Table of Contents Summary of the Book
Developing Milkman’s Quest
Magical Realism in the Book
Toni Morrison’s Female Character Portrayal
Summary of the Book The central theme in Toni Morrison’s book, “Song of Solomon”, is the quest for self-identity. In the novel, the author narrates the life journey of a young man, “Milkman” Dead, who lacks enthusiasm for his life, is alienated from his relatives, his cultural roots and his community.
At first, Milkman appears psychologically and spiritually enslaved, but later, his aunt, Pilate, and his ally, Bains, help him to embark on a journey of self-discovery. It is through his quest for spiritual and physical restoration that Milkman is able to relate to his inner self and regain his sense of self-worth.
The events of Milkman’s journeys span over thirty years. In part I of the book (Chapters 1-9), Morrison narrates Milkman’s early life in his hometown, a small town in Michigan. From his birth to his early thirties, Milkman is spiritually empty; his aunt’s conservative tendencies and the father’s worldly lifestyle could not help him grow spiritually.
At one time, Milkman’s father and his sister, Pilate, are forced to flee their home following their father’s killing over land. Later, following a disagreement, they go separate ways only to meet again in this small town in Michigan. The two still have a grudge against one another and could not communicate. Towards the end of part I, Milkman sets out on a quest to find his aunt’s hidden gold, which, according to his father, would become his inheritance.
In part II, Milkman travels to the South ostensibly to search for gold (his inheritance). His quest leads him to a farm in Danville, Pennsylvania, his grandfather’s home. He would later trace his lineage to a small town, Shalimar, in Virginia and go there. It is in this small town that his quest ends when Milkman meets his paternal relatives and discovers his true self-identity.
Developing Milkman’s Quest Morrison uses many narrative elements in part I in developing Milkman’s quest in the American South in part II. One such narrative element is setting. The South harbors Milkman’s past history particularly slavery in the South. Morrison uses the name “Southside”, Pilate’s residence in the town, to denote their southern ancestry, the origins of the Black population.
Thus, Pilate’s place gives Milkman a direct emotional connection to his ancestors in the South. Also, Morrison predicts the importance of Milkman’s journey to his southern ancestral home when he states that Milkman’s walk in the Not Doctor Street was dreamlike and strange following his quarrel with his father.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His quarrel with his father marks a turning point in his life as he learns of his father’s materialistic tendencies over family traditions. Also, in part I, as Milkman walks down this street to his aunt’s Southside residence, he encounters people “all going the direction he was coming from” (78). Here, Morrison signals that in order for Milkman to discover his identity, he will have to go against the grain and transcend not only the Northward migration of the Black population but also his selfish desires and pleasures.
Morrison, in part I, narrates Milkman’s inquisitiveness to know the meaning of one’s name to signify Milkman’s as well as his ancestral origins. It is the South that harbors the secrets of Milkman’s ancestral past and the origin of his family name, which they lost because of their high mobility. As his father explains, Macon Dead, was the name given to his grandfather by a Freedman Bureau official, which the Macon family kept because Milkman’s mother insisted that “it was new and would wipe out the past” (53).
His father’s explanation marked another turning point as Milkman later sets out to find his family origins and his true identity. By dropping their family name the Macon family lost their traditions and history. The surname is significant to the family as it gives them a sense of self-determination. Thus, Morrison uses Milkman’s urge to know his family name in part I to herald his subsequent quest to the South to discover his heritage and self-identity.
Another narrative element Morrison uses in part I of the novel to herald Milkman’s journey in part II is sequencing of events. Milkman’s self-alienation and disaffection to his family and the black community required complete restoration. He had lost his sense of heritage and therefore, could not relate well with his family or community.
Morrison first symbolizes Milkman’s uniqueness during his birth. He narrates that Milkman is born, the first Black baby, in an all-White hospital called Mercy Hospital. Morrison also narrates how Milkman’s prolonged breastfeeding distinguishes him from other children. At only age four, after Milkman learns that people cannot fly, he loses “all interest in himself’ and likewise has no interest in those around him (9). The author narrates how Morrison was excluded by other children while growing up.
His siblings treated him with “casual malice” (10), which, ironically, made Milkman, from an early age, to develop the urge to seek answers about his true identity and familial origins. The social exclusion Milkman suffers marks a turning point in his life as he realizes that he is different from other kids. It also makes him to seek to find out about his ancestry, hence his quest to the South.
As Milkman becomes older, his life is fraught with failures, partly because of his childhood alienation and lack of empathy and self-awareness. Morrison narrates that, at 22 years of age, Milkman still acts and behaves as a child. He writes that Milkman had not “thought of his mother as a person, a separate individual, with a life apart from allowing or interfering with his own” (75).
We will write a custom Essay on Book Review: Song of Solomon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, Morrison portrays Milkman’s perceptions as inaccurate and self-centered. He assaults his father to please his mother but learns that “there was no one to thank him-or abuse him, his action was his alone” (68). This marks another turning point in his life, as he learns that he is responsible for his actions and by extension, his destiny.
Morrison also gives his point of view regarding Milkman’s actions. He states that Milkman’s “sleeping with Hagar had made him generous, or so he thought, wide-spirited, or so he imagined” (69). The author’s point of view portrays Milkman as a self-absorbed and selfish young man, with no dream in life.
It is no wonder the prospect of hidden treasures (gold) makes him set out on a quest to find it. Morrison also gives his views about Milkman’s adulthood dream. He states that Milkman contemplated relocating from the Not Doctor Street to a new place with “new people, new command. That was what he wanted in his life” (180). The author’s views and sequencing technique to herald Milkman’s future quest to the South.
Magical Realism in the Book Morrison uses many examples of magical realism to advance the novels’ themes. One such example relates to his use of descriptions that appeal sense perceptions such as odors, tastes and colors. For instance, he describes the realistic, yet the mysterious quality of the smell of ginger, when he compares his hometown in Michigan with a mystical place in the Far East.
He writes: “An odor like crystallized ginger, or sweet iced tea with a dark clove floating in it… made you think of the East and striped tents and the sha-sha-sha of leg bracelets….” (184). His magical description evokes emotions of Milkman’s lost personal identity and culture. It helps to elaborate the novel’s realistic themes of bemoaning lost culture and personal identity. It underscores Milkman’ and his friend’s (Guitar) search for self-identity, which is a key theme of the book.
Another example of magical realism occurs in chapter 11. In this scene, Morrison describes the sounds made by the hunting dogs during the hunt. He describes the sounds as “all those shrieks, those rapid tumbling barks, the long sustained yells, the tuba sounds, and the drumbeat sounds… (278).
His depiction of the voices, though, distinctive and realistic, is, in time and space, shrouded in mystery. Morrison also links the conscious experiences and the memories of the characters’ past lives. Morrison uses this approach to advance the novel’s theme of the search for one’s self-identity as exemplified by Milkman’s search. It is through his epic search for self consciousness that readers understand the significance of familial and communal identity in his life.
