Board Of Directors Research Paper A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction The success or failure of any organization or company totally depends on its leadership. There are different levels of leadership in any organization and the board of directors plays a very important role in the running and management of any organization. Different organizations have different roles of the board of directors but generally there are basic foundation roles that apply to all the organizations.

This paper discusses the different roles of the board of directors and how competence can be developed as well as the various differences between board of directors in the private sector and non-profitable organisation. Ideal relationship between the board of directors and the executive is also discussed.

Board of directors The main role of the board of directors in any company or organization is to act as the eyes of the shareholders of the organization. A report by Brefi (2000) claimed that any given board of directors has a role: “to ensure the company’s prosperity by collectively directing the company’s affairs, whilst meeting the appropriate interests of its shareholders and stakeholders” (Brefi, 2000, p. 2).

The board of directors is usually appointed by the shareholders who also have the powers to dismiss it mainly through a vote. The board of directors has different roles that vary from one organization to another.

Oversee vision, mission and values of the organization It is the primary role of any board of directors to oversee that the Organization focuses at achieving its vision, mission, and values by continuous evaluation of the organization progress. They have the responsibility of determining values to be upheld and constantly review goals and objectives of the Organization. They are also supposed to set and follow up the implementation of policies in the Organization.

A report by Gray (n.d.) was claimed that: “Directors, no matter what their reason for being elected to a board, are responsible for making decisions and setting policy for the organization” (Gray 1).

Carter McNamara (2011) defined the roles of the board of directors as “oversee the purpose, plans and policies of the overall organization, such as establishing those overall plans and policies, supervision of the CEO, ensuring compliance to rules and regulations” (McNamara, 2011, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Set strategy and structure It is the role of the board of directors to constantly do the SWOT analysis of the Organization in terms strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the current and future situations to ensure the Organization retains its relevance in the society.

It also sets strategies, and ways of achieving them. Most importantly they should the Organization has the necessary Organizational structure and the potential for carrying out the laid down strategies. A report by Score (2011) claimed that the board of directors has the role of “developing and approving strategic plans, including major commitments” (Score, 2011, p. 1).

Delegation It is important to note that the board of directors cannot do or perform all the activities of their Organization alone and as such the board had an important role of delegating all the necessary authorities to other different levels of management beginning with the chief executive officer (CEO).

McNamara claimed that it is the role of the board of directors to “Select and appoint a chief executive to whom responsibility for the administration of the organization is delegated, including: to review and evaluate his/her performance” (McNamara, 2011, p. 1).

Accountability to shareholders The board of directors is the eyes and the voice of the shareholders and other stakeholders and as such it has the role of ensuring that the interests, views and expectations are represented in the Organization by effective communication between the management and the shareholders (Brefi, 2000).

A report by McNamara also claims that the board of directors must be in a position to “provide for fiscal accountability, approve the budget, and formulate policies related to contracts from public or private resources” (McNamara, 2011, p. 1)

Board competence For a board to be successful it must be competent. The members must be poses strong interpersonal skills, must be well versed about the various operations of the Organization, they must always be available when needed and must be people of honor and integrity.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Board of Directors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Loyalty to the Organization is a requirement and the members must also poses diverse global knowledge in various fields such as law, finances which will enable the board to make good decisions. Competence in the board may be developed by proper recruitment of the right individuals to start with. Rigorous and continual training should be prioritized.

It may also be advisable to keep on renewing the board from time to time to inject new ideas and dynamism. Martinelli (2011) raised concern that “nominating committee or board recruiting committee is poorly organized, board members in turn are not likely to have a good understanding of the organization and their role as board members”( Martinelli, 2011, p. 1).

Relationship between the board and executive For any meaningful achievement of goals and objectives of any Organization the board of directors and the executive must work together in harmony as a team. Good relationship between the two is therefore imperative.

The board of directors must have the will and commitment of understanding all the important details that concerns the Organization since they may be required to make tough, and wise decisions that the executive needs to drive the Organization to the expectations of the shareholders the directors represent.

The executive expects the board members to adequately prepare and regularly attend meetings while board of directors expects service delivery and regular briefing in return. Both sides expect full and genuine participation from each other. Collective commitment to teamwork and improvement is also important (Kilmister, 2004).

Differences between private sector and non-profit boards The basic roles of both private and non-profit organizations are similar to some extent but on a close analysis there are many differences between the two which generally arise from their purpose of existence. Private board members set the strategies and standards to be met and delegate the task of achievement to the executive unlike non-profit board members who are directly involved in raising funds for the organisation.

Private sector board members are paid whereas non-profit board members are only reimbursed of their expenses. Private sector board members focus on maximising shareholders investments and have to account for returns unlike non-profit board members who focus on fundraising funds from relevant bodies and focussing their activities to charity affairs (McNamara, 2011, p. 1).

Conclusion The role of board members plays a key role in the success of any given Organization. The roles include representing the interests of the shareholders in the Organization, making and implementing vision, mission and core values of the Organization and setting and following up on strategies. Competence is a core requirement and the board members are supposed to be knowledgeable people of high integrity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Board of Directors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The board members of nonprofit and private Organizations have differences due to the differences in the functions of the Organizations. The relationship between the executive and the board members is important in that it ensures cooperation and understanding of both parties for the benefit of the organization.

References Brefi, G. (2000). The Board of Directors – Roles and Responsibilities. Brefigroup. Web.

Gray, C. (n.d) Ethical Responsibilities of Boards of Directors of Non-Profit Organizations. Board Responsibilities. Web.

Kilmister, N. (2004). Eight Basic Expectations a Chief Executive Has of His or Her Board. TCA. Web.

Martinelli, F. (2011). Building an Effective Board of Directors. Create the Future. Web.

McNamara, C. (2011). All about Boards of Directors (For-Profit and Nonprofit). Management help. Web.

Score, K. (2011). Serving on a Nonprofit Board of Directors. ScoreKnox. Web.

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Challenges of Developing Economies Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Challenges that face Developing Nations

Lack of capacity

Unfair International trade obligations

Restricted foreign market access

Unfair Representation in the World Trade Organization

Conclusion

References List

Introduction In the twenty first century, the globalized world has made trade one of the most powerful links between lives. Trade also acts as an unprecedented wealth source. In addition, world trade has the ability of reducing the poverty gaps between the rich and the poor.

However, the poor economies have continued to lag behind in international trade. As a result, the potential of world trade has been lost and the greatest beneficiaries have been the developed economies. Several efforts have been initiated with the intention of helping the developing economies increase their share of international trade.

These include agreements by developed countries to provide aid to the developing nations, urging the developing economies to open up their economies for international trade and signing of agreements to allow preference of imports from developing countries in to developed countries (World Bank, 2002).

Challenges that face Developing Nations International trade is not intrinsically against the interests and needs of the developing nations, but the challenges that face the developing economies within and externally are the major hindrance to success. By addressing these challenges those economies will be able to produce standard products and compete effectively with the developed economies. These challenges are explained as follows:

Lack of capacity Firstly, the economies of developing countries lack institutional capacity. Most of these economies have adopted increased export strategy as a means of growing their economies. However, their governments are unable to monitor the actions of every producer to ensure that they have met the required standards of international trade (Lewis, 2007).

As a result, some producers have ended up exporting substandard products which have in turn destroyed the reputation of credible firms due to blanket blame. This has led the developed economies to institute stringent rules on imports that have in turn harmed even those industries that are producing standard products. As a result, exports to developed economies have been reduced.

This is clearly seen in the case of China where the government cannot trace some exporters as they keep on changing their identities. However, the credible firms continue to suffer because of the unscrupulous producers (Newman, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, there is lack of good governance. There is a general correlation between good governance and economic growth. Necessary economic growth can be achieved by the development of industrial and service sectors. However, this cannot be achieved easily in developing countries due to the lack of good governance. Therefore, they are faced with poor decisions in prioritizing of investments.

The economies end up with deficient infrastructure and communication, external debt crisis, human capacity deficits, less developed internal markets and biophysical barriers like tropical diseases. As a result the required institutions are not developed. The industrial sector is left behind and external competition level is too high for the local firms.

Corruption also sets in as a result whereby some producers try to circumvent the existing laws. Government officials also support them in their deals. However, their products end up harming the users and the image of the country is dented as a result (Smith-Spark, 2007).

Unfair International trade obligations International trade obligations have various requirements to the signatories and each member is required to keep those obligations. One among those obligations is to maintain an open market as agreed after the WWII. However, most of the developed economies have found ways of restricting exports from developing countries by using some other international rules such as antidumping laws.

For instance, in protecting their local markets, some companies have evoked sympathy from their governments and the public by initiating lawsuits against their target – importers from developing countries. They accuse them of dumping or selling subsidized products.

Due to the limited financial resources of those importing companies, they always opt to leave the market even if they would have won the case. In addition, the antidumping and anti-subsidy laws are quite complex. Therefore, the governments of developed economies have realized that they can wear down the importers from developed countries with court cases hence forcing them to leave (Rothgeb

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The U.S. Civil War and Its Aftermath Term Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

From Old to New

Shaping U.S. History

Importance of Studying History

Conclusion

References

When the former colony of the British Empire rose up in rebellion, the ragtag army led by General Washington defeated the battle-scarred war machine of the English army. The founding fathers of the United States of America declared that all men are equal and proceeded to build a great nation. But less than a century later, the words uttered in the Declaration of Independence became the bone of contention between North and South.

The former wanted to abolish slavery while the latter desperately wanted to perpetuate an institution that they desperately needed to sustain their way of life. The Southern states believed that it is their right to own and utilize slaves and then declared that they do not want any part of the Union.

The government was forced to go to war to preserve the Union. In the aftermath of the bloody war, the South was devastated by the scorch earth policy of the North. Looking back it would have been better if diplomacy prevailed and that guns, cannons and bayonets were never used to settle an issue.

Introduction In the 19th century the United States went through a tumultuous period. Less than a century earlier, the colony of Great Britain secured its independence after trumping British forces in the American Revolution. But the euphoria that came from realizing that they were free from the encumbrances of tyranny was short lived. In the aftermath of the revolution the American people faced the daunting task of building a nation from scratch.

Nation building in itself is very difficult, but the fledgling Union was also pressured to come up with a resolution to a very contentious issue – the ownership Negro slaves. Whites and blacks saw two divergent perspectives when it comes to this issue and the struggle brought them to the battlefield to settle their differences.

It has to be pointed out that before the New World became the United States of America, there were two major streams of migration that help build it into one of the most powerful nations on earth. The first one came from Europe and the second one came from Africa. The first one was voluntary the second one was forced. Negro slaves came by the boat loads. Slave traders facilitated their transfer into the hands of their masters.

Slave owners purchased them as if they were cattle. These were also plantation owners who had established themselves as successful owners of vast tracts of land belonging to what will be known as the South.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During those times it was not hard to accept the fact that there are those who are supposed to rule and there are those who are supposed to serve. After the establishment of the Union, it did not take long before ownership of Negro slaves became a divisive issue. As a result nation building took a major step backwards.

Instead of going forward capitalizing from the gains of the American Revolution, Northern and Southern states were at loggerhead in their interpretation of the aforementioned Declaration of Independence. This piece of document meant two different things for two opposing forces. Those who are against slavery used the argument that all men are indeed created equal.

The Southern states on the other hand resented the way the government tried to force their ideas – particularly in the area of slave ownership. For them the Declaration of Independence is a reminder that an oppressive government must be challenged and removed from society.

From Old to New In the 19th century, the world has changed and America has changed. It was already made clear from many declarations as well as the passing of related laws that slavery is no longer an acceptable practice. Slavery had to be abolished.

The Declaration of Independence authored by founding fathers made it very clear that all men are created equal. It is now considered immoral for slave owners to continue enslaving people and treating them like bests of burden.

Even if slave owners will open their hearts and minds to this kind of argument it would be very difficult for them to change overnight. For one, their source of income depended on the use of slaves. Secondly, they have to maintain the status quo where whites are on top and the blacks are at the bottom of the social hierarchy. It would be extremely difficult for them to relinquish control.

This simply means that if the white slave owners will have a sudden change of heart and free their slaves, then no one will run their farms for them. What then will they eat and how can they maintain their lifestyle? This was not an easy question for many landholders and slave owners. Thus, they had to believe in the idea that they had the right to continually own slaves.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The U.S. Civil War and Its Aftermath specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aside from principles of freedom and equality, the abolition of slavery came from the pens and speeches of former slaves as well as sympathizers in the North. Many of the slaves could not wait for the government to rescue them. So they ran away to the North.

In the prelude to the Civil War the national government facilitated the abolition of slavery in many parts of the country. Northern states began to change their policies in favor of Negro slaves. Thus, it encouraged some to escape and flee the South. They were known collectively as abolitionists.

Many of the abolitionists believe in the power of the written word to influence and open the eyes of the many. They continued to do so before, during and after the Civil War. Negro slaves who learned how to read and write while still in bondage used found the chance to use their talents when they were able to escape from their masters.

Through their writings they exposed the wickedness of slavery and this helped many to realize that it is imperative to support the cause of the abolitionists. While there were former slaves who used the pen to fight slavery in the South there were also those who were daring enough to help those fleeing slaves and gave them protection from those who wanted to bring them back to the their owners.

Influential leaders shaped history through their words and actions and one of them was a woman named Harriet Tubman. This lady displayed unusual courage as well as intelligence in maintaining an underground network for helping slaves on the run. When the Civil War erupted she served as soldier, nurse and spy for the Union Army. Before the war Tubman was very successful in leading the Underground Railroad.

This is a network comprised of homes and families willing to risk their lives to aid fleeing slaves. They are mostly Quakers, New England Yankees, and free blacks (Calore, 2008, p.23).

While a system was in place, for the Underground Railroad to work there is a need for an able “conductor” a sort of a guide that will help Negro slaves travel 15 treacherous miles before they cross the border between North and South. One of the most daring and resourceful conductor was Harriet Tubman.

Tubman was a former slave and came from pure African ancestry. This explains her tenacity and willingness to risk her life just so she can help a great number of Negro slaves escape the horrible life of bondage that she is well acquainted with.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The U.S. Civil War and Its Aftermath by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her popularity is not only aided by her success but also by the strategies that she employed to ensure that her party will never be tracked down and apprehended by their slave masters. According to one report Tubman carried a loaded pistol and threatened the fleeing Negro slaves in her care that she will shoot those who will lose heart and turn back.

Her experience in the Underground Railroad gave her mastery of the terrain that crisscross between North and South as a result, “The Union army, realizing that she had extensive knowledge about the geography and many routes in and out of Confederate territory, recruited her to help in their efforts in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida” (Eggleston, 2003, p.122).

She proved an invaluable help to the Union army as her expertise would help them save time and also to formulate the correct strategies in fighting the Confederate army.

Her life became an inspiration to many and prompted others to serve in the cause. Tubman was unselfish. She could have died doing all those subversive acts. It is common knowledge during those days that slave masters hired slave hunters whose sole task was to track down, apprehend and drag slaves back to where they belong.

Tubman could have had a chance encounter with a slave hunter but she was able to elude all of them. At the end she was responsible for helping many achieve freedom. Aside from Tubman there was also another influential figure and his name is Frederick Douglass.

Slave owners and their sympathizers can conjure clever arguments against the preservation of the slave system but when Douglass slave spoke out about the cruelty and depravations experienced by Negro slaves it is hard not to agree with his indictment of the said practice, which according to him undermines the greatness of America and he said:

The existence of slavery in this country brands your republicanism as a sham, your humanity as a base pretense, and your Christianity as a lie. It destroys your moral power abroad; it corrupts your politicians at home. It saps the foundation of religion; it makes your name a hissing, and byword to a mocking earth (Lowance, 2003, p. 222).

The words of these great men and women created tremendous pressure so that the Federal Government could no longer ignore the plight of the Negro Slaves. The Union challenged the South to give up their slaves. The South made a move that forced the North to declare war. When the South made known their desire to secede, it was only a matter of time before Union soldiers would invade the South. America was plunged into Civil War.

Douglas, Tubman and other writers and intellectuals were the inspiration of those who were in bondage to aspire for freedom and new identity as freed men and women. But aside from eloquent speakers and gifted writers, Negro slaves were also inspired by those who were drafted by the Federal Government to fight the Confederate Army.

At first it seems that Negro slaves would have to be content to stay at the sidelines and be mere spectators to a war that will determine their destiny as American citizens. But it did not take long before the Union Army decided to recruit them and made them a part of the fighting force that will help liberate their brethren who were still in bondage.

Those who were living as free men in the Northern states were conscripted into the army (Donovan

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Role of WWII in Shaping America’s History Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Introduction World War II, deemed as the deadliest and most expensive war, began in 1939 when Germany attacked Poland. The United States became fully engaged in the war when Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor on December 1941. This engagement was soon followed by a massive mobilization exercise as millions of men and women were deployed abroad while a substantial number remained at home, supporting the war in every way possible.

Women, who had previously stayed at home as housewives or held non-military jobs, were employed in factories that specialized in manufacturing war equipment such as aircrafts, ammunition, and military uniform. The women were called in to replace men who had joined the armed forces.

Americans at home took part in rationing programs to fund the war, they also bought Liberty bonds to help raise money for the war. In summary, the war was a major event that helped shape our country’s history and its effects continue to be felt today.

Role of WWII in Shaping America’s History Boost to the Economy

The entry of the United States into WWII was a major boost to the economy that was still reeling from the effects of the Great Depression of 1930. Just ten years prior to the war, many people were jobless, however, jobs were available for almost everyone during the war.

Reports mention that nearly 17 million job openings became available, and workers got the opportunity of clearing old debts, feeding their families, and saving for the future. Availability of job opportunities at home and abroad ensured that the US economy remained s strong as it was prior to the Great Depression, and has maintained that superiority to date.

Military Power

An important outcome of the WWII was that the US came out a stronger military power than before. During the war, civilian factories were transformed and began manufacturing artillery, machine guns, aircrafts, military clothing, and bullets.

Factories that manufacture civilian clothes previously were now manufacturing army uniforms, while those manufacturing iron-based products were converted to manufacture bullets and machine guns. Every sector of the economy contributed to the war in every way possible.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, America’s military technology surpassed those of European nations and this was evident when it manufactured the world’s first atomic bomb. As a result, the end of the war ushered America as the new world superpower, overtaking Russia.

A United Country

Coming out the war, America was a more united country. The effects of the Civil War (1861-1865) and slavery had not sunk down the hearts of many Americans, however, the WWII provided a platform in which all Americans: northerners, southerners, black, white and indigenous fought side by side to defeat a common enemy. Success depended on cooperation and unity among all Americans.

The war reduced racial tensions as President Roosevelt extended federal power into areas predominantly occupied by African Americans. These areas included the Jim Crow South. Americans viewed racial discrimination as a vice that squandered resources needed to win the war abroad.

President Roosevelt mentioned that a nation facing despotism should reinforce its “unity and morale by refuting at home the very theories which we are fighting abroad.” (Polenberg, 1982).

Reference Polenberg, R. (1982). One Nation Divisible: Class, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States Since 1938, 1980. Journal of American Studies, 16: 127-128.

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United Nations and International law Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction The following essay is concerned with the international relations that exist between various countries in the world. The essay examines as to whether or not the founding of the United Nations represent a radical departure from the system of international law and/or international society prior to 1945.However,it is important to determine the foundation of international law.

International law which is sometimes known as public international law refers to the law that is concerned withy regulating relations between countries. Human beings are social animals implying that they becomes civilizes as time passes by. During the past, human beings were not guided by any laws.

However, the civilization of mankind enabled man to come up withy principles that will be followed in order to ensure that there is order in the society.

The origin of international law can be traced back in the 6th Century BC when a North African ethnic group and the Carthaginians interacted by trading gold and other valuable commodities. The two communities exchanged commodities by being honest to each other and thus avoiding conflicts.

Interaction between states also occurred in ancient Eurasia whereby three independent states i.e. Mesopotamia, Nothern Island and the classical Greece shared a common regulatory system. There was cultural unity among the above three states and this facilitated the emergence of various standard practices of international law.

Studies by Emmerich de Vattel (1714-1767 ) and Hugo and Emmer(1583-1645 ) showed that the emergence of international law systems can be founded on the balance of power theory which is based on the principle that, states tend to join one another in order to restrain a state that is deemed to have gained excess power.

The United Nations emerged in 1945 with an aim of coordinating the states’ actions and to address the global issues such as peace and security. Before this period, there were devastating wars whereby many people lost their lives and thus the United Nations helped to turn around the situation (Collin

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Executive Country Briefing Report essay help: essay help

Introduction The eight forces framework is an analysis tool that enables firms to evaluate the effect of the macro-environmental factors of the economy on their performance. It is thus used by entrepreneurs to analyze the suitability of the economies they intend to invest in.

This paper will focus on the application of this framework in the context of a firm that intends to invest in China. Thus the effects of the external factors associated with China will be illuminated.

Eight Forces Framework Figure 1 in the appendix illustrates the various components of the framework. These components denote the external factors that influence the performance of a business in a give economy. The interdependence among the factors or components of the framework illustrates their relationships. For example, political factors influence the development of the legal system. Their influence in a business setting can be explained as follows.

Socio-cultural

This relates to the norms, values and perspectives of the citizens and can be explained as follows. The dominant religious groups in China include Shensi-Taoism and Buddhism. However, majority of Chinese are not religious since over 60% of the population does not identify with any religion. Being a socialist country, collectivism is highly emphasized.

The achievement of a group is considered to be more valuable than the contribution of each member. In the context of a business, this is an advantage since it encourages teamwork. The citizens are beginning to embrace individualism due to the influence of globalization and the one-child-policy. Globalization and the introduction of private property is encouraging individualism in the country.

The Chinese are associated with a long-term time orientation. This means that they “value slow growth through perseverance”. They are also associated with formal work practices that are based on contracts. Long-term work relationships between employees and employers are highly valued in China.

The Chinese have a positive attitude towards work. The rapid growth of their economy is largely attributed to their ‘work to death’ attitude. This means that they are dedicated to work. Besides, the work ethics in the country promotes labor productivity and increased output.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Legal

Legal factors refer to the rules and regulations that guide the operation of the country and its economic activities. The Chinese legal framework is based on the civil system (codified legal system). This is reflected in six codes which include the “constitution, civil code, civil procedure, criminal code, code of criminal procedure and the administrative law”.

The common law is not very popular and is mainly used to settle disputes among individuals. According to the country’s labor laws, employments must be based on contracts. The contracts specify the rights and obligations of the employers and the employees. The contracts are informed by the labor laws that were introduced in 1994. The labor market is characterized by a large number of labor unions.

The unions have as high as 137 million members but are less effective in representing the employees. The government has responded to this situation be introducing “collective contracts and tripartite institutions to mediate in labor disputes”. In 2007, anti-monopoly laws were enacted to achieve three goals namely, promoting fair competition, protecting consumers and facilitating socialist market’s growth.

The laws are enforced by the Anti-monopoly Commission. The government is keen in fighting corruption through appropriate legislation that emphasizes tough penalties against the perpetrators of the offence.

Even though China’s constitution recognizes the international laws, the country has always been accused of failing to adhere to such laws. It has particularly failed to adhere to the World Trade Organization’s rules on several occasions.

Political

China is a communist state with its capital in Beijing and headed by President HU Jintao. The country is organized into “twenty three provinces, four municipalities and five regions that are autonomous”. The branches of the government include the “judiciary, the executive, the legislative and the political parties”.

It is one of the most stable governments in the world. Its stability is attributed to the Confucian philosophy that promotes peace and self control. Besides, the leaders are focused on maintaining stability in order to achieve high economic growth. The stability has enabled it to achieve rapid growth in the last three decades.

We will write a custom Report on Executive Country Briefing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The national groupings in the country include 55 small ethnic groups and the dominant Han community. Other groups include the foreign that have been granted citizenship through legal procedures. The economic interventions associated with China’s government include the following.

First, the government regulates most industries in order to ensure stability. Second, subsidies are given to firms to boost their competitiveness. Finally, the government pursues policies that aim at protecting local industries from external competition. These strategies benefit local firms at the expense of foreign firms since they discourage fair competition at the international level.

Demographics

China is associated with the highest population in the world (Kaneda, 2011). This is beneficial due to the fact that it provides a large market for various goods and services. The total population is estimated at 1.3 billion people as at December 2009. Its composition is as follows. 19.8 percent of the population consists of children between the age of zero and fourteen years.

The citizens aged between fifteen and sixty four years account for 72.1 percent of the population. The males account for 51.53 percent of the population while the females account for 48.47% of the population. There is a fair distribution of the population between the urban and rural areas. 42.3% of the population lives in the urban areas while the remaining 57.7% resides in the rural areas.

China’s population is highly educated. Over 90% of the population is able to read and write. This promotes the development of human capital in the country. Internal migration in the country mainly involves movements between rural and urban areas.

There are also significant migrations to other countries. Currently, the country’s net migration rate is “-0.39 migrants per 1000 individuals”. The migrations are mainly attributed to push-pool conditions such as employment opportunities.

Physical and Natural

The countries ecology can be described as follows. The land measures “approximately 3.7 square miles”. The terrain is diverse and includes plains, deltas and mountains. It is characterized by numerous ecosystems which are habitats of several species of plants and animals. Even though the government regulates pollution, the environment remains highly polluted by domestic and industrial wastes.

The man-made risks or disasters in the country include pollution and destruction of vegetation especially forests. This has led to droughts and famine in the past. China has experienced some of the most dangerous natural disasters. Such disasters include floods and earthquakes. The disasters occur regularly and affect over 200 million citizens every year in terms of destruction of property and loss of lives.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Executive Country Briefing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “The National Disaster Reduction Center” is the agency that is responsible for risk management in China. It provides information that helps in preventing and coping with the disasters. This is achieved by studying the trends of the disasters using modern technology.

The private sector also helps in risk management through research and financial aid. Terrorism cases are minimal in China. The few cases that exist are attributed to Muslim extremist in Xinjiang and a section of Tibetan clergy. In order to prevent terrorism in the country, the government has identified and banned the responsible organizations.

Competition

The government has taken a number of measures to reform the state-owned firms and this can be explained as follows. Most of the state-owned firms have been listed both locally and in foreign markets. This helps in modernizing them and improving their efficiency.

The managements of such firms have been given the authority to make decisions in regard to their operations. For example, they can hire the junior and middle level officers. Profit remittance has been substituted by profit taxes. Thus the firms are free to use their after tax profits for further development and investment.

The main barriers to trade and investment in the country include the following. First, the country’s procurement system is incomplete and is characterized by corruption. Second, companies are required to adhere to several compliance regulations. Besides, certification for compliance is cumbersome since it is done by third party agencies.

Third, the government’s trade policies aim at protecting local firms through import as well as export limits. This restricts sales and reduces the competitiveness of foreign firms. Finally, Investment in some sectors of the economy such as the energy industry is not open to foreign firms.

Besides, the government imposes “equity caps and limits the number of establishments” that can be owned by a firm. These factors undermine the efforts to facilitate capital flows. They also discourage international trade between China and its foreign partners.

Technology

The high production capacity of China is attributed to its massive investments in research and development in all sectors of the economy. In 2010, China was the third “largest spender in research and development” (Naik, 2011) at the international level. It intends to invest $153.7 billion in various research activities in the year 2011(Naik, 2011).

Thus it will be elevated to position two in regard to research and development expenditure. The country invests at least “1.4% of its GDP in research and development” (Naik, 2011) and this has led to innovation and cost reduction. The country is also focusing on the use of modern information technology.

This involves investing in both equipment and employee development in order to promote the use of modern technology. This has led to the development of sophisticated, efficient and cost effective production technologies.

In order to improve its productivity, the country relies on the use of modern communication technology such as the internet. It has invested in communication infrastructure such as fiber optic cables in order to reduce the cost of communication and data transmission. The government has also used its abundant labor and natural resources to invest in modern transportation infrastructure.

Thus the country has well maintained roads, railways networks as well as air and sea ports. These infrastructures are evenly distributed in the country. Due to the open-policy introduced by the government, the country has a high technology adoption rate. It adopts foreign technology by encouraging international companies to establish their research and development stations in the country.

The technology absorption capacity is high due to two reasons. First, teamwork and learning is high emphasized in the country and this promotes sharing of knowledge. Second, both public and private sectors invest in employee training and this enables them to use modern technology.

Economic and Financial

China is associated with a mixed economy with both socialist and capitalist elements. While the government recognizes and protects private property, it also plays an important role in the economic system. The government not only regulates economic activities but also own businesses either directly or indirectly. China’s economy is the second largest in the world.

Its economy experiences a rapid growth that has been maintained at 10% over the last three decades. The “country’s GDP in 2009 was $ 7,518 per capita”. Currently, China’s interest rate is 6.06%. The interest rate has been maintained at an average rate of 6.49% since 1996. The country’s inflation at the end of the third quarter of 2010 was 4.9%. The country’s inflation has been maintained at an average rate of 4.25% since 1994.

Renminbi is the country’s legal tender. China uses a ‘floating exchange rate system”. Currently, one US dollar is equivalent to 6.56 CNY. The country’s banking system is organized as follows. “The People’s Bank of China” acts as the country’s central bank.

It has the autonomy to formulate and execute monetary polices. Regulation of the banking industry is done by the “China Banking Regulating Committee”. The other institutions include commercial banks and deposit taking financial organizations.

Conclusion The above analysis indicates that the eight forces framework provides the basis for analyzing the significance of the external factors in a business setting. China is a communist state with a politically stable government. The socio-cultural factors promote hard work among the citizens. The country is also associated with a rapidly growing economy. Its growth rate is attributed to a large domestic market and investment in research and development.

Appendix Figure 1.

This figure illustrates the various components of the eight forces framework. The arrows show that the external environmental factors are interrelated and depend on each other.

References Carreiro, M., Sung, Y.-C.,

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Kill School Boards Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

School Boards

Critics of School Board Operations

The Case of Western Pennsylvania

Alternatives: Case against Killing of School Boards

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Why is local control in our schools such a failure? This question has been echoed in many quarters among Americans concerned about school management. Due to lapses in school management, some people have strongly advocated for abolishment of school boards. This paper seeks to expose the reasons why school management has largely failed.

It will extensively look into the call to kill school boards and why pressures towards the same are increasing with passing time. To bid to establish if school boards should be abolished or not, the challenges faced by school boards will be dissected.

Decentralization as a public institutions management policy has served America and other countries well. One of the key strengths of a decentralization policy is that it makes decision making easier. Additionally, decentralization takes management closer to the people (Reeves 2003, p. 24).

The establishment of school boards resulted from a decentralization process (First1992, p. 31). However, as the case in this paper illustrates, it seems school boards are failing in their mandate. Many reformers agree that management decentralization in education has become increasingly difficult and caused many problems.

