of creating hand shadow figures in two steps. The first step focuses on the necessity to provoke toddlers’ interest in the activity. Adults can use a white screen made from a sheet and one light source in order to demonstrate to children definite figures (as a rule, figures of animals). Then it is possible to show them how they can make easy figures with the help of their own fingers.
Nevertheless, the main task of the play not the exact and correct making the figures, but the development of the toddlers’ imagination with the help of light and shadow effects. Thus, children can try to make any figures they want and to examine the effects (Johnson et al., 2005).
We will write a custom Report on Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shadow Puppets Shadow Puppets is a kind of the puppet or shadow theatre in creating of which parents or teachers can involve toddlers. To make a shadow show, it is necessary to create the figures and put them on sticks and have one light source. It is possible to use a white wall in order to demonstrate the show.
Thus, such an activity includes two parts of the realization. The first part is the preparation of the figures for the show. It is a chance for a child to express his creativity and improve his skills in making definite figures from paper which develop different kinds of his or her movements.
The next step is the presentation of the show which can be based on the toddler’s favorite fairy plot with using popular characters. Therefore, children have the opportunity to play the scenes which are the result of their imagination and interact with each other. Moreover, it is possible to use the opportunity to play with light and shadow and focus the children’s attention on those changes in the size of the figures which can be observed when they alter the distance between the light source and the object.
It is also important to concentrate on the fact that there are transparent objects which cannot have a shadow because the light moves through them. Adults can demonstrate these objects to toddlers and accentuate their qualities. Such exercises are also helpful for children’ cognitive development and for the formation of their vision of the world which is around them (Levine, 2006).
Shadow Tag Play Shadow Tag Play is a kind of outdoor activities which gives toddlers the opportunity to communicate with each other in the park or a garden and develop their physical abilities because the game is energetic. To organize Shadow Tag Play, it is necessary to form the group of children which can include more than three participants and explain them the rules.
Thus, it is required to determine the child who will tag the other children with stepping on their shadows (Levine, 2006). When the other child is tagged the roles are changed. To provide the game effectively, it is necessary to follow such conditions as the sunshine weather and a lot of the spare rest for children tagging each other.
It is rather interesting for children to focus their attention on the length of their shadows according to a morning time, late afternoon or evening. When toddlers have the opportunity to play the game several times a day or during a long period of time they can say when it is easier for them to play it because the shadows are quite long. Moreover, this kind of activities can be considered as the exercises for toddlers when they can practice their physical abilities and make their movements more accurate.
Thus, a typical tag game which is played by the children of different ages can be successfully used for the development of toddlers as the part of their everyday outdoor activities helpful for their health, social and emotional growth (Levine, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Indoor and Outdoor Activities for Toddlers Based on the Light and Shadow Effect by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shadow Dancing Shadow Dancing is a kind of the activity which can be considered as an outdoor and indoor one. However, the outdoor variant of the game is more pleasant for toddlers. The most important meaning of Shadow Dancing for toddlers’ development is focusing on the children’s positive emotions and their interactions with each other. The rules of the activity give them the opportunity to interact and change different kinds of exercises several times.
To play Shadow Dancing effectively, it is necessary to choose a fine sunny day when the shadows can be clearly seen and propose children to dance outside with their shadows. The necessary condition for the game is the usage of the energetic music. It is helpful to use those pieces of music and melodies which made these children dance in their everyday life when the adults could observe them. These melodies will be familiar for toddlers and will contribute to their active involvement into the dancing activity.
To play the game, it is important to show the children different steps and movements which they can use while dancing with their shadows. To develop their attention, it is possible to ask them do different kinds of movements when they hear various melodies.
Moreover, the rules for the exercise can change and the children should dance with the other children’s shadows or dance with the partner and his or her shadow (Levine, 2006). This kind of activities not only develops toddlers physically but also contributes to their emotional and aesthetic development.
References Levine, J. (2006). The everything toddler activities book: Games and projects that entertain and educate. USA: Adams Media.
Johnson, J.E., Christie, J.F.,
Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation Essay custom essay help
The Jungle is a book written by a journalist who aimed at bringing out the kind of life experienced by those who had migrated to the United States. Although, the novel was then interpreted and used to expose the situation of the health that was being experienced in the industry (Sullivan 1996).
The book elaborates on the harsh conditions of people who migrated to the United States. The Jungle talks more of the problems that people both employed and unemployed faced out off the high level of corruption in by the leaders in the state. The writer of the book came up with suggestion on what ought to be done to eliminate the issue of minimal salaries among the citizens, hence, improve the living standards of the people in the United States.
The writer of the novel brings out the picture of America as a nation that is experiencing various food problems as a result of fast food cuffs, hence, threatening the lives of many citizens in the region (Cecilia 2004). Despite of their advantage of having numerous food supplies in the region, people in the state continue to suffer instead of enjoying the food resources. The writer feels that this is a problem that people created for themselves due to their unhealthy practices that lead to death as well as severe illnesses.
There were numerous similarities in the United States on the way people were treated by the government as well as their day to day life. Both the state faced almost common problems as well as close kind of hardship despite of the differences in the kind of resources that were found in the two regions (Jacobs 2010). The writers did not only focus on the problems that the citizens were experiencing but also viewed at the possible solutions that could employed to diminish the problems in the two regions.
In the writing, the writer elaborated on the problems that come hand in hand as a result of poor planning by the government, corruption as well as minimal wages among the employed citizen, thus, making the lives of the citizen difficult (Sullivan 1996). With the increased level of poverty in the United States, many people and mostly the immigrants face the greatest challenge in trying to meet their daily needs.
However, there are some people who are concerned with the low living standard of the members of the states, for instance, the writer of fast food nations who went to an extra mile by organizing for supervision on the meat packing facilities but his effort fails to work out as people allocated to perform the duties were so reluctant to notice the poor hygiene in the plants.
This does not help much in improving the already low level of living in the region reason being that the government was not concerned with its people (Tichi 2004). This could have been enhanced by the fact that the government in the region was also corrupt making the situation even worse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In both states, the major cause of health problems came as a result of cattle rearing by the citizen. However, the problem was not alls about the rearing of the animals but the processes that followed after the animals were ready for consumption. For instance, in the United States, the writer discovers that the level of cleanliness in the meat plant was low as those concerned could only clean them only when there was going to be an inspection.
This, therefore, portrays how much the citizen consumed unhealthy meat from the company. Nevertheless, the efforts of those who tried to expose the kind of unhealthy activities taking place in the regions were cut short by those who wanted to hide the true face of the governance in the region. This was done by reporters who said that the information given by the writer were just false allegation and that they were misleading since they were baseless.
As well, in America, the state of the unhealthy conditions was also experience by the citizens. As in the United States, the hazardous practices were also taking place in the meat companies. The processing of meat was found to be unhygienic for human consumption but the people in the states consumed it without their knowledge.
In the United States, the conditions were worse as compared to those in America (Jacobs 2010). The reason behind this was because the carcasses from pigs, chicken as well as from horse were incorporated into cattle feed. Thus, these kinds of practices were the major cause of diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy commonly known by the people in the regions as Mad Cow Disease.
The consumption of the unhygienic meat not only caused diseases in those who consumed it but it also led to introduction of detrimental micro organisms like E. coli in the meat, hence, this could eventually lead to sickness among the citizens. In the same state, there were other diseases like obesity which was also a threat to the health as well as to the lives of the citizens.
Teen labor was also a challenge to the immigrants of the United States as every member of the family was expected to work to aid in supporting the family. This was after the family became a victim of the con men as well as schemes that exhausted their saving.
The situation was even more terrible as it diminished all what the citizens had saved to a point of not being in a position to pay for the cheap accommodation that could be easily acquired in the low standard houses known as slums (Sullivan 1996). This lead to eviction of the immigrants leaving the members frustrated.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The different occupations as well as lifestyle of the family change their lives from that juncture. This was greatly contributed by the harsh condition they faced at workplace. The situation at work place was made worse by the hardships they faced such as accidents that occurred at workplace as well as deaths of the members of their family that with proper conditions as well as planning could have been avoided.
Sexual harassment is also a problem in the two states especially in the United States where the level of security was poor as well as the migrants lacking a government that would cater about their wellbeing (Tichi 2004). Also, the kind of government that was found in the region was so corrupt, hence, no one could promote the security in the region.
Those who could not speak English in both novels, that is the immigrants, were discriminated as they could not acquire good jobs as well as they were not counted as important to the society and hence, they could not associate with the others in the community. This led them be with no choice of the kind of jobs to do, hence, ending up doing the hard jobs which could only afford them minimal salaries thus making their living harder.
Lack of well paying jobs, led to poverty that was elaborated by how people died of simple conditions that could have been prevented if the people earned enough. The writer narrates of how a character by the name Ona died when giving birth due to lack of capital to pay for medical attention. In addition to this their younger son drowned in the streets that were muddy. This elaborates on the low living states the immigrants experienced yet no one was concerned to improve their way of life (Jacobs 2010).
The main characters of the novels are among those who went through these hardships as well as the disappointments in their lives. They were so much into promoting the way of lives of those who experienced similar difficulties. However, their efforts were cut short by those who dominated the region such that ay time they came up with a way of improving the state nobody could side with them making the situation hard for them.
In conclusion, the novels bring out the kind of life that people face especially in a land that is not theirs. The people of the United States as well as America represent a vast number of people who live below the poverty levels. The kind of living they experience as well as the neglect from the government. The novels can, therefore, be used to bring out to the issues that the government ought to look into to improve peoples way of living.
Works Cited Jacobs, Jane. Introduction to The Jungle. NY: McGraw-Hill. 2010.
Sullivan, Mark. The Condemned-Meat Industry. NY: Our Times, 1996.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison Between the Jungle and Fast Food Nation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tichi, Cecilia. From the Jungle to Fast Food Nation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2004.
American Foreign Policies Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Article 26-1 presents the reasoning of General Marshal after the Second World War. The military leader commented that it was not possible for America to live without preparing itself militarily in order to counter any foreign threat.
According to the general, the international system had changed implying that it was impossible for great states such as America to live without any strategies for coping with external aggression. In his analysis, declaring war on another state required careful planning. America had to come with policies that would allow it to respond to conflicts swiftly.
The army general appreciated the fact that America sacrificed a lot to achieve greatness during the Second World War. The general therefore posited that world peace could only be maintained through threats of war. The US should always prepare to enter into if tranquility is to be realized in the global society. Furthermore, states should form organizations that are charged with the responsibility of maintaining peace in the world. This is clearly captured in the following statement:
In order to establish an international system for preventing war, peace-loving people of the world is demonstrating an eagerness to send their representatives to such conferences as those at Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco (Johnson 210)
In document27-5, the former head of state, Dwight Eisenhower, gives an analysis of the American society after the Second World War. The head of state mentions some achievements of the war but goes a notch higher to highlight its threats. The head of state claims in the article that the US had to change its policies, both internally and externally in order to suit the changing international system. However, the head of state warns that policies should always be assessed carefully to achieve success. This is captured in the following sentence:
balance between the clearly necessary and comfortable desirable, balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by nation upon the individual, balance between action of the moment and the national welfare of the future (Johnson 248)
Both articles 26-1 and 27-5 suggest that national interests usually guide states in the international system. This implies that there is no government in the international system that can foster unity and understanding among actors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The international system exists according to the Hobbestain state of nature that is characterized by anarchy, brutality, nasty life and selfishness. General Marshal Advices Americans in article 26-1 that they should strive to form a strong military that would protect their lives and properties in case another war takes place.
The president in article 27-5 observes that the state had to change its foreign and domestic policies to survive in the international system. Even though the general accepts that formation of international regimes would prevent the occurrence of another war, he still holds that the United States should always participate fully in forming those regimes.
From the two articles, it is true that the US changed its foreign policies after the Second World War. Throughout history, the American foreign policies have been determined by either isolationism or interventionism. Before the WWII, the US applied isolationist polices.
This meant that it could not engage in any form of external aggression. The US did not join the First World War until the time when it was concluding.
Furthermore, it was forced to join the Second World War through the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After the Second World War, the US adopted interventionist policies in 1991 and in 2003, in resolving the Middle East conflicts. The US incorporated Truman’s ideas, which suggested that communism was to be contained under all circumstances. The changes and developments in the international system influenced American foreign policies.
Before the World Wars, America applied the policy of isolationism because the system was multi-polar. This means that there were many centers of power in the global system. After the World Wars, the system became bipolar where power was distributed between two powers that is, the US and the USSR. The US had to apply interventionist policies to counter communism.
Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American past: selected historical documents: volume II: from 1865. 4th ed. New York: Bedford, 2008. Print.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on American Foreign Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Adam Smith believed that the wealth of nations was derived from their division of labor and accumulation of capital goods for the production of necessities. However, his arguments may not be congruent with the conditions and circumstances, which are in the twenty first century.
Division of labor is the sub division of work into smaller portions so that the task being done can become easier. Smith gave an example of nail manufacturing industries where the work done involved cutting a long wire of iron and sharpening it.
When one individual did this work, the artisan could only make a hundred nails a day. However, if this work was subdivided into different portions such that one person cut the wires, another person sharpening, and packaging by another person the number of pins produced would have been four thousand. This showed that division of labor led to increased output (Smith 24).
The subdivided labor called for specialization where an individual had to become a master of particular skills. Before division of labor was invented, an individual could manage to do a set of activities alone. The people in the economy were therefore jacks of trades but they were masters of none. Division of labor called for being a jack of no trade but a master of one trade (Smith 108). One had to be a specialist in one area and in the case of nail industry; one had to be a specialist in cutting nails and be unskilled in sharpening them.
The division of labor also brought about efficiency, which is the percentage of the amount of effort applied compared to the amount of goods or services produced. In the division of labor, more output was produced compared to where there were no divisions of labor. The efficiency also came because of improvement in quality.
The work done by the solo artisan of sharpening the nails after cutting them would be probably of lesser quality. The nail-sharpening specialist whose only work is to sharpen the nails would do the work because; tired people produce low quality work.
More inventions came up during this period of division of labor more than any other time previously. This is because; the individual who is assigned a particular task had to find ways of doing the work faster. If it was the nail cutter, he had to look for ways to cut the nails faster. This involved devising equipment and tools, which were meant to make the work easier. Nail cutters were invented during this period as well as wheat threshing machines and the locomotives (Smith 238).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There was low costs of production because of division of labor. This is because the number of laborers employed to do the work was significantly reduced when there was division of labor. Four individuals would produce four thousand nails compared to the one hundred nails produced by one artisan.
Therefore, it could have taken forty artisans to produce four thousand nails in a day. This low cost of production also implied that those who engaged in division of labor had an added competitive advantage because their goods and services were cheaper compared to goods, which were locally produced. This meant that an economy or a country with industries that engaged in division of labor could export their goods to other countries thus increasing their nation’s foreign exchange as well as the gross domestic product (Smith 388).
Before the concept of division of labor was invented people engaged in a number of activities, they only produced enough goods for their subsistence consumption, and there was no surplus. The increased output that came with the division of labor changed the concept of wealth accumulation as people and industries could produce goods in surplus, which they could sell to individuals in different countries.
This surplus was the major source of wealth because; apart from the domestic consumption, it resulted to capital accumulation. The surplus goods could be sold elsewhere and they represented the worth of the industry, the individuals as well as the nation (Smith 450).
The capital accumulation was indeed the way to go in regard to the accumulation of wealth because; other factors of production that led to great wealth such as land were out of reach for most people. Capital refers to the machineries, buildings and other assets that are involved in the process of production. For a company to increase its production it had to increase its capital or its equipment.
For this to be done companies or individuals who owned these companies had to forfeit their ownership and allow other people to own part of the company through the initial public offering, which allowed a private owned company to be held by the public. This was a major source of wealth, as the public had to buy the portion offered in terms of stock (Smith 457). The origin of the term shares means the amount of capital one owns in an industry.
Critical Evaluation. The ideas expressed by Adam Smith in relation to division of labor are still applicable today although not all of them. Division of labor enables workers to acquire a high level of skill in one trade as opposed to many different trades. Skills acquired through specialization enable workers to produce commodities that are of high quality and thus are able to compete effectively with others in foreign commerce.
We will write a custom Essay on Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Smith argues that foreign commerce is an agent for accumulation of wealth for nations. Thus, countries without access to international trade cannot fully exploit the benefits of specialized production and end up being relatively poor (Smith 29).
These arguments are solid and coherent because; the situation in the world market requires economies to invest in productive activities in order to acquire wealth. The accumulation of capital is a significant factor in the ability of economies to respond to changes in the market. Capital accumulation is required in order for economies to enable production and specialization in their productive efforts.
However, in the twenty first century when there have been many cases of down sizing and retrenching in major corporations leaving thousands of people jobless, the idea of specialization has to be reconsidered.
This is especially because with the advent of integrated technology or the merger of technologies where machines are becoming more incorporated such that one machine can do more than one task; individuals who specialize in one area will lack employment. The division of labor is therefore more applicable in corporations and nations more than to the individual laborer.
Labor has also undergone major changes in the sense that the modern world has more skilled labor than it had in the nineteenth century. Labor has become more competitive than it were before. This implies that economies, which will thrive, are those whose labor is specialized in various tasks or else the changes in technology might edge them out.
Concerning capital accumulation, there are other significant changes, which have occurred and may lead to a redefinition of capital. This is because capital is not only quantified in terms of tangible items or equipment but also non-tangible items, which give a nation or company advantage.
These explain why a company like Google is valued at several billion dollars though it has no tangible assets such as buildings or land; it only deals with information technology. We nowadays have more companies, which do not have any tangible item, yet they are valued at billions of dollars.
Conclusion Adam Smith in the “Wealth of Nations” shows the importance of division of labor in enhancing productive capacity of labor. Labor is one of the most influential factors of production.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Division of Labor and Capital Accumulation as Sources of the Wealth of Nations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many countries have realized the need to specialize and divide their work into units that can be handled by different workers. Division of labor has enabled people to become efficient in their work because of increased skills acquisition. The workers are able to increase efficiency by reducing the time spent in moving from one station to another.
The use of machines has enabled people to improve their efficiency and increase the skills required in production of commodities. Capital accumulation is a source of wealth for nations because; it enables production of machinery for manufacturing purposes. Capital accumulation helps imparting of skills and knowledge, which increases the productivity of workers and thus the wealth of the countries.
Works Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: The University of Chicago Press, 1976. Print.
Americanization Essay custom essay help
Americanization was a euphoric movement that intended to integrate immigrant people in America into the American way of life. The subjects of Americanization were coerced into adopting American values and culture. Americanization movement came under criticism for the segregation it seemed to propagate.
Some people claimed that the movement also had a racist nature (Finzsch et al 30). The movement started in early the twentieth century, and was very active during the course of the First World War. The immigrants were enrolled as military personnel in the American forces in the war as a part of the process of Americanization. Some serious social forces were responsible for the inception and the strength of the Americanization movement (Finzsch et al 36).
Government campaigns and support for the movement was the main cause of its rise. The authorities engaged the immigrants in civic education that taught the immigrants American values and responsibility. Obviously, there was a political reason for the movement.
The government in power then feared that the new immigrants who had come in large numbers would not be assimilated into the American culture and social inclination. This was a reason enough for the government to form organizations for campaign and education of the immigrants. In addition, the Native Americans thought that the immigrants would not be able to integrate into the American community quickly (Sollors 61).
This posed a danger of social conflict in the American society. Consequently, private civil movements geared towards promotion of American culture and values among the immigrants were formed. Furthermore, the United States government did not want the influence of the socialist and communist nature that was already taking root in the Soviet Union to take effect in America (Sollors 54). Factors threatening social and political integrity of the United States fuelled the efforts of the authorities towards assimilation of the immigrants.
Native groups, particularly the Indians were also the target of the campaigns. The Americanization movements and the authorities tried to change the Indians from their native way of life to European social values. This was done through European education and technology. Although assimilation of native Indians had started in early nineteenth century, the momentum of the process peaked in the early twentieth century when immigrants were being Americanized (Pickus 60).
Most of the immigrants from Europe were illiterate and did not speak or understand English. The social system felt the need to create a unified citizenry with a common language, preferably English. For commerce and industry to flourish, the industrialist felt that the social system had to be a European model.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Workers unions engaged in programs aimed at Americanizing the immigrants. Furthermore, religious entities such as Christian churches, which were already a cardinal component of the American culture tried to indoctrinate the immigrants in a bid to Americanize them (Pickus 50). Champions of Americanization argued that the process enabled the immigrants to cope with the difficulties of fitting into the new society.
The effort to integrate immigrant and Native Americans into the mainstream European culture is viewed as pervasive in today’s society. Education offered to the immigrants in order for them to learn English was viewed as an undermining the linguistic heritage of the immigrants’ culture (Finzsch et al 29)). The coercion methods used by the authorities and movements did not serve to assimilate the immigrants, but often resulted to resentment of the European culture.
The intended patriotism was not realized in this manner. The only reason that made the immigrants settle and live in America was the pressure that had forced them to migrate from their homeland to America. The Americanization campaign by the government was seen as a political ploy by the government to maintain stability and power through use of numbers (Sollors 40). The issue of Americanization remains a controversial issue to the present day due to its unusual nature.
Works Cited Finzsch, Norbert, and Dietmar Schirmer. Identity and intolerance: nationalism, racism, and xenophobia in Germany and the United States. Washington, D.C.: German Historical Institute; 1998. Print.
Pickus, Noah M. Jedidiah. True faith and allegiance: immigration and American civic nationalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005. Print.
Sollors, Werner. Multilingual America: transnationalism, ethnicity, and the languages of American literature. New York: New York University Press, 1998. Print.
Maryland v. Pringle Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Background of the Case
Procedural History of the Case
Significance of the Case
Introduction In Maryland v. Pringle, U.S Supreme Court convicted pringle on the basis that a probable cause existed when the police officer found cocaine in the car he was travelling in.