Another example of magical realism that involves personal consciousness occurs in chapter 10. Morrison describes Circe’s house as “looking as if it had been eaten by a galloping disease, the sores of which were dark and fluid” (220).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Book Review: Song of Solomon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She then proceeds to describe what is going on in Milkman’s memory including his flight from his hometown in Michigan to Pennsylvania, his final chat with his personal friend, Guitar, his journey on to Circe’s house and his interaction with his father’s friends before returning to Circe’s house where Milkman is.
This approach of superimposing past memories with the present is an important magical realism technique that helps Morrison to describe the dynamics of the characters’ conscious experiences.
A new sense of self-identity transforms the once narcissistic Milkman into an empathic man as shown in his realistic interaction with his girlfriend, Sweet: “He made up the bed. She gave him gumbo to eat. He washed the dishes… He scoured her tub (285). Here, Morrison encourages greater consciousness among the black people to seek to understand their history and community identity. Her description of how Milkman connected with his personal and familial consciousness borders magical realism.
Milkman, in chapter 15, on completing his quest, reflects on the people he has interacted with and how they helped shape his destiny. He becomes conscious of his familial and community origins as shown in the list of names of his black kinsmen. Morrison uses this mental imagery to illustrate the book’s theme of personal and community sense of identity.
Toni Morrison’s Female Character Portrayal Morrison depiction of the female characters in the novel illustrates the defects of gender relations among the blacks. She portrays female characters as crucial in the development of personal and community identity. All the females Milkman interacts with, though he mistreats them, help him discover his self-identity.
One such female character is Pilate, an influential figure in Milkman’s life, who, unlike Macon Dead, is conservative and disdainful of Macon’s materialistic lifestyle. Morrison uses Pilate to represent the deep connection that females have to their people and ancestors. A stark contrast to Pilate values her ancestry and longs for a reunion with her relatives in the South. However, to her brother, Macon, kinship is not important.
Pilate plays a crucial role in Milkman’s life. Her incomplete song makes Milkman to seek for the missing words of the song later in the book. The words of her song are symbolic because she is attempting to assist Milkman discover his identity.
At the end of the book, Milkman gets all the words and is able to sing the entire song, which makes him feel that he has found his true identity. Pilate helps Milkman, who had lost all personal and cultural consciousness because his father was ‘dead’ emotionally, to discover himself. Thus, Pilate helps to develop an emotional connection to his ancestors.
Morrison also portrays female characters as role models. In the novel, all of Milkman’s role models are females who guided him throughout his life. Even his close male friend, Guitar, is a rogue murderer who could not guide Milkman. In the end, Milkman discovers that Pilate’s teachings were relevant to his final destiny, though, initially, he had sidelined her. As it turns out, Pilate is the most influential figure in Milkman’s quest for self-identity.
Works Cited Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York: Vintage International, 1977. Print.
“Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell Analytical Essay online essay help
The book “Outlaw Platoon” by Sean Parnell is story on heroism. The author begins by explaining how he became the commander of the infantry platoon at the age of twenty-four. This paper explores how Sean Parnell lived and displayed three army values as he describes in the book. The three values identified from the book include “duty, respect, and personal courage”.
From the book, it is notable that the author displayed and lived most of the army values. The first value that comes out clearly from the book is that of “duty”. After the platoon arrived at their base in Afghanistan, “the insurgents attacked them with rocket fire” (Sean 12). The fire killed and even wounded several children. As a soldier, Parnell ran into the village to help one of the little girls. He grabbed the girl and sprinted towards the First Aid Station.
The girl was bleeding in his arms. Afterwards, “the image of the bleeding girl came back to him when he was in bed” (Sean 15). Parnell had to accept the situation and move on with his life. As well, he believed that the other soldiers in the platoon must have had experienced a similar scene. This shows clearly how the soldier lived the value of duty. It is also a sign of commitment towards helping civilians and children. The value of “duty” requires that the soldiers do more than what is required of them.
The other value that is evident from the book is that of “respect”. According to this army value, soldiers are supposed to treat other people well and with respect. Through respect, soldiers are able to appreciate the best in all the other people. During the 16 months in Afghanistan, the author explains how he encountered the noblest attributes of human spirit. Through respect, the soldiers were able to develop the best bonds amongst themselves.
Although this was the only way for the men to survive, Parnell upheld the value of “respect” thus developing the best relationships with the soldiers. The author goes further to explain how they worked as a team. Parnell clearly understood that every individual had something to contribute towards the success of the operation (Sean 104).
The book goes further to present the value of “personal courage”. Personal courage is one of the oldest values associated with the American army. During the 16 months, Parnell was always ready to face adversity and danger. The team endured physical challenges and risked their safety in order to help others.
The approach made it easier for them to attack the insurgents. According to the author, the platoon was fighting a strong infantry. The insurgents were seasoned and properly armed. It was only through courage that they would survive and win the fight. For instance, Parnell describes how he courageously helped one of the solders by the name Garvin after an attack (Sean 182).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The insurgents had no mercy because their objective was to “behead the American soldiers” (Sean 128). Although the insurgents did their very best to overrun the American soldiers, Parnell explains how their team remained strong in order to survive and go back home alive.
This is a sign of personal courage. With courage, faith, and love for each other, most of the soldiers were able to return home alive. Together with the soldiers, Parnell displayed and lived most of the army values thus making the infantry platoon successful despite the challenges and obstacles encountered (Sean 126). In conclusion, Parnell’s book is a story of courage and selfless commitment.
Works Cited Parnell, Sean. Outlaw Platoon: Heroes, Renegades, Infidels, and the Brotherhood of War in Afghanistan. New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 2013. Print.
Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The History of Narrative Film The history of narrative film is traced back to more than 100 years ago in the late 1800s. Simple basic filming devices were invented and were used during this period. Narrative films spread to all parts of the world within twenty years. The spread led to the development of complex technologies and the rise of a major industry.
The industry became widely accepted as a form of entertainment. It attracted numerous artists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and scientists (Cook, 2004). However, the film industry has constantly been dependent on factors beyond its control. The dependency raises important questions, which include: What are the effects of technology on the filmmaking industry? How has industrialization affected the creation of narrative film?
According to Gunning (1991), the narrative of the film was the most important aspect of this art. Editing, composition, and lighting were all designed to assist the audience in understanding the story in the late 1910s. The characters in these stories were created through increased editing. In addition, performance and dialogue subtitles helped the audience in relating the images to the scenes.
Editing was increased and the distance between the cameras and the actors decreased. The change contributed to the development of the star system due to recognition of actors and the emphasis on facial expressions. Editing was used to display the internal thoughts and emotions of a character, as well as to clearly show instances of psychological intensity.
The filmmaking industry experienced a rapid growth and expansion during the first thirty years of its operation. The then unfamiliar experience quickly spread across the globe, attracting an ever growing audience in all the places it was introduced. The growth made it a very popular form of entertainment, displacing other forms of entertainment.