Although management of schools was vested with the boards with the intention of making the function independent, it appears the boards are easily manipulated by significant forces in the education sector. Such manipulation has made the board ineffective in the way they perform their roles and responsibilities.

School Boards Before understanding why school boards should be abolished or not, it is critical to know what school boards are, their composition and roles in a school setting. School boards are composed of members who are the representatives of the community in the school.

Many believe that school boards have a considerable influence over the school decisions and that they provide a social and political connection in the way the school is run (Reeves 2003, p. 12). The important role the school boards play is to put into practice school management reforms.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More School boards were instituted so as to help the government in implementing education related state legislative policy for the public schools (McAdams 2006, p. 7). They board members are the local administrators of the states public education system.

In the begins, public servants were elected to the school boards and they discharged the duties as school boards members while remaining in the initial employment; what they were doing before the appointment to the board.

The school boards are a legally recognized entity and school board members are guided by given legislation as they discharge their duties (McAdams 2006, p. 9). No individual board member has powers more than their role as a member of local school board.

School boards have a number of roles they perform in the local school system. They participate actively in curriculum development i.e. they contribute by evaluating and making suggestions for changes in the curriculum (Reeves 2003, p. 21).

They are charged with the responsibility of appointing key official members of the central office and they implement an annual school’s budget. It is the responsibility of the board to ensure that a quality environment that ensures educational excellence is entrenched.

Additionally, school boards initiate educational policies at the local levels. They do provide important administrative supervision as well as initiating educational policies and instituting programs. They take an essential role in establishing systems and processes to ensure school system’s outcome accountability.

They make important decisions concerning the district’s top management and key staff. School boards also provide leadership for the local school system; adopt a unifying vision and mission statements.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Kill School Boards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They seek for and balance the participation of the community members and they campaign for the educational needs of the children (Reeves 2003, p. 21).

It is the mandate of School boards to develop, implement and review policies. Some of the local policies established by school boards have to do with school employee welfare, associations and general conduct.

School boards promulgate local school policies but the policies have to be in tandem with national educational policies (Reeves 2003, p.19). They must recognize and conform to the legal authorization imposed by state and federal laws.

Their operations can at no particular juncture go outside laws and rules of the state authority. It is the responsibility of the board to review their own failure and success and communicate to the public concerning any decision made. They also make sure the public knows and understands their mission.

As leaders, school board members are expected to conform to the common moral values of society (McAdams 2006, p. 16). They also should promote accountability by reviewing their own failures and success and make sure that there is no abuse of power. The top management can take advantage of those below them and also use the office for the determination of special interest groups.

Some of the functions of the school bodies as enshrined in the State law include approval of the budgets prepared by the districts; they develop both short range and long range goals, define the educational objectives to guide operations, establishing performance indicators and participate in coming up with students’ assessment systems (McAdams 2006, p. 36).

They are also required to approve the curricular structure and standards for student achievement. Often, before establishing of goals or educational objectives to guide operations, the board members have to come up with a vision and mission.

Once the objectives to guide operations have been established, a closer scrutiny is given to the performance levels and key action plans to deal with current deficits are organized into an action plan (First1992, p. 52). The developed action plan acts as an implementation guide for the implementation of desired or designed policy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kill School Boards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Board policies cover a big part of operations in schools but sometimes the policies might be seen as vague and clashing by those responsible with the implementation of policies. There are a number of factors or challenges and directly or indirectly affect school boards performance.

Board members may not agree on the suitable means to realize key objectives. The board may be required by educators to be professional administrators and teachers to contribute meaningfully in matters of educational policies. Although it happens rarely but due to petty politics, some school boards are affected by high turn over.

Policy making is a very delicate process that often requires quick decisions. Interest groups make policy formulation a hard process. The influence of interest groups often lead to appointment of new board members who can not contribute significantly to the policy making process because of insufficient time to analyze the policy in order to achieve the objectives.

Despite being directly involved in policy making, their management role consists in supervision of school operations as an oversight body (First1992, p. 76). The boards are involved the implementation of standards as quality assurors. They assess progress towards the accomplishment of key objectives.

For them to do a good job, they need adequate information of knowledge into school related procedures and the organizational structure in place. It is imperative that board members have some knowledge of administrative supervision in order for them to be able to achieve their goals.

Critics of School Board Operations Unfortunately, some school boards forget their mandate as an oversight body and engage in school micromanagement. Critics point out that school boards need focus on policy making and avoid micromanagement of the school system.

School boards should “emphasize their role as policy boards and not collective management committee and their aim should be to boost student academic progress” (Danzberger, 1992, p.18).

Many local boards take on the administrative duties and this is time consuming on them. These pseudo-judicial functions that they take on often compromise the policy making priorities of the board (Caughey

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Economic Theories of Amartya Sen and David Ricardo Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The comparative advantage Theory

Origin in relation to David Ricardo and Amartya Sen

Discussion of The comparative advantage theory

The Amartya Sen Paradigm

The David Ricardo paradigm

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction David Ricardo (1772-1823) was a political economist and a successful business man who is recognized for his organized economics ideology. In the early nineteenth century, Ricardo was considered to be one of the most influential economists.

In addition to being an influential figure, David Ricardo was also a Member of Parliament, a strategic investor and a keen sighted entrepreneur whose economic ventures managed to accredit to his name a sufficient amount of wealth.

In his most active years as an economist, he idealized and combined a collection of economic policies that perceived an ideal politico-economic structure.

Among his most significant contributions were the theory on the Influence of demand and supply on prices, theory on foreign trade, theory on value, the law of wages and the theory of comparative advantage.

This paper will take an insightful look at the conceptualization of the theory of comparative advantage as analyzed and applied by another economist, Amartya Sen.

Amartya Sen (1933) is an economist and academician whose contribution to the economic sphere has earned him widespread recognition and several awards. Sen has particular interest in social and developmental economics and has presented several publications and writings that identify economic barriers whilst offering practical solutions.

He identifies several economic and social issues such as unemployment, war, logistics, corruption, hoarding and the decline in wages as the major obstructions to the growth and development of any functional unit.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among his prominent work is the theory of social choice which basically challenged the voting rules citing that they contradicted the democratic norm.

The comparative advantage Theory The theory of comparative advantage refers to the capacity of a party to provide a standard good or service at a lower production cost than another party with similar capability.

One can also say that comparative advantage is the ability to come up with a product that is most efficiently created through specialization of a precise product thus overlooking all the other products that could be produced.

Origin in relation to David Ricardo and Amartya Sen The comparative advantage theory was first used by David Ricardo in 1817 in his book concerning the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation where he used an example of England and Portugal.

Portugal has the resources and the capacity to produce both wine and cloth with less labor and consequently less production cost as compared to England. England lacks the adequate resources necessary to produce wine and is moderately equipped in terms of capacity as far as cloth is concerned but both of these goods are easily produced in Portugal (Dornbusch et al 823).

The structure of the arrangement is that though it is cheaper to produce cloth and wine in Portugal, there is a higher potential for Portugal to produce excess wine which is then used to trade that for English cloth (Chang 56).

The overall outcome is that both nations benefit from the trade arrangement because England continues to produce export cloth at the normal cost and is now in a position to import wine at a lower price which is more or less equivalent to the cost of cloth (Sowell 112).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic Theories of Amartya Sen and David Ricardo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is therefore evident that each country has the potential to benefit through specialization in the production of goods which it has a comparative advantage and use the goods to trade for the goods it needs.

Amartya Sen’s first ostensible on the comparative advantage theory was integrated in his development of economics ideology through the concept of capability that was developed in his article titled ‘Equality of What’.

It seems that Sen’s contemplation was that a stable government should be measured against the existing potential of the nation’s citizens. One can also conclude that development that began with the government then trickled to the citizens would inadvertently trample on the rights of the citizens (Edwards 78).

This is because the government would be forced to impose its will on individuals who did not oblige to its intentions consequently altering the natural laws of progress.

For instance, if the nation’s citizens have an inclination to farm as a source of income, a supposition by the government to diverge them into another activity would inherently be resisted even though the government’s intentions were descent (Cohen 2156).

The government would therefore be required to force the citizens into the particular activity against their will hence breaking functioning barriers such as cultural practices and taboo. The only way that a nation could truly embrace developmental economics was to allow the citizens to identify their own vocational preference (Sowell 110).

The role of the government would therefore be supplementary in providing additional resources and monetary aid to ensure the sustenance and viability of the citizens’ occupational choice.

With the diversity present in each nation in terms of geographical location, culture, norms, code of conduct and interest, specialization would present itself logically without forceful intervention. Citizen can then be considered to act out of personal choice when obstacles such as government interference are removed (Chang 53).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Theories of Amartya Sen and David Ricardo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The responsibility lies in the individual societies to maximize on the use of the unique capabilities endowed on each of the societies. It is through this kind of structure that a bottom-up economic growth would be created which is considered to be the most potent in an economically viable nation (Shiozawa 21).

Discussion of The comparative advantage theory In his book, Principles of Political Economy, David Ricardo was the first economist to deeply engage in the theory of comparative advantage from a theoretical point of view.

A nation would be in a position to gain more through specialization and trade with other nations rather than produce a variety of goods and services even if they are of superior quality (Ricardo 12).

This view is supported by Amartya Sen who included the comparative advantage theory as a solution for hunger alleviation in his contribution in the 1983 Human Development Report, published by the United Nations Development Programme.

Sen suggested that marginalized communities should be prioritized by policy makers in order to empower them economically and to restore the mislaid earnings of the poor.

To accomplish this, the government should maintain stable prices for food but more importantly, the marginalized group should be empowered through public-works projects. The projects should be suctioned and funded by the government and the government would basically allow each of the marginalized groups to specialize on farming a particular crop (Edwards 82).

For instance, the government of India was in 1943 held liable for the three million deaths that were as a result of the Bengal famine even though there was adequate food supply in Bengal at the time.

Amartya Sen in his application of the comparative advantage theory was of the opinion that each community should have a crop they specialize in like wheat, maize, corn or fruits which they could trade and earn while also averting the possibility of hunger in case of drought (Cohen 2158).

As a staunch supporter of political freedom, Sen asserted that functioning democracies can never experience famine because the leaders are much more sensitive towards the needs of the people.

Sen’s theory on comparative advantage offered an abstemious elucidation as to the reason why there is a decreasing number of women as compared to men in India and China in spite of the fact that in the West and in other impartial countries, women lived longer, had better job opportunities, were likely to create wealth just like men, had lower mortality rates at all ages and also made a higher percentage of the general population (Chang 75).

Through the application of Sen’s analysis, it can be observed that women were more likely to be excluded in decision making, their ambitions were not valued and girls had little or no childhood opportunities.

It is only through the empowerment of women that a healthy exchange of idea and tasks through comparative advantage would develop between the sexes leading to faster economic growth in china and India.

The impact of comparative advantage is distributional because it culminates in improved real income per household as well as increased governmental function.

It can be viewed that if every citizenry unit was mutually exclusive in function and in sustenance through the process of specialization, then the excess could be traded off for more needed goods and some stored as investment or for future consumption.

Thus each community would be in a position to protract itself whilst at the same time generating income (Sowell 116). The government is as a result less focused on national maintenance issues and can therefore concentrate on developmental policies and national cohesion (Cohen 2157).

The end result is a nation that is able to sustain itself, a nation that is managed by an efficient government and which has a significant reduction in poverty cases as well. Ricardo’s theory similarly supports this notion an in its practical application, the distributional effects on foreign trade were not in a position to directly affect national income because income was directly proportional to the level of wages.

Ricardo was of the opinion that wages were not to be controlled rather be defined through competition to avoid restrictions on the importation of agricultural products from other countries (Dornbusch et al 826). The overall outcome on the income will as a consequence be favorable since foreign trade will not have an effect on value.

With such notion, comparative advantage can be understood to be a guideline to the means through which trade can create value for the active parties involved even in cases where one party is endowed with more primary resources for production.

Based on the aforementioned view it can be discerned that comparative advantage creates the fundamental structure of modern trade theory that perpetuates the notion that a nation has a comparative advantage in the production of a product if the nation is aptly equipped with the necessary inputs that are primarily used in creating the product.

The theory of comparative advantage as presented by both David Ricardo and Amartya Sen gives the impression that those endowed with capacity and the underprivileged equally give attention to their own custodial clout in order to meet the needs of the richer, more skillful party (Edwards 79).

Even though there is a seemingly unequal exchange, the potent thought is that both contributing parties benefit. An extrapolated opinion is that both parties benefit equally and each party is enabled to concentrate on its own area of bona fide expertise leading to a bi-directional equal trade though the initial perception of purely comparative specialization is in one direction (Ricardo15).

In general, the benefits of such an arrangement and the outcome can be termed as the gains from trade and it is the fundamental model of the theory of global trade.

Amartya Sen deviated slightly from David Ricardo in terms of technicality and the application of the comparative advantage. Sen focused on the application of the comparative advantage on a micro economy whereas Ricardo was more interested on a macro economy (Ricardo 18).

The reason for the analysis has its kernel founded in the works of both economists and the focal points of their subject matter. Sen concentrated on developing economic viable societies through the enrichment of individuals who took on the specialization of production of socially acceptable and accessible products.

He was of the opinion that communities would use the locally available resources to produce superior goods that were tradable with different goods of similar value. Through welfare economics, Sen sought to appraise economic policies relative to their outcome on the interests of the community (Dornbusch et al 832).

His social-economic views can be seen in his works such as the prominent monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare in1970 which tackled issues concerning individual rights for instance the conception of the moderate paradox, justice and impartiality, majority rule together with the accessibility of information with reference to individual state of affairs.

Sen developed techniques for measuring poverty that were largely based on the comparative advantage and the end result was a wealth of practical data concerned with improving the economic status for the underprivileged (Cohen 2160). On the other hand, the macro economic perspective of Ricardo was fundamentally converse to that of Sen.

While Sen was of a bottom-up approach to economic sustainability, Ricardo applied the comparative advantage in a top-down manner.

Ricardo believed that through the enrichment of a nation as a whole would individuals attain economic freedom. That is the reason why he concentrated on the application of the comparative advantage as a tool of trade between nations rather than communities.

To better understand the strikingly similar yet different perceptions of the two economists, examples are given as to how David Ricardo and Amartya Sen regarded the comparative advantage.

The Amartya Sen Paradigm Two communities live in remote woodland and in order to stay alive they must undertake a few essential activities like hunting, cooking, building shelter, collecting water and firewood, farming and keeping animals. The first community has many members and many of them are young and strong.

They are more productive, have better shelter, make several hunts and have large tracts of land for farming hence have several benefits in all activities (Cohen 2159). The second community has few members, they have faulty shelter, and they have a small farm and rarely make a successful hunt.

The community therefore has been disadvantaged in a broader sense in all activities. Regardless of the fact that the larger community has gained an unconditional lead in all activities, it is economically not sufficient for either of the communities to work alone because they can both profit from specialization and exchange (Edwards 85).

If the two communities divide the available tasks according to comparative advantage then the larger community will specialize in doing the work that it is most prolific, while the smaller community will focus on tasks which require their expertise and where their productivity is almost equivalent to that of the larger community.

With such an understanding, total production will peak because a given quantity of effort fulfilled by both communities will benefit all (Sowell 117).

The David Ricardo paradigm If there are two nations of equivalent dimension, for instance Georgia and Finland and both produce and use two goods; wood and iron. The productive aptitude of the nations is such that if both nations dedicated their labor and resources to wood production, Georgia would have 200 tons and Finland would have 500 tons.

In the instance where all the resources of both nations were diverted to the production of iron, Georgia would have 200 tons and Finland would have 300 tons.

With the assumption that each nation has the same opportunity costs while producing wood and iron and both nations are productively active, then there will be no trade between the nations and the price mechanism will facilitate perfect competition (Chang 40).

However, Finland has an unconditional lead over Georgia in the production of wood and iron and no common profit in business operations between the nations since Finland is more efficient at producing of both products.

Georgia’s production cost of producing one ton of wood is one ton of iron whereas Finland’s production cost of one ton of wood is 0.5 ton of iron meaning the cost of one ton of iron is two tons of wood.

Therefore, Finland has a comparative advantage in wood production because of its lower cost of production when compared to Georgia. Georgia has a comparative advantage over Finland in the production of iron, the production cost of which is higher in Finland when compared to wood than in Georgia (Shiozawa 23).

The difference in production costs will lead to mutual benefit if the countries specialize in production and trade bearing in mind that the nations generate and use the products only internally (Edwards 88).

With all other factors constant and there is no conceptualization of the predilection of patrons in both nations that would help in arriving at the final decision of the international exchange rate of wood and iron.

In order for trade to be mutually beneficial, Georgia requires a price of at least one ton of wood in exchange for one ton of iron and Finland requires at least one ton of iron for two tons of wood (Sowell 110). Taking into account the production potential of each nation, the exchange price will then be between the two.

The rest of the arrangement will be dependent on an international trading price of one ton of wood for two thirds ton of iron. If both nations concentrate on the commodities in which they bear comparative advantage, then Georgia will produce 100 tons iron and Finland will produce 300 tons wood and 50 tons iron.

The global production of wood will therefore rise while iron production will remain the same (Chang 51). With reference to the previous exchange rate of one ton of wood for two third ton of iron, Georgia and Finland will be able to trade.

Georgia will achieve 75 tons wood and 50 tons iron while Finland will achieve 225 tons wood and 100 tons iron. Georgia will have traded 50 tons of iron for 75 tons of wood and consequently both nations will have benefited and will be able to now consume at points outside their production prospective levels.

The above example is based on a few assumptions which have to be taken into account. First, the theory is neither limited to two nation, equal size economies nor to two goods.

Ricardo’s comparative advantage theory created space for a larger number of nations and goods, since the fundamental principle is the same regardless of the variables (Ricardo 22). Another assumption is that half of each nation’s existing resources are utilized to produce each good before specialization commenced (Shiozawa 26).

Additionally, if one of the nations has less than the required of factors of production in a functional capacity, then the insufficient capacity gap have to generally be satisfied prior to the application of the comparative advantage analysis (Chang 16).

Transport costs were not factored in and hence the assumption is that the international trade is void of transport cost (Ricardo 34). Furthermore, the opportunity and production costs should not necessarily be identical but the focus on production can only be leveled to the situation at which the opportunity costs in both nations becomes one and the same (Dornbusch et al 831).

In existent economies a cost will be incurred when switching production hence perfect mobility of production factors within countries is absent. The known serenity of production factors amid countries does occur due to diverse rates of output which is enhanced by the dissimilarity in nations’ dynamic possessions.

A nation will bear the comparative advantage in the production of the commodity that requires to a large extent the factor that is in copious supply to the nation (Edwards 93). The presence of international factor mobility has the potential to change a nations’ comparative factor profusion (Dornbusch 839).

However, the principle of comparative advantage is still applicable here, but the nation at an advantage is the one with the ability to change the factor (Chang 15). Perfect competition is factored in as a set assumption that allows entirely proficient distribution of the resources used in production in the conceptualized free market.

Conclusion David Ricardo can be considered to be the pioneer thought for the comparative advantage which has essentially revolutionized the norms of international trade. Amartya Sen took up the ideology and morphed it into a condensed socio-economic gauge which has help transform the way nations perceive economic growth and development.

Sen has had a powerful influence on governments and the use of the comparative advantage theory as a means to measure poverty and has offered various governments and welfare organizations a practical perspective on how to curb poverty through specialization.

Indeed the comparative advantage theory is basically specialization based with the insistence of mutual trading arrangements to ease cost of production and maximize benefits.

Fundamentally, both David Ricardo and Amartya Sen had a similar basic principle of the comparative advantage theory where both economists focused on the specialization of production between two mutually exclusive parties.

According to both economists, different parties with almost similar production processes would be in a position to benefit more through specialization in a particular production, each then trade the products amongst themselves.

However, Amartya deviates slightly from Ricardo in terms of perception considering that San looks at comparative advantage from a socio-economic standpoint whereas Ricardo takes on a politico-economic perspective.

Works Cited Chang, Ha-Joon. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. New York: Anthem Press, 2002. Print.

Cohen, GA. Amartya Sen’s Unequal World. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 28, No. 40, pp. 2156-2160. Oct 1993. February 26, 2010. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4400230?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Dornbusch, Rooks, Fischer, Peter,

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The Negotiation Process Report college admissions essay help

Conflicts are a constant reality in our society and the effective resolution of the same may spell the difference between a successful and failed society. It is therefore imperative that the people involved in the conflict resolve the contentious issues constructively.

Key to the constructive resolution of conflicts is the use of negotiation tactics and strategies. This is because a deeper understanding of negotiation results in people being properly equipped to diffuse conflicts for the good of all parties involved.

Knowledge of the negotiation process is therefore vital for effective conflict resolution. In this paper, I shall set out to give a detailed description of the steps involved in the negotiation process

Negotiation is defined as “communication for the purpose of persuasion (Shamir, 2003; Goldberg, Sander

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“Investigating the Sustainability of a Sustained 360 Process” by Frank Shipper Essay custom essay help

In this academic critical essay, the article Investigating the Sustainability of a Sustained 360 Process by Frank Shipper will be discussed and evaluated. In 2009, Frank Shipper makes a wonderful attempt to analyze past investigations, where 360-degree feedback is concerned, and to clear up the reasons of managerial effectiveness that is usually caused by the 360 process.

The author underlines the crucial importance of this research because of the fact that only a single feedback intervention served as a major ground for many past studies, and the process under consideration has not considered the extremely important need of follow up assistance.

A meta-analysis and other composite studies cannot describe the significance of improvements, and a sustained 360 process has been investigated at all (Shipper, 2009, p. 1).

I shall agree with Frank Shipper concerning the necessity to continue investigations on the field of 360-degree feedback and admit that the chosen by the author way is rather helpful and interesting: the use of past researches and the ideas of sophisticated people makes this article stronger; and his personal judgment of the situation proves his confidence in own steps and suggestions.

Investigating the Sustainability of a Sustained 360 Process is divided into several logical parts, which give clear information about the essence of a sustained 360 process, its development during a certain period of time, its effectiveness, and its influence on other spheres of work.

Introduction aims at describing past investigations of 360 process effectiveness; Method explains the choice of a middle-level management development program; Results, Discussion, and Limitations inform about the facts, which have been obtained as a result of author’s personal investigation on this field and the limitations, which have been used in this investigation; and Conclusions is a perfectly arranged part of the article that proves how valuable a sustained 360 process may be for any business practice.

The article under discussion will be much useful for managers and other employees, who are eager to improve the arrangement of their work and managerial effectiveness that comes from a single intervention of feedback.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the first steps, which have been taken by the author, is the evaluation of past investigations, conducted by various sophisticated writers. Mr. Shipper uses the works of the 1990s and the 2000s and analyses the ideas and suggestions, which were offered at 1995, and their implementations at the beginning of the 2000s.

Torrington et al (2005, p. 63) explain that “there is a process of continuous feedback between the different stages of human resource planning activities, as they are all interdependent”.

It turns out to be crucially important to develop such a system that could be responsible for improvement of the results at any working place, communication between the employers and between the employees, and proper self-organization that may lead to success.

One of the best performance management models emphasizes the presence of 360-degree feedback every six months in order to develop plans within an organization (Lonsdale, 1998, p. 313).

The 360 process is the system that has to be applied to all employees within one organization (Bacal, 2003, p. 8), and as a standalone system, it should have several obligatory components, which can make it unique and meaningful.

Shipper (2009), as many other researchers, concentrates on the importance of self-rating component that looks at differences between the workers and prevents workers’ overestimation of own strengths and weaknesses (Eichinger

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PJ’s Smoothies: Advertising Executions Coursework college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Essence of advertising Petley (2003) presents one of the clearest and informative ideas, regarding advertising as “the means by which goods or services are promoted to the public” where “the advertiser’s goal is to increase sales of these goods or services by drawing people’s attention to them and showing them in a favourable light” (p. 4).

So advertising as an activity needs to attract attention, to promote the use of goods, and to demonstrate that the offered idea/service/thing is better in comparison to the others. In our two posters, much attention is paid to colours, slogans, and images which are represented by PJ Smoothies.

Elements of advertising To succeed in this activity, it is very important to be aware of its main elements and steps. Elements of advertising may depend on advertising purposes and advertising outcomes.

If we talk about purposes, the elements will be all about data collection (who buys, what is bought, what is not bought), constant innovations to be ready to present fresh and obligatory facts, and evaluation of prices to be able to compete in prices with other organizations (Walters, 2007).

Other elements of advertising are more connected to the outcomes of this activity and the ways of how to achieve the desirable success. Advertising should be appealing to people’s eyes so colours play an important role. Each of colours has its meaning and power (Wright, 2006, p. 115):

Red colour used for girl’s clothes symbolises human life, sexuality, passion, and ambitions.

Orange juice is all about joyful and high spirits which are inherent to people. Two young people hold orange bottle in their hands. It means they use these drinks to make everything around happier.

Green colours on the background are chosen to demonstrate that calmness and comfort that is still available to all people;

Yellow colours underline the idea of happiness and optimism of the production.

Advertising has to be memorable as well. To make it so, captivating slogans were chosen for the ads. Slogan has to be short and informative. The slogan for the first ad is “Enjoy This Life with PJ’s Smoothies” – a person should comprehend that this production will represent a chance to enjoy this life!

Another slogan is all about health that is so important for people: “Health Is Here”. You should not search for more ideas on how to improve your health but try this juice and feel better.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advertising needs to be simple and clear, this is why the use of colours and ideas are not too difficult to comprehend. Read what you see, and do what you read!

Advertising is to be fun and interesting. This is why such elements of ads as titles, contact to audience, range of colours, and attention-grabbing ideas that make people re-evaluate their lives.

All this is present in the ads under consideration so that the public will accept the offered idea and comprehend its essence and purposes (Mooij

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Jean Piaget Essay argumentative essay help

Jean Piaget was born on August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel Switzerland, son of Arthur a professor of medieval literature Piaget and Rebecca Jackson an intelligent and energetic person.

He married and had three children. The birth of his children prompted his interest on what happens in children’s early lives and their later development. His children were his subject for his experiments and which he came up with the cognitive development theory.

His works and studies made him famous. He mainly dealt with intellectual growth of children. Piaget believed that a child’s thinking, like that of an adult, was adaptive to the dynamic characteristics, facilitated by operative intelligence, and static characteristics, facilitated by figurative intelligence, of life’s reality.

As he advanced in his study, Piaget realized that assimilation and accommodation dominated interchangeably but that one process could not exist without the other. Piaget came up with a theory that described the developmental stages in children.

The theory was very significant in different fields like sociology, psychology and education providing an essential part in the foundation for constructivist learning as lasting contribution to psychology.

Piaget legacy has greatly influenced many other people like him in understanding the way children develop and his work is regarded with awe by psychologists all over the world.

Although his theory has received a lot of criticism, his view of the mechanism with which the children’s minds work has gone a long way in helping people to understand the thought process of children development and why they cannot perform tasks for which they are not mature enough psychologically to undertake.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He continues to inspire more people working in the fields of psychology, sociology, education, law and economics through his existing works up to this date. Today his works are being used in the field of artificial knowledge to expand on the present knowledge in this field.

For instance there are robots which are being created that will be used to evidently show the cognitive abilities of children’s development in a similar pattern step by step as described by Piaget. ( Woodhead, 1998 53)

Learning is a process that involves a change of behavior because of the experiences faced by a person in their lifetime. The way people learn is different from person to person. There are those who learn through their own experiences or from other people’s experiences but the most complex question is how an individual cautiously is aware of what is going on around him/her particularly at very young age.

Children undergo informal learning which is accounted for by what they see people around them do. As a child’s grows up then it is able to be introduced to formal learning. The process of formal learning includes going to school hence its good to note that learning process is present both at school and family context.. ( Cohen 2002 29)

How an individual learns is a process that is dictated by the kind of environment one is in. One way of learning is through thought and language. These two processes are helpful in terms of developing communicative literacy. The ability to comprehensively understand both speech and symbolic language as a way of communicating ideas and to interpret their meaning is perceived as learning.

Several theories have been formulated to explain the relationship between language, thinking and learning. That is why Piaget among other scholars embarked on a research that would explain and help us understand how children developed using language and cognition. Piaget discussed the following stages:

Sensorimotor stage/period (ages from birth-2yrs). Piaget described this stage mainly by observing one of his daughters, Jacqueline, while playing with her plastic duck and it fell behind a fold out of Jacqueline’s sight. Piaget realized that although his daughter could see where the duck had fallen, she had no interest in reaching for it unlike when it was in her sight, she seemed to forget its existence when it was not in sight.

We will write a custom Essay on Jean Piaget specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Piaget describes this stage as the period when infants interact with their surrounding environment using reflexes. A period where they learn to control and coordinate their bodies. He explains that the mental development of children resulted from several social dynamic factors and it happens step by step.

These children should be taught through senses like frowning or laughing as this kind of teaching works more on the child’s sensory system.

Preoperational stage (from 2-7 yrs).At this age, the child is or about to talk, the child uses symbols to represent objects since he has mental representations. Drawings, written words or spoken words are used in this stage to represent physical objects. The use of language and manipulation of symbols enables the child to be able to think in absence of the physical objects.

At this age, children view things that are happening around them in their own point of view and probably cannot reason with others. An example, if a child does not want to see someone what they would mostly cover their eyes with their hands thinking that the other person will not see them as well. convincing this child otherwise would make it even more confusing because the child sees the world very differently from adults.

Piaget made it clear that children inability to grasp the concept of conservation is because of their capacity to focus on one phase of a problem at a time. In this case according to these children they cannot logically understand why a short wide glass and along thin glass can hold the same amount of water this is the current physical condition of the objects.

Concrete operational stage (7-12 yrs of age). This period, a child can now use and manipulate the symbols logically within the framework of actual circumstances. They are now capable of arranging and putting objects in order and understand the relation between different objects.

For example if you put small balls arranged on parallel sides then scatter them around and ask a child who is in Preoperational stage and Concrete operational stage what they think about the balls in terms of numbers, the child in Preoperational stage would likely state that the scattered balls are more compared to those aligned parallel because the child will focus on the scatter while the child in Concrete operational stage would know that the balls are still the same number even though they are scattered because of their ability to conserve number, weight, mass, area, length and liquid volume.

