Table of Contents Introduction
The Catnets by H White
Concepts and Theoretical Strategy
Introduction Social structure can be defined as “patterned social arrangements in society that emerge from and also determine the actions of individuals” (Abrahams, 2006). At the macro level, social structure describes the socio-economic stratification system. At the micro level, social structure explains how the behaviors and actions of individuals are influenced by the norms of a given social system.
Conceptualizing social structure as a pattern of relationships between various groups implies that the society comprises structurally related groups as well as roles. These groups have specific meanings as well as purposes. Individual identify refers to the set of cues and signals that differentiate persons in society. Identity is embedded in the self.
The self develops through social interactions that occur in complex, organized and differentiated societies. Consequently, the self is a reflection of the society and describes the link between social structure and identity determination. This paper attempts to explain how identity is determined through social structure. The theory of catnets as well as the theory of group expansion and development of individuality will be used in the explanation.
Group Expansion and the Development of Individuality: Simmel
This theory explains the relationship that exists between an individual and the society by singling out the relational pattern that is not only situationally and historically dependent, but is also developed through interactions (Calhoun, Classical Sociological Theory, 2007).
The society is characterized by a typical and predictable structure that changes over time, and also varies in different institutional arrangements.
However, there is an unchangeable ratio that links social differentiation and the group size. Greater differentiation tends to occur in large groups as compared to small ones. Simmel asserts that individuals exhibit a dualist drive. Individuals also live a dual relation in the sense that they derive satisfaction both in their distinction and in their belonging (Calhoun, Classical Sociological Theory, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The family is considered an extension of an individual’s personality. Additionally, the family illustrates how a given social circle can function under various perspectives and circumstances. In conclusion, individuality increases as the social circle in which an individual belong expands. This implies that social differentiation increases due to quantitative expansion of social groups.
The Catnets by H White A net is a set of relationships that exist between pairs of people. The members of the net have meaningful and indirect relationships with each other. However, the indirect relations are not institutionalized (Calhoun, Contemporary Sociological Theory, 2007). Relations within the net are partially recognized and conceptualized in concrete terms instead of being considered as well-defined relations. The existence of the net is indefinite, and each net has a culture observed by the members.
A cat refers to a group of people associated with similar attributes. Membership within a cat is only important in the “context of the whole structure formed by the group” (Calhoun, Contemporary Sociological Theory, 2007). Thus, a catnets relationship can develop either from a net or a cat. A culture is developed to enable individuals to visualize, operate and transform their social structure. For instance, individuals enter and leave a net through specific rules.
Concepts and Theoretical Strategy The theory of group expansion and the development of individuality explain how interactions of individuals within a social group lead to the development of identity (Calhoun, Classical Sociological Theory, 2007). As the group increases in size, differentiation also increases, hence the development of individuality.
Thus, this theory explains both action and social structure. In particular, it explains the actions (interaction) of individuals within a group and how such actions affect the social structure. The theory focuses on both macro and micro level of analysis by considering the individual and the group.
The theory of catnets explains the relationships within various social groups and how such relationships lead to the development of identity (Calhoun, Classical Sociological Theory, 2007). According to this theory, each group has its culture which determines the relationships of its members.
Thus, the theory explains the social structure. According to White’s theory, membership in a social group is meaningful only in the perspective the whole structure developed by the group’s members. Consequently, White’s analysis focuses on groups within the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Can Social Structure Determine Individual Identity? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Causal Relationships Simmel’s theory describes the relationship between group expansion and individuality. Simmel notes that individuals are enclosed either broadly or narrowly by concentric circles that represent spatial interests.
He points out that a small group such as the family, offers individuals initial differentiation before they join larger groups in the society. In this context, development of individuality is determined by the expansion of the social group. The developed individuality determines one’s identity. Thus, social structure can determine individual identity.
Whites’ theory illustrates how social interactions within groups shape one’s identity. According to White’s theory, each group has a culture that helps them to develop their social structure. In this case, social structure determines individual identity in the sense that individuals are identified by the attributes of the culture associated with their social structure.
Internal Validity The group expansion and development of individuality theory is concrete. The claim that individuality and differentiation increases as the size of the group increases can be explained on the basis of freedom. It is a fact that members of large social groups have greater freedom as compared to members of small social groups (Abrahams, 2006).
The high level of freedom enhances the development of individuality. The theory also yield testable hypothesis that can be operationalized in social science research. For instance, we can hypothesize that freedom cause individuality. In this case, freedom can be operationalized in terms of measurable variables such as access to resources, ability to make personal decisions and rules that govern relationships.
The theory of catnets is both generalizable and falsifiable. It is generalizable due to the fact that most relationships within social groups are based on some rules. Such rules are formulated based on the culture associated with the group.
The theory is falsifiable since nets might not continue indefinitely in all circumstances as claimed by White. In some cases, assimilation can lead to the loss of cultural attributes that determine relationships (Abrahams, 2006).
In such cases, the net can either be discontinued or it can be significantly changed from its original state. The theory of catnets can yield testable hypothesis that can be operationalized in social science research. For instance, we can hypothesize that culture determines individual identity. In this case, we can operationalize culture in terms of norms, means of production and lifestyles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Can Social Structure Determine Individual Identity? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More External Validity The external validity of catnets theory can be illustrated by the social class structure. Members of upper class and lower class have unique cultures that define how they operate within and modify their class. For instance, the upper class tends to dress in expensive clothes and uphold good manners. However, the upper class is made up of several individuals. Consequently, an individual can only be identified with the attributes of the upper class if he belongs to the group that is considered to be upper class.
The external validity of Simmel’s theory can also be explained through empirical evidence. The weakening of family ties in America, for instance, explains Simmel’s theory. As the families disintegrate in America, citizens tend to join large groups such as single mothers, divorcees and single fathers.
These large social groups enable their members to have freedom and take control of their lives. For instance, a single mother will not experience the interference of a husband in her life. The lack of interference in the large social groups promotes differentiation since everyone is in charge of their lives. Thus, the differentiation translates into individuality.
Conclusion Social structure is determined by the actions of individuals. It is developed through interactions and relationships of members of various social groups. The social structure informs the development of the self which in turn determines the development of individual identity. According to catnets theory, people develop cultures that help them to establish their social structure (Calhoun, Contemporary Sociological Theory, 2007).
By belonging to the established social structures, and exhibiting the attributes associated with the social structure, individuals acquire their identity. The group expansion and development of identity theory asserts that differentiation and individuality increases as social groups increase in size. The expansion of the group leads to freedom that enables individuals to develop their identity. Consequently, social structure can determine individual identity.
References Abrahams, F. (2006). Contemporary Sociology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Calhoun, C. (2007). Classical Sociological Theory. New York: Blackwell.
Calhoun, C. (2007). Contemporary Sociological Theory. New York: Blackwell.
Understanding Religions without Biases Research Paper essay help online
Introduction When studying religion, it is of paramount importance for the researcher or the professional to adopt a way that is not biased. It is of great importance as well to understand that the study of religion calls for one to lay aside the perceptions they have obtained from the seminary or any other instructional institution for their religion.
Bearing in mind that every religion has its own origin and a long history behind it, it is important for people to avoid biasness so as to understand why the icons or inspirational figures of these religions behaved the way they did behave (Eliade 148).
The first question that arises at this point is whether it is possible place to study religion without biasness. The academicians need to answer this question because if the answer is negative, then the efforts will be futile and trying is not even worthy. Another part that needs some more light is the effects of the biasness that characterize the approach of many studies. In this paper, attention will be paid to deliver a conclusive answer to these two points of concern.
Academic Study and Theology These two fields are completely different when it comes to understanding religion. The outcomes of these fields to the committed individuals are again completely different. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between the two with the aim of creating a cut line distinction between them (Eliade 152).
On the one hand, academic study of religion is a tertiary engagement chief purpose of which is to discover, describe and explain the core values and practices within a particular religion. This calls for the use of multiple methods and an approach that involves many disciplines.
On the other hand, has an inward approach to the issue of religion. One of the paramount things dealt with in theology involves the thought of God. As opposed to the academic study, which adopts and outward approach, theology is internally oriented and discuses ideas within a particular religious group (Stark 428). The crucial thing about theology is the fact that it aims at transmitting religious teaching of the group involved, unlike academic study which does not indulge in such endeavors.
Basic Assumptions The academic study of religion like any other empirical study, is founded on assumptions. If the assumptions are void, then the whole study is futile. One of the assumptions that the study focuses on is the fact that neither of the religions under scrutiny is superior compared to another one (Stark 460). The approach must be of the opinion that these religions are different. Furthermore, the study must also acknowledge the fact that, there are core similarities that the religions share.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As academicians go about the study of religion, it is important that they are not oblivious of the importance of respect for other people’s religious heritage. The assumptions are that these groups of people have adopted the right choice for them and the choice has to be respected. It is also important to keep in mind that differences exist between, within, and among religions and that any religion has a great influence on the individual’s perceptions (Freud 213, Stark 460).
Academic study of the religion also requires that the learner appreciates the fact that not all people are religious, but even those who are not religious need to be respected for who they are. These guiding principles are very important in determining the outcome of the study through the intelligent application of these principles; one can embark on the study with the hope of an authentic determination.
Literary Criticisms One of the most important aspects of religion is the aspect of its literature. Each religion has its own set of beliefs and rituals, whose source of power are principles articulately outlined in a piece of literature that is sacred to that religious group. This implies the importance of these sacred books to the academician (James 68).
First, the academic approach must establish the authenticity of the sacred literature. Some questions at this point require answers. The author may need to establish the date of composition, audience and the way they received this literature, how the literature was reproduced, edited and transmitted. This process is important in establishing the credibility of the whole literature.
History Every religion has a story of its beginning and the facts about its development. Studying the historical background of the religion is important to the academicians since it helps them establish the facts about a particular religion. This study unveils how the social, economic, and other factors influenced the beginning, development and spread of that particular religion (Miles 678, Pals 314).
This enquiry may require the application of different tools, which may involve geography, demographic study and archeological approaches. This brings out concrete facts, which are actual happenings not on prejudiced or distorted perceptions.
Sociological Approach In studying religion, it might be of paramount importance to determine the relationship between the society and religion which is what this approach seeks to determine. One must note that the sociological approach does not seek to establish the credibility of religious beliefs but on the contrary seeks to unveil historical backgrounds, practices and the universal role of religion within the sociological setup.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Understanding Religions without Biases specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Two major concerns arise at this point; they are how the society influenced the religion and how the religion has been influencing the society. Finally, what is important is the orientation of its approach. Sociological approach focuses more on the developed societies of the modern time unlike other approaches like anthropology, for example, which focus on “old” societies.
Phenomenology This is another crucial tool in the study of religion. This theory proposes that prior experiences may influence us unconsciously and, therefore, impair free judgment of matters. This approach, thus, advocates for the ability to make deductions without prior beliefs and interpretations.
As it turns out, this approach is concerned with description only (Pals 319). The main aim of this approach is, consequently, to define religion in its own terms rather than in terms of another discipline. These are not the only tools that are useful in the academic study of religion. Other important tools include geographical, philosophical and anthropological. These approaches give rise to concrete understanding of the religion that is not biased.
Effects of bias approach to religion There are adverse effects that are associated with biasness in the approach to religion. One of the most obvious is the aspect of religious superiority whereby, members of one religion despise and discriminate against members of another religion. One of the resulting immediate effect is the violation of other people’s rights.
In extreme cases, this may lead to religious wars or religious enmity between two or more religious groups. Ultimately, this may result in turmoil, which is a threat to national integration or and unity, being one of the factors important for political stability (Smith 34, Pals 324). The issue of religious biasness goes beyond religious premises but ends up as national and international problem that has proved hard to solve.
Conclusions This brief discussion has shed more light on the subject under discussion. First, it has articulately defined the subject matter and has given the underlying assumptions that are important in the process of making inference about the objectivity of the study. On this basis, one can note that it is actually possible to understand religion without biasness. However, it is important to note that this will only be possible if the individual is committed to this course and is ready to step out of the cocoons of their religion.
The idea that one has to embrace in order to achieve this noble goal is the idea of religious tolerance. This tolerance enables one to bear contradictions between religions without prejudgments about the other religion. Furthermore, this implies that even religious people can get engaged in the activity of academic study of religion if there is a commitment from their side.
Works Cited Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. San Diego: Harcourt, 1987. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding Religions without Biases by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Freud, Sigmund. The Future of an Illusion. Edited by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989. Print.
James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. New York: Penguin, 1982. Print.
Miles, Jack. God: A Biography. New York: Vintage, 1996. Print.
Pals, Daniel. Eight Theories of Religion. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Smith, Huston. The World’s Religions. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. Print.
Stark, Rodney. Discovering God: The Origins of Great Religions and the Evolution of Belief. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Print.
The Adoration of the Shepherds by Andrea Mantegna Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The painting under consideration entitled ‘The Adoration of the Shepherds’ was created by Andrea Mantegna in 1450. The dimensions of the painting are 40 x 55.6 cm. The medium is tempera on canvas. Notably, the painting was transferred from wood. The painter used rich and bright colors.
The picture reveals images of Christ, Maria, Joseph, two shepherds in the foreground and two figures of poor people in the background. It is necessary to note that the painter used lighter and brighter colors when painting the figures of Christ, Joseph and Maria. Thus, the painter makes the three figures stand out against the rest of the objects depicted (making them special). Maria is depicted in the center of the painting which hints that the Virgin is central to the painting.
Mantegna was famous for his precision. The painting under consideration justifies this fame as the painting is full of thoughtful details. The painter revealed facial expressions and clothes in detail. He also paid much attention to the background. For instance, the hill and the rock in the background are really stunning. The artist was also precise when depicting the sky. Perhaps, this precision makes the picture so lively and appealing.
It is important to note that the picture depicts one of the central stories in Christianity. Notably, at that time people were religious and there was no other religion than Catholicism in Italy and other western European countries. People followed all the conventions ‘prescribed’ and they regarded with profound reverence major figures, such as Christ, Maria, Joseph.
This deep reverence is manifested in the picture where the figure of Maria, Christ and Joseph stand out against the other images. The central figure of the painting is Maria. Her posture reveals her resignation and dignity. These two qualities of the Virgin were appreciated the most at the time when the painting was created.
It is also important to note that the artist was also precise when depicting the figures of shepherds. The viewer can understand the position of poor people at that time. They were wearing rags. They were accustomed to their position of suppressed people (the posture of these people suggests that they hardly ever stopped bowing).
They were dirty and miserable, but they had great faith in their hearts. This faith is what the artist portrayed perfectly well. However, the central theme of the painting is the story of the Christ’s birth. The painter depicts the jolly event using really bright colors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as I am concerned, the painting is a great work of the Age of Renaissance. Mantegna exploited one of the central stories of Christianity. Obviously, the painter was raised in the epoch when religion was the only possible rule. The painting reveals this importance of Christianity in life of people who lived in the Age of Renaissance.
Notably, painters were not suppressed by conventions of the Middle Ages anymore and they could reveal the beauty of their religion. The painting makes me feel the beauty of Christianity as well. I start thinking of my own faith and the role of religion in my life. As for me, this is one of the best proofs that the painting is worthy.
I believe that paintings should make people think of really important things. The Adoration of the Shepherds is one of such evoking pictures. This is one of those pictures that make people attempt to become better than they are.
Asian Horror in Movie “A Tale of Two Sisters” Essay college admissions essay help
The genre of horror has been one of the popular genres that have started developing in the movie business. This has been harnessed by the free access of television and cinemas across the world. Various causes can be attributed to this sudden change of events; however, no one can explain why most of the individuals in the society tend to appreciate it despite being unrealistic and fictitious (Corrigan 6).
Though most of its contents are fiction, it is a mistake to assume that horror movies are primitive and plain. Naturally, horror movies are known to exemplify traditional and uncouth characteristics, and the directors of the films are perceived to non-conversant with the changes in the society. In my opinion, I would argue that all the sectors of the art cinema have majority of mediocre crews and minority being good crews, and horror genre is no exception.
Among the very few intriguing and genius horror movies, the focus will be on The Eye (Gin gwai; dir. Pang Brothers, 2002, Hong Kong), Tell Me something (dir. Chang Yoon-Hyun, 1999, South Korea), and A Tale of Two Sisters (Janghwa, Hongryeon; dir. Kim Ji-woon, 2003, South Korea). The three films denote a classic horror genre, and the directors have undertaken a massive work when it comes to editing, cinematography, and sound design of the films.
A Tale of Two Sisters is a true ploy of horror movie, which is denoted by the use of framing. Ideally, inventive framing has been used to enhance attentiveness of the audience, drawing goose bumps, and eliciting stifled gasps. The movie commences with a short scene describing psychiatric ward.
The doctor is preparing to interview his patient, who in turn happens to be an ugly and scary young woman, and her faced has been covered by long hair. The doctor wants to know what happened to her, but the scene fades and directs the audience to a view inside a car that is travelling to the countryside.
Kim’s disorienting positions and broad-view, reveals pans that aims at generating fright in the movie. It parades out the Korean horror themes that are familiar to the viewers. This includes haunted children, children’s bonds that are strong enough to challenge death, oppression on women, neurotic stepmothers, excessive femininity, and ineffectual fathers (Corrigan 56).
The two teenage sisters, Mun Geun-Yeoung and Im Su-Jeong arrive at their opulent situated in the countryside home after they had visited a psychiatric hospital. Su-Jeong undertakes a commanding performance while her sister is meek and on the receiving end. The whole scene portrays Yeom, their stepmother, as anxious and restless. She tries her best to make the two girls comfortable, although they had been involved in frequent confrontations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I’m believes that their stepmother had a dark past that she is hiding from them, and does not trust her house either. The truth, which encompasses the family’s relationship, is tangled and cannot be resolved quite easily. Kim’s remedy is a muddled montage that aims at re-dressing the final scene; however, it does not solve the issue but complicates them further.
The act may be disappointing given the unusual over-the-head and behind-the-head shots that are accompanied by the fresh blocking in necessitating a horror scene. The shots generate a deafening moments that frightens the audience and moves toward realizing a rational conclusion.
The movie is successful as it does not demand explanations on some amazing acts; thus, allowing the directors to gently incorporate fear and guilt on the characters and viewers. In positing these characteristics, A Tale of Two Sisters is successfully in enhancing the character’s anxiety throughout the movie. This ensures that the horror acts denotes reality, and is able to haunt the viewer, several days after watching the movie (Corrigan 18).
Despite the movie’s impact and creation of horror themes by Kim, there are minor criticisms that have been subjected to the movie. The movie is slow, and the audience may find it difficult to follow the film. It takes a long time for it to reach climax and build the steam on the audience.
Although, slow films cannot be disputed if the subject matter is realized at a given period, horror movies need not have to involve many issues before instigating the theme of horror in the scene. In addition, the information provided is not enough for the audience or viewer to understand the exact acts that happened—it is full of suspense.
Though guessing and speculation is part of the stylistic devices that movie writers employ, some of the aspects would have been simplified in an attempt to reduce or minimize the puzzle. As the film is a success in harnessing the horror atmosphere, some of the scenes do not necessitate narrative when they are reviewed. They are solely there to generate tension among the viewers.
For instance, the scene where Su-yeon is seen hanging her feet in water while something is prowling below her feet, the scene where Su-mi comes across bloody thing in the refrigerator, and where the duvet of Su-yeon is pulled off (Maxted 124). These few examples tend to exemplify a direct fiction on the viewer, as most of these acts are not real—they are exaggerated.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Horror in Movie “A Tale of Two Sisters” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eye, on the other hand, owes some of its success to its canny tapping in both local (Hong Kong) and Hollywood horror texts, but it succeeds by partaking of an ascendant contemporary pan-Asian discourse of horror. The Eye’s most immediately identifiable shared generic element is, of course, the protagonist’s ability to see ghosts, which she has in common not only with the young protagonist of The Sixth Sense, but with many other horror protagonists.
Sydney Wells (Helen) was blind since her childhood life. She receives corneal transplant that restores her vision, which she had lost during her childhood period when Helen, her sister, shot her on the face using a firecracker. After undergoing surgery, Sydney is able to see blurred images. However, it may be perceived to be normal phenomenon when one undergoes a cornea transplant after a long period without an eye.
However, the shadowy figures, in which Sydney sees, are ominous and quite different from the images of real people. In one occasion, she saw two shadowy figures, whereby the first one was leading an elderly woman away at night; the elderly woman was sleeping next to her bed in the hospital.
The following morning, when she wakes up, she found out that the woman has died. After the death of the woman, Sydney continues seeing the woman though the images are blurred, and she cannot figure out what she is doing. Cinematography plays vital role in this scene.
The camera lens is smeared with Vaseline to make the images blurred, and this is done for the half-an-hour footage shot that is undertaken. A significant twist here is that she is not at first aware it is ghosts she is seeing; this is narrative made possible in that she has not been able to see since the age of two years (Choi and Wada-Marciano 23).
The theme of unresolved issues from the past is also naturally common to many films with ghostly themes. The Eye primarily features spirits who just happen to be in transit and those needing to tie up emotional loose ends that just happen to have died in Helen’s vicinity. However, on one level, it does evince some of the sense of personal guilt of indebtedness or connection between the haunter and the haunted present in ghost films of the more vengeful variety.
Still another broader thematic repercussion of the narrative device of having the dead visible amongst the living is a heavy emphasis on the existence and close interrelationship of the past and the present. This idea resonates at numerous levels in The Eye, not least in settings themselves.
The initial setting of Hong Kong is imaged much as it is in reality as at once a city of modern high-rises and highways and of disused public spaces, where a ghost would feel perfectly like home. Hong Kong’s architectural variegation is even alluded to in dialogue at one point, when a waiter at an older and indeed haunted roast meat restaurant explains the situation in Hong Kong.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Horror in Movie “A Tale of Two Sisters” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The emphasis on multilinguality points to another distinctive and central theme in The Eye, which links motives of transnationalism and haunting, to that of confusion over identity. Helen’s interest in her own identity can be seen from the moment her new vision begins to come into focus. Her first request is to be taken to the bathroom so that she can gaze herself in a mirror. This curiosity and interest turns to mystification and alarm; however, she realizes that some of her visions may be someone else’s.
Though the horror scenes are cheaply incorporated into the movie, it makes the audience jump more than once. In addition, the slicker look and the bigger budget boost some of the scenes despite being mere copies of the scenes of Hong Kong movie. In particular, one of the scenes involving a restaurant belonging to a Chinese is modified to a nice effect, therefore, displaying originality of the movie. Palud and Moreau are keen to ensure that the movie does not become one of the scenes of Ghost Whisperer.
Tell Me Something is one of the South Korean thrilling and horror genres. In 1999, the movie was dubbed hard-gore thriller due to its magnificent horror traits that is imminent in the whole episodes of the movie. The success is attributed to the slick trailer, big budget on marketing campaign, and the drawing supremacy of the two leaders. As such, with the movie’s rich cinematography, Tell Me Something was in high demand during the late 20th century.
The movie commences with mouth-gaping scene. A number of garbage bags begin to appear, in Seoul, totally filled with human body parts of the victims of murder. The case falls in the arms of Detective Jo, one of the disgraced soldiers who have subjected to brutal acts by their senior counterparts. Jo collaborates with Oh, and they quickly analyze the cases presented to them with an aim of getting a clue of the incident. The two cops learn that the bodies were of three friends who worked at Chae Su-yeon museum.
The film uses neon-drenched settings in an attempt to enhance the effect. Director Chang understands the need to create a requisite atmosphere, as he inculcates Tell Me Something with tension and creepiness associated with horror movie. The sound effect demonstrates the demonic and war-like atmosphere and the audience feels that they are in that ‘dark’ atmosphere characterized by evil spirits and war (Choi and Wada-Marciano 48).
The scenario is also boosted by Shim and Han’s underplayed performances, and the low-key script that gradually unveils as the movie continues. The script is well choreographed especially on the visualizations of sporadic killings, where Chang includes severed limbs, dissections, large amounts of blood, and decapitated heads. Indeed, for the viewers with faint heart, the movie should be viewed on an empty stomach.
For its two-hour running time, the movie engages the audience through suspense, and drawing them closer on the mystery surrounding the episodes. However, the last scene Tell Me Something falls apart. The scheme that embodies the killer is overwhelming and is overly elaborated leaving the audience with confusion.
Though the movie ends in a climax, orchestrated by great soundtrack and well-focused shots, the scene does not make any sense. It is hard to link the events that led to the final episode. More upsetting is the postscript of film, which introduces logic-defying scene that twists courtesy of the mysteries of murder.
Although some of the scenes prompt for viewing of subsequent episodes, others require motivations from the characters in order to make the movie cohesive. Ideally, numerous discussion groups in the internet, have been instigated in an attempt to discuss and unravel the mystery behind the movie’s convolute d narrative.
In my opinion, the confusion might have been brought about by the negligence of the crew and directors, omissions of some of the scenes that would have made the movie cohesive. The most obvious logical gaps that exist in the film are on the way Detective Oh can link unrelated scene that denotes crime to the murders that took place.
Indeed, if the ending had been characterized by lack of confusion, Tell Me Something would have gained wholehearted recommendation from the viewers. However, when the audience pardons the directors missteps and non-inclusion of some scenes, then there are more positive attributes to the film than the negative ones. The film posits all the stylistic devices embodied by an artwork including suspense, entertainment, and visual thriller.
In conclusion, the three films are the real works of the horror genre. The films should not only be recognized on the face value of its antique but intention of the developers of the films.
Although, the essay has focused only on three films; most of the horror films have implied meaning in the contemporary society, and should not be taken lightly. The themes and devices used such as sound design, cinematography and editing have been observed by the directors of the film in an attempt to fit into the market. Therefore, the films are a classic of a horror genre.
Works Cited Choi, Jinhee and Wada-Marciano Mitsuyo, eds., Horror to the Extreme: Changing Boundaries in Asian Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009.
Corrigan, Timothy. A Short Guide to Writing about Film. New York: Longman, 2009.
Maxted, Anna. A Tale of Two Sisters. New York: Dutton, 2006
Divine Command Theory Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Divine command theory is based on the idea that God is the determinant of right and wrong behavior. Religious groups such as Christians, Muslims and Jews follow laws contained in holy books that guide their worship activities.
Holy books were written by wise people inspired by God and should be followed. God forbids morally wrong actions and encourages people to engage in morally upright activities. Violation of commandments of God is immorality. People will be held responsible for their actions on the final Day of Judgment.
Theists disagree with divine command theory because they do not believe in the existence of God. There are also differences within believers. According to Plato, any act is neither good nor bad unless God has categorized it. This raises an issue of dilemma in some cases such as whether people should be truthful because God has commanded them or because it is good (Rachels
Unemployment in US Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Unemployment is an issue that is significantly gaining much concern. The cases of high level of unemployment have also been on the rise, in the recent times. This issue has led to many companies and employers putting on many restrictions to job seekers. Many companies and employers seeking employee are currently eliminating unemployed applicant. They cling on the belief that those already employed posses more skills compared to the unemployed.
Following a press report, Washington (AP) is among the companies that eliminating job aspirant simply because they are without a job. Lately, after the spread of news of the act, commissions like “Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” have stepped in, in an attempt to calm the situation.
This is in an effort to curb the approach that could go against centralized job favoritism laws. The commissioners at inquiring said they were looking into whether the act may have severe verdict to the minority races that always with the highest levels of unemployment. Spiggs, an official at the “Department of Labor,” insinuated that it could not be easy for the government to determine the extent of the setback. Most company failing to declare job post publicly has caused that hindrance.