The rapid growth in audience led to an increase in the number of locations where films were shown, competing with opera-houses and theatres for excellence and opulence. The length of the films increased from a few minutes to hours, which controlled the world’s screens for a long time (Cook, 2004).
Among the countries credited with the invention and development of filmmaking are French, America, Germany, and British. The French and the Americans played a major role in the distribution of filmmaking in other parts of the world. They led in the development of artists and talents. Russia, Italy, and Denmark also played a role in developing filmmaking before World War I. By following a strong export policy and advancing its markets, the US became the largest consumer of films (Gunning, 1991).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Americans dominated the world’s film market by the beginning of the First World War. The American filmmaking industry continued to grow during the war, developing new technologies and strengthening its control. The US filmmaking industry moved to Hollywood and films from the new studios filled the world’s market after the First World War. Hollywood led the filmmaking industry artistically and industrially (Liesegang, 1986).
Factors Contributing to Creation of Narrative Film Technology
The history of filmmaking began with devices and experiments designed to present images in a sequence. The earliest technology in filmmaking involved producing an illusion of continuous movement. The illusion was achieved by passing a series of pictures in quick succession in front of a light source.
Later, the moving pictures were projected on a screen. Each picture was briefly held in front of the light source and replaced by the next one. If the process was quick enough, it provided an illusion of movement, where the discontinuous pictures are perceived as continuous (Elsaesser, 1990).
Various experiments seeking to analyze the movement of pictures and their reproduction were performed. The experiments were aimed at naturally reproducing movement by showing pictures at the same speed used to take them. A mechanism was developed to allow the pictures to be displayed in the camera in quick succession.
The pictures were projected in a similar manner. The technology resulted in the development of film rolls. The roll was placed in the camera and quickly moved down while holding it very still. The process had to be repeated when the film was being shown. The process was enhanced by the development of a loop placed in the threading of the film. The loop was situated where the film passed in front of the lens (Liesegang, 1986).
The film was developed and spread in a material invented by Henry M. Reichenbach. The material was made up of a semitransparent and flexible celluloid base. It was divided into strips that were 35mm wide. The material was first adopted by Thomas Edison in 1892 for his Kinetoscope.
Kinetoscope was a device that allowed one person at a time to view brief segments of a film. Riding on the success of the Kinetoscope, other machines developed to reproduce pictures in movement employed the 35mm technology. The Eastman Company supported this process even though their photographic films were 70mm wide. To produce films of the required width, the company had to cut the photographic films lengthwise (Abramson, 1987).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the late 1800s, colored films came into existence. They were created by delicately hand-coloring the frames using very fine brushes. The resultant film was spectacular due to the glow of the pictures (Cook, 2004). However, these films had a limitation since the colors occupying a particular place could spread to other areas of the frame.
The problem was addressed by giving each frame a uniform color. Uniformity of frames was achieved by tinting, toning, or a combination of both. Eastman Kodak invented the first color-sensitive emulsion around 1915. His invention was promoted by the trademark ‘Kodachrome’. Although Kodachrome was still a two-color system, it provided a basis for remarkable developments (Gunning, 1991).
Most early narrative films were accompanied by some kind of sound. The films had lecturers who commented on the pictures shown on the screen, expounding on their material and meaning for the spectators. In addition to the speech, most films were accompanied by music. Accompanying music was produced from a piano or specifically commissioned for the film. At times, music was used together with noise effects.
Noise effects were usually produced by performers using a large display of objects that reproduced natural and artificial sounds. Inventors of moving image desired to synchronize films and discs to print sound directly on the film. It was not until 1926, however, that Warner Bros., a Hollywood Company, presented a film using sound synchronization (Elsaesser, 1990). The film was produced by Don Juan and John Barrymore.
Though it had started as a mere novelty, filmmaking turned into an established industry by 1913. The earliest films evolved from moving snapshots, about a minute long, to about five to ten minutes long by 1905 (Cook, 2004). The films also used change of camera position and change of scenes to convey a message or to show different themes. With the development of longer displays, a new set of methods for making complex narrative films emerged in the 1910s.
By this time, large-scale businesses had come up to offer services of making and showing films. The companies acquired specialized venues exclusively used for showing films. The venues were supplied with films by various production and distribution companies. Such companies started by selling the films to the exhibitors, but later started renting them out. In the late 1910s, Hollywood became the most important supplier of films (Abramson, 1987).
A number of countries claim that they were the ones who invented the moving pictures. However, filmmaking cannot be traced to any of these countries. The reason is because, like many technologies, filmmaking cannot be traced to any particular moment. In addition, the birth of filmmaking cannot be credited to any particular country or person. In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs strongly pursued avenues to project pictures that continuously moved on a screen.
Such ventures led to the presentation of moving pictures to a marveled audience in various parts of the world (Gunning, 1991). Although filmmaking had spread to different parts of the world, some European countries and the United States retained their dominance over film production and exhibition. The French, however, were the first to dominate local and international markets. In addition, they were arguably the best in stylistic innovations, though they competed with the United States and Britain on this front.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Major Factors Contributing to the Creation of the Early Narrative Film by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among the initial innovators in France were the Lumie’re brothers. They are said to be the first to show moving pictures to an audience for a fee. The brothers operated a photographic equipment factory where they experimented with a camera design called the cinematographe. However, depending on how one looks at it, the first show of moving pictures can be traced to Edison when he developed the Kinetoscope.
The Lumie’re brothers faced competition from other film makers, such as Georges Melielis. Since the brothers primarily dealt with documentary material, Melielis became the leader in the production of fiction films. However, due to competition, Melielis was forced into bankruptcy in 1913. One of the major competitors at this time was the Pathe Company, which outlived the Lumie’re and the Melielis (Abramson, 1987).
According to Cook (2004), the film industry in some European countries and the United States began coalescing into industrial capitalist enterprises in the early 1910s. Specialization and division of labor was established in the industry by separating exhibition, distribution, and production sectors. Films became longer in size and exhibitors demanded a regular supply of new items. The development led to increased demand for production of high standard films.
Such production required increased division of labor, specialization, and standardized practices. The emergence of permanent exhibition venues also contributed to the rationalization of separating exhibition from the other areas of filmmaking. Specialization and division of labor enabled the industry to maximize profits, making it more stable. Since profits depended on the turnout at exhibitions, producers in most countries were forced to make short films to accommodate the different tastes of the audience (Gunning, 1991).
The attempt to rationalize distribution of films resulted in maximization of profits. As a result, US manufacturers who had initially concentrated on the domestic market only began expanding into international markets. According to Elsaesser (1990), Vitagraph was the first company to establish a distribution office in Europe in 1907. Other major companies followed by establishing distribution agencies in Britain. They became America’s distribution centers in Europe.