In addition, the child learns classification, being able to categorize things into sets, and serialization, being able to put things in order. Bradley (1991, 89) states that Children at the age 8-10 years need to repetitively do activities like learning and revising in order to maintain efficient balance to what is happening around them

Not sure if you can write a paper on Jean Piaget by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Formal Operational Stage (12years-adulthood). At this stage, children have the capability to think logically, abstractly and also theoretically and they have no reason to use concrete objects to make any coherent judgment. This is regarded as the final stage of cognitive development. Children in this stage hold much broader understanding about the world and all that is around them.

sensorimotor stage/period. This period marks the beginning of a child’s development through congenital reflexes which all infants are born with.

According to Piaget this stage marks the time when a child starts to understand the world a period where a child lacks object permanence given that children at this age are only aware of the objects and people who are immediately around them at that particular moment. He further subdivides this stage it in to six sub stages.

From birth to six weeks: This is the time the child develops reflexes. The child may begin working on stimulus reactions usually a repetitive action. Infants have several varieties of reflexes, there are those that are permanent like blinking and gagging.

Piaget discusses about three responses that include putting objects in the mouth and sucking them, following moving or interesting objects using their eyes, and grasping items when they came into contact with the palm of their hands. A very good example is when a child blows a bubble it might look interesting and so the child keeps repeating the action or when sucking a thumb or an object it may feel good and the child continues to suck it (Egan 1997, 120).

From 2- to 4 months: Here a child learns to form habits through body actions. At this stage the child is learning how to make what they feel is interesting last longer. When infants are quite young, they function according to the principle of “out of sight out of mind” that’s why when an object is taken away from them they tend to think that the object has disappeared forever or tend to act as if it did not exist.

From 4-9 months: Babies of this age now learn how to coordinate the relationship between vision and being able to apprehend things. These children can now intentionally grab what they want always an amusing gesture to the family and friends and they can continue doing an action over and over because it is fascinating.

Example is when a child squeezes a toy duck that produces some kind of sound and then the child keeps squeezing the duck to produce that interesting sound. According to Cohen (2002 53) this stage is the most crucial in a child’s growth as it marks the beginning of reasoning.

From 9-12 months: A child can now be said to have acquired some kind of intelligence this is according to Piaget. This stage signifies the dawn of goal orientation. The desire to achieve a set goal (Crain 1992, 56)

From 12-18 months: At this stage a child has mastred the particular skill of knowing that once an object is hidden, it continues to exist. For example is when you hide a pretty ball from this child under the cushion, he knows what he has to do to get the ball back. This is the time when the child begins to think representatively as it has already learned that it exists in a separate from the world.

From 18-24months: This stage marks the entry to the preoperational stage. The children now use their minds to understand the world rather than through objects and actions. Example is a child can make sense of what people are saying and they can also talk.

Cognitive development, according to Piaget was much more than just having facts and ideas being put together and being stored in form of information. Meadows (2002, 102) argues that once an individual recognizes his/her own skills having to apply the skills consciously, deliberately and flexibly becomes a major step in cognitive development.

Piaget’s theory contradicted some beliefs from other different scholars some questioned his methodology especially the clinical method. According to Empiricists, they believe that mental mechanism in children and adults are the same and the only difference is that children are exposed to less associates. While the Nativists believe that when babies are born, they automatically have the ability to meaningfully interpret and understand what is going on in the world around them.

Piaget’s cognitive development is criticized based on two reasons one is that he underestimated the age at which children can achieve cognitive developmental milestone like that of object performance especially the young ones because according to other scholars, children might have understood more than what Piaget thought.

Piaget tried to explain that the conceptual changes in children can be compared to the changing theories in science emergencies as a result of people action towards the world, their experiences including a number of processes that we as human beings are not able to understand. In matters to do with learning, education is trifled.

We are urged to understand what teachers do is merely instilling new information to children. Teaching is an indirect way of learning. If we note that children do not only take in what is said, that these are small beings who are able to interpret what they hear, see using their own knowledge and experience then its easier to understand development theory.

Knowledge is experience which we acquire through interacting with the environment surrounding us this includes people and things.

Many Critics’ believe that by generalizing children’s capability it does not mean that every child will fit in the assumption because there those who overcome the limitations put across by Piaget cognitive development theory that children are egocentric they lack perpetual concentration and even are irreversible making the child lack the logic thinking capacity (Piaget 1992, 241).

According to a work done by Sugarman (2001, 31), he points out that a 9 year old child can emerge an expert while playing chess noting that the game needs an individual to abstractly think about the moves in order to win the game while in the same game being played by a 20 year old may result to an individual seeking good strategies to plan and remember the moves in order to win the game.

The first stage of cognitive development according to Piaget has over the time been criticized. According to Bruce (1987, 56), information obtained from sensory perception cannot provide objective information about the reality and also, a child cannot tell the difference between the sensory event and sensory feedback of his activity independently.

In this article, the writer simply is trying to show that a child has no ability to note any positional change of an object neither the place change of an object. Butterworth argues that Piaget theory does not explain the reason there is inadequate data and doubts about his discovery.

He instead chooses to side with nativist view that suggests that once a baby is born, there exists some kind of harmony between the baby and the environment the child is in. “the child is neither confused by his sensory effects nor by his own activities” (Piaget 1967, 154).

Another issue that many critics use to criticize Piaget findings, is he over looked at the possible effects of a child’s social and cultural group. a research conducted by Angela (2007) concluded that peer interactions among children in groups is effective in terms of child development.

Psychologists today are aware that culture does affect the cognitive development of children because it determines how the child learns about the world (Bruner 1983, 63). Among those criticizing Piaget’s works was Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, who studied human development in order to improve his own teaching.

He believed that human development could only be understood from a cultural point of view and not through Piaget’s ideas. He argued with the fact that our mental structures could be traced back to the way we socially interacted with others (Vygotsky 1978, 96).

In his writings, Lev Vygotsky assumed that cultural development of a child appeared twice; one at the social level and the other at an individual level. Vygotsky believed that cultural tools like maps rulers, symbolic items and other symbolic tools were very significant items which played important roles on cognitive development of a child emphasizing that they supported their thinking capacity.

The cognitive tools are also recognized as being useful in enriching our understanding about reality by Martin (2000, 96). He used the example introducing quantity using roman numerals it would be very difficult to change and teach calculus or doing long division using only these numerals that’s why when a number system with a zero is introduced it becomes easy to perform the mathematical queries.

According to him a child can use these tools to develop themselves. “Thus, children’s knowledge, ideas, attitudes, and values develop through appropriating or “taking for themselves” the ways of acting and thinking provided by their culture and by the more capable members of their group” (Piaget 1989, 143).

Piaget works have significantly helped us to understand how human beings develop cognitively. With his theory, we understand that a child has to undergo different stages to understand the world. His theory tries to explain the intellectual abilities an individual goes through during ones development.

Piaget did not have the opportunity to attend formal child psychology classes but his desire to know about how we develop and his discovery of the cognitive theory made it possible for other activists to learn more about how children learned and how they thought. His theory explains that an individual has to change to fit in the environment one is living in. To him adaptation is important for individual development.

References Angela, D. N., 2007. The new early years professional: dilemmas and debate. London: Routledge.

Bradley, B. S., 1991. Vision of infancy; critical introduction of child psychology. Cambridge England: Polity Press.

Bruce,T., 1987. Early childhood education. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Bruner, J., 1983. Childs talk: learning to use language. Oxford: oxford university press.

Cohen, D., 2002. How the Child’s mind Develops. London: Routledge

Crain, W., 1992. Theories of development – concept and applications. New York: Prentice Hall.

Egan, K., 1997. The educated mind: how cognitive tools shape our understanding. Chicago: university of Chicago press.

Martin, D., 2000. The Blackwell encyclopedia of social work Edition 2,. Wiley-Blackwell.

Meadows, S., 2002. The Child as Thinker: The Development and Acquisition of Cognition in Childhood. London : Routledge.

Piaget, J., 1989. The language and thought of the child. London: Routedge

Piaget, J., 1992. Cognitive development today: Piaget and his critics. London: Sage.

Piaget, J., 1967. Growing Critical: alternatives to Developmental psychology. London: Rout ledge.

Sugarman, L. 2001. Life-span development: frameworks, accounts, and strategies New Essential Psychology Series, Edition2. NY: Psychology Press.

Vygotsky, L. S., 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge: Harvard University press.

Woodhead, M., 1998. Cultural worlds of early childhood. London: Routledge.

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Analysis: “The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century” by Thomas Friedman Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Central Theme

Relevance

The impact of globalization in US

Public Affairs Relevance

References

Central Theme The central theme in this book as portrayed by Friedman, is how globalization has changed some of the core economic areas. According to Friedman, the world has become flat through various transformations such as technological advancement and enhanced communication (Friedman, 2006).

In an attempt to explain how the world has become flat, Friedman discusses major steps under which globalization has taken place; in fact he defines these ten steps as ‘world flatteners’ (Friedman, 2006).

Friedman argues that around the year 2000, the world entered a new era; this is the era of globalization where accessibility of information has become easier which is what he describes as flattened world where there is equal playing field of economic achievements.

It is during this time that people have found new ways through which they can collaborate; these ways are referred in the book as the “world flatteners” (Friedman, 2006). For instance, the fifth flattener also known as outsourcing Friedman explains that the advancement in technology has enabled companies to delegate jobs in remote countries which reduce costs by way of internet communication.

Again due to occurrence of globalization, people are now able to connect and interact much faster through several communication channels more rapidly than before as stipulated in the steroids flattener that involves use of wireless sharing of information such as iPods and other personal devices.

Indeed, the world now has equal opportunity for all people and therefore competition in the business sector has just taken a new twist. As such, Friedman compares the modern business trends which he describes to be similar to a river, because of the way they have streamlined sale of products (Friedman, 2006).

With increased competition comes equal opportunities and equalized income which means that US is now under more pressure to remain competitive in many areas in order to remain relevant as a superpower since they will be facing a lot of challenges from other countries; notably, India and China which are becoming more advanced.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relevance The concept found in book, World is flat, is a series of transformation described as “world flatteners” which are said to have occurred in the economic and business sectors which have significantly contributed to equalization of the world in many aspects (Friedman, 2006).

In comparison to the book, The American Dream by Jason DeParle, the book questions and investigates how America came to achieve so much dominance and power in the management in the world affairs.

In the book, The American dream, US is described to have undergone through a lot of transformation to become the greatest economical and political power in the world today (DeParle, 2005).

The book posits that this has not been an easy road to success and argues that there is so much that has contributed to America becoming successful. The solidarity that unites US for instance has contributed to the drive and energy that has facilitated innovations and creativity that has driven competition.

According DeParle, all that lies within the American great foundation, is a great culture that has been promoted over years, this has consequently contributed to social mobility and growth (2005). This as compared to the book The World is Flat is seen as being the key concepts of success.

Similarly, cultural changes have also occurred in the world just as argued in the book The World is flat. The world has become flat as different cultures including those that were previously threatened have become integrated. In this book, Friedman describes how the world, just like “The American dream” has accepted changes and embraced technology (2006).

Among the changes that have occurred in both cases includes new advancement in technology use of computers, use of fiber optic and the use of wireless communication such as mobile phones, iPods among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Analysis: “The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century” by Thomas Friedman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the world has flattened due to various innovations as shown in the book which are seen to have been embraced as described in the out-sourcing flattener where Friedman says that technology has allowed Companies to be able to distribute services and also subcontract some activities through technological advancement.

The impact of globalization in US There is no doubt that US has benefited more than it has lost through globalization; this is because globalization has both benefits and adverse effects. The major ways that US has benefited through globalization include enjoying better terms of trade, outsourcing of jobs to other countries, less trade barriers, high cultural integration, improved democracy and enhanced communication through social networks (Nickmaceus, 2010).

Some specific ways in which this benefit has occurred in US is through technological advances that have enabled outsourcing of jobs in other countries at cheaper rates and in real time to become possible.

Globalization has also made US to be one of the most integrated cultural societies in the world (Bhagwati, 2004). This has major benefits such as skilled labor, promotion of tourism and advancement of neo-colonialism (Denhart, 2007).

On the other hand, globalization has its adverse effect; in US this adverse effects include loss of job to foreigners, threat of US internal security due to proliferation of foreigners and increased brand competition from other countries when it comes to trade.

Public Affairs Relevance The main theme addressed in the book The World is flat, is globalization. Globalization is described as a situation whereby “regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade” (Friedman, 2005).

This is very similar to what the concept of public affairs entails; public affair is concerned with the relationship between government activities and other elements in the society. Because of globalization countries have been able to interact and do more trade with other countries globally much easier than before facilitated by the current technological advancement that we have.

This means that, factors of globalization are very much reflected in public affairs issues such as economic and social system. Indeed, in today’s world, economic integration has also enhanced cultural integration.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis: “The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century” by Thomas Friedman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, these two issues are the main factors of globalization. Other characteristic of globalization includes increased communication, shared cultures, electronic commerce, improved infrastructure, and democracy (Dunnigan, 2006).

These two are found intertwined in various public affairs such as good governance which is democracy, economic growth, increased job opportunities, promotion of international trade, international tourism, social equity and poverty eradication.

It is therefore clear that public affairs issues are directly correlated with globalization issues as discussed in the two books. It is by reading them that I have been able to realize this clear link between public affairs issues and globalization and its relevance in governance.

References Bhagwati, A. (2004). In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Friedman, T (2005). “It’s a Flat World After All.” New York Times Magazine. Web.

Denhart, T. (2007). Theories of Public Organization, 5th edition. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing.

DeParle, J. (2005). American Dream. New York: Penguin Group.

Dunnigan, J. (2006). The Costs of the War on Terror. Web.

Friedman, T. (2006). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Nickmaceus, K. (2010). Globalization and the United States: Positive and Negative Impacts on American Domestic Policies. Web.

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The Orchestration of Jesus Triumphal Entry to Jerusalem Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

The disciples get the colt

The multitude’s messianic praises

The Pharisees’ criticism

Jesus weeping over the city

Conclusion

Bibliography

Footnotes

Abstract Jesus triumphal entry to the city of Jerusalem was a carefully orchestrated messianic act. The Old Testament prophecy of Zechariah had foretold the coming of the King of Israel and the way He would accomplish this. In the fulfillment of the prophecy, Jesus made the triumphal entry on the first day of the week and many people accompanied Him.

Amidst the loud voices of praises to God, some Pharisees stood on the sidelines and criticized the multitude for their jubilant procession. However, Christ took sides with the crowd and reproved the accusers.

And, sorrow was suddenly seen on the countenance of Jesus as He wept over the city of Jerusalem because of its rejection of the word of God. As a result, Christ foretold the imminent destruction of the beautiful and unholy city since it failed to acknowledge the day of Messiah’s visitation.

Introduction Half a millennium before the coming of Christ, the prophet Zechariah predicted the coming of the King of Israel: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: He is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.” Zech. 9:9.

The fulfillment of this prophecy was imminent as the One who had declined many times to be bestowed with royal honours made his way to the city of Jerusalem as the promised inheritor of King David’s throne. Jesus made the triumphal entry into the city on the first day of the week and many people who were with Him at Bethany accompanied him.

It was during the Passover; thus, several people attending the feast joined the jubilant procession to witness His reception.1 Amidst loud voices of praises to God and references to the new kingdom of David, all worked out as carefully orchestrated as Christ made the triumphal entry to the city.

The disciples get the colt The hope of the multitude concerning the coming kingdom was again coming out alive. All nature looked as if it was filled with astounding joy. The trees were covered with luxuriance. And, their blossoming seemed to fill the air with a sweet scent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The people who thronged the triumphal entry were animated with joy and gladness of heart. With the intention of riding into the ancient city as its King, Christ had sent two of disciples to go and get Him an ass together with its colt. 2

At His birth, Christ had relied on the kindness of strangers; the manger at Bethlehem whereby he laid was a borrowed place of rest, and now, although He had authority over all the creation, he relied on the courtesy of a stranger to enable Him enter Jerusalem triumphantly. Nonetheless, the careful orchestration of this event was evident, even in the minute instructions given to fulfill the task.

As the Saviour predicted, the request, “The Lord needs them,” (Luke 19:34), was gladly approved. Bock notes, “the tradition of angarı́a can explain the ease with which this is achieved. It is possible that the person is a friend or that the expression would be sufficient to allow them to take the animal. In either case, the remark demonstrates Jesus’ control over events”. 3

Christ planed for all the unseen events. Further, Christ showed total knowledge in this instance. This is because He gave the disciples exact details concerning the whereabouts of the animal, its tied-up condition, the fact that no man had ever used it, and the method they were to use in obtaining it.

Christ selected for His use an animal that no one had ever employed for service. Upon getting the colt, the messengers, with eagerness of heart, spread their clothes on it, and made the Lord to sit on it. Before this, the Saviour had always preferred to make His journeys on foot. Thus, the multitude wondered at first at the decision of their Master to ride on the beast.

Nonetheless, hope was brightening in the hearts of the disciples and their expectations rose to the highest pitch.4 The cheerful idea that Christ was nearing the ancient city of Jerusalem, declare Himself as the heir of David’s throne, and affirm His royal power, glowed the expectations of everyone in the procession.

It is important to note that the Saviour was upholding the Jewish tradition intended for a royal entry. The beast He used for the triumphal entry was that used by the kings of Israel for travelling in times of peace. For example, Jair, the Judge, had thirty sons who rod on donkeys (Judges 10:4), Ahithopel rode on a donkey (2 Samuel 17:23), and Mephibosheth, the royal prince, came to David riding on a donkey (2 Samuel 19:26).

We will write a custom Essay on The Orchestration of Jesus Triumphal Entry to Jerusalem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was contrary to the fact that kings travelled upon horses in times of war in the Middle East. Thus, the action of Christ of riding on a donkey symbolized that he was not the warrior figure that the multitude anticipated, but the Prince of Peace, and, worth mentioning, no one saw it that way then, even His disciples who were supposed to be conversant with this.

The thoughts of the people were clouded with a type of mass hysteria and they looked at Jesus as the Messiah of their own making, not the One whom God had sent.

More so, prophecy had predicted that the Messiah would “ride upon an ass, and upon a colt of an ass” (Zech. 9:9). Immediately he had sat on the animal, the air was filled with praises as the multitude praised God in loud voices for all the great things they had witnessed. The people acknowledged Him as the Messiah, their King, and the Saviour now allowed honour that he had never before consented to.

The multitude thought that this was an evidence that their joyous expectations were about to be fulfilled by His being declared to be the new King of Israel. In addition, in the Old Testament, Jerusalem was viewed as the city of Israel’s kings. After King David had established his throne there, subsequent kings followed this tradition. Thus, the crowd viewed Jesus’ coming to Jerusalem as a symbol that he was going to establish his throne there.

The multitude’s messianic praises The people were persuaded that the time of their liberation from the oppressive rule by the Romans had come. In thoughts, they saw the foreign rule destroyed and their country once more attain self-rule that had been robbed from them. The multitude was joyous and full of excitement.

And, they competed with each other in hailing Him as Messiah, their King. Even though the multitude did not exhibit outward pageantry and magnificence, they revered the Saviour in their joyous hearts. Even though they could not present Him with expensive gifts, they spread their cloaks on the road for Him to step on.5

The act of spreading the garments on the road is exemplified from the Old Testament account in which the people spread their outer garments on the road and proclaimed Jehu to be the king of Israel (2 Kings 9:13). More over, they also placed leafy tree branches and palm on the Saviour’s road to the ancient city of Jerusalem.

As much as the demonstration could not meet royal standards, they used palm branches as the nature’s symbol of victory and waved them in the air with deafening praises of “Blessed is he who comes in the name of Jehovah” (Psalms 118:26).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Orchestration of Jesus Triumphal Entry to Jerusalem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are minute wording differences in the depiction of the event in the four Gospel accounts. Mathew’s account of the triumphal entry depicts the royal entry of Christ into the city. Contrary to Mark’s account, the procession has a greater association to Christ’s link to the Davidic line as the people shout “Hossanna to the son of David” (Matthew 21:9).

However, Matthew fails to depict that Jesus’ entry into the city was triumphant and stresses the humble arrival of the Davidic king into the city. Mark’s account of the event follows Mathew’s, enhancing the royal entry of the son of David into the city. Mark’s narration of the event fails to fulfill any Jewish nationalistic hopes; however, he depicts Jesus as bringing judgment upon the unfruitful house of Israel.

As with the previous accounts, Luke’s narrative of the event brings greater prominence to Christ’s royal dignity and the nature of the entry into the city. According to the Third Gospel, Christ’s entry into the city is to lay claim on his Temple, cleansing it for His purposes. Jesus coming, thus, is not as an earthly king, but it is similar to a divine visitation of the Lord (Luke19: 43-44).

A study of the Fourth Gospel reveals significant differences that give an indication of an independent tradition of the same event.

The procession in the Johannine account does not shout praises along the way (Mark 11:8–10; Matthew 21:8–9; Luke 19:36–38), but Jesus is received by a reception party from the city that has come for a cordial reception of the Messiah into the city (John 12:12–14). In addition, instead of strewing the branches on the pathway of Christ, the well-wishers hold them in their hands (John 12:13).

William Barclay comments on this Psalm that it was the last psalm of the group (113-118) referred to as Hallel, meaning Praise God, so the chant was a praising psalm. He says, “They were part of the first memory work every Jewish boy had to do; they were sung often at great acts of praise and thanksgiving in the Temple; they were an integral part of the Passover ritual”.6

In addition, this was evidently the victor’s psalm. For example, over a century before the triumphal entry, the Israelites had sung this psalm in jubilation when they acknowledged the victory of Simon Maccabeus in war against their enemies. Maccabeus had defeated Acra and taken it from the Syrians; hence, this was the cause of jubilation.

Therefore, it is evident that when the multitude sang this psalm, they had the hope that Christ was the Conqueror and the one who could redeem them from their enemies.7

Additionally, it is evident that they perceived Him to be God’s Anointed One, the Messiah, who was meant to sweep their long delayed triumph over Rome and the whole world. 8To the multitude, they were just waiting for the alarm to be sounded so that they could claim their victory.

As the disciples continued with their demonstration, other people who had heard of Christ’s coming to the capital hurried to be part of jubilant throng. Onlookers were continually intermingling with the procession and inquiring about what was happening as well as the meaning of the orchestrated commotion.

Most of them had heard of Christ and they hoped that He would go to the capital; however, they were astonished at the changes that had taken place because He had thwarted all previous efforts to crown Him the King of Israel. More over, the onlookers were amazed at the loud acclamations since heretofore He had made it clear that His kingdom does not belong to this world.

However, the inquiries of the spectators are silenced by loud voices of victory. As the people afar off echoed shouts of triumph, crowds from Jerusalem joined the demonstration who greeted Him with the waving of palm branches and rent praises to God in the air.

From the large number of people assembled to attend the Passover, many went forth to pay homage to Christ. And, as the priests called the people for the service just before dusk, not many came forth, making the leaders to start becoming suspicious of the activities of Jesus.

During His ministry, Christ had not allowed such a procession to take place and he plainly foresaw that the result of this would lead him to the cross. Nonetheless, He had intended to present Himself in public as the Messiah and thus call to the attention of everyone the sacrifice that was to end his earthly ministry.

When the Jews were gathering at Jerusalem to mark the Passover, Jesus, the antitypical Lamb, willingly set Himself apart to be sacrificed so that the events, which came before His death at the cross should be a subject of great thought and duty so as to call attention to the great sacrifice itself.9

Following such a jubilant procession in His entry to the ancient city, the attention of everyone would be called to His quick advancements that would mark the end of his mission on earth.

The happenings of this great demonstration would be the subject of discussion, as many would seek to find their relation to His trial and death.10 As many would remember Christ, they would be led to study the scriptures. Thus, they would be persuaded that indeed Jesus was the Messiah. As a result, many would be converted to the faith all over the world.

Never before had such a victorious demonstration taken place in any part of the globe.11 The shouts echoed and re-echoed from hill to hill and from valley to valley as the multitude sang, “Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest” (Luke 19:38).

The triumphal procession had never been like that of the world’s prominent victors as no trophies of kingly bravery were present at the scene. However, about the Coming One were the magnificent trophies of His relentless toils of love for the wickedness of the world.12

Captives he had rescued from the evil one’s power, the blind who could now see, the dumb who were now shouting hosannas, the cripples who were now walking, the lepers whom He had cleansed from their deadly ailments, and even those He had rescued from the hold of death, were present in the procession.

The Pharisees’ criticism In the background of the procession, Pharisees were present. As they were filled with jealousy and hatred, they searched for ways of making the popular feeling to be without meaning. Thus, they employed their authority to stop the multitude from shouting jubilant praises. However, their pleas and intimidations turned on deaf ears and served only to increase the excitement of the crowd.

The Jewish authorities feared that the many people who were present in the procession would make Jesus the king of Israel. As the final option, they made their way through the multitude and to where Christ was to beseech Him. They said, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples” (Luke 19:39).

They maintained that such noisy processions were not allowed the Roman government and would only serve to bring them more penalties. However, the reply of the Saviour silenced them, “I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out” (Luke 19:40).

The scene of the jubilant demonstration was divinely orchestrated.13 The prophet of God had predicted it. Thus, man did not have any power to prevent God’s own appointing from taking place. If the people had fallen short of fulfilling this purpose, God could have passed the privilege to the inanimate objects. To accomplish His purpose, they would have hailed His Son with praises of joy.

Further, the Jewish authorities’ criticism of the praises depicts that nothing has changed. 14They have still declined to acknowledge that God sent Christ and that He is the Messiah. The Pharisees’ objection is but the initial of their several actions to thwart the mission of Jesus and ultimately kill Him.

Jesus weeping over the city As soon as the demonstration arrived at the peak of the hill, a sudden change was seen on the face of the Messiah. Before they were to descend to Jerusalem, His sudden change of countenance summoned the demonstration to stop. The westering sun clearly revealed the glory of the ancient city of Jerusalem.

The multitude was attracted at the grandeur of the temple, which had been their pride and glory as a nation. As the Saviour looked at the magnificence of the temple, the people stared at Him with the expectation of seeing on His face the same appreciation they themselves were feeling concerning the sudden sight of beauty before them.

However, they were shocked and dissatisfied when they observed the Saviour’s eyes filled with an agony of tears.15 The multitude was astonished at this sight of the Messiah, whom they were welcoming to the magnificent city to be crowned king. They expected He was about to start His reign, but the sudden sorrow in the midst of the scene of rejoicing made them to be spellbound. 16

The tears of Christ were not in expectation of His own death at the cross, but the sight of Israel’s utter rejection of their Redeemer pierced the heart of the Son of God. The Saviour’s agony was not selfish. The Jews had scorned His love. They declined to accept His teachings even the mighty miracles He performed did nothing to make them change their ways.17

Jesus saw that the people were in guilt of forsaking their day of visitation. Heretofore, the Jews were a favoured people. The temple of the Lord, where He dwelt, was present amongst them. For more than a thousand years, the temple had been used for uttering the messages of God, offering animal sacrifices for sin, and holding ceremonies. However, the culmination of all these was imminent.

Amidst, the sorrow He felt for the doomed city of Jerusalem, Jesus exclaimed, “If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace—but now it is hidden from your eyes…(Luke 19: 42).

Christ’s weeping of the impending doom of Jerusalem was similar to the one that Prophet Jeremiah gave concerning the approaching exile of the Israelites to Babylon (Jeremiah 6:6-20) or Prophet Isaiah’s proclamation of the looming destruction of the city of Jerusalem (Isaiah 29: 1-3).

Christ weeping depicts that the results of denouncing God’s word is a national judgment; when God strives for peace and His conditions are denounced, judgment is unavoidable.18 If Israel had acknowledged the gift God’s beloved Son, Jesus could not have pronounced the impending doom that was awaiting the glorious city.

If the Israelites had accepted the Messenger from above and listened to His reproves, they might have been healed of their grievous malady, set free from bondage, and became the world’s diadem of glory.19 However, the doomed people rejected God’s last massage for them; thus, their misery was forthcoming.

Jesus was sent to liberate the people of Israel. However, Pharisaical arrogance, insincerity, covetousness, and hatred had thwarted His efforts of fulfilling His mission.20 Christ was aware of the dreadful retribution that would be visited upon the doomed city:

“The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side…. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God’s coming to you (Luke 19: 43-44).

Thus, in anticipation of the desolation that was awaiting Jerusalem because of refusing His salvation, Christ wept over the beloved city. The beautiful and unholy city had ignored God’s warnings, ridiculed His mercies, and was about to put His son to death. As a father weeps over a disobedient child, Christ was moved by the increasing wickedness of the city that would forever shut the grace of God from it.

As the procession advanced, the authorities in Jerusalem received the message that Christ was nearing the city. However, they feel no urge to welcome the Messiah, and in fear, they moved out with the expectation of using their authority to disperse the multitude.

Conclusion In Jesus’ triumphal entry to Jerusalem, he drew near the ancient city in a carefully orchestrated manner. He asks two of His get a beast for Him so that he could ride on it as he approached the city. Jesus got into Jerusalem to the eschatological shouts of the people. The multitude sang praises signifying God’s power seen through His son. More over, they acknowledged that Christ came as a king in the name of the Lord.

The behaviour of the people depicted the accomplishment of the national craving for salvation, often seen during the Passover. As the jubilant procession was advancing, some Jewish authorities stood on the sidelines and criticized the followers of Christ for their noisy demonstration.

However, Christ approved the messianic praise he was receiving and commented that if they were to stop, then stones would take up the refrain of praise to fulfill the purpose of God.

Despite Christ’s attempts to deliver God’s messages, He was rejected; thus, He wept over the doom that was awaiting the glorious city of Jerusalem.

Christ, talking on behalf of God, noted that he wished to assemble the Israelites under His wing, a depiction of concern and protection; however, His people chose to go it alone and rejected God’s messages. As a result, Jesus prophesied that the city of Jerusalem would be destroyed in total as they missed the Messiah’s visitation.

Bibliography Barclay, William. The Gospel of John (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001).

Bock , Darrell. Luke 9:51-24:53 (BECNT; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996).

Bockmuehl, Markus. This Jesus: martyr, Lord, Messiah (London; New York, NY: T

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The London Bombings of 2005 Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Circumstances and Responses to the London Bombings of 2005

Conclusion

Recommendations

Reference List

Introduction The London bombings of 2005 occurred on Seventh July in the morning hours commonly referred to as the rush hour where four bombs were detonated killing more than fifty people and injuring more than seven hundred. The attacks targeted the British civilians particularly those using underground trains.

Three out of the four explosions took place in underground trains and they occurred in quick succession leading to panic through out the public transport system in London and other major towns in the European region. The United States of America also became alert as there were fears its transport system would also be targeted.

The fourth bomb detonated an hour later in a double-decker bus and this made the public panic even more due to the sensitivity of the issue and it almost brought business to a standstill due to fear (Frost, par 3, 2008). However, with time the public regained their confidence on public means though caution was still high.