The court also held that the drugs could have belonged to any of the three passengers and as such, the police did not violate the fourth amendment when he arrested him bearing in mind that the passengers revealed neither possession nor ownership prior to the arrest. This paper will give brief background information of the fourth amendment; discuss a procedural history of the case as well as its significance.
Background of the Case Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366 (2003) is a U.S case in which a policemen stopped a car that had three passengers (partlow, pringle and smith) and requested for the driver’s (Partlow) registration. The driver reached for the glove compartment which had $ 763 kept in it and this aroused the policeman’s curiosity and as such he requested to conduct a search in the car. The driver allowed him and consequently, the policeman found cocaine that had been packed into five bags and hidden in the armrest.
The two passengers plus the driver denied knowledge and ownership of the cocaine and the policeman arrested them. The three were taken to a police station where Pringle confessed ownership of the drugs and the other passengers were set free. Prior to discussing the above case, brief background information of facts related to the case will be discussed. The fourth amendment protects citizens from harassment by police officers.
According to Humper (2007), U.S constitution (amendment four) states that “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” The fourth amendment requires that a warrant arrest and probable cause of arrest is given to the suspect before he or she is arrested.
Probable cause of arrest has been given various definitions depending on the circumstances but the underlying meaning is just the same. Understanding of the term probable cause is important for anybody to understand why the ruling in Pringle’s case by various courts. Another term that will be discussed briefly is individualized suspicion.
In simpler terms, probable cause implies that there is more evidence in support of the matter at hand as opposed to the evidence against the same matter. Probable cause can be further explained as having more than half (50%) of evidence that justifies the cause of action to take. Practically, courts do not follow the rule to the letter and it is applied depending on the circumstances of the situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When examining existence of probable cause, courts requires that a test known as the totality-of circumstances be utilized and tries to justify the situation from the perspectives of a prudent objective police officer. The rationale for using the totality-of-circumstances lies in the fact that the courts would find it difficult to arrive at probable cause if it relied on its own independent opinion. As such, the test is preferred despite the rigidities associated with it (Humper, 2007).
Individualized suspicion is a term that is closely related to probable cause since the court requires individualized suspicion for every probable cause. Individualized suspicion requires substantial connection between searches and seizures conducted by the police officers and the circumstances that led to such searches and seizures. This clause therefore limits the scope and circumstances under which the government and police officers may conduct such searches and seizures (Humper, 2007).
In addition to individualized suspicion, the fourth amendment also states that a warrant arrest should be issued before an arrest. However, there are some exceptions to the requirement if there is sufficient evidence that a crime or felony has been committed. It would be unreasonable for police officers to leave criminals to go and get a warrant. It goes without saying that the criminals would take to their heels and this would increase the crime rate (Humper, 2007).
Procedural History of the Case Pringles trial was held at the Circuit Court for Baltimore County where he was found guilty justification being that the five baggies of cocaine belonged to him. Pringles case was appealed at the Mary land Court of special appeals. Pringle was not satisfied by the courts ruling since he felt that the evidence given was not sufficient to give a probable cause of his arrest.
Pringle’s argument was based on the fact that the requirement of individualized suspicion was not met when he was arrested since he was just a mere a passenger in a car in which the contraband was found. He relied on the requirement by the fourth amendment that an arrest should be accompanied by individualized suspicion.
He also relied on the English case law which has the same legal standing as fourth amendment about individualized suspicion. Pringle added that individualized suspicion was a major component of probable cause as stipulated by the United States Supreme Court (Maryland v. Pringle). His lawyer requested to suppress Pringles motion but the court concurred with the previous courts decision of denying Pringle a chance to suppress the motion. The court referred to folk test that was derived from (Folk v. State), case.
According to the folk test, the following factors should be put into consideration while ascertaining whether there is a probable cause. The distance between the accused and the contraband, ownership of the place where the contraband was kept, knowledge of contrabands existence by the accused as well as availability of circumstances from which it can be reasonably inferred that the accused was in partnership with others for common benefit.
We will write a custom Essay on Maryland v. Pringle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Folk v. state, the person who appealed happened to be a passenger in a car in which one of the passengers was smoking Marijuana. Folks attempted to suppress the marijuana’s motion but the court denied him a chance and stated that the appellant “could not be closer, short of direct proof that the appellant herself was in exclusive physical possession of the marijuana .”
Proximity could not be more clearly established” (Folk v. state). Though the court quoted the folks test, it did not make use of it when considering Pringles case and instead assumed that the distance between the contraband and the defendant was close enough to ascertain existence of a probable cause.
The case was appealed again at the court of appeals of Maryland. The court reversed the decision taken by the other courts and held that there was insufficient evidence that Pringle was in possession of the cocaine since he was just a passenger in a car that was being driven by the owner. The court borrowed from Collins v. State, 589 A.2d 479, 480 (Md. 1991) case in which it was held that being close to the scene of crime is insufficient to ascertain the existence of a probable cause.
In Collins case, Collins happened to be among five men that were five feet from an automobile. A police officer came and requested one of the men to pick a film canister that was in the car’s backseat. Five packets of cocaine were found inside the film canister and the police officer arrested the five men. Since Collins was outside the car, the court held that there was insufficient evidence to hold a probable cause just because cocaine was found inside the car.
The decision of Maryland’s court of appeals was reversed by the United States Supreme Court which stated that the police officer had enough reason to infer that the cocaine belonged to all the three passengers since none of them disclosed ownership. The officer’s act of arrest was therefore justified and had not violated the fourth amendment.
The court held that there was enough evidence to reasonably infer that Pringle was guilty of being in possession of the contraband either solely or in partnership with the other passengers in the vehicle. United States Supreme Court had one question: was there evidence enough to support a probable cause that Pringle had committed the offence?
The court argued that if a group of two or more people was suspected to have committed an offence, then one of them is singled out as the criminal, then the others can not be held responsible unless otherwise stated.
The supreme court also held that Maryland court of appeal was not fair when it treated the cash found in the car as a different case as opposed to one of the circumstances leading to the arrest. Pringle was convicted and the ruling was made by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist who had a unanimous agreement with the other judges.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Maryland v. Pringle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Interpretation Based on the ruling made by the state of Maryland court, it can be inferred that Pringles case was judged on the basis of probable cause by association as individualized suspicion requirement was not met. Probable cause by association is not included in the fourth amendment and as such, it can be referred to as an additional clause to the Fourth amendment.
This implies that a gateway to convicting innocent people had been opened by the ruling. The court ignored the fact that an innocent person can borrow a lift from a private car and as such, it is not his business to search the vehicle with an intention to ascertain that all the cargoes in the car are legal goods.
Significance of the Case Mr. Howe’s has legal basis to suppress the arrest. Based on the above case, the passengers did not disclose ownership or possession of the drugs. However, at the police station, Pringer confessed that the drugs were his. The police officer could not have allowed the passengers to just drive off after he found the drugs.
Since he did not get any response, the officer had sufficient evidence to infer that a felony had been committed hence arrest all the occupants. However, the court did not apply the individualized suspicion requirement when ruling Pringles case. If Mr. Howe’s client’s circumstances are exactly the same, then there is no need to suppress the motion despite presence of legal basis.
Reference List Criminal Law – Probable Cause (1991). Collins v. State, 589 A.2d 479, 480. Web.
Find Law: Folk v. State (1971), Folk v. State, 275 A.2d 184. Web.
Gordon. R. (2003). You Ride With ‘Em, You Die With ‘Em. A Look at Maryland v. Pringle and the United States Supreme Court’s Implementation of Probable Cause by Association.
Maryland v. Pringle, 540 U.S. 366, 124 S. Ct. 795. Web.
Humper, G. (2007). U.S Constitution 4th Amendment is dead in America. Web.
Staffing in McDonalds Essay essay help free
McDonalds is a US based food chain company that mainly sells fast foods and hamburgers. The company begun in 1940 as a barbeque restaurant, originally run by two brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonalds. It was subsequently purchased by Ray Kroc (a prominent businessman) who led its worldwide expansion.
Globally, McDonald’s restaurants are available in 120 states. Additionally, these restaurants serve a total of fifty million customers in a day. The super chain operates over 30000 restaurants and provides employment to more than 1.5 million people. Restaurants are either counter service or drive-through service.
The company earns revenue through property ownership, franchising of restaurants and operation of restaurants. The success of the company has largely been attributed to the high level of efficiency and expertise in their staff and good customer service.
Staffing at McDonalds Staffing is the managerial function of employing and developing human resources to carry out the activities of the organization. It entails all the processes that involve staff. Such processes include determining the workforce requirement, methods of recruitment, actual recruitments as well as the training and development of personnel.
The function is indeed an important part of human resource management as it also deals with performance appraisal, remuneration and decisions relating to retaining or retrenching staff (Phillips, 2004). The stages below outline the procedures that are followed when staffing at McDonalds.
This refers to the process of estimating the labor requirements of the company. Management, in so doing, has to consider the market and demand forces, availability of infrastructure, government policies and so on. McDonalds has a human resource department that lays out the overall staffing strategies and puts all the factors mentioned above into consideration when determining the level of manpower that is required. The level of manpower is usually determined by the number of customers in various parts of the world.
Assessment of jobs
This refers to the elementary determination of the responsibilities and the pre-requisites for a certain job. It also includes the relative importance of the specified job to the business. McDonalds has clearly outlined various job descriptions for different posts in the company. This ensures that the recruitment process of the members of staff is based on analysis of the workload and staff requirements. Clear job specifications are also laid out to outline the abilities and skills that are required for performing a particular job (Bechet, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sources of recruitment
After determining the experience and qualifications required for particular jobs, the human resource department is charged with the task of searching for qualified persons. The source of recruitment has to be determined before asking the suitable persons to apply for the respective jobs. These sources of recruitment can either be internal or external.
It is a characteristic of most companies to consider the available staff for promotion to higher positions in a firm before looking for members outside the company. Management may therefore promote some of the in-house staff to fill the vacant positions. This recruitment strategy is beneficial in many ways, in that, the higher costs of training new members of staff are saved. On the other hand, the employees are already familiar with the culture and practices of the firm, thus, fitting into the system instantly.
However the major disadvantage of this strategy is that the company may not benefit from new ideas from outsiders. Most of the managerial staff members working at McDonalds have been those employees who had probably begun by grilling hamburgers and performing other menial jobs. Given the amount of training and employee the company has invested in, most of the former low level staff members have gained from the acquired knowledge to become skilled in their areas of expertise.
Seeing that not all vacant posts can be filled by in house capacity, managers tend to recruit from outside the organization. The major reason behind this is the lack of the required skills, motives and qualifications in the internal staff. External recruitment also provides a wide choice from which management can choose the most suitable person(s). It is with these benefits in mind that McDonalds also takes advantage of the external sources of recruitment. External sources of recruitment are outlined below:
A certain trend has cropped up in many organizations whereby the companies employ college and university students who seem to have passed their interviews. McDonalds is an example of these companies. A large proportion of junior staff in the company comprises of college and university students. The company interviews the applicants in order to determine whether they are good enough to promote their already established entrepreneurial culture of good customer service (Phillips, 2004).
Job seekers may at times apply for jobs without specific reference to a particular post but in the hope that the company may have a vacancy. Management staff at McDonalds keeps away such applications and contacts the applicants when there is a vacancy
These agencies register the names of applicants who are interested in particular jobs and organize for interviews within the companies. McDonalds works closely with such agencies and recruit staff who are competent enough to work for them.
We will write a custom Essay on Staffing in McDonalds specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Media advertisements
These are advertisements that are placed in various communication media tools such as newspapers, magazines or even on the internet. Detailed descriptions of the job, the qualifications as well as the required nature of the job and how to apply are contained in the advertisements. The company has used the media to advertise for jobs such as placing adverts on their internet sites to attract applicants.
After a satisfactory number of applications of interested candidates have been collected through the recruitment process, the process of selection begins. Selection refers to the process of choosing the most suitable candidate among the interested ones.
Management has to match the skills and qualifications of the candidates with the requirements of the job then choose the most suitable individuals (Grote, 1996). McDonalds has a detailed selection procedure whereby the candidates have to go through a number of steps in a selection procedure.
Screening of applications
The management of McDonalds evaluates all the applications received and then prepares a list of candidates who are to be evaluated further. The process involves checking for the minimum requirements in terms of qualifications, age, skills and experience. Candidates who do not pass this stage are eliminated and excluded from further consideration.
Immediately after screening of applications, a list of candidates is obtained. The shortlisted candidates are called to the workstations or offices to prove their abilities or skills as mentioned in their applications. An example of how this is done in McDonalds is whereby candidates are called to the workstation and given a little task to perform such as welcoming customers in a friendly manner.
All candidates who pass the test are eligible for further evaluation whereas those who do not qualify are eliminated. The company gives out various tests depending on the requirements of the explicit jobs. For instance, if the test was to be carried out on management then the tests would place more emphasis on the personality of the individual and his/her ability to motivate staff members.
This is a means of checking the information given by the candidate in their application and making an overall assessment on whether the candidate is suitable for the job or not. In the interview the candidate is expected to have a face to face interaction with the employer or the recruitment committee. This will be aimed at judging the ability of the candidate. In McDonalds they even go a step further to find out the motives and background of the candidate which greatly assists in assessing the suitability of the candidate.
Checking of references
Apart from the educational qualifications, skills and expertise, the company usually ensures that the qualified candidates have other qualities such as punctuality, friendliness and the ability to manage their temperament. This information cannot be verified through tests, hence, it is normally obtained from the candidate’s former learning institutions such a colleges and high school. Former employers can also be a helpful source of such information.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Staffing in McDonalds by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Management considers that, for certain jobs such as cashiers and security officials, reliability is a very important virtue. For experienced employees, details from previous employers are usually of great assistance. References cited in resumes and applications may also be contacted to provide such information so as to prove whether the candidate is trustworthy.
Since McDonalds is a food chain, the health status of the employees is very important. A sick employee with a contagious condition poses great risk to both other employees and customers of the company. Candidates who are finally selected for the job undergo medical examination to verify whether they are physically fit for the job.
These examinations are aimed at ensuring that injuries are minimized in the working environment and that high standards of health for the employees are maintained. This move also ensures that the labor turnover, the cases of accidents and the rates of absenteeism are highly reduced. These tests also reveal the suffering of the candidate from any curable ailments since most jobs require physical fitness.
Issue of appointment letter
When all the shortlisted candidates are finally deemed qualified for the jobs, they are offered an official letter of appointment that clearly outlines the nature of the job, the hours of work, payment amounts and methods among other details. A considerable amount of time is then given for the successful candidate to join the organization.
In the event that the candidate decides to join the organization, he or she has to give the consent in writing to the McDonalds officials after which he/she is formally placed to perform the specific job. The appointment of every candidate is then followed by a record of particulars of employment known as an employment record. It is this record that is used by the company when making decisions regarding issues such as promotions, need for training, staff cuts and increments.
This is the introduction of new employees to the organization. The employees of McDonalds are usually given a chance to adjust to the new working environment as well as the company’s structural organization. Rules and regulations, working conditions are also made known to the new employee (Kemske, 1995). The major purpose of this procedure is to reduce the tension and create a warm and welcoming atmosphere. Eventually, most of the employees acquire a positive attitude towards the new job.
Staff training and Development
McDonalds is one of the companies that believe in training of its labor workforce. Each year, it trains about 55000 employees hence dedicating large amounts of revenue for this purpose. This strategy is beneficial to both the company and the employees in that the company benefits in terms of customer satisfaction. The company also benefits from increased revenue due to better service from a skilled workforce. The employee gains advantage from the development of their career.
The company has a staff training program that trains staff to be all rounder’s and competent enough to work in all situations. Reference materials such as videos and guides are offered to trainees to depict the performances of certain tasks. Emphasis is placed on offering good customer care which is the basis of their huge success over the years.
The company has also gone a step further in employee development by having leadership practices. This is a training program that aims at improving the skills of every employee at every level so as to improve their ability to provide comprehensive customer service, proficiency in mathematics and financial training.
In their move to comply with corporate governance and ethics requirements, the company has established an integrated corporate social responsibility department that provides corporate staff leadership, support and coordination for the global social responsibility policies, programs and reporting.
A challenge that the company faces in some of its markets is the negativity that is associated with the term McJob, therefore it tries to distinguish itself as a great place to work both at the restaurants and at the staff level which is a great motivation for current and potential employees (Phillips
Underlying Causes that Push the Youths into Crime Essay college admissions essay help
Juveniles are increasingly getting involved in criminal activities across the United States. Crimes that are mostly reported include assault, homicide, rape, robbery, vandalism and arson. This paper seeks to explain why I am against the state laws that facilitate prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. I will also give my reasons as to why juveniles who commit violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are older enough to understand the consequences of their actions.
There have been a lot of arguments concerning the basis on which juvenile courts were established. There is some belief going around that juvenile courts should be abolished because they were put in place to shield juveniles from consequences of their criminal activities.
Indeed there has been a marked rise in incidences of juvenile criminal activities. I don’t think this problem can be solved by punishing juveniles as adults. Some states have gone as far as creating laws that facilitate the prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. In my opinion, such states are just trying to treat the symptoms and not the disease.
These people should try to understand the real cause of the problem. According to me, juveniles involve themselves in criminal activities due to poor upbringing which can be blamed on the family and violent neighborhoods.
For example, I had a friend whose parents were both alcoholics and t his weighed so much on him. He has been tried for stabbing his father. He was only 14 but I don’t think this could have happened if he had responsible parents. Such a person will not be helped if he is held fully responsible and prosecuted in adult courts.
Questions have also risen as to whether it’s appropriate to try juveniles (regardless of the age) who commit violent crimes in the same manner as adults. It’s imperative to note that people should be made to pay for their mistakes so long as they understand what they are doing.
However, it’s also important to point out that some juveniles, especially younger ones may not be aware of the magnitude of their criminal activities or even understand why they involve themselves in crime. In most cases there are many underlying social problems that can be addressed to deter juvenile criminal activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We all know that juveniles who are prosecuted as adults are often held in adult jails where they might be abused. This can also make them to lose education opportunities in life. Juveniles who undergo this are more likely to be involved in crime again because they will have no other means of fending for themselves when they get out.
In my opinion juveniles who commit violent crime should be given an opportunity to reform and lead a normal life to deter future crime cases. Thus it’s important that they be prosecuted in a manner that will offer them the opportunity to reform. This can be achieved by trying juveniles, especially younger offenders in juvenile courts. However, those who involve themselves in violent crimes and are older (16 years and above) should be tried as adults because they are better placed to understand the consequences of their actions.
This paper sought to explain why I am against the state laws that facilitate prosecution of juveniles in adult courts. I have also given my reasons as to why juveniles who commit violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are older enough to understand the consequences of their actions.
The paper has reviewed some underlying causes that push the youths into crime and has concluded that the state laws that facilitate the prosecution of juveniles in adult courts should be changed. It has also concluded that juveniles who involve themselves in violent crimes should not be tried as adults unless they are old enough to understand the consequences of their actions.
Impressionism History Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Impressionism, an art movement, was born in France in the 19th century specifically in the period between 1860 and 1880 with its major goal being to popularize the impressionist art style, which was a deviation from and a contrast to the more popular and traditional academic art style that had dominated the French art scene of the time. Before the impressionism period painting was known to be done indoors only, however, this changed with the impressionist art style.
To early impressionists the element of light had to be captured in their paintings and thus, they were inspired to paint outdoors (or “en plain air” in French). The author Oak in his/her article credits these early impressionists as having shown art the outside world (Oak par. 3). A critical examination of Oak’s article reveals that the impressionist art style has three main distinctive features (Oak par. 3).
The first of these features is that the visual angles in impressionist art paintings are unique so because it is in this way that movement is depicted in impressionism artworks. The second feature of impressionist art style is according to Oak the ” prominently evident brush strokes” (Oak par. 2), which according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com are done with pure colours (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 5).
The open composition evident in impressionist paintings, which is mainly because the paintings are done outdoors is the third feature of the impressionist art style. Oak continues and points out that the impressionist art style lays its emphasis on ” the changing patterns of light ” and by doing this a single impressionist work is able to capture multiple instances of time.
The impressionist art form usually gives few details about what was being painted this is because impressionists paint from vivid images generated from glimpses they had of something. Some examples of famous impressionist paintings are Dance at Le Moulin de la Galett done in the year 1876 and Impression, Sunrise done in the year 1872 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet respectively.
Discussion History of impressionism
In the 17th century an informal element of impressionism existed in paintings done by Dutch painters as these works exhibited as Oak points out a “vivid distinction between the subject and the background” (Oak par. 4). This is common with impressionist paintings. The art of Photography was born and it became an inspiration to painters as they were more challenged to capture the different moments and themes that constituted daily life.
With photographers, being able to reveal details and facts through photography painters would interpret these (and other) details and facts in their paintings. Oak, again, credits early impressionists as having been ” the first to bring in subjectivity to paintings ” (Oak Par.4). French and Japanese art are considered the starting point of the impressionist art style.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In mid 19th century, the French art scene was strongly dominated by the traditional academic style, which was pioneered by the Academie des Beaux-Arts. This institution strongly held the philosophy and belief that the use of art was solely for the purpose of depicting historical and religious entities and matters and as a consequence its paintings according to Oak ” lacked vibrancy and brightness ” (Oak par.5).
The Academie des Beaux-Arts was a very conservative institution that was vehemently opposed to new forms of arts, which it considered liberal. These new form of arts were mainly from new, upcoming and young artists. The Academie des Beaux-Arts frustrated these artists by denying them support owing to its conservative views and nature.
The Academie des Beaux-Arts annually held an art show during which a panel of selected judges would review the art exhibits of different artists. At the end of their reviews the judges would compile a list of artists who according to them had the best exhibits and present it to the Academie des Beaux-Arts.
Such like artists would be awarded prizes by the institution. According to Oak, noticeable from the judgements made by the panel of judges was the fact that they were vehemently opposed to paintings that Oaks describes as portraying unconventionality (Oak par. 6).