On its part, British filmmakers mainly concentrated on the distribution and exhibition of films, rather than on production. Half of the films showing in Britain were American, with French and Italy films constituting a significant portion of the remaining 50 percent. Germany also benefitted from the distribution of American films. The US replaced the Europeans as leaders in the film industry in 1914. At this time, the Europeans were reeling from the effects of World War I (Liesegang, 1986).
By 1908, the film industry was well established and flourishing like never before. However, the industry was still very disorganized. Neighboring exhibition venues competed for similar films or rented similar items, which forced them to compete for the same audience. Some distributors supplied exhibitors with films that had been shown for so long that they contained scratches that obscured the image.
The new developments created the need for film censorship and regulation (Cook, 2004). The Edison and Biograph companies helped the producers to form the Motion Picture Patents Company in late 1908. The MPPC was formed in an effort to stabilize the industry and look after the producer’s interests. In addition to the producers, the MPPC incorporated foreign distributors in the US. It later agreed to regularize the issue of new films and to standardize the price per foot for their films (Elsaesser, 1990).
The production of films in major countries was characterized by specialization and division of labor. The sector changed from a collaborative enterprise to a specialized field with the emergence of specialists. Such specialists included property men, script-writers, and wardrobe mistresses. All of them worked under the director. The director was required to make one reel per week using their own cast and crew.
The requirement led to the emergence of a new category of producer who was charged with overseeing the whole process (Elsaesser, 1990). At the time, the film industry put emphasis on speed and quantity of films. However, a few films, especially those made to promote cultural values, were exempt from the rule. According to Gunning (1991), Vitagraph, the largest American studio, hired G. W. Griffith as its sole director. The director was hired in 1918. However, by the time he left in 1913, there were six directors under his supervision.
Conclusion By mid 1910s, the American film industry had improved in terms of better and permanent exhibitions, internal censorships, and the production of respectable forms of entertainment.
Conditions had improved from the early 1900s when the industry was in a crisis. A large audience could now comfortably enjoy watching films in an elaborate movie exhibition venue. The films produced during this period were different as well. Narrative emerged as an important aspect of the films at the time. Such factors as technology improved editing, composition, and lighting in the production of films.
Specialization and division of labor also impacted on the production, distribution, and exhibition of narrative films at the time. In addition, specialization and division of labor maximized profits in the filmmaking industry, leading to its stability. However, the distribution and exhibition sectors in the US hindered the process of changing the industry to multi-reel film producer.
The reason is that most exhibition venues had a small seating capacity. In turn, limited seating capacity led to the exhibition of short films featuring a wide array of subjects to attract more audience and increase profits. Due to this, the impetus to shift the focus of the industry to the production of multi-reel films came from Europe. The reason is that the distribution of imported films was not subject to MPPC controls.
References Abramson, A. (1987). The history of television, 1880 to 1941. Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Cook, D. A. (2004). A history of narrative film (4th ed.). Virginia: W W Norton
The Problem of Social and Economic Inequality in Modern Society Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
The Articles Analysis
Introduction Nowadays, we have the opportunities to be the active participants of the social problems solving. In the past, people struggled for gaining these opportunities. However, it does not mean that the nature of social issues changed dramatically. Quite the opposite, the nature is, essentially, the same but the methods of their solving and the attitude of public towards them have undergone changes.
The aim of this essay is to analyze the newspaper and magazine articles devoted to the problem of social inequality and economic welfare.
The Articles Analysis The first article, which I am going to present, is The Future of Fair Labor by Jefferson Cowie. The author gives the overview of the historic process of the labor legislation reforming. Cowie emphasizes the importance of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s legislative act addressed to the employers and workers.
The President’s initiative laid the foundation of the modern employment legislation. “It outlawed child labor, guaranteed a minimum wage, established the official length of the workweek at 40 hours, and required overtime pay for anything more” (Cowie n.pag.).
However, the author of the article states that the current situation in the field of employment regulation and legislation is rather vulnerable. It seems that the current legislation is too flexible in the sense that it gives to the employers the opportunity to find the loopholes. As a result, the substantial part of employees works the abnormal hours and does not obtain the appropriate remuneration. The author claims that it is the role of the government to ensure the efficiency of the current employment legislation.
The second article is The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem by Timothy Noah. The economic inequality is the major theme of the article. The author touches upon the problem of social stratification based on the differences in the economic welfare of the American population.
Although he indicates to the significant gap between the wealthy individuals, whose weight in the total population accounts for only 1%, and the other part of the population, the weight of which is 99%, he argues that the problem should not be considered only in the context of the average income.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Noah claims that the access to education is the crucial factor of the social and economic welfare. The rise of the educated class should be taken into consideration (Noah n.pag.). The problem is twofold: on the one hand, the gap caused by the income inequality narrows, and, on the other hand, the educational gap widens.
The Cuts that Keeps Bleeding is the third source, which deserves the special attention. It presents the statistical information on the dynamics in government spending on education. According to the data presented in the article, the funding of the education has been reduced by 28% since 2008 (“The Cuts that Keeps” 11).
It is clear that the decrease in financing affects the quality of education. The statistics shows that the number of course offerings has decreased by 15% since 2008. The data support the opinion regarding the educational gap increase. It is not surprising as the cuts in spending limit the access of people to the higher education and they contribute to the social and economic inequality.
Conclusion In summary, the analyzed articles are devoted to the problem of social and economic inequality. The authors emphasize the role of government regulation. Although the situation improves in certain areas, there are still the urgent problems requiring the legislative changes and government initiatives.
Works Cited Cowie, Jefferson. “The Future of Fair Labor.” The New York Times. 24 June 2013. Nytimes.com. Web.
Noah, Timothy. “The 1 Percent Are Only Half the Problem”. The New York Times. 18 May 2013. Opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com. Web.
“The Cuts that Keep Bleeding.” By the Numbers, 30 (2013): 3. Print
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Eyes on the Prize Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Roles of Civil Rights Movement
Change and Civil Rights Movement
Racial discrimination has been the most contentious issue in America. The issue has been highlighted by various tools of communications such as books, movies, articles, and periodicals. One of the remarkable communication tools on this subject is ‘Eyes on the Prize’ movie. The movie brings into perspective the topic of racial discrimination and roles of civil rights movements in attaining equality in America (Hampton, 1986). This study seeks to highlight the issue of racial discrimination in reference to the above mentioned movie
Roles of Civil Rights Movement To achieve the desired transformation towards equal treatment of all races, America needed civil rights movement. The movement not only played the role of communicating information on racial discrimination, but also changed the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of all Americans towards the issue.
From the movement, Americans were able to embrace tolerance. For instance, in volume 2 of the movie, the African-Americans were ready to endure the mistreatments in the jails while most of the whites were ready to accommodate them in the community (Hampton, 1986).
Change and Civil Rights Movement Civil rights movement was the major element that facilitated change in America. Without the movement, change could have been difficult to attain. The movement not only prompted the government to take actions, but also cultivated the sense of responsibility among Americans (Hampton, 1986).