Circumstances and Responses to the London Bombings of 2005 As a result of the London bomb attacks; there were high alert responses from disaster preparedness management departments and also massive response from other emergency services through out the city of London. In the weeks that followed, people almost shunned the use of London’s public transport system especially after another attack targeting the public was experienced few days later.

It was only after some weeks later that the public started showing back some confidence in the public transport system by defying all the odds and the days that followed, the city started regaining its life again though with more security alerts and less underground rail services.

To the rest of the cities in Britain and other major cities in the world, especially in the European region and the United States, there were numerous security alerts over the issue with the public being advised to be on the look out both by the governments where they were residing and their home governments.

Apart from the public response that resulted in the reduced number of public transport users, the security response became alert both in London and other countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, in the United States of America, the Homeland Security raised threat level for mass transit systems such as the use of trains and buses. In all major cities (particularly in Washington and New York) equipped police force and explosives detecting dogs were positioned (Frost, 2008, par 8).

European countries also responded to the attacks by raising their alert levels. For example, France responded to the terror attacks by raising the level of terror alert to red which was the second highest leveling response to the London bombings.

In Germany, the levels were a bit low placing their alert levels to yellow level which showed that the likelihood of the country being attacked was minimal while in Spain, the level was raised to level three which is the highest in the country. At that level, it entailed that the security personnel were to patrol the (public) transport systems (Frost, 2008 p.6).

In nations like Singapore, security measures were immediately enforced on the sector (public transport) where the equipped officers were positioned in every area.

Plans for installation of CCTV cameras in all trains and buses and the public was also put into place and updates on the status of the security alerts and the expectations were communicated to the public to avoid confusion and other ugly scenes from occurring. These among others were the security alerts issues all over major cities in Europe and America.

The response (by the London emergency and transportation systems) were portrayed as the most broad and multifaceted response ever to a terrorist molest (Strom

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International Business Strategies Project Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to analyze the operation of a selected company in the international environment and this report will concentrate on the British Airways to identify important issues related to business strategy. However, this paper will focus on the international strategy of British Airways, forces behind this strategy, and the process of international business operations.

In addition, this report will address the specific challenges of BA in internationalization of the business especially focus on the challenges in the US market and provide the solution of the dilemmas to operate in this market. Finally, this report will concentrate on the external and internal environment of BA, influence of global financial crisis on the company, volatility of fuel price, and other possible challenges in the future.

Introduction This report has organised on the British Airways Plc to identify its different strategic issues in the international environment and to make recommendation for its effectual operation. British Airways the pioneer of global airlines industry connecting 20 million passengers through London, the world’s largest premium travel market, has been passing throw a most hard time of the history.

In 2008, tremendously raising of oil price and the shock of global credit crush has seriously injured the national flag carrier of Great Britain and still British Airways facing the recessionary impact and may continue up to 2013.

The BA accounted its revenue of £7,994 million in the financial year 2009/10, which was £8,992 million 2008/09, at the same time, it identified £531 million losses before tax and operating losses of £231 million when as an FTSE 100 company it has been continuously loosing its share price in most of the trading hours (The Guardian, 2009).

Figure 1: Basic Charts of British Airways for 2007 to 2011

Source: Yahoo Finance (2011)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International Strategy of British Airways As the global financial crisis and recessionary economy has seriously influenced the growth of British Airways, it has strongly stood on its Global Premium Airline strategy to attain its objectives of industry leadership by cooperative strategy and cost reducing policy.

Following this global strategy BA has aimed to take the challenges of being official carrier of London Olympic 2012 and overcome the major shocks of financial downturn. The cooperative strategy has driven BA to work together with its competitors in the in the international operation while its cost driven strategy already contributed BA to drop £597 million fuel cost (British Airways, 2010).

BA1 addressed the British business community to collaborate with US business to triumph over the recessionary impact and announced a £15 million free travel packages for the business community aimed to economic improvement.

Moreover BA has determined another premium leisure strategy that driven BA to start on five new flights in 2010 routes to the Dominican Republic, Maldives, Las Vegas, and Caribbean region with almost forty percent increased capabilities both for passengers and cargo flights.

International cooperative strategy of BA inspired it to merger with Iberia, joint collaborated flight operation with American Airlines has facilitated British Airways to encounter with the flourishing mergers in the Airlines Industry that most of the competitors in the market already merged their major operations (BBC News, 2010).

The concurrent market trend of the airlines industry has driven its players to commence a large number of mergers and acquisitions all over the world. Thus, the mentioned collaborations of BA with Iberia and American Airlines are an appropriate initiative of BA to gain competitive advantage to open new routes in the international operation and to grow revenues.

Forces behind this Strategy British Airways faced most terrific crisis among its sixty years history due to global financial crisis and recessionary economy that affected from the last financial year and for last eighteen months it has been striving to employ appropriate strategy to overcome situation.

We will write a custom Report on International Business Strategies Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 2011 the company has accounted a drop of £531 million before tax, thus BA faced serious pressure to recover its significant growth of revenue. Very specifically the forces those influenced BA to take such strategies are as-

Recover revenue growth,

Sustaining as a profitable global premium airline,

Raising finance debt recovery

Fundamentally reduce cost drives

Adjusting working practices

Merger and collaboration in different route with the competitors

International business operations

BA has considered safety and security at the top precedence of its international business operation for which the company has engaged with an official safety management system with full compliance with the concerned regulations of the government and airlines industry.

BA operates a wide-ranging monitoring and controlling system to guarantee all security measures for both the international and domestic passengers by IOSA2, which IATA made compulsory from 2009 but BA is in practice from 2007. For international operation BA’s organization structure, supply chain, human resource, and marketing are as follows –

Organisation structure

BA has a strong organisational configuration to manage and control global responsibilities through its unitary board of directors consist of non-executive Chairman, Chief Executive, Chief Financial Officer, seven Non-executive Directors, and six executive directors.

For its international operation, BA has introduced performance management system arguing with targets, strengthening control, accountability, and transparency by providing apposite training.

Supply Chain

BA maintains a strong supply chain management with an expense of £5.2 billion per annum to procure goods and services from its tested suppliers where BA looks to the quality, cost, and resolute to establish trustworthy dealings with the supplying partners emphasising on its procurement process.

For instance, the supply of jet fuel at Heathrow is a crucial event due to the dispatch of bio-fuel and jet- fuel goes through the same pipeline while the contamination can carryout any major damage, but partnering with Solena, BA has mitigated such risk up to 2014.

Human Resource

In 2010, BA reported that it human resource consists of 34,911 UK local staffing while the numbers of overseas employees are 4,990. The board of directors of BA point out the necessity of recruiting its human resources in the required fields to meet the organisational strategic objectives by reviewing management performance complying with the values and standards to bring highest outcomes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business Strategies Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company has already integrated IT facilities to receive online application and selection process for its HR for international and domestic recruitments.

Marketing

The Director of Sales and Marketing of BA is responsible for international marketing in the UK and overseas, among the three hundreds of destiny globally BA maintain its own office in major cities and conduct marketing campaign from its headquarter. Rest of the marketing campaign leads by the partnering organisations guided from headquarters.

The company has huge investment for e-commerce facilitated online marketing, booking, and sales. For the new ventures like Iberia and American Airlines, BA has adopted the responsibility on the partnering organisation. Moreover, BA conducts regular customers’ survey as an independent market research imitative among the passenger in the flight that contributes the company to engage new marketing strategies.

Porter’s Diamond Theory Analysis for British Airways

Since beginning of global economic downturn, British Airways has suffered from severe financial crisis. In order to rescue from this difficulty, British Airways has recently designed several international business strategies to recovering within 2012.

In the light of Porter’s Diamond theory, following are the major international strategic tools of British Airways. However, the figure no two demonstrates Porter’s Diamond theory for the firm and figure no three illustrates the international business strategies of British Airways –

Figure 2: – Porter’s Diamond Model

Source: Márkus (2010, p.3)

Competitive Status: Excellence through continuous improvement is the motto of delivering superior competitive status and in this way; the firm’s strategy is to lead the London airways industry and to expand the business in global route.

Consumer’s Demand: think into the way of consumer’s demand is another chief strategic approach that attributed through i) craft successes, ii) be committed, iii) simple but modern, iv) make proper solution and v) try to be an icon though exclusive communication support.

Affiliated Trading Partners: superior interconnection between both airline and non-airline sources is a strategy to focus on flawless communication service to satisfy their valued consumers. Regarding this view, British Airways has already attached with more than 500 diverse businesses and hence competent to delivering required supplier status.

Principal Factors to Succeed: build efficient human resources through adequate training program along with satisfactory financial reserve are two principal factors accomplishing vision 2012 as well as lead to the global airways market successfully.

Figure 3: International Business Strategies of British Airways

Source: British Airways (2009, p. 4)

SWOT analysis of British Airways Strengths

British Airways has a strapping public image for its strong brand image; the company’s reputation and the brand royalty finally contribute its future revenue

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E-commerce: Amazon.com Essay best essay help

Amazon.com is an international company which has been in operation for about fifteen years specializing in retail internet marketing. The company has grown by leaps and bounds, from a small corporation to an international master offering a myriad of services in retail sector.

Its corporate culture has been focusing on two main areas: customer and shareholder satisfaction as well as rigorous marketing skills of its products to boost its corporate growth. This term paper focuses on the marketing strategies of Amazon.com and how it has contributed to its continual growth in the competitive e-Commerce.

As the founder and Chief Executive Officer, Jeff Bezos initially established Amazon.com Inc. as a bookstore in 1994. After one year of operation, the company went online and soon expanded its operations by offering an assortment of products beyond books such as music media (MP3s, DVDs and CDs), electronics, toys and other household goods.

The company became the “Earth’s Largest Selection” meeting the needs of customers from diverse cultural and social background (Qin, 2009).

In 1997, Amazon.com Inc announced it Initial Public Offering shareholding. Since then, the corporate culture at Amazon.com has been obsession with customer demands hence the need to develop vibrant marketing alongside innovating on behalf of customers. Its customer base now stands at about 45 million.

Amazon uses various marketing strategies in its international business. At present, there are six pillars of strategic marketing which Amazon.com has embarked on. The first pillar is the free offering of products and services. Secondly, it has an interface that is customer friendly at all times since according to its business philosophy, the customer is the most important asset the company owns.

Additionally, the company has the ability to scale its products and services depending on the desired amount i.e. from large to small and vice versa. Further, Amazon.com largely explores and makes use of products and services that are affiliated to it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is achieved through the use of the existing infrastructural systems needed in running the business such as communication (Plant, 2000). Finally, the company has laid much emphasis of psychological marketing through the utilization of mentalities and behavioural patterns that are universally accepted.

Contrary to the normal modes of international marketing strategies, Amazon.com Inc. does not directly market its products to the target customers. Its marketing strategy is more subliminal or hidden owing to the fact that it does not spend millions of dollars in buying advertising space such as billboards, TV ads or making use of flyers in public places.

The company depends heavily on online ploys, viable relationship development with its partners alongside continual improvement on the quality of its products and services that eventually attracts customers.

Amazon.com Financials The chart below shows Amazon.com financial statement on the volume of sales between 2008 and 2009.

Income Statement: AMZN

2009 2008 Change ( 2008 – 2009 ) Net Sales/Revenues 24.51 B 19.17 B 5.34 B 21.80% Gross Profit 5.48 B 4.24 B 1.24 B 22.65% Net Income Before Extra Items/Preferred Div 902.00 M 645.00 M 257.00 M 28.49% Operating Income 1.13 B 842.00 M 287.00 M 25.42% Pay Per Click (PPC) One of the notable and outstanding marketing campaigns that Amazon.com has been using is the Pay Per Click (PPC) mode of advertising. It has dominated this marketing strategy for long. This was followed by the Clickriver advertising campaign. By 2008, Clickriver was replaced by ProductAds as the new marketing campaign platform.

This marketing strategy permits web merchants to buy Pay Per Click advertisements from Amazon.com Inc. In addition, Amazon.com is still buying Pay Per Click ads from Google in a bid to improve its marketing portfolio. It has been purchasing space Google and whenever a visitor enters Google’s website, a fee is paid.

We will write a custom Essay on E-commerce: Amazon.com specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has been the main marketing strategy of Amazon.com. It hardly makes use of banners or other outdoor advertising methods.

Improving the Website As part of attracting more customers to use its website, Amazon.com has been tirelessly working to improve its website. The company has been allocating significant budget in identifying, diagnosing and solving internet and website challenges arising from time to time in order to improve customer experience. Solutions are being developed on a daily basis on the best way to reach the customers on an easy way.

The process of analyzing website traffic is continuous and necessary modifications are effected whenever need arises. The usability of Amazon.com website has been ranked severally highly a myriad of time, a phenomenon being associated with the aggressive website improvement that has been going on since the corporation was founded in 1994.

The company managed to score 65 percent in the study of commerce sites study that was carried out in 2001. A total of 20 websites dealing with commerce were ranked in the survey.

In addition, Amazon.com has also gone mobile and its customers can now access services from the site using their mobile devices. Moreover, the rate of uploads has been increased and is faster than most of other sites. In fact, the speed of accessing the site has remained a competitive strategy against its market rivals. Customer relation is also part of the company’s management role.

There are several investigations that have been carried out by management to establish the dynamic needs of customers alongside their grievances. In the event customers are dissatisfied, Amazon.com has often taken direct responsibility to address their grievances.

For example, there are some cases whereby old and loyal customers have been charged more on certain products than the new customers. Such queries have been addressed with minima delay as part of the process of augmenting the popular ecommerce site.

Offline advertising Offline advertising such as the use of billboards, TV and outdoor banners have been found to approximately ten times less efficient in reaching out for the immediate needs of customers especially those related to acquisition on the cost of products and services. This is true when offline advertising is compared with direct or online sales and marketing (Fazlollahi, 2002).

Not sure if you can write a paper on E-commerce: Amazon.com by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, Amazon.com has endeavored to significantly reduce its offline marketing strategy and improve on online marketing in a bid to capture the urgent needs of customers. In order to achieve the optimum effect, the company is making les use of offline advertising in some seasons especially during the holidays when there is a high traffic of customer queries on their website.

For example, before the close of the last millennium (1999), 80 million dollars was spent by the company on offline advertising. After critical analysis of the impact brought about by heavy spending on outdoor advertising, Amazon.com realized that the returns were not significant.

Consequently, the company opted to cut down on offline advertising budget the following year to 50 million dollars and the budgetary allocation has been reducing subsequently. By 2008, the company had already managed to filter a staggering sum of 36 million dollars from offline advertising and only 9.4 million dollars was spent on offline advertising.

Although Amazon.com has initiated such significant cuts on offline advertising, it has not limited its marketing prowess and overall success in internet retail marketing. To confirm this, the company has been recording huge sales on its products and services especially during the holidays when more clients tens to seek its services.

The competitive strategy of Amazon.com is a simple one; the company believes that investing in online advertising has significant returns since most customers prefer online shopping to visiting physical retail stores. The latte consumes both additional time and requires extra financial resources, like the cost f transportation.

Simplified and restructured Ordering Process Amazon.com has made it very easy for customers to order in a very easy way with minimal complications. As mentioned earlier, the company’s business philosophy is that of retaining customers through offering satisfactory services. The online retail mall has been technologically developed in a way that customers can navigate, explore and browse the site with great ease.

The site is continually restructured to allow customers to experience a smooth and expedited ordering process. By just clicking on the mouse, customers can find the details of any product being offered at Amazon.com and at a price that is affordable. A single payment on orders is made and thereafter, the order is processed with minimal delay.

The simplicity in payment system is not only applicable at the Amazon’s main site but also in its affiliate branches. Hence, a streamlined process of ordering is Amazon.com marketing niche and strength at the same time, making the company to be ahead of its competitors.

Management of inventory at Amazon.com has been facilitated through partnerships in order to increase the volume of sales and distribution network. The management at Amazon.com has so far realized that developing business partnerships is one way of boosting growth in its portfolio.

As a result, the company has entered into quite a number of contracts with certain like minded business partners in a bid to explore the latent business opportunities that other market competitors have not explored yet.

In terms of web service development, Amazon.com runs several websites of its own. These include CDNOW and A9 websites. Besides running these sites, the company also hosts and runs websites that deals with retail businesses for other retail businesses.

At one time, Amazon.com took charge of hosting Borders bookstores sites. However, the business partnership was ended in 2008. In addition, ToysRUS Toys

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Ford Motors Company: Organizational Structure Report (Assessment) college essay help

Introduction In any organization regardless of the size and/or complexity, responsibilities of employees are usually defined by their work, immediate supervisors and for managers, their subjects. These definitions are often assigned to positions in the organization but not to specific individual(s).

The best organization structure, therefore, depends on a number of factors including the job, size in terms of the required workforce, revenue, geographic expansiveness and the range of its businesses. In fact, this form of organizational structure is suited for firms that are project-driven such as construction, engineering, and technological companies.

The U.S. based Ford Motors Company is one such organization whose organizational structure takes the form of a matrix structure (Moynihan

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Ipads Pricing Strategy Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Apple Inc is an international electronic company with its headquarter at Santa Clara Valley, California; it was incorporate on 1st April 1984. Some of the company’s products are IPods, I-phones, personal computers, phones and computer software’s; the company is respected for its strong marketing and innovative team.

Pricing is vital marketing strategy tool that need to be managed effectively (Apple Inc, 2011). This paper discusses possible pricing strategy that Apple Inc can use for Ipads.

Why pricing elasticity is important when determining pricing strategy When a product is elastic, then a change in price, whether upwards or down wards, have an effect on the demand of the product. Highly elastic commodities are affected greatly by slight changes in price. In normal goods, when prices increase, then their demand decrease and while prices decrease then demand increases.

On the other hand, in luxury goods, an increase has minimal or no effect on demand; while to the extremes price increase has a positive effect on demand. What is important for a company to realize is the effect of prices on demand and to what extent the demand is affected.

In modern societies, technology has increased, thus Ipads are no-longer luxuries, and thus an increase in demand will have a negative change in demand (Hooley

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Professional Project Plan Essay custom essay help

Context of the study As the number of students studying Foreign Language increases worldwide, there is need to improve their proficiency in such languages. As a matter of interest, there have been different studies, which have been looking into ways of improving learning different foreign languages.

In the recent past, there have been studies carried out with the aim of encouraging foreign language learning through technology in form of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL).

In the Middle East however, research on the usefulness for elementary-prep school EFL teachers to incorporate CALL in their day to day classroom activities has not yet drawn the attention of many researchers. The most interesting part of it is that, Middle East has a very unique culture and history of origin (Teh

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Corporate Governance Report best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Description of the Companies

Compliance to ASX Guidelines

Similarities in Corporate Guidelines

Evaluation of Corporate Governance Statements

How the Corporate Governance Statements Can Be Improved

Conclusion

References

Appendix

Corporate governance is at the core of how companies are managed. This is true because corporate governance statements essentially outline the rules, procedures, and laws of how companies operate or should be managed (National Australia Bank Limited 2011, p. 1). Corporate governance also determines the way various company shareholders operate and how they should interact with each other (National Australia Bank Limited, 2010).

In recent decades, there has been a renewed concern over the concept of corporate governance, especially because there has been an eminent collapse of some of the biggest corporations across the globe due to poor corporate governance (such as the case evidenced with Exxon Mobil).

This is to say that corporate governance requirements differ from company to company and from a broader perspective, the success or failure of a given company differs with the corporate governance statement of the company.

To gain a better understanding of the differences and importance of corporate governance statements in the running of companies, this study will analyze two Australian companies, namely BHP Billiton and National Australia Bank.

The two companies are among Australia’s top ten largest companies (according to Forbes magazine), but both companies operate in very different economic sectors (Hitipeuw 2011, p. 1).

Description of the Companies BHP Billiton is officially based in Melbourne Australia (its management is however, based in Britain) and it essentially engages in mining activities alongside the production of petroleum. BHP Billiton is not only one of Australia’s largest companies, it is said that the company is the largest mining company in the world (according to February 2011 rankings) (Hitipeuw 2011, p. 1).

Australian National Bank, on the other hand, operates in the banking sector and it is one of Australia’s largest banks (Scott 2009). The bank’s operations are of a global nature and it is estimated that it serves more than eight million customers around the globe. In fact, according to recent global rankings, the bank is estimated to be among the world’s top 20 largest banking institutions (Scott 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Compliance to ASX Guidelines BHP Billiton and National bank of Australia are in compliance with ASX’s regulations that the board of directors should be independent from the running of the company’s operations. In other words, ASX regulations outline that the companies should have a board of directors that does not have direct interests on the company and which is independent of the management (ASX 2011, p. 1).

National Bank of Australia’s corporate governance statement complies with this provision by observing that its board of directors makes independent decisions during board deliberations so that the interests of the company are not compromised by personal objectives. This provision is outlined in the corporate governance statement (cited in BHP Billiton 2011) that:

“An independent director must be independent of management and able to exercise unfettered and independent judgment, free of any business or other relationship that could materially interfere with the exercise of the director’s ability to act in the best interests of the Company” (p. 2).

BHP Billiton also has the same provision as can be seen in the appointment of its directors because of its 13 directors; twelve are nonexecutive and independent of management (BHP Billiton 2011). The same concern (evidenced in National bank of Australia) of a compromise of the board of directors by the company’s management is also registered at BHP Billiton when upholding this requirement.

The company’s stand on the independence of directors is clearly outlined in the company’s corporate statement that “The board considers that an appropriate balance between executive and nonexecutive directors is necessary to promote shareholder interests and to govern the business effectively. It is committed to ensuring a majority of directors are independent” (p. 4).

Another area of compliance that both companies uphold (with regards to ASX guidelines) is the public disclosure of remuneration policies and risk management strategies. This provision is observed through the remuneration committee (in the case of National bank of Australia) and through the remuneration report (in the case of BHP Billiton).

In the case of BHP Billiton, the remuneration reports encompasses details pertaining to the share prices, remuneration policy and structure, aggregate director’s remuneration, group performance, earnings performance, and group management committee details (BHP Billiton 2011).

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The National Bank of Australia also discloses more or less the same information because in its remuneration structure, details pertaining to the company’s group remuneration structure, remuneration paid to board members, remuneration paid to top executives and existing remuneration policies and strategies are also included in their remuneration report (Australian National Bank 2011).

Similarities in Corporate Guidelines BHP Billiton’s management and organizational practices are firmly embedded in the principles of ethics and integrity; an attribute which is quite similar to Australia National Bank’s principles. At National Bank of Australia, corporate responsibility essentially encompasses the behaviors, beliefs and core values of the organization and these principles collectively outlines the overall purpose of the organization’s members.

The organization, therefore, believes that the manner in which it undertakes its corporate responsibilities is equally important to the final product of their organizational output (Australian National Bank 2011).

The same view (of corporate responsibility) is also shared by BHP Billiton in the sense that the organization strives to attain its corporate objective by upholding ethical standards, corporate integrity and a high respect for other stakeholders in the organization.

In the same manner, Australia National Bank believes that how it carries out its operations is as important as its organizational output; BHP Billiton also believes that how it undertakes its corporate obligations is important in maximizing its shareholder values (BHP Billiton 2011).

What the organization’s stakeholders should expect of the company with regards to how it undertakes its obligations is clearly outlined in the company’s business code of conduct.

Also, through an analysis of both BHP’s and Australia National Bank’s corporate statements, we see that both companies value the contribution of their shareholders through the shareholder engagement (for BHP Billiton) and communication with shareholder strategy (for Australia National Bank).

At BHP Billiton, the management sets regular shareholder briefings (annually) where shareholders are encouraged to share their views with management on how best to improve the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To make sure the views expressed by the shareholders are factored into how the company is managed, the company’s management has a duty of communicating the shareholders’ resolutions to the directors for action.

Communication is, however, extended to the company’s website incase there are pending matters of concern which cannot be concluded from the physical annual meetings, scheduled on October or November of each year (BHP Billiton 2011).

Shareholder communication at Australia National Bank is done in more or less the same way, considering shareholders often meet with management through annual general meetings and often, the resolutions passed in such forums are communicated to shareholders through corporate publications, letters and the likes (Australian National Bank 2011).

The kind of group disclosure adopted by the company is that of utmost transparency because all shareholders are supplied with timely and freely accessible corporate information.

Evaluation of Corporate Governance Statements BHP Billiton’s corporate governance structure is quite conducive for the global nature of the company and for the context in which the company is operating in. This is true because the company’s corporate governance guidelines is in conformance to corporate practices outlined in Australian and Britain’s corporate circles where the company primarily operates.

To back-up these claims, it is essential to note that the company’s corporate governance statement ensures the communication of timely information to its shareholders (through its annual general meetings and website communication). Basically, the information communicated in this manner includes data relating to the company’s profitability/loss, corporate debt, cash reserves and such like statistics (Jie 2010).

The level of transparency that the company uses in communicating such information is a plus for the company’s corporate governance document because it is transparent and timely. This is one of the strengths of the company’s corporate governance statement.

As mentioned earlier in this study, the shareholder communication strategy of Australia’s national bank bears close similarity to BHP Billiton’s and therefore, the above strength observed in BHP’s corporate governance documents is also shared by Australia National Bank.

The strength is especially manifested through the transparency in shareholder communication that Australia National Bank upholds. This strength can be represented through a segment of the company’s corporate governance document (cited in Australian National Bank 2011), which states that “The Group aims to be open and transparent with all stakeholders, including the owners of the business – the shareholders.

Information is communicated to shareholders regularly through a range of forums and publications” (p. 6). To show the transparency adopted by the company with regards to shareholder communication, the company’s corporate document further states that “The Group is committed to maintaining a level of disclosure that provides all investors with timely and equal access to information” (Australian National Bank 2011, p. 6).

Since Australia National Bank’s provisions of proper corporate practice and an upheaval of ethical standards seek to maximize shareholder value and in the same manner, BHP’s upheaval of ethical standards seeks to maximize the company’s shareholder value; it means that both corporate governance statements strictly uphold the rights and interests of the shareholders which is at the very core of both companies’ existence.

This regulation also means that both companies are likely to refrain from engaging in short-term profit-making ventures that may not necessarily be done with the interests of the shareholders at heart. Such sort of actions will, therefore, be avoided because they are likely to affect shareholder interests in the wrong way.

The manner of appointment of directors for both companies is also quite transparent as can be evidenced from an excerpt of Australian National Bank’s corporate guideline (cited in Australian National Bank 2011) which says that:

“The process for appointing a director is that, when a vacancy exists, the Nomination Committee identifies candidates with the appropriate expertise and experience, using external consultants as appropriate. The most suitable candidate is appointed by the board but must stand for election by shareholders at the next annual general meeting of the Company” (p. 3).

With such recruitment guidelines in effect, competent and qualified personnel are likely to be recruited by the board and therefore, the company is likely to benefit from skills and expertise of highly qualified individuals. This initiative is also centered on maximizing the shareholder value and therefore, such a provision in both companies’ corporate governance statement is a plus for both companies as well.

The fact that both companies uphold the independence of their directors in their corporate governance statements is a plus for both companies meaning that even though the interests of the companies’ shareholders is at the very centre of the company’s existence, the board of directors can still be able to act independent of the shareholders’ or management’s interests.

Consequently, this means that both organizations can be steered in the right direction without compromise from any wing of the company’s stakeholders.

How the Corporate Governance Statements Can Be Improved Since fraud cannot be totally eliminated, no matter how airtight a company’s corporate governance statement may be, it is important for BHP’s Billiton to have a whistle-blowing provision in its corporate governance statement which seeks to protect whistle-blowers.

This provision is however, contained in Australia National Bank’s corporate statement, where there is a secure channel through which people can report instances of fraud or corruption in the company.

Moreover, BHP Billiton’s workforce guidelines does not essentially embrace the diversity expected of present-day international organizations, considering its corporate statement only envisions the utmost fulfillment of worker needs. Little reference is therefore made of how the company should deal with the issue of employee diversity.

A provision on how companies should deal with Employee diversity is essential for BHP Billiton’s corporate governance statement because it undertakes very extensive operations across the globe and therefore its workforce is likely to be characterized by a very diverse workforce.

The embracement of a diverse workforce is essential for the reduction of employee turnover and for the increase of innovation in the workplace. These recommendations are incorporated in Australia National Bank’s corporate governance statement.

Conclusion This study identifies that the corporate governance statements of Australia National Bank and BHP Billiton are in order and conform to the laid down stipulations of ASX corporate governance guidelines (with regards to corporate communications and director’s independence).

However, we establish that BHP’s corporate governance document is inferior to Australian National Bank’s in the sense that it lacks a whistle-blowing and employee diversity provisions, which are essential for a company of its nature. These are the areas identified to warrant improvement of the corporate governance document.

References ASX. (2011). Corporate Governance – ASX. Web.

Australian National Bank. (2011) Corporate Governance Document. Web.

BHP Billiton. (2011) Corporate Governance Statement. Web.

Hitipeuw, J. (2011) Bigger Than Microsoft. Web.

Jie, M. (2010) Examples of Good Corporate Governance. Web.

National Australia Bank Limited. (2010) The Corporate Governance Statement. Web.

National Australia Bank Limited. (2011) Corporate Governance. Web.

Scott, M. (2009) Big Four Australian Banks Have Joined the Global Elite. Web.

Appendix National Bank of Australia Corporate Governance link.

BHP Billiton Corporate Governance link.

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Marketing Plan for a baking magazine Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Executive Summary This marketing plan gives a description of a magazine that shall specialize in baking as one of the essentials in a modern day’s home. The magazine under the name “Baker’s Bliss” will primarily feature a collection of menus and recipes of various cakes and pastries carefully selected to cater for specific occasions.

It will at the same time showcase interviews and narratives from people who have had experience in the baking field. Copies of the magazine shall be available in all leading stores around the country at an affordable price.

The profitability of the magazine is almost entirely assured because of the high demand for the services that it shall be offering. Aside from the core purpose of the magazine, it is expected that other companies may seek to advertise their products on the magazine which will increase the profitability of the enterprise.

Mission

To provide our readers with the best recipes and baking advice all the while maintaining high levels of professionalism and charisma through extensive marketing strategies.

Vision

To be recognized among the best in the publications industry locally and internationally in terms of quality and competitiveness.

Goals and objectives

To be the leading publisher and marketer of such magazines within a given period of three years.

To break even between the second and third year of operation.

To expand our market base beyond our borders after the fifth year of operation.

Magazine’s summary The magazine will go under the name “Bakers Bliss” and will have its website www.bakersbliss.com. An e- mail address [email protected] will also be provided in a bid to enhance communication between the publishers and the customers.