Helen Norton, a professor at the university, admitted that various companies have publicized different jobs with strict constraint. Only those applicants with jobs currently could be given chances. The professor also purported that a number of employers were considering current job as an indication of an excellent work performance.
Norton added that such a connection was particularly unfound and a mere exaggeration. Current job did not necessarily provide quality work performance. Following a report in the previous year, there was a job enrollment advertisement from Sony Ericsson excluding the unemployed candidates. The company soon removed the constraint following media exposure. Barring the jobless candidate in getting job posts is uncreative as concluded.
The management sector possibly will have internal conflict following the report of the article. There could be misunderstanding among the management members. Considering the fact that they also receive different orders and guidelines for running companies from the employers, there could be some contradiction.
The employers and owners of the companies may give orders to the managerial not to enroll any unemployed candidate, while this is against the laws and policies against discrimination of the unemployed. The managerial staff in support of the policies and laws may clash with those against the policies and laws that protect the unemployed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management may perhaps deteriorate its performance following the policies against discrimination in enrolling the unemployed, in higher posts such as directorship, executives, or managerial. The article says that, according to the policies and laws protecting the unemployed, they should not be excluded from applying the jobs.
Those getting high ranks in employment, although earlier did not have any job, may luck some supervisory skills. Some vital administrative skills are acquired after one has had much exposure to a certain schedule for long. Therefore, it may be vitally necessary for one to be having a job initially that one can get a managerial post.
On the contrary, the high levels of unemployment being experienced currently can only be solved by creating more employment opportunities. Different companies in different sectors ought to find significant techniques of intensifying their activities. This in effect, will create openings to many unemployed and employed job seekers. The approach will not only be of assistance in solving unemployment, but also solve the problem of not including the unemployed in applying for the job.
The autobiography of Malcolm X Research Paper essay help online free
One of the greatest and most influential men that captured the attention of both his friends and enemies, and articulated the struggle, the hunger, and the credence of African-American in the early 1960s is none other than Malcolm X. Malcolm X lived a complex and controversial life, at times landing a job of shoe-shinning, a dancer, criminal, a leader, a minister, and an icon, before his life was drastically ended by an assassins’ bullets at a tender age of thirty nine.
He worked tirelessly giving speeches and educating both young and old black Americans to better their lives and create strong communities that embraces strong fabric of self actualization and independent man.
Interestingly, Malcolm X is also known for using and changing his names from Malcolm Little, El Hajj Malik, Detroit Red and El-Shabazz. Most historians argue that those different names of Malcolm represented the different spheres of his live. Needless to say, Malcolm X became one of the greatest symbols of reconciliation and resistance for millions of people around the world.
This study will endeavor to explore the life history of Malcolm X who was a son of a Baptist minister. The autobiography of Malcolm X is the outstandingly true story of an African-American man, and it presents the daily struggle of millions of black during the period of racial discrimination and segregation.
The study will explore the transformation and individuality of Malcolm X that led him to sustain dedication and will to get education. Malcolm X autobiography unfolds a society that is plagued by discrimination and class segregation in every sphere of America society. Malcolm unveils the struggle of civil rights movements and the emergence of the Black Nationalism.
The autobiography of Malcolm X give a detailed true story of Malcolm X as he struggled with the life of hustling, dope peddler and a thief to become a dynamic and influential African American leader. The autobiography captures a span of four decades from the birth of Malcolm X in May 1925, to his assassination on 21 February 1965.
Malcolm X was one of the eight children of Louise Little and Reverend Earl. Like many other black American children Malcolm X was raised amidst racial prejudice and poverty stricken family. Malcolm X only attended school up to the eighth grade and he spent most of teenage life in street and prison. During the late 1950s, discrimination and racial segregation was institutionalized in every aspect of America society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Schools, neighborhoods and businesses were segregated along skin color, and the Supreme Court legalized racial segregation through allowing separate but equal treatment of both black and white citizens. Furthermore, several states in America prevented African-Americans from voting. All African-Americans experienced grave hardship during this period given their inferior status in American society (Henry and Nellie, 9).
In the early 1950, Malcolm X together with several African Americans leaders organized black militancy that organized both violent and nonviolent demonstration. Malcolm believed that African American had the right to defend they society using any means necessary to gain their freedom. Malcolm X was against the white power structure and racist vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, which at one time threatened their family (Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz, 2).
In addition, Malcolm was against some civil rights organization for their soft stance against American’s racial problems. Before being assassinated Malcolm had moderated his stance against black discrimination and advocated for solidarity among African-Americans, and urged both people of all races to work together and end racism.
According to the autobiography of Malcolm X, his life is a good example of how determination, confidence and perseverance can change the life of an individual (Manning, 5). The next section will critically explore the life history of Malcolm X from his birth to up to his assassination. The section will critically analyze some of the achievements and setbacks that Malcolm went throughout his life.
Malcom X was born on 19th May 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, and was a son of an African Baptist preacher. His mother, Louise Norton Little was a house wife and took responsible of raising the eight children. Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz, (2) explains that the father of malcoml X, Earl Little was an outspoken activists and minister, and was among the strongest members of Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and a member of Marcus Garvey.
This organizations made Earl Little to brush shoulders with white supremacist groups including the Ku Klux Klan. The family of Malcolm X was in constant fear of being attacked from these groups. From the autobiography of Malcolm X (6) he recall that “When my mother was pregnant with me, she told me later, a party of hooded Ku Klux Klan riders galloped up to our home in Omaha, Nebraska, one night.
Surrounding the house, brandishing their shotguns and rifles, they shouted for my father to come out”. The group smashed their family house destroying all their windows and doors, which angered Malcolm X father. The family late moved to Lansing, but their house was late burned by the Ku Klux Klan and the family managed to escape without any major injuries.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The autobiography of Malcolm X specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aboulafia (7) explains that on 8th September 1931, the further of Malcolm X was fatally killed by streetcar on his way to home, at then Malcolm was only six years old. The police ruled his death to be an accident although the black community refuted the finding of the police claiming that the white supremacy groups had a hand on his death.
The death of Malcolm X father changed their family life drastically. Henry and Nellie (67) explains that since their father was the bread winner, their financial problems worsened. Furthermore, Mrs. Louise Norton Little was most devastated by Mr. Earl death, which made her suffer from enormous stress and anxiety caused by the responsibility of raising the eight children. Her mother was later institutionalized in the early 1937, which left the eight children leaving with friends, foster families or their in lasing.
Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz (78) explain that Malcolm attended school up to the level of eighth grade. At the age of thirteen Malcolm became expelled from school and the state officials moved him to detention home. During this period, Malcolm had defiant behavior, but he was an outstanding student among his schools mates.
At the detention home Malcolm was treated as a mascot to the couples who lived at that home. Malcolm aspired to become a lawyer, but his English teacher discouraged him from becoming a lawyer because he was black. In 1941, Malcolm asked to be transferred to the guardianship of his half sister who was living in Boston.
During the stay in Boston, Malcolm was more attracted to street life than in the upper class that her sister resided. Malcolm landed a job of shoe shinning at Roseland Ballroom, which became a center of his life. During this period, Malcolm became a hustler, where he leant how to sell drugs, dancing, con man, dope pusher and a thug. His love life was also affected and he dated many women a white woman Sophia and Laura.
In some instances Malcolm explains that Sophia “was bothered about me living among the prostitutes until I introduced her to some of them, and they talked, and she thought they were great. They would tell her they were keeping me straight for her” (104). Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz explain that during World War II, Malcolm was able to secure a job in the army by lying about his age.
Malcolm secured a job in the railway since the American army was in dire need of cooks, porters and waiters. As a worker in railway, Malcolm became even more dangerous by engaging in drug peddling and gambling. At one point Malcolm X argue that “One day, in a blackjack game, an old cook who was dealing the cards tried to be slick, and I had to drop my pistol in his face” (119).
Breitman (46) explains that Malcolm was able to secure a job at Small Paradise as a waiter, where he became acquitted with many drug loads and elites. After losing the job at Small paradise, Malcolm was able to form a burglary ring that terrorized many residence together with their sister and girl friend.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The autobiography of Malcolm X by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Malcolm became a drug addict and cocaine dealers, whereby he was well known by the police. He escaped several attempts to be caught by the police. At the age of 20 years, malcon became a well known drug dealer, burglar and peddler. In 1946, Malcolm was arrested and sent to 10 years in jail.
Manning (9) explains that the prison life changed Malcolm character and behavior for the rest of his life. During the prison life Malcolm met another prisoner called Bimbi who was a self educated man. For the long time that Malcolm had left school he had forgotten how to read and write.
With the help of Bimbi encouragement and training Malcolm was able to learn how to read and write. In addition, Malcolm underwent spiritual and moral transformation through the teaching of honorable Elijah Muhammad. Elijah Muhammad was known as the message of Allah (Allah is the name for Muslim god).
Elijah was very much adored by the black prisoners since he instilled a sense of self-respect and admiration. Furthermore, Elijah Muhammad condemned very strongly the white supremacist segregation of black people and blamed them on the poor government policies. Elijah blamed whites for the harsh treatment of African-American in the North, and he argued that the only way to solve the injustice was through black separatism (Aboulafia, 8).
Breitman (57) explains that it was during this period that Malcolm brother Reginald visited him severally to offer spiritual support. During the numerous visits Reginald advised Malcolm that he had a way of removing him from the prison. During the meetings Reginald advised Malcolm not to eat any pork meat because of religious reasons.
The plan of Reginald was to enlist Malcolm in the Nation of Islam, which was an organization known as Black Muslims. The organization was founded by Elijah Muhammad in the early 1930s and their main objective was to urge for the separation of races. The organization viewed the white man as being evil, and blamed them for the misfortune of blacks. Malcolm was very ready to receive this ideology since the white supremacists groups terrorized them constantly.
The ideology and teachings of Elijah Muhammad inspired Malcolm to study African American history. Through studying history Malcolm was strongly convinced that the white were responsible for their suffering and mistreatment. Through studying Malcolm joined the Nation of Islam and changed his name to the famous Malcolm X (Henry and Nellie, 9).
Aboulafia (78) explains that Malcolm actively studied the work of Elijah, which advocated that the white supremacists worked tirelessly to prevent the blacks from gaining independence. The white ensured that the African Americans did not achieve economic, social and political power. The organization also taught Africans American to fight for their state that was not habited by white. Malcolm became an active member of the group and stated his new career teaching other African Americans to fight for their rights.
After serving for seven years Malcolm was released from jail through a paroled and went to recede in Detroid. Malcolm became an active member of the Black Muslim and took up studies to understand the ways of Muslims. In early 1952, Malcolm travelled to Chicago to meet with Muhammad who played an important role in educating him while he was in prison.
Malcolm was very determined to understand Muslim and he decided to study personally under the guidance of Elijah. To show his dedication to revolutionize the African American Malcolm returned to Boston and implemented the black temple. In 1954, Malcolm X was elected as the minster of Nation of Islam, which was located in the New York (Aboulafia, 78).
Through the leadership of Malcolm the Nation of Islam grew significantly, and Malcolm gained popularity among the African Americans. The organization grew from a small number of worshippers into a large organized movement that was dedicated to Black separatisms ideology.
Malcolm became the greatest and exceptional speaker and teacher for the Black Muslim. Aboulafia (78) explains that Malcolm became increasingly close to Elijah because of his popularity and the successful launch of several temple in different cities. Henry and Nellie, (9) explains that with time Malcolm became the leading symbol of the organization as he organized several lectures and establishment of several mosque.
The social life of Malcolm significantly changed through the new status he gained in the Black Muslim organization. In 1955, Malcolm X met Betty Sanders during his lectures at temple Number seven.
Betty sander had been invited to several lectures of Malcolm X, and she was impressed with the teaching of Malcolm X. the two friends met severally and Malcolm managed to convert Betty to become one of the most active lady in Nation of Islam. In 1958, Malcolm and Betty were officially married in Lansing, Michigan. The two couples were blessed with six daughters. Their names were Attallah, Qubilah, llyasah, Gamilah, Malka and Malaak (Henry and Nellie, 89).
During his lectures, Malcolm X stated to advocate for violent revolution citing numerous countries that went through the same situation. In one of his numerous speeches, Malcolm cited the American Revolution, French revolution, Russian revolution.
In all this revolution, Malcolm argued that it involved the shade of blood. Malcolm argued that you cannot have a revolution without bloodshed and the African American should be ready to shade blood for them to gain independent. In early 1959, the speeches of Malcolm stated to attract media attention through the country.
Most importantly the media covered the two leaders that are Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad because of their strong separatist ideology and hatred for whites. This new found publicity made Malcolm have violent confrontation with police after organizing several protest and demonstrations. Malcolm became a symbol for an angry black man that was tired of constant discrimination (Aboulafia, 78).
Malcolm sudden extremist speech and notoriety made Elijah Muhammad fearful. Elijah stated to reduce the support that was given to Malcolm and during the same period Malcolm had rumors that Elijah had violated the code of Nation of Islam. The disagreement between Malcolm and Elijah Muhammad became unsolvable, which led to the ultimate suspension of Malcolm.
The suspension was meant to last for only 90 days, but Malcolm inquired that Elijah had planned to make the suspension permanent. Malcolm X (300) explains that his suspicions was correct after a member of the group confessed to him that he was paid to assassinate Malcolm through placing a bomb in his car.
In 1964, Malcolm decided to leave the Nation of Islam and formed his own organization called Organization of Afro-American Unity. After visiting pilgrimage in Mecca, Malcolm stated to form different ideology regarding the new war against segregation. Malcolm came up with the ideology of brotherhood.
Malcolm stated to blame the American culture and ideology on racism and hugged the African-American to join other whites to end racial discrimination. The ideology that Malcolm came up with was quite different from the Black Muslim ideologies. He rejected the earlier ideology that he was taught with Elijah.
He explained that the African American should labor like any other races to build their businesses and homes. Malcolm argued that the African Americans should patronize their own people, and start to build their own respect. According to Malcolm, the African-Americans were supposed to correct their morality, moral and spiritual life. Aboulafia, (200) explains that not most African Americans followed the new ideology of Malcolm.
Malcolm made several trips to Africa countries where he was received with government officials. He returned back home where he dedicated most of his time with Organization of Afro-American Unity. Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz (119) explain that the last few month of Malcolm had intense pressure. His house was bombed and he received constant threat both from nation of Islam and his enemies.
In 21th February 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated with unknown men by being short several times. During that period, Malcolm was supposed to give a speech at Organization of Afro-America Unity meeting at ballroom in Harlem. Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz, (400) explains that when Malcolm stood to speak a fight stated in the audience.
During the commotion three men emerged and short Malcolm several times where he died instantly. Three of the assassins were arrested and two of them were Muslims. Most of the followers of Malcolm believed the assassination was planned by a large number of organizations including the government officials. Malcolm was killed but killers were not able to stop his influence (Malcolm X, Haley and Shabazz, 409).
It is clear from the study that the autobiography of Malcolm X can be viewed in different perspective. When viewed as an autobiography it portrays an interesting life history of a young man. In addition, when viewed as sociological study, the autobiography gives a clear example of how young people struggle to meet the end meat.
Politically, the autobiography has influenced most African Americans to fight for their rights. It clearly shows how religion plays a fundamental role molding character of individuals. One of the difficult positions of the autobiography is that Malcolm X was life was constantly changing. His political ideas were very contradicting, and it was difficult to tell the direction of his ambitions.
Works Cited Aboulafia, Anita. Alex Haley’s the autobiography of Malcolm X. REA.com, 1996. Web.
Breitman, George. The Last Year of Malcolm X; the Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967. Print.
Henry, Louis and Mckay Nellie. The Norton anthology of African American Literature. NY: WW Norton Company, 1996. Print.
Malcolm X, Alex Haley and Attallah Shabazz. The Autobiography of Malcolm X; As Told to Alex Haley. New York: Ballantine Books, 1987. Print.
Manning, Marable. Malcolm X; a Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking, 2011. Print.
The Country That Was Meant to Be Christian: USA and the Religious Issues Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Taking even a brief look at the USA, its culture, traditions and ideas, is enough to understand that the entire country is shot through with the spirit of Christianity; every single detail starting from the morning sermons to the Christmas traditions, serves as an undeniable evidence of people’s faith.
However, when reconsidering the history of the nation objectively, one can see that the entire state is based on the principles that do not comply with the basic ideas of the Christian faith. Therefore, the controversial issue of the USA fundamental faith needs to be researched.
Despite the common belief that the USA is nowadays populated mostly by Christians, who make 76% (Diversity Resources, Inc., n. p.), and is considered to have been founded by Christians, it is highly doubtful that the basic principles of the USA democracy are based on solely Christian ideas, which means that the USA is rather a country of considerable religious diversity and a place where people of any faith can find their shelter and be treated equally.
To understand the essence of the way Christian ideas and the Christian belief settled in the United States and the way the American people came to believing in the Christian principles, it is necessary to travel back in time and see what the United States were based on.
Therefore, it is most reasonable to start with the Founding Fathers themselves and the postulates that they were trying to promote to the newly established States of America. Since the religion that the former were grounding the first set of laws in the United States and the principles of the USA democracy on certain beliefs, it is reasonable to suggest that the faith the Founding Fathers relied on was the foundation for the further USA cultural and spiritual development.
Oddly enough, unlike most people might have thought, the Founding Fathers could hardly be called fully Christian – professing deism, they were not exactly the Christians. According to Holmes, deism was the primary religion of the United States, which is why it “proved influential in the United States from roughly 1725 through the first several decades of the nineteenth century” (Holmes 49).
As Holmes marked, “Emphasizing human inquiry, reason, and personal freedom, it catered to American principles of individuality” (Holmes 49), thus, offering sufficient grounds for the further development of the democracy stronghold.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it must be admitted that at the very beginning of the United States formation, the basic belief that the state principles were being based on could hardly be denoted as the Christian ones – even though Deism is, strictly speaking, a branch of Christianity, it differs too much from the traditional Protestant or Catholic vision of what belief is. Hence, it can be considered that the American nation did have certain non-Christian roots deep down in the past.
It can be argued, though, that in the Declaration of Independence, the idea of Christianity and the faith of the American nation did appear, yet it is also obvious that the Declaration of Independence is not an actual law, but rather the premises for the future laws to be based on and, hence, cannot be considered the fundament for the country’s ideas and beliefs were solely the Christian ideas.
Following the peculiar piece of advice given by McDowell, who, in his original manner, states that the USA is not a Christian nation and suggests to define the ideas of Christianity that the USA principles do not coincide with before referring the state to any other religion, it will be reasonable to suggest the definition of not belonging to Christianity,. As McDowell explains,
A Christian nation is not one where Christianity is the established religion, nor one where every citizen is a Christian, nor one where a majority of the citizens are Christian. It is also not a nation that is without sin, for all men and nations have sinned. (McDowell 1)
With that in mind, one should realize that the principles of the Founding fathers could be those of the Christian belief, namely, the ideas that could be depicted as the striving for the common good and the belief that the humankind should be based on mercifulness.
In addition, McDowell offers a number of historical references to the USA as a completely Christian nation: “In Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States (1892), the U. S. Supreme Court said that “this is a Christina nation” and presented much historical evidence in support of this declaration” (3).
Therefore, it cannot be denied that, since the day the United States were founded, the country was constantly referred to as the Christian one, being founded on the Christian principles, with its government guided by the Christian ideas when undertaking a certain decision. Thus, it can be considered that, logically, the faith of the Founding Fathers in fact was the Christian one, since these were the Christian ideas at the helm in the system of the U. S. government back then.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Country That Was Meant to Be Christian: USA and the Religious Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it would be erroneous to think that the Founding Fathers never referred to the USA as the Christian nation. Moreover, they openly spoke of the USA as the state based upon the ideas of Christianity. As McDowell mentions, “The Founders certainly spoke of America as a Christian nation” (3).Thus, it can be suggested that the USA was based on what was believed to be purely Christian ideas.
Nevertheless, it is important to mention that, strictly speaking, the religion that the Founding Fathers, namely, Washington and Madison, could not be called the Christian one, being merely a shape that deism had taken at the early stage of the USA formation. According to the Rev. Bird Wilson, the Founding Fathers’ belonging to the Christianity is nothing but the myth that was supposed to inspire the future generations on the patriotic attitudes and the desire to fight for the Christian justice. As Curtis explains,
The Rev. Wilson had researched this sermon very carefully before it was delivered. He stated that Washington was a “great and good man,” but no professor of religion. The Reverend Bird Wilson was just a few years removed from being a contemporary of the Founding Fathers.
He summed up his delivered sermon with the following remarks, “The founders of our nation were nearly all infidels, and that of the presidents who had just thus far been elected (George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson) not a single one professed belief in Christianity.” (Curtis 238)
Thus, Curtis makes I clear that the founders of the USA were not exactly Christian and that the idea of the USA as the nation which roots from the Christian belief is quite wrong. Indeed, if considering closer the actions that some of the Founding Fathers undertook, one will be able to see that the latter were not exactly eager to turn the entire nation into the stronghold of Christianity. As Fea explains,
Following the ratification of the Constitution, which forbade a religious establishment on a national level, Jefferson kept a watchful eye out for “false religions” that he believed were trying to promote a Christian nation. “Presbyterians” – a name that Jefferson probably used as a general term to describe any and all Calvinists – drew his particular ire […] (Fea 211)
Hence, it is evident that at present, the idea that the Founding Fathers were Christian and that the United States are based fully on Christian belief are forced into the society and, thus, are highly likely to be erroneous. Instead of searching for the proper evidence from the past and analyzing it carefully, modern historians are simply trying to find the proof of the USA Christian origin, which leads the nation to another misconception.
Trying to persuade people that the Christian religion was the cradle of the American nation, researchers are tearing the fabric of the U .S. history by all corners, obviously distorting the truth. As Curtis explains, the fact that the founders of the American nation were not really Christian seems obvious, and this fact “flatly contradicts the frantic efforts of present day fundamentalists to make the “founding fathers,” into Orthodox Christians who wrote a Constitution based on religious values” (238).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Country That Was Meant to Be Christian: USA and the Religious Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, it is essential to mention that, according to certain sources, Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers, was against not only imposing the Christian belief on the nation, but also at professing the Christian belief as such. As Curtis explained,
Jefferson didn’t just reject the Christian belief that the Bible was “the inspired word of God,” he rejected the whole Christian system. In writing, “Notes on the State of Virginia,” he said of this religion, “There is not one redeeming feature in our superstition of Christianity. It has made one half of the world fools and the other half hypocrites.” (235)
It must be admitted that, in the light of the above-mentioned, the USA foundation should not be perceived as solely the Christian belief and the Christian postulates. In fact, the Jefferson’s explicit denial of the Christian origin of the USA principles disputes the fact that the Founding Fathers used Biblical ideas when developing the basis for the USA as a nation and entity.
On the one hand, it seems preposterous to judge the ideas of an entire nation basing on the words of its single representative, yet on the other hand, Jefferson was one of the Founding Fathers, which means that at least one of the people who contributed to the country’s formation and the establishment of its democratic principles was not Christian and did not force the Christian belief into the nation’s subconscious. Hence, the USA clearly was not based on the Christian ideas solely.
It is worth mentioning that the idea of the USA being a Christian nation started the time when Jefferson expressed his ideas of religion in the United States explicitly, denying the Christian faith the right to be the guiding light for the country and its people.
Causing an outburst of protests against his non-Christian ideas, Jefferson, thus, launched the process of “Christianization” of the country and its people, since some of those beholding power in the United States of the end of the XVIII century did not approve of the radical ideas Jefferson expressed. As Curtis mentioned,
William Linn, a Dutch Reformed minister in New York City made the most violent of all attacks on Jefferson’s character and all of it entirely based on religious grounds. He accused Jefferson “of the hideous crimes of not believing in divine revelation and of a design to destroy religion and introduce immorality” (Curtis 235).
Therefore, it can be deduced that the USA was not initially a Christian nation, but was shaped as such due to the over-explicit policy against the Christian faith that Jefferson conducted. The idea that the USA were not initially Christian but came to the principles of Christianity after the years of development makes the fact that the modern state is Christian nonetheless important.
In addition, the fact that the USA principles do not belong entirely to the Christian ideas make it possible for the country to demonstrate tolerance towards other religions and beliefs, which is of utter importance for the democratic principles that the state is founded on. According to Bates,
As the government of the United States of America is not, in any case, founded on the Christian religion, as it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquility, or Mussulmans; and, as the said States never entered into any war, or act of hostility against any Mohametan nation, it is declared y the parties, that no pretext, arising from religious opinions, shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries. (Bates 553)
It is important to add that Bates’s considerations concerning the American tolerance are supported by the President Obama’s speech. Denying the fact that the USA is a completely Christian nation, Barack Obama clarifies that the state is a free country where people of any religious beliefs feel absolutely free:
That’s something that’s very important to me. And I’ve said before that one of the great strengths of the United States is – although as I mentioned, we have a very large Christian population, we do not consider ourselves a Christian nation or a Jewish nation or a Muslim nation; we consider ourselves a nation of citizens who are bound by the ideas and a set of values. (Johnson, n. p.)
According to Obama’s speech, the USA is a country mostly populated by Christians, yet offering the room for the people of any religion and, hence, exposing ultimate tolerance, which is a truly Christian principle. Thus, it is obvious that the USA nation is nowadays guided by the beliefs and ideas of freedom and equity that the Bible teaches.
Offering every single citizen the right to choose his/her own belief and declaring a freedom of faith, the USA is nowadays more than a Christian state – it is a state that is ruled by the Christian principles, namely, the one of tolerance and he acceptance of any other culture, no matter how alien it might seem when contrasted to the one of the American nation.
Works Cited Bates, M. Searle. Religious Liberty: An Inquiry. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2005. Print.
Curtis, Ian. Jesus: Myth or Reality? Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2006. Print.
Diversity Resources. Religious Identity. Amherst, MA: Diversity Resources, Inc., n.d. Print.
Fea, John. Was America Founded as a Christian Nation? A Historical Introduction. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2011. Print.
Holmes, D. Lynn. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Johnson, Larry. Ye Shall All Be Gods: Humanism and Christianity. Owasso, OK: Anvil House Publishers, LLC. 2011. Print.
McDowell, Stephen. America, a Christian Nation? Medical Parkway Waco, TX: Providence Foundation, 2005. Print.
Negligent Training Essay college admissions essay help
Negligent training at the workplace is the demeanour that fails to comply with the law of safeguarding persons against harm. Generally, negligence is unintentional though the employer is held responsible for the tortuous encounters of workers. Usually, the company is assumed to have been negligent in equipping the workers with all the knowledge and skills necessary to provide a safe environment. In the court of law, the plaintiff must prove that his duty was breached and that he or she was hurt because of that breach.
An example of negligence training was In Stacy v. Truman Medical Centre in 1992 (Barnes 2001). This consolidated appeal involved two unlawful deaths that were filed after a fire occurrence in room 327. Stephen Stacy and Dale Wheeler were the two patients who died because of the fire accident. As a result, Stephen’s family filed a wrongful death suit against the medical centre and one of its nurses. Consequently, Wheeler’s family brought a related suit, and the two cases were then consolidated for investigation and trial.
On that fateful day, Cheryl Stacy, Stacy’s sister had visited him. Cheryl found Stephen smoking a cigarette under the watchful eye of one of the nurses. Stephen was not supposed to walk around due to his head injuries. Cheryl had not been advised on Stephen’s smoking restriction while inside the room.