This attitude by the judges had the resultant effect of suppressing the freedom of expression of some and mainly young artists. This was notoriously displayed in the Academie’s art show of the year 1863 in which lots of exhibits from young artists were rejected to such an extent that Emperor Napoleon III had to commission a huge exhibition known as Salon des Refuses to display to the public those rejected exhibits. The Salon des Refuses was an attraction to mainly liberal artists and inspired a new trend in art.
In 1873 an association of Paris-based artists was formed which included painters (impressionists included), sculptors and engravers to enable them exhibit their work following the failure of the Salon des Refuses to be held twice (in 1867 and 1872) (Oak par. 7). The association put together its first exhibition in 1974, which displayed the work of 30 artists.
Initially, the society criticized the exhibitions put together by the association owing to its background however, this changed later. Internal conflicts threatened the stability of the association a case in point being the break away of one its pioneers and impressionist, Renoir. In the following decade Renoir would abandon and oppose the impressionist art style. Oak notes that, all of the eight exhibitions put up by the association to display the impressionist art form displayed the work of Pissarro (Oak par. 7).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impressionism History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Not only did these exhibitions popularize the impressionist art form but as Oak points out they presented impressionists with monetary benefits as well (Oak par. 8). Impressionists did not do it all on they own but benefited significantly from the efforts of their dealer Durand Ruel who was instrumental especially in popularizing the impressionist art form among the society through the art shows he arranged specifically for the two parties (impressionists and the society) (Oak par. 8).
The determination of the early impressionist and the efforts of Durand Ruel is what popularized the novel art form that is impressionism, which is to-date is considered in the world of art as a major breakthrough.
One pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Claude Monet who was born in Paris, France in the year 1840. Claude Monet was educated in art. Initially, in Nomandie where is family had moved to, Monet according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com was renowned for his art in charcoal caricature (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 3).
In 1858, Monet met and joined Eugene Boudene an expert in oil paints and out door painting. In Paris in 1862 Monet started working under the supervision of Charles Gleyre. According to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com, it is during this time that Monet made the acquaintance of Renoir, Bazille and Sisley who are also considered pioneers of the impressionist art form (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 4).
The four of them began work on a new art form inspired by a new approach to art. The new art form they developed is what later became impressionism and according to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com it was a style in which they attempted to ” paint the effects of light with broken colour and rapid brush strokes ” (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par.4).
During his adult life, Monet is reported to have travelled as far as England and Holland. When Monet got older, he developed a serious eye condition for which he was operated twice in an effort to improve his eyesight. Paintings Monet does after his operations have an unusual reddish tone, a situation which could have arisen from his persistent eye problem (Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 6).
Monet married Camille, the model posing in many of his art works like the “Camille” and “ Camille Monet on her deathbed ”. With Camille, Monet bore two children both of them boys. Though he remarried following the death of Camille, Monet never bore children with his second wife.
According to Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com Claude Monet died of lung cancer on the 6th of December 1926 in Giverny, France at 86 years of age ( Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com par. 8). One of Claude Monet’s famous art work is the Impression, Sunrise (or in French ” Impression, soleil levant “) done in the year 1872 and which is a sunrise view of the Le Havre harbour in France. The term “impressionism” was coined from Louis Leroy’s criticism of this painting.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impressionism History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Camille Pissarro who was born in the Danish West indies in the year 1830 (A E Television Networks, LLC. Par 1). Interested so much in painting Camille Pissarro moved to Paris in the year 1955 where he did landscapes and pioneered impressionism.
Oak notes that, all of the eight exhibitions put up by the association of Paris-based artists to display the impressionist art form displayed the work of Pissarro (Oak par. 7). Camille Pissarro last works are considered by experts to be part of his best. Camille Pissarro died on the 13th of November the year 1903 at the age of 73. One of Camille Pissarro famous works is the “Boulevard Montmartre” which he did in the year 1897.
Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Alfred Sisley who was born in Paris in the year 1839. Alfred Sisley though greatly faced with poverty took on painting as a career and did it full-time (A E Television Networks, LLC. par. 1). Alfred Sisley is one of the artists who put up the impressionism movement.
Alfred Sisley died in the year 1899 at the age of 60. One of Alfred Sisley’s famous works is the “Lane Near a Small Town” which he did in the year 1864. Another pioneer impressionist who contributed greatly to impressionism is Pierre-Auguste Renoir who was born in Limoges, France in the year 1841 (A E Television Networks, LLC. par 1).
Renoir initially did not start out as a painter but later became a highly regarded artist. Though at one time he struggled with painting, Renoir was instrumental at the beginning of impressionism but he later abandoned and opposed the impressionist art style. One of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s work is ” the Dance at Le Moulin de la Galett” which he did in 1876.
Conclusion Impressionism though faced with grave challenges has succeeded in popularizing the impressionist art form and has additionally inspired other art movements in France. The impressionist art style is described as novel form of art and which to-date is considered in the world of art as a major breakthrough and phenomenon.
Works Cited A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Alfred Sisley.biography. 2012. Web.
A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Camille Pissarro.biography. 2012. Web.
A E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). Pierre-Auguste Renoir.biography. 2012. Web.
Oak, M. (2012). History of impressionism. 2012. Web.
Show-Your-Own-Art-Gallery.com. (2011). Claude Monet. 2011.Web.
American History X Critical Essay scholarship essay help
Films as any pieces of art always require their proper evaluation and interpretation according to definite principles of the critical analysis of works. To cope with the task effectively, it is necessary to concentrate on the difference between the main peculiarities of evaluation and interpretation.
Moreover, it is also significant to determine the elements which can be discussed in relation to this or that aspects. The factors which can influence the result of the evaluation and interpretation of the film and their specific features can be examined with the help of the study of American History X of 1998.
Evaluation of the work of art in general and of the film in particular is the determination of its special significance and worth. Thus, any piece of art can be considered as meaningful and important for the public.
To determine this significance, it is necessary to pay attention to the main idea of the film, to its purpose and conclusions. In its turn, interpretation is the explanation of the meaning of the work of art. Thus, to evaluate the film, it is significant to understand or to interpret the main elements and scenes of the film which can help to assess its worth and the aesthetic significance.
That is why the difference between evaluation and interpretation is in the quality of the analysis which a critic provides in connection with a definite film. Interpretation as an explanation only focuses on the plot meaning of certain elements of the film contributing to its right analysis. While evaluating the work, critics concentrate on the deep meaning of this piece of art which was provided as the artist’s main idea.
Any film should be discussed from the points of interpretation and evaluation. It is important to accentuate the elements which are required to be interpreted and evaluated in American History X. The evaluation as an approach is necessary for the analysis of the general worth of the film and its significance.
The main director’s idea was the discussion of the problems of racism and supremacy in the American society and the depiction of those dangerous effects which can have uncontrolled violent actions of the people who divide the others in ‘white’ and ‘black’ or other categories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The aesthetical characteristics of the film are also decisive. Thus, it is required to focus on the details of the film as an aesthetical piece. That is why, to evaluate the worth of the film, critics should assess the importance and currency of the main author’s idea and those effects which were used for creating the picture.
Nevertheless, to make the successful evaluation, it is important to interpret the film perfectly. For instance, it is necessary to concentrate on such aspects depicted in American History X as the reasons for the narrator’s writing the report on Mein Kampf by Hitler, the peculiarities of Denny’s description of his brother Derek and causes for the fact that Danny idealizes his brother, the causes for Derek’s popularity among the youth, and the causes for Derek’s intention to prevent his brother from entering the supremacist’s organization in order to interpret thoroughly (“American History X”). These details should be discussed in their association with the other aspects which are important for the particular analysis of the film.
The last scenes of the film can be considered as the most meaningful in the film. Thus, critics can concentrate on the details of Danny’s essay and his vision of the brother, Derek’s attitude to the situation with ‘white’ and ‘black’ in the society and his feelings toward Danny (“American History X”).
Evaluation and interpretation are the necessary parts of the analysis of the work of art which help to understand its meaning and assess the aesthetic and cultural significance.
Works Cited American History X. Plot Synopsis. n.d. Web. .
Countrywide Financial Corporation Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents The Government’s Role
The Housing Bubble and its Consequences
Countrywide Financial Corporation
Ethics in Countrywide Financial Corporation
Salvaging Countrywide Financial Corporation
The Government’s Role The United States government had noble intentions in creating Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac. They wanted to ensure that more citizens could afford a home, and thus promote the “American Dream”. The first of these programmes was Fannie Mae.
It ensured there was a secondary market where mortgage loans insured by the government under the Federal Housing Administration could be traded. The creation of a secondary market reduced the holding period of loans greatly. Originators of loans no longer had to wait up to ten years to recover their principal and interest. They could easily transfer them to interested third parties on the secondary market.
This option served its purpose well. The companies risk appetite was increased and they advanced riskier loans. After all, they could always sell these loans to someone on the secondary market, thus transferring the risk of default to them. More Americans purchased homes under this scheme, and the government was pleased.
The downside is that nobody considered the final brunt of these risky loans. Eventually, someone had to bear the burden in case borrowers defaulted. If it were not the originator companies, or the government that insured these loans, then the secondary market investors would suffer. Ginnie Mae helped to achieve Fannie Mae’s goals, thus expanding home ownership in America in its time.
The Government created Freddie Mac to deal with the problem of conventional conforming loans. This refers to those loans not guaranteed by the government. This means that in the event of borrower default, the secondary investors in Freddie Mac would definitely suffer loss. This programme enabled borrowers with higher risk profile than under Fannie Mae to obtain loans from originator companies while transferring the risk of default to third parties. Thus, the US government looked good in the eyes of its citizens.
There were two positive outcomes of these government initiatives. More Americans became homeowners and the underwriting procedures countrywide were standardized. However, the question remains whether the price paid was worth it. This increased risk and demand for homes aided in the creation of a housing bubble.
The Laws The government enacted several laws to support its aim. The first was the Community Reinvestment Act, which addressed issues of discrimination in issuing of home ownership loans. People had begun to complain that the increased home ownership did not benefit the poor neighbourhoods. Lenders were accused of both racial and geographical discrimination. In their defence, loan originators explained this trend by pointing out the high unemployment and crime rates associated with the mentioned regions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To counter these risks, the government enacted the Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act. This allowed originators to create subprime loans for high-risk borrowers. This law increased the access to homes while simultaneously increasing the risk portfolio of the originators.
These laws created a ticking time bomb. In the event of an economic slow-down, the subprime borrowers would be the first to suffer foreclosure. The government created a short-lived honeymoon for the poor. Unfortunately, the cost of this honeymoon was too great for the people to afford.
The Clinton Administration increased the Loan to Value to all time highs of beyond 90%. They did this through the Housing and Community Development Act. Previously, the LTV was 60%. Americans who did not qualify for loans under conventional circumstances could access these loans and thus houses.
However, these subprime loans created additional risk, and since the government did not insure subprime loans, lenders and creditors bore the risk. There was inadequate disclosure regarding the true risk associated with these loans. Investors, especially in the secondary markets were deceived to believe they got a great deal.
The Housing Bubble and its Consequences The rising prices of homes resulted in a housing bubble. Around 1994, there was a growing demand for houses, fuelled by the lax underwriting procedures. This was the beginning of the bubble, which continued to grow until around 2006. High demand compared to supply pushed the value of homes upwards.
People made quick profits from trading in houses. They also obtained refinancing loans pegged on the values of their homes. The government scheme to expand home ownership in America seemed to be a great success during 2006. Everybody was pleased with the results.
Unfortunately, this bliss was short-lived. It is usual for countries to experience trade cycles, and in 2007, America’s trade cycle was headed to a recession. Unemployment and inflation were rising and so was the cost of living. This resulted in a decline in the demand for houses, thereby making supply higher than demand.
We will write a custom Essay on Countrywide Financial Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The consequence of this was a rapid decline in the fair market value of homes. The mortgage balance for most was higher than the fair value. Their homes were underwater. Since nobody was willing to buy houses anymore, and Americans could not afford to pay their mortgages on time, majority of the homes acquired under the scheme went into foreclosure.
This was devastating to middle-class families whose dream to own a home drove them to homelessness. Secondary investors who had purchased such mortgages turned to the government and insurance companies for compensation. However, the default rate was so high that Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae, Freddie Mac and AIG the largest insurer combined could not cover the losses.
Homeowners lost their homes; investors suffered loss on their investment and the entire financial system lost credibility. As a result, many financial institutions had to curtail operations.
Countrywide Financial Corporation Angelo Mozilo founded Countrywide during 1969. He wanted to grow the company’s operations to a nationwide scope. The deregulation and lax underwriting laws benefited CFC greatly. In 1993, the increase in loan originations was around 265%, an all time abnormal high. Between the year 2000 and 2005, the interest rates were quite low, and demand for housing was high. The company advanced many mortgages and increased its profits tremendously.
Government policy influence on Countrywide Financial Corporation’s strategy is evident in the trend in the mortgages originated between 1990 and 2007. Initially, CFC did not deal in conventional conforming loans. After the year 2001, the company started to deal in them, increasing their number by almost 30% up to 2006.
There was also an increase in the proportion of Subprime loans in the portfolio, reflecting the government efforts to get poor people to own homes. Since the government guaranteed subprime loans under the Federal Housing Administration, the company did not hesitate to increase the subprime loans originated. The availability of a secondary market under Fannie Mae also encouraged the origination of these loans.
Freddie Mac also encouraged the trading of Mortgage backed Securities. Credit rating agencies rated these MSB’s AAA, deceiving consumers that they were low-risk. They failed to disclose the fact that the MSB’s were anchored in high-risk subprime and conventional conforming loans.
The market for subprime loans was growing rapidly in America. In 2006, it was approximately 37% of the total mortgages. All financing companies moved to take advantage of the situation. CFC did this through its HELOC programme. This is another evidence of strategy re-alignment due to the government initiatives.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Countrywide Financial Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Financial Performance 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Revenues 7,978,642 8,566,627 10,016,708 11,417,128 6,061,437 % Change 0 7% 17% 14% -47% Compensation expense 2,590,936 3,137,045 3,615,483 4,373,985 4,165,023 % change 0% 21% 15% 21% -5% Compensation/Total Expenses 63% 63% 62% 62% 57% Insurance Claims Expense 360,046 390,203 441,584 449,138 525,045 % Change 0% 8% 13% 2% 17% Stock Price at the end of period 25.28 37.01 34.19 42.45 8.94 % Change 0% 46% -8% 24% -79% The table above shows part of CFC’s financial performance during the 5-year period between 2007 and 2003. There was a constant increase in revenues until 2007 when it declined. The compensation expense also increased steadily, reflecting the increase in performance pay.
However, in 2007, there was a 5% decline, reflecting the financial difficulties facing CFC. The company managed to maintain a stable ratio of compensation/ total expenses. The insurance claims increased drastically in 2007, again because of the defaulted mortgages. During the downfall, stock price suffered the most, with a 79% decline in 2007.
Ethics in Countrywide Financial Corporation Several breaches of ethical guidelines contributed to CFC’s downfall. The greatest of these was the VIP Loan Programme. It allowed friends of CFC’s executives to obtain preferential treatment in relation to mortgage loans. These “friends “were people in positions of power who could influence CFC’s business.
By then, this practise was already outlawed in America. It was bribing in disguise. Most participants in the VIP programmes were senators and policy-makers. The problem with this scheme is that it interfered with the participant’s independence and objectivity when dealing with CFC. However, the executives proceeded knowing what the implications were.
CFC engaged in predatory lending. This means that the company convinced customers to obtain mortgages without full-disclosure of the consequences. As a result, many found themselves trapped in mortgages that they could barely afford. In issuing new mortgages, CFC disregarded its own and industry underwriting rules, thereby increasing the risk profile of its loans.
The company also failed to disclose to its insurer AIG the true nature of the risk associated with its mortgages. This dishonesty resulted in AIG taking on more risk than acceptable. Eventually, the national insurer had to turn to the government for assistance during the financial crisis. AIG sued CFC for failure to employ full-disclosure.
Compensation can be either ethical or unethical. Countrywide had a system of compensation that focused on incentive pay. At one point, incentive pay was 100% of the salary paid to employees. The incentive was based on number of new loans originated. This encouraged employees to advance loans to undeserving customers just to get the commission.
The biggest problem with this system was the failure to reduce pay due to defaults in advanced loans. This would have motivated employees to be careful in the screening process. A good payment system should be well balanced, not constituted of performance pay solely. Like most American firms, CFC compensated its executives handsomely. This ate into the profits further. Roughly, 60% of expenses at Countrywide were made up of salaries. Executive salaries were the bulk of this amount.
Salvaging Countrywide Financial Corporation The Bank of America acquired Countrywide in 2008. Later, the bank had to pay an estimated $8.5 billion to bail CFC out of its legal tussles. In total, BofA spent around $12.5 billion on Countrywide before the end of 2008. The question is, was this investment worthwhile? The bank had to distance itself from the CFC brand, following the bad publicity surrounding it. Further, it had to retire the brand from the market place since it brought sad memories to Americans’ minds.
The strategic decisions BofA needs to make cannot be based on the $12.5 billion it spent on CFC. This money is already a sunk cost. The bank can decide to dispose of CFC now, since the economic climate has improved. It is likely that this option will result in a loss. There is a very low probability that Bank of America will find a buyer willing to pay more than $13 billion for CFC. The better option would be to retain the company, and rebuild it from ground up.
The original idea of CFC was a great one. Though the company has fallen into trouble, it is still possible to salvage its business. When the trade cycle moves to a boom, and unemployment and inflation are low, then Americans will begin to demand more houses. As it is, it is very difficult to purchase a house in cash.
Therefore, the demand for mortgages will also rise. BofA should start preparing for this period. It has taken a right step in retiring the CFC brand. Now it has to create a new brand and ensure consumers associate it with honesty. For this strategy to be successful, an aggressive marketing campaign is necessary.
BoFA must also re-think the underwriting policies of CFC. They must make more stringent and enforce them to ensure employees comply. The company needs a new and improved code of conduct. This code should have top management support. Thus, schemes like the VIP and FOA will be prevented. Finally, BofA may have to downsize CFC if it is to survive. Some employees may have to be laid off. Reorganization could also be necessary. This will aid in realigning CFC to the strategic objectives of BofA.
Reading the American Past, Volume II: From 1865: Selected Historical Document Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents The fundamentals of the postwar period
The importance of Marshall’s Plan
The U.S. economy
The fundamentals of the postwar period While analyzing the Lessons of World War II by Marshall, there is a need to highlight the fundamentals of the period. So, one is to keep in mind that the postwar period was characterized by successful reconstruction of the economies. It seems that representative institutions appearance was the greatest as well as the most successful event of the postwar period.
The Marshall Plan is considered to be the key aspect of the success Western Europe experienced. Thus, this idea is confirmed by DeLong Bradford and Barry Eichengreen. In other words, one can state that Marshall’s Plan was of great significance for the prosperity of Western Europe.
Of course, the fact that Marshall’s program had a great success is recognized to be indisputable; however, taking into account the points Marshall’s Plan included, one can state that the importance of the Plan is evident when analyzing alleviating resource shortages. Generally, the main purpose of Marshall’s Plan was to eliminate hunger, and poverty. There is also a need to add that working economy revival was the key aim of the program.
The importance of Marshall’s Plan It is necessary to point out that fear of financial chaos was regarded as the principal problem in Europe. For this reason, one can make a conclusion that this fear had to be solved with Marshall’s program. On the other hand, nobody can neglect the impact of the psychological affect on people all over the world.
Generally, they say that the reconstruction of Western European countries was much more important than performance of the duties of the East Europeans. Moreover, Cox and Kennedy-Pipe are of the same opinion.
While speaking about Dwight D. Eisenhower’s farewell address, one is to keep in mind that this speech became really legendary. It seems that Eisenhower’s speech had a great impact on the interdependence between the military and defense industry. On the other hand, the role of the universities can’t be neglected. The most important point, which is to be discussed, is the way the power had to be used to protect the interests of the whole world.
So, Eisenhower was sure that crises can’t be avoided; so, for this reason, he recognized the importance of the solutions to resolve various contradictions. The principal aim of the so-called military complex was to establish public policy in relation to American democracy. In other words, the main aim of Eisenhower’s speech was to let know beforehand about dangers of the product of military establishment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The U.S. economy While analyzing Johnson’s book and taking into account the above-mentioned points concerning the postwar period, one can make a conclusion that economic state of the USA became more stable. It can sound strange; however, the structural break in the economy of the USA became a necessary step to stabilize its financial state.
When speaking about Marshall’s Plan, one is to keep in mind that Marshall was not the first Western leader who proposed to use American dollars for economic stabilization of Europe. However, he was the only person who led the way. In other words, the peculiar feature of Marshall’s Plan was economic recovery of the whole world. It was obvious, that without his plan, there could be no political stability in the world. On the other hand, without Marshall’s program, peace could be also under the threat.
Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American Past, Volume II: From 1865: Selected Historical Documents, 2008. Web.
Breast Cancer Treatment Essay best essay help
“Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body” (Carlson et al., 2009). Cancerous cells are also referred to as malignant cells. “Cells act as the building blocks of organisms” (Carlson et al., 2009). Under normal circumstances, cells will undergo cell division depending on the body’s needs, and then die once their function ends.
In addition, malignant cells divide very fast and sometimes fail to die. Cancer develops in different tissues and organs of the body. Cancerous cells have the characteristic of spreading from their source to other parts of the body (invasive). Cancerous cells that remain at their source are said to be noninvasive. The breast is one common organ that cancer affects. Breast cancer occurs in two main categories (Carlson, et al., 2009). Ductal malignancy: this is the most common type of cancer.