The magazine shall set off with a recommended retail price of US$. 50. The price will be subjected to change depending on the response and cost reduction measures employed. Customers will be able to access the company website from any browser and create their own accounts on the website for free.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company’s location will be in an office situated in the state of Ohio, an area which will offer a tranquil and conducive environment for the daily business undertakings. The office size shall be (600-1200sq ft), which is a sufficient size to house the company’s staff.

Financial Plan The marketing process will require a large amount of initial capital to cater for the promotional expenses as outlined below. The funds will be generated from the sales of shares, personal income, grants and finally companies that seek to advertise in the magazine.

An estimated US$ 25,000 is required to fully meet the initial requirements. 60 % of this amount will be generated from advertisements posted in the magazine.

Much of the capital will be used in the buying of advertisement spaces in bill boards, newspapers, internet sites and radio and television advertisements for the first eight months of operation. However after this period, the business will only need to plough back its profits and capital to achieve growth and expansion.

Analysis and implementation The magazine’s targeted audience is women between the ages of ten to seventy years. Within the first year of operation, the distribution will be confined within the local vicinities of Ohio and gradually extend it to other regions. Currently this magazine has limited competition in this area.

The competition however is on a low scale and we hope to top it by using the local media stations (television and radio) to further create awareness of the product. The near-monopolistic nature of the magazine will see the magazine rise drastically in this industry.

In addition to this, the firm shall target individuals as opposed to organization since its products are of a relatively low cost and hence affordable to the average readers. The magazine will bank on the continuing growth of interest in baking as projected by research and the continual affordability of amenities required servicing the same. The increase in the ease of access of the internet and such magazines will also play a pivotal role in the magazine’s marketing strategy and future expansion.

We will write a custom Assessment on Marketing Plan for a baking magazine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The expertise and technology needed to market this magazine is available and I aim to work with a number of independent developers, some who have already expressed keen interest in the proposal.

I also hope to include as third parties some editorial and printing companies that have been in the market for a longer time hence already establishing themselves as a standard and commanding a suitable market base in this sector.

The management of the marketing process will comprise of skilled personnel who are specifically handpicked for their dexterity in their areas of work.

unlike the competition, the products and services provided through the magazine shall include but not be limited to advertisements for products related with baking, crossword puzzles and other competitions gunning at various prizes, comments and recommendations from top bakers around Ohio, best spots to get cakes from within the State and simplified dos’ and don’ts in the kitchen..

The website on which this magazine will be hosted will be interactive in nature allowing for such activities as blogging and also posting of questions and answers in a forum kind of way. Its interface will be simple yet elegant and shall be very user friendly since it shall conform to good design principles.

According to Levinson (2007), the customer satisfaction should be the primary concern for any business which aspires to prosper. It is with this in mind that all the information provided within the magazine shall be tailored to meet specific customer needs.

This will be achieved by incorporating the advice and recommendations made by the customers from the website and other sources into the magazine. While this very bold move would not have been possible in past years, recent communication mediums and technological advancement will make this marketing process a success and an effortless undertaking for the publishers.

This value added services will give Baker’s Bliss a competitive advantage over its competitors whose products are often fixed in nature and hardly offer any customization abilities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan for a baking magazine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The magazine shall be made available in all leading stores. Copies shall also be distributed in bookshops and street vendors to ensure that a large percentage of the market is covered.

These are arguably the most popular shopping avenues hence none of the prospective customers will be hindered from getting their hands on a copy of this captivating and elegant magazine.

Baker’s Bliss vision is to become a force to reckon with in the publications industry. In the first year of involvement, the management shall aim at attracting as many investors as possible and popularizing the magazine through the use of various advertising media including other websites, newspaper adverts and sponsoring of college football teams.

Bake out competitions for free copies sponsored by Baker’s Bliss will go a long way in the advertising of the same, thus enabling users to test the product before actually committing to making the purchase.

Consequently, the organization shall aim at retaining its customers by being dynamic and reinventing its products so as to be in sync with the ever changing customer needs (Kotler

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Science essay help online free

Introduction At all times, people were trying to explore nature and master their laws. Curiosity is one of the major human features, and it pushes people to discover new things and seek for new inventions. However, rarely if ever scientists were interested in the consequences that their discoveries might lead to. Thus, the ethical concern about relations between nature and science was the core idea of many literary works at all times.

A novel Frankenstein (1818) by Mary Shelley is a romantic work that reflects the consequences of “blind science” and human ambition, and Blade Runner (1992) by Ridley Scott depicts the industrialized society and world of the future which, in fact, deals with the same problems as Frankenstein.

In this essay, we are going to discuss the relationship between science and nature as an important universal concern through the comparative study of Frankenstein and Blade Runner.

Blade Runner

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HIV and AIDS: an Evolving Global Response Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Situation

Recommendations

Conclusion

References

Introduction HIV/AIDS has been ranked as one of the main killer diseases globally. It is mainly “transmitted through unprotected sex and blood transfusion” (CDC 2010). It destroys the CD4 cells and this limits the body’s ability to protect itself from infections. The use of condom has been proposed as an effective way of curbing the spread of the disease.

Despite its effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, condom use has not been fully accepted due to socio-economic factors. This paper highlights the current situation and recommendations in regard to response and acceptability of condom usage.

The Situation Most countries in the world have adopted a “national condom usage program in order to control the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases” (Schmiedl 2004, vol. 20, p. 17).

Such programs include creating awareness about condom and its benefits. They also involve the provision of condoms at no costs or at reduced costs. There is a positive response to condom use as people realize its effectiveness in preventing HIV/AIDS.

The promotion of condom use is more focused on the vulnerable groups rather than the general public. Thus condom is mostly associated with deviants such as sex workers and drug addicts (Bedimo

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Strategic Management in Bally Total Fitness Report college essay help online

Table of Contents Summary of the Facts

The Problem the Case Presents

Causes of the Problems

Alternative Solutions

Recommendation

Justification

Reference List

Summary of the Facts Bally Total Fitness had emerged as the leading operator of fitness centers. By 2004, the company was the largest, most efficient and the highest grossing fitness operator and more to that its operations had changed from fixed single location based, to becoming a nationwide operator.

Bally had been established in 1962, and although throughout the years it had had challenges like any other business venture, 2004 was probably the most difficult time since its establishment.

Fierce competition had emerged, legal cases had been filed against the company as it was under investigation for its accounting management and procedures and worse still its stock price had drastically fallen to a level of being termed as collapsed.

The top-level management at Bally Total Fitness had not overseen these hard times. This is so as experts had the presumption that the fitness industry was headed for a boom, as most Americans became more sensitized and concerned about their health status and well-being. The survey research had already released a report which showed that about two thirds of the American population was either obese or overweight.

The research further stated that a third was actually obese. Since medical practitioners were emphasizing the need for people to engage in fitness practices, it was assumed the fitness industry would record major enrollment. However, although diseases caused by weight, problems were on the increase and people were concerned about their weight; many did not take the initiative of visiting the fitness centers.

Bally which had emphasized and undertaken the initiative of expansion in readiness to tapping the projected new enrollments found itself in huge deficits and debts as the presumption never materialized and thus the strategic management had failed.

The core reasons for enrollment into health clubs had significantly changed in 2004. In the past, enrollment was purely driven by the desire to attaining fitness, and thus people were not very sensitive to other externally induced factors. In 2004 contrary to the past practices, people had come to value other external factors immensely.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These were like friends’ opinions and recommendation, the nature of the place regarding the cleanliness standards, nature and friendliness of the staff, the consistent persuasiveness of marketers and sales pitches, and the convenience and location of the fitness center as well as the brand name. The rapid and drastic diversification proved to pose management challenges to Bally.

Health clubs had also rapidly changed to incorporate many activities. Equipment purchase was also done from established household names like Nautilus. However even Nautilus was hit by market competition and in 2003 it registered its first loss in the history of the company. By 2004, thousand of companies had emerged and competed against each other in the health club industry.

In the past, the health club industry was not competitive and the majority of the clubs that existed then were mainly established by non-profit organizations. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) being a non-profit organization had one of the most solid histories of fitness activities. YMCA had offered fitness activities in the US for over fifteen decades.

In the health club business, there emerged different type of ownerships further diversifying the industry. These are owner-operated clubs: these are run and supervised by the owners; they are the majority and mainly operate from one location. Bally Total Fitness fell under this category of owner operated fitness clubs. Franchised clubs: under this, multiple investors joined efforts and a club franchised under them.

This avails a club professional personnel and more purchasing power. The largest franchised club being Curves for women. Managerial and design companies: these are kind of a caretaker run clubs. Experts on behalf of the owners, of which most fall under corporate ownership like universities, hotel chains; hospitals and so on, run them. The last type ownership club is the Health spas.

Health spas are relatively small and in most cases, they are in residential hotels and are in form of an extension. The emergence of various ownership-based clubs has further diluted the health club industry, rendering Bally’s management to undertake overambitious investment projects in an effort to outmaneuver competitors.

Pricing and sales in a health almost follows the same procedure (Wells

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Business in Japan: Challenges and Threats Report essay help online

Executive Summary Before a firm decides to venture into doing business in Japan, a lot of factors have to be considered and market entry strategy crafted and executed. It is essential for a firm to conduct a survey of the Japanese market to determine the available market opportunities and the underlying challenges before venturing into doing business. It is significant that a firm speaks to a local exports and imports market expert.

The market analysis will enable the firm to determine the situation of the intended market. Therefore, firms intending to do business in Japan must carry out their value chain analysis and SWOT analysis to determine their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats before deciding to do business in Japan.

Introduction Japan is second largest world economy after the US. The country has an attractive business opportunity for both domestic and foreign investors. However, before venturing into doing business in Japan, it is essential to conduct market research in order to acquire vital information about the country’s market situation.

Venturing into business in Japan requires business organizations to have a better knowledge of the intended market place. This requires firms to gather information to aid them in decision making (Doing business in Japan, 2011). This essay paper seeks to examine doing business in Japan.

Overview of Japan Japan is located in north eastern Asia and has a population of approximately 126 million people with its capital city being Tokyo. The country is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democratic monarchy and a multi-party system. The official language is Japanese and English is the second language which most Japanese understand.

Major partners in trade include the US, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, UAE, Australia, South Korea among others. Japan is renowned for the manufacture of world class automobiles and consumer electronic products such as home appliances, transistors and radios among others (Nishiyama, 2000, p.1).

Barriers to Business Communication There are two major factors that could bar intercultural business communication in Japan. These factors are differences in culture and language. A foreign business organization must ensure their employees are either bicultural or bilingual, otherwise business communication might prove to be difficult and frustrating (Nishiyama, 2000, p. 9). Besides language barriers in communication, Japanese use their culture as the basis of their understanding and perception and this could jeopardize intercultural business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essential Information to Gather Before Reaching the Decision on Doing Business in Japan One crucial piece of information that an organization needs to gather before making decision to do business in Japan is concerned with market accessibility. An organization must first determine how accessible Japanese market is. This is because each business organization and each market is unique and an organization intending to export must be well equipped with valuable information on the target market place. This information will be valuable to an organization in its initial approaches into the new market.

To venture into business in Japan’s market, it is crucial for a firm to have information on the business operations and activities of major local and foreign market place players and potential competitors.

This will enable the firm to gauge their competitive opportunity against other market place players and achieving their performance goals. Knowledge of competitors will also enable that particular firm to craft and execute business strategy that would give the firm competitive advantage against the existing players in the Japanese market place (Sato, 2011, p.161).

It is also essential for the firm to gather information on the eating habits of Japanese customers. The knowledge of the cultural and contemporary eating habits will enable the firm to determine which products and services to produce. For an organization intending to venture into breakfast cereals business for instance, this information will help the in cutting down unnecessary operation costs resulting from of logistics.

Businesses must gather information on laws and regulations that regulate both local and international business activities. Complying with regulations and laws in the business activities is a legal requirement and a firm must be well equipped with all the legal requirement of doing business in Japan (Doing business in Japan, 2011).

Venturing into Business in Japan Every culture has its own linguistic characteristic. Doing business in Japan will require a firm to gather information on how to break down cultural and linguistic barriers that would pose challenges to marketing the business.

Information on cultural and linguistic characteristic of the Japanese people will enable a firm in crafting and executing a variety of business options and strategies on gaining competitive advantage against competitors. Before venturing into business in Japan, firms have to consider their own capabilities, resources, as well as past experience in foreign business operations. Firms must engage in gathering information that would enable them get this information.

We will write a custom Report on Business in Japan: Challenges and Threats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to consider gathering information on establishing business relationships with local agents in Japan. Local agents have knowledge and contacts that would enable firms to promote their products. This establishment of local relationship plays a critical role in addressing language, cultural, as well as institutional challenges to the promotion, distribution and selling of their products and services.

Firms must also gather information on market entry strategies before venturing into doing business in Japan as the country’s market is a highly competitive one. This requires business firms intending to venture into this market to craft and execute business strategies and develop value chains that would give them competitive advantage against existing industry players and other potential new entrants.

Business Meetings and Occasions Japanese business place is characterized by official attire and one is expected to dress appropriately not casually when meeting business clients and partners. In a business meeting, the sitting arrangement id determined by ones’ status and one is expected to stand until the superior tells one to sit. Non-alcoholic drinks are served at the beginning of the business meeting. Gifts are appreciated and one is expected to carry a small souvenir to present to the host. It is important to take notes during meetings (Doing business in Japan, 2011).

Conclusion Japan provides a favorable business environment with has a vibrant market. However, many challenges and threats to business exist. Being the second largest superpower after the US, the nature of competition in Japan is very high. In addition, barrier to cross cultural business such as culture and language differences must be addressed in order to enable a foreign business perform well in the Japanese market place.

References Doing business in Japan. (2011). japan-guide.com. Web.

Doing business in Japan. (n.d). PKF. Web.

New to exporting? Here’s how we can help. (2011). ukti.gov.uk. Web.

Nishiyama, K. (2000). Doing business with Japan: Successful strategies for intercultural communication. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business in Japan: Challenges and Threats by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sato, K. (2011). Industry and business in Japan. New York: Routledge.

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An analysis of Southwest Airlines Essay essay help: essay help

Executive Summary Problem Statement- This report is a study of Southwest Airlines, considering its strategies, strengths, weaknesses and the recent acquisition of AirTran.

Analysis Southwest faces problems of drastic weather changes, natural calamities and inflation. These problems also apply to the industry as a whole.

The strongest force among the Porter’s five forces in the US Airline industry is the barrier to entry. This is attributed to the large capital requirements.

Southwest airline has an open office culture, which has ensured good labour relations.

The low cost strategy pursued by Southwest has been its core competence. Though this is a relatively simple concept, copying it would not be so straightforward.

Southwest airlines are doing very well in financial terms. This conclusion has been reached form the comparison made with its competitors.

The acquisition of AirTran is well timed.

The synergy management strategy if well implemented can result in great financial gain for Southwest Airlines.

Alternatives Southwest Airlines could continue acquire more competitors in future to increase market share and ensure revenue growth.

The company has the option of focusing on being the best low cost airline in the industry.

Recommendation Southwest airlines should continue with the merging and acquisition strategy as it guarantees huge market share and economies of scale. This will also increase barriers to entry for any potential competitors.

Implementation Southwest Airlines has the capital base required to acquire most of its smaller competitors. The management team in place has also proved to be effective. The company also has a good reputation with its creditors. This will enable it to get any financial assistance needed for its expansion plans.

Problems Facing Southwest Airlines Southwest airlines faces s few problems despite being a large industry player. The recent leadership crisis in the Middle East has greatly influenced the Crude oil industry. This industry is at the core of the operations of the Aviation industry.

These price increases have directly affected petrol and gas prices, which are a great proportion of operating costs in the industry. Needless to say. This has resulted in rising operating costs for Southwest airlines.

There have been drastic climate changes in the recent past. The western hemisphere has experienced very cold winters with snowstorms and avalanches. These have forced Southwest airlines to delay or postpone some of its flights. This translates to revenue loss for tickets that are cancelled.

The cost of housing travellers who are stranded also increases operating expenses. The Eastern hemisphere on the other hand has experienced very high temperatures. This leads to dust storms which reduce visibility while flying. These too have caused a few flights to be cancelled.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Natural disasters such as the tsunami in Japan prevent airlines from flying to the worst affected areas. Southwest airlines has had to cancel flights and change routes that required a stopover in these places. These changes in schedules are costly in terms of planning. Some airplanes are stranded in these disaster hit areas while others are actually damaged by the effects of the natural disasters.

Inflation rates continue to soar at an alarming rate. This rapid increase in prices affects Southwest Airlines by increasing operating costs. The result is reduced profit margins. Inflation also deals a blow to Southwest’s low cost strategy.

It is difficult for Southwest to pass on these increased costs to consumers since it has cut out a niche in the low cost criteria. The principal reason why most people fly with Southwest is its affordable cost. Any increase in prices comes with reduced customers. This is quite undesirable since Southwest Airlines is a profit making organization.

US Airline Industry and Porter’s Five Forces Porter’s Five Forces assess an industry’s attractiveness based on certain forces within the industry and some without. The first factor is the degree of rivalry between the industry players. The American aviation industry has many players who exercise fierce rivalry. This is evident in the advertising campaigns and new offers that are unveiled daily. The aim of all the companies is to gain the largest market share and create customer loyalty.

The second factor is the barriers to entry. Entry into the aviation industry is relatively easy since it is not a government monopoly. The largest constraint is the amount of capital required. Airplanes and runways are expensive to buy. However, this is not a hindrance to most large investors.

The existing players have also created brand names that are not easy to erode. They also experience cost advantages due to their scales of operation. A new entrant may not be able to compete with the prices they offer.

The threat of substitutes is not strongly felt in the airline industry. This is because travel by air still remains the fastest among all available options. It is also quite convenient. International flights in particular cannot be substituted. However, the subway system provides competition for internal flights. This is because they offer the same services at a lower cost and are unaffected by most weather changes.

We will write a custom Essay on An analysis of Southwest Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fourth and fifth forces are buyer and supplier powers. Suppliers wiled a lot of power in this industry since the industry depends on well services airplanes for its prosperity. The airline manufacturers and maintenance engineers are quite crucial to this industry.

Buyers also have a lot of power since they have many options available to them and can switch anytime they wish. Southwest therefore has to take into close consideration the consumer demands.

This industry still has huge profit potential. This is evident from the existing players’ financial statements. However, a new entrant should ensure they have enough financial resources and be prepared to face fierce competition during the initial years. New entrants can find a suitable niche and focus on it. This way, they will be guaranteed success.

Culture and Success Strategies Southwest has maintained an open door office culture that is very popular with employees. This has improved morale and led to good performance over the years. The company’s response to change is also relatively fast due to the willingness of employees to participate.

In 2008, during the financial crisis, when most companies were downsizing via compulsory retrenchment, Southwest chose to go the voluntary retirement way. Employees were given a choice to go for early retirement at will. This enabled the company to reduce labour costs without tampering with employee morale.

The strategy southwest has chosen to pursue is a no frills one. The company avoids providing services it considers unnecessary. This enables it to charge lower fares than most airline companies do. Southwest chooses to concentrate on its core business, which is flying its customers to their destinations of choice.

EasyJet has also adopted this strategy. It is not a difficult strategy to copy but efficiency is the advantage that Southwest has. The brand name is also hard to erode.

Financial Analysis This paper employs financial ratios in comparing the performance of AirTran Airlines, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. Most key financial ratios are computed using Microsoft Excel while a few are taken direct from the companies’ annual reports for 2009. The liquidity ratios computed include gross and net profit margins and return on assets.

Not sure if you can write a paper on An analysis of Southwest Airlines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The companies have similar gross profit margins, ranging from 1.73 for AirTran, 1.71 for Southwest Airlines and 1.66 for American Airways. The difference between the highest and lowest is a bare 0.07, meaning that all companies are earning almost equal GPM. The net- profit margin however, tells a different story.

South West Airlines is doing the best at 0.096, followed by AirTran with 0.057 and finally American Airways with -0.073. The net profit margin indicates the percentage of revenue that remains after adjustment for operating costs and other unusual items. In the case of American Airways, the operating costs exceeded the sales thus the negative figure.

This is not a good sign, as it will eventually translate to losses. Southwest Airlines is doing the best in cost control since it has the highest figure of 0.096. This could be attributed to the low cost strategy that the company pursues. This strategy has given the company great competitive advantage over its rivals.

AirTran posted the best return on assets at 1.06, followed by American Airlines with 0.755 and finally Southwest Airlines with 0.72. This is an indicator of AirTran’s ability to manage its assets better than its competitors.

The return on shareholder’s equity follows a similar trend, with AitTran posting the highest figure of 4.66. Southwest Airlines posted a figure of 1.88 while American Airways posted the lowest figure of -5.7. This shows inefficient use of shareholder’s funds in earning sales on the part of American Airways.

Southwest Airlines posted the highest current ratio, 1.41, indicating its superior ability to pay its current liabilities as they arise. AirTran followed with a figure of 1.05 and American Airways trailed with 0.85. The quick ratio also shows a similar trend, with Southwest airlines posting the highest figure of 1.31. American Airways posted the lowest figure at 0.786, just below AirTran’s 1.019.

The working capital ratio computed was inventory days. This shows on average how long inventory stays in stock before being used. AirTran holds its inventory for the shortest period. The company could be employing a JIT system in managing its inventory.

American Airlines posted the longest inventory period of 16 days. Southwest airlines held its inventory for an average of 13 days. Southwest airlines are doing better than its competitors in terms of liquidity ratios. However, in one category, inventory days, AirTran is doing better than Southwest.

Leverage ratios deal with the level of debt a company has in its capital structure. American Airways has the best debt to asset ratio. It posted a figure of 0.83, almost double, what the other two airlines had. This could indicate either low asset base or good use of the existing assets.

AirTran and Southwest had 0.46 and 0.42 respectively. There was a huge disparity in the debt to equity ratio where American Airways had -6.0. This was because the airline had exhausted all its reserves in an effort to survive the 2008 financial crisis.

The only element of equity in its balance sheet was ordinary shares. Therefore, the debt outweighed this by far. AirTran did better than Southwest posting a figure of 2.11 while the latter had 1.12. The airline under study seems to be doing average in terms of leverage.

The P/E ratio of Southwest is higher than its competitors. The figure was 92.38 while American Airways and AirTran posted figures of 66.6 and 57.1 respectively. This indicates that investors think that Southwest has high prospects of success.

The market to book value ratios range between 1.4 for Southwest and 0.92 for American Airways. This ratio compares the market value of the company and its book value. AirTran had a ratio of 1.03. Southwest airlines are still the best in this category.

Operating Performance American Airways had a Passenger Revenue Yield per Mile of 20.7B. This was the highest among the three. Southwest followed closely with 10.5B while AirTran trailed with 2.41B. The first two airlines did exceedingly well in this category while AirTran posted very poor results.

AirTran had a load factor of 76.6% while Southwest had one of 80.6%. These are average figures in the aviation industry. However, American Airways did poorly with a load factor of 71.20%.

Acquisition of AirTran Acquisition of AirTran will increase Southwest Airline’s market share and make it a larger industry player than before. This move is well timed with the entry of new players into the aviation industry. The leverage ratios of Southwest Airlines are also likely to improve with this recent acquisition. This is because AirTran has better leverage ratios than Southwest.

The gross profit margin will also improve since AirTran has high sales in relation to cost of goods sold. The return on Shareholder’s equity is also likely to improve, given the fact that AirTran posted the best figure in this category for the year 2009.

Southwest airlines are likely to be pursuing a synergy management strategy in acquiring AirTran. This is a good strategy since both companies operate in the same industry. This is likely to result in a huge increase in the customer base. There might be a slight problem during rebranding, as customers may get confused. However, this can be easily curbed using good advertising.

The core competences of both companies can be combined for better performance. Synergy management usually results in better results if the companies’ competencies can be combined effectively. Therefore, I agree with management that this decision will help increase shareholder value.

Southwest Airlines should focus on exploiting the synergy that will be created by owning another airline. There will be lessons to be learnt from AirTran, especially about operations and financial management.

Southwest’s management should be open to cultural change and accommodate employees from AirTran. When these companies have been merged successfully, and Southwest has sufficient capital base, then another merger or acquisition can be effected.

References New York Times. (2011, February 3). Times Topics. Web.

Ratliff, R. L.,

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Six-sigma in Toyota Motor Corporation Report essay help

Background Efficiency is a strong competition tool in businesses; it reduces the cost of production and leads to a more satisfy customers. On the other hand, satisfied customers are an increased business to an organization. When pondering of a system that can point out areas of inefficiency, Motorola, company in 1981 innovated a system called Six-Sigma. Six-sigma is a management tool that approaches management from a scientific angle.

It analyses an entire organizations processes and by creating relationships and data analysis, the area with a deficit is recognized. Six-sigma is implemented in business to improve the efficiency and increase the productivity of the entire organization; when the system is implemented, it focuses on all areas in an organization to have a totality of good results in the organization.

Though when implemented is a project that undertakes a number of procedures, it is a continuous process that requires constant improvements and upgrading (Tennant, 2001)

The motor vehicle industry is a competitive sector that is not only affected by the player in the industry but also by other external forces in the market. It is one of the industries affected largely by external environment like international trade, global environments and economies and the relationship among countries.

Toyota is the world greatest motor vehicle producer and seller; the success of the company has been attributed to an effective processes management. According to the company’s corporate website, its success can be attributed to internal process efficiency and improved products.

The process adopted by the company to improve its processes and produces in TQM (Total Quality Management) system. However, the company can improve its operation further and improve its products quality if it adopts a Six-sigma strategy in its operations (Hino, 2006). This paper is a case study of how Toyota Motor Corporation can implement a Six-sigma policy in its processes.

Brief History of Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota is a multinational company found in Japan and it is the leading automobile carmakers and seller in the world; other than automobile business, the company offers financial services. It was incorporated in 1937; its founder is Kiichiro Toyoda. Currently, the company’s chairperson of board of directors is Fujio Cho and the Chief Executive Officer is Akio Toyoda, it has its global headquarters at Toyota, Aichi, Japan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to 2009, financial report, the company had employed 71116 directly and other people who indirectly benefit from the company were 259792 in the same year, distributed in 540 consolidated subsidiaries and 226 affiliates. The main market for the company is in North America followed by the home market: its competitors include Mitsubishi, Honda, General Motors and Ford.

According to fortune global survey 500 of 2008, it was the fifth largest company in the world and the second largest automobile company. The company is structured in a no extra ordinary way and has departments like any other multinationals in the world; however, the achievement of the company has made it different in performance something that proves that something extra happens.

In 2008, it was able to surpass General motor company as the world largest automobile seller in the world. What has made the company go this far?

The answer is in the quality of its management and the interaction that brand as well the loyalty that it derives from its customers (see the appendixes for the company’s sales by region). To maintain the leadership role, the company needs to adopt a six-sigma mechanism of controlling different sectors (Toyota Motor Company corporate website, 2011).

The operating strategy of Toyota The company has a framework that works alongside. Operates under five principals, they are Kaizen (continuo’s improvement), team work, Challenges, Respect and Genchi Genbutsu (go and see).

Toyota is divided into small teams with team leaders and given certain task that they are supposed to perform and improve accordingly. Innovation is seen as a necessity in the firm both the Japan head quarters and the rest of the subsidiaries.

The effectiveness has been seen when the employees has innovated different products that supposed to abide to the general principals of the company. The combinations have lived to the task of continuously improving its processes to a point that it was able to surpass general motors. This is in line with the company’s principal of Kaizen.

We will write a custom Report on Six-sigma in Toyota Motor Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the components statements it has an express statement that is adhered to that is “adding value to the organization by developing its people” as people are being developed and empowered, they are enthusiastic and come up with the innovations. The company employs people various level of competitiveness.

On the other hand, they have their own training school called Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago that among other duties is used as the breeding ground of the employees. It has a policy that enables graduates of different diversities relevant to the particular task to join the company and grow in the company.

They also recruit from all over the world. This efficiency is what has made the company such a success, especially in the areas of innovation. In the institution, it offers scholarships to people with potential especially in the motor and designing of motor vehicle this are deliberate measures that are aimed at continuously improving it processes.

The technology adopted by the company can be seen from two angles. One in the marketing strategies and two in the continuous improvement of its processes when the company was set up in 1937, it is obvious that the technological advancement has been attained in the entire world. There is a research department that has the aim of undertaking the policy of Genchi Genbutsu (go and see).

The company’s first car was a high fuel consuming passenger car called A1 and G1. The vehicles were manually modeled. Today the numerous models in the market are because of computer-aided modeling. All along, we are hearing of Toyota X new model. This shows how they are continually improved their products to remain competitive in the world (Toyota Motor Company corporate website, 2011).

Major challenges facing the company that can be improved using Six-sigma system The world is recovering from global financial crisis which started in 2007, the company was affected by the crisis and recorded a loss of US$4.2 billion; although the crisis were beyond what the company could control, then if the company had an effective six-sigma policy, then it would have reduced the loss suffered.

The next area that the company is facing inefficiency is in faulty automobiles finding their way into the market; between the last quarter of 2009 and first quarter of 2010, the company recalled some faulty cars from different markets to the tune of 8million cars and trucks.

Due to the recall the United States Congress committees on Oversight and Investigations, seek for explanation on the recall of the country from James Lentz the US Sales Chief; it ended by the company being fined US$16.375 million for the faulty products. In the year ended 31 March 2010, the company recorded that it had suffered a total loss of US$1.93 billion (¥180 billion).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Six-sigma in Toyota Motor Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This loss could have been avoided if the company had an effective Six-sigma policy (Toyota Motor Company corporate website, 2011).

Of late, the automobile industry has been affected by changes in environmental policies that are focusing and targeting the industry to ensure that its processes as well as products are environmentally friendly. The company has to company with international standards of pollution emissions; to keep the trend, the company need to increase efficiency in its operations.

To remain competitive in the industry, companies in the industry need to improve their internal processes and products.

When developing internal process and products improvements, focus is given to all sectors of the company. The industry can have its sectors being divided into administrative and the core line of business, both the sectors should be focused in to have a total improvement of processes and projects (Pyzdek and Paul, 2009).

Implementation of Six-Sigma in Toyota Generally, there are six stages of six-sigma that Toyota should implement for the start of the project; then the processes are improved with time and as new policies and dimensions are implemented. The word DMAIC (the acronym for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control), is used to define the processes that are involved in an effective six sigma operation.

Define

The automobile industry is facing numerous challenges; Toyota having assumed the leadership in the industry does not guarantee that it will retain the position for the rest of its life. The managers should define the current position and so as it can understands business conflicts and business problems the company is undergoing through or the company is likely to undergo through in the future.