Furthermore, they utilized a plastic soup tray to dispose tobacco ashes since no hospital staff offered to get them an approved ashtray. It was not long before a nurse came and held Stephen back with fastens to prevent him from falling off the chair. At that moment, Stephen received a lit cigarette from Cheryl and subsequently disposed it in the wastebasket instead of the soup tray. Shortly afterwards, a fire started out in the wastebasket and spread out. The room was ill equipped since there was no smoke detector.
When the nurse in charge noticed the fire, she assumed that Wheeler was not in an immediate danger, and so she decided to first untie Stacy from his chair before embarking on putting out the fire by suffocating it with a cotton sheet. When her attempts failed, she ran out and cried for help. Afterwards, she returned and tried to smother the fire.
Because of the fire, the nurse in charge and other staff members grabbed Stacy by the legs and dragged him towards the hallway. During the process, Stacy’s restrains burnt up and he fell down from the chair to the floor. The nurse attempted to get back to the room, but she was barred by the extreme smoke, heat and flames. Later, the nurse and her colleague returned to the reception to ask for reinforcement while Wheeler remained in the room.
A co-worker called Caminos got into the room with a fire extinguisher trying to save Wheeler. However, the extreme heat and smoke prevented her from rescuing him. As a result, Wheeler died in the room from smoke related complications. Several weeks later, Stacy too died because of burns related complications.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The medical centre was obliged legally to train its nurses in the appropriate performance of their task. Despite the existence of the institution’s policy on evacuation upon a fire outbreak, the nurse on duty during the occurrence of this tragedy was not appropriately trained on the relevant procedures. Thus, the nurse’s breach of duty was related with the failure to remove the patient from the room.
To reduce negligence training, as in this situation, I should conduct proper training to all staff members in our organisation. Through these trainings, staff members are enlightened on the policies and skills for a safe working environment. The risk management unit will be of great importance in developing appropriate policies and strategies for training staff on legal responsibility. Lastly, the department should conduct several seminars to educate the staff members on laws and important law decisions relevant to their jobs (Orrick 2008).
References Barnes, A. M. (2001). Health care law desk reference. Philadelphia, PA: American Law Institute-American Bar Association, Committee on Continuing Professional Education.
Orrick, W. D. (2008). Recruitment, retention, and turnover of police personnel: reliable, practical, and effective solutions. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas.
Second World War in U.S. History Research Paper scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
World War II and U.S. History
Impact of the Second World War II to the U.S.A
Importance of World War II in Americans’ History
Introduction Studies on the Second World War have yielded varied perspectives; according to Erdelja, “there is no other experience that was more crucial to the development of the U.S. and Europe in the 20th century than the Second World War” (Erdelja, 2009, p. 1). The war marked the struggle for social and political freedom for the entire world.
The consequences of the war were characterized by chaos, which broke human bonds, destroyed homes and communities, and uprooted foundations of societies. From today’s perspective, World War II was more than the series of battles and diplomatic negotiations, which are widely studied today (Royal Air Force 94).
This paper will discuss the World War II in the light of the U.S. history. The paper will describe the role that the war played in shaping the U.S. government and its policies. The lessons learned due to the U.S. engaging in the war are also highlighted.
World War II and U.S. History World War II was the most gruesome epoch ever in the U.S. history. It was characterized by struggles, deaths of many citizens, financial constrains, damaged property and many other challenges in the country. The number of deaths between 1939 and 1945 was estimated to be more than 55 million.
The war began on September 1, 1939 when Poland was invaded by Germany. It spread out to the entire world with almost 50 countries taking part in the war and men and women fighting in almost every part of the world.
After the war became rampant, Americans became divided on whether to participate or to stay out of it completely. However, their hopes and desires were for their allies to win the war while they remained calm and isolated from the war.
While some wished the U.S. could avoid the war at all costs, there was a group of interventionists that demanded the government to do all it could within its power to help the allies of U.S.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was then that the government changed its policy from being neutral on issues related to the war into being prepared through expanding its military forces and later proceeded to support its allies. The president then made the U.S. to be an arsenal supplier; the U.S. started by supplying war materials to its allies (Teachers Guide 1).
World War II was a turning point to the lives of Americans and in the history of the U.S. In 1944, the three great allies came together to invade Germany. In the pacific, the Americans drove the Japanese forces back. The devastating bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki followed in August 1945; this made Japanese government to surrender (The Choices Program 4).
Impact of the Second World War II to the U.S.A World War II had an unalterable impact on the US history and in our present life. The period was characterized by a vast number of families lost through the death of young men and women, those who became crippled, mass deportation, conflicts in cultures, religions, confusion and outright fears.
Although the war was away from United States, it had a huge impact on the American society. Undeniable, it was a gruesome time in history and the many incidences from the war presented numerous lessons to be learnt.
To start with, its leaders transformed U.S. to be an arsenal and produced vast numbers of war materials. Prior to the involvement in war, its economic sectors such as industries and agriculture had been mobilized to support factories which manufactured weapons. America’s business had become larger with its federal government expanding its power (Ayers, Gould and Oshinsky 766).
The war brought about a 10% shift of Americans to war production centers. Japanese-Americans were evicted from their homes and were incarnated to relocation centers whilst the African Americans demanded full citizenship.
More women were employed into the armed forces and in the factories which were manufacturing weapons (Ayers, Gould and Oshinsky 766). The World War II cost the U.S. approximately $304 billion. The U.S. obtained this money through deficit spending, lending and selling of war bonds. Its debt is said to have skyrocketed from $49 billion to $259 billion in 1945, which remained unsettled until 1970 (Schug 142).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Second World War in U.S. History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other challenges encountered were the concentrations of people in weapon manufacturing centers. The influx resulted to strained community resources. The overcrowding of migrants into war material producing centers made them to shelter in substandard woodsheds and in trailer parks with inadequate sanitation facilities.
This resulted to high prevalence of communicable diseases, including scabies, ringworms, and tuberculosis among others. With the concentration of people in the centers, confrontation arose. Historians have claimed that by 1943, there were almost 250 racial conflicts. Social evils were also on the rise, for example, African Americans roamed in the city attacking police and dragging white passengers off street cars. There were increased criminal activities which also led to a considerable loss of lives at the home front (Schug 142).
Families break ups were on the increase. It was estimated that approximately 3 million families separated; it was estimated that 16 families out of 1000 were separated by 1940 with the rate almost doubling to 27 in 1000 families by 1944. More so, the number of unmarried women rose from 73 per 1000 in 1939 to 93 by 1942.
There were fears of people getting into marriage as spouses were being sent to battle fields. Birth rates also increased from 2.4 million in 1939 to 3.1 million in 1943. Majority of which were described as “good bye babies”; who were conceived for family continuation incase the father died at war (Anon 1).
Another challenge was increased and rise of social immorality. Much of the immoral behavior that had become rampant was not evident during the peace times. The war period also witnessed increased opportunities for gay affairs, and same-sex relationships; gay communities in cities such as San Francisco became common.
Briefly, the war time swapped traditional gender roles where men lost their roles as bread winners in the family. During this time, women worked to feed their families at home whilst most men defended their nation away from the U.S. (Norton et al. 749). It be should be noted that there were also women who were directly involved in the battle field.
Importance of World War II in Americans’ History World War II marked a major turning point for the World history. It was one of the major events in the world that should never be repeated. This event marked the importance of teaching the future generations the impact of engaging in war and the many lessons learnt from the mistakes committed.
Knowledge of the World War II helps one to understand how the contemporary society was developed; knowledge necessary in laying the foundation for tomorrow’s generation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Second World War in U.S. History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Studying history helps the students to become good citizens and to have knowledge of the past events together with lessons learnt from the mistakes committed in the past. In learning about World War II, students understand the impacts of participating in such events. This way, graduates will perfectly suit to the U.S. society and its dynamic requirements from the citizens (World War II 4).
The significance of World War II includes the end of dictatorship ruling in Asia and Europe. America would have been surrounded by enemies had Germany and Japan won the war. More so, the era ushered in the Atomic age where peaceful use of atomic and nuclear knowledge became of importance.
Most importantly, the war brought up the need for establishing effective world organizations that would help in solving disputes between nations thereby, mitigating future wars re-occurring. This led to the formation of United Nations with the aim of resolving disputes between nations peacefully (United States History 1).
Conclusion World War II came to an end with depression in most of the most powerful nations. The war shaped the U.S. history by making it the most dominating country as most of the powerful countries had been ruined economically. The Office of scientific Research and Development led to inventions and improved commodities such as jet engines and other war materials.
The war also placed the U.S. among the most powerful nations. However, it is undeniable that World War II was the most expensive war in history. It is estimated that the cost of the war totaled $2 trillion, and the property damage was about $239 billion with the United States spending 10 times than it had spent in the World War I.
Works Cited Anon. “Virginia women and the Second World War.” Library of Virginia, 2011. Web.
Ayers Edward, Gould Lewis, and Oshinsky David. American passages: A history of the United States since 1865. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
Erdelja, Kresimir. The Second World War: Workbook 4. Teaching Modern Southern European history. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
Norton et al. A people and a nation: History of United states. Boston, MA: Cengage learning, 2011. Print.
Royal Air Force. “The Second World War 1939-45.” Royal Air Force, 2011. Web.
Schug, Mark. United States history: Eyes on the economy through 20th century. New York, NY: National Council for economic education, 1993. Print.
Teachers Guide. “The cold war.” Disney, 2000. Web.
The Choices Program. “Teachers guide for. The fog of war. An Errol Morris Film developed by the choices Program and the critical Oral History Project Watson Institute for international studies.” The Choices Program, 2004. Web.
United States History. “World War II.” United States History, 2011. Web.
World War II. “How did World War II affect people around the world?” Teacher Link, 2003. Web.
Rise of Christianity in Medieval Europe Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Christianity started humbly as a Jewish sect in Roman-dominated Palestine, but it grew to become a continental and world religion in the middle ages. Certain qualities in Christianity were responsible for this radical outcome. First, Jesus’ message represented a radical departure from traditional religions at the time.
Furthermore, the early Church remained zealous about their calling to spread the message. Several social and cultural features attracted the Gentiles to the faith. However, this growth changed dramatically in the middle ages when the Roman Catholic Church took up political responsibilities.
Jesus’ message was a ‘revolution’ during those ancient times. He claimed that he was the messiah. He added that he was the only way that Yahweh would restore the Israelites to their former glory (McManners 9). The Israelites had gone through numerous trails and tribulations. Jesus claimed that he would save them from these afflictions.
They would realize their complete liberation through him. This was something that other notable Israelites had never claimed before. Furthermore, Jesus stated that he was the son of God and that he had come to die for other people’s sins. In the past, Israelites made atonement for their sin through animal sacrifices.
However, when Jesus came, he claimed that he would save them from their sins through his death. He articulated this during the Passover feast in the temple. At the time, Jesus said that, through his death, he would do for Israel what they could not do for themselves. Jesus’ message was something akin to a revolution because it represented the presence of God among the Israelites.
Before this, God had sent other messengers to deliver information to the Jews, but this time, it was God himself who was living among the people. The Israelites believed that God manifested himself through the use of the Torah, divine wisdom, and the temple, but with Jesus’ entry, a different manifestation took effect. His work was also symptomatic of this very message.
Jesus’ message was not the only thing that caused a lot of controversy among the Jewish population. The Jews and the Romans had numerous political, social and religious reasons why they opposed this man. They thought of him as a threat to the Roman Empire. During Jesus’ death, Pilate was Judea’s ruler; he felt responsible for the maintenance of peace in this area.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the Jewish authorities wanted him dead, he felt obligated to obey their wishes in order to maintain peace. The Jewish leaders wanted to kill Jesus because he seemed to have contradicted the Ten Commandments. The first law states that the Israelites were to have no other gods other than Yahweh. The Sanhedrin had not listened to Jesus’ message well, so they assumed that he was blaspheming. The Israelites called Jesus the King of the Jews during his last years.
This made the Sanhedrin jealous because he seemed more popular than they were. Furthermore, Jesus told the Jewish people that he would destroy the temple and build a new one. When the Jewish priests heard about this, they felt threatened because they realized that their authority would not be necessary. In order to preserve their position, they needed to eliminate this person who would invalidate them. Therefore, the Jewish leaders requested the Roman authorities to kill Jesus.
After Christ’s death, the controversies did not end there; almost all quarters persecuted the early Christians. In certain instances, it was the Jews; in other scenarios, it was the Romans. The latter group had developed a distaste for Christianity owing to political and social reasons. In Romanic eyes, religion was not a separate entity from politics. They saw it as a way of preserving the sense of well being and order in the Roman Empire.
Therefore, if another part of the empire tried to separate itself from the rest of the group, then this would spark hostility from the natives. They regarded Christianity as a serious threat to the unity of the Roman Empire. The Romans regarded Christians as antisocial because they had their own customs and practices. For instance, they spoke of the love feasts as well ‘drinking Jesus’ Blood’ and eating his body.
These seemed like odd behaviors to the Romans who believed that the Jews were cannibals and immoral people. In fact, in the 2nd Century, the Romans accused Lyons martyrs of Oedipian intercourse and other orgies (Frend 7). One lawyer even stated that they had engaged in incestuous acts. Ignorance led to these misconceptions, but the Christian’s mysteriousness also contributed.
The Roman Empire experienced some problems in the fifth Century. At this time, its people believed that they were in trouble because the gods were angry at them. They blamed Christians for making these continuous changes in their lives. The Romans called the Christians atheists because they had rejected the deities of the Roman Empire. The Romans always believed that delineation from the gods was a source of bad luck, and this took effect for many years to come.
Despite the persecutions and horrific punishments, the Christian faith still spread so quickly. This occurred because Christianity was open to non Jews. In the beginning, the Christians tried to change the Jews, but it was only they after opening up to the rest of the world that they started expanding so quickly.
We will write a custom Essay on Rise of Christianity in Medieval Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Gentiles accounted for the highest number of converts at the time. Nonetheless, these groups liked certain qualities found in Christianity. First, Christians disregarded the need to follow strict dietary laws or even practice male circumcision. Consequently, the Gentiles felt that they would fit into the group rather well. The most significant feature of Christianity that caused the Gentiles to consider it was its powerful message. Christians affirmed that they had come to bring salvation to the full human race.
They did not care whether one was a servant or a master; all one needed was to believe in this God. At that time, society had various classes; consequently, the oppressed members felt that they would belong in this new faith. Christianity also grew quickly because it was not substantially different from pagan religions of the time. For example, the Egyptian goddess called Isis was quite similar to Mary because Mary was the mother of Jesus, who was also God.
Christians chose to celebrate Jesus’ birth on the 25th day of December rather than 6th January because the Christians at that time related to a pagan holiday. Many of them would join in the pagan celebrations even though they did not profess to their beliefs. Additionally, the Christians recognized the use of the rabbit and the egg during Easter. They borrowed this from another pagan practice.
Contrary to Romanic expectations, the persecutions of Christians also contributed to the spread of Christianity. Instead of shunning this religion, many followers felt that it was quite honorable to die for what one believed in. Consequently, they embraced this possibility of death by claiming that it was a way of proving their worth before God. The church’s structure had a role to play in the development of the church.
This organized structure contributed to further expansion of the religion. Lastly, Christianity grew quickly because of the missionaries involved in spreading the Gospel. In those early centuries, there was relative peace and stability. This aided the missionaries in their work because they could travel by sea to different corners of the world (McManners 44).
The Church continued to grow, and started to become massive in the middle ages. However, because the church had taken on a political dimension, it started departing from the original teaching of the messiah. From as early as five hundred and ninety BC, the Roman Catholic Church declared the Pope as the servant of servants.
Submission to the Pope was imperative for salvation. When one opposed the ruling of the Roman Catholic Church, then that person would be excommunicated. Furthermore, they claimed that one would lose one’s soul. The Church started loosing its belief in salvation by faith in Jesus.
From 14C AD, the Roman Catholic Church disregarded Augustinian teachings and embraced the Pelagius teaching. One would gain salvation through submission to the church and external obedience. The concept of living a faith-based life was not significant. Issues of sainthood came up; they claimed that one could reach sinless perfection through continual reception of grace.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise of Christianity in Medieval Europe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If one had not reached this level of perfection upon death, then one would go to purgatory. Some individuals even started to worship the saints as they acted as mediators between man and God. However, this differed from Christ’s teaching because Christ talked about justification; He died in order to justify believers by faith rather than sanctify them. The clergy became extremely powerful at the time. In addition, the Church introduced indulgences where priests would offer their services for sale.
For instance, when one committed incest, one would pay five goats. They even had prices for murder, burglary, and deceit. All these activities contradicted the message of free salvation and forgiveness of sin as taught by Christ. The Roman Church controlled philosophies, morals, education, politics and religion itself. The middle ages were a dark time for Christianity because the faithful forgot fundamental Christian doctrines.
The Christian faith is one of the most resilient churches in the world. It started with Jesus’ rejection and death; thereafter, the Romans persecuted the early Christians. However, its unique message drew the Gentiles to the church and accounted for its quick spread. The middle ages epitomized the distortion of the Christian message through excessive corruption of Christian doctrines by the Roman Catholic Church.
Works Cited Frend, WIlliam. “Persecution in the Early Church.” Christian history, 27.3(2000): 7
McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Madrid: OUP, 1999. Print.
Gender Studies: Gender Stereotypes Qualitative Research Essay scholarship essay help
Gender roles are likely to make people develop various stereotypes. For example, there are roles that are uniquely and separately designated for males and females. On the same note, masculinity refers to physical characteristics of a man, and therefore, if a female has masculine features, she may be perceived indifferently in society. This explains why the media has a tendency of branding people with masculine features to be gays or homosexuals. In most cases, the print media and radios do not have capacities to stereotype people.
However, televisions and movies have highly been used to categorize people as gay, feminine or muscular in a negative manner. The media has for a long time been associated with creation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) themes. Meem, Mitchell and Jonathan (2010) observe that the study of LGBT is important because it enlightens people on how society has become dynamic.
The media has also been perceived as the center where negative perceptions about this group of people are created. As a result, there are numerous stereotypes associated with this category of people in the modern society. Out of the many categories of media broadcasts, television and movies are widely known to reinforce negative perceptions on people who belong to LGBT category.
Stereotyping people can be harmful because it can transform slight assumptions on people to perceived realities (Meem, Mitchell
Marxism will not return as a major ideology in the 21st century Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A brief overview of Marxism
Critiques of Marxism
Introduction During the 19th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels developed a world view theory referred to as Marxism (Player 165). So far, this theory has been severally reviewed by other scholars and political philosophers who have offered their own perspectives. Some of the inherent perspectives that have been developed to date include eco-socialism, Marxist humanism, feminism and Christian Marxism.
As a theory, Marxism has four main elements that are closely related and which may largely assist towards understanding how society transformed as well as evolved over the years especially among the capitalist economies. As a matter of fact, some of the elements of change that have characterized transformation in society include materialistic approach to history, social class divisions, dialectical approach to historical changes and commitment to socialism (Player 166).
It is also imperative to underscore the fact that during the very 19th century period, Marxism was adopted as the main ideology in running the communist’s governments that were spreading all over the world. Initially, the ideology was first introduced in Canada by the British intellectuals and as a result, it ended up dominating the ideals and major principles of the socialist parties in the country (Player 165).
However, it is evident that Marxism began to stagnate in the 20th century due to several interconnected reasons. We may also not ignore to mention that since Marxism theories have been critiqued by scholars, certain pieces of opinions have also developed which tend to assert that these theories may not be suitable in the 21st century (Hundelson 259). This paper explores some of the theories on Marxism and argues that the latter may not be suitable or applicable in the 21st century.
A brief overview of Marxism It is apparent that, in order to understand why Marxism is not suitable as a major ideology in the 21st century, it is important to have an overview of what the theory is all about. It is also worthy to mention that, the proponents of Marxism targeted to fight self- emancipations that existed among the working class people. In a more subjective manner, it also aimed at eliminating any form of domination of the bourgeoisies against the poor in society.
As a result, Marxism gradually progressed and came up with movements that fought against all forms of domination by virtue of gender, race and social class. According to the Marxists’ view, the only way of decimating manifold domination and exploitation was through liberating the working lass from being oppressed by rich employers. In the process, Marxism gave birth to a socialism movement that was destined to eradicate all forms of institutional sadism.
Meanwhile, in the process of destroying the concentration of power among specific classes of people in society, Marxism aimed to empower and strengthen workers’ movements (Row thorn 26). Karl Marx and Friedrich had already realized that workers freedom was greatly limited by the wealthy elites (Keynes 9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, they proposed to enhance it by expanding the capacity of collective action thus increasing possibilities for individual intensification within the society. Karl Marx argued that workers freedom could not be enhanced by limiting their autonomy but rather facilitating individual participation in the economy (Rowthorn 26). In this case, the freedom was to be achieved by use of a theoretical approach.
In addition to this, Marxism applied practical critiques through political actions (Hundelson 261). Therefore, the theorist mobilized masses of people to oppose certain manifold dominations. However, since Marxism had different faces, there were no specifically set principles in the sense that no face could embody any historic achievement in the entire process. In this case, the movement and its integral concerns adopted the name of its key proponent namely Karl Marx.
Meanwhile, irrespective of the many contributions of Marxism’s, the movement has several shortcomings. Criticisms of the movement have originated from a political point of view. In other words, democratic socialists declined to accept the views of Marxism on the issue of socialism (Rowthorn 34). According to Karl Marx, socialism could only be achieved through class conflict and grassroots, revolution.
Contemporarily, there are very few supporters of Marxist ideology as opposed to other movements such as liberalism and democracy. Moreover, the basic fundamentals of Marxism that have been criticized by thinkers creating a negative illusion in peoples mind (Sowell 112).That not withstanding, it is imperative to understand why the theory was highly criticized as a major ideology of the century.
Critiques of Marxism Considering the intellectual basis of Marxism, one of the main fundamentals was on historical materialism. According to Karl Marx, advancement in technology and modes of productions impact a change on the social relations (Keynes 8). However, this view has some limitations because it fails to consider the superstructure of the society. Such factors include ethnicity, culture, religion and political views.
According to this view, Karl Marx tends to overlook both the real and perceived causes of economic underdevelopment. With Marxism, there is a general perception that material factors such as technology are the main causes of economic decline. He bases economic development on law, politics, morality and religion.
According to Marxist critics, Karl Marx oversimplified nature of the society on their impact on economic development (Rowthorn 26). The controversy here is that, the theory does not bring out clearly whether it is the material factor or the superstructure of the society that influence development. Furthermore, thinkers have argued that though Marxism theory is testable there is lot of falsified facts.
We will write a custom Essay on Marxism will not return as a major ideology in the 21st century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is arguable that the issue of historical materialism is very narrow to act as a pedestal for indulging the complexity and numerous power structures. In this case, there is a conventional twist that rules out the scientific status of Marxism. In the 21st century, we need a theory that will emphasize on the possible factors that are responsible in enhancing development (Player 165).
It is also vivid that Marxism does not put into consideration the role and effect of governments on the capitalist system of production. Karl Marx asserts that economic investors and businessmen need monopoly over their businesses (Rowthorn 43).
While the latter approach towards economic empowerment sounds awesome, Marxists did not consider that capitalism can collapse the very economy it defends and that exclusive monopoly could result to social revolution. Instead, Karl Marx perceived capitalistic monopoly as, an inherent tendency towards to overcome fiscal and ecological crises (Keynes 7).
Moreover, he perceived that capitalist system would eradicate poverty, unemployment, disparity, disaffection and environmental destruction once every individual was given an opportunity to participate in production. Karl Marx fails to understand that, capitalist system can not collapse on its own but as a result of resource depression (Hundelson 264). However, it is evident that when businesses monopolize the market forces it can be dangerous and this requires the government to regulate the market forces.
Failure to regulate investments results to capitalism system reaching its final stage. Optimum trust and monopoly in businesses affect the regular and natural mode in which the economy is run by the government (Sowell 117). In another words, total monopoly eradicate government regulation through unionization and legislations. Predictably, thinkers argue that such a state can result to economic collapse in a country.
In this case, if the theory is applicable in the 21st century, there is n way we can overcome problems associated with monopolistic nature of the current investments (Sowell 120).
Additionally, Marxism theory assumes that there are other factors other than the economy that that drives history (Keynes 12). According to some thinkers, considering economy as the only drive for history may be quite a narrow and oversimplified way of revisiting such a theory.
Needless to say, economy as a factor cannot be used to explain the history of civilization (Sowell 118). Thinkers feel that, in order to understand civilization, we need to use superstructures of a particular society in order to examine the struggles and achievements up to the contemporary period (Keynes 8).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marxism will not return as a major ideology in the 21st century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, though Karl Marx figures out human superstructure as source of underdevelopment, it is vivid that, in as much as man needs freedom he requires a bit of barbarism such as tribalism and racism. This helps him to explore himselves and finally establishes his identity. This implies that, to some extent conflict is inevitable and thus important in shaping man’s destiny.
In one way or the other, conflict triggered competition, responsibility and increased human experience. Due to this reason, anarchists feel that, 21st century deserves a more realistic theory that will put into account the idea of self-realization. Finally, thinkers and scholars perceive that Marxism is vulnerable to corruption by the fact that all the means of productions are at the hands of private citizens (Sowell 112).
As mentioned earlier, the fact that Karl Marx assumed the role of government in regulating production, the effects is that there will be no revenues to run a state. Lack of strict regulation of wealth by the government will deprive the state from getting funds obtained from taxes (Govind 75). This also gives people the freedom to conduct businesses on their own means and thus some wealth might be created through unethical strategies.
In this case, anarchists find this theory unsuitable since it will bring revolutions that have the exact nature of those that they are struggling to overthrow. Considerably, Marxism creates ample conditions for the socialists who destruct the normal nature of a state (Keynes 18). This implies that, the anarchist campaign against Marxism reduces its chances to return as a major ideology in the 21st century.
Conclusion To recap it all, it is factual that Marxism is outdated and can hardly stand as a major ideology in the progressive and dynamic 21st century socio-political and economic life. Although Karl Marx’s theory appears consistent, the assumptions are extremely disputed. This has been attributed by the complex errors and ambiguities identified when the theory was being analyzed by scholars.
Furthermore, Marxism has failed to provide an accurate theoretical framework that can rescue the world states from capitalist totalitarianism. Indeed, even the existing framework lacks coherence and means of accessibility especially among developing countries. Proactively, the 21st century era demands a theory that is independent of religious and close-minded fanatics.
Works Cited Govind, Rahul. Equality, Right, and Identity: Rethinking the Contract through Hobbes and Marx. Telos, 1.154 (2011): 75.
Hundelson, Richard . Popper’s Critique of Marx. Philosophical Studies 37 (1980) 259- 70.
Keynes, Anderson. Not Just Capital and Class: Marx on Non-Western Societies, Nationalism and Ethnicity. Socialism and Democracy, 24.3 (2010): 7-23.
Player, Job. On Marx: An Introduction to the Revolutionary Intellect of Karl Marx. Capital
Major Challenges, Solutions and Future Prospects for Singapore Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Challenges Facing Singapore
Solutions and Future Prospects for Singapore
In the final decades of the twentieth century, Singapore has faired extremely well. It grew from an entrepot centre to an industrialized state and global city (Amaldas 985). It tackled most matters related to underdevelopment and had constructed the required institutions to organize its continued existence in the twenty-first century. This paper discusses the main challenges, the solutions and the future prospects for this small nation.