Racism Discrimination is a common problem in America. Racial discrimination dominates the list of discriminating practices. However, it is cognizant to note that the magnitude of racial discrimination in America has greatly reduced. This can be attributed to the roles of civil rights movements and affirmative actions taken by the government to promote racial equality (Hampton, 1986).
Reference Hampton, H. (Executive Producer). (1986). Eyes on the Prize: Ain’t scared of your jails, 1954 to 1956. Boston: Blackside Inc.
Atrophy of the Muscles Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Atrophy of the muscles is a condition that occurs when the muscles have been in an inactive condition for a long period of time. The cast on the leg is the major cause of muscle atrophy. It reduces muscle activity and causes loss of the tissues. The major effect of the cast as indicated in this case is weakening of the leg muscles and reduced level of activity.
The cast restricts the movement of the muscles (Sandri, 2008). Restricted movement of the muscles leads to reduced muscle tone. The patient therefore develops movement difficulties, which may exacerbate the condition (Hannah, Andrew
The American Way of Dining Out Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure
Is Eating Out Healthy?
The Economics of Eating Out
Introduction For most Americans, dining out is a favorite pastime. Americans dine out when celebrating an event, when on a date or just to have a new dining experience. But, in the aftermath of the 2007/2008 economic downturn, people are dining out less often, instead preferring to eat at home to save money. This trend is already having a toll on hotels and restaurants. Nevertheless, on average, American’s prefer eating out to eating at home.
A survey by the United States Department of Labor [DoL] found interesting facts about the American’s way of dining out. A significant proportion of the respondents (63 percent) reported having dined out at least once the previous month with 53 percent of them dining out in fast food restaurants, 18 percent in full-service restaurants and 9 percent in other food restaurants (DoL Para. 2).
What is worrying, however, is that most of the foods consumed away from home tend to be energy rich but less nutritional compared to home prepared foods.
Though patrons may not like to eat unhealthy foods, they opt to eat out due to convenience, diverse meals on offer or simply for entertainment reasons. The argument presented in this paper is that, when it comes to eating out, Americans neither base their dietary choices on nutritional quality of the meals nor do they consider their budgetary constraints. Their restaurant choice and frequency of dining out is based on the prospects of entertainment, convenience and a variety of dishes on offer.
The Americans’ Restaurant Expenditure Nutritionists advise people to adopt healthy eating habits, which, along with physical exercises guarantee a healthy and quality life. However, it is not clear whether this message and the consumers’ desire for a healthy life influence their eating behavior or dietary choices when eating out.
The Department of Labor reports that, on average, the daily energy intake of an American when eating out rose from 18 percent in 1994 to 32 percent in 1996 (Para. 3). This indicates that eating out increases one’s caloric intake significantly. The same survey established that consumer spending on restaurant foods had increased with consumers, in 1996, spending over half of their dietary expenditure on restaurant foods. The rise in the number of consumers eating out implies that dining out is a preferred pastime for most Americans.
With regard to food expenditure, the U.S. Department of Labor reported that, on average, in 2010, restaurant spending by each American stood at $2,505 (DoL Para. 5). In comparison, in the previous years, 2009 and 2008, the average restaurant spending was $2,619 and $2,698 respectively (Para. 7). The drop in consumer spending in 2010 is attributed to the 2007/08 economic downturn. Nevertheless, Americans enjoy dining out often as opposed to eating home-cooked meals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consumers attribute their eating out habits to public suitability, entertainment value and availability of many dishes in restaurants. However, from the DoL statistics, eating out increases the consumers’ calorie intake, as restaurant foods tend to be calorie-rich but nutritionally deficient. Eating out more often increases one’s body fat level in adults leading to elevated body mass index. It is no wonder eating out has been associated with obesity and overweight especially in adolescents.
A survey by Technomic Inc. that interviewed a number of restaurant owners found that most restaurants are not keen on providing healthy foods for their patrons. They do not feel that providing healthy meals would increase the number of customers visiting their establishments. Some held the opinion that “most customers’ attitude is ‘when I go out to eat, I want to eat what I want’” (33). Nevertheless, the hotel executives felt that creating consumer awareness about eating healthy would help in the management of obesity.
To manage obesity, which has become an epidemic, nutrition educators have employed a number of approaches to promote healthy eating out habits. They educate consumers on nutrition and healthful diets that one can get in restaurants when eating out.
They sometimes incorporate aspects of consumers’ preferences, convenience and entertainment when providing the nutrition information to influence their eating behavior. One such campaign technique is the “5 A Day” program that encourages Americans to eat a minimum of five servings of vegetables/fruits daily (Stewart et al. 522).
The “Power of Choice” program is another example of these programs that aims at educating adolescents to eat healthy and engage in physical activities to stay healthy (Stewart et al. 522). Although these nutrition-education programs have the potential of promoting healthy eating habits among Americans, their impact largely depends on the patrons’ own knowledge on nutrition and whether they apply it when making choices on the type of restaurant or food to eat.
Is Eating Out Healthy? The statistics given by the United States Department of Labor show that more Americans prefer eating out to eating at home despite the low nutritional quality of restaurant foods. But, what factors influence Americans to continue to eat out despite the increased health risks associated with fast-foods?
From an economic perspective, a consumer’s preference and nutrition knowledge would affect his or her dietary choices. Thus, consumers who have knowledge on the nutritional value of foods would be expected to evaluate restaurant foods before placing an order. Food prices also influence the consumers’ dietary choices.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The American Way of Dining Out specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides income and food prices, the consumers’ demographic characteristics can be used to explain the trends in consumer behavior. In the American context, psychological factors such as attitudes, information, perceptions shape consumer behavior, and by extension, the demand for restaurant foods.
In light of this, it is clear that the Americans’ rising demand for restaurant foods is shaped by the desire to eat healthy in a convenient location that provides entertainment value. Thus, when choosing among eating in a restaurant, eating at home and eating in a fast-food café, an individual will often consider each option’s entertainment value and convenience. Consumers with limited funds and/or time will tend to choose the option that is cheap but offers greater pleasure.
The Americans’ way of eating out can be explained using the traditional economic theory. This theory describes how consumers make decisions when they have limited product information at their disposal. The FDA specifies that “if a restaurant claims that a particular menu item is ‘low in fat’… then this requirement is satisfied by adding: ‘low fat – provides less than 3 grams of fat per serving” (Technomic 8). However, the FDA does not require restaurants to disclose a meal’s specific nutrient content.
Therefore, restaurants can choose to give the complete nutrient content of the foods sold or simply provide the mandated information. Nevertheless, if the majority of consumers want menu items with healthy nutrient content, the hotels/restaurants may give the complete nutrition information of the foods sold.
As restaurants always compete for customers, marketing themselves as providing healthful foods can give them a competitive advantage. Some popular restaurants voluntarily give complete nutrition information of the foods they sell.