Understanding a problem encountered in an organization is the first step in developing a solution and develop methodology or combination of methodologies, to solve the business problem at hand. When defining a problem, the managers should use the symptoms or indicators of inefficiency to get to the root course: Six sigma projects should target the root causes and not the symptoms (Snee and Hoerl, 2002).

To diagnose a problem, two questions that should be used as the start point, they are:

What exactly is the current problem facing the organization for example the quality of its vehicles or the environmentally friendly vehicles?

Which areas are affected by the problem and how has this problem affected the operation of the entire organization; is the problem leading to losses?

With the full understanding of the problem, then the company adopts a project plan or a team charter; there are different methods of adopting the project plan or a team charter, they include CTQ, (Customer to Quality) among others, the best method will be defined by the problem at hard.

The plan adopted should be used to improve all sectors in the organization for examples, marketing, sales and finance (Pande, Neuman and Cavanagh, 2001).

Measure

At this stage, the Toyota management should find and gather as much information as possibly available to develop different solutions and alternatives (O’Connor, 1989). Generally there are three processes involved in the measure stage, they are:

Value Stream Mapping: this involves having a clear analysis of the problem and the project at hand: at the stage the company should aim at analysis the difference between what is expected (the firms goals and objectives) and what the company is really giving.

It seeks to establish the missing points, waste areas, areas of inefficiencies, and constraints to achievement of the corporate goals. Toyota should have an understanding of the quality of its processes and the products so as it can realize the differences between them.

Data Gathering: With the gaps and areas, that needs improvement at hand, and then the management should seek to develop alternatives of solutions so it can choose the best out of the list available. To gather information, the management should adopt five Ws strategy (when, what, who, where and why). Information should be vetted for relevance and applicability in certain areas (Münsterberg, 1973).

Data measurement validation: with the data at hand, then the management should adopt data management, interpolation and analysis methodologies: some of the tools used are Gauge R

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Recidivism of Juvenile offenders Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Problem statement

Literature review

Critical analysis of recidivism of juvenile offenders

Solutions for recidivism of juvenile offenders

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The phenomenon of youth who repeatedly engage in criminal behavior is common in the society. Youth who repeatedly commit crimes are known as re-offenders, while the repetition of crimes by youth is technically referred to as juvenile recidivism.

The study of juvenile recidivism has attracted substantial attention from scholars, especially psychologists, because the youth are considered to be at more risk of becoming re-offenders due to their age. Factors like the sex of the offender, and the consequences that result from initial offences, have also been known to affect the rates of recidivism (Bynum, 2010).

Other factors that substantially affect the rates of recidivism among juveniles are relationship with parents and peers, racial orientation of the offender, and indulgence in drugs. There are also other external factors like globalism, social changes and the diversity of people in terms of social status, economic statuses, and even ethics.

A number of studies related to recidivism have already been conducted in various states, and countries. The findings of these studies confirm the aforementioned factors affecting recidivism. It is of essence that authorities utilize the findings and recommendations of these studies in formulating policies since juvenile recidivism is a problem that affects the society greatly.

Apart from, potentially, making youth track of their lives, recidivism is responsible for a number of disorders occurring in the contemporary society. This is because the victims of juvenile offenders may have a hard time recovering from offence.

This, of course, depends on the kind of offence perpetrated against the victim. Sex-offence victims are likely to be the most affected by the acts of offence committed by these juveniles against them. The effect even extends beyond the victims, and the family and the society of the victim may also be affected. This may occur after murders, sex-offences, and other serious offences.

The fact that every report for a study on recidivism ends with recommendations is a plus in the efforts to reduce recidivism rates. A number of solutions that can effectively work in certain states have thus been identified.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is thus the responsibility of policy makers to ensure that they develop appropriate and effective policies that put into consideration the facts on the ground, established by research activities. This paper is a critical examination of research that has already been conducted on juvenile recidivism.

Problem statement One thing that must be kept in mind in studying recidivism is that, although recidivism shares a lot of similarities in different states, it is not essentially the same in all states. This is, of course, as a result of the variety of factors that affect recidivism in different states. For instance, as stated above, racial diversity is a factor that determines recidivism rates.

This is because research has shown a significant prevalence of recidivism in certain racial groups, and thus racial composition of a population will indubitably affect recidivism rates. A good example of this prevalence is the fact that in virtually all states, recidivism is more prevalent among black juveniles than their white counterparts (Rasmussen, 2003).

Recidivism rates have also been observed to vary with age brackets. For instance, research shows that juveniles in mid-teenage are exhibit more recidivism than their counterparts in early teenage and late teenage. As mentioned above, sex is another main determinant of the rate of recidivism in juveniles.

Therefore, in states where there is a high comparative population of male juveniles than their female counterparts, recidivism will be higher than in a state with a higher relative population of female juveniles (Miner, 2002).

Other usually ignored factors affecting recidivism in juveniles include social changes, ethics and globalism. When juveniles are exposed to social changes, their lifestyles can be substantially affected. For instance, when parents move from one state to another, the juvenile may have to look for new friends. This may be hindered by the social structure of the destination, and thus the juvenile may end up developing social problems.

Otherwise, the juvenile may keep bad company as a result of social frustration (Cain, 1996). These two, social problems and bad company, will most likely lead to delinquency which, if not checked, will recidivate. Recidivism is also likely to be high in societies in which there are ethical problems.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Recidivism of Juvenile offenders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because juveniles will lack guilt while committing misdemeanors, and this could easily lead to delinquency and subsequent recidivism. Another, issue that is substantially affecting the rates of recidivism in juveniles is globalization. Globalization tools like the internet have made it convenient for juveniles to commit offences. The tools may also act as a motivator for the offences.

For instance, accessing pornography has never been as easy in the past as it currently is. Juveniles can easily access internet pornography using computers or even cell phones (Martinez, 2008).

This can be viewed as a motivation for sex offences. It is also easy for juveniles to access their victims by the use of social networking sites, and mobile telephones. With this knowledge, it is important for parents to monitor the online activities of their children, and be keen with the kind of friends the juveniles keep.

Literature review Barnes (2010) identifies the main motivator for crime, especially in young people, as the development of an antisocial disposition. These are people who live negative mindsets, making them irresponsible, unremorseful and selfish. These people are also characterized by a blatant lack of guilt, which, in conjunction with the negative characteristics, make them go against societal rules.

This description depicts many of the juvenile offenders who are locked up in various facilities across the country. “Research suggests that antisocial behavior has a link to genetics”, (Barnes, 2008, p. 39). Research has also suggested that people with antisocial behavior are highly likely to have low self esteem, unable to maintain peer relationships, and they are also likely to have unstable home relationships.

Research has also suggested that peers who have a delinquent personality have low control over their social activities, they have poor self-concept, and they are unable to maintain interpersonal relationships. This is what led researchers to establish a connection between juvenile delinquency and recidivism, and antisocial behavior.

From this discussion, there is a crucial necessity of the involvement of family and communities in curbing juvenile recidivism. Early interventions should thus be put in place to identify and guide youths with delinquent personalities. Those who have already developed these tendencies should also be closely watched to reduce the likelihood of developing recidivism.

The two groups may also be helped by facilitating sports, camps, and other social programs to help them improve their social skills. This will be helpful to ex-offenders who may lack productive things to do with their lives after being released from facilities. It is also important to incorporate the help in holistic programs that address all the needs of the youth.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Recidivism of Juvenile offenders by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ex-offenders may be facilitated to go back to school, or to get some employment (Barnes, 2008). This will help them improve their sense of self-worth, which could in turn reduce the rates of recidivism significantly. The offenders may also be guided while at the facility to prepare them for life after incarceration.

This will help reduce recidivism. It is also important for rehabilitation programs to include forums in which the youth can be able to talk about what they have gone through, and be counseled appropriately. This will make them face their problems with an effort to reduce them.

According to Barnes (2008), the aforementioned dispositions are caused by a variety of factors. These factors include the lack of self control, which is a product of poor parenting, development of negative attitudes that may be as a result of relating with peers who have these antisocial characters, and the like.

The development of these antisocial characteristics is the one that researchers have identified as the root cause of delinquency. Delinquency may, however, come as a result of indulgence in risky behaviors by the youth, which is a product of the aforementioned lack of guilt. Additionally, youths who come from poor family backgrounds are more likely to engage in delinquency than their affluent counterparts.

However, as stated earlier, age is the main cause of juvenile delinquency, because during their adolescent years, the youth are characterized with a lot of experimentation as they learn socialization. This exposes them to bad influence from antisocial peers, and mediocre role models (Barnes, 2008).

This explains why researchers have found tremendous link between the success of beating juvenile delinquency, and exposure to positive influences.

This can also be related to another study that established higher rates of recidivism among juveniles who went through court systems than juveniles who underwent mediation processes. This can be explained by the bad company that the juveniles are exposed to in the correctional facilities.

Barnes study is credible because it is relevant to both delinquency and recidivism in juveniles. The study is also characterized by evaluation of several studies related to juvenile recidivism adding to its credibility. However, the discussion is characterized by multiple incidences of repetition.

The study also fails to put sufficient emphasis on its topic; “outreach intervention reduces recidivism in juvenile delinquents” (Barnes, 2008, p. 1). Another limitation of this study is the fact that it does not have sufficient empirical evidence for its claims.

Lee

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Loss of Species and Its Impact on the Human Spirit Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction Ever since ancient times, humans have lived with some kind of relationship with the environment. Nature provides mankind with the elements of survival – food, water, shelter, fire, clothing, etc. and also helps him dispose of the waste. Apart from such products, nature is also beautiful and has been a source of “spiritual and cultural inspiration as well as emotional sustenance” (Fischer and Hajer, 1999, p. 58).

While mankind sometimes struggled to cope with the calamities of nature, people also sought to find spiritual meaning within its boundaries. Thomas Berry writes that the earth needs to be viewed as a primary form of divine presence and such basic spirituality can augur well for the future ecological age (Fischer and Hajer, 1999).

The world today faces problems of overpopulation, pollution, global warming, loss of biological diversity and natural calamities. It is becoming more and more obvious that the Earth and the living things on its surface are a single ecosystem, a complex network of interaction and interdependence that is being seriously disturbed. Only through spiritual interconnection of mankind and various species, sustainable ecological balance may be attained.

According to David Suzuki, “the way we see the world shapes the way we treat it.” (Lauzen and Hales, 2009, p. 438). If man is able to see a mountain as God, a river as a vein of the land, forest as a sacred space, other species as his kin and the planet as his mother, then there will be greater respect and protection for the environment. “That is the challenge, to look at the world from a different perspective” (Lauzen and Hales, 2009, p. 438).

Background The connection of human spirit to nature is not a new concept. In fact, there is archaeological evidence that during prehistoric times, humans have sought to personify and worship nature and its various forces. In ancient societies of south-eastern Europe and in many aboriginal and Native American societies, the earth was worshipped as a feminine deity – Mother Earth or the Great Mother (Fischer and Hajer, 1999).

Nature deities are also present in various spiritual traditions such as shamanism, pantheism, paganism, and Hinduism. In the context of Western civilization, the Earth was worshipped as Isis in Egypt, Ishtar in Mesopotamia, Demeter and Gaia in Greece and Ceres in Rome (Fischer and Hajer, 1999).

However, in the course of time, the philosophy changed and humans could not just accept being subservient to nature. Rather Classical Greek humanists including Aristotle and Plato and the early Stoics believed that humans had a divine right to exploit natural resources to their own advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This anthropocentrism became central to Judaeo-Christian principles that justified the domination of humans over all other living things on earth. Moreover, many western philosophers of the Enlightenment period such as Bacon, Descartes, Newton and Hobbes advanced the superiority of man over nature and also laid the foundation of the scientific and industrial revolutions.

Though this led to accelerated progress on the scientific front, this approach also supported the utilitarian instrumental viewpoint of natural resources, leading, in the long term, to an ecological crisis involving environmental exploitation and degradation (Fischer and Hajer, 1999).

Many are working presently to solve the ecological problems through scientific, industrial, political or institutional remedies. However, the spiritual solution appears to be the most promising. Matthew Fox (1988) has written that Mother Earth can be saved only with a new approach that is centered on the sanctity of the planet.

For such an attitude to be developed, every person must have awareness of one’s own spiritual dimensions and also about the biological diversity around him. Religions across the world have often been platforms for spiritual connection of mankind to nature.

Shamanic spiritual traditions emphasize that there must be a holistic balance between materialistic aspirations of mankind and the spiritual world of the universe. Native American spiritual teachers give a lot of importance to the “place” one lives in for spiritual connection to the earth.

Goddess spirituality celebrates the biodiversity in earth and believes in the connection of the human spirit with nature. Belief in Gaia, the Greek goddess of the earth, supports the view of the world as a living spiritual organism and meditational practices and rituals aimed at establishing one’s connections with nature.

According to Pagan every living thing in nature has inherent value and power and human beings are interconnected to all other living things in the world (Fischer and Hajer, 1999).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Loss of Species and Its Impact on the Human Spirit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the context of ecological belief system, nature centered spiritual traditions such as these promote a deep sense of connectivity of people with their environment and also creates a transformational change in them to live in balance with their surroundings.

Ancient Asian religions and philosophies of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism also reinforce spiritual connections between humans and nature (Fischer and Hajer, 199). Hinduism believes in the incarnation of God in various species and also in the reincarnation of humans.

Deep ecology philosophers have found that these spiritual traditions are relevant to the concepts of “biocentrism, biospherical egalitarianism (intrinsic value of all life forms), and the need for holistic balance with nature” (Fischer and Hajer, 1999, p. 73).

The first wave of environmentalism began in the United States in the early twentieth century with an active role taken by two different people – Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) and John Muir (1838-1914). Pinchot was interested in conserving the environment so that natural resources may benefit the people.

On the other hand, Muir, along with people such as John James Audubon and Henry David Thoreau argued for the preservation of natural environment for the sake of protecting the spiritual health of the people (Kreche, 2004).

Biodiversity and human spirit Biodiversity refers to the inherited variation of all forms of life and includes three layers – the ecosystems, species of animals, plants and other organisms and genes that define the traits of the species.

It is roughly estimated that 1.7 to 1.9 million species have been identified while the true number may be of the order of 10 million and if the micro organisms are included the number could be closer to 100 million.

When there is the danger of species being lost to the world, ecological arguments show that the world is diminished. As a result the global extinction rate for species is increasing at a fast rate and this is evident through the factors of climate change, trapping of species within limited regions, destruction of tropical forests and coral reefs, rise of invasive species and destruction of the ocean floor due to over-harvesting of marine fisheries.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Loss of Species and Its Impact on the Human Spirit by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The loss of biodiversity not only means the loss of potential scientific knowledge and the benefits that accompany it, but also the loss of a large portion of humanity’s natural heritage.

Edward O. Wilson in his book “The diversity of life” writes that there are signals around that indicate that loss of biodiversity in the environment is a threat not only to the physical health of human beings but also to the human spirit.

Human spirit in general comes from a respect for life and a commitment to protect biodiversity. Philosopher Holms Rolston III has argued that several billions years worth of creative soil and several million species of teeming life have been handed over to latecomer mankind due to his power of intelligence and morality (Coffin and Pfannmuller, 1988).

“Ought not those of this sole moral species to do something less self-interested than count all the produce of an evolutionary ecosystem as rivets in their spaceship, resources in their larder, laboratory materials, recreation for their ride?” (Bio Science, 35 (1985):725).

Sometimes, loss of species can indirectly cost women and women their jobs thereby causing damage to their self esteem and leading to destruction of the human spirit.

For example, among the Kenyah Dayaks in East Kalimantan, the role of the woman is intrinsically related to the rice cultivation of the region and in many parts of the Amazon basin, men are reliant on hunting.

The loss of biodiversity hurts them by depriving them of their livelihood and pushing them towards desperation (Colfer, 2008). Scientists and conservationists are also deeply affected by loss of species in the environment.

Forests and the Spiritual Connection Most of the species of plants and animals are found in the tropical rainforests. From the utilitarian perspective it has been argued that man must protect the rich biodiversity of the earth so that he can tap and benefit from its various applications.

Alkaloids from plants are just one among the numerous resources in nature and they include anesthetics, medicines, muscle relaxants, analgesics, insecticides, etc. There are still over 30 million plant species to be discovered and studied (Coffin and Pfannmuller, 1988). Forests in particular play a unique role in the world in the context of preserving a greater part of biodiversity.

Elvin (2004) has studied China and he observes that the Chinese possess a cultural admiration of whole forests which is now expressed by their admiration and respect for an individual tree – symbolizing an entire ecosystem (Colfer, 2008). History shows that humans have considered forests as places of great spiritual power.

Ascetics of Eastern lands often went into forests to obtain enlightenment. However, despite the reverence associated with forests, they were the first causalities to the expansion of civilization. Logging and clearing of forest lands for agricultural purposes have converted wild forest areas to plantation areas.

Diverse environments cater to the innate human desire for beauty and complexity in the surroundings. “Forests have complex cultural meanings that are directly linked to the wellbeing, culture and belief systems of forest peoples.” (Colfer, 2008, p. 40). Forests can be very healing in nature and in Japan, there is the popular practice known as shinrin-yoku that is undertaken for relaxation.

Shinrin-yoku means walking or staying in forests to promote health. In the nineteenth century, many of the developed countries adopted the development of urban parks and protected forests realizing that trees and nature give human beings a sense of peace and calm.

Plants are also useful in religious and cultural contexts and thereby linked to psychosocial health aspect of the population. Many plants are considered to help in keeping away evil forces. In Zulu and Xhosa homes in southern Africa, various parts of the plant commonly known as imphepho is burned as incense to offer respect to the ancestor spirits.

Sometimes plants are used in communities as a cultural element. For example, in the Western Pacific, kava is used in community meetings. In South and Southeast Asia, betel nuts are used for chewing and also as spiritual offering. Some plants with psychotropic properties provide a spiritual turning point in life and can help ‘catalyze spiritual experience and behavioral change”.

Tropical forests in Africa are rich is such potent psychotropic plants. These plants are not just recreational drugs; they can cause profound insights, introspection and deep transformation. Studies show that regular ritualistic consumption of a plant mix known as ayahuasca has helped many people overcome alcoholism and drug addiction.

Likewise, ibogaine, which is an extract from a root bark is found to be an effective de-addictive medicine against heroin, cocaine and amphetamine addictions (Colfer, 2008).

Coastal Systems and the Human Spirit Hassan et al (2005) observe that the seas and coasts have great spiritual significance for people of all nationalities of varying cultural values. They cite the examples of the Baju peoples in Indonesia, the natives of the Torres Strait in Australia and the native Indians in America who have cultures linked to coastal systems.

Hassan et al (2005) also observe that the true value of oceanic systems cannot be measured as some of the systems that appear to have low value today can become high economic value in the future as a result of rare species they support that may suddenly acquire value in the future either in the pharmaceutical context or in the environmental context.

This means, some of the species in the coastal system have high option value; while they may not be considered valuable today they may become useful and valuable in the future.

Natives of many cultures have always been involved in the protection of species and the environment and for these people the loss of species in the present day scenario must be highly demoralizing (Hassan et al, 2005)

Biophilia E. O. Wilson (2002) has noted the human beings are biophilic – meaning, they are “sensitively interconnected to other living beings” (Colfer, 2008, p. 25). This means that the loss of species and damage to the environment can be a very painful experience for many people and can hurt them physically too.

“The green movement that was launched in the 20th century was probably the result of a global level biophilia” (Colfer, 2008, p. 25). According to the biophilia hypothesis the spiritual, mental and physical well being of human beings are intertwined with nature (Colfer, 2008).

The biophilia hypothesis also proposes that humankind’s evolutionary experience (past, current, and future) is deeply dependent on the well-being or health of all aspects of the natural environment.

However, ecopsychologists contend that before the earth can be healed, one must first heal oneself by first developing a sense of ecological awareness (Colfer, 2008).

Healing through spiritual connection with Nature One of the major classes of ecosystem services that are relevant to the discussion of the complexities in the relationship between the environment and the human spirit is “cultural services”. Studies show that cultural services enhance the health of human beings and also bring them a sense of spiritual connection and fulfillment.

There are some cultures in with people share a relationship with “sacred groves” and some other that have links with totemic species (Colfer, 2008). Such links have been expressed through the art of the period on mosaics.

Studies show that the health of indigenous people became negatively affected when their lost their contact with sacred groves or when their totemic species became extinct or affected.

More recent studies show that people living an urban life often feel rejuvenation of their health and spirits when they come into contact with nature especially forests (Colfer, 2008). Since ancient times, plants have been used by natives for ritualistic ceremonies and also as medicine.

There is also evidence that some animals can help in speeding up the recovery process for ailing patients. Studies show that staying in natural settings can be hugely stress-relieving for an urban dweller. Traditional healing has always been in relation to the environment and its spiritual connection to man.

According to Gottlieb, the spiritual understanding of one’s self is essential to connect with the natural surroundings. Prayers and chanting can open up subtle channels of spiritual communication with nature. “There were times when the world would become silent to listen to my songs, to my prayers and to my weeping as I became connected to my spirit”.

All elements including water, wind, sky, plants and elements responded to his prayers, he felt, and helped him with the healing process. He learned in healing that all living matter has spirit and therefore must be treated as an individual living spirit.

The natural world, Gottlieb explains has the power to hold its spiritual core in accordance with the laws of nature and this core is the key to spirit reclamation.

Human beings seek their spirits in natural surroundings as they are often a reflection of the nature of the human spirit, presented in the form of landscapes, interactions of various species and in sudden changes in the environment.

“Vision-seeking in the natural environment is a means of reuniting with the spirit essence of life” (Gottlieb, p. 187). By connecting with nature, the human spirit is able to find its true nature and peace.

Testimonials to Human spiritual bonding with nature Many writers have written about the connection of their spirit and the natural environment. Carman suffered from a severe spinal injury and during her recovery phase she felt that time spent in the garden was tremendously healing.

She has recorded her healing experiences in the garden in a garden journal (Bridgen, 2007). Dillard, on being diagnosed with pneumonia in 1971, opted to live alone at Tinker Creek in Virginia to connect with the healing powers in nature.

Likewise, Scott, a psychotherapist writes about healing in a natural environment after being severely injured in the back (Bridgen, 2007). All of these stories reflect the connection between the human spirit and the environment that is brought to awareness through a health crisis.

Even people who are not sick have written about their deeply spiritual experiences in the abundance of nature. The Romantic school of thought has focused on the spiritual connection between mankind and the environment.

For Romantics like Wordsworth, man and nature enjoy a certain spiritual reciprocity – particularly in the rural situation (Bonnett, p. 34). It is seen that nature has the subtle power to renew and revitalize human spirit and that nature is somehow sympathetic to man.

The Romantic perceives nature as “an implicit vehicle for anthromorphism reflecting human emotions such as joy and sadness, and life themes such as youth and mortality”. It is also believed that nature has a way of teaching deeper truths to mankind that can be understood only by using imagination, intuition and sensitivity.

This belief attempts to set up a positive, open receptive relationship with the environment that can provide fresh perspectives on the life of human beings on a macroscopic level.

For Coleridge, only through the powers of imagination the mind can be connected to the external world of nature. According to John Clare nature is neither a mirror nor vehicle for human emotion; it is a separate entity with its own messages.

Conclusion The earth is a rich land with about 100 million species of with only 1.5 million have been identified and studied. This rich biodiversity of the earth is to the advantage of mankind ecologically, economically and spiritually.

More recently, environmental exploitation and degradation are destroying the ecological balance in the world and species are being lost forever to the world and this is due to the exclusive focus on economic benefits and ignoring the spiritual benefits of the biodiversity of the land.

A transformational change can only be brought about by the connection of the human spirit to the environment. Such spiritual connections of human beings with earth have been noted by many people in the realm of healing, religion and cultural services and can be realized if people develop an awareness of the spirit in them and in other living things and reach out to establish a connection.

References Bonnett, M. (2004). Retrieving nature: Education for a post-humanist age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Bridgen, A.F. (2007). A Heuristic Journey of Discovery: Exploring the Positive Influence of the Natural Environment on the Human Spirit (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10063/168/thesis.pdf?sequence=2

Coffin, B.

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The Role of Contact between English and Arabic in Egypt Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Arabic Language in Egypt

English History in Egypt

English in the Egyptian Educational System

English in the Contemporary Egyptian Society

Popularity of English in Egypt

Conclusion

Reference List

Abstract The main focus of the study discussed in this paper is the analysis of the contact between English and Arabic languages in Egypt. Proliferation of foreign languages especially English and French can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century when several missionaries arrived in Egypt.

The position of English in Egypt gained recognition when British people occupied the country. Nowadays, Egypt is characterized by a variety of Arabic languages including Al-fusHa and other colloquial Arabic. However, there is a considerable increase of English language in the use among the Egyptians, and this fact is worries the representatives of the conservative party a lot.

This influence is attributed to the social status attached to English language and the new generation of Egyptians who feel comfortable using English rather than their colloquial languages.

Other factors include information technology, numerous opportunities associated with English language, globalization, and becoming English as the only well-known international language in the whole world.

Introduction The role of language is considered to be crucial in civilization as it may define various sides of development of the disciplines including science, art and music. A number of languages that exist in the modern world is not very clear, but many linguistic experts estimate this number to be about 6800 (Agha 2007).

Since there are numerous cultures with diverse languages globally, individuals are forced to learn other languages to be able to interact and socialize with different people locally and internationally. In addition, the world is increasingly becoming a global village as result of advanced communication technologies and globalization, thus people are searching for a universal language for communication and sharing of ideas (Cochran 1986).

Literacy concept has considerably transformed within a short period of time. People who speak only one language are nowadays regarded as uninformed. English is the most spoken language in the world besides other dominant languages such as French, Latin, and Arabic.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People who wanted to learn foreign languages preferred English since it was the principal global language of communication, this is why “it is not enough to know English” on a good level, still, it is more important to know when it should be used (Agha 2007, p. 31).

Most people speak vernacular languages but still prefer to use English language in business and in education. The propensity of using English language by those who have their own vernacular language depends on diverse situations (Haeri 1997).

For instance, many students who use English as a foreign language limit its usage to matter of education or profession; English is regarded as a mere language for them to comprehend the instructions clearly and be able to follow them.

This is the main reason of why most non-English speaking nations limit the usage of English and try to use it only in the sphere of education. However, those students who come to English speaking countries in order to study and improve their knowledge in the chosen field have to use English in and outside the school even if English is not their native language (McKay 2002, p. 71).

Much information is offered to people in English, and many countries have found themselves obliged to study and use English in order to access this foundation of knowledge (Agha 2007). In Arabic nations, the cultural aspect has been limited and influenced by the use of English language; this is attributed to the spread of Islamic culture and religion.

Conversely, in Egypt that is an Arabic speaking nation; English language is used to give instructions in school institutions. Arabic that is the most preferred language among students that is used to socialize different groups of people and promote better understanding of the matter (Schaub 2000, p. 226).

A study conducted by the representative of the University of Cairo aimed at determining the most dominant language in the school premise and analysing the fact that many students’ weak point is to pronounce English words but split the vast majority of English words into Arabic.

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Contact between English and Arabic in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Egypt has experienced remarkable historical transformations, and one of the most important was the increase of the English speaking society. The study offered by Mark Schaub (2000) explores the role of contact between English and Arabic in Egypt under the current living conditions (p. 225).

Arabic Language in Egypt An American linguist, Charles Ferguson, came up with a model that described the differences between the high language and the low language (Baker

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Motivation of Employees Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theory X

Theory Y

Relevance and Value of X-Y Theories

Conclusion

References

Introduction The theory of management emerged in the early 19th century when Henri Fayol, a Frenchman, described management as cooperative integration of various functions in an organization in order to achieve organizational goals.

In early part of the 20th century, Mary Parker described management as an art of mobilizing people to perform specific tasks that translate into organizational goals (Arthurs

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The Patent Rights and Its Importance Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu

Patent can be defined as the right entitled to an individual due to specific contribution in a particular area. A person may be entitled to a patent for various reasons. To start with, an individual may be granted a patent because of coming up with a new idea that never existed before. A patent is also granted to any person who may come up with a new development in a certain field.

When a patent is granted, other people do not have the right to use the new idea or development over which a patent is entitled. The contributor of the idea is given rights to enjoy their creativity and innovativeness. However, the holder of the patent does not have rights to manipulate the patent in any way.

Most of the patents granted are due to modification in the contributions done earlier by different people in a certain field. It is allowed to make developments in order to improve on existing inventions. However, it is advisable to consult the persons responsible for these innovations.

After carrying out developments on already existing inventions, the holder of the innovation should be consulted before making a sale as he or she still holds the right for such innovation. In this case, the person engaged in the development of the previous innovation is entitled to a right in the development made.

One form of developing previous innovations could be a new way of conducting a certain process. This may also include a solution to a certain technological complication which may have disturbed people before but there have never been any proposed way of overcoming the problem.

People who contribute in such developments are granted this protection and rights in order to recognize their contribution. However, such kind of protection is valid for only twenty years.

It is very important to know how the patent helps the people who have come up with new ideas or have found a solution to a certain technological difficulty. Adequate knowledge on how the patent is granted is very essential in protecting the rights of the inventors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In many cases, other people may take the advantage of innovations that have not been granted a patent. Regulations guiding the patent ensure that such people are detected earlier and sanctioned accordingly in case they attempt to gain any favour with respect to other people’s innovations. People may take advantage of others work to gain compensation, which they don’t deserve.

Patent can also be very important in generating a business opportunity for the holders. Enough knowledge on how to patent helps the innovators when they wish to use their innovation for business purposes. People can use their innovation for business purposes in two ways.

First, holders of a patent may decide to sell their innovation hence generating income. Another way an innovator can use an innovation for business purposes is through application of the developed idea in production processes. Patent protects such businesses from imitation hence sustaining their profitability.

A great percentage of most profitable businesses have at least a unique idea or development, which is protected from imitation by other businesses. This allows them to provide a service or a product that no other provider can offer in the market.

In some cases where businesses are not able to access the protection of a patent, secrecy in business operations substitutes the role of a patent. While granted, patent protects a business for a period of two decades. During this time, an industry is free to carry out its operations without facing unnecessary antagonism.

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Government Regulation of Psychology Profession Research Paper essay help online free

Introduction The legal aspect of professional psychology concerns itself with adherence to law and ethics governing the profession in areas relating to treatment of mental patients and subjects in empirical research. Government regulation of psychology profession is mostly done through formulation of relevant laws and creation of means of understanding the legal issues and questions in the field of professional psychology.

The professional practice of psychology has become increasingly complex in modern society which has resulted in renewed attention on issues regarding its legality and ethics. Ethics refer to the rules and guidelines that govern the conduct of psychology professionals.