Challenges Facing Singapore The regular oscillation amid being locally specific and globally open has resulted to the Singapore absurdity (Hirst and Thompson 37). The protectorate enjoys its rank as a globalized nation, yet it frequently acquires disapproval from global human rights organizations for its persistence on practicing its personal politics, whereby infringement of some civil freedoms in sight of local multi-religious and multiethnic authenticities takes place.
The application of discriminatory globalization articulates the need to stay globally linked for the benefit of state survival, and the need to preserve certain concepts of conservatism and convention, which defend definite overriding interests.
The PAP administration carries out discriminatory globalization. It is too open to fiscal globalization, thus closing its doors to open-minded democratic procedures and institutions. The administration has thrived in settling global forces and has arbitrated the exterior pressures and demands on the local. A number of actions in 2005 put forward that this conciliation and arbitration may have implications for its global city aspirations.
In 2005, the administration of Singapore denied ‘Fridae. Com’ a gay entrance, the entertainment authorization to hold its yearly Nation Party (Amaldas 986). The group reacted by transferring its yearly party to Phuket. For a regime that admits that there exist homosexuals in the government, the warrant removal seemed like stride backwards. The pull-out by this group might have pacified the mainstream of conformist Singaporeans, although it does small to explain to the global society that the city-state is culturally thrilling.
Another incidence was Warwick University’s resolution not to establish a university in Singapore (Amaldas 986). Following months of reflection and viability studies, the campus rejected the offer, citing its apprehension over both fiscal costs and the deficiency of academic liberty on the island.
As usual, it was the second concern that persisted in the captions. Whether exaggerated or not, the professed short of academic liberty has had fiscal costs for Singapore. This is the first incidence whereby a prospective investor has openly quoted Singapore’s popular outer OB-markers, its stress on non stimulating academic analysis, and the regime’s bigotry for opposition, as rationales for rejecting the offer. The effects of this on the city-state’s learning hub aspirations will only unfurl later.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The verity that Singapore’s continued existence as a nation-state relies on its position as a global city implies that the regime has few options but to change gears amid the global and the national, during policy formulation, thus forcing it to convey mixed gestures to the global society.
While Singapore vigorously attempts to arbitrate globalization’s consequence s, for instance, terrorism and unemployment, the PAP regime has as well made brave strides towards inaugurating the city-state. PM Lee’s 18 April declaration that two casinos, both integrated in the vast “Integrated Resorts” (IRs), were to be constructed by 2009 was a key discussion point of 2005 (Amaldas 989).
Other areas of social pressure in Singapore concern a broadening income gap and structural unemployment in the globalized market. These consequences of globalization are regular in most industrialized nations. It is commonly acknowledged that globalization is advantageous for the elite, whereas forming income gaps among them, the lowest paid and the middle class in the public.
In the past, development and globalization elevated the standards of living for most Singaporeans and offered packed employments. If additional globalization speeds up unemployment and income discrepancies for several people, such tendencies will necessitate political concentration and the construction of suitable policy reactions.
Solutions and Future Prospects for Singapore Being a state that carries out regular elections after every five years, Singapore has a body of voters that require answers from the government.
So as, to act in response to the voting public, Singapore government assumed two actions to counter the undesirable consequences of globalization. These incorporated the restructuring of education and measures to lessen the consequences of declining incomes and joblessness.
Singapore’s education has shifted in the precedent few years from the traditional curriculum, to new basics (Velayutham 15). Possibly, the most prominent of these basics is critical and creative thinking. The regime budgets of the catastrophe years and later have acknowledged the new significance of education with amplified financial support.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Major Challenges, Solutions and Future Prospects for Singapore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As several adult education program goes round attempting to introduce the old cohorts into the globe of Internet and computers, the government directs a prime and much productive endeavor into the education structure. A slogan was invented, by the regime, to mirror this hub; “Thinking Schools, Learning Nation” (Amaldas 987).
While some may question if it ought not to be the opposite, the administration is eager to build learning schools, which is possibly a customary way of view of schools, into thinking schools, which is what various people have condemned Singapore schools of lacking. Singapore has assumed sustainable and precise measures to support the education structure, in order to counter the problems of the novel century. The Ministry of Education (MOE) drew a master plan for IT in Education, in 1997 (Mahizhnan 98).
This plan establishes the aims and targets for schools. The aims encompass lifetime learning, promoting creative thinking and public accountability. The targets comprise finishing basic computer instruction for teachers in all learning institutions by 2000 and attaining a 1:2 ratio between computers in institutions of learning and learners with a third of curriculum time dedicated to IT-related education by 2002 (Amaldas 987). Information technology acts as a channel, to enlarge and improve the learning course.
At present, school children are regularly taking projects that require browsing the internet and searching for content that is not obtainable in Singapore. The learners are as well exposed to diverse, technological potentials in collecting and presenting this content in unique ways.
In the course, they are not merely learning diverse things, but as well learning things in a different way. Virtual classrooms have as well been set up, whereby learners can stay at home, but the link with their colleagues in cyberspace with the instructor teaching lessons via the computer, or an ingenious tool known as Edupad.
A number of libraries are digitizing their anthologies in order to produce virtual books that can be obtained at any time and from anyplace. All these appear to add to the children’s capacity to learn autonomously, to think productively, and even to collaborate fruitfully. These are features that any smart Island would deem fundamentals.
Outside the formal education schools and segments, employee promotion and the education of new techniques, together with the small and medium-sized ventures, have obtained much weight. Systems to assist achieve this consist of Lifelong Learning Endowment Fund and Manpower Development Assistance Schemes.
Administration may assume a range of forms including public deliberations, guaranteeing parity in education and other openings and utilization of subsidies, the degree of relocation being a gathering of economic essentials, political force and phase of growth. However, for the outcomes of economic development to be international, there should be systems for conveying gains all over the economy and particularly to the underprivileged.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Challenges, Solutions and Future Prospects for Singapore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the deprived have their labor to trade, economic development can simply reach them if it augments the order for their labor or offer matching participation that makes their efforts industrious. The government of Singapore pursued the twin resolution of upholding a sustainable economic enlargement while balancing it with a sound strategy to deal with disparity.
The public housing improvement plan and Education policy are employed to get the earning power of the people and improve their wealth property in the shape of material goods (Velayutham 15). These aim at the low and middle income sets of the residents living in civic housing since the higher income faction living in confidential bungalows and apartments are professed as having succeeded on their own aptitude.
The upgrading programs for houses aim at the aged HDB flats that symbolize the greater percentage of the minor income people. In 2001, Singapore residents were given the initial disbursement of the CPF Top-up (Amaldas 988). This was a concrete way of distributing the state’s success with the residents, and was planned to provide to those in the minor income clusters. Endeavors to assist pensioners, to some extent, and for the health care of the aged and deprived were also reinforced.
In Singapore, There has been an increasing consciousness that the imperative of attempting to enter the novel economy and change Singapore — with inventive and critically conscious workers and population, substantial socioeconomic modification and alteration, and a broadening revenue gap – have political and communal connotations (Amaldas 1001). Education, immigration, and public aid policies have hence become extremely prominent, setting novel guidelines, and getting more financial support.
The regime also established the Work Force Development Agency (WDA), to boost and aid the employability of susceptible people in the nation.
The purpose of WDA is to support the employability and boost the significance of local personnel through training and re-tooling (Amaldas 989). In January 2006, a Ministerial Committee on small wage personnel declared the Workfare Approach to back the small wage personnel in the market, in order to deal with the broadening gap amid trained and untrained personnel.
To realize these objectives, a $1 billion Workfare parcel was endorsed by the administration (Amaldas 988). The main element of the Workfare additional benefit is for the self-employed or employed local employee to have, as a minimum, six months of constant service and receive average monthly earnings of $1,500.
While the Singapore financial system shifts into higher value added products, attributable to globalization, the broadening income gap amid its residents becomes a chief political concern (Terence 13). The speed of buildup of human capital via training and education requires keeping pace with the increasing order for skilled personnel as the nation rises to a high value-added production makeup.
This will augment the income of skilled personnel in proportion to low skilled employees and amplify the earnings disparity and susceptibility of local employees to the global tendencies. This implies that education only would be insufficient to control income disparity in prospect. Singapore might as well require added social welfare plans to balance the broadening economic gap and economic development.
In conclusion, Singapore global/nation city is a superb material and symbolic power. It presents the communal hope of identity, belonging, affluence, openings and enthusiasm for its nation. The nurturing of hope is essential in the situation of Singapore where reservations triumph.
The protectorate enjoys its rank as a globalized nation, yet it frequently acquires disapproval from global human rights organizations for its persistence on practicing its personal politics, whereby infringement of civil freedoms occurs in sight of local multi-religious and multiethnic authenticities.
The verity that Singapore’s continued existence as a nation-state relies on its position as a global city implies that the regime has few options but to change gears amid the global and the national, during policy formulation, thus forcing it to convey mixed gestures to the global society.
Other areas of social pressure in Singapore concern a broadening income gap and structural unemployment in the globalized market. So as, to address these issues, education in Singapore has shifted in the precedent few years from the traditional curriculum, to new basics.
Possibly, the most prominent of these basics is critical and creative thinking. The regime also established the Work Force Development Agency (WDA), to boost and aid the employability of susceptible people in the nation. The purpose of WDA is to support the employability and boost the significance of local personnel through training and re-tooling.
Works Cited Amaldas, Marystella. The Management of Globalization in Singapore: Twentieth Century Lessons for the Early Decades of the New Century. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences 3 (2009): 982-1002
Hirst, Paul and Thompson, Grahame. Globalization in question. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995
Mahizhnan, Arun. Singapore: Information Technology for an Intelligent Island, Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute of Southeast, 2000 Asian Studies.
Terence, Chong. Singapore: Globalizing on Its Own Terms. Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006
Velayutham, Selvaraj. Responding to Globalization: Nation, Culture and Identity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007
What is a Language Essay college admissions essay help
Neil Smith and Deirdre Wilson of University College in London focused on one of the fundamental ideas of contemporary linguistics concerning language as a rule-governed system. To say that a language is rule-governed is like also saying that it can be described in terms of a grammar.
Therefore, the grammar of a language is a description of the rules of the language, rules of a kind that human beings are innately disposed to learn .These rules differentiate grammatical from ungrammatical sentences and provide explicit descriptions of grammatical sentences, including their meaning and pronunciation. Although everyone has his or her unique grammar, all grammars have some things in common because of genetic constraints on the kinds of grammars and hence languages that human beings can learn.
Languages change in time when it comes to comparing language with other evolutionary systems therefore, organic and inorganic might also be pursued. While all of these approaches have undoubted appeal, there is an obvious logical point to be made and that is one must be able to describe a language, at least in part, before going on to compare it with other systems.
It is easy to see that speakers of a language often behave as if their language were rule-governed. Fluent speakers may however make mistakes in speaking, and when they do, they have no hesitation in correcting themselves. It is however also possible for a speaker to feel that others around him are making mistakes although his willingness to correct them will, in many cases, be tempered by considerations of politeness (Finegan 89).
A speaker who is willing to correct himself and others gives evidence that there is, for him, a right and a wrong way of saying things. However, it does not necessarily follow that in making these corrections he is applying a set of linguistic rules. He might, for example, be following a set of linguistic conventions, or habits, or customs, which he dislikes seeing disrupted.
So far, this may have seemed to imply that a grammar simply provides a means of registering and correcting mistakes. But the copy-editing function is an important one; however grammars are also concerned with the description of sentences which contain no mistakes at all.
However, one’s ability to understand a sentence does not depend on custom, convention or habit, all of which would imply that repeated encounters with a sentence would be necessary before its correct interpretation could be established.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Neither the ability to note a sentence as grammatical, nor the ability to produce or understand it seems to depend on prior encounters in this way. Conventions are also social constructs that takes two people to establish and operate a system of conventions. The rule-systems however, could easily be constructed and operated by a single individual.
When it comes to children, learning their first language, seem to be constructing their own rules but they get them wrong because they produce utterances that are ungrammatical from the adult point of view.
However, the number of verbs with an irregular past tense, and nouns with exceptional plurals, is rather small resulting in overgeneralization, invention of rules, on the basis of extremely limited data. Divergences between rule-systems are not just found in the cases of children who are still learning their language.
Fluent adults may find idiosyncrasies in their own language of which the most common are pronunciation and vocabulary. It has therefore been proved that no two adults possess exactly the same set of vocabulary items, pronounced in exactly the same way. This is however even true when it comes to syntactic rules (Fromkin 142).
A more extreme instance of adult idiosyncrasy in speech is noticed when it comes to people who have had a stroke, or have otherwise suffered damage to the brain resulting to speech loss or aphasia. The best definition of criterion of aphasia is that the rules normally characteristic of speech have broken down, leading the patient to produce utterances which depending on the severity of his case and the number and type of rules involved, may be inappropriate.
We have however been assuming that speakers of a language actually know the grammars which they use in producing and understanding sentences, correcting mistakes and so on. However, this assumption that speakers know grammars usually expressed as a claim that grammars are psychologically real pervades the whole of modern linguistic theory.
Conclusion Learning a language as we have seen is equated with learning a grammar when knowing a language is equated to knowing a grammar. Linguistic differences between speakers are analyzed as differences in their grammars.
We will write a custom Essay on What is a Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Finegan Edward. Language: Its Structure and Use. New York, NY: Cengage Learning. 2011. Print
Fromkin Victoria. An Introduction to Language. Boston, MA: Harcourt Publishers Group. 2011. Print
Cultural, Legal, Economic and Political aspects of doing Business in China Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Over the last few years, China’s reputation as a global business hotspot has greatly increased. Large and medium businesses have expanded their capital involvement in China to have a share of its lucrative market.
This rush for China’s market can be attributed to steady economic growth, favorable business environment, relatively low production costs, and sound economic policies. What exactly are businesses operating in China faced with legally, economically, politically, and culturally? What are the requirements for investing in China?
Economic aspects of doing business in china The Chinese government embarked on economic reform program in 1978. This program was to ease years of state control of major productive assets. The program aimed at liberalizing foreign trade activities and investment, relaxing of price control on products, encouraging and facilitating education of its work force, and investment on industrial production (Bramall 364).
This strategy seems to have worked considering China’s current economic growth. After the launch of the ambitious program, China’s real economic growth shot to an average of 9 percent as compared to the 6 percent before 1978. In most of the peak years after 1978, the growth actually reached 13 percent (Bramall 366). It is not only China’s economy that has greatly improved, but also her capita income, which has almost quadrupled.
The growth has thus seen improvements in infrastructure development and provision of social amenities, which has attracted many investors in the region. However, operations of many business establishments in the region face many economic challenges, which if not considered may throw them out of business. The economic factors that influence business operations are Foreign Direct Investment, Inflation Rates, Infrastructure, and Currency
Boston Beer Company Qualitative Research Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Boston Beer Company was established by Jim Koch in 1984. The headquarters of the company are located in Massachusetts, and approximately 780 people are employed at the company. The company uses traditional methods to brew the best quality natural beer. Boston Beer manufactures beverages with low alcohol content and has concentrated on the US market.
Samuel Adams is one of the brands of the company, which is brewed using the traditional methods. This brand has captured a great portion of the American market. In the financial year 2009, the company made $415.1 profits. The profits have been increasing over the years due to the increasing demand for the products of the company (Grant, 2009).
Porter’s five forces analysis Bargaining power of consumers
There is low bargaining power of consumers because there are large consumers who can influence the prices offered in the market. This has been caused by existence of many customers in the market. In addition, most customers buy in small scale.
Therefore, there is no single customer with absolute control over the marketing decisions that are made by the company. in addition, the geographical spread of various consumer groups does not give customers the power to control the pricing decisions of the company. However, with the increase in number of retail outlets such as Wal-Mart who can buy in large quantities, the bargaining power is increasing. The producers use the forces of demand and supply to price their products (Schmitt, 2011).
Bargaining power of suppliers
The bargaining power of suppliers is low. There is no unique supplier. Raw materials are easily accessible, and this makes it impossible to have monopoly in the supply of supplies. Suppliers are many and there is no single supplier with ultimate control in the market. However, in the last one decade a scenario where suppliers are reducing in numbers has been experienced. For example, suppliers of hops and grains have declined drastically in numbers. This has provided suppliers with more power to control the pricing strategy of the company (Schmitt, 2011).
Rivalry among competitors
Rivalry among competitors is very high. There are many companies in the beverages industry, and this is causing high competition among the existing firms. In addition, the products in the industry are not differentiable. The industry has reached its final growth stages, and this is making it impossible to introduce new differentiated products.
Companies in the industry have differentiated their products and this has increased the level of competition. Beers and breweries have been differentiated to attract the attention of many customers in the market. For instance, craft brewing has seen only an increase in volume and sales over the past 20 years. This has increased rivalry among existing companies in the market (Schmitt, 2011). The graphs below show an increase in competition in the industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Source: Brewers Association (2011)
Threat of substitutes
There are many substitutes in the industry, and this increases threat from substitute products. There are many alternatives to beer, such as wine, sprits and liquors. Apart from the alcoholic beverages, consumers can drink coffee, tea, and other non-alcoholic beverages. The number of beverages is increasing in the market ands this makes it possible for consumers to shift from one brand to another.
Even though brand loyalty has effect on the kind of beverage consumed, brand shifting is high in the industry. Consumers are ready to accept new brands in the market, and this makes it possible to shift to new brands. Brand shifting is not costly, and consumers find it possible to use other brands without incurring any costs (Schmitt, 2011).
Threat of new entrants
Due to the attractiveness of the industry, many new companies are being established in the industry. According to Brewers Association (2011) “growth of the craft brewing industry in 2010 was 11% by volume and 12% by dollars compared to growth in 2009 of 7.2% by volume and 10.3% by dollars” (p.1).
This has increased the number of new entrants for the last decade. Many investors prefer to invest in this industry because there are many consumers. Even though the initial capital is high, there are many people willing to take the risk of investing in the industry. Few restrictions and barriers of entry have been placed in the industry, and this makes it possible to penetrate the industry (Schmitt, 2011).
Market Analysis Demographic Trends
There is a shift in the demographic trends in the market such that the young, middle aged and the old are consuming crafted beer. Consumers in the market are interested in getting quality beer more than the price. With change in culture, many young generations are consuming alcoholic drinks. This has increased the consumers of beer products in the market (Schmitt, 2011).
The number of beer consumers is increasing due to change in social and cultural structures. People have more leisure time to spend their income on leisure products. The consumers have higher expectations on the products in the market. The middle class income groups have excessive concern for foods and drinks. Most of the customers have higher interest on products with natural ingredients. In addition beers brewed naturally and traditionally are more preferred by consumers (Stevens, 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on Boston Beer Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Development in technology
With improvement on technologies, mass production of craft beers is possible. This has made is easy to export craft beers, rather than producing for local or regional consumers. Technology has also developed in the marketing strategies. An example is the e-marketing where companies can access the global markets. This has made it easier for companies to access foreign markets, and to communicate with customers (Remmé, 2008).
With the changes in macroeconomic environments, larger companies in the industry are buying smaller companies. Large companies have the advantage of economies of scale, and this makes them competitive in the market. This has made it impossible for small companies to survive. The global financial crisis that happened in 2008 affected the economies of many countries. There is a decline in the market for most (Schmitt, 2011).
Political and legal pressures
The abuse of alcohol beverages has been criticized by most governments. This has caused increase in taxes on alcoholic products. The laws governing the sale as well as distribution of alcoholic products have been toughened. Various interest groups have called for decrease in beer consumption. For example, MADD advocates that drivers should have low blood alcohol content. Heavy punishments as well as fines have been imposed for those who drive while drunk (Stevens, 2008).
Strategy Formulation The Boston Beers Company should penetrate the global market. The company operates only in the US craft beer market. There is need to adopt the strategy of extending its operations to other countries. This strategy will increase the market share of the company. In addition, the company will be able to increase its sales abroad. This strategy will require the company to expand its operations so that it can serve the larger market (Remmé, 2008).
The cons for this strategy are that the company will incur more costs in establishing itself in foreign countries, and rivalry among competitors may be high. Since there is high competition in the global markets, there is potential that the company will encounter stiff competition which makes it impossible to penetrate such markets. Another disadvantage is that various countries have imposed strict laws on alcoholic drinks. This is limiting many companies from entering and operating in such countries (Schmitt, 2011).
By penetrating in other countries, the company will be required to produce in large quantities. Mass production will provide the company with economies of scale. This will make it possible to manufacture a unit of any product at a lower cost. Therefore, the company will be able to offer its products at lower prices both locally and globally (The Boston Beer Company, Inc., 2011). The graph below shows that the global the potential to absorb more firms
Source: Krin Holdings (2011).
Conclusion Boston Beer Company has been operating in the industry for a long time, and has focused on offering customers with high quality beer. The company operates in the US market only. The beer industry has more potential and the management of the company should consider expanding its operations to global markets. The company should consider penetrating into the global markets to expand its operations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Boston Beer Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Brewers Association, (2011). Number of breweries. Web.
Grant, T. (2009). International directory of company histories: Volume 100. Detroit, Mich: St. James Press.
Krin Holdings, (2011). Per Capita Beer Consumption by Country (2004). Web.
Remmé, J. (2008). Leadership, change and responsibility. Oxford: Meyer
Apollonian and Dionysian Essay essay help online
In life, very form of art comes with a force behind it. People practicing different form of art possess different characteristics. Art is also created in a manner that is able to influence a person’s personality. Through the way art is expressed, people have a way of understand the thoughts of the author as well as understanding the message the author was trying to communicate.
There is a deep attachment between in the way people attach themselves to the pessimism of life. Different people will have different opinions but it is important to note that most people will become pessimistic about life which is followed by a renunciation. Nihilism has been cited as a major cause for this attribute.
As proposed by Nietzsche, there is a great connection that exists between the general feeling or mood of despair and the discovery that there are no rules and laws governing existence. ( Mistry 99). One of the major characteristics of this mood is the perception of pointlessness of existence. In analyzing Apollo and Dionysus, Nietzsche found out that art emerged as a result of the emergence of tragedy.
According to Nietzsche, tragedy inspired the creation and development of art through the aesthetic element in man. It is important to note that art is inspired by tragedy and other occurrences. ( Klein 28) Through the things people undergo, they are able to develop the artistic element found inside them. The two sons of Zeus have attributes that make them rivals and this has been the foundation of art since ancient Greece.
According to the analysis conducted by Nietzsche on Apollo and Dionysus, there are two separate bodies that influence the art. Apollo represented a specific element whereas Dionysus represented a separate body. Understanding the Apollonian and Dionysian mythology is important in the analysis of the art concepts contained therein.
Generally, the Apollonian and Dionysian is literate concept which is philosophical in nature and contained a number of features attached to the ancient Greek mythology. The Apollonian and Dionysian philosophy has been analyzed by different artists and philosophers. They have sought to establish the connection that this Greek mythology contains with regards to art and philosophy. Most of the western philosophical figures have been known to invoke this mythology in their creative and critical works.
To better understand the connection that exists between Apollo and Dionysus, it is important to look at the history of Apollo and Dionysus. The two were sons of Zeus. Apollo is commonly referred to as the god of the sun whereas Dionysus is commonly known as the god of ecstasy, intoxication, and wine. Although the two are considered to be rivals by the ancient Greek philosophers, they are brought together by Parnassus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There have been several legends that have brought Apollo and Dionysus together. The mythical home of all form of art and poetry is one of the major connections that have been set up to bring together Apollo and Dionysus. According to the Greek mythology, Parnassus is known to be the home of all form of poetry and art. (Homer and Evelyn-White 13)
According to Nietzsche, the two sons of Zeus fused to create a form of art that is dramatic or tragic in nature. In his analysis, Nietzsche presented a form of art that transcended meaningless in the world. This form of art was unique as it looked beyond nihilism and pessimism. It analyzed the relationship that existed between nihilism, pessimism, and the overall perception of a meaningless world. This is known as the classical Athenian tragedy. This form of art was created and developed in Greece.
It is also known as the ancient Greek drama or theatre of ancient Greece. It soon developed and became a culture in ancient Greece and other parts around Greece. A festival was set up to honor Dionysus and it was named after this son of Zeus. The festival was characterized by comedy and drama. This culture was so influential that the western theatre has been known to have its roots here (Graf).
Different attributes are brought up with regards to the analysis on Apollo and Dionysus. Apollo is considered to be the god of music, poetry, and lightness. Dionysus is known as a god of ecstasy, wine, and intoxication. There analysis between Apollo and Dionysus is different when it comes to the ancient arts and modern arts. Modern artists analyze the two with regards to light, darkness, individualism, wholeness, primal nature, and civilizations.
The two are considered to be total opposites and this has influenced the modern day art. These themes have been well explored by Nietzsche in The Birth of Tragedy. In Nietzsche’s analysis, the philologist introduces life as a struggle between the attribute set forth by Apollo and Dionysus.
He goes on to state that the two sons of Zeus, Apollo and Dionysus were in constant battle and this was exhibited in the lives of human beings. The two are considered to be constantly fighting for the souls of men on earth. Whenever one of the gods prevailed the other was being destroyed. They were in constant battle for the supremacy over the control of human souls (Wood 20).
In the war between the two sons of Zeus, it is important to note that there has never been a winner. Each of the gods possesses the ability or the power to contain the other in a form of natural check. This creates a balance in the war that continues to rage on until this day (Shlain 77).
We will write a custom Essay on Apollonian and Dionysian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Attributes about the war are important in the expression of different messages through art. Through the wars, different artists have been able to express forms of art that would have been difficult to express through any other means. The classification of art is done through analyzing the extent to which different forms of art express the elements of the sons of Zeus.
Under this type of classification, the highest form or classification of art has been listed as the tragedy of Ancient Greece. (Rowell 5). This is due to the fact that the tragedy of Ancient Greece exhibits the highest form of combination with respect to the characteristics that are portrayed by Dionysus and Apollo.
These are fundamental in the presentation of the details making up the human condition. Through this, Nietzsche was able to show the existence that exists between the two sons of Zeus and how these are related to the human condition through music and art. The analysis presents characteristics of Apollo in the music and chorus whereas the elements associated with Dionysus are presented in the dialogue. This is evident in the Erlkonig by Franz Schubert.
The third movement by Ludwig von Beethoven is also a representation of the analysis of art presented by Nietzsche. Symphony has been founded on this principle and people continue to look at the interplay that exists between the two sons of Zeus as they enjoy the art of the music (Santaniello 64),
Works Cited Graf, F. Apollo. London: Routledge, 2009. Print.
Otto, W.F. and Palmer, R.B. Dionysus: myth and cult. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Print.
Homer and Evelyn-White, H.G. Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica. Kansas: Digireads.com, 2008. Print.
Klein, W. Nietzsche and the promise of philosophy. New York: State University of New York Press, 1997. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Apollonian and Dionysian by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mistry, F. Nietzsche and Buddhism: prolegomenon to a comparative study. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1981. Print.
Rowell, L. Thinking about music: an introduction to the philosophy of music. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1985.
Santaniello, W. Nietzsche and the Gods. New York: State University of New York Press, 2001. Print.
Shlain, L. The alphabet versus the goddess: the conflict between word and image. New York: Viking. 1998. Print.
Wood, W.S. and Pacifica Graduate Institute. Euripides’s “Bacchae”: Re-examining the Apollo-Dionysus dichotomy. New York: Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2008. Print.