A good example is the Subway restaurant, which supplies the caloric content of its popular sandwiches and compares them with the sandwiches sold by the other restaurants such as McDonald’s and Burger King. McDonald’s and Burger King, on the other hand, give pamphlets containing the details of the nutrient content of foods sold. However, other restaurants provide no such information making healthful eating away from home almost impossible for Americans.
The incomplete nutrition information provided by most restaurants can be attributed to the need to retain consumers as knowledge of a meal’s dietary composition may affect demand for foods with undesirable nutrient content. Thus, when little information is provided, the consumers cannot make an informed choice when eating out.
However, those who have nutrition knowledge can assess the nutritional quality of the products sold by restaurants. Even for those who prefer to eat at home, they are motivated by the need to save money, not to eat healthy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The American Way of Dining Out by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it can be argued that, most Americans’ eating out choices (where to eat, what to eat and how frequently to eat out) are largely dependent on entertainment and convenience, not on the nutritional value of the foods. In view of this, people with a good understanding of nutrition can effectively determine the restaurant food types that are healthful compared to those with little or no nutrition knowledge.
The Economics of Eating Out Although a third of Americans report reducing how often they eat out, 1 in every 10 people in America dine out more often (DoL Para. 4). A further 70 percent of Americans cook at home to cut down their food expenditure while another 57 percent believe that eating out is an unnecessary expense.
Interestingly, about 29 percent of Americans claim to have reduced their expenses in other areas to sustain their eating out habits (Para. 6). These statistics imply that Americans’ restaurant spending has, to some extent, been affected by the sluggish economy. Therefore, Americans have not changed their dining out habits; they have only reduced how often they eat out. The economic downturn has seen more Americans eat out less often with some shifting from eating in major establishments to casual food outlets.
Now with constrained budgets, many Americans have resorted to eating at home and when eating out, price consideration takes the center stage. They prefer casual restaurants when eating out because their prices are often low. This explains why popular casual restaurants have gained in profits over the past few years while the profits of full-service eateries have declined. For instance, The Cheesecake Factory gained 2.44 percent in profits while the McDonald’s profits declined by 12 percent in 2010 (Technomic 9).
The implication here is that consumers are increasingly becoming selective with regard to where to eat out due to budget constraints. But, what drives eating out habits besides prices? It is evident that cravings for exotic and foreign cuisines, restaurant location, entertainment value, healthy dishes offered and variety of food choices motivate Americans to eat out as opposed to cooking at home.
This indicates that the American way of eating out is not influenced by the need to eat healthy. Rather, entertainment value, convenience and variety of dishes available in restaurants drive many Americans to dine out in restaurants.
Conclusion Dining out in restaurants is a favorite pastime for most Americans. Most Americans prefer to eat out to eating at home because restaurants offer convenience, in terms of location, they offer a variety of meals/dishes and most offer entertainment for patrons.
Despite the recent economic downturn and the poor nutritional quality of fast-foods, most Americans still enjoy dining out. Therefore, until Americans recognize the high nutritional value of home cooked meals, eating out will continue to be the norm, as fast-food restaurants continue to rake in profits.
Works Cited Stewart, Hayden, Blisard, Noel, Jolliffe, Dean and Bhuyan, Sanjib. “The Demand for Food-Away-From Home: Do Other Preferences Compete with Our Desire to Eat Healthfully?” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30.3 (2005): 520-536. Print.
Technomic, Inc. Trends in Healthier Eating and Fruit and Vegetable Usage in Chain Restaurants. Wilmington, DE: Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2006. Print.
United States Department of Labor [DoL]. Economic News Release: Consumer Expenditures– 2012. Web. .
Chinas History and Relations Cause and Effect Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations
How China Affected the Asian Countries
Spread of Buddhism
How Asian countries influenced China
China’s Diplomatic, Military and Political relations The Yuan Dynasty was one of the most influential authorities that reigned over the Chinese territory and preceded other dynasties which included the Song and Ming. The Yuan dynasty used Marc Polo to communicate with other countries. In regard to the relationship between the Yuan dynasty and its neighbors, it incurred a lot of rebellion from its rivals such as the Mongols.
During this struggle, the rebels could terrorize the allies of Yuan Dynasty and free them to China (Ebrey et al. 179). In the same light, the author reveals that the continuous rebellion by the neighboring countries led to the formation of anti-Yuan dynasty which aimed at conquering it (179).
The dynasty did not only solve its conflicts through war but also using diplomatic means. In this regard, they could use travelers to communicate with the European countries such as Italy. For instance, they sent Mac Polo to deliver a letter to Italy in order to create ties with the dynasty. The dynasty could also receive visitors such as John of Montecorvino who was a missionary from Italy (Sen and Victor 75).
Ebrey revealed that the Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuanzhang who had experienced the plight of poverty during the Yuan Dynasty which had imposed a lot of disorders in China (227). In fact, Ebrey stated that Zhu had started his life from the bottom of society (228).
The author further states that the founder’s attempts to bring order on the society of the Chinese people were mostly considered as a draconian act (227). However, although the people were not always positive towards his acts, the author elaborates that 30 years of the Ming dynasty transformed China in a great way (227). This achievement was attained against many odds including intensive rebellion from the royalists of the Yuan government (Ebrey et al. 228).
During one of the struggle for power, the Yuan government troops burnt down the temple of Zhu showing disrespect (Ebrey et al. 228). The continuous military attacks show that the Chinese territories were not used to solving their difference in a diplomatic manner. Instead they used their power to outdo, conquer, and colonize other territories.
The song formed a separate and critical dynasty in the Chinese history. The dynasty was founded between 860 and 960 when the forces were devolved to deal with the local issues (Ebrey et al. 91). The author reveals that during this period any local man who was capable of organizing defense teams against the rebels could be declared as the king (91). This defense was quite crucial considering the strong rivals of the song dynasty who included Liao and others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How China Affected the Asian Countries China had profound effect on the various aspects of Asia countries including culture, religion, and political factors. For example, Ebrey stated that the expansion of Han dynasty in China incorporated the Peninsula’s north western part.
This expansion increased the interaction among Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese people leading to spread to Chinese culture and technology (Ebrey et al. 98). In this regard, the Korean gradually embraced the Chinese ideologies such as Buddhism, writing skills, and Confucianism as a result of the increased interaction.
The author then stated that in the fourteenth century, the outpost fell of Chinese dynasties evoked the creation of three different states of the Korean territory which was established in China (98). However, Ebrey elaborated that the domestic production of silver in China decreased significantly in 1430 requiring them to acquire it from the neighboring countries which produced the metal.
As a result, they bought about 50 percent of the Japanese silver as well as the one transported by the Portuguese ships in order to satisfy the demand (Ebrey et al. 267). In the same light, they also relied on Russia, which is one of the Asian countries, for silver that was mined in Mexico. It is thus evident that the Chinese influenced the Russian economy profoundly owing to silver trade that took place between the two nations.