These are clearly outlined in the American Psychology Association’s ethics code which provides the standards of professional conduct that psychologists are expected to adhere to when dealing with clients. On the other hand, law refers to a body of rules that govern the affairs of a specific community.

While the ethics code has the force of law in situations where it is used as a licensing regulation, its violation does not necessarily imply violation of law.

Legal Issues Relating To Informed Consent and Refusal The principle of informed consent dictates that participants in any form of psychology research and therapy should be adequately informed in an easy to understand language, of all the significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate in such processes (Rivera, 2010).

The patients have a right to be informed about the possible physical and emotional risks associated with the treatment process and the psychologist should also inform them of alternative forms of treatment and their effects in order for patients to be able to make informed decisions.

In the event where the patient is unable to understand the medical procedure consequently hindering his ability to make a decision, the professional psychologist should look for an experienced attorney in the health care field who should make the decision on behalf of the patient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In absence of such a person, the doctor is under obligation to look for another authorized practitioner with whom they make appropriate decision of behalf of the client.

The basis of legal doctrines of informed consensus lies in the ability of adult patients of sound mind to make decisions regarding the doctor’s proposed medical procedure in self-determination (Rivera, 2010). Psychologist and their clients engage in an extensive discussion regarding the medical procedure, which serves to inform the patient of the possible risks and benefits associated with the procedures.

In addition, the law requires such professionals to take rational steps to converse with patients in situations where there exists a communication barrier so that they are able to give an informed consent regarding their treatment.

The right to give an informed consent also creates a provision for refusal rights. Patients and clients have a right to turn down any form of treatment regardless of its necessity upon which the professional psychologist should initiate further discussions.

The patient may choose to reject the medication due to lack of trust, fear, depression, religious views among other factors and the practitioner should not use coercive means to convince the patient to agree to undergo treatment.

Legal Issues in Assessment, Testing, And Diagnosis in Professional Psychology Psychological testing has continued to be a major mode of professional inquiry and is most commonly used in psychological research to measure varying constructs. Through psychometrics, professional psychologists analyze samples of the subject’s behavior in order to assess their functioning.

Often, concerns have been raised over ethical and legal issues regarding human treatment during the process of psychological assessment and testing. Consequently, facilities that conduct psychological testing are regulated through institutional review boards which govern the way subjects are treated during such processes.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Government Regulation of Psychology Profession specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through psychological assessment, psychologists engage in comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the subjects in order to come up with a diagnosis. Psychologists are under obligation to effectively communicate the results of the assessment to the client using clear and easy to understand language.

If the practitioner does not present the results in person, it should be agreed upon prior the assessment and he should ensure that the person delivering the information does so in a clear and competent manner. The security of results and client diagnosis should also be ensured and availability of the results should be limited to the client and the referral source unless otherwise indicated by the client.

Legal issues relating to testing, assessment and diagnosis further seek to address the test bias associated with the process. Systematic error in measurement may occur in specific incidences due to existence of biasness towards minority groups, especially in intelligence tests, psychopathology, and potential academic tests.

In response to this, proposals to outlaw some of the psychological tests and develop more appropriate psychological assessment have been put forward.

The law further requires that subjects in psychological research be treated in a humane way. Subjects in research should be reasonably and adequately compensated for their time and should be protected against stigmatization and discrimination.

The United States Congress has passed a number of influential legislative acts that relate to testing and assessment such as the civil rights Act, Americans with disability Act, and truth in testing law among other legislation.

Importance of Maintaining Confidentiality in the Therapeutic Relationship Professional psychologists are obligated to ensure that the client’s right to privacy is maintained through maintenance of confidentiality. It is regarded as a fundamental component of therapeutic relationships since it promotes trust between the practitioner and the client consequently facilitating positive outcomes.

The utilitarianism perspective argues that if confidentiality is not maintained, patients may fail to disclose all the relevant information which would prove damaging to the healing process (Anonymous, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Government Regulation of Psychology Profession by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The deontology perspective argues that the role of maintaining client confidentiality is a universal moral obligation that therapists should seek to maintain (Anonymous, 2008). The relationship between the patient and therapist is based on the expectation that any form of information that the client reveals is going to be kept confidential failure to which results in undermining the universal moral obligation.

Maintaining a client’s confidentiality is viewed as respect to the individual’s autonomy which enables him or her to have control over issues relating to own life such as the right to keep private information and make independent decisions regarding one’s health.

There exist ethical and legal provisions that regulate confidentiality in therapeutic relationships. Failure to adhere to these regulations may lead to punitive measures which negatively impact on the practitioner’s career. However, various bodies have acknowledged that confidentiality cannot be absolute.

For instance, The Australian Medical Association code of ethics, 2004 creates a provision for exceptions in maintaining confidentiality for cases where there is a serious risk to the patient or other people (Anonymous, 2008). Various legislations have also been enacted to deal with confidentiality issues which create provisions which render therapists liable in case of breach of confidentiality.

Influence of Legislation on Professional Psychology Professional psychology practice in modern world is heavily influenced by various government legislations. Countries have formulated psychology profession acts which aim at regulating the activities carried out by psychology professionals.

The acts often outline the qualifications of psychologist practitioners and dictates that such practitioners’ posses a valid license in order to establish their practice. This serves to protect mental patients from unqualified practitioners who may be out to exploit them rather than providing them with the necessary treatment that they require.

In United States, a number of legislations have been enacted which directly or indirectly affect the profession of psychology. Most of these acts are established by the federal government hence vary from one state to another. In most states, there exist specific laws that outline the educational requirement for such professionals.

In the state of Virginia, practitioners should hold a doctorate degree in a psychology profession program from a recognized University and should be accredited by the American Psychology Association. This serves to ensure that the licensed psychologists are adequately trained and skilled to deal with the patient’s problems.

The law further governs the profession of psychology through control of bodies which deal with issuance of license and have the ability to revoke such licensees upon failure by practitioner to adhere to rules and regulations governing the profession. In order to ensure that they remain in operation, professional psychologists adhere to the legal and ethical standards while dealing with clients.

This ensures that the client’s rights are upheld during the process of treatment which also plays an important role in the recovery process. Persons licensed by boards are also subject to other disciplinary actions upon failure to comply with the legal standards of the profession. A client who feels that his rights have been violated against during the course of treatment may sue the practitioner in a court of law for damages.

Role of Competence in Professional Psychology The nature of work in professional psychology requires competent practitioners who are capable of dealing with diverse issues facing human mental health. This has led to shift within the profession towards emphasis on acquisition and maintenance of competence.

This is achieved through development of educational programs that aim at producing competence and establishment of bodies that award credentials and certify practitioners as competent.

Embracing a culture of confidence within the psychology profession promotes learning and innovation where practitioners can develop new and more effective means of dealing with psychological problems. Ensuring competence among professional psychologists protects the patients from unqualified practitioners and serves to promote effective service provision in the health sector.

Conclusion Legal aspects of psychology play a key role in regulating the practice of professional psychology in society. It is especially important since it serves to protect the psychological ill from selfish drives of incompetent practitioners. The legal aspects seek to address issues regarding confidentiality of patient’s information and protection of patients during the treatment period.

Legal legislations relating to such issues serve to protect patients undergoing treatment and subjects in psychological research against exploitation and inhumane treatment. The law has therefore played an essential role in regulation of the client therapy relationship, which has boosted patients’ confidence encouraging them to seek help for various mental problems.

Reference List Anonymous, (2008). Confidentiality in Therapeutic Relationships: The Need to Develop Comprehensive Guidelines for Mental Health Professionals. Web.

Rivera, R. (2010). Legal Aspects of Professional Psychology. Web.

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Museums Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction A learning experience can be considered effective if it results in the acquisition of new knowledge or developing of new perceptions by a person. In the recent past, I visited three museums that represent various ethnic groups. These museums are; the Wing Luke Museum, The Burke museum, and the Cambodian Cultural Museum. I followed up my visit with research on the various ethnic groups. From these experiences, I gained a number of insights which I wish to reflect on.

I will through this paper give a reflection on what I learnt from my research as well as from writing the research paper on exhibition museums. In particular, I will give my opinion on the how I think the museums represented the various groups and how my perspectives on museum exhibits about ethnic groups were altered by my research.

Reflection In my opinion, the museums to a large extent succeeded in representing their groups in a positive manner. The Wing Luke Museum highlighted the life experiences of the Asian-Pacific Americans and from this information; one was left with a deep respect and regard for this people. The Burke museum did a very good job in trying to explain the culture and the ways of Native Americans. From this information, my appreciation of the rich culture of the Native Americans was increased.

The museum also presented a lot of information on the Ainu group. Before my visit to the museum, my knowledge of this group was almost non-existent. The museum dispelled my ignorance though various exhibits of this people. They were represented as an active trader group who conducted commerce with neighboring countries since historical times.

The Cambodian Cultural Museum also documented historical events faced by the Cambodians as well as their popular culture. By learning about the culture and the art of the Cambodian people, I developed a greater interest in them and their culture. In my opinion, the museum succeeded in its quest to preserve the history of the group thorough its visitors.

To me, the museums did a good job in dispelling stereotypes and I believe that the groups represented in the museums are perceived more favorably as a result of the exhibitions. The American society is characterized by a great diversification since the nation is made up of people from differing races and cultures. In most cases, there exists misinformation about minority and ethnic groups which results in over generalization.

People are therefore predisposed to judge the ethnic groups based on the narrow minded and, in most cases, misguided preconceptions they have about them. Each museum was keen to promote a deeper understanding of various cultures and tolerance. This is a very positive attribute since a deeper understanding of different cultures results in appreciation and respect for the particular culture and its people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, I felt that the Burke Museum may have led to a negative image for the Ainu group. The museum presented a lot of information on the Ainu group which is the native people of the region referred to as Hokkaido in Japan.

I felt that the emphasis on the rituals and ceremonies undertaken by the Ainu only served to reinforce the stereotype that they are a backwards people who have failed to move on with the modern times. Such reinforcements are bad since they encourage the discrimination against the Ainu which takes place even today.

While I appreciated the positive manner in which the Wing Luke Museum and the Burke museum represented their respective ethnic groups, I felt that a great injustice was done in failing to address the bleak experiences by the groups. The Asian-Pacific Americans suffered from discrimination and oppression in their process of settling into America and I feel that these experiences are of importance.

As a matter of fact, the Native Indians have had a mostly turbulent past in the United States with many events of Indian wars and aggressive attempts by the federal government to assimilate Indians. From my research, I discovered that the Ainu are discriminated by the Japanese today and continue to be frustrated just as they were in history. The museum failed to highlight this history for fear of causing uneasiness among visitors.

In my opinion this is a very misguided outlook since positive change can only occur if people are made aware of evils in the society such as racism and discrimination. However, I understand that the decision not to highlight this dark history might have had to do with the policies of the museums which dictate the manner in which they present their artifacts.

The Cambodian Cultural Museum was significantly different in that it did not shy from publicly documenting the acts of violence perpetrated against the Cambodians. While I previously held the opinion that museums should avoid displaying the bleaker history of an ethnic group, my museum experience made me reconsider this thought.

Following my visit to the Cambodian Cultural museum, I came to recognize that public awareness can help bring about reconciliation since it enables people to talk about the past and make peace.

We will write a custom Essay on Museums specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the other museums were of the opinion that presenting information on death and violence would displease the museum visitors, the Cambodian museum say public awareness as a means of preventing such atrocities in future. By sharing the Cambodian people’s story, I was able to appreciate how brave they were and sympathize with the violent history that they had had in their country.

As a result of my research, the manner in which I approach museum exhibits about ethnic groups has been forever changed. I have in the past perceived museums as leisure places whose primary role is to present the visitor with interesting artifacts, scientific objects, and/or information about people.

This perception was profoundly changed by my visit to the three museums and I now know that museums can also be used as tools for championing reform. The museums encouraged the visitors to take up an active role in championing the role of ethnic groups and fighting discrimination.

Conclusion While I embarked on my visits to the museums with an open mind, I must admit that I did not expect the experience to have any profound impact on me. As it turned out, the experience was very enriching and it changed the manner in which I perceive museum exhibits about ethnic groups. I am now excited at the prospect of future museum visits and I will encourage my friends to do the same. This is because visiting museum exhibits about ethnic groups helps to create a positive perception of ethnic groups and dispel off stereotypical views.

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Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Report college essay help

Introduction Nanotechnology has both advantages and disadvantages to the environment and human beings. Human beings are largely exposed to the chemical particles released by the nuclear process. This poses a formidable problem because they can cause respiratory diseases such as lung cancer among others. Nanoparticles in the nuclear waste are easily absorbed by the human body leading to adverse effects of the respiratory system (Hull and Bowman 168).

The development of new technology has in the recent past resulted to the increased number of deaths. For instance, many people are dying of respiratory diseases due to chemical exposure. Some of these ultra-fine particles are emitted from natural processes such as volcanic smoke and forest fires. These ultra-fine particles have a substantial effect to both human beings and the environment (Hull and Bowman 168).

Hazard of Concern The greatest concern is to reduce health effects caused by nanomaterials affecting individuals’ health and environmental safety. Radiation exposure especially in emergent countries has increased due to the use of cheap radioactive materials and less awareness of its risks. Exposure to the chemical is inherent given the fact that anthropogenic and natural ultra-fine particles are involved.

The capacity of nanoparticles that can be absorbed by the body to cause adverse effects is not known up to date. Therefore, it is vital to identify the chemical processes that are likely to cause health effects (Zhang 323).

Nuclear materials used to manufacture engineered nanomaterials such as electronic penetrate the human body without the consent of an individual. The combustion process of these materials is characterized by welding fumes and diesel exhaust which emits a considerable percentage of impurities in the atmosphere. These impurities are risky to the human health and the environment. Chemicals such as uranium oxide used in the mining process can be dangerous especially during its conversion to uranium hexafluoride (Zhang 323).

Risk Assessment Boundaries Chemical exposure is likely to be high at the place of work where radioactive materials are commonly used. Areas of occupation such as hospitals, military camps and academic institutions are likely to facilitate radioactive exposure. Individuals that work in the nuclear waste management industries are exposed to impurities such as nitrogen found in the nitrogen fuels.

Consumers of nuclear wastes are also prone to the dangers associated with this environmental hazard. Scrap metal is commonly used to make cheap containers used by manufacturing Companies in the packaging. These metals contain radioactive chemicals that are harmful to the human health (Hull and Bowman 189).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The atmosphere in the workplace is highly concentrated with chemical emissions from these materials considered to other areas. As a result, high rates of chemical absorption and health effects are likely to be within the workplace environment. For instance, an individual dealing with welding materials is likely to be exposed to the fumes at the place of work compared to outside the workplace.

Combustion from vehicle engines contributes to serious environmental danger. Carbon emissions in the atmosphere lead to global warming by increasing the amount of carbon in the ozone layer. Wastes from chemical processes are drawn to the environment leading to environmental pollution (Zhang 330).

The Persons at Risk Living organisms have defense mechanisms to prevent entry of these nanoparticles. Despite this, the particles penetrate the human body through the respiratory system causing health problems. Radioactive materials from nuclear processes are likely to be risky to the workers. The people that handle these chemicals are at a greater risk of having health problems because the rate of exposure is high (Hull and Bowman 190).

Workers in manufacturing industries are exposed to radiochemical on a regular basis hence increasing the percentage of nanoparticles inhaled. Just like the workers the general population is also at a risk of these chemical exposures. They live within the same environment where these manufacturing Companies are located hence increasing the rate of exposure.

The possible impact of nanomaterials on human beings and environment are vague. This is because the particles are absorbed in small amounts hence making it difficult to determine the quantifiable amount that leads to diverse health effects. Leakage of radioactive materials may occur during transportation hence making it difficult to clean the mess caused to the environment (Melfort 25).

Nuclear wastes are highly harmful to children and pregnant women. The impurities of these wastes affect the respiratory system which may lead to growth and formation process problems. They are at a higher risk because of their weak immune systems. Highly inclined people are also at a high risk of radioactive exposure because of their immune response.

For example, the respiratory system of asthmatic people is weak which may be prone strong radioactive emissions. Therefore, it is crucial for these individuals to take precautionary actions to prevent these health effects (Melfort 25).

We will write a custom Report on Nanotechnology Risk Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Pathways and Routes of Exposure Air

Chemical exposure is commonly caused by air. Living organisms’ cannot survives without air. Oxygen composition in the air molecules is fundamental for the survival of human beings. Thus when the chemicals circulate in the atmosphere they lead to a high percentage of concentration within the atmosphere.

The greatest contributors of air pollution are nanoparticles since they contain chemicals in them that are dangerous to the human health. Carbon emitted by ultra-particles such as engine emissions mixes with the oxygen in the air leading to pollution of the air inhaled. Air pollution is the principal cause of respiratory diseases such as lung cancer (Melfort 29).

Surface Water

The other pathway that facilitates exposure to nuclear wastage is through surface water. Improper disposal of these materials may flow into the lakes and rivers leading to water pollution. In most cases, improper disposal of these materials leads to pollution of domestic water. These wastes may also overflow in the rivers and lakes due to inevitable causes such as storms and heavy rains (Melfort 29).

The main route for nuclear waste impurities entrance into the human body is through ingestion. Once human beings consume water with deposits of radioactive materials, the impurities enter their bodies leading to chemical deposits. These chemicals also enter into the human body through contact with the skin.

The skin has small pores for respiration that makes it possible for non-particles to enter into the human body. The effect of these chemicals on the skin is characterized by irritation and itching which may further lead to dangerous skin disease (Melfort 29).

Food

The other route for radioactive exposure is food. Manufacturing Companies that produce canned beverages and food use containers made from scrap metal. The food stored in these containers has likelihood to exposure of these impurities. Once individuals consume these foods, they are likely to develop health problems depending on their immune response. Individuals with low immune system are likely to develop health problems within a short time compared to those with a strong immune system (Melfort 29).

What the Body does with the Environmental Hazard Absorption

The human body has millions of small pores that facilitate the respiration process. During the respiration, the pores open up in order to allow removal and intake of gases. During this time, impurities within the body skin are absorbed directly hence entering the respiratory system. The human body also takes these impurities during inhalation. Once an individual inhales oxygen that has been polluted by these chemicals it is absorbed through the respiratory system (Hull and Bowman 191).

Distribution

Chemical materials from nuclear wastes move through the body system. Some of the impurities are deposited in the respiratory system where they cause infections. The chemicals affect the system portion by a portion until a time when it is worn out completely. During this time, the infection can lead to more complications such as cancer if no medical attention is taken (Hull and Bowman 191).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nanotechnology Risk Assessment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Metabolism

The environmental hazard is broken down by body chemicals for individuals with strong immune system. This is where the body acids form strong resistance to harmful chemicals through neutralization. The useful chemicals for the body are extracted whereas the rest are excreted through the respiratory system (Melfort 33).

Excretion

Excretion of these chemicals from the human body takes place through sweating, urination and other excretion methods. The body commonly uses the respiratory system to get rid of this chemical from the body. The excretion of these impurities takes place on a step by step process with the most dangerous chemicals being excreted first (Hull and Bowman 192).

Health Effects

Nuclear waste can cause lung cancer if not handled well. Radioactive chemicals involved in the waste management have a high potential of getting into the body through the respiratory system. Once they get into the body they cause lung infections hence leading to cancer. The infections caused in lungs by these chemicals can be cured if detected early. However, the percentage of chemical that leads to cancer infection is vague (Melfort 35).

Time taken to cause toxic effect

Exposure to radioactive chemical may take a long within an individual lifetime. This environmental hazard is chronic since it can take up to seven years of a person’s lifespan. This is because the infections of the body system take place at a slow pace. This can be attributed to the immune system that slows down the wearing out process by neutralizing the chemicals (Hull and Bowman 189).

Duration and Timing of Exposure

The exposure to this hazard depends on the living environment of an individual. People living in areas where nuclear materials are at their disposal is most likely to be affected. This is mainly because of continuous exposure to the environmental hazard leading to concentration of toxins in both the environment and body. As a result, individuals that are exposed to this hazard on a regular basis are more likely to suffer these toxic effects (Melfort 37).

Risk Management Strategies From the above findings, it is evident that individuals may not be aware of the risks posed by nanotechnology materials. The fact that nanomaterials have safety risks to both individuals and the environment requires a precautionary approach to the problem. One of the strategies that can be used is through the creation of awareness.

Human beings need to be alerted on the harmful effect of these hazards and how to mitigate them. Alertness through the use of global environmental organizations would be most effective in order to reach the majority of individuals especially in the developing countries (Hull and Bowman 195).

Another strategy that can be used is manufacturing industries using these materials to treat them as if they were hazardous. Thus, workers will be capable of wearing protective garments when handling the chemicals. Since very little is known concerning the percentage of nanoparticles that cause health effect, disposal should be avoided.

Government regulations should also be imposed to reduce fortuitous disposal of these materials. Legal regulations will promote responsibility among the manufacturing Companies hence mitigating exposure risks. This way the environment and human beings are likely to have a safe atmosphere (Hull and Bowman 195).

Conclusion Nanoparticles are perilous to both human health and environment. Nuclear waste causes radioactivity emissions, which cause health problems to individuals. The most common toxic effect of radioactivity exposure is cancer.

This is because the route for this chemical into the body is mainly the respiratory system. Once the chemicals enter the body system they cause infections to the respiratory system. However, the body also reacts through excretion hence reducing health risks. Therefore, it is vital to take the underlying precautions to mitigate these risks.

Works Cited Hull, Matthew and Diana Bowman. Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety: Risks, Regulation and Management. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009. Print.

Melfort, Warren. S. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Current Issues and Proposals. New York: Nova Publishers, 2003. Print.

Zhang, Wang. Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview, Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 5 (2003): 323-332. Print.

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Gestalt and TA Concepts in Personal development and Therapy Process Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Gestalt and TA concept have been widely recognized for their role in psychotherapy. In this context, they provide the therapist with a framework which can be used to help their patients overcome mental problem and issues. As result, personal growth and development is likely to be attained.

Their significance is illuminated by the fact that both of them encourage the patient’s ‘here and now’ awareness, which is fundamental in personal development (Brenner 2000).

Gestalt Fritz and Laura Perls are responsible for the founding of gestalt therapy in the 1940’s. From there on, Gestalt has contributed significantly to the field of psychotherapy, counseling, and personal development. When therapist uses this method, his or her ultimate aim is to ensure the client achieves personal growth and development.

To achieve this outcome, gestalt utilizes existential philosophy and phenomenology. In summary, this form of therapy aims to empower the patient to use his internal and external senses for the purposes of developing personal responsibility and a self-supportive system (Franzke 1999; Corcoran

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The PETA print advertisement Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Print advertisements usually have a complementary image and text. Popularly rhetorical figures are used in the copy that helps in persuasion of the readers. Tropes are usually used in advertisements to convey the meaning of the text in a non-standard way. Visual rhetoric and use of metaphors in advertisements is a common tool used by advertisers.

Often, to draw the attention of the reader, visual images placed within texts in order to draw an implied meaning or similarity between text and visual expression. Usually these visual images are used to help the readers to interpret connection between the text and picture rather than the advertiser explicitly defining the relationship.

This paper analyses the content of the PETA print advertisement and identify the implied rhetorical figures used in the paper. As use of tropes is a common feature in any advertisement, it helps in divulging a strong persuasive meaning to the readers.

The PETA advertisement under discussion uses tropes such as metonym, hyperbole, and resonance to convey the meaning that we must stop animal slaughter for fashion. The paper will first describe the print advertisement and then analyze the tropes and visual imagery used in the advertisement.

This is definitely an environmentalist campaign to save slaughter of animals for leather and/or fur. The PETA advertisement bears and image of a naked girl who says – “Fur? I’d rather go naked.” The woman in the visual (featuring Khloe Kardashian) wears her hair is an unkempt manner almost resembling an animal, and looks at ease with her nakedness.

This campaign is to influence readers to say no to animal slaughter for use of animal skin or fur for making apparels and accessories. The copy of the advertisement on top left hand corner in small font states – “Animals killed for their fur are electrocuted, drowned, beaten, and often skinned alive. Be comfortable in your own skin. Let animals keep theirs.”

The text conveys two messages – first is an assertion as to the inhuman acts that are done to derive the fur that become our fashion accessory that tries to incite a feeling of awe and pain for the traumatized animals. Another statement pleads readers to discard the skin of animals to save them and rather be “comfortable” in their “own skin”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The visual image carries this message with the image of the woman standing comfortably in sidelong way, stark naked. The main message of the advertisement is to discard use of animal slaughter for their skin and be comfortable with the one that we have.

The print advertisement of PETA uses the informative texts that provide the direct implication of using animal fur for apparels – “Animals killed for their fur are electrocuted, drowned, beaten, and often skinned alive.” This line demonstrates a direct use of hyperbole in the print advertisement. A hyperbole is a trope is usually used in advertisements to make an exaggerated or intense claim.

The claim that is made in the above quoted line shows the inhumanity of human beings against animals to derive fur from their body. Further, it should be noted that the sentence does not make any use of the words “fur” or “kin”. With the use of words, like “skinned” the readers automatically infers that the sentence is in relation to skinning of animals for their skin or fur. The text is written in small fonts in white.

The next two lines state, “Be comfortable in your own skin. Let animals keep theirs,” written in small text but the test color changes to skin color or yellow. The use of metaphor in the second sentence is clear. The first sentence states that human beings should be happy in their own skin and let the animals retain theirs. Here “skin” is a metaphor used to indicate fur or leather skinned off animals.

The second sentence also uses ellipse wherein one word is intentionally not used to emphasize its absence. The second sentence does not use the word “skin” but it directly conveys the meaning to the readers that the advertiser indicates the word “skin” of the animals.

The use of tropes in the text builds the imagery of animals beings slaughtered and killed for getting a fashion accessory. The imagery creates a fear factor among readers indicating a clear sense of fright. The rhetorical figures demonstrate that the text imparts these feelings to the readers.

The next text comes in connection with the visual image. The text is placed on the image indicating as if the woman in the picture is the speaker of the words. The use of resonance and metonym is clear as the text is placed in juxtaposition with the image. The image carries the picture of the naked woman with ruffled hairs, almost giving out an animalistic air.

We will write a custom Essay on The PETA print advertisement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She indicates animalistic instincts of humans and therefore clearly connotes that humans do not require animal skin to be comfortable, rather, they are animal enough to be comfortable in their own skin. Further, the image is resonant of the text.

The text uses the same color fonts as that of the image indicating a clear similarity between what is being said through the text and the image. Therefore, the picture produces a heightened sense of reality wherein the model discards clothes and wears “skin” for sake of fashion without slaughtering animals.

Further the advertisement also uses a one word rhetorical question – “Fur?” the rhetorical question asserts the meaning of the campaign and imparts the unasked question i.e. should we use fur? The question asserts the true meaning of the campaign that indicates that fur should be discarded. To intensify the emphases, the text, written in big bold fonts, makes a visual appeal to the readers.

The explicit claim of the advertisement is to appeal to all to discard use of fur or leather from their fashion trend. The appeal is to save animals. The trope used to indicate these are metonym, rhetoric question, resonance, and hyperbole. The emphasis is to assertion that animals are slaughtered for their skin to help humans satisfy their taste of fashion.

Indirectly, the advertisement asserts that people who wear fur or leather are actually responsible for animal slaughter. The advertisement uses various rhetorical figures to present this negative meaning through a more positive outlook.

The positivity of the advertisement is to demonstrate the alternative to killing animals by use of visual metaphor wherein a woman shows herself in her “own skin” rather than clad in fur or leather. The text creates the imagery that is confronted with the visual image of the girl who represents the text that re-emphasizes the message to stop usage of fur.

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Brandt (2005) and Bisaillon (2007) Writing Essay writing essay help

Writing is the critical driver of knowledge economy. Therefore, writing for a living is becoming an indispensable ingredient of the global economic routine. Brandt (2005) and Bisaillon (2007) suggest that writing/ editing for a living is an inevitable byproduct of the global development, since writing is the foundation and vehicle for profit making and economic trade.

Writing for a living is a serious issue: on the one hand, it helps to improve the quality and efficiency of the writing tasks and, consequentially, speed up the economic and social progress. On the other hand, writing is a unique and complex process, which is inseparable from individual experiences and personal narratives.

So, can professional writers and editors deliver a unique, personal message in ways that do not disrupt but, on the contrary, contribute to the stable relationship between writing and selling knowledge?

Brandt (2005) and Bisaillon (2007) discuss the issue from the two different perspectives. In the article “Professional editing strategies used by six editors “, Bisaillon (2007) uses the example of professional editing and draws a distinct line between professional editing and self-revision.

According to Bisaillon (2007), professional editing is very similar to self-revision. Yet, the former occurs independently of the writing process, whereas the latter is actually the third writing subprocess, after planning and drafting. Bisaillon (2007) defines professional editing as an activity that requires comprehending and evaluating a text within the limits of the assignment provided by the client.

Professional editors face considerable difficulties, when they try to preserve and enhance communicational effectiveness of the given text. The fact is professional editors earn their living by working on texts that were devised by other people (Bisaillon, 2007).

As a result, they are limited in their editing opportunities and must not intervene with the authors’ ideas and thoughts. Simultaneously, they must understand the text they are editing, to ensure that the finished product promotes a stable relationship between writing and selling knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Questions for Discussion What is the most important component of the editing process?

Does the growing demand for editing mean that the level of global literacy is too low for effective self-revision?

In the article “Writing for a living: Literacy and the knowledge economy”, Brandt (2005) talks about writing and its implications for economic growth. Brandt (2005) writes that workshop writing is essentially the same as manufacturing or creating a new commercial product (Brandt, 2005).

Editors face numerous constraints that are imposed on them by their clients, and professional writers are being pressured by other high-stakes considerations, including corporate reputation, competitive advantage, and profitability (Brandt, 2005). Like any manufactured product, finished documents undergo a strict quality control.

In this situation, writers resemble a complex piece of machinery that processes raw materials and turns them into a functional piece of writing (Brandt, 2005). The biggest question that runs through both articles is Whether professional writers and editors can preserve the uniqueness of the raw material they are editing or processing.

Another question is how to maintain a reasonable balance between functionality and uniqueness, because editors and writers subject themselves to the pressures of various ideological processes and systems and must turn abstract knowledge into readable information.

How to reduce workplace conflicts that arise from the growing demand for workshop writing in organizations?

How to regulate the written word?

All these questions require complex answers. What particularly resonates with me is that writing is turning into an automatic process. I am also concerned about the future of literacy: professional writers and editors can de-motivate and discourage thousands of people from developing sound literacy skills.