Gender and Art: Female Role in Visual Art Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Female Artists and Visual Art
Three Women and Visual Artistic Culture
The works of these three historical painters
The females have played an important role in the artistic field and yet for a long period this significant contribution has been assumed. Females have contributed equally to the males in the development and enrichment of the field of art. However, the poor position of the women in the society led to less recognition of these significant contributions of the females. There has been a long-held assumption that all the artistic works of the prehistoric period were developed by male artists (Shubitz, n.d).
For a long time, it has been passed on to new generations that great arts were men’s products and females who managed to develop similar products were just replicating the artistic works that had been developed by the male artists before. In fact, several of good works by the female artists of this time were attributed to their male relatives or teachers as the females were considered incapable of developing the good works (Shubitz, n.d).
The visibility of the females in the field of art was evident throughout the Middle Ages but declined in the succeeding period. In the beginning of the period of Renaissance (1450-1600 A.D) a lot of restrictions were placed on the women that saw the Western society witness a decline and invisibility of female artists (Palmer, 2011).
However, despite these discouraging and blockading restrictions for female development in the field of art, a good proportion of the female artists managed to carve out professions in this male-dominated world.
This increasing trend was observed throughout the second half of the 17th century up to the end of the 18th century. Therefore, the 18th century saw female artistic works became of great interest in the society. The female artists overcame the baseless restrictions to contribute significantly to the cultural production of the Western Society.
The trend continued into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries with the increased fight for improved position of the women in the society. The feminist movements of the 1970s have contributed greatly to improving the position of the women in the society so that they could receive recognition of their artistic works (Shubitz, n.d). The women have yet another battle of improving their image and position as just artists to being considered as individuals of integrity and relative identities.
Furthermore, several female artists emerged between the mid 18th century and the early 19th century. Some of the female artists of these period include Adélaïde Labille-Guiard (1749-1803) Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755- 1842) and Anne Vallayer-Coster (1744- 1818). Adélaïde Labille-Guiard concentrated on the development of miniatures, pastels, and oil paintings whereas Le Brun was recognized for her Rococo and portrait paintings. Anne Vallayer-Coster on her part was a still life painter.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper focuses on the contributions of these three artists to the history of art in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The works of these artists, their accomplishments, and the political images portrayed by their artistic works are considered in the paper. There is a comparative analysis (citing the similarities and differences) of the works of these three significant artists in the history of art.
Female Artists and Visual Art It has to be noted that the females have played a significant role in the history of art that has shaped the culture in the Western Society. It has been reiterated by Hyde and Milam (2003) that, “History of female does not stand outside or even on the periphery of the Western tradition, but is integral to it” (p.3). Such a statement considers the profound position of women in the society and the roles that they played in molding the culture in the Western Society over a long period.
However, this reality had to be recognized much later after the beginning of female artists’ contribution to the field of art. In the earlier times, it was more likely that a piece of work would be reported with the artist being unknown than to disclose that the artist was a woman (Shubitz, n.d). This was particularly evident during the Renaissance period. During this period, the society had little recognition for the women artists who were considered to have less stature as artists than the men (Shubitz, n.d).
It was already evident and known to the society that the females were capable of developing good works just as their male counterparts. Nonetheless, few or no women artists were noted at this time. Besides, even those that were noted were considered to have artistic works of lower quality and value than the products developed by men artists.
The females’ contribution towards art was in particular visible in the development and the production of visual culture during the Enlightenment and Revolution periods. During this period (18th century), women are regarded to have played critical role in visual culture through representation, textual and pictorial, which became associated with women (Hyde and Milam, 2003).
The females recognized the role that their artistic works could play in helping improve their position in the society. They could give a visual impression of their feelings and emotions through the art works like paintings. The females could also express their political views or ideas through these artistic works. The females’ participation in the society improved significantly courtesy of their increased involvement in art.
Several individuals and activists supported women in this culture-developing initiative. Their contributions towards shaping the culture of the Western Society came from different directions. As a result, in one way or the other female became shapers of culture through avenues such as sponsorship, taking part in literary and philosophical salons, writing, patronage, painting, or some other means, described to be multifold and paradoxical as the individual women themselves (Hyde and Milam, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Gender and Art: Female Role in Visual Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unfortunately, the struggle to have a full recognition of women artists’ contribution to the field of art has been an ongoing issue that reemerges. This was evident in the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century when most men returned from the Second World War (Shubitz, n.d). Tired of being unappreciated by the male artists, women initiated movements to advocate for change.
Such movements were witnessed in the 1970s. The women vowed that if the society, and in particular, the male artists, could not support their works then they would unite in order to support each other (Shubitz, n.d). Several associations were developed that could enable the works of female artists to be seen on the global scene. An example was the Women’s Caucus for Art, an association that would see female artworks feature in museums and various exhibitions (Shubitz, n.d).
Three Women and Visual Artistic Culture It must be mentioned, that the 18th century is a period in which the position of the women in the society had significant developments. During the period, feminine beauty gained much power and the individuals who had the beauty or could develop it were greatly valued in the society (Shubitz, n.d). Some three female artists of this period developed what remain as some of the celebrated pieces of visual culture that for a long time has revolutionalized the aspect of gender and art (Tierney, 1999).
The artistic works of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, and Anne Vallayer-Coster, had significant contribution to the 18th century art. Nonetheless, in spite of the significant contributions that the female artists made to the field of visual art, few records of the developments are provided. It is evident that this particular area of concern has not been explored to its fullest by the scholars in the history of arts and related disciplines. This part of the paper will compare and contrast the works of these three female artists.
The works of these three historical painters Adélaïde Labille-Guiard was born in 1749 in Paris, France, and was brought up here. Her participating in the field of art during this period was just as “abnormal” as was expected since the Paris of the late eighteenth century did not recognize women in the art world at that time (Auricchio and Museum, 2009, p.1).
A lot of literature that focus on the artworks before the period of revolution have emphasized on the works of male artists like Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825). The artwork of this female was largely depicted through miniatures, pastels, and oil paints through which, Labille-Guiard was able to express and redefine the gender politics in art history (Auricchio and Museum, 2009; Greer, 2001).
The artists of this period concentrated on the genres like portraiture, still life, landscapes, and scenes ordinary life (Auricchio and Museum, 2009,). Later on, after getting married, she was trained on different other areas by different instructors. She was instructed on the pastel techniques by Maurice Quentin de la Tour.
She continued her perfection in the field and turned to the other professionals around her who could provide proper instructions and support for her work. She was later instructed (in 1977) on the art of oil painting by Francois Andre-Vincent, the son of her first teacher in miniature (Auricchio and Museum, 2009, p.11; Claudia, 2011). The early works of the artist were exhibited at the Academy of St Luke where she was admitted in 1969.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender and Art: Female Role in Visual Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She studied and practiced at the institution until it was dissolved in 1776. The artist showed much effort in portraits. Among the earlier works of this painter is Portrait of the Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre. This was her self-portrait that was dressed in a costume that had a mixture of textures.
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun was another famous French artist of the 18th century. On her part, Le Brun is regarded as one of the few female artists who influenced the visual culture through her artwork mainly reflected in Rococo and portrait paint art (Milam, 2011; Norman, 1978).
Rococo art has its origin in the French art of the 18th century. The name was derived from the French term rocailles, which was used in the early 18th century by the artists to categorize the wide range of ornamentals that form the current Rococo art (Milam, 2011).
Le Brun used the styles and coloring that was used by the French rococo artists in developing the portraits of women in a neoclassical dress. She had little focus on history paintings. Again, concentrating in these main forms of visual art, Le Brun was able to define and re-create new thinking and perception about female gender in art history.
Le Brun started showing interest in art at an early age most likely because her father was an artist who instructed her at the early stages (Norman, 1978). She also learned by herself much about art (Rafter, 2005). Her artworks ranged from history paintings to landscapes even though most of her works were colored portraits of the renowned politicians in a given country (Rafter, 2005).
The artist was mainly successful in developing portraits for women and some of her historical portraits are Mlle Porparati 1792, Elizabeth Alexcyevna 1792, and Mme de Stael 1808)(Norman, 1978). She also developed her self-portrait on several occasions. Her use of the rococo style of the French art appealed so much to the women who were in turn attracted to her works.
Other works included a portrait of Mrs. Charles de Gaulle and two pastels of Queen Louise of Prussia. She had an exceptional talent in art and pleased several people with her artwork. As a result, she was summoned to royal family to become the official portraitist of the queen in 1778. She painted several portraits of Queen Marie Antoinette (Norman, 1978; Rafter, 2005).
Excelling in the field of art had several challenges for Le Brun. Just like the other female artists in the eighteenth century, Elisabeth had to deal with the difficulties of being a woman. The men and society in general had no support for their artistic efforts. Besides, the artist was a royalist and yet this period was characterized by a heightened French Revolution.
While continuing with her work to support herself and the family, Le Brun also had to run off the dangers that followed the revolutionist movements (Rafter, 2005). The situation worsened when the royal family was finally arrested in the revolution. The artist who had had a close relationship with the court had to flee the country for her safety. She was enlisted as one of the individuals who stood on the way of reforms by supporting the leadership of the royal family (Rafter, 2005).
Her loyalty to the royal family would be evident even several years later after her exile when she finally resettled in the country. She was still opposed to the rule of Napoleon. She fled to countries like Russia, Italy, and Austria. While in her exile in the European countries, Elisabeth had the opportunity to join different institutions, interact with different artists, and meet different aristocrats.
She joined the Academies of Rome, Florence, Bologna, St Petersburg, and Berlin while traversing the European countries (Norman 1978; Rafter, 2005). In these institutions, she had the opportunity to paint renowned individuals like heads and queens of states in order to support herself and her family. She visited several other countries as well before later settling back in Paris, France until her death.
Anne Vallayer-Coster is another female artist who overcame the masculine restrictions in art world to define the role of female in artwork through her famous still life painting. Just like the other female artists of the 18th century, Anne suffered the little attention given to them by the society.
She also suffered the refutation of being close to the royal family (National Gallery of art, 2002). Still life painting is an art that excludes the human form and has no narrative nature like history painting Bryson, 2001, p.60). This was an area where Anne vividly defined the role of female in artwork. This earned her respect, and to great extent, she became an influential figure in visual art history (Bryson, 2001). Little literature is available about her early training in the field of art.
It is thought that the role models who influenced her into the field of art was her mother who was a painter of miniatures and some great landscape painter, Claude-Joseph Vernet (National Gallery of Art, 2002). Just like the other two female artists, Anne also had the slim opportunity to be absorbed into the art academies of that time. The artist had well developed skills in depiction of flowers, an ability that drew the attention of several collectors and artists in the 18th century in France.
She would receive enthusiastic reviews during various exhibitions. This drew the attention of the court and Queen Marie-Antoinette, who was attracted to her still life paintings, summoned her to be the court painter (National Gallery of Art, 2002). Vallayer-Coster stayed with the royal family as a court painter for several years. She later developed interest and was able to produce not only still life paintings but portraits as well.
The artist left a legacy of over 120 still life paintings made with beautiful coloration. Some of her flower still life paintings were Bouquet of Flowers in a Blue Porcelain Vase (1776) and A Vase of Flowers and Two Plums on a Marble Tabletop (1781) (National Gallery of Art,2002). The latter would later be used as a model in the Gobelins tapestry. The other works by the artist include Still Life with Seashells and Coral (1769), and Still Life with Lobster (1817).
To this end, it is evident that the three artists had varied interests in the field of art. A comparative cross-examination of the artworks shows that their works had certain similarities and differences. Labille-Guiard had special interest in portraiture. She had a vast mastery of the art of oil painting and yet she continued to produce artistic works in pastel and miniatures as well. One of her famous works was Self-portrait with two pupils, a painting that was first shown in the 1785 exhibition.
The painting was 210.8cm by 151.1cm. In this work, the artist painted herself dressed in some fashionable attire with together with two other female pupils, Mlle Marie Capet and Mlle Carreaux de Rosemond, who were her students at the time. The material and technique used in developing this painting was oil on canvas. This technique was also used by Anne and Le Brun in developing some of their paintings as described here below. The painting has fine details and characterized by rich palette.
Most of the works of this artist were characterized by masculine like crisp handling, muted tones, and truth to nature (Auricchio, 2011). However, this picture is dominated with the females and is filled with feminine pride and energy. The presence of these two pupils showed her femininity.
The only masculine appearance in the picture is the image of the artist’s father that she opted to include in the picture background. Due to this feminine dominance, the work was challenged by some of the reviews as propaganda to advocate for the position of women in the society (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011). Nonetheless, this was seemingly one of her only few works that appeared to support revolution.
Self-portrait in a straw hat is one of the outstanding artworks by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun. This is self-portrait of the artist and measures about 97.8 by 70.5 cm. The portrait is colorfully designed with a blend of bright and dull coloration.
Source: Art history archive, Elisabeth VigeeLebrun – Self – Portrait. Web.
The portrait depicts Le Brun in a serious mood charging at the audience boldly and frankly. She is holding a painting palette loosely in her hands. It can be observed that she has not made her hair and yet she has put on seemingly expensive hearings. The medium used in the portrait is oil on canvas.
Among the famous still life paintings by Anne is Bouquet of flowers in a Blue Porcelain vase. This is a relatively large painting of this type (approximately 122.6 by 113.03 cm). The painting has varied coloration in the forefront and a dull background. The medium and technique used for this painting were oil on canvas.
Source: Pop art machine. Anne Vallayer Coster Bouquet Of Flowers In A Blue Porcelain Vase. Web.
All these three works by the different artists have applied a similar technique of painting; oil on canvas. The three artworks also have beautiful colorations that are appealing to the women mostly. On the other hand, the works of Labille-Guiard and Le Brun are human portraits whereas this work by Anne is a still life composition. Similarly, Anne’s still life painting has no political impression as compared to the works of the other two artists.
In her work, Self-portrait with two pupils, Labille-Guiard portrays support for feminist movement by dominating the painting by females. In her painting, Self-portrait in a straw hat, Le Brun also expresses her hidden political feelings that women should be given be given better position in the society. The boldness in the face indicates the courage that the artist has in the power of women. However, this political view appears to be not outstanding and the artist remained faithful to the royal family throughout.
The other works of the artists followed similar trends in the painting techniques and the field of art. The different works by the artists portrayed their divergent views and abilities. The works of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard portray her as a woman with defined ambitions and strong determination. While at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, the works of this artist were often compared with that of Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, who was also at the Academy.
Anne was also at the academy but her artistic works were mainly in a different genre; a direct comparison was often irrelevant. Thus, to this end, Labille-Guiard and Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun had certain aspects in common in relation to art field. They had a common interest in portraiture as several of their products were of this type. Most of their works were portraiture with varied coloration.
However, the two artists also had differences. They were mainly considered as rivals in this field of art by the academicians and their patrons at the court (Milam, 2011, p.157) even though the rivalry could also be attributed to the influence of the male artists. They also had different political views. The political position of the Labille-Guiard was contrary to most of her work. While most of her work concentrated on portraits of the conservative individuals in the royal family, the artist supported the French Revolution (Claudia, 2011).
This contrasts the position of Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, another artist of this time who was loyal to the conservatives and did not push much for reforms. Labille-Guiard was a strong women activist struggling to defend the rights of women artists against the conservative institutions of the Royal Academy of Paris. As she worked on the large portraits of the members of the royal family at the academy, the artist pushed for various reforms in the academy (Claudia, 2011).
The works of Anne remained a little different from the works of the other two artists. On her side, this work by Anne and the other works by the artist had no political depiction. Unlike, Labille-Guiard who supported feminist movements while serving at the Royal family, Anne did come out pronounced to support the movements.
Her still life composition and even the subsequent portraits were not in any way in support of, or against, the feminist and reform movements that were rocking the nations. She remained a royalist just like Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun. There are not records indicating that Anne Vallayer-Coster participated in, or supported, the revolutionists during the French Revolution.
Conclusion It has to be acknowledged that the female artists played an important role in defining and creating visual culture that in essence influenced Western society. The heights female artists reached were not easy as many obstacles presented in the way. The position of the women was low in the society and the female artists had limited access to opportunities that could help them develop the abilities.
Nevertheless, despite the challenges encountered, a number of female artists of the 18th century exerted energy and power that made them to be visible in the artistic history. Three of the early female artists had immense influence in the artistic world of the 18th and 19th centuries.
There were certain similarities as well as differences in the works of Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Anne Vallayer-Coster, and Adélaïde Labille-Guiard. All of them suffered the harsh treatment of female artists. Some were accused of presenting, in the exhibitions, works that had been developed earlier by the males- e.g. their tutors. Similarly, even though they had interests in different genres of art, all produced, at least in some point in life, portraits.
The three artists applied a common technique, oil on a canvas, in some of their artworks. Besides, all the three artists were admitted into the academy of art that was mainly set aside for male artists of that time. However, of the three female artists, only Labille-Guiard strongly supported the revolutionist movement that was prevailing in the country then. She used her artistic works to fight for the social recognition of women in the society.
References Auricchio, L. (2011). Eighteenth-Century Women Painters in France. Web.
Epicureanism and Stoicism Comparison Research Paper essay help online
There have been conflicting explanations about the real meaning of a happy life and enjoyment. Many scholars and philosophers have come up with various opinions about happiness one of them being a famous philosopher known as Epicurus. Different philosophers have come with conflicting opinions which have made it difficult to have a common definition of happiness (Kelly 131).
To make the matter worse, there is an argument that happiness is not the same as enjoyment. It has been a great challenge to harmonize both religious and philosophical definitions of a happy life and it is therefore the decision of each person to choose which definition to follow (Kelly 131). This paper will examine Epicurus’ prescription for a happy life and at the same time compare Epicureanism and Stoicism.
According to Laertius’ recordings, Epicurus regards pleasure as the main goal for a happy life. According to Epicurus, pleasure is the end of life and all the actions of human beings are normally geared towards attaining the chief good. Pleasure is meant to free human beings from trouble and pain. Epicurus has received a lot of criticism by declaring that pleasure is the ultimate end but this according to him is just a misinterpretation of his opinions (Pellegrin 234).
According to Epicurus, a happy life should be characterized by having a healthy body and a peace of mind. Pleasure is actually the end of life that bring brings good health and peace of mind. Epicurus goes ahead to affirm the fact that he is an advocate of a sober life and clarifies the type of pleasure he meant. According to Epicurus, a debauched kind of pleasure is not the type of pleasure he was talking about since this type of pleasure only ends in the moment of enjoyment (Pellegrin 234).
Epicurus reiterates that real pleasure is the absence of pain in the body and having a peaceful soul and not sensual pleasures such as eating and drinking. Other forms of pleasure that Epicurus is not in support of include exotic delicacies, the pleasure of love together with other sensual pleasures (Pellegrin 236).
According to Epicurus, it important to have sound judgment and tranquility in order to live a happy life. In order to have a peaceful soul, human beings are supposed to avoid all false notions and mistaken opinions. Comfort and peace are the only components of pleasure emphasized by Epicurus which he sees as the only sources of stability.
When pain is completely removed, it marks the beginning of pleasure since a person is relived from uneasiness (Enfield 78). According to Epicurus, there is no way a person can claim that they are in pain and at the same time claim to be having pleasure. Epicurus refutes claims of neutral feelings and calls for a clear distinction between pain and pleasure. The complete absence of pain is perceived by Epicurus as the point of pleasure and there is no way this can be measured.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Epicurus speaks from a humane point of view and particularly focuses on dealing with pain. He does not in any way agree with stoics whom he thinks that their philosophies about a happy life are based on vain fiction (Enfield 78). Epicurus is very realistic in his claims and does not in any way promise what is not possible. Epicurus also argues that all the activities of men are motivated by pleasure that brings comfort and a peace of mind.
This type of pleasure that eliminates pain is very definite and stable compared to other forms of sensual pleasure. Having a healthy body and a peaceful mind is the ultimate end of all goods (Enfield 112). This type of virtue together with other supporting virtues is what makes a man to be referred to as wise or a woman to be termed virtuous. Self-constraint and clear headedness are the qualities needed to prevent the body from lust and greed.
According to Epicurus, motion and action are not part of true pleasure. Epicurus was always against debauched pleasure but the stoics always misunderstood him. Epicurus and the stoics have never agreed especially on the definition of pleasure. Stoics insist that Epicurus’ definition of pleasure included excessiveness (Enfield 89). The stoics are strong advocates of morality and their misunderstanding of Epicurus’ opinions caused a lot of strife.
Sordid and sensual pleasures that resulted into lust and other vices were preached against by the stoics and any person perceived to support such forms of pleasure was highly condemned. It was very unfortunate for Epicurus to receive unfair condemnation because the stoics had completely misunderstood his opinions despite his attempts to clarify his claims. The stoics used this as a perfect opportunity to enlighten the people since it was not an easy thing during those days (Enfield 89).
Epicurus defines a Wiseman as one who is contended with what they have without having a disturbed mind. A peaceful mind free of anxiety makes one to be merry. According to Epicurus, happiness is achieved when there is a peace of mind that is consistent regardless of the overwhelming expectations and desires in life. Contentment is the key to living a happy life and not the worldly pleasures and riches.
It is the desire of all beings to have pleasure and contentment but many of them do not know how to achieve them. Seeking pleasure from feastings and other sensual means is waste of time since riches and luxury offers temporary pleasure (Bellioti 45). Pastimes can not in any way bring consistent pleasure and the only way of living a happy life is being temperate and just. A feeling of happiness, satisfaction and tranquility comes from one’s own conscience and not from having fancy things (Bellioti 45).
The mind controls a person’s happiness since it is able to feel the past, the present and the future compared to the body that only feels the present. The pleasure and pain of the body has a very minimal contribution to a person’s happiness. Although the pain of the body can also affect the feeling of the mind, but it only occurs in the present.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Epicureanism and Stoicism Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Happiness is supposed to be consistent and therefore present feelings that are temporary can not be used to define true happiness (Bellioti 45). This argument and other arguments made Epicurus to differ greatly with other philosophers and in most cases the stoics.
Epicurus was of the opinion that pleasure could only be attained by those people who sought virtue. This was misunderstood by stoics who accused him of advocating for debauchery and sordid pleasure. Stoics argue that it is necessary for human beings to seek virtue for itself and not for the sake of pleasure.
According to stoics, virtue should be sought for itself and not for anything else. Stoics argue that by Epicurus declaring pleasure as the ultimate goal of seeking virtue, he was expressing his support for debauchery and sordid pleasure (Kelly 236).
The stoics insist that Epicurus had sensual pleasure in mind when he was expressing his opinion on happy life and they perceive that as being immoral. On the contrary, Epicurus had pure thoughts that advocate for people having a peace of mind together with bodily comfort without pain. According to Epicurus, seeking this kind of pleasure promotes virtue and leads to a happy life (Kelly 236).
Stoics do not dispute the fact that virtue includes living happily and therefore there is nothing wrong by Epicurus stating that happy life should be desired for itself just like the stoics claim that virtue must be sought for itself. The stoics claim that a good and happy life can only be attained by virtue alone. This type of argument is not in any way different from Epicurus’ and therefore their criticism of his philosophy on pleasure and happy life are uncalled for (Kelly 247).
Comparing the philosophy of the stoics together with that Epicurus, there is a common understanding that virtue is not entirely sought for itself but for other things such as a happy life. There is no way people can talk about a happy life without mentioning pleasure (Pellegrin 62).
Despite Epicurus clarifying the type of pleasure he meant, the stoics still criticize him. Stoics agree that happiness can not be attained in a divine way but must be sought after. Despite them disputing Epicurus’ ideologies on happiness, the stoics agree that virtue and happiness can not be separated.
Works Cited Bellioti, Raymond. Roman Philosophy and the Good Life. New York: Lexington Books, 2009. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Epicureanism and Stoicism Comparison by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Enfield, William. The History of Philosophy: From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Present Century. New York: Abe Books, 1837. Print.
Kelly, Joseph. The Life of Early Christians. New York: Liturgical Press, 1997. Print.
Pellegrin, Pierre. A comparison to Ancient Philosophy. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print.
The Abortion Debate Term Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction “An estimated 43% of all women will have at least one abortion by the time they are 45 years old” (Farrell 1). This statistic was reported by a sociology researcher named Farrell in a global report on abortion. To show how widespread abortion is practiced globally, it is reported that there are about 42 million abortions done in each year and more than 115,000 abortions done every day.
Almost half of these abortions are illegal (Farrell 1). Certain researchers note that, abortion is practically the most common surgical procedure in the world today because regardless of the laws or moral issues surrounding the issue, abortion is a very common practice for women worldwide.
Abortion is reported in all social classes, genders, religions, races (and other forms of social strata). In fact, history shows that abortion is a practice that started long time ago. Almost all societies practiced abortion, including ancient societies such as Egypt, Greece, Rome and other medieval societies (McFarlane 803). Some researchers such as Ginsburg (1) explain that, abortion is nothing short of human behavior.
However, because of the ethical and moral issues surrounding the practice, it is estimated that two out of three abortions done in the world are illegal. The illegality of abortion is further marred by the fact that most illegal abortions are done by untrained providers and in non-clinical environments. Illegal abortions are reported to claim about 78,000 women annually (Farrell 1).
The statistics are even higher for women who have become infertile or injured as a result of unsafe abortions since it is reported that, for every abortion-related death, there are several infertile and injured women. The number of unwanted children born from unwanted pregnancies is even higher. This phenomenon leads to child neglect and increased poverty and child abuse levels.
The number of women who procure abortions sometimes recur because current statistics show that about 35 of every group of 1000 women procure abortion annually (McFarlane 803). Statistics also show that, there is no significant difference in the number of abortions done in developed and developing nations, but the illegality (or legality) of the practice has an important role to play in ensuring the safety of the procedure. In countries where abortion is illegal, it is often very unsafe to do an abortion.
Accessibility is also an important issue in the abortion debate because a third of women seeking abortion services are said to lack access to legal abortions (McFarlane 803). The rate of deaths for this group of women is estimates at 330 deaths per every group of 1000 women who lack access to safe abortion (Farrell 3). In countries where abortion is legal, there are very few incidents of death. For instance, America reports only 1% of abortion-related complications and deaths because abortion is legal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The impact of abortion in the society is adverse. For instance, there are some women who are either too embarrassed or afraid to seek hospital services (after procuring abortion and suffering complications). However, it is estimated that when this group of women seek hospital services, they are likely to take up two-thirds of all maternity beds (Farrell 5). The significance of this fact is to show the extent that abortion-related complications can compromise maternity and emergency services.
The legality (or illegality) of abortion is deemed to the main make-or-break factor for safe or unsafe abortions because illegal abortions amount to unsafe abortions. However, even in places where abortion is legal, women may still be unable to procure safe abortion (and resort to unsafe abortions).
The sheer number of abortion-related practices in the world has led to intense debates regarding the moral and legal issues surrounding abortion. However, somebody may ask how the world came to this situation because throughout history, abortion has been perfectly legal. The 19th century marked a change in ideology because it is during this time that most countries declared abortion illegal. On each side of the debate, there is a pro-choice and pro-life movement.
The pro-choice group suggests that, women should be allowed to choose if they should have an abortion (or not) while the pro-life group suggests that, abortions should be illegal because they infringe on the right to human life (Farrell 1). The pro-life group is synonymous to anti-abortion stances but the pro-choice group is synonymous to pro-abortion stances.
Due to the raging debate regarding abortion, different people, institutions and even countries have adopted different views about abortion. For instance, most religious groups do not support the arguments for abortion because they believe it contravenes the right to life.
Moreover, religious groups observe that, legalizing abortion is likely to promote immorality. In their view, legalizing abortion is unethical. Some countries share this view and have prohibited all forms of abortion. Such countries include “Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Malta, Uruguay, Vatican City” (Farrell 13).