This type of breast cancer manifests itself in the tubes/ducts which form the channel for transporting milk from the breast to the nipple. “Lobular carcinoma: this type of cancer usually begins in the milk producing regions of the breast (lobules)” (Breast cancer, 2011). Rarely does cancer develop from other parts of the breast. “Breast cancer is known to occur in invasive or noninvasive form” (Breast cancer 2011). Thus, cancerous cells in the breast may metastasize to other parts of the breast from their source.
The prevalence and causes of cancer vary. “Cancer biologists have discovered that most breast carcinomas are sensitive to the hormone estrogen” (Breast cancer, 2011). The hormone causes the cancerous cells to grow. The breast cancer cells that respond to estrogen have estrogen receptors on their surfaces (Breast cancer, 2011).
Cancer biologists refer to these estrogen receptor possessing breast cancer cells as receptor-positive/EP-positive cancer cells. Scientists have discovered a certain gene called HER2 that helps breast cancer cells to multiply and repair themselves. It has also been noted that women with this type of gene have a severe breast cancer than their female counterparts who lack it.
In addition, HER2 bearers have a higher risk of breast cancer reoccurrence. Generally, chances of developing cancer increase with age. The older one becomes, the higher the risk. Women above 50 years have advanced breast cancer cases. Women are twice more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Family history plays a central role in dictating the chances of someone developing breast cancer.
Persons whose close relatives had ovarian, uterine, breast or colon cancer are at a high-risk of developing breast cancer. Scientists have also discovered that women who experience very early periods (before the age of 12), and those who continue to experience periods through menopause (after age 55) have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Moreover, excessive alcohol (for adults) and radiation therapy around the chest area in children present a risk of developing breast cancer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Women who have received hormone replacement therapy with estrogen and those that used diethylstilbestrol (DES) are at a higher risk. Child birth has also been found to have an effect on breast cancer. Bearing several children and at an early age, reduces the risk. On the other hand, women who bear children after the age of 30 or those who do not bear children at all poses a great risk of developing breast cancer (Giuliano et al. 2011).
Breast cancer at an early stage does not present any symptoms (Hayes, 2007). That is why experts encourage women to go for regular checkups. However, after it has progressed it may present the following symptoms. A hard lump in the breast or armpit that does not induce pain is an indicator of breast cancer.
The lump has uneven edges. Change in the appearance (size and shape) of the nipple may be another indicator. The nipple may show some reddening, dimpling or puckering. The nipple may also produce a discharge. The fluid could be bloody, clear, and yellow or appear like pus. “Symptoms of advanced breast cancer are bone pain, breast pain and discomfort, skin ulcers, weight loss and swelling of one arm next to the breast with cancer” (Breast cancer, 2011).
The treatment of cancer depends on the type, stage, sensitivity to certain hormones or whether the cancer over expresses HER2/neu gene (Carlson et al., 2009). Doctors usually conduct certain tests before deciding the type of treatment to give. Such tests include breast MRI, biopsy, ultrasound, mammography, sentinel lymph node biopsy or CT/PET scans. Three options may be employed. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy (to kill cancer cells) and surgery to remove the cancerous tissue (could be lumpectomy or mastectomy).
Hormone therapy may be prescribed to women with ER positive breast cancer to inhibit certain hormones that cause uncontrolled cell division. Newer strategies include biologic/targeted therapy and immunotherapy (Carlson et al., 2009). “In targeted therapy, anticancer drugs are used to recognize and inhibit certain changes in cells that may lead to cancer” (Breast cancer, 2009). Immunotherapy utilizes activated immune system cells to treat cancer cells. More research is being carried out to shade more light on the use of immunotherapy.
References Breast Cancer (2009). Breast Cancer. Web.
Breast Cancer (2011). Breast Cancer. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Breast Cancer Treatment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Carlson, R. et al. (2009). Breast Cancer: Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Journal of Comprehensive Cancer Network, 7(2), 122-92.
Giuliano, A. et al. (2011). Axillary Dissection vs no Axillary Dissection in Women with Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: A Randomized Controll Trial. Journal of the American Association (JAMA), 305(6), 569-75.
Hayes, D. (2007). Clinical Practice: Folow-up of Patients with Early Breast Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(24), 2505-13.
Analysis of Articles by Johnson Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The articles by Johnson are critical in understanding the external behavior of the US during and after the Second World War. In document 26-1, the author uses the speech of one of the distinguished military generals to assess the position of the US during and after the war.
The military chief lamented that the US was ill prepared to engage any state in a military battle since it had limited resources and technological expertise. Though the military general, George Marshall, agreed that the war brought some benefits to many Americans, he lamented that the war exposed the American weakness regarding military preparedness.
Before the Second World War, the US was much concerned about its internal affairs implying that it avoided external conflicts at all costs. In fact, the US was forced to join the Second World after Japan destroyed its Pearl Harbor. Various reasons contributed to American dormancy in the international system. The US considered itself a peaceful country that did not need any conflict to succeed. However, other reasons contributed to this quietness. These reasons are better captured in the following statement.
There is now another disadvantage to a large professional standing army. Wars in the twentieth century are fought with the total resources, economic, scientific and human of entire nations. Every specialized field of human knowledge is employed. Modern war requires the skills and knowledge of the individuals of a nation (Johnson 212).
The general was trying to imply that war is only fought by rich nations, which are endowed with national resources. Therefore, the military leader challenged Americans to support the government in forming a strong military that would counter any foreign power. The general observed that not all Americans could leave their businesses and join the military but they had to sacrifice their finances to fund military projects.
In article 27-5, Johnson uses the speech of the former head of state, Dwight Eisenhower, to assess the achievements of Americans during the 1950s. Even though Americans achieved a lot during the 1950s, they were faced with many threats. Such threats could be facing the state even currently.
The former head of state observed that Americans had many things to accomplish but the changes in the international system affected them. For this reason, both foreign and domestic policies had to be adjusted to suit the changes in the international system. The leader suggested that American policy makers had to come up with balanced proposals to ensure success. For instance, the economy had to be partly privatized so that many people could venture in clandestine investments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The former president concurred with the general’s postulations that America had to prepare itself militarily. For this to happen, the American populace had to fund various projects through paying sustainable taxes. In other words, Americans had to sacrifice in order to achieve greatness internally and externally. This can be well captured by the following statement.
Crises there will continue to be. In meeting them, whether foreign or domestic, great or small, there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties (Johnson 248).
From the two articles, some observations can be made. In formulation of domestic and foreign policies, the actors are surrounded by the international system. The policy maker must behave within the context of the environment. The environment is usually complex because there are many units such as religions, civilizations, economies and regimes.
The environment can therefore constrain, provide opportunities or can affect the willingness of the decision makers to take advantage of the prevailing conditions. In the American context, the international system prevented the actors from making unilateral decisions before the Second World War. After the war, leaders had to change their foreign policies from isolationist to interventionist.
Works Cited Johnson, Michael. Reading the American past: selected historical documents: volume II: from 1865. 4th ed. New York: Bedford, 2008. Print.
The Blues Meaning and Significance Essay cheap essay help
What is the blues? It seems that the answer to this question can be easily found while examining its peculiarities as the music style, but this issue remains to be one of the most controversial questions which are associated with the blues as the music and philosophy.
Moreover, the attempts to define the blues as a notion gave the start for the discussions of the blues as the expression of the African-Americans’ identity and the possibility to play this music by white people. Thus, can white people play the blues? To examine the problem and give the reliable answer, it is necessary to pay attention to the blues as the cultural phenomenon and to its ethical significance.
In his work “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Phillip Jenkins gives the answer to the question and discusses the blues from several approaches to it as the cultural and aesthetical phenomenon. Jenkins states that it is necessary to differentiate between two understandings of the blues in order to be right while answering this provocative question.
Thus, he accentuates the blues as “the cultural expression” and as “the musical form”. When people speak about the blues as the cultural expression it is important to focus on the fact that white people cannot play the blues because they do not have those national identity and historical, social, and cultural experience and background which the African-Americans have.
However, when we speak about the musical form it is possible to state that “the blues is really nothing more than sound patterns or forms that require only the ability to manipulate the instruments (including the voice) in the right way”. That is why white people can follow the blues techniques and play it. Nevertheless, is it a real blues?
In their work “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Douglas and Nathaniel Langston argue the first one of Jenkins’s principles and support the second statement about the blues as the possibility of white people to play the blues as the musical form.
Their argument is based on the idea that it is unnecessary for people to be black, if they come from the South and feel the blues as the African-Americans do. Moreover, the blues can exist in the world of white people as the specific form known as the white blues. That is why Jenkins’s thesis can be considered as rather controversial.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The blues is the music which traditionally reflects the feelings and emotions of the African-Americans in relation to their state in the country, the peculiarities of their living and visions of their life. Thus, the main ideas of the blues are closely connected with the issues of justice and liberties in the society.
That is why it is possible to discuss the blues in the context of social and ethical significance. To understand this significance, it is useful to refer to Michael Sandel’s ideas about social liberties which reflect some which are typical for the blues. Social justice can be based on individual rights and the freedom of choice. This idea is close to the ethics of the blues because the blues is the music of freedom of will, choice, and desires which are not limited by restrictive social norms.
It is difficult to define the blues as a notion and to develop strict considerations about its meaning and significance because the blues is the music of the souls which freedom cannot be limited by any social, cultural or philosophical norms.
Works Cited Jenkins, Phillip. “The Blues as Cultural Expression”. Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low. Ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather. USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. 38-49. Print.
Langston, Douglas and Nathaniel Langston. “Even White Folks Get the Blues”. Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low. Ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather. USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. 167-176. Print.
Sandel, Michael J. Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
Footnotes Phillip Jenkins, “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).
Phillip Jenkins, “The Blues as Cultural Expression”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011) 40.
Douglas Langston and Nathaniel Langston, “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).
Douglas Langston and Nathaniel Langston, “Even White Folks Get the Blues”, Blues – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking Deep About Feeling Low, ed. Jesse R. Steinberg and Abrol Fairweather (USA: John Wiley and Sons, 2011).
Michael J. Sandel, Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? (USA: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010).
Clovis People Origin and Culture Research Paper essay help online free
Table of Contents Abstract
Origin and Settlements
The Pre-Clovis People
The Clovis Life Styles
Abstract The Clovis culture is an ancient Native American society which, according to archeological documentation of North America, initially emerged about 13,000 years ago, during the last part of ice age (kennely, 2005). The culture’s name originated from works of arts found around Clovis in New Mexico where the initial clues were found in 1932.
Most studies have failed to establish the origin and the reason for disappearance of this culture. Most of existing analyses are based only on the assumptions, although there are some discoveries of their remains in some regions of North America and Mexico. Some archeologists believe that their disappearances were brought about by over-hunting of huge animals like mammoths.
There are still debates if the pre-Clovis people and culture really existed, and some consider that if they lived, then they were poorly organized since there are no enough discoveries of their tools found during excavations in Northern America or Asia. Most of the information in this paper was found in books and studies which are available at the internet. This paper will dwell on the pre-Clovis people, their culture, origin, settlement, lifestyles and finally their disappearance.
Introduction The first evidence, the mammoth bones with a spear-point stuck in the rips, was found in Folsom, New Mexico, in 1926 and since then, various related sites have been found all over the North America as well as Central America and Mexico (Deloria, 2010).
Paleo-Indians is another name used to describe the Clovis people who are commonly considered as the first people to reside in North America. Moreover, they are believed to be ancestors of the natives living in South and North America (McManamon
Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Historically, people living with disabilities in the United States were discriminated upon. Glowacki states that before the 18th century, disability was closely associated with witchcraft, demonic possession or sin (5). As a result, people with various disabilities were in most cases hidden from the public, ostracized and victimized (social exclusion) by members of society (Glowacki 5).
Culturally, having a child with a disability was a source of shame and ridicule in most American societies. Despite the significant changes and efforts directed towards the promotion of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, there still remain cultural and social barriers that dampen such efforts.
Retish and Raiter stated that culture played a pivotal role in determining societal attitudes towards given phenomena (130). The authors described attitude as “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorably or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” (131). From this definition, it is evident that attitudes affect the way people react to different circumstances.
As such, cultural beliefs influence how we behave or perceive people and event in our societies. Negative feelings harbored by some people regarding particular disabilities are to a large extent as a result of cultural barrier. Therefore, it could be argued that cultural barriers are the greatest obstacles to the inclusion of individuals with disabilities in society.
Research conducted by Heyne, Schleien and McAvoy indicated that fear of disabilities was among the major obstacles in the formation of relationships between individuals with and without disabilities (23). Glowacki states that culture has contributed to the tendency of some societies blaming individuals for their disabilities. In addition, stigmatization, stereotyping and pity have been cited as sources of sociocultural barriers affecting individuals living with disabilities.
Previous studies indicate that cultural values greatly influence how society views disabilities. According to Mcloughlin, Zhou, and Clark, Confucianism is the predominant philosophy behind the Chinese culture (274).
The authors assert that this philosophy classifies people into three intellectual groups starting from people with great wisdom, those with average intelligence and finally, those with little intelligence. While Confucianism encourages tolerance, obedience and courtesy, it has led to the discrimination of people based on their personality and merits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mcloughlin et al state that Confucianism encourages people to be determined and participants in the process of national building, while on the other hand, it has led to the development of an elitist system characterized by social segregation and stratification that ignores the needs and efforts of the people with disabilities.
Buddhism as a core aspect in the Chinese culture encourages people to accept themselves as they are. Such values inhibit the ability of people with disabilities to develop because they have to accept their role in society as a marginalized populace. In addition, Buddhists’ belief in Karma also influences how they view people with disabilities.
According to Hampton, Buddhists believe that bad actions attract bad consequences, while good actions are rewarded (41). As such people with disabilities are often viewed as a sign of their predecessors’ bad karma. Due to such cultural beliefs, persons with disabilities in such societies always question whether they are a burden to their families or whether they are a source of shame to the family.
In regard to American culture, stereotyping, prejudice and stigmatization have been cited as the greatest barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities. Byrne defines stigmatization as “a sign of disgrace or discredit which sets a person apart from others” (65).
In most cases, stigma has led to situations where particular people in society are marginalized and excluded in various activities. In addition, McKeever reveals that stigma can prevent people with ability to participate in society, thereby leaving them dependent on others in society (1).
In addition, stigma leads to stereotyping based on misconception. At some point we are guilty of assuming that a mentally ill individual is aggressive or violent. While this is not always the case, such perceptions make it difficult for persons with disabilities to interact effectively with society.
Stigmatization has social and psychological effects on the victim’s quality of life. Nolan et al states that stigmatization lowers one’s self-esteem and self-efficacy. In addition, the authors assert that stigmatization leads to stress, anxiety, denial and antisocial behaviors among the people with disabilities (24). These issues make it difficult for people living with disabilities to become fully integrated into their societies. This makes them view themselves as beneficiaries in society rather than equal participants.
We will write a custom Essay on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, due to stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice towards disabilities, people living with disabilities are not given equal opportunity when it comes to education and employment. In most cases, physical disabilities have been associated with mental inabilities.
For example, there are instances whereby cripples are denied a desk job simply because employers assume that they are not fully qualified to handle the task. This is a classic example of how stigmatization, prejudice and stereotyping act as social barriers to people living with disabilities.
In an empirical study conducted by McCallion, Janicki, and Grant-Griffin in regard to parental perception to disabilities, the researchers found great disparities between the results recorded between African Americans, Chinese, Korean and Mexican participants. The results indicated that Chinese and Korean parents viewed disability as a source of shame in community and that parents from these cultural backgrounds were more likely to hide children with disabilities in order to avoid public ridicule (354).
Similarly, a study conducted by Zaromatidis et al on the attitude of selected Greeks and Greek-Americans towards people living with disabilities, the results showed that the latter had a positive attitude towards disabilities in comparison to their Greek counterparts (1191).
The results were attributed to societal constructs. Greek society is collectivist in nature. This means that Greeks place more emphasis on group membership and communal benefits. As such, people with disabilities are viewed as a source of shame and a threat to societal development.
On the other hand, Greek-Americans, have adopted the individualistic nature of the American society. As a result, they are more tolerant to disabilities. While the Greek society fails to acknowledge disability as a part of life, the American society makes an effort to embrace disability. This is a classic case of social exclusion versus social inclusion between these two samples.
In Mexico, cultural barriers are not as serious as social barriers. In a research conducted by Skivington, the researcher found out that the government in Mexico had to a large extent failed in the provision of services that benefit people living with disabilities (1).
While the Mexican government promised to consider the educational social, architectural and employment needs of people living with disabilities, literature reviewed in Skivington’s research indicated that for the past decade no concrete action had been taken in this regard (3). This is further supported by findings from a survey conducted by members of the Mexico Child Link organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sociocultural Barriers for People with Disabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The study indicated that a large percentage of Mexican street children suffer from various disabilities. In addition, due to lack of specialized care, parents often abandoned children with disabilities. This was attributed to the fact that such children were viewed as a burden and unproductive in a society riddled with poverty.
Other studies showed that children and adult with mental disabilities were mistreated and looked down upon in Mexican societies. According to Moreno, a visit to various mental institutions revealed clear signs of discrimination, lack of concern and mistreatment of patients within these institutions.
The author wrote that “Patients are tied to wheelchairs, walls of shelters and institutions are stained with feces, and pools of urine cover the floor, and children and adults often scream in agony and confusion” (Moreno 1).
In regard to the availability of educational opportunities, a study conducted by Aviles revealed that only 53 out of 457 teachers training institution gave licenses in special education. This would explain why 45,000 out of over one million teachers in Mexico are special educators (1). These examples reveal the sociocultural barriers experienced by people with disabilities in Mexico.
Conclusion This paper set out to discuss the sociocultural barriers that affect people with disabilities. From the literature review presented herein, it has been articulated that cultural and social values, beliefs and practices affect how and why people perceive disabilities. Religion and societal structures have been identified as the major sources of cultural barriers. On the other hand, stigmatization, stereotyping and prejudice have been highlighted as the barriers to social inclusion of people with disabilities in society.
Results from various studies have been used to explore various aspects of the topic and to compare how similar barriers affect societal views on disabilities across different cultures. It has also been noted that while there are laws and regulations that seek to promote equality and fairness for people living with disabilities, there is need to create more awareness among the masses in order to foster attitudinal change regarding disabilities.
People living with disabilities should also strive to prove that they too can make a significant impact to society. Disabilities should not be used as an excuse to nonperformance, but should be accepted and capitalized on. This will ensure future societies accept the situation and treat people with disabilities as equal contributors to the development of the society.
Works Cited Aviles, Karina. “Fox presume plan de educación especial, pero cada vez menos niños son atendidos.” La Jornada, (2006): 1. Print.
Byrne, Patrick. “Stigma of mental illness and ways of diminishing it Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 6.1 (2000): 65-72. Print.
Glowacki, Robert. Literature review for captivate: local participation for all. Perth: Disability Services Commission Department of Sport and Recreation, 2007. Print.
Hampton, Nan. “Meeting the unique needs of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with disabilities: A challenge to rehabilitation counselors in the 21st century.” Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 31.1 (2000): 40-46. Print.
Heyne, Linda., Stuart Schleien., and Leo McAvoy. Making Friends: Using recreating activities to promote friendship between children with and without disabilities. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, 1993. Print.
McCallion, Philip., Matthew Janicki., and Lucinda Grant-Griffin. “Exploring the impact of culture and acculturation on older families caregiving for persons with developmental disabilities.” Family Relations 46.4 (1997): 347-357. Print.
Mcloughlin, Caven., Zheng Zhou., and Elaine Clark. “Reflections on the development and status of contemporary special education services in China.” Psychology in the Schools 42.3 (2005): 273-283. Print.
McKeever, Rosemary. Rethink Anti-Stigma Campaign in Northern Ireland: Public Information Sheet on what is stigma. June 2006. Web.
Moreno, Ivan. Mexico’s disabled live in horrific conditions, report finds. 06 March, 2012. Web.
Retish, Paul., and Shunit Raiter. Adults with disabilities: international perspectives in the community. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print.
Skivington, Michael. “Disability and Adulthood in, Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study.” International Journal of Special Education 26.3 (2011): 1 – 12. Print.
Zaromatidis, Kelly et al. “A cross-cultural comparison of attitudes toward persons with disabilities: Greeks and Greek-Americans.” Psychological Reports 84.3 (1999): 1189-1196. Print.
Treatment of Somatization Disorder Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Abbreviated as SD, Somatization Disorder refers to a medical condition characterized by several physical complaints. It has been found that SD occurs in chronic stages and patients suffering from this condition have a higher likelihood of suicide attempt compared to any other medical condition (Mai 653).
However, Somatization Disorder is not the main cause of suicide deaths reported across the world. The high level of suicide attempts among SD patients is attributed to cases of overdoses of drugs, emanating from the presence of numerous complaints.
Persistent physical complaints are quite often and these may last for years as several body systems are prone to the attack. Nevertheless, most registered cases involve complaints regarding the reproductive system, the nervous and the digestive system. Unlike other medical cases, SD carries a high level of stigma. As such, patients get dismissed by medical practitioners who argue that the condition is usually a manufactured disease in the mind of the patient (Mai 653).
SD presents itself through severe symptoms, capable of interfering with a person’s capability to work and even relate with other people around. Consequently, affected people seek medication from medical experts (Khouzam and Field 20).
Based on gender, Somatization Disorder is more prevalent in women than men. Coupled with other psychological disorders and anxiety, this condition may become fatal and is known to have poor diagnosis (Mai 653). Lowering the impact of SD is quite important with counseling and other psychological approaches being considered.
These help patients in dealing with the condition and augments stress management for better mental stability. Early intervention may further lower the severity of symptoms, which may lead to other harsh complications. This intervention is essential and healthy since most of the complications are uncomfortable and may deny the patient the ability to perform his or her daily chores and may lead to suffering of feelings (Khouzam and Field 20).
The condition is also known to fluctuate in one’s life and complete relief from the complaints is hardly possible. Additionally, Somatization Disorder develops between the age of eighteen and thirty years.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to mention that no single method has been identified in the treatment and prevention of SD (Mai 653). This research paper explores the best treatment option for people suffering from SD. It further explains dangers and disadvantages of these treatment options, which have to be known to patients before consideration.