Additionally, China affected the economic development of Japan following the trade between the two countries. In this regard, the Chinese monetary system used to sliver to make currency making it an important commodity in China (Ebrey et al. 267). The Chinese trading experience is revisited by Lockard when he stated that Chinese and Arabs were quite skillful in the technology of sea transport which enabled them to become active in the Southeast Asian trade (63).
He then stated that the trade between China and other countries continued to grow during the 700 to1500 era. While elaborating the role of China towards economic development of South Asia, he revealed that the Chinese were the main people who captained the ships which sailed to Japan and China (90).
This implies that the Chinese were probably the drivers of economic development in this region owing to the early technological knowledge. The author further focused on the spread of Chinese trade to the Arabian countries. In this case, the authors revealed that in 1296, Angkor conducted active trade with the Chinese merchants owing to the support provided by the Chinese ambassador in Angkor (39).
We will write a custom Essay on Chinas History and Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ambassador then left a detailed description concerning the society’s conduct as well as its authorities in order to create way for the future unions between China and Angkor (39). Further, Lockard described China as a country that inspired the development of trade in other countries. Between 1400 and 1650, the author revealed that China entered into an age of commerce where they practiced trade across the Indian Ocean (64).
This initiative increased the demand of the Southern Asian demands which probably inspired other Asian countries to enter participate in this trade. It is thus evident that China a perfect example of a country that motivated others Asian Countries to adopt trade. Moreover, China was a major threat to Vietnam especially when considering the political stability of this country. In this regard, Lockard pointed out that since the Chinese authorities frequently sent their forces to Vietnam, the Vietnamese could not ignore their sporadic attacks (62).
Spread of Buddhism Buddhism has already existed in the world for approximately 2500 years, and it was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who was a prince of a tiny Indian realm (Lockard 22). Siddhartha was also well known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”) (Lockard 22). According to historical records, Buddhism had been highly praised during the time of India’s Mauryan empire by its third king Ashoka who himself devoutly believed in Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
During the period of Ashoka’s governing, Buddhism carried forward and flourished extensively (Ebrey et al. 57). According to historians, king Ashoka took advantage of the mechanism of his kingdom to widely promote Buddhism within India (Ebrey et al. 57). As a devote Buddhist, he banned animal sacrifices, and made an approximately one-year long pilgrimage to all the holy places of Buddhism (Ebrey et al. 57).
Nevertheless Buddhism declined after 1200 C.E., it spread to the neighboring world due to Ashoka’s dispatch of Buddhist missionaries to the rest of Eurasia (Ebrey et al. 57-58). Thus, India established relationships with its neighboring world on military, trade, religion, and culture. Due to the fact that it is the birth land of two religions: Buddhism, which spread to Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia ((Trautmann 8).
For East Asia, one propagation path was northwest through Central Asia to China, which explains why the first Buddhist text was translated in the language from Central Asia rather than the language from India (Ebrey et al. 58). For Southeast Asia, the route started from east to Sri Lanka and then to most of the Southeast Asia (Ebrey et al. 58).
Though language diversity occurred along the path of the dissemination of the Buddhism, some translators like Kumarajiva made huge contributions to unify the language of Buddhist text and thus made the spreading of Buddhism more smooth (Ebrey et al. 59-60).
According to the research of some scholars, it was during the Han Dynasty that Buddhism was initially brought into China by the Buddhist monks travelling from the outside world with the development of diplomacy and trade. However, the development of Buddhism was quite limited due to the prosperity of Confucianism in Han times. After the decline of the Han Dynasty in 220 C.E., Buddhism started to flourish in 300 C.E. (Ebrey et al. 70).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinas History and Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Buddhist emphasized that the quality of “kindness, charity, the preservation of life, and prospect of salvation” was significantly important (Ebrey et al. 70). Such emphasises attracted not only male followers but also female followers since becoming a nun emancipated women from being repressed in their traditional role in the ancient Chinese society (Ebrey et al. 70-71).
How Asian countries influenced China The Korean states appeared in China through the Tang Dynasties from Han such that they were in close contact with the people of China (Ebrey et al. 98). The author then stated that since the Tang and Sui authorities attempted to sabotage the Koreans, they developed a lot of resistance against the two governments in order to secure their livelihood in China (98). This evoked a lot of competition against the expansion of the two Chinese territories considering that the three territories wanted to expand geographically.
Additionally, the Manchurian were one of the most important dynasties which sahped the history of China and its culture. In this regard, the Manchus fought against the Chinese Ming dynasty so that they could rule China (Ebrey et al., 255).
Ebrey argued that conquering China was one of the Manchus’ priorities since they considered it as resourceful country as compared to its counterparts including Korea (255). After the conquest of China by the Manchus Qing reigned over the land Chinese territory seeking political ties with Joseon who helped them to extend their campaign in China.
Following the weakening of security in China, Qing expanded it by conquering other territories around the Chinese vicinity. This obviously led to the geographical expansion of China leading to the increased security. However, Ebrey pointed out that during an attempted conquest of Joseon, the Korean state proved it strength by portraying its resolve as a nonthreatening territory which could remain autonomous (255).
Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia, Anne Walthall, and James Palais. East Asia: a cultural, social, and political history. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.
Lockard, Craig. Southeast Asia in world history. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Sen, Tansen, and Victor Mair. Traditional China in Asian and world history. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Trautmann, Thomas. India: brief history of a civilization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
The Eighteenth Amendment Research Paper college admission essay help
Introduction The United States common tradition did not rule out the use or acquisition of any alcoholic drink. However, the Eighteenth Amendment proscribed the shipping, rummage sale, and production of alcohol. The devoted faction strived to support the control of alcohol purchase and consumption based on several reasons. In fact, the group discerned the direct association amid the inconsiderate social conducts and alcohol.
The faction believed that domestic violence and child abuse transpired from the uncontrolled alcohol consumption. According to Shay (2004), the pessimistic crash on the US labor output resulted from hysterical alcoholism (p.67). The dilemma of alcoholism was thus tossed into an act following the emotion of Anti-German. This occurred during the Second World War. This paper describes and analyzes the account of the eighteenth amendment.
Main Body The asylum seekers from Germany alias alien enemies controlled most of the United States breweries. The feeling of the Anti-German was not to manufacture alcohol but to feed the military using fashioned grain. Conversely, some other groups such as the NPR (National Prohibition Reforms) and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment) battled the growth of this project.
At the onset of the fiscal 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment got ratification from the Congress in spite of the attempts of anti-Prohibition factions. The prohibition of transporting, importing, exporting, selling, and manufacturing alcoholic drinks came into effect in the year 1920. The Amendment augmented when nearly twenty nations (65%) countrywide had banished alcohol.
The already stored wine cellar had to bother less since the Amendment had put a stop to the crouch of individual exploitation and ownership of alcohol. Therefore, the US central government grabbed the aptitude to enforce the ban through the Act of National Prohibition. The vital Amendment delineated the extent of intoxicating alcohol, usage exceptions, and penalties against the violation of law. The officially authorized and utmost value of alcohol in any drink was 0.50% percent (Shay 61).