In America, abortion has ordinarily been deemed legal (after 1973) when it was established that, many abortion-related complications were reported in state hospitals. Though the legalization of abortion has significantly led to increased abortion-related complications, the right of women to choose abortion (or not) has been greatly hampered by pro-life crusaders.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Abortion Debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lifting of restrictions on abortion was only realized after the Second World War when certain communist states like Russia made abortion legal. Most western countries liberalized their laws to allow the same. The trend is quickly spreading to most developing states around the world (Farrell 18).
This paper is a critical analysis of the abortion debate. Comprehensively, the paper includes the literature review section, critical analysis section and the conclusion section. The literature review section reports on the arguments surrounding the abortion debate but the critical analysis section gives a personal account of why abortion should be legalized. A conclusion summarizing the findings of the study finalizes the debate.
Literature Review The abortion debate has torn legislators and societies right in the middle. Its arguments can be perceived from political, medical, ethical and moral points of views (McCoyd 133). Pro-life crusaders argue that, since abortions are undertaken after life is formed, terminating pregnancies is nothing short of committing murder.
From this understanding, pro-life crusaders perceive abortion to be contrary to the doctrines of “sanctity of life” because it does not respect human life. This argument has been supported by the perception that civilized societies should not allow one person to take the life of another. Reference is made to court or judicial systems that punish murder when one person kills another. Abortion is therefore perceived to be no different from conventional murders and it should be punished in law.
Since pro-life crusaders have encountered opposition from pro-choice crusaders (regarding what they propose should be done to unwanted children), pro-life crusaders argue that adoption should be used as the main alternative to abortion (McCoyd 133).
The argument behind this assertion is the perception that adoption and abortion achieve the same results. The concept of an unwanted child is therefore not tolerated by pro-life crusaders because they give an example of more than 1.5 million American families that need to adopt a child (McCoyd 133).
The numerous death, injury and infertility statistics associated with abortion is also another argument that has been used by pro-life crusaders to campaign against abortion because they suggest that death or injury statistics (related to abortion) can be easily eliminated if adoption is not condoned.
In cases where rape or incest has occurred, pro-life crusaders note that performing abortion equals to punishing the innocent child for the crime. Instead, they suggest that, perpetrators of the crime should be punished (and not the children). Where conception has not occurred, pro-life crusaders advocate for the use of medical techniques to avoid pregnancy. Pro-life crusaders also warn against using abortion as a form of contraception because it is not similar to other types of contraceptives (McCoyd 133).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Abortion Debate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They distinguish abortion from other types of contraceptives because abortion occurs when life is already formed while other types of contraceptives are taken when life is not formed. To counter the claims of pro-choice crusaders who suggest that, women should be given the choice to decide if they want to be pregnant or not; pro-life crusaders suggest that contraceptive use should be used always, and if it is not possible to use contraceptives, abstinence should be practiced (McCoyd 134).
There is also a “tax” clause associated with the abortion debate whereby, if abortion is legalized, tax payers would be required to fund the procedure. People who are against abortion cite the hesitance by tax payers to fund abortion.
This argument has especially been used to voice negative tax payer’s sentiments about abortion in the US. The large population of young women who procure abortion has also been cited by anti-abortion crusaders as a weakness of the abortion debate because this group of young women is not in a position to make mature decisions about abortion.
Many citations have been made regarding the regrets of many young women who procured abortion at a young age. These regrets have mainly been attributed to the psychological pain associated with abortion.
Advocates for abortion however have different views about the practice. Regarding the argument that abortion amounts to murder (because a human being is killed), abortion crusaders note that, most abortions occur during the first trimester of conception (McCoyd 134).
Within this trimester, the fetus is normally perceived to be dependent on the mother and therefore, it cannot be regarded as having a life of its own. Abortion crusaders also draw a strong distinction between personhood and human life. In this argument, pro-abortion crusaders note that, abortion cannot be deemed to be murder because if there is life in the human “seed”, then those that get thrown away are also murdered.
The argument that adoption is a good alternative to abortion is also contested by pro-abortion crusaders because they observe that the decision to adopt (or not) is still made by the mother. In this regard, they note that, adoption is not different from abortion because they are both choices made by a woman regarding if to keep a child (or not).
Current statistics support the argument by pro-choice crusaders because it is reported that, very few women choose to give up their babies for adoption after birth (McCoyd 133). Among white mothers, it is estimated that, less than 3% would give up their babies for adoption and among black mothers, it is estimated that, less than 2% would give up their babies for adoption (these statistics apply to unmarried women) (Graves 31).
Another argument made by pro-abortion activists is that, abortion is a perfectly safe procedure and it has less than 0.5% risk of complication (Graves 31). Moreover, as mentioned in earlier sections of this paper, it is documented that majority of abortions (more than 88%) are done within the first trimester. This period reduces the risk of suffering severe medical complications. The low risk of medical complication undermines the argument that abortion increases infertility and long-term medical-related fertility problems.
Since abortion has been voiced as a viable procedure for getting rid of unwanted babies (born from rape and incest), pro-choice activists say that, forcing such victims to have babies is likely to cause more psychological harm (Graves 31). Instances are given where victims are too traumatized to report rape or incest, thereby minimizing the possibility of preventing pregnancies.
For instance, after-pills are noted to be ineffective in situations where victims are too traumatized to think of contraceptives. Sometimes, it is observed that, victims are not even aware that they are pregnant and therefore, they cannot prevent pregnancies. Such situations call for abortion.
The argument that abortion is widely misused as a form of contraception has been disputed by some pro-choice experts because they note that, even with responsible contraceptive use, a woman can still be pregnant.
Statistics show that only 8% of women who procure abortions are not subscribed to any contraceptive measure (Graves 31). The above percentage shows that, most women who seek abortion are under some form of contraception. The argument that, women abuse abortion as some form of contraceptive is therefore widely disputed by pro-choice activities.
Pro-choice activists have even associated the abortion debate to the civil rights debate. They argue that, the decision to deny women the right to abort (or not) is a contravention of civil rights. Denying women the right to choose if to have children or not is therefore a contravention of their right to reproductive health.
Equally, this situation could be equated to dictating if women should have the right to have children or not. For instance, if the government is allowed to force women to have children, this situation is not different from a situation where the government forces women to take contraceptives or sterilize themselves.
Since most women who procure abortions are young, pro-choice activists note that forcing teenagers to have babies once they are pregnant is likely to cause a future social catastrophe. Evidence is given of the high school drop-out rates, inadequate prenatal care, overreliance on public assistance to raise children and the increase in health problems and divorce rates (among teenage mums) as just a few reasons for the legalization of abortion (Graves 32).
The taxpayer question advanced by pro-life crusaders is also heavily contested by pro-choice activists who equate funding abortion to funding a war. Their argument is centered on the fact that, legalizing abortion would do nothing more than offer poor women the same level of medical choices as rich women. Alternatively, they suggest that, the voting booth would be the right place to voice personal concerns.
Moreover, the psychological toll associated with abortion is also equated to any other form of stress that plagues people every day. The American Psychological Association also cites studies showing that there is no concrete evidence of post-abortion syndrome in women who have had abortions (Graves 35). From this understanding, pro-abortion activists do not see any strong reason why abortion should not be legalized.
Critical Analysis Though abortion is a multifaceted concept, the main argument behind abortion is if women should be given the right to have children or not. The freedom to make choice is normally guaranteed by the law but abortion is a unique issue because some people perceive it to be an infringement of the right to life as well.
However, the main issue that people should be thinking about revolves around the “big picture” behind abortion. Say, abortion was made illegal and women were forced to keep their children if they got pregnant. Such a situation would obviously lead to an increase in the number of unwanted children and a resultant decrease in the standards of living (especially in developing countries). This assertion is true because it would be difficult to take care of unplanned babies.
There is already a raging debate discussing the increase in world population viz-a-viz the planet’s capacity to sustain human life. The world is finite and the human population should also be perceived to be finite (and not infinite like pro-life advocates would argue). The abortion debate should therefore be analyzed from its potential to cause a social, economic and political disaster if populations are not checked.
In today’s world of high inflation, and tough economic times, it is not advisable to force women to have children (just) because they are pregnant. Abortion would give women and families the right to choose if they should have children or not. In this manner, they will be able to evaluate their circumstances and determine if they should support another life (or not).
Since abortion is a controversial issue and is subject to culture, its dynamics should be considered. Having a “blanket” policy of illegality regarding abortion is not sensitive to human dynamics like culture, socio-economic status, educational levels and the likes. However, giving people the right to make a choice is a sensitive way to accommodate varying points of views.
For instance, there would be no harm for people (or cultures) who view abortion as a contravention of the right to life because they will have the freedom to keep their children. However, people who want to be given the right to choose if to have a baby or not would lose their right to do so if abortion was deemed illegal. Legalizing abortion is therefore a social and economic freedom that works for all. It is a fair justice system that respects the rights and views of all.
Conclusion After weighing the arguments for and against abortion, this paper notes that it is advisable for societies to respect the right of choice because it accommodates varying points of view (which is the hallmark of democracy). People should therefore be given the right to choose if they want to have babies (or not) because they should be in a position to determine their destinies. The government should not be the one to make such a decision. In this regard, abortion should be legalized.
Works Cited Farrell, Courtney. The Abortion Debate. New York: ABDO, 2008. Print.
Ginsburg, Faye. Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate In An American Community. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998. Print.
Graves, Earl. “More Fuel for Abortion Fire.” Black Enterprise 3 October. 1990: 31-40. Print.
McCoyd, Judith. “Women in No Man’s Land: The Abortion Debate in the USA and
Women Terminating Desired Pregnancies Due to Foetal Anomaly.” The British Journal of Social Work 40.1 (2008): 133-153. Print.
McFarlane, Deborah. “The Abortion Debate in the World Arena.” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 26.4 (2001): 803-806. Print.
Comparison between Nefertiti and Shabti Sennedjem Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The paintings on Nefertiti and Shabtis are both renowned Egyptian paintings. They are both ancient paintings and had different significance to the Egyptian culture. These paintings differ in terms of size, symbolism and other functions.
One of the paintings is a full painting, while the other is only the bust. Shabtis according to the Egyptian culture were made of simple material such as single molds with little details. However, the shabtis shown on the painting is made of limestone, which means that it was an indication that it was from the tomb of a wealthy person.
Many differences can be drawn from the two paintings Nefertiti is an Egyptian art painted on limestone, 1’8’’ in height and is found in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. Nefertiti represents a prominent wife. She is portrayed as an elegant beauty. She has a pensive expression and delicate long neck. The first unfinished portrait of this elegant beauty was first found in Thutmose’s workshop (Kleiner, p47).
This painting is done on a limestone and it represents Akhenaton’s beauty queen. The name of this beauty queen means that the beautiful one has arrived. It exhibits a similar expression of entranced musing, mannered sensitivity, and the delicacy of its curved contours. The left eye socket lacks the inlaid eyeball, which makes the portrait look like a kind of a demonstration piece.
The portrait has an elegant bust, which means that it may have be comparing to a flower, which is still on its stalk that is slender, but is embroidered by the weight of the crown that is laid on the head of the sculpture. The bust is outstanding in that it is used for illustrating the Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions it is also exaggerated by the length of the serpentine neck.
The sculpture is adjusted to fit the actual likes of the ancient era portrait standard of a spiritual beauty. Nefertiti was an influential woman who frequently appeared in decorations of the temple and she not only equals her husband in size but also sometimes wore the pharaonic headgear.
The family portraiture of this portrait represents the sunken relief stele of the royal family, which perhaps is from the private shrine. The style used in this portrait is familiar with from the colossus of Akhenaton. The undulating curves represent the rigid lines and the figures possessed by the prominent bellies that were seen in the kings (Margaret, p123).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shabtis Sennedjem is an Egyptian piece of art whose painting is done on limestone with polychrome. Its height is 9.75 inches. The shabtis were of varying sizes, and the majorities were ornate, with symbolic statements. It represents a miniature servant figures who are placed at the tombs and are supposed do any hard labours.
The name means servant who is in the place of truth. It has a Height: 28.3 cm, Width: 9.95 cm and a Depth: 8.8 cm. Shabtis functioned as substitutes for the deceased, their masters, and were expected to take their owner’s place. They were used in carrying out physical work in the afterlife. This finely painted limestone shabti of Sennedjem indicates a mummiform stature holding agricultural apparatus.
The inscription is skilfully painted in an eight parallel lines of black colouring on white environment around the mummiform’s body and legs. The hieroglyphs bear the name of the owner. Sennedjem represented the prospect on the wall of his compartment, in order to magically identify his property with regard to the gods and the other deceased. However, they actually work there, that is something else. Ushabtis made for the rich were often small works of art; the great mass of cheaply made ushabtis became standardized made from single molds with little details.
In the New Kingdom of Egyptians, some of the old funeral customs have over time transformed. For instance, an anthropoid tomb shape became consistent, and the dead were provided with a petite Shabti statue. The Egyptians alleged that the statue would perform work for the dead in the afterlife.
Elite funerals were often filled with stuff of daily use. They believed that during the time of the dead in the tomb some of the equipments that they had disappeared. This was a proof of the existence of the afterlife.
Therefore, all daily life objects disappear from tombs (Farida, Abeer, Farid, and Mathaf, p67). They most often only were limited to a selection of items especially made for the funeral. Also, in later funerals, the figures of shabti statues augmented. This increased such that in some funerals, records more than four hundred statues were placed.
To augment these Shabti statues, the departed could be buried with many different types of mysterious figurines to guard them from damage. Although the types of funeral goods transformed and altered all the way through prehistoric times in the Egyptian history. Their functions to protect the dead and provide nourishment to the afterlife remained a universal purpose.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison between Nefertiti and Shabti Sennedjem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike Shabtis, the bust of Nefertiti is about 47 centimeters, which is approximately 19 inches tall. It weighs about 20 kilograms. It is based on the limestone core. The face of the painting is entirely symmetrical. It is almost intact under scrutiny. However, it can be observed that the inlay presented in the right eye is evidently more that it is present in the left eye.
Through close observation of the pupil of the right eye, it can be seen that it is made of inserted quartz that is highlighted with black paint. This inserted quartz is fixed to the eyehole using beeswax. The disappearance of the eyeball can be attributed to the age of the queen and it can also mean that the eyeball was lost during the ruins.
However, a close search has been made which has seemed to have futile results. The locale of the eye-socket is plain limestone. Nefertiti wears the distinct characteristic azure crown, which is known as the Nefertiti top crown. This crown has a golden diadem band. The band is looped in the region of the head forming horizontal like ribbons. These ribbons are joining at the back of the crown, which makes look like a feminine fashion.
Close study of the face, a cobra from the Uraeus origin can be seen over the brow of the face, which is broken in this painting. There is an interesting wide collar presented on the sculpture. This collar symbolizes the attire of the queen that is of royal origin. The ears of the sculpture have also been spoiled a little bit. One of the ears of the sculpture appears old and the texture looks rough.
Prominent artists have suggestions that with this painting of this elegant and well-designed bust, Thutmose may have been indicating and referencing it to a weighty flower on its trim sleek stalk by overstating the weight of the crowned head. This is also superimposed by the length of the almost serpentine neck.
Most of other Egyptian paintings had horizontal shoulders. For example, the painting of the Ushabtis had horizontal shoulders. Nefertiti had vertical shoulders, which was not common with the Egyptian artisans. Analysts have stipulated that the new approach seen in the Nefertiti ruined, is part of changes introduced by Akhenaten during his reign. Akhenaten is the renowned husband of Nefertiti.
According to literature, Nefertiti bust is a solemn reflection of the classical Egyptian art style. “It indicates the deviation from eccentricity and strangeness of the Amarna art style, which was developed and during Akhenaten’s reign” (Margaret, p123). Till the present times, no one knows the initial function of the bust. According to the theory, it is possible that the bust could be a model.
In conclusion, there are many differences between the sculpture paintings. Thought they are both similar in that they are both made of limestone and that they were both used by the rich people. Ushabtis unlike the Nefertiti is a piece of art with little details as it represented the servant.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Comparison between Nefertiti and Shabti Sennedjem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The painting has folded arms, which is a sign of submission. They are small and are made of cheap material which is significant for its use. The headgear that is on Nefertiti’s head is a sign of superiority and it is portrayed by the Pharaonian golden headgear. Both paintings are different in terms of texture the measurements and size as well as their use and significance to the Egyptian culture. From the above differences and similarities observed, it can be concluded that the two paintings are different.
Works Cited Farida. A., Abeer E., Farid S. A., and Mathaf A. The Egyptian Museum in Cairo: a walk through the alleys of ancient Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2005.
Kleiner S. F. Gardner‘s Art Through the Ages. Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2009.
Margaret. “Statues of Tutankhamun, Akhenaten,
Summary Assignment Essay essay help online free
Read ch. 3 “From Writing Summaries and Paraphrases” pages 64-77 in From Inquiry to Academic Writing (Up to the box with the “Steps to Writing a Summary”) . Then, write a one-paragraph summary of Chapter 3 in McGhee’s book.
PLEASE WRITE SHORT SWEET ANSWERS THAT WILL ALL FIT ON ONE PAGE. thank you.
Write your summary paragraph following these steps but in a paragraph format. See page 76 in FIAW for an example. Your summary should be in your own words and about one page double-spaced. Don’t forget to cite the page numbers.
1. Begin with the context and gist. In the chapter, “(title of the chapter),” McGhee argues…
2. Write the First key claim about education in your own words.
3. Follow the key claim by explaining a brief example from the chapter in your own words. For example, ….
4. Write the second key claim about mass incarceration in your own words.
5. Follow the key claim by explaining a brief example from the chapter in your own words. For example, ….
6. Write the third key claim about healthcare in your own words.
7. Follow with a brief example from the chapter in your own words.
9. End with a sentence or two about the alternative to the racism that McGhee argues for at the end of the chapter.
Governing the Global Corporation: a critical perspective Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Agreement with the Author
Introduction Corporate citizenship and corporate social responsibility carry divergent and convergent contexts. The above argument contextualizes the legitimacy of doing business with a sense of ethics. Business activities can be carried out in any nation with the help of globalization. Nevertheless, identification of players in a business scene, especially for corporations, subjects profit and society to a discernible imbalance.
The imbalance is pegged on both theoretical and practical roles of economic politics. Therefore, the role a corporate citizen plays in the society in which it conducts business has an ethical edge. The ethical edge is seen through the uprisings against corporations. If what they offer to a democratic society is legitimate, why do we experience dissatisfactions from recipients in the society? Some people have claimed identity of corporations taking over state affairs in their host countries. Is this true?
Agreement with the Author I agree with the author’s point of view. In the first place, Third World countries that act as hosts to corporations have perpetual unrests. These unrests are directed both to governments and corporations. However, the corporation that conducts its activities in that host country defends its legitimacy to the provision of services to the society. In addition, a cross section of corporations, especially oil refineries, depict total unrest with local communities.
The cited Nigerian example is a perfect representation of the others. The Nigerian case of armed conflicts between the state, corporations and civilians is a prolonged problem. If these corporations are “citizens” why are people alleged to enjoy responsibility fighting them? The situation is complex and cyclic. The complexity part has roots from law-makers in the business world: lobbyists.
An example of these institutions is the United Nations Global Compact. This establishment hides behind the curtain of advocating human rights and environmental standards. Only a handful of signatory corporations put signatures in agreement to the guidelines of the Global Compact. Such reluctance of corporations to human rights is unethical. Why is it unethical? This establishment lacks an enforcement capability towards corporations under its influence.
In addition, the communities that act host to the corporations have no protection from their countries. This lack of protection implies lack of participation of citizens in the business as legitimate stakeholders. Monitoring of corporations under the corporate governance establishments marks another milestone in the defense of human rights. A finger of blame is pointed at Alien Torts Claim Act. Liability procedures are not clearly enforced leading to unaccountability.
While transnational corporations have assured protection-through international treaties and intellectual property rights regimes, their human rights victims do not enjoy justice. The last assertion about my support of the author concerns behavioral monitoring. Acceptable citizenship would only be possible if bona fide corporations deploy their own resources; to monitor unacceptable behavior due to their activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Material relevance The material is relevant to the course since it covers the management in part and international business entirely. International business covered in the study book involves issues surrounding multinational corporations. The material in the article covers a broad sense of corporations operating their businesses internationally.
In addition, the link between the corporate citizen and corporate responsibility is clearly explained in the material. For a beginner to the course, evidence of revolts present in the communities as a result of corporate business activities is crystal clear. The course mentions some lobbyist groups and international legal procedures available for instilling justice related to human rights abuses. In a nutshell, the material is relevant for the course.
Material similarity In the first place, an analysis of the entire article material relates to the entire content of the book. The book talks about international business in the Canadian context. This can be acclaimed as the first but general evidence of similarity of the material in the article and the book. The material in the book that corresponds to the article is institutions and democratic governance. The book relates the laws in the international scene pertaining to human rights abuse.
One such law is the Alien Torts Claim Act. Although, the book does not mention the specific law directly, the similarity is brought forth through mention of such international laws. The article and the book relate regimes like the patents and international treaties that protect transnational corporations. Another aspect of the book that relates to the material is the likelihood of the corporate institutions to change the social structure of the host nation.
Conclusion There is an imbalance between the gains that corporations accrue from nations that they operate in. Involvement of transnational corporations into the development of social structure lacks transparency. Citizens of countries within which the corporations operate business are the biggest losers in the investment game.
Institutional establishments like the International Monetary Fund, Alien Torts Claim Act, United Nations Global Compact, and World Business Council for Sustainable Developments must enforce their mandates without favor. This is the point at which a balanced relationship in resources will be reached. Transnational corporations should work towards achieving business interests without by-passing the ethical standards of communities.
My Turkish Lover; Santiago Esmeralda Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction ‘My Turkish Lover’ is the third of a series of memoirs ‘When I Was Puerto Rican’ and ‘Almost a Woman’ written by Esmeralda on her life (Esmeralda 1). In this continuation, Esmeralda mainly focuses on her relationship with Ulvi, her boyfriend. At the age of 21, Esmeralda runs away from her mother’s home to be with Ulvi. Literally she drops ‘Negi’, the name she’s called at home. Symbolically, it is her first step towards leaving her mother’s ‘bosom’ and heading into independence, into the world as a grown person.
Ulvi loves her as she is. This is supposed to be a good thing, but what he really loves about her is actually her naivety, innocence (not a spoilt American girl) and obedience. For this he treats her like his property. He not only looks down on her family, but he also controls her, preventing her from having friends, from thinking for herself and ultimately, from growing up.
While Esmeralda has dropped her home-name, a symbol of her effort to head into the world new, Ulvi gives her another name, Chiquita- meaning ‘litle girl’. Simply said, Esmeralda has walked from one form of dependence, ‘Negi’, into a kind of chains, ‘Chiquita’. In the end, slowly by slowly, Esmeralda finds herself free from the prison that is Ulvi: “I was nothing Ulvi had told me many times” (Esmeralda, 23).
Ulvi and Esmeralda are together in most of the book, hopping from one state to the next. Ulvi is seventeen years older than Esmeralda. Esmeralda is getting ‘nothing’ from Ulvi except a slow, steady and sure erosion of her self esteem. The two seem incompatible right from the start: “the relationship of Ulvi and Esmeralda starts to end right from the very start” (Ligtenberg).
In the relationship, Esmeralda is only living ‘their lives while “Ulvi is living both ‘his’ and ‘their’ lives” (Ligtenberg). In spite of the eventual freedom of Esmeralda one is then bound to wonder why it took her so long to see the relationship for what it really was and leave.
What did the two really need from each other? Did Esmeralda, having grown without a father, need a father figure, someone to hold her hand and lead her into the world? Or was it a youthful infatuation with ‘hollywood’? What about Ulvi; did he need a girl seventeen years younger than him as an assertion that he was still youthful, a stage he realized was helplessly slipping away as he approached forty? These questions express all possible assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to explore all these possibilities.
Discussion It is obvious that both Ulvi and Esmeralda were in the relationship for different reasons. Both may have felt love towards each other, but whatever shaped that love had to be different for each of them. And so to adequately answer the question on why they were together for so long, what each needed from the other, it is important that both be understood separately.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Esmeralda. Up until the time she escaped from home at 21 Esmeralda had never gone beyond Brooklyn. So she can be forgiven for falling victim to her hunger to see the world beyond Brooklyn, and especially at her age. She “desperately wanted to leave Brooklyn” (Lanham); Ulvi offered her this and she fell for him.
But after a while, it became obvious to her that he was using her, yet she stayed. Esmeralda admits that passion was part of it (Lanham). When he took her out of Brooklyn to Lubbock, “He opened up her intellectual boundaries/horizons and introduced her to new interesting ideas and people” (Lanham).
Esmeralda once likened her interaction with graduate students from Europe and the Middle East to a “crash course on the world beyond East River, … and toyed with the possibility that Ulvi would take her to Turkey, Germany, Saudi Arabia” (Lanham). This was part of the Ulvi-appeal.
And beyond this he promised her stardom. Having initially asked her to audition in a movie he had claimed he was working on, now that he was her boyfriend, she most probably hoped he would now make her a star. But one is likely to wonder if Ulvi was the only path to that world beyond so that in spite of him, Esmeralda had to stay. Surely, Esmeralda could have made a choice no to tolerate anymore of Ulvi’s reign over her life. There must have been ‘something’ behind her tolerance.
At 21, with all her vigor to go out and explore the world, deep down Esmeralda was still quite insecure and filled with fear. She did not just want to encounter the world, but also someone to take her hand and lead her in that exploration, “the Young Esmeralda felt that she needed a protector” (Lanham). Surely, that protector did not have to be Ulvi, besides, he wasn’t really protecting her.
Esmeralda’s tolerance to Ulvi can best be explained and understood by the Psychoanalysis school of thought, especially the theory of Electra Complex (also referred to as Bernfield Factor) developed by Carl Jung as an extension of Freud’s Oedipal Complex (Horward). In a nutshell, the theory of Electra Complex, famously referred in slang as ‘Daddy Issues’, stands for a girl’s sexual attraction to her father resulting in an emotional competitive hostility towards her mother (Horward).
This, it claims is reflected in the behavior of a girl in the absence of her father; that if the father/daddy is not around either physically or emotionally, a girl develops certain habits in an effort to compensate for this absence (Horward). Daddy issues generally imply that girls missing a father physically or emotionally feel incomplete and are always searching for a kind-of familial or fatherly relationship with other men (WiseGeek).
We will write a custom Essay on My Turkish Lover; Santiago Esmeralda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Psychologists agree that a father’s attention and compliment (e.g. loved by ‘daddy’, being daddy’s ‘little princess’) raises a girls’ self-esteem; helps raise her confidence and strength (WiseGeek). In the absence of the father, and the compliments, a girl develops ‘daddy issues’; seeks that approval elsewhere, sexually even (WiseGeek). These daddy issues may include having sexual relationships with older men, having affairs with abusive partners, etc (WiseGeek).
Esmeralda exhibits all these behaviors since she is in a relationship with a man seventeen years older than her, one who also abuses her. In spite of all the abuse and clearly being aware that Ulvi is only using her, she still stays. Clinging is yet another fruit of daddy issue. Esmeralda herself has admitted that her having had no father must have played a role in her tolerance to Ulvi’s mistreatments.
Based on this school of thought, it can be argued that Esmeralda stuck with Ulvi for his age, the father-figure that she had missed all these years. She may have been willing to die in her attempt to stay with the ‘father’. Fortunately she came to her sense early enough.