Treatment As mentioned above, Somatization Disorder does not have a single treatment method. Its treatment may comprise of several management methods before positive healthy results can be realized. However, there are several challenges experienced in the treatment of SD among medical practitioners (Mai 657). Most physicians are pessimistic and negative towards this condition. It is believed that psychologists and psychiatrists perceive SD as a chronic condition that only exists in the mind of patients.
This pessimism further ignores the fact that poor management of Somatization Disorder can lead to high severity of complications associated with the disorder (Khouzam and Field 23). This commonly occurs when there is inconsistency in treatment, which dissatisfies most patients. The difficulty experienced by doctors in treatment of Somatization Disorder is highly attributed to ignorance, refuting organic diseases, discomfort of some doctors during the process and the fear by most doctors to miss an organic disease (Weiten 70).
General treatment Treatment of SD requires the efforts of both doctors and the patients in order to realize better recovery results. In this regard, the first general principle of treatment is to ensure that diagnosis feedback is known to the patient (Mai 658). This helps the patient to understand his or her medical conditions based on the findings recorded by the doctor.
However, rejection is common, where doctors consider patients’ symptoms as imaginative and not real. As a result, the patient is denied the ability to positively accept the situation. Empowerment of patients is highly recommended by giving tangible and rational explanation for manifested symptoms to allow self-empowerment and stabilization of the situation at hand (Khouzam and Field 23).
Specific treatment Treatment of Somatization Disorder is mainly through pharmacological and psychological methods. Additionally, a combination of the two methods could be adopted as determined by the doctor in charge. Under psychological therapies, patients are usually exposed to supportive psychotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy.
However, the two can be combined depending on the verdict of the doctor and the severity of the existing symptoms (Mai 658). It is important to note that supportive psychotherapy is best performed by physicians who are sympathetic and understanding towards the medical problem. In this case, the doctor is able to respond to both emotional and physical challenges presented by the patient.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is recommended that therapy sessions be regular, consistent and well structured in order to eliminate several complaints. However, these sessions should not be in excess to avoid dependency among patients. For quick recovery, patients are encouraged to focus on their daily life and not current medical symptoms to avoid worsening of the situation.
On the other hand, CBT is the most effective method of treating Somatization Disorder. This approach merges several therapeutic procedures and is highly recommended for patients who do not respond to simple strategies of SD treatment and management (Mai 658). Under this approach, appropriate behavior of the patient is promoted through structuring of the patient’s physical and social environment.
This eliminates the possibility of being preoccupied with dangerous imaginations and behavior, which may hamper recovery. CBT experts reveal that family members and physicians play a crucial role in the recovery of SD patients and may also reinforce their illness (First and Tasman 385).
Treatment goals are equally important to define the number and frequency of therapy sessions. They also explain the need for patients to be involved in homework such as reading appropriate literature, recoding of feelings and keeping of a diary (Mai 659).
This helps the physician to track the lifestyle of the patient with regard to the prevailing disorder. CBT further allows the participation of family members in modification of the environment, allowing them to monitor the behavior and response of the patient regularly (Khouzam and Field 24). Under this category of patients, relaxation therapy could also be vital as a way of maintaining good health. This has to be done regularly over a long period of time.
Besides psychological therapies, patients suffering from SD can be treated using pharmacological therapies. Nevertheless, there is very little progress that has been realized in exploring medical treatment approach. Antidepressants are the most prescribed drugs especially for patients who do not suffer from dysphoria. The risk of using this method is overdose due to numerous complications.
Conclusion By comparing these methods, I would recommend CBT as the most efficacious way of dealing with SD. This is because it combines all psychological therapies and involves both the patient, physician and family members.
Nevertheless, the disadvantage of this method is rejection from doctors and family members who may not be able to understand SD symptoms being presented (Mai 660). In seeking medical attention, patients can consider community resources like public hospitals, hotlines, clinics, support groups and recreational centers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Treatment of Somatization Disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited First, Michael, and Tasman Allan. Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.
Khouzam, Raoul, and Field Susan. “Somatization Disorder: Clinical Presentation and Treatment in Primary Care.” Turner White, 1999. Web.
Mai, François. “Somatization Disorder: A Practical Review.” Can J Psychiatry 49.10, (2004): 652-662. Print.
Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations Briefer Version. Stamford, Connecticut, U.S: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Deforestation Problem Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Deforestation is the cutting down of trees for the purpose of converting the land to none forest use. Deforestation involves cutting down trees and stumps completely or partially for a variety of reasons. The major reason why people cut down trees is for fuel use whereby the cut down trees are used as a source of energy, a phenomenon that is very common in most developing countries.
Deforestation is carried out for agricultural purposes in that the deforested land is used for planting agricultural products or grazing. In this case, the cut down trees are burnt down which leads to the depreciation of the soil nutrients (Margulis, 2004).
Extraction of natural resources and construction of public amenities is another major reason as to why deforestation takes place. Large tracts of forest land are deforested to pave way for the extraction of mineral resources such as limestone, diamond, gold and all other sorts of minerals. Construction of roads, railway lines, buildings and dams are other reasons for deforestation.
Commercial logging is also another major cause for deforestation. In this case, the trees cut down are sawed into timber and pulp for various commercial uses ranging from construction to other industrial uses like raw material of making plain papers.
Deforestation has continued rapidly throughout the world regardless of the grave effects of this practice. Forests initially covered a quarter of the earth planet, but the encroachment of human activities leaving bare fields has continued to be a major threat to forests and has led to drastic reduction of the percentage of earth covered by forests.
According to Spilsbury, (2011), the percentage of land covered by forests has reduced drastically over a period of time. A good case study of this is Brazil where large tracks of Amazon rain forest have been destroyed due to logging.
In most developing countries, over 80% of the wood harvested is used for fuel purposes. Most of deforestation done for the purpose of fuel is done in dry forests where else deforestation for commercial reason is done in tropical rain forests. Wood fuel is preferred by rural and urban populations in developing countries because of its affordability and availability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the rural poor population residing near forests normally uses only wood fuel due to its proximity. In this case, the population cut down trees in the neighboring forests and uses them for cooking purposes. The urban population has contributed to deforestation whereby timber merchants cut down trees for the purpose of charcoal burning where they get their lucrative market in the urban areas.
One of the effects of deforestation felt globally is global warming. Global warming occurs as a result of deforestation as trees uses carbon dioxide during the photosynthesis process. Forests decrease leads to the increase of carbon dioxide in the environment which traps heat in the atmosphere leading to global warming. Other effects of deforestation include desertification due to lack of rains, environmental pollution as well as wildlife human conflict.
To curb deforestation, several measures need to be undertaken. This include reforestation, legislation to ban logging, recycling to cut down the use of forest products and protecting forested areas from human encroachment.
Another major measure which can be taken to stop deforestation is using alternative sources of fuel apart from wood fuel. Alternative fuel sources will drastically reduce the rate at which forests are being destructed. Governments across the world should adopt the use of bio gas, solar and wind energy as an alternative source of fuel energy (Miller, Vandome
Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Infoscape Technologies Infoscape Technologies is a novel technology firm focusing on the hospitality industry in the UAE region. It focuses on providing software solutions to the hospitality industry. Mainly, it provided solutions in Guest Incident Management, HR administration, concierge management system, and Hotel Service Optimization System. Vinod Philip, who is currently the CEO, started the company in 2008. The company has several middle level managers, director of sales, project manager, HR and financial officer.
The CEO is the overall manager in charge of the operations of the company. The CEO is responsible for strategic leadership in the company. The CEO, in collaboration with other senior level managers, has the task of devising policies for implementation within the company.
Since its inception in 2009, the company has grown in many dimensions; this includes an increase in the customer base and an increase in program outputs. The CEO offers guidance in what products the company distributes from other companies and sets targets for the percentage of products the company will market under its own brand. The number of high-level collaborations has increased as well as the output of Infoscape branded products.
The CEO maintains discretionary authority on decisions concerning which products the company markets from outside. The CEO also represents the company in industry conventions, within and outside UAE. The CEO receives reports on the progress of the company form the different departments and charts new course for the company. He also provides decisions on expansions; for example the decisions to expand to India.
The other mid-level manager is the project manager. The project manager is in charge of all projects undertaken by the company. The company deals with installation and maintenances of software solutions in the hospitality industry; consequently, all the functions of installation and maintenances fall under the office of the project manager. The projects manager oversees the implementation of projects related to varied technology products.
This includes presales, execution, training, project management, and support. All the activities pertaining to customer satisfaction fall under this office. The project manager has duties comprising of designing, instituting, and evaluating the progress of projects. She is in charge of monitoring the productivity and motivation of her workers. She also handles customer complains concerning the company products or products marketed by the company.
The director of sales deals with all marketing activities in the firm, which includes both the company brands and external brands. The manager has the charge of overseeing effective collaboration between his company and other company in marketing partnerships. He furnishes the CEO with information regarding the market requirements and recommend solution products. He has to keep the sales personnel motivated and productive. The other managers assume the roles designed for their departments in the same manner.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First-line managers include the assistant technical consultant, Robson Correa, and the personnel manager. The assistant technical consultant answers to the project director and is responsible for the providing consultation to company staff working in various projects. The personnel manager oversees the welfare of company personnel. This includes workstation transportations, complaints, leave, and general employee issues.
STC STC is a Saudi-based organization dealing in telecommunications. It was established in 1998. It operates through five operations units dealing in voice calls, data, internet, business, and mobile services. It has 21,190 employees and a market capitalization of SAR 79.8 billion (Zawya, 2012).
In 2011, the STC publicized its new organizational structure. The structure comprised of divisions descriptive of KSA Operations, Strategic Operations, and Technical Operations. The Group CEO, Group VP for Shared Services, CEO for Strategic Operations, Group CEO for Technical Operations, and CEO of Saudi Operations provide headship to the company.
The next level of management comprises of VPs in charge of Wholesale, Finance Saudi Arabia, Informational Technology, Home Services, Network, Strategic Affairs, Enterprise Services, Human Capital, Regulatory Affairs, and Personal Services. The third level of managers includes the project managers in all the divisions represented by the vice presidents (Zawya, 2012).
The top-level management consists of four persons proving oversight to all sectors of the company. They provide guidance to the multinational operations on the company. Their functions include setting standards for the company on the three key sectors of the company and making top-level management decisions. They also evaluate the structure of the organization to ensure that is consistent with company orientation.
The second level of management, consisting of the VPs for various subsectors, is responsible for the actual operation decisions in the organization. They cooperatively design strategies for the progress of the company in line with the goals established by the top management and the board of governors.
They have the task of running their subsectors to ensure optimum productivity. The middle level directors consult with project managers to address the issue of motivation, qualifications, and job satisfaction. They interpret the goals of the company in terms of their sectors and communicate them to the first-line managers.
We will write a custom Assessment on Key functions and roles of the top management, middle and first-line management of Infoscape Technologies and Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They receive and evaluate reports on the progress of their divisions and make appropriate recommendations. Finally, they report to the top management on the progress in their sub sectors. The product managers have the task of disseminating company policies and goals to non-managerial staff. They translate these policies into actual tasks that the personnel under them will accomplish. They report to their immediate supervisors. They monitor the productivity of the works and make appropriate decisions.
Advantages and disadvantages of their organization structures Infoscape follows a line-discipline organizational structure. This means that divisions arise from the different roles carried by the middle level managers. Command flows, in most cases, from the top. However, the middle level managers aid in the decision-making by furnishing the CEO with the relevant information. Policies developed from the top management eventually reach the last rank among the employees. This arrangement has several advantages.
It is the simplest method of administration, since the centers of command are easily identifiable and recognizable. Superior-subordinate relationships persist, and the organization follows a top-bottom chain of command, which results in harmony of command. There are fewer chances of miscommunication and conflicts. Since the command flows from only one direction, then all the personnel will be following similar directions, thus, reducing chances of confusion and conflict.
This organizational structure also presents the advantage of instituting better discipline throughout the organization (Murphy
Introduction to Management Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu
Emerging Issues That Will Affect Business in the UAE One emerging issue that businesses in the UAE must deal with in the future is localization. Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) face the challenge of making their business operations local to effectively compete in the UAE business environment. There are laws in the UAE governing aspects of localization for MNEs.
However, their implementation is somewhat ambiguous. Thus, companies rely on the need to realize economic returns as a factor influencing their localization policy. Unfortunately, the present situation allows some MNEs to avoid the localization of their operations. Moreover, those that succeed in implementing localization may not go as deep as it is necessary to maintain their competitive strategies in the end.
Localization differently affects various companies. First, in the UAE, the government through its agencies is the biggest consumer of products and services in the economy. Companies that encourage the employment of UAE citizens and subcontract their work to native companies have a higher chance of doing business with the government.
The lucrativeness of government contracts in the UAE force many MNEs to hire local staffs. Not all MNEs will survive the dynamic market of the country if all they do is hire local staffs. The UAE continues to emerge as a force to reckon in the global business environment. As it rises, its citizens and laws also evolve to provide better control and management the economy.
MNEs that early adopted the concept of localization have an advantage over new companies, which are copying an already existing trend. For the former, their need to realize economic gains prompted them to develop strategic plans in accordance with their strength and weakness analyses. However, the latter only adopt localization policies to copy their competitors.
Copying strategies of another company in the same industry does not guarantee the effectiveness of those strategies in the future. The late adopters of localization have to deal with the emerging risk of becoming irrelevant in the changing market. The UAE is likely to develop professional bodies and associations that will stress the need for the adoption of local practices among MNEs. Thus, the companies that fail to support the localization projects are already jeopardizing their future operations.
Management should understand that the achievement of external legitimization by recruiting native nationals reduces their risks as they compete with homegrown firms (Forstenlechner
Improvement of Communication Strategies Term Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract This paper is aimed at identifying strategies that firms can utilize to improve communications channels with its employees. The introduction gives a concise explanation of communication process in an organization. It then identifies obstacles faced by employees in firms. Using the theories identified by research recommendations explain viable strategies for organization are given. All this information then form the basis for conclusion that is also given in the paper.
Introduction In organizations, communication is the process by which information is passed from the top-level management that is comprised of the CEO and the Board of Directors down to the other subordinates and vice-versa. The significance of communication is any institution is to ensure that the recipient of data fully understands the information given. The main medium for communication in organization is people i.e. among managers, subordinates, customers etc (Gibson
How to Choose a Major Persuasive Essay a level english language essay help
Choosing an academic major, the students make one of the most important decisions in life. It is a complicated issue which is influenced by a number of aspects where gender one is the most significant. Such issue includes the psychological process of selecting the academic majors from the position of the gender stereotypes. Although gender rights and ability to choose the education and work are equal in the modern society, the gender aspect is still has a serious impact on the people’s choice, including the choice of college major.
Thus, according to the most widely spread stereotypes, girls rather choose humanities than technical majors or math, while boys prefer the sciences, technical subjects and IT. However, I think that the statement that girls and boys have the different ability to study technical subjects is incorrect due to a number of examples of successful women-scientists.
It is the absolutely illogical position, as the present aspect is based on the personal skills and inborn patterns. Therefore, analyzing the current situation within the educational system from the position of the gender stereotypes, it is necessary to develop the solution which should step-by-step improve the situation.
The most appropriate measures are the providing of the seminars for school students when the teachers could emphasize an importance of the personal choice in spite of the stereotyped opinions. As the students will comprehend that the decision-making process should be independent and based on the personal skills and desires, they will choose those majors which can help them to increase the inborn talent.
Therefore, it is necessary to change the stereotypical view of the gender definition of the sciences, developing the governmental programs which would guarantee the equality of every students no matter of gender and to provide the lessons and seminars for students, indicating and unmasking the gender stereotypes as a cause of the significant impact on the process of choosing a major.
It is obvious that the choice of a major is a one of the most important decisions in life. St. John says that “there is, perhaps, no college decision that is more thought-provoking, gut-wrenching and rest-of-your life-oriented – or disoriented – than the choice of a major” (22).
Most of the students make their choice not only because they do not want to study math or languages or, vice versa, they want to investigate the concrete subject. The foundation of the psychological aspects within the process of choosing a major indicates that the gender stereotypes have a significant influence on the students’ choice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, there is a widely spread belief in the society that boys are better in sciences and various technical subjects than girls. As it is a well-known fact that girls have more developed left cerebral hemisphere, while boys have right, many people suppose that girls should choose humanities such as literature, languages, psychology, etc. In every situation when the girl chooses the technical studies, math or chemistry, there are the doubts about an ability of female to cope with such sciences.
On the other hand, there is a stereotype than females are better teachers and psychologists than males due to the natural skills to comprehend the emotions and feeling of others and ability to teach children.
However, the simple analysis demonstrates than this statement is absolutely wrong, as there are different examples of the great male teachers. Besides, the majority of the famous psychologists are males. Therefore, I am sure of the necessity of explaining of this issue for students who are ready to make a choice of a major.
The present issue requires the development of the measures which could reduce the disbalance and stereotypes within the educational area. The research of this problem demonstrates that the issue needs more strict developmental solutions.
Many researchers emphasize that the gender stereotypes and gender equality are the parts of the international promoting programs which claim the importance of parity and the personal rights, including the choice of educational majors, in spite of the stereotypes. Thus, Subrahmanian says that gender parity and equality within the education are the international development goals (396). The author analyses the work of The Dakar Framework for Action, which contains the gender-based goals.
First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the gender inequality on the different levels of educational system, including the primary and secondary education. According to the researcher, a gender perspective within the educational system includes such elements as “learning content, teaching method and process, subject choice, assessment modes, management of peer relationships and learning outcomes” (Subrahmanian 403). Thus, it is possible to notice that subject choice is one of the key elements of the gender equality.
According to Bennett et al., the current situation within the educational system demonstrates the presence of such characteristics as “politicians’ concerns for the country to remain globally competitive through scientific innovation delivered by a skilled workforce; lobbyists’ campaigns for equal rights for women employees; and female academics’ challenges to the cultures and practices of their own science disciplines” (2010).
We will write a custom Essay on How to Choose a Major specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the authors emphasize the feminist perspective, which has a significant support. From this point of view, there is no problem for the students to choose that major which they want no matter of gender.
However, as this situation is typical for United Kingdom and Ireland, a number of other world’s communities demonstrate the different statistics where the gender factor is significant. The researchers suggest the political debates like one of the measures which can improve the problem of the gender stereotypes within the educational system.
All children should have the same access to the educational programs and subjects. Although this problem is not significant in the Western countries, it is one of the major aspects of the Eastern societies and especially in the Middle East, where females have fewer abilities than males.
Providing of the equal access to the scientific disciplines will help students be more acquainted with the subjects and will help them to choose a major. Such problems should be discussed on the various levels, including the ministers and governments and the national and international committees. As the ministries of education will comprehend the problem, they will develop the measures to improve the situation and to change the stereotypes.
I see the development of seminars and lessons in the schools as the major step of improvement of the situation. One of the solutions is the creation of a list of recommendations for students.
This list should include those elements which will emphasize the equality of males and females in the process of choice of a major and an importance of the personal skills and inborn talent as the basement of the choice. Besides, I would like to provide the particular examples, for instance, the successful male teachers and female-physicists. Such obvious examples are more effective and convincing than the theories.
Reading the information about the concrete scientists, the students will feel freer and more assured of their choice of a major. For instance, the information about Sofia Kovalevskaya and Marie Skłodowska-Curie, among many other women-scientists, will demonstrate that students should easily choose chemistry, math or physics as a major, in spite of the gender stereotypes.
At the same time, the information about successful male teachers or designers will help males to follow their desire to study such “female” disciplines as literature or art. Although it is a well-known fact that men are better chefs than women, most of the male students do not want to study this discipline, in spite of the skills and desire.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Choose a Major by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, they are better fashion and interior designers. Although it seems absolutely female deal to teach children, cook and express the emotions, men can get more success as the teachers and artists. However, most of the time, they are scared to be mocked or misunderstood as well as girls are afraid to choose the technical majors and, as the result, to be misunderstood and do not be treated seriously.
The school seminars should demonstrate that both genders have the same rights within the choice of the academic programs and it is not shameful to follow the dreams. Moreover, it would be appropriate and effective to invite the practitioners form the different areas in order to show the students that it is possible to get the success in every field, in spite of gender.
As a result of the seminars, the students will be able to get the feedback from the professionals. Thereby, it is necessary to make those studies more practical than theoretical. As the theory can be good, while doing the research and investigating the problem, the practical examples are more effective and convincing in the process of decision-making.
Considering gender as one of the major issues that has a significant impact on the process of choosing of an academic major by students, it is necessary to provide the measures which should improve this problem. Thus, the possible solution can be found in development of the educational programs by the governments, which will guarantee the equal rights and parity within the educational system for all students.
This issue should be discussed within the political and social debates in order to improve the problem of gender stereotypes as one of the key elements of choosing a major. It is necessary to provide the possibility of choosing any subject no matter of gender of the student. Besides, the school program should include the seminars and lectures where the students will be able to get information about the different subjects which can be chosen as the majors.
Additionally, such seminars will provide an opportunity to learn about the particular examples of males and females who got success in the various fields of science. As the students will get the chance to meet with the professionals, they will comprehend the necessity of the choice of a major, according to their natural talent and skill and no matter of gender.
Works Cited Bennett, Cinnamon, Marina Larios, Louise Norman and Emma Parry 2010, Meta-analysis of gender and science research – Country group report: UK and Ireland countries. PDF file. Web.
St. John, E. “Majors.” Black Issues in Higher Education, 17.4 (2000): 21-27. Print.
Subrahmanian, Ramya. “Gender equalityin education: Deﬁnitions and measurements.” International Journal of Educational Development 25 (2005): 395–407. Print.