Ratification of the 18th Amendment
The achievement of the Eighteenth Amendment approval occurred in early January of the fiscal 1919. The ratification cropped up after three hundred and ninety four days in over three quarters of the US nations. Ten days prior to the ratification, a formal certification by the stand-in Secretary of State ensued.
Besides, there was a time limit for the ratification following the necessitated number of states by the 18th Amendment. The Amendment could not come into effect provided few nations had ratified the Act in a period of seven years. Historically, there was a challenge on the legality of the Act with the inclusion of time bounds in the proposed constitutional amendment for the first time. In the mid 1921, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment (Wheeler 91).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 18th Amendment had three sections with the first and second sections proving to be the relevant part for the implementation and proscription of alcohol. The first section prohibited the exportation, importation, transportation, and production of alcohol for drinking purpose in the US or any territory under jurisdiction.
In order to enforce the Amendment through suitable legislation, the second section provided for the states and Congress to possess powers that concurred. In the last section, the editorial provided that if the parliament endorsed the revision in seven years founded on the legal requirements form, the submission date by the senate would make it out of order. Thus far, the specificity of the amendment and its enforcement did not come clear in the statements of this article (Blocker 1237).
The enabling legislation (1919 Act of National Prohibition) provided a resolution to the itching issues of alcoholism. According to Wheeler (1919), the Act was famous as Volstead Andrew who sponsored the legislation and chaired the committee on Senate Judiciary (p.45). Besides, the Congress superseded the President’s veto after he alluded to the constitutional and moral objections in October 1919.
The official entitlement of the Volstead Act strived to endorse scientific research and indemnify abundant supply and usage of alcohol in industries, drying, and energy growth. The Act aspired to control the sale and usage of high proof alcohol, production, and manufacture of spirits. The Amendment commonly aimed at forbidding the intoxicating drinks. Even though the 18th Amendment seemed short, its implementation was not easy as it was confusing and intricate in interpretation.
The effects of 18th Amendment
The implementation of the Amendment under certain exemptions existed as unlawful. In fact, particular illegitimate alcohol production industry substituted the legal businesses. Violence and murder engulfed between criminal gangs, organized criminals, and minor marketplace operators in rivalry over market rheostat. The consumers succumbed to painful fatalities, sightlessness, and paralysis given the haphazardly prepared bootleg drinks that contained creosote.
In effect, the Prohibition made consumers to switch to unsafe stuffs like liquid heat, hair tonic, cocaine, and opium that had adverse effects on their lives. Similarly, the prohibition led to dishonesty as bootleggers and moonshiners paid off the custodians of Prohibition Bureau, sheriffs, and police in order to carry out shoddy business (Blocker 1237). The spread of corruption in most cities and towns generally facilitated disrespect for the rule of law. Further, assassination and hostility transpired given the failure to use bribes.
On the other hand, the Amendment forced individuals to gulp alcohol given the obnoxious, intense, and infrequent consumption. The proscription saddled the taxpayer and depressed the returns generated by the government due to elevated confinement, courtyard, and decree enforcement operating costs.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Eighteenth Amendment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The involvement of prohibition touched almost 70% of the entire expenses of national government. Taft asserted that the disenchantment came with Prohibition over a period of five years (p. 55). Actually, he wrote that reverence for the law had shrunk instead of intensifying and the government expenditure was higher. Moreover, journalist engraved that there was no condensed amount of mental illness, transgression, and drunkenness in the entire nation given that they were even more.
The Repeal of 18th Amendment
The United States continually suffered from the bottlenecks of the Eighteenth Amendment with threats evident in welfare, financial system, ethics, security, and health sector. The prohibitionists emphasized on the possibilities of repealing the Amendment despite its ratification. Over the years, the tribulation of Prohibition augmented to increase antagonism from the populace. A call for the Repeal of this article ultimately came from the diverse supporters of the Act.
Interestingly, a longevity abstainer called Rockefeller John felt the effect and consequences of the prohibition and supported the Repeal of this Amendment (Taft 61). The WTCU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) was essential in national Prohibition since they coveted to guard kids, women, and families from the cruel consequences of alcoholism. Women supported the Repeal owing to the fact that Prohibition did not meet their endeavors.
The command for Repeal from numerous organizations increased attributable to the discontent and disenchantment in the US. These associations encompassed VCL (Voluntary Committee of Lawyers), WMU (Women’s Modernization Union), URC (United Repeal Union), and AAPA (Association against the Prohibition Amendment). Nevertheless, specific organizations that supported the Prohibition were against the upsurge of Repeal.
These included, the Temperance Strategy Board, World League against Alcoholism, and Methodist Board of Temperance. The plank of anti-Prohibition along with the year 1932 election guaranteed by President Roosevelt of the Democratic Party came from such prohibitions (Barry 72). Merely a solitary US nation opposed the Repeal while the citizens casted off the Prohibition by seventy four percent of the ballots in favor of Repeal against the opposing twenty six percent.
In the year 1933, Repeal of the 18th Amendment occurred in December with the 21st Amendment. The Congress Act in the late 1935 saw the Repeal of the first and second sections of the Volstead Act. Separate Repeal of the laws of federal Prohibition took place in different provinces and localities.
The Volstead Act reprieved the influential funding of the Congress by the 18th Amendment. As such, the Act turned out to be unenforceable and illogical according to the Supreme Court in the US. In general, discharge emerged from the infringement of the Volstead Act pending the verdict of certainty before the Repeal date (Barry 54).
Conclusion After the Second World War, the temperance progress (neo-Prohibition) was latent and surfaced with fresh and customized ideologies as well as characteristics. Indeed, over the last quarter of the 20th century the consumption of spirits, wines and beer has radically begged off.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Eighteenth Amendment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The supposition that people are not trustworthy when making suitable choices in their lives cuts across the rehabilitated progress. The government is likely to employ legislations that impose restrictions on the liberty of an individual to safeguard the public or citizens from their ingestion actions. Instead of ascertaining strict legal prohibition, the administration ought to exercise tactics such as marginalizing the alcohol consumers and making liquor less communally allowable. This is what the eighteenth amendment is intended to do.
Works Cited Barry, James. The Noble Experiment, 1919-1933: The Eighteenth Amendment Prohibits Liquor in America, New York, Florida: Watts Press, 1972. Print.
Blocker, Jack. “Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment.” Journal of American History, 82.3(1995): 1235-37.
Shay, Gene. Amendment 18, Prohibition: Amendment 21, Repeal of Prohibition, Lawrenceville, NJ: Cambridge Educational, 2004. Print.
Taft, William. The 18th Amendment, Detroit, MI: Henry Joy Press, 1930. Print.
Wheeler, Wayne. The Eighteenth Amendment, Chicago, IL: National Conference of Social Work, 1919. Print.