Ulvi. “I will teach you everything” (Esmeralda, 23), so says Ulvi to Esmeralda. This statement implies that Ulvi is devoted to Esmeralda not only for his own benefit, but also for the ‘good’ of Esmeralda. It is as if he does not need anything from Esmeralda except her ‘devotion’ and for which he’ll reward her with knowledge on ‘everything.
This makes sense as he is seventeen years older than Esmeralda. By age, he definitely knows more than Esmeralda does about that ‘outside world’, the world beyond Brooklyn that Esmeralda is so yearning for but kind-of fears and which she feels insecure.
Ulvi adds “but you must listen to what I tell you” (Esmeralda, 23). This statement then becomes the implicit mantra of his reign over Esmeralda. It clearly implies that, to her, every word he says must be unquestionable; that she is never to question him. So he didn’t let her choose her own clothes, drive or pick up the phone because he says so. And in that reign lays the key to what he really was after, what he really hopes to get from his one-sided relationship with Esmeralda.
Ulvi, while pursuing two master degrees and another doctorate made Esmeralda help her with his research and type his papers. Esmeralda implies the possibility that somehow, Ulvi was affectionate and might have loved her in his own way. She says he “was gentle and understanding” of her occasional disobedience to him, and later refers to him as the man who “as he claimed, might love me” (Esmeralda 29).
As we have seen in Esmeralda’s case, it is likely that Ulvi represented the missing link that was her absent father. But besides this psychological approach to it, it is also largely true that most women prefer to not just date but also marry older men. This is in contrast to the exceptional cases where a twenty-year old woman dates a fifty-year old man. But men equally prefer to date younger women: “men mostly prefer to date younger women while women mostly prefer older men” (Op Papers Editors).
Not sure if you can write a paper on My Turkish Lover; Santiago Esmeralda by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Men, it is argued, prefer younger women for a number of reasons. One is to feel young (Govind); young women are beautiful and youthful, full of energy and vibrant. So men like to have young women to help rejuvenate themselves and bask in their youthfulness. Again, we do not really see this in Ulvi, but obviously he basked in the youthfulness of Esmeralda.
Her age, added to the fact that she had never gone beyond Brooklyn, made her quite excited at the prospects of adventures beyond Brooklyn. This excitement shows on her face and in her manners. Ulvi at thirty seven was approaching forty; obviously, some of his vibrancy was gone. Then here came Esmeralda, a symbol of his youth.
Two, to uplift their ego (Govind); not only do men like to be seen in the company of young and beautiful women, but apparently, they also love it when younger women look up to them as father-figures. Being praised and looked up to, makes them feel attractive since to be seen as superior and knowing makes a man feel superior in the society (Govind).
Ulvi, by the time he met Esmeralda, was a struggling movie producer/director and wasn’t successful as he might have hoped. At thirty seven, he must have been feeling he was late in his life. Then he meets Esmeralda, one to whom his movie-maker dream is a reality, and in which she basks. Naivee and innocent, Ulvi is a ‘hero’ to Esmeralda. She loves him and he has saved her from her boredom with Brooklyn, and she still dreams of him taking her to Germany and Turkey. Ulvi was aware of his place in Esmeraldas mind and needed it for his ego.
“Men who go after younger women because of this are always insecure and unhappy” (Govind); based on this, it can be argued that Ulvi’s control over Esmeralda was only a reflection of his insecurity, his fear that if she was ‘free’ she may leave with another man, and equally leave with his inflated ego.
Three, to start a family (Govind); the evolutionary theory claims that men who want to settle want younger women because they are more fertile than their older counterparts (Vonda). While women reach menopause at 40, and as such lose their fertility, men’s fertility only ‘decreases’ with age (Op Papers Editors).
Esmeralda has not said in any explicit terms if Ulvi wanted to marry or even have a child. But at thirty seven the issue of settling down may have been a recurring thought to Ulvi; besides, such choices are sometimes subconscious. Just as no man really sets out to have a younger woman so she can ‘uplift his ego’, hardly does a man consciously set out to find a woman for the sake of fertility.
Four, to look successful (Govind); many famous movie stars, including producers and directors, lawyers, businessmen etc get themselves younger women, the so-called trophy wives/girlfriends, so they can look successful. Ulvi may have consciously/subconsciously wanted something to show off, something to make him feel he had made it and for people to see as a symbol of that perceived success.
He seduced Esmeralda under claims that he would audition her for a movie he was working on. Maybe he really believed he had made it; that he could offer Esmeralda such a promise. From this point of view, Esmeralda was his trophy-girlfriend, the symbol of the success he may have believed to have achieved.
Five, it may be a reflection of one’s insecurity with old age which was becoming imminent (Govind). Some men fear old age; as such they go after younger women as a subconscious way of clinging to their youth. Ulvi was not approaching old age yet, not in the real sense of the word ‘old’. But a looming ‘forty’ must have been a scary prospect, and Esmeralda may have been his way of ‘staying young’.
Conclusion Most of these arguments are only possibilities arrived made out in the implications of Santiago’s story. She does not get much into Ulvi’s mind as she only tells the story ‘as it is’, from her point of view. Still she gives some data upon which a number of theories from different schools of thought can be discussed and perhaps proven. This paper has gone into the basics of these schools of thought and what they can tell us about Ulvi’s and Esmeralda’s workings of the mind, in relation to their affair. These possibilities, albeit not exhaustive, are all likely.
Works Cited Esmeralda, Santiago. “My Turkish Lover.” Massachusetts: Da capo Press. 2004. Print. Govind, Das. “Top Five Reasons Men Date Younger Women.” 2010. Web.
Vonda, Howard. “Girl, deal With Your Daddy Issues.” Curvy Magazine. 2010. Web.
Lanham, Fritz. “Writer Esmeralda Santiago transforms from ‘Chiquita’ to woman and finds freedom.” 2004. Web.
Ligtenberg, Anna. “The Turkish Lover; Anna loves books.” 2006. Web.
Op Papers Editors. “Bridewealth and the American Culture.” 2009. Web.
WiseGeek. “What Are daddy Issues?” 2009. Web.
Focusing on the Leadership Challenge Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Outline of the paper
Description of Leadership Challenge Facing the Organization
Strategies for Overcoming the Challenge
Outline of the paper Introduction
This section introduces the research thesis which entails a discussion of wasted human and financial resources as a result of the manager promotion process as a solution. The paper identifies different alternatives to a more efficient promotion strategy and ways of implementing the new strategies, such as a case study of LoanDepot.com.
In dealing with this thesis, the paper utilizes public records regarding company growth, Ashford’s proquest library resources to research into standard managers’ methods or promote from within. In addition, a research on the cost of hiring and training new employees based on generalized costs throughout multiple industries will be conducted.
LoanDepot.com is ranked as the 3rd generation online lender of mortgage, headquartered at Irvine, California, but operates in about 46 states in the United States of America.
It was officially launched in January 2010, and at this time, the company has employed about 400 employees. This company employs “The ‘No Steering’ policy which allows them to match customers with the loan that best fits the customer.
Their products include fixed rate loans, adjustable rate mortgages, FHA loans, and interest only loans” (Ferreras 2011).
The main stakeholders of this company are Anthony Hisieh, who is a veteran service provider as well as a renowned entrepreneur in this industry; and Parthenon Capital Partners as well as Milestone Capital, which are considered to be the high class executives in launching and building start ups in this industry of online mortgage. For instance, they are the pioneers of NASDAQ: ETFC and NASDA: TREE which have been very successful. Additionally, other stakeholders include the customers, shareholders, employees of the firm and, more importantly, the investors who purchase the mortgages
The three stakeholders have invested more in technology, to ensure that they provide only stringent underwriting, unique services, along with mortgage processes that are very efficient and effective (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
Loan Depot’s mission is “committed to delivering a better, faster, more efficient process and industry-leading rates while delivering the best service in the industry” (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
Its vision statement ensures “responsible lending, with a clear focus on putting the customer first while offering industry-leading closing times” (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
To increase their sales, the company looks forward to employing more sales representatives.
One of the incredible milestones this company has attained is $1 billion originations in mortgage loans for residential.
Description of Leadership Challenge Facing the Organization
LoanDepot.com has faced various leadership challenges. The correcting problem in the sales department at LoanDepot.com is the one of them.
T company has been wasting human and financial resources that pertained to their management promotion process. This waste is in the form of promoting top ranking sales reps based strictly on their sales figures, without taking into account their management abilities, or their lack.
When these newly promoted managers perform poorly in their new position, they typically leave the company.
This problem made the company, particularly the human resource department, incur lots of expenses in recruiting and training.
The company also lost lots of sales as the position ended up remaining vacant for a long period of time
There are some projects that such managers leave unaccomplished, and when the new manager comes in, he/she starts new projects.
Strategies for Overcoming the Challenge
There are two strategies which can be employed by LoanDepot.com in dealing with employee promotional issues, seniority and merit.
If the company can use a combination of the two, then it will solve the current leadership challenge it is facing. Combining the two strategies is the best option for the company because every method has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Merits strategy will be of a great help to the company because, as per its definition, it is based on the “knowledge, skill, talent, competence and capability as different from education, training, and past experience.” As a result, it will enable the company to use its resources at higher levels in an efficient and effective way. In addition, this strategy has the ability of handcuffing employee turnover concerns.
Seniority strategy is a simple mean and tool of measuring the service as well reviewing seniority. As a result, everyone will support or disapprove the facts that are tabled against the employee. This ensures that the aspects of nepotism, judgment and prejudice are eliminated. At the end, everyone will be certain with the ways of getting promoted.
Introduction In organizations, leaders are expected to facilitate organization growth, sales as well as marketing strategies. They always have the responsibility to generate profits, reduce costs as well as mitigate risks (Ivancevich 2009). However, in fulfilling these roles, managers or leaders usually face lots of challenges, collectively called leadership challenges.
As a result, this research paper critically discusses wasted human and financial resources as a result of the manager promotion process. As a solution, the paper identifies different alternatives to a more efficient promotion strategy and ways of implementing the new strategies, such as a case study of LoanDepot.com.
To attain this objective, the paper utilizes public records regarding company growth, Ashford’s proquest library resources to research into standard managers’ methods or promotion from within. In addition, a study on the cost of hiring and training new employees based on generalized costs throughout multiple industries will be conducted with the help of the internet sources.
LoanDepot.com Company LoanDepot.com is ranked as the 3rd generation online lender of mortgage, headquartered at Irvine, California, but operates in about 46 states in the United States of America. LoanDepot.com Company was officially launched in January 2010, and at this time, the company has employed about 400 employees.
This company employs “The ‘No Steering’ policy which allows them to match customers with the loan that best fits the customer. Their products include fixed rate loans, adjustable rate mortgages, FHA loans, and interest only loans” (Ferreras 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main stakeholders of this company are Anthony Hisieh, who is a veteran service provider as well as a renowned entrepreneur in this industry, and Parthenon Capital Partners as well as Milestone Capital, which are considered to be the high class executives in launching and building start ups in the industry of online mortgage.
For instance, they are the pioneers of NASDAQ: ETFC and NASDA: TREE which have been very successful. The three stakeholders have invested more in technology, to ensure that they provide only stringent underwriting, unique services, along with mortgage processes that are very efficient and effective (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
Other important stakeholders are the company employees. They are the ones who keep the firm running since they are responsible for executing the day to day tasks and duties to ensure that customers are satisfied. The local community is also an important constituent of the primary stakeholders.
They are capable of providing the population pool where employees can be drawn, support or reject the firm’s activities. They also expect some sort of social corporate responsibility from the firm. More importantly, investors who buy the mortgages are another group of primary stakeholders. Indeed, without them, there is no business for the firm.
Loan Depot ’s mission is “committed to delivering a better, faster, more efficient process and industry-leading rates while delivering the best service in the industry” (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010). On the other hand, its vision statement is ensuring “responsible lending, with a clear focus on putting the customer first while offering industry-leading closing times” (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
By looking at the past records of these stakeholders, it is clear that they have the ability of creating lots of job opportunities within a very short period of time. For instance, it was proved that they created around 1000 job opportunities in two years. With this kind of capability, the company will have the ability of creating over 1000 job opportunities by the year 2013.
This large staff will ensure that their vision and mission statement are attained. For example, they will be in a position to provide lending services nationwide in a manner that is responsible and far much strategic. Since the company aims at lending a large scale, there are chance that these prices and services will be incredible to their clients.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Focusing on the Leadership Challenge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To increase their incomes, the company is looking forward to employ more sales representatives having little experience; they will also consider these individuals with no experience.
For sales professionals, they should have a minimum of 3 years experience in sales position. However, individuals having “mortgage loan handling experience are expected to undertake Enforcement of Mortgage Licensing (S.A.F.E)’, and Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System to culminate a state licensing test” (Nationalmortgageprofessional.com 2010).
Nonetheless, the company also considers inexperienced individuals in their sales team. However, this group is given junior sales responsibilities or considered in the position of customer care where they stay for about six months while undergoing some training practices.
Being an online lender that provides services in the entire country, the company tries as much as it can to ensure that its sales representatives are licensed as it is required by law of different states. This requirement is also stated in the company’s code of ethics.
One of the incredible milestones this company has attained is $1 billion originations in mortgage loans for residential. Apart from being attained in a very short period after its formation (only after 20 month), this milestone was also attained in the mortgage markets that were very challenging as compared to any other time in history.
This achievement was attributed to dedication as well as the hard work of its professional mortgage employees, who were providing the best mortgage skills and experience to ensure that their clients got the best service ever. There are higher chances that this kind of originations will result in a sum of loan funding of about $750,000,000 (Ferreras 2011).
Description of Leadership Challenge Facing the Organization In the recent past, LoanDepot.com faced various leadership challenges. The correcting problem in the sales department at LoanDepot.com is the one among them. It has been observed that the company has been wasting human and financial resources that pertained to their management promotion process. This waste is in the form of promoting top ranking sales reps based strictly on their sales figures, without taking into account their management abilities, or their lack.
When these newly promoted managers perform poorly in their new position, they typically leave the company. Now, LoanDepot.com does not only have to replace the manager, but also looses out on the sales this individual previously generated. After losing the manger, the company is again forced to recruit another employee; such a situation is termed to be “the toughest part of the job in terms of meeting new regulation is licensing” (Ferreras 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Focusing on the Leadership Challenge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This problem made the company, particularly the human resource department, incur lots of expenses. This is because the department has to start organizing for another recruitment process. In case the interview panel and other managers have to take part in the interview process, the costs might explode further. The department also maintained the costs of training new employees, supervisory costs and fill-in costs.
Since replacement did not occur immediately, the company also lost lots of sales as the position ended up remaining vacant for a long period of time. This is another loss the company has incurred. In addition, there are some projects that such managers leave unaccomplished, and when the new manager comes in, he/she starts a new projects. When these unaccomplished projects are summed up, they end up contributing to a very big loss to the company.
The company has also been experiencing termination and exist expenses which, when added together, are far much above their salaries annually. Last but not least, the company has incurred “Loss of intellectual property and contracts. Consider the cost of customers following an ex-employee and costs of retaining customers. The loss of intellectual property accompanying executive resignations cannot be undervalued” (Ivancevich 2009). All these problems arise as a result of poor employee promotion strategy.
Strategies for Overcoming the Challenge There are two strategies which can be employed by LoanDepot.com in dealing with employee promotional issues; seniority and merit, and if the company can use a combination of the two, then it will solve the current leadership challenge it is facing. Combining the two strategies is the best option for the company because every strategy has its own strengths and weaknesses. So, the two will complement each other.
Merits strategy will be of a great help to the company because, as per its definition, it is based on the “knowledge, skill, talent, competence and capability as different from education, training, and past experience” (Businessihub.com 2011). As a result, it will enable the company to use its resources at higher levels in an efficient and effective way. In addition, this strategy has the ability of handcuffing employee turnover concerns.
This is based on the fact that the strategy motivates capable employees to ensure that they perform well at their level, hence adding effectiveness and efficiency in the company. Efficiency and effectiveness arise because “merit strategy encourages the employees to obtain new knowledge as well as skills for all-round development” (Lowe 2011). As a result, these who will be selected for promotion will not only have past records in sales, but also good management skills.
However, just like other strategies, this one has its own weaknesses. For instances, many people doubt this strategy particularly on the issue of management integrity when it comes to merit evaluation.
Critiques like Shockley-Zalabak (2011) have emphasized that merit evaluation procedures were very complicated, and most of them were prejudiced. Now, since merit concentrates more on what the employee accomplished in the past, but it does not consider potential attainments. Due to this disadvantage, the purpose of promotion might not be attained.
To attain this objective of promotion that is not catered for in the merits strategy, the method of seniority plays a very significant role. This strategy is based on the fact that if one works in a company for a long period of time, such a person gains enough talent along with knowledge. So, its convention is that the first priority of promotion is given to these who have worked in the organization for a longer time. In selecting amongst those who have served for long, merit strategy is applied.
Seniority strategy has been viewed by many scholars as having simple means and tools of measuring the service as well reviewing seniority. As a result, everyone will support or disapprove the facts that are tabled against the employee. This ensures that the aspects of nepotism, judgment and prejudice are eliminated. At the end, everyone will be certain with the ways of getting promoted.
This strategy also motivates senior employees as they are contended with the promotion process, hence reducing complains and disagreements. In general, this strategy increases senior employees’ esteem as their efficiency and effectiveness have no disputes (Shockley-Zalabak 2011).
Just like the merit strategy, this method has disadvantages. For instance, it assumes that employees get to know more when they have longer service life. This assumption is wrong because employees learn only to a certain age after which they lack creativity and innovations.
This is based on the fact that at a certain phase, learning skills retreat. In addition, the inquisitiveness of building up is de-motivated in case this strategy is employed solely. This is due to the fact that employees tend to believe that promotion will come with or without merits. However, in case the strategy is used together with merit strategy, the side effect will be dealt with.
Another disadvantage is that young and hardworking employees will be de-motivated, and such a situation will result in high rates of young employees’ turnover. Moreover, the procedures employed in the process of assessing seniority can be very complicate as well. This is based on the fact that “tabulations like job seniority, company seniority, earlier experience, among other factors, pose different considerations” (Matteson and Ivancevich 2006).
At the end, if LoanDepot.com employs seniority strategy solely, then it will incur reduced efficiency and effectiveness. As a result, if the company employs the two strategies simultaneously, it will deal with the problem discussed in the previous section.
However, when implementing this combined strategy, Matteson and Ivancevich (2006) recommend the following steps that can be of a great help:
Encouraging professional development in the company. Since most employees are ever ambitious, very dynamic and hard working, they will never be satisfied with the status quo. So, the company should provide proper guidance in their career development.
Creating a plan. This will aim at aligning employees’ goals with their interests, strengths as well as experiences and skills. This plan acts as a guide towards attainment of required skills and experience in the next position. These skills and experience will be of great help in dealing with leadership obstacles after promotion.
Pairing employees with mentors. After establishing their goals and interests, give them a person who has more experience and skills in their respective fields to act as a mentor. This will enable the company to transfer the current talents and experience to the other. At the end, all of them will benefit from the relationship.
Identifying different opportunities with the aim of expanding their professionalism. This will lead to a solid professional networking, which will provide information, help, advice as well as inspiration after promotion.
Challenging employees to get out of their comfort positions. There is no way an employee can grow if he/she does not aspire to get out of routine activities. The management should give its employees assignments that are very challenging to ensure that they break from routine activities. In addition, the management can help them to prepare a saver environment for them to learn from their day-to-day mistakes.
Hiring a coach. For these employees who the company wishes to promote in different career paths, the outside coach can be of a great help. This will provide a free environment under which employees will feel free to discus opportunities and threats facing them. This will help them particularly in developing their individual plans.
Promotion. After undertaking the above six steps, the company will then evaluate its employees and select the best person to promote.
Conclusion In conclusion, this research paper discussed the problem of wasted human and financial resources as a result of the manager promotion process. It also identified different alternatives to a more efficient promotion strategy and ways of implementing the new methods in LoanDepot.com Company, which is an online lending company.
The paper found that this problem made the company lose managers apart from incurring lots of losses. In dealing with this problem, the paper suggests that LoanDepot.com Company should use merit and seniority strategies simultaneously when promoting its managers.
The paper proposes seven steps which can be followed to ensure efficient promotion strategy. They include encouraging employees, creating a plan, pairing employees with mentors, expanding professional network, challenging them, hiring a coach, and then promoting them.
References Businessihub (2011). Basis of Employee Promotion: Advantages and Disadvantages. Web.
Ferreras, A. (2011). Originates $1 Billion in New Mortgage Loans in August 2011. Web.
Ivancevich, J. (2009). Human Resource Management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lowe, E. (2011). Managing the Employee Promotions Process. Web.
Molecular Biology gene/ mRNA body Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Future experiment proposals
Introduction The expansion of poly-glutamines present in the Huntingtin proteins is solely responsible for the Huntington disease. The Huntington disease refers to a dominant autosomal neurodegenerative aberration. To understand the development of the Huntington disease, the function of normal Huntingtin proteins has to be elucidated. This is accomplished by purifying the Huntingtin proteins and Argonaute as associated proteins.
Studies have shown that Huntingtin proteins and Argo2 exist in P bodies and that a decline in Huntingtin led to a compromised RNA-mediated gene silencing. RNA-mediated gene silencing refers to the related processes that involve 21 to 25 nucleotide RNAs to repress the expression of specific target genes.
A change in the Huntingtin protein leads to a distinct neurodegeneration pattern. This paper, therefore, seeks to establish whether the Huntington disease protein is a contributory factor in RNA- mediated gene silencing. The paper is based on a research study titled Huntington’s disease protein contributes to RNA-mediated gene silencing through association with Argonaute and P bodies by Savas et al. (2008).
With regard to this, the paper seeks to test the hypothesis that Huntingtin protein causes a characteristic neurodegeneration pattern. This hypothesis is informed by a study on mouse striatal cells with mutant Htt that reveals the presence of fewer P bodies and a decreased gene silencing activity. This may suggest that transcriptional deregulation in Huntington disease is an outcome of the mutant Htt’s role post-transcriptional processes.
In order to test the hypothesis, Savas et al used a biochemical approach to purify proteins related to WT and mutant Htt and identified Ago2 as a co-purifying protein (Savas et al., p. 10820). Further co-localization tests showed the presence of Htt and Ago2 in processing P bodies, cytoplasmic foci that contain translationally repressed mRNAs with bound proteins (Savas et al., p. 10820).
The data suggested that normal Htt is a component of the P body and functions in the ost-transcriptional pathways (Savas et al., p. 10820). The results of the test indicate that Ago2 indeed co-purifies with Huntingtin. Specifically, Ago2 co-purifies with Htt 480 protein when over-expressed in cells.
The test further proved that Huntingtin is present in P bodies (Savas et al., p. 10822). It was also established that Huntingtin plays a role in small RNA- mediated processes (Savas et al., p. 10823). Finally, a comparison was made between normal Huntingtin and polyQ-expanded Huntingtin (Savas et al., p. 10824). The findings of this research may help in control and management of Huntington disease.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background The background of this research is based on RNA silencing, which refers to the process of sequence-specific regulation of gene expressions caused by double-stranded RNA (Fire et al, p. 806). It takes place in almost all eukaryotes. Some of the functions of the RNA silencing remain largely controversial while a few are well documented. RNA silencing processes mediate transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Post-transcriptional gene silencing is characterized by mRNA degradation or translational repression.
Extensive complementarity between the double-stranded RNA and RNA is required for effective target mRNA degradation. However, imperfect complementarity may also produce effective translational repression, but without extensive target RNA degradation (Olsen
Marketing Strategies for Laundry Detergent “Finish Dishwater Tablets 25 Pack” Essay college essay help near me
Definition of Marketing Marketing could be defined as the art of connecting the consumer market with products and services for the purposes of satisfying their needs as well as company’s profitability.
Introduction The product is “Finish dishwater tablets 25 Pack” which is a laundry detergent manufactured for consumer use. The product has the capabilities of treating water for cleaning utensils and other household materials. The detergent contains unique properties which enable removal of stains hence easily used as an abrasive substance. Its properties has got the capability of softening water by breaking down the organic compounds hence offering stability to foaming properties and also improve the aesthetic properties of various surfaces.
Market Analysis Situation Analysis
The Company’s success within various market segments is dependent on their broad assessment concerning the needs and preferences of the targeted consumers. Segmentation has the ability of presenting the company with great opportunity of identifying specific consumer needs hence appropriate measure taken (Andruss, 2010). Geographic segmentation would be based on typical attributes of the targeted market. The regional segment would be assessed based on consumer tastes on the detergent within a particular region.
This would also include prevailing climatic conditions and the effects it has on the product. Targeting metropolitan areas would require the company to classify consumers based on their value beliefs as per their various backgrounds. Demographic segmentation would be based on social class; household as well as ethnic background (Keegan
Gulf Coast Oysters Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
When supply decreases, prices increase
Short-run companies stay while long-run companies leave
Looking for substitute goods
Introduction Companies are said to be in business if they can maintain the supply of the preferred commodities and maintain the price levels of those commodities. When the supply of a certain commodity decreases, there is always an increase in price. Those companies that rely on such a commodity wholly are in a risk of collapsing if they are not in a position to substitute the commodity with another, which the customers would find satisfaction.
When supply decreases, prices increase The supply of the Gulf Coast oysters has been on the decrease owing to the fact that the prolonged swath of toxic algae has delayed the harvesting season. As the oysters feed on the toxic algae, they also become toxic to the humans who may consume it since they may cause some stomach distress and nausea. This means that the restaurants would need to desist from selling them and rely on the limited supply of edible oysters to serve their customers.
As the supply decreases, there is always a tendency of the price to rise in order to balance the two – price and supply (Vienneau 616). If the price were to remain the same, the people would quickly buy off all the oysters and deplete all the supplies. This mechanism is meant to regulate the buying rate of the rare commodity so that it can still be in the market. With the increase in price, the restaurants would be able to maintain their profits levels even with the low supply of the oysters.
Short-run companies stay while long-run companies leave In such a situation where the supply of a commodity is cut down, the effects that it would have on companies would be varied depending on the nature of the company. For example, the long-run companies that rely wholly on that commodity for its business would need to close down due to the lack of an alternative commodity to sell or having no other options in terms of supply.
However, the short-term companies may be able to maintain a steady supply by venturing into other areas to get the supplies. Another option would be to get an alternative good to supply and satisfy their customers. This way the company would be able to maintain the customer base and survive the term of shortage.
Looking for substitute goods During a time of shortage of such an important commodity in the market, other companies may be forced to introduce a new commodity into the market in order to remain in business. This new commodities may not be as appealing to the customers as the previous commodity but the customers may accept it due to the relative satisfaction obtained from it. The commodity might be made more appealing by reducing the buying price. This would make it affordable to the customers and may serve as a substitute for the time being.
In the case of the companies reported in the newspaper, they could try to substitute oysters for some other commodities such as the shrimp, crabs and fish. These commodities were unaffected by the toxic algae since the toxins were not accumulated in the edible portions of the animals. This way, the customers would be able to enjoy the diet and the company would maintain its profits levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Business is all about making profits and this requires the company to maintain its customer base. The company can only do this by maintaining its quality of products or to maintain the supply of the commodity that is most preferred by the customers. When this does not happen, there is likelihood to lose the customers and therefore, the company needs to look for alternative goods to maintain the customers’ satisfaction levels.
Works Cited Vienneau, Robert. “On labour demand and Equilibria of the firm.” Manchester School 73.5 (2005): 612-619. Print.