Personality of Julius Caesar and His Effect on Rome Report college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Caesar’s Effect on Rome
Kevin Rudd Compared to Caesar
Introduction Julius Caesar is an ancient Roman personality and an influential political figure. Moreover, conspirators, led by a personality called Brutus, assassinated him. Caesar’s role in the play is not immense, though he dominates the play, even after his demise in the third act of the play.
He is enigmatic and represents the focal theme of the play, the moral haziness surrounding his assassination (Shakespeare, 2011). The assassinating leader is an influential political figure and coveted leader who is a brutal and sadistic tyrant. Therefore, the conspiracy against him appears to be dignified and similarly malevolent.
Caesar’s Personality Caesar is undoubtedly domineering. His first appearance depicts scores of admiring followers behind him. He is accustomed to dominion. Caesar depicts his dominance by dismissing the soothsayer when they warn him (Loos
Social Inequalities in American Society Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Tax Avoidance by Billionaires
Have the people banded together against this inequality?
Introduction Social inequalities seem to typify the American society. The federal government is desperately attempting to raise the debt ceiling to cover up for high debt due to insufficient revenues. That notwithstanding, it is now apparent that myriads of billionaires and millionaires rarely pay their income taxes.
This is despite making huge incomes from their investments. Conversely, tax evasion amongst the middle and lower class is an offense that invites horrendous punitive measures (Kourvetaris, 1997). How do the rich avoid paying income tax to the government? Have people banded together to counter this source of social inequality?
Tax Avoidance by Billionaires There are various ways that the rich are able to avoid taxation. In 2009, the IRS revealed that almost 1,500 billionaires and millionaires in the country did not pay a single dollar as income tax (Wilkinson
Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US Essay online essay help
Chronology of employment laws The Clayton Act was enacted in 1914, with the intention of establishing legal protection for organized labor. There was a need to assert the position of labor in the face of antitrust legislations, and this is what the law was intended to achieve. In 1926, the Railways Act was passed. It was meant to encourage collective bargaining among employers, and prohibit discrimination against unions.
The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931, to address the problem of wage payment in the construction industry. Its provisions required a contract for construction into which the federal government entered, to specify the minimum wage to be paid to laborers employed under that contract (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).
In order to increase protection for union activities and collective bargaining, Congress passed the Norris-NaGuardia Act in 1932. The Act legalized strikes and other collective ways of dealing with labor issues, and also prohibited the enforcement of ‘yellow dog’ agreements or contracts through the courts of law. The National Industry Recovery Act was enacted in 1933, and congress intended to set standards of ‘fair competition’, by regulating regular working hours and wages (Federal Labor Laws, n.d)..
The National Labor Relations Act-1935 was passed by Congress in order to regulate labor relations among employees whose activities affected interstate commerce, except those in the agricultural sector.
The Act also established the NLRB, through which labor disputes would be handled, and prohibited employers from engaging in any of the prohibited unfair practices. In 1936, Congress enacted the Walsh-Healy Act, whose intention was to restrict the regular working hours, establish minimum wages and regulate the employment of children and ex-convicts (Federal Labor Laws, n.d).
In order to introduce some limitations to the rights enjoyed by trade unions, Congress enacted the National Labor Relations Act in 1947. The Act introduced measures to delay or avert ‘emergency strikes’ and prohibited the discriminative ‘closed shop’ practices of trade unions.
The Equal Pay Act was passed by congress in 1963 to prohibit the act of paying different amounts of money to male and female employees, only because they were male or female. This law was also enacted in order to protect employees from retaliation, if they filed complaints against their employers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was enacted to protect the rights of individuals, and to prohibit various actions by employers that the law classified as discriminatory (Federal Labor Laws, n.d). This list is not exhaustive, and many more employment laws exist in the US.
In the recent past, there has been a marked increase in the calls for equality and protection from discrimination at the work place. Legislations such as The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Civil Rights Act of 1991, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 all prohibit different types of discriminations.
These legislative efforts have led to the reduction of discrimination at the work place, as these laws prescribe heavy penalties for the commission of prohibited acts by employers and their agents.
Scenario Discrimination at the workplace on the basis of sex is prohibited by employment laws in the United States (EEOC, n.d). There are several options that an aggrieved party can pursue in order to have his/her grievance addressed. These options include; internal dispute resolution procedures at the workplace, filing a complaint with the EEOC, or litigation among others (EEOC, n.d). If an employee files a complaint against the employer, he/she is protected from retaliation by the law.
Smith has a case against the company for retaliation, since the law prohibits retaliatory acts by the employer against an employee who files a complaint against it.
The remedies available to a victim of retaliation include; compensatory damages for expenses or losses that he/she may have incurred as a result of the retaliatory act, and punitive damages to punish the employer especially where the act was malicious or reckless (EEOC, n.d).
Before he can recover, Smith will have to prove; that he exhausted the internal dispute resolution mechanisms laid down by the company before proceeding to the EEOC, and that he suffered damage or loss as a result of the retaliatory act. He will also have to establish the company’s vicarious liability for the acts of the offending party in order to recover against it.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical Changes in the Employment Laws in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References EEOC. (n.d.). Sex-Based Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sex.cfm
Federal Labor Laws. (n.d.). Web.
The Problems that Lake Tahoe Faces Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Lake Tahoe has not only transformed America, it has also played a major role in the conquest of California. The lake put a beginning to a sexual revolution, was a premise for a ski industry and also led to the launch of Republican Party. The novel Tahoe beneath the Surface by Scott Lankford tells about a hidden history of the most famous residents of the Lake Tahoe. The novel provides tales about Rat Pack, Mafia dons and mysterious legends of Indian tribes.
The novel brings to light the values of Lake Tahoe illustrating why it is one of the hot spots in America. It also traces the steps of authors like Maxine Hong Kingston, Bertrand Russell and Michael Ondaatje. In addition, it reveals the darkest pages of the American history, such as Kennedy assassination and anti-Chinese racism.
The novel also shows how lives of such famous people like Frank Sinatra, John Muir, and Mark Twain were influenced by this lake. These characters both have specific reasons as to why they value Lake Tahoe, for example Sinatra value lake Tahoe because of its glamour and glitz, while Muir values it for its natural beauty and Cousteau values the lake for its natural waters (Scott 98).
However, even regardless of the influence on life of many people, there are several environmental threats that the lake faces making it increasingly vulnerable. There are also Tahoe Blue in the lake, which is a term used by the author Lankford to describe the meaning represented by the lake, its beauty and range of life around it. It is however important to preserve Lake Tahoe since it has transformed America and the people leaving around it.
Lake Tahoe has acted as one of the most beautiful cites in the whole world, however, it is still troubled by numerous environmental harms. Since 1844 when Lake Tahoe was discovered, the lake has acted as scenic attraction site because of its natural beauty and surrounding which is one of the reasons why John Muir, a character in the novel, valued the lake.
On the other hand, Frank Sinatra who is one of the characters in the novel, also valued the lake because of its glamour and glitz. This is one of the reasons why Lake Tahoe needs to be preserved, as its site can act as a source of revenue to America when tourists come to view the place. Many scientists, community leaders and government seek to find ways to preserve the lake and restore its distinctive biological diversity.
Cousteau who is one of the characters of the novel Tahoe beneath the Surface values the Lake Tahoe for its natural waters. Lake Tahoe straddling along the California-Nevada border is well known for its clean waters usually referred to as jewel of the Sierra (Scott 100).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, subsequent development and growth has become one of threats faced by Lake Tahoe since it menaces the clarity of the natural waters. This part of the lake is the centerpiece of ecosystem where many resource managers and scientists have continually been examined. They measure, sample, test and restore the biodiversity and landscape of the lake.
They try their best to ensure that Lake Tahoe restores back its natural waters which has acted as a home for many plant species and wildlife. If the water is endangered then it means that the lives of these plants and animals are in danger too. This is why it is very crucial that the lake be preserved to save the plants and animals and also the clarity of the water. About 200,000 acres of the lake have ecologically sensitive slopes, marshes and meadows (Dylan 110).
Economic development and growth have a negative effect on the environment of the lake despite the fact that it has contributed to the prosperity of the region that is situated near the lake. Nevertheless, there is a great decline in biodiversity in the lake due to the polluted air and soil.
The soil and air around Lake Tahoe need to be fresh to enable survival of living organisms in it and around it. It is therefore crucial to preserve the lake. Regional goals have been adopted by American government to promote and expand bio-logical diversity of wildlife, fish and communities that habit in and around Lake Tahoe.
Landowners around Lake Tahoe have also taken the initiative of reclaiming those parts of the lake that are troubled to see in it that they are well preserved. 85 percent of the land along Lake Tahoe belongs to California Department of Parks and Recreation, U.S Forest Service, California Tahoe Conservancy and Neva da Division of States Parks. However, the remaining part of the land along Lake Tahoe is privately owned (Byron
Different quality services between Asia and Europe Hotels Essay (Book Review) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture)
Research questions and objectives
Introduction There has been an endless debate among travelers concerning the standard of quality of service in the hospitality industry. It is worth noting that the debate is focusing on whether European hotels offer same level of services as their Asian counterparts.
There is no doubt that different people have different test when it comes to the quality of service they would like to receive from hotels as well as other hospitality industry. There are those of the view that whenever they are out of their country, they expect to receive services equal to what is offered back home while there are those who believe they need to receive a different level of service (Naraya et al., 2009).
Since the world has turned into a global village, travelling has been faster and cheaper, thus people find themselves out of their motherland more often. This kind of travelling has offered hospitality industry with an opportunity to grow. One area that scholars have noted to be of interest and can be successfully used as competitive advantage is to provide customers with very high standard of service; this can be attained through incorporating cultural aspects.
As a result of rising significance of service quality in the hotel industry, scholars in the hospitality industry dedicated their efforts to come up with a framework as well as measurable scales to help determine perception of service quality. As a result SERVQUAL model was developing and up to date it is well known and has been applied in various studies. The model is made up of 5 service quality dimensions and includes the following; tangible, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and reliability (Tse, 2009).
Tangibles are those physical facilities; equipment as well as how the employees of a hotel look, when the expectations of a customer are met this will contribute to satisfaction.
Reliability means the ability to accomplish and provide customers with services initially promised, responsiveness defines the willingness of hotel workers to help customers and give them prompt services, assurance refers to knowledge and courtesy of workers towards visitors finally empathy is the caring and personalized attention that customers are provided with by service providers.
Ideally service quality has been simply thought of as the difference between perceptions of customers and his or her expectations. Therefore service quality is one way to help manage business process in order to ensure that total satisfaction to customers on all levels is attained. Ideally the concept ultimately results in higher level of competitiveness, effectiveness as well as flexibility.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Robinson, 2003, he asserts that every nation has realized the importance of tourism and has embarked on efforts to attract more tourists. To match the demands and aspiration of the visitors, hotels are in the forefront to ensure that the visitors are satisfied with everything which will ensure customer loyalty as well as retention.
Asian hotels Asian hotels has the advantage of being considerably less expensive compared to those in America and Europe zone. For this reason, every individual can afford to enjoy the services of the hotel industry.
However in Europe, individual of lower income level can only share room with many other visitors. Similarly, hotels in Asia tend to give much better services as compared to their European counterparts. Additionally the facilities are better too (Tse, 2009).
For instance room are relatively larger in size, they are new bathroom are also newer and larger. Visitors have indicated that they love to spend their holidays in Asian hotels since it is affordable. They claim that they can stay in a hotel in a beach or a block away from the beach at relatively lower cost. Taking dinner every single night is fun and affordable too. Interestingly visitors indicate that they are more attracted to the unique culture of the region.
Europe hotels Hotels in Europe are quite expensive as compared to those in Asian countries. From previous studies, it has been revealed that most of the hotels in this region are smaller; however visitors find it to be charming as well as offer local hospitality. Nonetheless, there have been cases where visitors were of the view that the rooms and bathroom were quite smaller, with poor ventilation. Other visitors were unsatisfied with the quality of linen offered to them as well as lack of view from their room (Akbaba, 2006).
Factor impacting on customer satisfaction (culture) It has been shown that service quality or customer satisfaction with regards to services in the hospitality industry is dictated by a number of factors. The encountered services, employee training and culture are the three most important factors that lead to quality service.
As suggested by Yi, Marcelo
Robocalls in Canada Elections Essay argumentative essay help
Elections Canada warned the public not to trust any calls that claimed change of polling stations. The announcement was made on2nd May, 2011 by the election agency which went further to inform the public that the automated calls were not made by the agency.
The robocalls which mainly targeted the Liberal and NDP supporters gave misleading information to the public. The pranks and harassing calls asked voters to vote in other polling stations, claiming they were being made on behalf of a candidate.
Among the first people to report the prank calls to Elections Canada was Frank Valeriote, a Liberal candidate in Guelph, Ontario. The robocalls were common in Guelph and Thunder Bay where the people received automated calls or live calls with misleading and mischievous information.
Election Canada has evidence that the calls were from a number in Quebec which is no longer in use. The number is registered under a restaurant name in Guelph-Pierre Poutine. Further investigations indicate that the number was initially used to contact Racknine Inc.
Robocalls are legitimate methods of running campaigns in several countries including the USA. The robocalls are automated calls that help a candidate campaign by giving messages about the campaign and information that is relevant to the voter. However, if the service is used to give false and misleading information then it is declared illegal.
The conservatives agree that prank calls were made in Guelph, but the party did not have any role to play in the matter. On the other hand, the Liberal party and NDP believe that the ruling party may have used the robocalls to disrupt and mislead voters.
Even though, there is evidence that misleading and harassing calls were made to the public, there isn’t a clear indication of the effects. The strategies and tricks did not have a lot of influence on the 2011 election results because voter turnout was higher than the 2008 elections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ruling party i.e. the conservatives are not treating the issue as a matter of national interest instead they termed it as a lot of noise from the opposition. The conservatives choose to blame the opposition and Elections Canada. However, the ruling party should have involved itself actively to find the source and solution of the problem. In so doing, they would have convinced the public that they are interested in solving the issue. Before the issue is solved the conservatives do not have full consent of Canadian voters.
The Liberal and NDP may be blowing the matter out of context. Though there may be some truth in the issue, the rate at which people are reporting fraudulent calls may weaken the issue. Some people view the increase of reports as mischievous and exaggerated.
Elections Canada the agency with the responsibility of solving the issue is not reporting the process and how far the investigation has gone. The complaints submitted to the agency have not been investigated. No one is sure if Elections Canada has the capability and resources to resolve this issue. When Elections Canada offers the results of the investigation then the public will be satisfied with the elections results of 2011.
Racknine Inc. has offered to cooperate with Elections Canada in investigating the issue. This is because some parties had tried to disrupt elections using their service. With witnesses from Responsive Marketing Group inc. Elections Canada should collect all the necessary information from these groups to find the main culprits, and the reasons for their actions. Elections Canada and RCMP should work together to reach the bottom of this issue.
The conservatives cannot fully govern with the Canadians’ sanction if this issue is not resolved. It’s clear that the elections of 2011 were affected by misleading calls, and the matter has to be investigated. Therefore, without faith in elections there is no democracy.
Discrimination in Labor Processes Essay essay help: essay help
There is a tendency to eliminate the gender differences in al aspects of human life and consider men and women equal in their rights. However, looking at some particular activities it is still impossible to say that the rights and freedoms of men and women are equal there.
For example, talking about labor processes and considering the desire of women to be treated equally with men the practice shows that the gender differentiation still exists. No matter how strong the social opinion about the equality of genders, the labor process is the expression of those considerations in practice.
Many works have been written in the relation to the equality of genders and explaining the differences in gender roles at the workplace. Therefore, studying the works by Lorber (2007), Braham (1996), Williams (1992), and Mullings (1997), the salience of gender in the labor process is going to be discusses as the working process is believed to be the most appropriate aspect in analyzing the gender relations.
Dwelling the problem of division of labor Braham (1996) states that the modern consideration of this notion has changed. Therefore, now, discussing the division of labor race and gender aspects are discussed in most cases. Discussing the labor processes and the role of gender, Braham (1996) has noticed the tendency that women more often choose the part-time jobs.
This is connected with their desire to be mothers, but to show that their professional growth is important as well. The author states that the part-time job does not show that women are not that professional in what they do. The author considers the history of women in the labor process and states that the number of women has dramatically increased since 1940’s. Even though a feminization of labor process occurs, the number of men remains higher in comparison to the number of working woman.
Considering the expression of Werneke in 1985 “women are concentrated in a limited range of occupations and are more likely to be found working in relatively less skilled and lower paying jobs than their male counterparts” (in Braham, 1996, p. 319) and comparing it with the modern times, the change in the labor segmentations may be seen. Nowadays women get high paid jobs and the variety of occupations has dramatically increased.
Even though, the segmentation of the occupation still exists. The desire to make the rights of men and women at the workplace equal, there are “male” and “female” professions even though the number of women in male professions increases as well as the number of men in the female ones.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, nursing, librarianship, elementary school teaching, and social work positions have always been considered as female sex-typed occupations, but the tendency to eliminating the sex factor from occupation has lead to the increase of the number of women in male professions and vice versa.
Nevertheless, the prejudiced attitude and discrimination still takes place. The society is struggling for equal rights at the work place, but people are not ready to accept men at the “female” positions too freely (Williams, 1992). Thus, it appears that men do not feel comfortable and have to leave the places they are interested in. The presence of such discrimination will never allow to equalize the genders at the labor market and make sure that the roles of men and women are equally treated.
Lorber (2007) states that the whole society is divided into two roles from birth, male and female and these roles support people through all their lives. The desire to make men and women equal in the social life does not make any sense as people are distinguished from their childhood.
Lorber (2007) pays much attention to the sports professions trying to state that men are stronger and more powerful, therefore the criteria in sports professions are higher for them. Additionally, analyzing the sports equipment, it becomes obvious that gymnastic equipment is created for slim female bodies, while men’s sports are tougher. Men’s and women’s professional sports are based on the capacities of each gender.
No matter how equal the rights in the society, it is difficult to combat with the physiology. Moreover, the author of the book adds the statement that even though the programming comes from Grace M. Hopper who has written a famous work on programming language, this job is believed to be a male one and those women who choose this profession are not paid too much.
Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the gender differences still exist in the labor segmentation even though women occupy high paid and top positions. The discrimination at the work place has been reduced dramatically, still, there are some particular prejudices in the relation to both male and female positions.
The changes in the position hierarchy have occurred for the previous several years and it is not a surprise to see a woman at the top management position, in politics and at other positions which have always been considered as male ones. Additionally, men begin to occupy the professions usually believed to be female. It says about great changes and the beginning of the process of equalization of the roles at the labor processes.
We will write a custom Essay on Discrimination in Labor Processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering the situation at the labor market and the inequalities in the modern world, it is important to check the place of the employees from poor families in the low wage industries. The conditions at such manufacturing are extremely negative.
The greatest representation of the labor conditions at the low wage industries is presented in the documentary film China Blue (2005) directed by Micha Peled. The main idea of this movie is to show the conditions poor people have to work at. Even though one of the main themes of the movie is the dominant role of China as the exporter, the working conditions are also shown in detail.
The working shift is too long, the wages are too low, but people do not have an opportunity to leave the job as this position gives them the room and the food. The work is hard, but people do not have an opportunity to battle for their rights, as they will be left the most important items they have, room and food. Working in terrible conditions, here all men and women are equal, but there is another hierarchy.
Watching this video, I was frustrated and disturbed with the cruel conditions which still exist in this world. Being too civilized, such countries as China where people are at the threshold of poverty have an opportunity to get money on people who do not have another way out but to work in the current conditions.
Reference List Braham, P. (1996). Divisions of labor. In S. Hall (Ed.), Modernity: an introduction to modern societies (pp.308-339). New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.
Lorber, J. (2007). Believing is seeing. In B. A. Arrighi (Ed.), Understanding inequality: the intersection of race/ethnicity, class, and gender (pp. 153-160). New York, NY: Rowman
Canadian Politics in the Government Exploratory Essay essay help online free
Each nation comes up with a government that will best suit the governing of people being appropriate for the people of that nation. The government ought to consider the political, social and economic effects of the manner in which they choose to govern the nation. There is delegation of duties and responsibilities where the various arms of government come in.
The arms of government are put in place to facilitate thorough investigation, proper presentation of facts and adequate information from the grassroots level running upwards. The government is to serve its subjects with dedication and truth hence there is the need to relate with the subjects ensuring any relevant information is collected and put into use to ensure proper service is delivered to the people.
As a result, there is equal distribution of resources which in return will facilitate peace and growth of the economy. For the best results to be achieved and for a nation to grow, the various arms of government are to carry out their duties with care and dedication. The various arms of government are then to work together and have a balance of power to deliver accordingly.
When addressing the Canadian government, it is noted that the prime minister is the person who makes all key decisions and, in my opinion, has too much power. The prime minister decides on budgetary matters, election dates and the composition of the cabinet as well as structuring the government. The lack of strong political parties has greatly influenced this fact. The prime minister is a supreme ruler and has too many crucial decisions to make.
As much as this type of leadership enhances stability, it is as well extremely risky for the nation. Each person is prone to make mistakes and at this stage if the prime minister makes a few decisions which are not befitting, it can result in the collapse of an economy and the nation at large. In this sort of governance, the other stakeholders such as the cabinet are shelved in decision-making.
To represent people fairly, political parties need to come up with a way to grow strong. This will ensure their active involvement in the decision making process as well as the implementation phase of legislations. To properly implement the law, being part of the entire process from the problem stage, brainstorming phase and finally the decision making phase are of utmost importance. This is because one understands why some decisions were made and understands the problem at a deeper level.
In the Canadian judiciary there is an element of lack of independence by the judges. The courts serve to ensure the law is adhered to and also are part of the implementation of law. There is great need for the judiciary to be impartial and independent. Favoring a particular class of people can hinder proper law implementation and result in some sort of imbalance between different classes. Judicial selections should be done based on merit and some traditions are worth breaking for the growth of the nation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important to note that the stability of political parties is not a ticket to ensuring democracy prevails. At times it will even slow down the decision making process but it plays an important role in representation of the people’s needs and ensures that decisions made fit the subjects of a particular nation. This also can facilitate the reduction of powers of the prime minister and encourage delegation of duties to the parties that have been side-lined.
Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Pinchot as Forest Service man
Pinchot as a politician
Pinchot as Governor
Introduction Gifford Pinchot was born in August of the year 1865, to a wealthy family in Connecticut. Gifford Pinchot’s life was centered on religion before he decided to join the field of conservation. He used to engage in widespread evangelism and read widely on religious classics in Protestantism.
He taught Sunday school, and was the class deacon at Yale who was trusted with conducting activities related to religion. From the readings in religion, Pinchot would later combine this moral perspective to institute the development of the greatest conservation movement in America. Gifford Pinchot rallied America to the heights of modern capitalism and democracy through political patronage. As a young man, he loved the woods which would later become his passion and career.
In the history of the United States, he stands out as the first man to be trained in forest management and conservation. After completing his studies at Yale, he went to engage in selective use of forests study in France. Later, he would join politics and ascend to the governorship in Pennsylvania where he acted to bring many changes that are still effective today.
This paper will look at Gifford’s impact on modern capitalism and his major contributions that have affected America in one way or the other. As a progressive individual, he persuaded America into the path of conservation and management of resources through scientific means that he strongly believed were profitable in the long run.
In his tactics, he used the market economy ideas to illustrate that the government had a role in determining how resources could be used for the benefit of the nation. He also sought for the delicate balance between use of resources and management. This was in contradiction to people like John Muir who advocated for whole conservation. This is best illustrated in his support for the Hetch Hecthy dam where he supported its construction.
The years between 1865 and 1920 characterized the height of American dominance in the capitalistic world. These years were characterized by large extensions of industrial prowess, military might, and advanced science. The American profits at this time grew by leaps and bounds, and the government and business almost became one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businessmen and managers who owned large shares in industries were often elected as mayors and chairmen of government committees. As a result, the business world went unregulated since the private hands used the political power to their own advantage. This was because there were no checks.
This would catapult American economy to the highest heights of capitalism beating the United Kingdom in industrial progress. The era was characterized by heavy monopolistic ventures that arose to curb the serious price-cutting tactics embraced by competing industries. The effect of the 1873-1879 depression had fizzled out leaving the competitive economy booming.
The investment bankers exercised enormous control on the economy, as well life insurance industry characterized by political interventions. The economy was essentially macro economic where heavy mechanization and the monopolistic measures led to earnings that were triple of the invested capital.
The capitalistic ventures at all levels of government, as a domination of the whole economy, could not present any advantage to the environment physically and in all aspects. The lumber mining industries consumed forests as a source of fuel and reinforcement to the mining developments. The capitalistic economy led to air pollution from smelting and mining.
The contamination of water occurred as a result of massive dumping of industrial effluents. This led to destruction of vegetation and occurrence of wide spread erosion. The environment was littered with debris that accumulated from mining machineries and thus the need for conservation could not have come at a better time than this period.
This environmental degradation had serious effects on some counties like California. Thus, the rise of Gifford Pinchot was a relief to the environment since his efforts and focus was directed to management. His other works in the public domain were through active political activities and engagement. It has to be noted that he also was the first individual to envision environmental conservation.
Therefore, these roles will be analyzed effectively in this paper. What stands out is his influence to capitalism and government. This is well characterized in the historical and economic aspects.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pinchot as Forest Service man Pinchot was a great friend of President Roosevelt and thus his ascension to politics and major impact to American economy and thinking cannot be under-emphasized. In 1898, Pinchot rose to become the Chief of the Forestry Division of US Department of Agriculture.
This department later became to be known as the Bureau and much later, it changed to “Forest Service”. Under his leadership and due to his close connection to the President in the Republican politics, the Bureau gained national control of the forest reserves, and this led to the name Forest Service.
In his work as a leader, he taught the value of diligence and a sense of mission, and thus he laid grounds for his political career at this early period. Pinchot and Roosevelt saw the same great need to use resources wisely in the environment. Therefore, they were both concerned with advancing strategies that would see that the resources helped the future generations of the American people.
In this effort, they coined the term “conservation” to mean the use and the movement advocating for management of the resources. In his tenure, America gained knowledge in non-exploitative use of forests, and as a fact, the acreage rose to millions in favor of national forest that were controlled and their use regulated by the government. However, this was a success under Roosevelt’s Presidency because things changed course when Roosevelt was defeated in the elections. This heralded a new era in Pinchot’s life, that of politics.
Pinchot as a politician As mentioned above, Gifford was a friend of Roosevelt, and a supporter of the Republican Party. Roosevelt struggled with Taft on the issue of the government owning land meant for forest reserves of which he was a supporter. This led to his breaking away to form the Progressive Party that Pinchot became a staunch supporter.
The party advocated for land reforms among other changes in the American society that were considered radical at the time. These issues included the regulation of child labor, the presence of a minimum wage for women, and the introduction of employment insurance in America. This led to Roosevelt’s defeat and thus Pinchot remained as the man who strived to keep the party moving.
As a mature politician, Pinchot ran for the seat of Senator in 1914 against Boies Penrose of the Republican Party. In his campaign, he advocated for radical changes such as the right of women to participate in a political process; a graduated income tax; and prohibition of alcoholic beverages, and other radical ideas that had been unheard of. However, he was not successful in the end as the progressive members returned to their old party. Although Pinchot joined the Republicans reluctantly, he was in severe opposition to the President.
Despite his loss, it is worth to note that he got married to Cornelia Bryce, a lady who equaled her husband in energy and spirit. She supported him in his campaigns and elections to Congress three times, and once as governor; all which he failed. After this period of loss in his life, Pinchot turned his attention to state politics away from national limelight. This was largely due to his opposition to President Wilson’s neutrality to the European in 1916.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gifford Pinchot: The First Chief of the United States Forest Service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Wilson was re-elected, Pinchot became a state politics sensation. Pinchot was thus one of early supporters of America entering into war. Gifford, a man of much knowledge and experience, gained a position a Commissioner of Forestry after being appointed by Governor Sproul.
In this position, he had gained an effective strategy to be elected as Governor and thus his administrative genius could not rest. Therefore, he believed that by promoting new administrative changes and by refusing to give political patronage, he would achieve his goal.
As a result, in his 1922 campaigns, he concentrated on reforms that stirred the greatest support from voters. These reforms would later lead to reorganization of the government and the economy. Also, these reforms prompted the implementation of injunctions and guidelines on public utilities. In his political experience, he toned down his earlier proposals on reform in order to win the support of the President of Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association who had political power in the State.
He won this election closely partly due to the internal succession wrangles of Republican Party after the death of Boies Penrose. After attaining this position, Pinchot dropped his campaign strategy and went full throttle to implement his radical reform agendas. This set him apart from his superiors and supporters since they considered him as having betrayed them.
Pinchot as Governor Gifford started his reign with some notable changes in the administration just as he had done during his tenure in the Forestry Service offices. He changed this by putting measures that saw that the spending budget of the state was completely controlled. He used his political persuasion tactics to bring the assembly to pass an administrative code that sought to standardize salaries. These codes also gave the Governor power to reorganize the executive branch of the government.
This process oversaw the establishment of fifteen departments and only three commissions in order to address the problem presented by the close to forty agencies that had duplicated functions. Pinchot ensured the introduction of a pension system that was run by funds from the state, as well as employees.
By now, Gifford had garnered enough public support and thus he was ready to push for increased reforms just as he had promised in the campaign for Senate position. He advanced another proposal seeking to prohibit alcohol consumption. In the reforms, only one bill passed, and it had to get funding from Women’s Christian Temperance Union.
This was because the Legislature was not in a position to give the required funding. In his macro-economic target plans to reduce the cost of electricity for the user and prohibit monopolies, he urged the government to pass a Bill that would achieve this. However, his bills were unsuccessful after a big defeat blow came from the utility lobbyists. He sought for a situation where the State would take a firm grip of connected electric companies with combined facilities.
As a man who had enough experience in diplomacy, he managed to solve strike situations in 1923 and 1925. The workers who mined anthracite coal had gone on strike in 1923. Pinchot used decisive arbitration to calm down the workers. The strike lasted only one week as compared to the second strike that lasted for six months. In the second strike, he forcefully mediated between the passive Coolidge government and the striking workers to gain an effective solution that ended the stalemate amicably.
This characterized the culmination of his first term tenure as a Governor. Pinchot’s efforts to rally him as the leader of Republican Party of the US failed. Therefore, he was to stay out of public office until 1930 when he got re-elected. There was an improvement in the effectiveness and economic conditions of the state while he was serving his first term as Governor.
In his second term, he revived his old battles for the bills of public utilities in the Assembly. He envisioned the need of relief for the unemployed, as well as the construction of paved roads that would help the farmers get access to basic necessities. In these endeavors, he fought for two years, backed by the Assembly, to achieve only three Bills passed.
The rest were defeated since the Senate supported the utilities. In this success, the Governor had sought wide support from the people through radio, mail, and newspaper. This can be attributed to the fact that he held that those serving in public positions were to put the public interest first in everything they did unless doing so was against the established law.
As an administrator, statesman, and politician, he became one of the first Governors to push for the relief package in the United States. This was especially exhibited in his personal efforts to help people who had badly been affected by the Great Depression in 1931 at Pennsylvania. He had already formed a committee on unemployment before he had taken office to cater for such needs. However, this was not enough; and since he could help everybody, he realized that State aid was not enough for the unemployed who were suffering.
Therefore, he used his political power and other measures to urge the State and the Federal Government to increase and improve the aids that would see the needy get enough help possible. Through his efforts, President Hoover and the Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
This corporation formed to provide assistance to various business firms and provide direct assistance to states. The State and the Federal funds were distributed on the non-partisan basis in his state. This was done through the Pennsylvania State Emergency Relief Board. In his state, he did not tolerate discrimination and various categories of individuals served in his administration.
In his famous quest for the public good, he is remembered vividly in the construction of ‘Pinchot Roads.’ According to him, the need for good roads was supported by the elimination of the barrier between the farmers and consumers.
In this process, he designed plans that would see the construction of 20,000 miles of road without the necessary need of heavy machinery in order to create employment for the many who had been employed. In 1933, Pinchot, supported by President Franklin Roosevelt, forced the U.S Steel Company to recognize the striking workers of United Mine Workers union.
As part of his achievements, Pinchot approved a session of assembly that facilitated the repealing of the prohibition amendment. This led to the formation of the Liquor Control Board that acted as a monopoly for selling liquor. In his political role, he supported the President F.D. Roosevelt who had chosen to execute economic recovery programs as a Democrat.
This was a good effort in the eyes of the public. However, to his fellow Republicans, he gained contempt and hate from the annoyed members. This affected his third time campaign for election into US Republican Senate. His attempt for re-election to Governorship in 1938 received a severe blow from Republican voters who had been angered by his support of the Democrats.
Pinchot’s Legacy The years of Pinchot as political heavy weight and a pioneer in forestry management were also characterized by scientific observations and recommendations. Gifford was much influenced by his studies in Europe on conservation and democracy. He took the spirit of equality and advocated that everybody should be treated equally.
He observed that those with the capability to use the forests were few when compared to the many that did not benefit from the forest. According to Pinchot, there was no need for a few to benefit at the expense of the many. This formed his future basis on reforms that were mirrored in “new conservationism” efforts.
He believed that the only way a nation would become strong was through the provision of equal opportunity for all, as well as protection and preservation of human life. This would mean development of a strong and stable nation. By combining his scientific orientation and political progression, Gifford remained strongly anti-capitalistic.
This led to many of his battles with leaders in the Senate, President Howard Taft, Muir, and Ballinger. At one time, he paid for his views dearly when he was dismissed by President Howard from his position. However, he is greatly remembered for shaping the direction of capitalism in terms of public equality and management of resources.
Conclusion Pinchot was one of the greatest visionary Americans who helped the modern America to stand on its ground through environmental conservation. Through his efforts and determination, the concept of sustainability in the management of resources continues to characterize America ahead of many other nations. His ideas on the public good were introduced in years when the world knew nothing except exploitation at all fronts in search of personal gain and profits.
His ideals for the public utilities are issues that have concerned economists all over the world in search of balance between property and the human welfare. Pinchot’s legacy continues to live through the Grey Towers as a center for forest and environmental conservation in his home at Milford. His ideas in progressive politics and sustainability today guide the debate regarding the aspect of global warming. Therefore, Pinchot is a revolutionary hero of modern capitalistic world.
Bibliography Atack, Jeremy. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 29-52.
Gifford, Pinchot. Breaking new ground. New York: Island Press, 1998.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography. [Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877.
Hunter, Louis C. A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter. Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985.
Koistinen, Paul, A., C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
Livingston, James. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913. California: Cornell University Press, 1986.
Marc, Tool R. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988.
Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation. New York: Island Press, 2001.
North, Douglass, C. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954), 209-28
Penick, James Jr. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Reich, Peter L. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights Since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998), 57–87.
Richardson, Elmo, R. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973.
Richardson, Elmo, R. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.
Robbins, Williams G. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West. Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Swain, Donald, C. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.
Footnotes Char Miller. Gifford Pinchot and the making of modern environmentalism: Pioneers of Conservation (New York: Island Press, 2001), 18.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography ([Philadelphia]: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1877), 16
Tool R. Marc. Evolutionary Economics: Foundations of institutional thought Volume 2 of Evolutionary Economics (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1988), 325.
Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 25
Pinchot Gifford. Breaking new ground (New York: Island Press, 1998), 27.
Paul, Koistinen, A. C. Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865-1919 (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1997), 59.
Louis C. Hunter A history of industrial power in the United States, 1780 – 1930 2, Steam power / Louis C. Hunter (Charlottesville: Univ. Pr. of Virginia, 1985), 341
Elmo R. Richardson. The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962), 25
Donald C. Swain. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963), 27.
Peter L. Reich. “Western Courts and the Privatization of Hispanic Mineral Rights since 1850: An Alchemy of Title.” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1998): 59.
Williams G. Robbins. Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994), 89.
James Livingston. Origins of the Federal Reserve System. Money, Class, and Corporate Capitalism, 1890-1913 (California: Cornell University Press, 1986), 33.
Douglass, C. North. “Life Insurance and Investment Banking at the Time of the Armstrong Investigation of 1905-1906.” Journal of Economic History, 14, (1954): 211.
Jeremy Atack. “Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation,” Explorations in Economic History, 22 (1985): 37.
Elmo, R. Richardson. Dams, Parks, and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1973), 243.
James, Jr. Penick. Progressive Politics and Conservation: The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 411.
American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
These are protests that came to prominence in the course of 1950s, which raised concern against the incessant discrimination and racial segregation experienced by the American Africans and other marginalized groups in the southern America.
Continued oppression against people of different color, race, politics, or even religion had inspired many young American Africans to join action in the struggle for equality (Chong 23). Some of the prominent figures in the Movement include Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X, W.E.B. Du Bois and Rosa Parks among others.
Although the civil rights mass protest was officially formalized in the 1950s and 1960s, the fight for equality in various institutions of the U.S. had started long time ago. Community leaders in various segmentations of the society had showed resistance to the white supremacy and domination against the African Americans which had been abounded in some states. ‘Everyday’s Use’ written at the peak of the transformational movement, is a perfect expression and reflection of the issue of the aspects surrounding the civil rights movement.
Set at the height of the social issue, the story is a real representation of the key aspects of the day. Here, the writer applies writing to highlight some of the main issues surrounding the Black Power Movement. Walker’s purpose on the story is achieved through the creative formation of characters who symbolize the plight of blacks and women as observed during those times.
The movement was initially facilitated by the progressive efforts of the descendants of African slaves who had always tried to resist the institution of slavery upon them. Regular protests and campaigns of resistance were some of the common characteristics associated with this movement. Civil disobedience and activities of nonviolent demonstrations and protests were also common. Sometimes, these would bear crisis scenarios between government authorities and the activists resulting to confrontations.
Although it took many years for the issues highlighted in the movement to be addressed, the protests had significant impact to the modern world. Many changes were realized owing to the pressure of the movement. For instance, the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act were introduced in the years 1964 and 1965, respectively thus granting all American citizens basic civil privileges, regardless of their race and ethnicity.
Alice Walker is a renowned female activist who was born and raised at a time when the Civil Right Movements in South U.S. was taking shape. At the height of the transitional movement, Alice, then a college student at Spelman, was lucky to meet and rub shoulders with some of the prominent players in the movement, such as Martin Luther King Jr. This inspired her to become one of the strongest female activists in the American history.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Her contribution in the struggle for human rights and equality has continued to raise strong impact to the world. According to Tuten, Alice is a woman with many records in life and her largest contribution in life can be perceived through her countless struggles against discrimination and oppression (126). ‘Everyday’s Use’ is just one of her many writings about race and gender which raised much alert in the civil rights movement.
Racism, feminism and the many issues frequently raised by young American Africans who’d tend to lose respect to the culture that gave birth to them are some of the issue that Alice explores in ‘Everyday’s Use.’
As it would be observed, the story in this essay is Walker’s response to the social discourse of the 1950s and 1960s, when the civil rights movement took place. The writer has vividly expressed some of the issues that continue to plague modern American communities, as expressed through the lives of the characters in the story (Whitsitt 448).
Economic, social, and political issues are illustrated in the story, through the family of the narrator, who is referred by the title of ‘Mama’ or Mrs. Johnson. The story strongly illustrates the big contrast between the narrator and Maggy, one of her two daughters who still share the same conservative life with her, and ‘Wangero’ or Dee, the educated daughter who scorns the culture that gave birth to her.
As observed from this story, the writer has based the two sisters on aspects constituting her own character. Whereby Maggy represents her difficult childhood, Dee remains to be a vivid reflection of her latter life which is characterized by education and success; the two aspects that would enable her to take part in the civil rights movement.
The two different positions represent the culture and the progress of the American Africans in mid-to late-twentieth-century times. The story is set in a time when the lives of American Africans were undergoing a radical transition.
These groups of people were able to gain freedom of civil rights at last, through the glory of civil rights movement, after many years of oppression and discrimination from the whites (Gianturco and Tuttle 18). The final outcome reached on the story, is a representation of the results which succeeded the movement as American Africans started gaining recognition in various segments of the American society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American Africans Action in the Struggle for Equality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This freedom would see the emergence of a new generation that has contradicting views about crucial aspects of life. As a matter of fact, the writer has used the story to defend the legacy of her family and culture and to pay homage to the initial inhabitants of the South, where she grew up.
Works Cited Chong, Dennis. Collective action and the civil rights movement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print.
Gianturco, Paola, and T. Tuttle. In her hands: craftswomen changing the world, New York: PowerHouse Books, 2004. Print.
Tuten, Nancy. “Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” The Explicator 51. 2 (1993): 125-128. Print.
Whitsitt, Sam. “In Spite of It All: A Reading of Alice Walker’s Everyday Use.” African American Review 34. 3 (2000): 443-459. Print.
Ramord Stockwell Case Study essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The Benson Metal Company has been a producer of steel in the world for many years now and they have curved out a sizeable amount of the specialized steel market for themselves.
They have for a long time specialized in the innovative and creative management, production and marking strategies to maintain their competitive edge in the market. The company has for some time been identified to have a leadership that invests in vertical sources of power (Jones, 2007).
The bureaucratic nature of their management structures may be identified as an advantage to the managers in regard to their particular authority in the company, but this may be detrimental to the motivation of line managers especially in an industry that relies so much on innovation as well as creativity in almost all aspects of its production and market structures (Thompson
Everything Tastes Like Liquorice Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction In the world we live in there are many things which happen and eventually change the course of life. These things happen in our day to day lives and have a great bearing on the direction which we take. These occurrences have come to be mentioned by authors and writers as they try to bring to the fore the issues which face the human beings.
One of the renowned authors is Hemmingway. In 1927, Hemingway skillfully brought to light issues which affected and still affect relationships. In his book Hills Like White Elephants, Hemingway utilized the setting to enable the reader to understand the theme and the character behind the story. During this time, Spain was a country which was considered to be religious.
This was characterized by many catholic churches which stood to represent the moral arm of the society. It is this setting that Hemmingway tries to illustrate the important of morals in the society that is seemingly dwindling from the moral path, following a path that is characterized by pursing selfish and lustful desires. Symbolism This is a story which can be considered to be deceptive in its simplicity.
The couple opts to sit and drink as they wait for the train to Madrid. During this moment, they talk about issues of life. However, the talk comes to an end even before the train arrives. Yet within this quiet scene is a moral struggle, an investigation of the spiritual barrenness of modern love that is piercing its precision.
Hemingway does not cast moral judgment on the operation itself but on the narcissistic selfishness of the man, his ability to hear the young woman’s voice plea for home and family. Her surrender at the end is no less poignant than the death of a soldier on the battlefield, both because of its inevitability and the powerlessness of her morality and desire in the face of his more modern egotism.
The story opens as the man and the woman sit in the shade of the station café, discussing what to drink to cool them down from the oppressive heat. During a conversation, Jig comments that the hills resemble white elephants. In actual sense, the white elephant is a term which is used to describe or symbolize a situation or a thing which is considered to be useless. This symbol describes the kind of relationship that is exists between Jig and the American.
The man refuses to acknowledge her imaginative view, though, and an argument sparks between them. She changes the subject, asking about the words painted in the bead curtain of the café. It is the name of a drink, Anis del Toro, and after tasting it she says its licorice taste reminds her of absinthe. “Everything tastes of licorice (Hemingway). Especially all the things you have waited so long for, like absinthe.” “Oh, cut it out,” he says, and again it is unclear why they are quarrelling (Hemingway).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only when the reader realizes that she is remarking obliquely that everything she had longed for seems the same, in that it is ruined, does the emotional intensity of the scene make sense. The river in the story reflects life. Ebro River is a river which originates in the Cantabarian Mountains. This river flows into the Mediterranean, which is 550 miles from her source. It is worth noting that the river in this play represents vitality. This notwithstanding, the river also represents time.
That is the passage of time from one era to another. The baggage that is being carried by the travelers can be associated with the issues of the past (Resseguie). The landscape is in a dry and desolate state. This state of the landscape represents death and a sense of wastefulness. On the contrary, the greenside represents newness and a sense of promise. The newness is a representation of a baby and the anticipated new beginning. Jig’s inability to face the real landscape, the brown and dry hill suggests lack of acceptance of the real life ahead.
She fails to realize that the relationship between them is deteriorating as is the case with the parallel railroads, which denotes that they are not likely to meet on the matter at hand. Unfortunately, she opts to hold on to the belief that the American man will commit. She is hopeful that the pregnancy means something to the man. Unfortunately, to the man, the relationship is nothing more than an illicit affair.
The “wind” of the hills simply defines casually and literally what an abortion is: As “the warm wind blew the bean curtain against the table,” he is quick to say, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It’s really not anything. It’s just to let the air in. I’ll go with you….They just let the air in and then it’s perfectly natural” (Bloom 50). The rail road junction represents the decisions that have to be made by both parties. This junction is used as a symbol to represent the quagmire of whether to carry out an abortion or not.
It also brings to the fore the question of changing directions which is sought by Jig and the American. In conclusion, it is quite clear that there are many lessons which a person can pick from this story. First, is the role of men and women in intimate relationships. This is clearly captured by the way Jig and the American are relating especially in light of the pregnancy. Secondly, it brings an emphasis with regard to responsible behaviors in relationships.
This is captured when Jig conceives (Bloom). Following this eventuality it seems that the American is not willing to take full responsibility. Hemingway paints a bleak, amoral world where people are trapped by “the good times.” The story is effective because there is not only a hero, but a credible woman struggling against him, defining his shallow and selfish desire to have only Jig (but not the child) thereby authorizing the abortion as the only plausible solution.
Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Ernest Hemingway, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Everything Tastes Like Liquorice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hemingway, Ernest. Men Without Women, New York: Scribner, 2002. Print.
Resseguie, James. Narrative criticism of the New Testament:an introduction, New York: Baker Academic, 2005. Print.
Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994)
The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference
Opinion on the ruling
Globally, the demand for human and civil rights by all people has intensified with time. Most social groups in society have moved to emphasize on the need to ensure that their demands are neither undermined nor overlooked as a major icon in enhancing acceptability and cohesion in the society. Sexual harassment in prisons today has been a major distressing issue that has caused massive suffering to victims and also great social disharmony.
Olsen posits that sexual harassment is a problem that affects individuals in a community as well as in prisons (199). However, deliberate indifference plays a critical role in disregarding the safety and health of inmates in prison. The latter goes against the provisions of the Eighth Amendment. This paper takes a critical look at the issue of deliberate indifference as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Farmer v. Brennan case of 1994.
Gardner posits that deliberate indifference constitutes a conscious and reckless disregard of the possible effects of an individual’s omissions or actions which can cause harm to another person (429). This lack of disregard goes beyond mere negligence. Over the years, deliberate indifference standards have been applied by law court to determine the knowledge of professionals concerning risks and their negligence of actions performed by others which may cause safety or health issues to inmates.
Gardner continues to argue that it is difficult to determine what constitutes deliberate indifference, but quickly adds that courts have identified ways like factual scenarios which they use to establish deliberate indifference (430). Some of those ways include lack of effective response to an inmate’s complaints and delaying or deliberately not supplying medical care to an injured inmate.
A brief overview of the Farmer v. Brennan case (1994) The above case concerned a male-to-female transsexual by the name Dee Farmer who having been charged with credit card fraud, was incarcerated in a prison with a general male population.
This led to Farmer going through repeated rapes and serious beatings from inmates. The consequences of the events were not only bodily harm, but also health problems as she eventually acquired HIV. In the court, Farmer made it clear that the prison administration neglected the fact that they were exposing her to the danger of sexual violence having put her among men.
The Supreme Court actually agreed by majority that the responsibility was on the prison administration terming their action as a deliberate indifference, an act that violated the Eighth Amendment. However, the prison administration was not automatically held liable to what happened to Farmer since the prison officials might not have known what was happening and abated it through reasonable measures.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Supreme Court and deliberate indifference The case of Farmer v. Brennan speaks of the need for prison guards to assume the duty of protecting inmates from harm by other prisoners. However, the ruling by the Supreme Court done by Justice Scalia on the objective components that the conditions of confinement of Farmer were fair and that the deprivations of her rights were not sufficiently serious was in reality a denial of justice.
Zangwill indicates the ruling by the court that there was no sexual harassment after the knowledge that Farmer, having a feminine appearance and preoperative transsexual was left at the mercy of male inmates to be beaten and raped clearly incarcerates transsexuals as targets for sexual harassment in prisons (100).
Olsen however differs with Zangwill on the point that the court was fair in its ruling since Farmer had not informed the prison administration that he was not safe. This could have seen prison officials either segregating her from others or securing better protection (199). Deliberate indifference could have therefore arisen if the prison staff had actual knowledge of the threat Farmer faced and refused to take reasonable measures.
Opinion on the ruling The ruling by the Supreme Court on the case of Farmer was indeed unfair and I strongly disagree with it based on the fact that prison officials and professionals were well aware of the fact that sexual harassment is common in prisons.
Putting Farmer in a prison dominated by men without considering her sexual nature and appearance was a clear indication of their negligence of the harm that would befall Farmer. Reporting a threat to prison officials without a clear indication or proof of a threat does not always guarantee an inmate of security. The ruling by the court on the ground that Farmer had not reported the threat was a sure way of protecting the administration from liability.
It is common practice among many inmates not to report sexual harassment for fear that they would be called snitches. Deliberate indifferences in similar cases to that of Farmer v. Brunner will be cited in conscious negligence of prison officials in the status of an inmate. Details of inmates, physical and emotional are normally supplied to prison official, a factor that provides them with information on the various rights of an inmate that needs to be protected.
Ignorance of those details and dependence on a prisoner to report threats to violation of those rights is a deliberate indifference on the part of prison officials. It is the duty of prison officials to ensure the safety of prisoners at all times with or without reporting. Having the background of widespread sexual harassments in prisons, it is upon prisons administration to establish measures that will curb any incidences of rape and sexual assaults.
We will write a custom Essay on Deliberate indifference- the case of Farmer v. Brennan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Gardner, Martin. “Rethinking Robinson V. California in the wake of Jones V. Los Angeles: the “Demise of the Criminal Law” by attending to “punishment”.” Journal of Criminal Law
The raise of Taxes at the United States Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Taxation and work incentives
Taxation and the pattern of demand
Taxation and investment decisions
The Rich Should Pay More
Abstract This essay will look at the effect of a change in tax rate in an economy. Based on the current economic and financial crisis relationships with be established on taxation with work incentives, labor productivity, investment decisions, budget and the rich so as to make informed opinion.
When an economy is facing a crisis, it adjusts its tax system as policy to rectify the deficit in the economy. For instance, United States has been hardly hit by the economic crisis and is contemplating on increasing taxes for the rich. The change in taxation has both positive and negative effects.
Introduction The current economic and financial crisis has adversely affected all the countries in the world. Those that have been hard hit by the crisis include the United States of America and European countries. Other countries, especially developing countries are suffering from the spill over effects. In United States, the effects of this crisis have been evident in various sectors of the economy.
The country has been hit by high rates of employment with nearly ten million people registering for the unemployment benefits. The number of people registering in job search centers has increased, with fresh graduates taking the highest percentage. The economy has failed to create new jobs, with jobs lay off mounting by the day. Most industries are streaming their workforce since they cannot adequately meet their needs, such as paying salaries and other benefits.
The situation has rendered a high percent of the populace jobless, with most of them having difficulties in paying their bills. Those who are unable to meet their bills have resorted to pegging in streets so at least to get something to sustain them. The suffering of most Americans has not gone unnoticed, with the President Barack Obama constantly giving an account of government progress on how the crisis is being handled. The most recent announcement by the President is an increase in the rate of tax for the rich.
The tax raise among the rich will lead to an increase in national revenue that can then be used to create jobs at national levels. This move has elicited controversy, with some supporting while others attack the move as inappropriate. It is like taking from those who are rich and distributing it to those who are poor. Despite raising taxes for the rich, taxes for foreign people should be lowered.
Discussion Taxation is a fiscal policy tool that government can use in order to have a balanced fiscal budget. The government to attain certain objectives like full employment, price stability and economic growth normally uses fiscal policy. Other policy tools that can be used include printing of money, sell of fixed assets, internal or external borrowing as well as consumption of fiscal reserves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a government is facing huge deficits, tax revenue can be raised by increasing the tax rates. Taxation is a tool that can be used to rescue an economy facing difficult times. Proper design of a tax policy can be a panacea to the prevailing economic hard times such as unemployment. United State has sought to follow Germany’s way to rescue its economic from adverse effects of its current debt position.
Economist asserts that the only way in which an economy can reverse a crisis is using an expansionary fiscal policy. This will solve the issue of fiscal budget imbalance, unemployment and ‘crowding out’ effect.
Conversely, high taxes will look out private companies from investing in the country because of the cost of production which will translates to higher commodity prices. It will be hard for businesses to carry out business in countries with high tax rates. This is because it will render most establishments less competitive in the global market.
To encourage foreign investment tax rates should be reduced for them and sometimes coupled with tax havens, allowances and subsidies, this will encourage them to take up their new investment in the economy (Kivel, 2002).
Taxation and work incentives When there is an increase in the rate of income tax, the effect will be that the post-tax income of individuals will reduce. This is because the net income resulting from each hour of work will be lower. The move might encourage workers to increase their number of working hours to meet their target income. On the other hand, an increase in tax might be used as a disincentive to promote less work. The government normally sets a lower income tax rate for low-income employees.
This will act as an incentive for workers to do their job for long hours and earn more money. Low taxes on low-income earners serve as a tool of reducing ‘poverty trap’ risks where individuals will get high net financial benefits from their work. When tax reforms are favorable, it leads to an increase in supply of labor thus a reduction in unemployment equilibrium rate hence, the growth rate will increase.
Taxation and the pattern of demand Demand patterns for goods and services vary as indirect taxes are changed. When value added taxes (VAT) on commodities such as alcohol and cigarettes increase, it is aimed at causing a low consumption among consumers or a substitution effect. The result will be a low demand for such commodities. Indirect taxation can be applicable where there is a total market failure, as well as when the government wants to ensure equitable distribution of resources such as health care.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The raise of Taxes at the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taxation and investment decisions When the rates of business taxes and corporate tax are low, this can stimulate a business to increase its spending in fixed capital investment. An increase in investment will mean that the capital stock of a nation has increased thus an increase in capital stock of every worker employed (Mankiw, 2011).
Government can use incentives such as tax allowances to boost research and development and in encouraging new business developments. A tax regime that is favorable will attract increased inflow of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). This will be a stimulus that will benefit an economy’s aggregate supply and aggregate demand. Low rates of corporation tax will attract huge amounts of private investment.
Tax changes act as a stimulus of investment in capital assets, social infrastructure, and labor force skills as well as in technology. A good tax system will ensure an improvement in infrastructure, which is essential for economic growth through increased production and competitiveness. Government spending can be terms of development of an education system that is skills oriented and technology focused. This will ensure a steady long-term supply of human resources (Dye, 2011).
Company’s risk attitude and corporate income tax are the main factors that are considered by an organization before making an investment decisions, this is because this factors can affect the rate of return on investment. Amount of corporate tax to be paid is an important factor that is taken into consideration before making a financial investment decision. This is because low taxes will mean lower prices for goods and higher revenue generated.
The Rich Should Pay More For equal sacrifice and fairness among citizens, those individuals who benefited from favorable economic times such as boom, rescue packages among others should find it necessary to shoulder the costs that arise from a crisis. There willingness will save the economy from suffering the worst effects of a crisis that a time may spill over to drain resources of the rich. This argument looks at increasing government revenue through an increase in income as well as an increase in capital gains tax.
This was illustrated by Germany’s case after the World War II where legislation was passed which mandated financial compensation to gather for loses that arises during the war. This lead to a creation of tax on property and capital, this law was applicable to individuals who still possess substantial assets after the war. The law required them to pay half of their asset worth to a compensation fund over a period of thirty years.
In case of United States, an increase in tax has no chance any time soon. The reason being the required budget consolidation should occur on the expenditure part. This will imply a reduction in government expenditure and this will have adverse effects on the economy. On the other hand, an increase in income tax disproportionately has an effect on higher earners. The impact of high tax on the rich is minimal because large proportions of their income go to savings while minimal amounts are spent (Blinder
Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the essay help online free: essay help online free
Today the problem of solid waste management is current for developed and developing countries because the hazardous effects of the ineffective solution of the question can lead to influencing the state of the environment and changing the ecological situation at the polluted territories. There are many models and programs developed at local, regional, and governmental levels in the USA and the European countries which are worked out for providing the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management.
To overcome the issue of solid waste management, the USA and the European countries practice the collection, transportation, recycling of the waste at the local and regional levels, with focusing on the competitiveness of the industry, with involving the other countries’ landfills, or with concentrating on the inter-municipal cooperation.
It is necessary to develop the economically advantageous project of the industry’s modernization according to which the spending costs should become lower and results higher. The inter-municipal cooperation can be considered as the most economically effective solution to the problem.
The problem of solid waste is one of the most controversial for the urban territories with the constant growth of industries which provide the highest percentage of the solid waste. Moreover, the problem of municipal domestic waste is also current. Today it is more typical for the USA to use landfills and the system of recycling as the main methods of solid waste management.
Nevertheless, different states focus on various ways of waste management with paying attention to the regional and local programs (Bel et al.). However, the main problem which can limit the effectiveness of solid waste management remains unsolved. It is the problem of the local and governmental costs spent for the management. That is why the most effective solution to the problem must be also effective from the point of its financing.
The discussion on the effectiveness of this or that solution to the problem of solid waste management is still open. If it is possible to accentuate the successfulness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in such European countries as Spain and the Netherlands and in the USA, it is also possible to focus on the regional programs typical for the US counties with involving the citizen information programs, recycling, and depending on waste-to-energy plants, and on the cooperation between two countries (Canada and the USA) because they are used with following the standards of technology and provide definite environmental benefits.
Thus, the example of the realization of the regional program associated with solid waste management in the US counties is the system of waste management in Cheshire County. The main characteristics of the system are the usage of the citizen information programs, the waste stream reduction and recycling, the development of the network which connect the territories with the centrally located county landfill.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To support the system, many counties can use public and private partnership with the local transport companies. All these factors accentuate the fact that “municipalities are paying too much for solid waste disposal” (Monahan 7). That is why it is necessary to find the more economically effective solution to the problem.
The idea to use the landfills of the neighbor countries, for instance Canada and the USA, for realizing waste management programs can be considered as effective from the point of economy. However, it is important only for those territories which are located close to the countries’ borders. Moreover, there are many aspects connected with the problems of crossing the borders (transportation) and locating the waste in the landfills (Schaefer). That is why this solution also cannot be considered as the most successful one.
To realize the effective solution to the problem of solid waste management in the USA, it is significant to use the principles of the inter-municipal cooperation which also can involve the definite aspects of the public-private mixed policy. This system is more appropriate for the USA because of the high level of the local fragmentation in the country.
Moreover, it can be also discussed as the more developed one in comparison with the typical local and regional programs. Thus, “in the US, inter-municipal cooperation is usually not compatible with private production, although it is seen as a form of contracting out” (Bel et al. 5).
The inter-municipal cooperation allows decreasing the amount of the costs used for the collection, transportation, effective disposal, and recycling of the solid waste with sharing the responsibility for providing the necessary management. Thus, the effective inter-municipal cooperation can solve the challenges of funding and social costs. Moreover, such form of cooperation between the local authorities contributes to solving the environmental issue which is rather difficult to discuss at local levels independently.
Nevertheless, why is the inter-municipal cooperation more effective than, for instance, regional county programs? It is important to note that modern programs used in counties are predominantly based on the successful aspects of the inter-municipal cooperation which is economically beneficial.
The inter-municipal cooperation provides the opportunities to concentrate on the technological modernization of the processes, development of the transport system, to rationalize the division of the budget and involve all the necessary means with increasing the managerial capacity (Wilson and Scheinberg).
We will write a custom Essay on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inter-municipal cooperation as the solution to the problem of solid waste management is based on the efficient economy balance between the country’s territories and provides the effective developed system (Bel et al.).
In spite of the fact there are many programs which are used in the world for solving the problem of solid waste management, one the most economically effective systems is the inter-municipal cooperation which can be successfully realized in the USA.
Summary Discussing possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management, Matthew Schaefer in his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” pays attention to the relations between the USA and Canada, their integration in overcoming the issue of the solid waste with the help of the landfills abroad; Germa Bel and the group of researchers in their work “Similar Problems, Different solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain” focus on comparison the effectiveness of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands; in their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”
David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg concentrate on the necessity of finding the easiest variant for solving the problem which can also be appropriate for implementing in cities and countries with low incomes; Matt Monahan in his “Municipal Solid Waste Study” develops the recommendations for using regional programs in US counties.
In his article “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?”, Matthew Schaefer discusses the peculiarities of the transportation of the waste between Canada and the USA. The author states that such practice has advantages for the economy of the both countries, but it also requires the solution to the question of the open borders and the creation of definite transnational standards for reducing the waste.
Germa Bel, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda, and Raymond Gradus developed the work in which they analyzed the peculiarities of the realization of the inter-municipal cooperation in Spain and the Netherlands with references to the experience of Great Britain and the USA. It is the most beneficial program from the point of economy for countries with the high level of the local fragmentation.
In their article “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?”, David Wilson and Anne Scheinberg discuss the findings of their prolong research which was conducted on the problem of finding the most effective and less expensive way to cope with the issue of solid waste management which could contribute to the requirements of the developed countries and developing countries.
They focus on the difference in approaches to solving the problem in big cities and low-income cities. The necessary technological modernization of the process should be supported by the authorities and political commitment. Nevertheless, it is also important to pay attention to the modernization of the economically advantageous recycling system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Possible Solutions to the Problem of Solid Waste Management Basing on the Comparison of the Situation in the USA and the European Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his “Municipal Solid Waste Study”, Matt Monahan analyzes the features of waste management in the counties of the USA and concludes that the current system is not effective in relation to the level of expensiveness and requires the further development. It is necessary to implement the constant system with basing on the cooperative work of municipalities in order to monitor the process of collection, transportation, and recycling the solid waste form the territory.
The articles are similar in providing the analysis of the effectiveness of this or that program depending on the economic factor with the focus on the examination of the benefits resulted from the usage of the mixed (public and private) policy.
These examined articles are different in providing the possible solutions to the problem of solid waste management which depend on various criteria (the involvement of municipalities, governments, integration with the neighbor countries).
Works Cited Bel, Germa, Elbert Dijkgraaf, Xavier Fageda and Raymond Gradus 2006, Similar Problems, Different Solutions: Comparing Refuse Collection in the Netherlands and Spain. PDF file. Web.
Monahan, Matt 2004, Municipal Solid Waste Study. Web.
Schaefer, Matthew. “Waste Management in the U.S. Context: Trade or Environmental Issue?” Canada-United States Law Journal 28.103 (2002): 103-114. Web.
Wilson, David and Anne Scheinberg. “What Is Good Practice in Solid Management?” Waste Management
Econ of development Essay a level english language essay help
Many global investors have poured their resources in emerging market economies because of the returns accrued, which is higher compared to investments in advanced market economies. The returns are not necessarily high for the emerging market economies. External financing is always accompanied by high social costs to the countries with emerging market economies.
Moreover, volatile external financing may reduce economic growth of such countries because of some uncertainties involved. It is for this reason that government should intervene and place controls on this economic aspect. Too much intervention by the government is not productive because side effects will also arise, e.g., if a government imposes a limit to the amount of cash that can be ploughed into a country for investment, the investor may be limited to a strict budget.
This may deprive the country from gaining other benefits, e.g. infrastructure. Investors sometimes build roads and bridges for easy access and transportation of goods to the locations of investment. These remain the assets of the host country. It is very critical that the government limit their restrictions by formulating favorable policies.
Governments should issue contracts to all investors. These contracts should explain in detail the length of time that the investors will stay. In addition to this, the contracts should restrict pulling out of the investors until a certain stage in the process of market liberalization is reached.
This is better than having no contracts, and allowing investors to emerge markets at will. In so doing, the government plays an important role; they ensure that there is a constant and continuous accumulation of capital within the country. Without contracts specifying the stay of investors in a country, they may decide to pull out their resources and capital as they wish.
This is very dangerous to the economy of any country because the assets in that country may become less valued. The main reason why investors may decide to pull out of a country in the course of their stay is loss of faith in that country’s economy. Since the economic stability of most developing countries is uncertain, it is wise for them to give contracts (specifying the duration of stay, and the time to pull out) to investors.
Capital flight occurs when the capital injected by investors rapidly flows out of the country. This takes place when investors lose faith in the project or when their confidence on the economy of that country is gone. This is mostly associated with the fall in the exchange rate in the deserted country’s currency. One major way of dealing with capital flight is changing of the exchange rates of a country to values more favorable to the direct foreign investors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investors should not lose a lot of money while converting their currencies and vice versa. There are other ways of dealing with capital flight other than adjusting the exchange rate. These methods are equally important in dealing with capital flight. One of them involves reducing the taxation rates on capital. When the government reduces the amount of tax imposed on capital, investors are more likely to stay.
This is because they end up retaining money that would have otherwise have been used as tax. Other than the two examples given, any initiative by the government in strengthening the economy of a country will ensure that investors always remain in that country. In general, it is correct to conclude that maintaining the stability of a country’s economy will win the confidence of investors thereby making them stay.