Limited and Controlled Use of Marijuana Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Approaches to marijuana legalization
Freedom of choice
Medical use of marijuana
Approaches to marijuana legalization Many countries across the world have prohibited the use, farming, possession, manufacture and trade of marijuana and its derivatives. However, some countries do allow limited and controlled use of marijuana for medical purposes or a limited amount for personal use often in private places.
In the context of medical use, marijuana has been used in relieving some conditions associated with cancer. Such conditions include nausea, anorexia, cachexia, pain and depression. While sixteen states in the United States have legalized medical marijuana use, there are still a lot of controversies surrounding its medical use.
Such controversies arise from the safety concerns surrounding the medical use of marijuana. The question of legalizing marijuana refers to the legal use of marijuana both in private and public places for medical use or otherwise. However, there are no adequate justifications on the need to legalize marijuana use.
The proponents of marijuana legalization often use three approaches to advance their arguments. One approach revolves around comparing and contrasting effects of marijuana use with other legal substances that are commonly abused. The other approach revolves around the notion of personal freedom of choice in a democratic space. The third and last approach revolves on the concept that marijuana has known medical benefits.
On the other hand, the opponents of marijuana legalization have developed arguments to counter the three approaches used by its proponents. One approach involves showing the health complications caused by legal but commonly abused substances that marijuana use is often compared.
The opponents of marijuana use advocate for the limitation of personal freedom of choice if such freedom leads to self-injury. The opponents of marijuana use have also argued that the medical benefits derived from marijuana use can be gained through alternative conventional drugs.
Substance abuse Marijuana use is often compared to substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco use. These two substances do cause serious health complications. For example, according to the center for disease control and prevention (CDCP), tobacco use is associated with several diseases such as coronary heart diseases and stroke amongst many more physical and mental health complications (par 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proponents of marijuana use argue that its use does not cause more harm than alcohol and tobacco use. Alcohol and tobacco use are legal in most countries.
On the other hand, the opponents of marijuana use have sought to show that marijuana use does cause grievous mental and physical health complications. According to National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), marijuana use severely compromises ability to do complex functions and causes chest problems similar to tobacco use (par 1).
Marijuana use has known health complications and antisocial behaviours. Having established the health complications caused by the marijuana use, the opponents of marijuana use argue against legalizing marijuana. Instead, the opponents of marijuana use advocate for greater sanctions on alcohol and tobacco use by governments across the world.
Freedom of choice The notion of freedom of choice is another major reason advanced on the need to legalize marijuana. In this context, the proponents of marijuana legalization argue that marijuana use ought to be a personal decision as long as one does not present antisocial behaviour. This school of thought holds the view that this personal choice in relation to marijuana use ought not to be regulated by the government. People who use marijuana for recreational purposes often hold this school of thought.
There is documented evidence that the official government position across many countries is that marijuana use is harmful to a persons’ mental and physical health. For example, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), a US government agency, holds the view that ‘the use of marijuana can produce adverse physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral effects’ (par 2).
The opponents of marijuana use have used such government position to justify its interference with personal choices and freedom of choice. The opponents argue since many governments hold the view that marijuana use is harmful to one’s health then it has a right to prohibit it.
Medical use of marijuana There are active ingredients in marijuana that have medical value in cancer medication and HIV/Aids management. In this context, marijuana has been used in the management of anorexia, cachexia and pain amongst other conditions associated with cancer and HIV/Aids.
We will write a custom Essay on Limited and Controlled Use of Marijuana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana used in management of these conditions is known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or formerly delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Nida 5) .This medical use for marijuana has been advanced as a major reason to legalize marijuana.
Having recognized the medicinal value of THC, medical researchers have synthesized THC that is used in most conventional cancer drugs. While there are still some limitations on the medicinal value of synthetic THC in comparison to its plant extract version, the benefits of prohibiting medical marijuana use still outweighs its benefits. This is because there is a high potential to abuse marijuana in the pretence of marijuana use.
Marijuana legalization On deep scrutiny and analysis, the three major approaches used to advance the need for marijuana legalization fail to pass the logic threshold. The reason advanced on the need to legalize marijuana use because there are other legal but commonly abused substances fails to appeal to logic. These commonly abused substances have the capacity to cause serious mental and physical health complications. Marijuana use in its own right causes serious health complications.
In this context, the focus ought to shift to lobbying the governments to regulate those substances and not to legalize marijuana use. The government has a duty towards individuals. In this context, the government has a right to infringe on personal liberties if it opines that the same may lead to self-destruction and harm. The world has synthetically produced the active ingredient in marijuana that has medicinal value and as such, there is no need to legalize marijuana use based on this reason.
Works Cited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. 21 Mar.2011.Web.19th Nov.2011
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). What Are the Long-Term Health Effects of Marijuana Use? Oct.2011. Web.
The Cold War Between the United States and the Soviet Union Essay college admissions essay help
The end of World War II marked the beginning of the cold war. This war was between world’s super power nations: the United States and its allied nations against the Soviet Union and its allies on the other side. This war took place between 1946 and 1991.
According to Ted and Reim cold war was not a physical battle, but a prolonged state of competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in terms of weapon sophistication, technology advancement, economic stability and political influence (19). The aim of this article is to depict what transpired during the cold war and several factors about the Cold war.
These factors include difference in ideologies between the two nations. The United States and the Soviet Union had two opposing types of government. Klaus and Lane states that the United States government supported multiparty system, democracy, capitalism, personal freedom and free elections but the Soviet Union was opposed to this system of governance. The country practiced dictatorial and communist system (17).
Economically, the United States supported international free trade but the Soviet Union was opposed to it and barred free international trade. The United States and the Soviet Union had power rivalry. Both nations were fighting to dominate the other after decline of Europe. Also, there relationship had deteriorated during World War II after the United States supplied weapon to Russian opponents. Additionally, the United States had turned down Russia’s request to help in stabilizing the economy after the Second World War.
Klaus and Lane state that this war came to be known as the cold war because the two sides: the Soviet Union and the United States never engaged in a physical fight. This led to use of others nations as battle fields by these super powers to prove there supremacy (1). For instance, “during Vietnam War the Soviet Union supported North Vietnam while the United States supported South Vietnam” (Klaus and Lane 139).
Klaus and Lane argue that the United States is seen as the winner of cold war, because the Soviet Union finally agreed terms of the United States which led to signing of START I treaty between George H. W. Bush and Gorbachov (185). According to this treaty, the Soviet Union agreed not to interfere with affairs of Eastern Europe.
It also agreed to “establish contact with other countries and invited external investors to invest in the Soviet Union, a move they had opposed before” (Ted and Reim 128). The United States managed to defeat the Soviet Union through imposing economic sanctions. The United States destabilized the country’s oil market by “requesting Arabia to increase the oil production to cater for world’s oil demand” (Ted and Reim 124).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This led to deterioration of the Soviet Union economy forcing them to introduce restructuring reforms. These reforms allowed external investors to invest in the Soviet Union. In order to revive their devastated economy, “Soviet Union agreed to sign intermediate range nuclear force treaty with the United States to regulate nuclear weapon” (Klaus and Lane 192).
From the cold war we learn, that any form of war has a negative impact on the economy growth. Both the Soviet Union and the United States spent a large portion of their revenue to support the cold war through funding projects to invent new sophisticated weapons, paying a large number of soldiers fighting in the war and channeling other resources towards the war.
Unity among nations is crucial to the growth of the nation’s economy, because it prevents trade malpractice and sanctions from competitor nations. Democratic government is better as opposed to autocratic government. It is important to allow people freedom, multiparty system and free trade at local, national and international level. Also, it is essential to introduce and support international security, trade and political policies to prevent occurrence of another war.
Lessons emerging from cold war have contributed to consultative decision making by countries on matters concerning international security, economy, trade and politics. In addition, these lessons are one of key factors which have led to formation of international union to create and enact policies on international security, politics, and trade.
Wastage of funds on military operation in foreign country is one lesson which has not been taken in to account by modern American foreign policy. The United States up to date sends the soldiers to fight in different nations. If these military operations are not well planned, they can adversely affect its economy as witnessed in the Soviet Union.
In addition, the United States has been developing nuclear technology and expanding its military capacity. Risks associated with these mistakes include: high chances of triggering another war, economic turmoil, lose of life and jobs and global division across interest lines.
War on terror is a characteristic by product of cold war because the militia who perpetrate terror attacks are funded and supported by individuals, nations and groups with common interest against the United States.
We will write a custom Essay on The Cold War Between the United States and the Soviet Union specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, fight against terror attacks seems to be between the United States and its supporters against terror groups who are backed up by some nations. From the lessons of the cold war, victims of terror attacks can opt to negotiate with the terror groups to solve this problem. Also, they can use military attacks, economic and financial sanctions to destabilize these terror groups network.
In conclusion, the cold war was between the United States and the Soviet Union. Although it was not physically fought on their soil, the two nations were adversely affected especially in terms of economy. The Soviet Union was much devastated by aftermath of the war and opted to sign treaties with the United States which led to the end of the cold war in 1991.
Works Cited Klaus, Larres and Anne Lane. The cold war: Essential reading. Massachusetts: Blackwell publishers Inc, 2001. Print.
Ted, Gottfried and Melanie Reim. The cold war. New Milford: The Millbrook Inc, 2003. Print.
Historical background of Islamic faith Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents The principles of Quran and five pillars
Other Duties and Prohibitions
Religious and ethnic divisions
Islamic faith has evolved in history from the times of Muhammad to present times. The term Islam denotes submission to God’s will. Every object must conform to the will of God/Allah or nature’s law. Reasonable creatures like a human being are free to choose whether to conform or not. The faith teaches that God’s power came to humanity through Quran to Muhammad. Muslims believe that God is all-powerful and all-knowing.
God has no equals, peers, beginning or end. The faith declares Muhammad as the only messenger of God. God uses angels to do his works on earth. Quran reveals that God used Angel Gabriel to reveal himself to Muhammad. Muhammad learnt how to pray through angels. Islamic faith notes that the Quran came through messenger or prophet, and Muhammad was the last of such messengers.
However, it recognizes other prophets like Noah, Adam, and Moses among others. Strangely, Muslim believes that Jesus was a messenger too. All prophets were equal, and none was above others, and no more prophets will come before the judgment day. The basic tenet of the Islamic faith as stressed by Muhammad is the judgment day, which no one can escape. Muslims believe that everyone will face judgment before the heavenly throne (Goldschmidt, 2002).
The principles of Quran and five pillars Muhammad and teachings in Quran have the basic rules guiding Muslims. The religion observes right actions, rules and laws. There are five vital pillars of Islamic faith guiding believers (Goldschmidt, 2002).
The first pillar is witness (Shuhuduh). This rule stresses that there is only one God and Muhammad is God’s messenger. Believers must mean this pillar. A Muslim who denies God, or has more than one God and does not recognize Muhammad as the prophet is an apostate. Apostasy is punishable by death. The second pillar is the worship (salat) or ritual prayer.
These involve sets of motions and prostrations believers do while facing in the direction of the Kabah in Mecca with a short recitation of Quran. Salat reminds believers of their relationship to God and take off their minds from worldly affairs. Believers perform salat five times a day. They can choose any suitable place for worshipping. Before any worship occurs, Muslims perform cleanliness rituals on their faces, feet, hands and arms.
Fasting (Saturn) is the third pillar of Islamic faith done during the month of Ramadan. Devotees refrain from drinking, eating, smoking and sexual intercourse. Refraining from the above acts teaches the rich of what it means to be poor. Fasting trains Muslims to master their appetites, and create a common bond among them. Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, elderly and chronically ill Muslims do not fast.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, Muslims who are travelling can perform partial fasting. The fourth pillar talks about giving of tithe (zakat) or alms. Muslims may contribute a certain share of their income to help the needy. The fundamental goal of this pillar is to ensure sharing among the Muslims. Most of social amenities in Muslim communities derive their funding from awaquf (forms of endowment).
The final pillar talks about pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca. All adults should perform a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during their lives i.e. if they can afford it. The purpose of the pilgrimage is to give the faithful an opportunity to observe elaborate rites hallowed by Prophet Muhammad. The pilgrimage rites serve to bring Muslims from all over the world together, and break any barriers among them.
Other Duties and Prohibitions The five pillars do not effectively cover all the Muslims duties. There is another pillar in regard to wars. Muslims believe that jihad is a struggle in the way of God. People misconceive jihad to means Islamic war against other religions. Muslims believe in fighting against those who do not believe in God or the judgment day.
They also fight those who forbid God or his messengers, and those who reject allegiance to the true faith until they pay tribute to the faith. This phrase has various meaning depending on situations and contexts. It can mean fighting Jews or Christians or pagans, altogether. A section of modern Muslims believes that jihad is defending Islam against attack from external aggressors, either verbal or military attack.
Muslims must first cleanse their souls of fear, pride and forgetfulness so as to protect their territory. Muslims consider each other a brother or a sister. Therefore, if any of them err or forget their duties to God or fellow Muslims, fellow Muslims must correct them like a brother and a sister.
The faith prohibits all forms intoxicating liquors, mind-influencing drugs, usury and gambling to Muslims. Muslims may also not eat the flesh of pigs or any other animal not slaughtered in the name of God. Further, Islamic faith prohibits men from wearing silk clothes or jewelry. The Quran has harsh penalties for those who commit murder, theft and other crimes. Still, Muslims who make or worship idols also have their share of punishments. However, people exempt artistic representation of living creatures.
Muslims believe that the purpose of sexual relations is to beget children. Therefore, it should never take place before or outside marriage. Parents often arranged marriages between their children. Therefore, consummate of marriage only took place, for the first time, on a wedding day. Strict rules separated sexes to avoid inappropriate affairs. The faith prohibits controversial acts of masturbation and homosexuality among its followers.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical background of Islamic faith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rules excluded women from mainstream participation in politics and social life. The prohibitions further subjected women to the command of their husbands, brothers and fathers. Quran teachings require women to wear veils. Therefore, most Muslim women veil their faces in public places. However, nowadays some show less interest in wearing veils. The faith requires adults to dress modestly and avoid nudity.
Muslims must wash themselves after performing any act of nature. The use themselves when they wake up, before meals, and after handling certain objects, which are unclean to them. Total submergence into water is a must after sexual intercourse, menstruation and childbirth. Men shave or crop their heads and body hair but let their beards grow. Women shave all their body hair. Privately, Muslims may flout these rules. However, they must observe them in public places.
Religious and ethnic divisions The religious and ethnic separations among Muslims started after the death of the Prophet, the caliphate and religious authority belonging to Ali (shi’ah-i ’Ali – the first leader of the Household of the Prophet, during the lifetime of the Prophet himself). Followers considered Ali’s position and station in regard to the Prophet, companions and relations to Muslim in general and realized there was a division among their views (Muhammad, 1975).
People identify Muslims as Sunni, Shi’i or Kharijite. These divisions emerged because of the power struggle during periods of Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs. These were the four leading sects of Islam. Sunni sect acknowledged the Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs as legitimate leader of the entire ummah, Sunni sect appears more political than theological.
A Shi’i Muslim is a follower of Ali as Muhammad’s true successor as the spiritual guides of ummah put it. Shi’i group rejects all other caliphs and all of Ali’s successors not conforming to the “correct line” i.e. those inherited a perfect knowledge and inner teachings of Quran from Muhammad. Muslims continued to experience divisions due to the genealogical differences. A close look at the history of Islam reveals that divisions further emerged. Some sects split and die especially in the Shi’i.
The Muslims relations with others from different Arab nations occurred in early periods of history. Revolutionary movements led to the emergence of other sects such the Qarmatians in Arabia and Bahrain, the Fatimids in Tunisia, and later the Assassins in Syria and Persia, and the Agha Khan in India. Further, contacts with others led to the rise of Turks, Crusaders, and Mongols.
The rise of the Mamluks destroyed the caliphates. Mamluks controlled Egypt by establishing centers of power, wealth, and learning for two centuries. Muslim world survived the Mongol ordeal to become a religion of today.
In short, Muslims relations to each other consist of invasions, conquests and destructions. Power house rose and fell. Some of these thrones did more harm than good to the Middle East region. Despite all these chronicles of war after another, Islam survived and grew to become among the leading world religions today.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical background of Islamic faith by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Goldschmidt, A. J. (2002). A Concise History of the Middle East, 7th Edition. Colorado: Westview Press.
Muhammad, A. (1975). Shi’ite Islam. New York: State University of New York Press.
Environmental Ethics: Land Ethic and the Platform of Deep Ecology Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Leopold’s “Land Ethic”
Application to a Current Issue
The Platform of Deep Ecology
Introduction Environmental issues have for a long time now been discussed and debated all over the world. The twenty-first century call for a reconsideration of the approaches through which environmental concerns that affect the planet earth as well as the societies in it are dealt with (Bunnin 517). People of the world have been called upon to embrace those practices that will ensure sustainable development so as not to compromise the survival of both the present and future generations.
Attfield defines environmental ethics as the study of ethics of the day to day interactions of human beings with their environment and their impacts on the systems of nature (15). This essay discusses the connections between Leopold’s “Land ethic” and the platform of deep ecology and their appropriateness to environment ethics. The usefulness of these connections to two current issues of environmental concern is presented.
Leopold’s “Land Ethic” Leopold’s ‘Land Ethic’ that was introduced in 1949 defined a new dimension of understanding the relationship between human beings and the natural environment and paved the way for the present day professional conservationists movement (Jamieson 204). These conservationists are concerned with anthropogenic pollution of water and air by harmful industrial wastes, alarming decline in the number of species, deliberate extinction of species as well as the introduction of new species in new habitats.
According to Leopold, ethics have undergone significant growth in scope and complexity over the past 3,000 years in western civilization. In ecological terms, ethics refers to the limitation on freedom of action in the struggle for existence while philosophers define it as a differentiation of social from anti-social conduct (Jamieson 205). He believed that ethics are meant to guide individuals to unite for the common good.
Leopold is credited for arguing that ‘community’ ought to include both human and non-human elements in the environment like waters, animals, plants, and soils which may be referred generally from an ecological perspective as land. The land is to be loved and accorded respect as an extension of ethics (Jamieson 208). Human beings, therefore, have a great responsibility of protecting and preserving the land in the larger context.
Leopold summarized the evolution of ethics as presented by Darwin by stating that all ethics so far advanced are underpinned upon one major premise: that the individual belongs to a larger community whose parts are interdependent (Jamieson 208). Land, therefore, is a community to which man belongs and not a commodity owned by human beings, and hence all are members of the biotic community.
The ever increasing human population has been identified as a major threat (unethical) to the biotic community (Jamieson 210). The land ethic in the time of a changing science of ecology has been a major topic for discussion. Ecologically, Leopold argued that nature should be at static equilibrium but this has not been possible due to disturbance and perturbation, especially those stirred by human beings (Jamieson 214).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The shift in contemporary ecology to a more dynamic paradigm raises concerns of whether the concept of land ethic is still real in the modern world. Over the past decades, there has been a paradigm shift from a static equilibrium of nature to the “flux of nature” in ecology. Many have been left questioning the validity of the land ethic. When putting across his idea of environmental conservation and preservation, Leopold was aware of the implications of his words in a dynamic, ever changing biota (Jamieson 214).
This is because the words used literally mean to “arrest change.” This tension was addressed by the introduction of concept of scale which includes rate (temporal) and scope (spatial) when used in ecology. Leopold argued that evolutionary changes ought to be slow and localized but the invention of sophisticated tools by man has facilitated changes at unprecedented rapidity, violence, as well as scope (Jamieson 214).
In his opinion, Leopold believed that man was an ordinary member and citizen of the land community and just equal to other members of the community. However, he argued that man was a moral species and could deliberate ethically and make conscientious choices. Hence, they are endowed with an obligation of caring for the rest of the land-community.
A Critical Position
Having elaborated on the concept of land ethic as put forward by Aldo Leopold, it is worthy giving a critique of his arguments. His propositions have a scientific basis and cannot be dismissed as being naïve claims.
The coming into existence of ecology which is concerned with the study of the complex relationships between the diverse species and their natural habitats reinforced the tenet of the land ethic. The suggestion put forward by Leopold’s on the need to extend the human community to incorporate the non-human aspects of the world is wise and acceptable (Callicort 15).
None can ignore the interrelatedness of these dimensions of nature. In order to preserve the ecological stability of nature, there is need to promote sustainable co-existence among the members of land. Throughout the history of the world, ethical consciousness has undergone change with the advancement of our species.
In terms of the position of human beings in the land community, Leopold wants all to be regarded as equal members of the community. This may sound controversial but I think clarification given is acceptable.
We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Ethics: Land Ethic and the Platform of Deep Ecology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Human beings are not in any way degraded to the same moral level as non-human components, instead man is expanding his boundaries to include the rest of nature into his community since man is a moral agent (Callicort 17). The challenge here is a situation where man is treated in the same way as non-human members as was the case with slaves during colonial period.
The arguments presented by Leopold can play a crucial role when it comes to sustainable use of available ‘resources’ by man. His intention is not to prevent man from making use of the resources but to make human beings aware of the fact that these non-human components of nature have a right to continue existing.
This is evidenced by the fact that if man’s advancements in various spheres are not checked, he has the potential of altering the entire natural order of the world. Nuclear wastes, ever rising temperatures, mass extinction of species, among other catastrophic phenomena can have significant impacts on the human and non-human components of the community. In general, Leopold’s land ethic was designed to restrain the civilized man’s impact on other species and natural environment at large.
Application to a Current Issue In the quest to promote environmental ethics in the U.S., a number of conflicts have been experienced over the decades between conservationists and those having reservations on the ideas championed by the environmental professionals.
Dr. Ivar Giaever, the 1973 winner of the Nobel Prize in physics resigned on September 13, 2011, from his position annoyed by the society’s official statement of policy that “global warming is occurring” (Hayward). He accused global warming crusaders and politicians as being money-hungry individuals ready to exploit unsuspecting American citizens.
Giaever believed that there is no scientific evidence to show that global warming was occurring and that its effects, if at all there is any, would be devastating. In his resignation letter, he criticized the claims that greenhouse gas emissions were changing the atmospheric conditions and hence affecting the planet earth’s climate. He said that any changes in the world are natural and human activity should not be blamed.
He also argued that data showing the extinction of polar bear were forged by known scientists. Although he agreed that the climatic changes could have and will occur, Giaever was perturbed by those out to con people by politicizing science. The sentiments aired by this scientist represent the opinions of many on how man interacts with nature. The critical question provoked by Giaever is what the real intentions of the conservationists and politicians are when they seem to champion for a better world.
Is it the love of money? Is it out of their desire for a balanced land-community or ecosystem? Calls to reverse the trend of climate change may best be understood if Leopold’s arguments are brought into focus. Perhaps, the passionate feelings expressed by Dr. Giaever and other like-minded individuals could be that they have never imagined that the non-human beings can be accorded moral standing. If that be the case, then they are still embracing the traditional Western systems of ethics.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Ethics: Land Ethic and the Platform of Deep Ecology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Platform of Deep Ecology The term “deep ecology” came into existence in the early 1970s but its usage has ever since spread to the international environment movement platform (Jamieson 218). Naess, the pioneer of the term highlighted seven principles of deep ecology.
These are: metaphysics of inter-relatedness, an ethos of biospherical egalitarianism, the values of diversity and symbiosis, an anti-class posture, opposition to pollution and depletion of resources, the value of complexity, and an emphasis on local autonomy and decentralization (Jamieson 218).
These principles point toward a cohesive ecological world-view, and to some of the ethical and political implications of such a view of the world (Jamieson 219). Deep ecology, therefore, implies that the whole world is interrelated to its ontological depths.
While explaining the principles, Naess adopted an ecological world-view. He pointed out that the first principle shows that no individual is independent of the other members of the world or reality, but part of the whole. Thus reality should be seen as relational as opposed to aggregative in nature. Then there is the interrelatedness of all forms of life which have equal right to live and blossom.
The principles of diversity and symbiotic relationship are at the core of ecology since they facilitate the enjoyment the other entitlements. All other non-ecological forms resulting from exploitation and suppression are to be discouraged as pointed out by the next principle (Jamieson 219). Pollution and exploitation should then be fought since it leads to resource depletion.
However, the war against pollution should be fought in such a way that it does not exacerbate class differences. Appeal to ecological thinking by embracing the value of complexity is also a critical principle. Finally, local autonomy as opposed to decentralization is to be promoted so as to enhance the integrity of individuals as well as the systems (Jamieson 219).
A Critical Position
This notion of the relationship/interrelatedness between human beings and nature is connected to Leopold’s “Land ethics” as they both advocate for some sort of unity between the human and non-human. The perspective from which the world is to be viewed from deep ecology is in great contrast with the classical point of view.
In the past centuries, the world was viewed from mechanistic dimensions as consisting of independent entities; the physical world governed by blind laws of physics. Society, on the other hand, was seen as consisting of thinking beings guided by the ‘blind’ law of self-interest. According to the new world view, this perspective was too parochial and totally against the order of ecological systems.
The old conception of reality resulted in the setting aside of man as being morally superior to other members of reality on the basis of being endowed with the mind. It was actually in contrast to both the principles of deep ecology as well as Leopold’s land ethic.
If the principles are correctly applied, then the proper understanding of the interrelatedness of reality would be achieved. Adhering to the teachings of the past on reality will only serve to create opportunities for exploitation and suppression of the other members of the community.
Current Issue Azzoni reported on Monday, November 21, 2011 that Chevron was fined $28 million for not preventing oil spillage off the Rio de Jenairo coast. This was after an investigative report indicated that the oil spill could have been averted were it not for lack of precaution by the company.
Conservationists and the national government jointly condemned the unfortunate phenomenon. All of them accused the company of environmental crime and posing a great threat to the ecosystem. It was established that the company’s emergency workforce was very slow in response, taking nearly 10 hours before taking action on the matter. The clean-up process took even a longer period due to lack of appropriate equipment.
From the article, it is evident that people are very much concerned with the need to take care of the environment including the waters and biodiversity. This demonstrates a strong sense of ecology both from the government and the citizens in Brazil.
In applying the principles of deep ecology, albeit without knowing, the concerned parties accused the company of negligence in their duties as well as the risk of polluting the environment. In their judgment, the entire sea life was at risk due to suffocation caused by spilled oil. Recreational activities in the affected areas would also have to be suspended until proper cleaning is done. It is this awareness that caused outrage from all sides against Chevron Company.
Conclusion This essay has discussed the connections between Leopold’s “Land ethic” and the platform of Deep Ecology and their appropriateness to environment ethics. Literature on each of the topic has been summarized. The paper has also constructed a critical position and potential challenges associated with the two topics.
The usefulness of these connections to two current issues of environmental concern has been presented. The issue of global warming in America and recent oil spillage in Brazil as discussed in two separate articles has been critically analyzed in relation to the two topics. Land ethics and deep ecology, therefore, are critical areas in the study of environmental ethics and should be embraced by all.
Works Cited Attfield, Robin. Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003, 1- 78.
Azzoni, Tales. “Brazil fines Chevron in $28 million for oil spill.” Environment News. Retrieved from
Bunnin, Nicholas and Tsui-James, E. P. (eds). The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 517-527.
Callicort, Baaird J. In Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. SUNY Press, 1989, 15-17.
Hayward, John. “Nobel Laureate Resigns over Global Warming Dogma.” Fox News, September 15, 2011. Retrieved from
Jamieson, Dale (ed). A Companion to Environmental Philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 204-219.