Needless to say, it is easier to pay to a professional writer and editor than to create and self-revise a text that carries unique experiences. Regardless of the answer, the global economy will continue causing heavy influences on literacy and writing. Most probably, writing for living will become the most reliable instrument of preserving a stable link between writing and selling knowledge.

References Bisaillon, J. (2007). Professional editing strategies used by six editors. Written Communication, 24(4), 295-322.

We will write a custom Essay on Brandt (2005) and Bisaillon (2007) Writing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brandt, D. (2005). Writing for a living: Literacy and the knowledge economy. Written Communication, 22(2), 166-197.

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BP’s Reaction to The Gulf Of Mexico Crisis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

BP’s Reaction to Stop the Oil Spill

Reactions to Stop the Spread of the Spilled Oil

BP’s reaction towards victims of the oil spill

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The Gulf of Mexico crisis involved an underwater oil spill which was caused by a continuous leak of crude oil from a well in the oil flow system. The spill was a result of an explosion that occurred during a drilling mission of an exploratory well. A large amount of oil was then discovered in water hours later. The American government blamed the disaster on BP, the oil company that leased the drilling company.

This paper seeks to discuss the moves that have since been taken by BP in reaction to the oil spill. The paper will look at the steps that the oil company took in stopping the spill, controlling the spread of the spilled oil as well as the company’s reaction towards the victims of the oil spill.

BP’s Reaction to Stop the Oil Spill BP employed a variety of measures to stop the oil spill that was widely and heavily criticized as an environmental hazard. One of the company’s initial reactions to stop the spill was the “junk shot method”. In the junk shot method, attempts were made to stop the leak by putting weight on the leaking spot.

In this process, substances like plastics and ropes were to be used to block the flow by covering the point of the spill. The thought was that the covering would counter the pressure and diminish the oil spill. The move was however unsuccessful (Hagerty 1). The next attempt was known as the “top kill”.

The top kill was intended to bring a solid cover to the point of spill by putting a layer of mad cover followed by a cemented layer. This move also failed to stop the oil flow which was spreading into the waters and endangering the inhabitants.

Another effort was then made by trying to siphon the oil from the underground spillage point directly to the earth’s surface by use of pipes from where it could be transported. This also failed the test due mechanical technicalities as the pipes could not efficiently fit into the undersea system (Flower 1).

According to information by British government, the first attempt by BP to stop the spill involved drilling another tunnel that would intersect the original tunnel as mud and cement were being used to clog the point of spill.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pipes that were being used however became clogged with hydrate gas leading to the abandonment of the method. The move on 31st may of 2011 that saw a connection from the leak to the surface, a process that aided the initial top kill initiative. With the reduced pressure, the leak was then sealed by a replacement of the cap from where the spill was experienced (Great Britain 51).

Reactions to Stop the Spread of the Spilled Oil BP in collaboration with the American authorities undertook steps to control the spread of the spilled oil. As measures to do this, “ram capping stack” was closed in an attempt shut down the well and prevent further leaks. This was a move to reduce the presence of oil in the water and to control its spread.

There were also moves to collect spilled oil from the sea surface. This was aimed at removing oil from the water surface to prevent its spread to the shores which was considered an increased environmental disaster (BP 1).

BP’s reaction towards victims of the oil spill The oil spill had a verity of direct and indirect effects on people and companies. There were individual survivors and relatives of victims of the initial blast into the spill as well as the spill that spread to the shores. The BP’s compensation was described as a pay to “legitimate claims”. This meant the compensation were limited to some categories of entities (Clark 1).

BP accepted liability to the gulf crisis and as result agreed to make compensation to the victims of the gulf oil spill with specifications. In an initial and formal agreement that was announced by the United States government, BP had committed itself to a $ 20 billion compensation deal. This was a move to restore the damages caused to the affected parties.

Both individuals and business entities were victims of the spill in a variety of ways. The company’s reaction towards the victims could also be seen to include the cleanup process (Hargety 13).

The compensations were however not on general grounds of availability at the sites affected by the spill, but depended on proof of heavy financial losses caused by physical contact with the spill. This means that the company’s response was not sufficiently extended to all victims of the spill, but was a minimal unavoidable compensation to major losses (Eley 1).

We will write a custom Essay on BP’s Reaction to The Gulf Of Mexico Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was a result of an explosion that occurred during a renovation process. The company that was carrying out the renovation process was under lease to the BP Company and as a result forced the oil company to take liability of the oil spill. The reaction of BP to the crisis included moves to counteract the consequences of the spill.

The moves included: steps to stop the spill, like sealing the source of the leak; moves to stop the spread of the oil on the water surface and reactions to claims of compensation to the victims. There was however notable inefficiencies in the reactions by BP since all the three levels of reaction faced major challenges.

Works Cited BP. Update on Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill – 19 July. BP, 2011. Web.

Clark, Andrew. BP hit by avalanche of compensation claims over US oil spill. Guardian, 2011. Web.

Eley, Tom. BP “claims czar”: No compensation for most victims of oil spill. WSWS, 2011. Web.

Flower, Merlin. Nuking the oil spill: nuclear option being considered? Oil Price, 2010. Web.

Great Britain. Uk Deep water Drilling: Implications of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. London, UK: The Stationery Office, 2011. Print.

Hagerty Curry. Deep water Horizon Oil Spill: Selected Issues for Congress. New York, NY: DIANE Publishing, 2010. Print.

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Geography of Melbourne Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Intended Readership

The World’s Most Livable City

The Future of Tourism and Events

Conclusion

Work Cited

Introduction Melbourne is one of the notable regions of Victoria in Australia. The city of Melbourne is located by the banks of river Yarra. With the larger Melbourne extending to the port of Phillip bay.

The city has extensive investments in infrastructure. This paper seeks to discuss the city of Melbourne. The paper will look into aspects of the city that relates to its sceneries, future tourism and events as well as its intended readership.

Intended Readership Readership refers to the mass that reads about something. The readership of this article is inclusive of all those who have some interest in the city. This is because the individuals with vested interest in the city will be searching for information that pertains to: whether or not their interests will be satisfied and the level to which their needs will be met as compared to other cities and states.

The readers will also be comparing the satisfaction that could be derived from various goods and service provided in the city. One of the major readers is the class of investors. Being densely populated, Melbourne is a centre for business investment at all chains of production.

As a host to about seventy percent of the country’s population, the city has a ripe market for retail goods to the domestic households in it. Primary agricultural producers will for example be interested in the market trends of agricultural products in the city as an initiative to timely plan their productions so as to minimize losses in the perishable and maximize on prize control mechanisms of the city’s markets.

As a centre for major economic activities in the country, Melbourne, though industrially invested, is a major interest to its existing investors as well as its potential investors.

The existing investors would want to know the market trends in and around the region, where they can cheaply source their raw materials, the changing legal and commercial policies it the city and accessibility to the domestic and international market among others. Foreign tourists as well as the locals are also potential readers of the article for basic and professional information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The World’s Most Livable City A livable locality is just a place that is worth living in. Melbourne has a variety of reasons that makes it the world’s most livable city. The developments into extensive infrastructure are some of the major reasons that make Melbourne a livable city. These developments include: “Melbourne convention and exhibition centre, AAMI park rectangular stadium, the Melbourne Park” (Melbourne 1).

The exhibition’s establishment of a base for financial and investment facilities make it attractive to any kind of person: the job seeker and the investor. The AAMI Park is on the other hand a social place for sports activities that offers recreational services. With an extensive government investment in water infrastructure, a basic necessity, water is made available for both domestic and industrial use.

The extensive real estates transport and communication systems together with its enhanced security make it a safe and habitable place in the world. Its advanced services that puts it above other major cities in terms of “electricity, water, communications, transport, traffic congestion and airline accessibility” (Melbourne 1) makes a priority to live in.

The Future of Tourism and Events The city of Melbourne is characteristically, a centre of attraction. The existing investments, opportunities, and accessibility have exposed the city to the international world.

Its recreational facilities like the exhibition and sports centre together with the infrastructure are attractions to tourism and major international events like sports and conferences. There is therefore a possibility of increased tourism and international events in Melbourne in the future (Melbourne 1).

Conclusion The existing investments in Melbourne city have made it a centre of interest for a variety of people. It has for this same reason become a livable place and an attraction to tourism and events.

Work Cited Melbourne. World class infrastructure. Invest Victoria, 2010. Web.

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Revive – The Long Mynd Tea Company “TLMTC” Coursework argumentative essay help

Background The Long Mynd Tea Company “TLMTC” is a leading player in the specialty and green tea market in United Kingdom. UK, with a market share of 63%, is the largest tea consuming market in Western Europe (Tropical Commodity Coalition). Tea consumption in UK was pegged at 31,000 tonnes in the year 2008.

Our internal Long Mynd Business Intelligence Unit “LMBIU” has indicated that global supply deficits in 2010 mostly attributed to severe droughts in Kenya and India in 2009 resulted in global tea prices hitting a historical high in 2009. This resulted in Unilever’s PG Tips being priced 28% higher than a year ago, while Tetley was pegged at 7% more expensive (Euromonitor).

Business Issues

The demand for tea in UK has been healthy but rising prices in the market can lead to fall in demand especially for specialty tea which is priced slightly higher than regular tea. TLMTC recognizes the issue and to counter and differentiate its offering we plan to introduce a unique range of product, herbal and fruit tea-bags under the brand name Revive.

Revive offers a unique feature to consumers in the new range of teabags which is the shape of the bags. The company is planning to use an innovative manufacturing process to craft the tea-bags in irregular shapes which involves only minimum wastage. The new bag is designed in a unique flower shape.

The product will be distributed through the existing delivery channels of hypermarkets and supermarkets. We will also tie-up with large café chains to distribute the product.

We plan to promote the launch by an aggressive campaign involving magazine and posters in the Autumn of 2011. The key message in the ads will be around the unique shape and attempt to tie it to herbal and health connotations. The ads will also carry the message of good taste of the tea.

Research Objectives

TLMTC wants to know whether the unique shape of the tea-bag and the taste of the tea are appealing to consumers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We want to test the hypothesis that the consumers perceive the package as a differentiating factor.

We are also interested in validating the hypothesis that the taste of the new product will be accepted by consumers.

The exploration of these aspects will help us make any possible changes to the product and communication. We also assume that consumers will associate the floral shape to herbs and healthiness. The study should provide us with a clear understanding of how the consumers perceive the packaging as a differentiator. It should also give us clear guidelines on what are the positive and negative perceptions about the new pack.

We expect to get recommendations in form of a programme of research to guide us through the launch of Revive.

Deliverables

We expect to receive a complete report of the research in 4 hard copies and an electronic version of the report to be submitted at the LMBIU office at our corporate headquarters. We also require the research agency to submit a PowerPoint presentation and present it to the marketing team at our offices 1 week after the final report is submitted.

Limitations

Timing: TLMTC wants to have the final report ready by no later than 3rd week of July’ 2011. The marketing team would first review and approve the report. Thereafter, the agency would need to present the key research findings to the marketing team latest by the last week of July’2011.

Budget: The budget that we are willing to allocate to the project is no more than £60,000. This includes any sum spent on travel and other activities to finish the project.

Location: Revive will be launched nationally in UK and hence we want the research to be carried throughout the country in all major cities.

Proposal Submission Information

TLMTC expects a research proposal from the research agency in 2 weeks from the date of receiving research brief. The proposal should be submitted electronically to us, in attention to our marketing manager.

We will write a custom Coursework on Revive – The Long Mynd Tea Company “TLMTC” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research Proposal for ‘Revive’ By Insights Consulting Limited Background

Long Mynd Tea Company “TLMTC”, a leading specialty tea company in United Kingdom, is looking to innovate and introduce a unique range of herbal and fruit tea bags under the brand name ‘Revive’. To help them with the exercise, TLMTC has approached the Insights Consulting team to submit a Research Proposal for the study.

We understand that you want to primarily assess consumer perception of the flower shaped tea bags, which is essentially the prime differentiating factor of the new range, as well as evaluate whether the taste of the new range appeal to consumers.

‘ Tea is a very versatile and competitive category in United Kingdom and hence a deep understanding of the category in general and consumer attitude towards the product in particular needs to be presented in the study (Wilson, 2008). The following outlines our approach to the study in terms of research objectives, scope of the analysis, timelines and budget for the same.

Objectives

To understand the consumer preference and attitude towards the new brand of tea-bags being launched by TLMTC on two parameters namely; consumer appeal for the innovative shape of bags and taste of the product. By means of the study we will provide you with a complete programme of research (data acquisition and analytics) to guide them through the launch of the product.

The report will also provide guidelines on any changes that we deem necessary to make the product more appealing to the target consumer group. The report will also provide leads on consumer perception that will help your marketing team to develop the correct strategy/message to be communicated to consumers though advertisement campaigns.

Methodology – Research Design

Insights Consulting proposes to conduct the study to gauge the appeal for the taste and packaging among the target consumers. As the product is meant for the health conscious group, research would be carried out among those aged between 18-55 years representing Young adults (18-29 years), Older adults (30-40 years) and Middle-aged (41-55 years) consumers.

We understand from secondary sources that for the TLMTC’s product segment, which is herbal teas, to become main segment there is a need for continued innovation around flavour in order to improve the taste of the product. As of now, regular tea is consumed by around 22 million of the UK population and more than half (56%) have experimented with herbal tea but its taste did not appeal to them (Mintel, 2011).

To have a better understanding of the complex consumer preferences, we suggest an optimum combination of both qualitative and quantitative tests to meet the objectives of the study. Following are the recommended methods:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Revive – The Long Mynd Tea Company “TLMTC” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Focus Group Discussions

We propose to conduct in total 9 Focus group discussions in the 3 major cities of United Kingdom which will provide us with a good representation of the target market – London, Manchester and Glasgow, 3 in each city such that it covers all age bands. The Focus group discussion would be led by a moderator while a panel of experts would be present to measure the emotional/ subconscious reactions of the participants.

The participants would be first shown the new tea bags and the moderator would direct questions around the first reaction of the participants, would they like to buy and use it, do they perceive the product to be healthy to understand if the health platform will work for the product, would they be ready to pay a premium for the unique offering, would they include the offering in their daily diet, what would be the likelihood of repeat purchase and most important of all; their suggestions on the product and its unique packaging.

Tea is seen as a healthy drink with high antioxidant content which claims to have slimming effects (University of Maryland, 2010). We understand from other studies that women prefer herbal tea as compared to their male counterparts (DailyMail, 2011).

The FGDs will try to understand this angle as well and try to find if there is a special need of this consumer segment which can be addressed by the product in its current form or with any variants.

Taste Test

The participants would then be requested to taste the product and the next round of discussions would be directed to that aspect. It would again assess the first reaction, how they would like to consume it, would they be ready to pay a premium for this experience, etc.

It is also very important to assess that the health connotation does not intervene with the taste experience of consumers. The taste test will also provide us insights into how different consumers perceive “Revive” as compared to the other brands available in the market. The moderator can also test the possibility of certain flavours and variety (Hot/ Iced) which the participants might seek.

Projective Techniques

We also propose to use Projective Techniques in the focus groups. We will introduce photos and use techniques such as word association and third person technique. Participants will be asked to look at photos and associate different types of people with the new concept/packaging and taste.

This technique would be especially useful since it is a premium product and hence would help in measuring whether it succeeds in appealing to the higher sensibilities of the consumers. This will help us understand the motivations of consumers in consuming the category. It may also help in forming a platform for promotion message building directed at the target market.

We appreciate the general feeling that Projective techniques in themselves may not provide any robust insights and are not considered as method of choice to study consumer motivation, nor do these techniques provide all the tools for such studies.

Though they do help a researcher uncover feelings, beliefs, attitudes and motivation which many consumers find difficult to articulate and explain (Donoghue, 2000). In an experience based category like herbal tea, these techniques will be worthwhile to use.

Questionnaire Based Survey

Administered surveys are important to cover a larger sample base and also gain information on aspects which cannot be covered through qualitative measures.

It would aim at profiling tea drinkers and non drinkers demographically (Revive being a health based premium offering – income, age and gender profiling gains major importance), assess their eating habits (and mainly tea drinking habits in case of tea drinkers and probability of drinking tea in case of non drinkers) and shopping habits, price they would be willing to pay for the product and the optimum pack size for first trials (which would help you in the launch promotions).

It would be also important to analyze whether consumers shift from other beverages to herbal tea given its benefits and increasing health consciousness (The Observer).

The survey questionnaire would be designed based on the above aspects and the inputs we receive in the FGDs. It would include a screener to ensure data collection from a representative sample.

Alternate Techniques

An alternative to Focus Group discussions is Online Focus Group discussion. We can also replace the normal taste test with blind taste test. We can also take help of depth interviews to get in-depth understanding of consumers on a one-to-one basis.

Online focus Group discussions are hard to monitor and they are quite impersonal to gauge customer reaction, which in a way hinders the qualitative assessment associated with focus group discussions. They are also not a good way to reach non-computer literate consumer base and need additional infrastructure (Wright, 2005).

We will also miss out on experiential elements which are essential to a product category like tea. Blind taste tests can be a good medium but here we want to establish the taste perceptions of just our brand and get qualitative feedback on taste comparison.

Blind taste test also requires additional product samples to be used which will have additional time and cost implications. Hence we recommend doing normal taste test. Depth interviews are a good option but are costly and time consuming exercise.

Given the budget constraint and quick turnaround time of the project we recommend conducting focus group discussion which will allow us to combine the discussion with taste test and use our projective techniques as well.

Internet and in-venue surveys would help in accumulating additional information through a larger sample thus optimizing results and providing an all round analysis. This combination will provide us with a robust solution on the research front and also help us overcome the various limitations like time and budget restrictions.

Sampling Focus Group Discussions Target population: Health conscious people (18-55 years) and tea drinkers.

Sampling frame: Our database for each city.

Sampling method: The sampling would be a combination of.

Stratified sampling: since the respondents of Focus Group have to meet the criteria of being tea drinkers.

Quota sampling: to cover the entire target age group and both the genders.

Sample size: 90.

Quotas Since females are the primary shoppers in UK (Lake) as well as prominent consumers of herbal tea, their quota is kept higher than males. The quotas would be as follows:

Gender Age Group Quota Female Young Adults, 12-29 years 24% Older Adults, 30- 40 years 20% Middle Aged, 41- 55 years 23% Male Young Adults, 12-29 years 10% Older Adults, 30- 40 years 13% Middle Aged, 41- 55 years 10% The sample will be sourced equally from North, South and Midlands (33% each) to ensure uniformity and non-biased result due to skewed sample.

The group discussions will be carried out in the following scheme-

Group 1: South young adults 18 – 29, (3 males, 7 females)

Group 2: South older adults 30 – 40, (4 males, 6 females)

Group 3: South middle aged 41 – 55, (3 males, 7 females)

Group 4: North young adults 18 – 29, (3 males, 7 females)

Group 5: North older adults 30 – 40, (4 males, 6 females)

Group 6: North middle-aged 41 – 55, (3 males, 7 females)

Group 7: Midlands young adults 18 – 29, (3 males, 7 females)

Group 8: Midlands older adults 30 – 40, (4 males, 6 females)

Group 9: Midlands middle aged 41 – 55, (3 males, 7 females)

Survey Target population: Health conscious people (18-55 years).

Sampling frame: Our database for each city (for in-venue surveys) and Internet Panel for Online surveys.

Sampling method: Quota sampling, to cover the entire target age group and both the genders.

Sample size: A sample of 1200 would be distributed equally between In-venue Surveys (600) and Online surveys (600).

Quotas The survey questionnaire would be administered among both tea drinkers (75%) and non drinkers (25%). It would span 1200 respondents (400 from each city – 100 males, 300 females). This will ensure a proper coverage of the target consumer groups and thus provide us with robust results.

Data Collection and Analysis

Our team will record, transcribe and analyze each of the group discussions and use their results for the final recommendations. The results will be categorized and presented to reflect the views of each demographic group separately and on a combined level to give a holistic view of consumer perception and preference.

The taste tests and projective techniques will also be analyzed and combined with the results of the overall FGDs to come up with a complete solution as required by you. Imbibing the learning from the opinions and ideas that come out in the study, the final report will be a complete guide that will help TLMTC launch Revive successfully in the market.

It will provide adequate consumer insights and marketing cues to help your team in strategizing a successful launch.

The questionnaires would be administered both in person and through internet (50% – 50%).Personal interviews would be conducted at strategic venues; essentially data would be collected from outside retail outlets (hypermarkets/ supermarkets – distributions channels for ‘Revive’) and cafés as they would help in reaching out to our main target market, i.e. shoppers and tea/brewed beverage consumers respectively.

Internet interviews would save time and cost, at the same time in-venue surveys would optimize sample representation.

Deliverables

We will submit 4 (four) hard copies and an electronic copy of the report as requested by TLMTC at end of the study. The report will provide in-depth analysis and report the facts and insights that we gather from the exercise. It will also discuss the recommendations we will make and explain the rationale of the same. We will also clearly spell out the limitations (if any) of the study.

As requested we will also do a PowerPoint presentation of the key results at your head offices one week after the final report is approved. We understand that the audience at the presentation will be members from the marketing team who would be more interested in the key takeaways and action points. As such, we will only present the top-line findings and recommendations at the presentation.

Timing

We assume that the proposal will be accepted by second week of May 2011 and we will be able to start work from third week of May around 16 May, 2011. The project will take approximately 8 weeks to finish after the proposal is accepted. We plan to finish-off the final presentation by 11 July, 2011 so that your marketing team gets ample time to execute the recommendations for an Autumn launch.

Tasks Start date Duration (in number of working days) End date Set up focus groups 16.05.2011 5 20.05.2011 Focus Group Discussions 23.05.2011 5 27.06.2011 FGD Data Analysis 30.05.2011 7 07.06.2011 Compiling Report 08.06.2011 5 14.06.2011 Set up Questionnaire 15.06.2011 3 17.06.2011 Field work 20.06.2011 5 24.06.2011 Survey data Analysis and Report 27.06.2011 7 05.07.2011 Submission of Final Report 06.07.2011 1 06.07.2011 Review of the report and feedback 07.07.2011 2 08.07.2011 PowerPoint Presentation 11.07.2011 1 11.07.2011 Budget

The total cost of the project is estimated at £58,500 as follows:

Task Cost/unit No.’s Total Cost Focus Group Discussions ( 2 hours each) £3,000 9 £27,000 In-venue Interviews £24 600 £14,400 Internet Interviews £13.5 600 £8,100 Project management/ Data processing £9,000 Total £58,500 We have tried to adjust the cost of the project under the budget limit indicated by TLMTC in the research brief.

Works Cited DailyMail. “Women prefer herbal tea to a cuppa.” 2011. Web.

Donoghu, Suné. “Projective techniques in consumer research.” Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences. (2000). Web.

Euromonitor. January 2011. “Tea in the United Kingdom.” Country Report. Web.

Lake, Dr. Amelia. Aamedya. British Food Journal. Web.

Mintel. “Tea and Other Hot Drinks – UK – February 2011.” Oxygen Mintel. (February 2011). Web.

Tropical Commodity Coalition. “Tea Barometer 2010.” n.d. 20 March. 2011

University of Maryland. “Green Tea.” 2010. Web.

Wilson, Elliot. “Drink of the day once again.” The Guardian. 2008. Web.

Wright, K. B. “Researching Internet-based populations: Advantages and disadvantages of online survey research, online questionnaire authoring software packages, and web survey services.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(3), article 11. (2005). Web.

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Sydney Expansion Plan Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The project, which is going to be implemented by the government of Sydney as well by some private companies, can radically transform the landscape of Barangaroo suburb and the city in general.

This development plan includes the construction of new Casino Events Centre, Multifunctional Convention and Entertainment Centre, and expansion of Exhibition Center (Whiteling, 2011, unpaged). This project can yield very good results for the community and investors.

However, one has to remember this plan will require considerable invest into infrastructure of this area. First, we can speak about the development of transportation infrastructure (roads, highways, seaports, railways, etc). The existing transportation infrastructure of Barangaroo may not have sufficient capacity to cope with inflow of visitors from Australia and all over the world.

Secondly, one should bear in mind that the new event centers can become the largest consumers of energy in this particular area. This is why it may be necessary to construct electrical power networks, generation plants or electric grid. Furthermore, this developmental project will inevitably involve changes in water distribution system of Sydney.

This includes the construction of a new pipe system, storage reservoirs, sewage collection and so forth (Goodman

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The Survival of the Sotho under Moshoeshoe Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The 19th Century Sotho Kingdom

The Thaba Bosiu Experience

Conclusion

Cited Works

Introduction Trade was the major economic activity that brought groups of people together during the time the Basotho people arrived in their present homeland. In fact, by the beginning of 19th century, white traders, the Voortrekkers inhabited what is now called the Basutoland. With this conglomeration of different groups of people, there emerged extreme pressure on the environment for resettlement.

Meanwhile, the Zulu state, led by Shaka was expanding and with it a series of violence across the entire southern Africa. The violence that was witnessed throughout this region threatened the extinction of many groups of people but not the organized Sotho society.

The survival of this group of people is attributed to the strong leadership of their king Moshoeshoe the Great that was necessitated by frequent cattle raids. The paper investigates the validity of the postulate that the Basotho people survived because of cattle raids, which made their leader to seek refuge in Thaba Bosiu.

The 19th Century Sotho Kingdom In the 19th century, a violent explosion erupted annihilating the South African chiefdoms border today’s Lesotho. Those who did survive the annihilation either were dispersed or were incorporated into larger chiefdoms that were stronger and well reorganized.

The leaders of these new chiefdoms were capable of defending their subjects; and Moshoeshoe was one such leader. The political situation in the east of Drakensberg Mountains was characterized by increasing competition over trade links, arable land for cultivation, cattle raids, among other factors (Stokes 102).

Owing to the political and economic instability of the region courtesy of Shaka Zulu’s autocracy, food scarcity and famine struck the region thereby according dominant chiefdoms the opportunity to increase their wealth and power. Consequently, the leader who promised wealth and security obtained from agricultural and pastoral production as well as from trade commanded greater support and following.

Cattle raiding and agricultural production became the silver bullet to the peoples’ problems, a policy that was pursued religiously by leaders. It is little wonder then, that conflicts resulting from food shortage interrupted food production hindered economic growth, and starvation punctuated the disruptions caused by migrating chiefdoms that sought a place to settle (Eldredge 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Thaba Bosiu Experience From 1822 throughout the century, raids were common phenomena in this region of southern Africa. For example, destitute immigrants crossed the Drakensberg Mountains from the east and executed their raids on the population around Highveld and upper Caledon River Valley to get crops and cattle (Eldredge 2).

These raids conjured up survival instincts of the young Sotho leader, Moshoeshoe l to forge alliances with their neighbors, the Sesotho group, and move to the mountains for protection. He, therefore, sent his scouts to find a good place in the mountains that could act as a fortress against their would-be raiders notwithstanding the risk that he was exposing them to. A large flat-topped mountain was located south of the territory.

In 1824, Moshoeshoe led his subjects in a three-day trek to occupy this new residence with natural bulwarks against the raiders. However, the weather was terribly cold and some people died as a result; and according to oral tradition, desperation led to their bodies being eaten up by the starving groups.

Nevertheless, the move proved to be an act of ingenuity of the Moshoeshoe l, thus earning him credit for having saved his people from extermination in the hands of marauding neighbors. This mountain fortress was called Thaba Bosiu, which literally translates to the “mountain of the night”. It was almost an invulnerable site for the Basotho people could now protect themselves, their cattle, and crops (McKenna 93).

Moshoeshoe l is hailed as a leader of remarkable political and diplomatic ace who expanded his hegemony by incorporating many chiefdoms into his own lineage. As a shrewd leader, he acknowledged the crucial role played by such skills as farming, hunting, adventuring, among others that his neighboring community in the south had mastered.

As a result, he welcomed missionaries to inform him about the events of the rest of the world and to import these skills into his chiefdom. Actually, that is how the Boer trekkers trickled into his kingdom to later wreck havoc.

After a protracted period of war occasioned by chronic hunger and frequent famine, the Basotho grew weary of being marooned in the Thaba Bosiu and wanted to resettle on their ancestral lands to expand agricultural production.

We will write a custom Essay on The Survival of the Sotho under Moshoeshoe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Eventually, they managed to resettle in these lands and built up their stores of food, which in turn expanded their economy so rapidly that they supplied their African and European neighbors with surplus food.

During this time, the Boers who resided in the Cape Colony were increasingly becoming frustrated with the British rule that had imposed strict policies on land tenure, prohibited slavery, and restricted continued expansion eastwards. Consequently, in the early 1830s this discontent caused the Great Boer Trek where about fifteen thousand Boers together with their households migrated across the Orange River.

Many of them settled “along the southwestern fringes of lands which had belonged to the forefathers of the Basotho” (Eldredge 3). The earliest settlers in this region did acknowledge the authority of Moshoeshoe over this territory and therefore, sought his permission to settle.

The events that shaped the survival mechanisms of the Basotho people such as economics and politics are best explained from the perspective of the pursuit of security. These dynamics of the 19th century can only be interpreted within the context of security structures rather than blatant physical survival.

The reason being, security denotes recognition that extracting resources for purposes of satisfying peoples’ material needs was governed by social structure that puts a limit to the abilities of people to exploit others. Moreover, the pursuit of security expedites the explanation of the motivations underlying the acceptability of the authority of Moshoeshoe by subordinate groups (S.A.H.S. 113).

Such groups had a strong belief that physical survival presupposed the achievement of security in the political front, which guaranteed their protection and access to productive resources therewith.

Not surprisingly then, that individuals as well as groups that were weary of the regional politics sought clientship under Moshoeshoe, the Basotho leader, but not other chiefs in the region owing to their despotic bent and lamentable lack of generosity.

The Basotho was a dominant group in the southern African region in the 19th century and unlike any other group of its caliber, it was shaped by the pursuit of holistic security.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Survival of the Sotho under Moshoeshoe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With violent struggles reverberating across the region, beginning among Africans in the 1820s before Europeans followed suit, it will be a great misrepresentation of fact to reduce the motivation of this group to a craving for exploiting subordinate groups in their society.

Many chiefs within the neighborhood copied the leadership style of Moshoeshoe and endeavored to achieve security by attracting outsiders and consolidating their authorities over a greater population of subjects.

The key to this strategy was to accumulate vast resources and reallocating it to people in a way that would win their support. Briefly, dominant as well as subordinate groups strived to achieve a degree of security by midwifing clientship relations (Eldredge 4).

Conclusion It can be said with confidence that the survival of the Basotho people in the 19th century was occasioned by the political and economic instability in the southern African region. The repercussions of this hapless situation bred a habit of cattle raiding by groups that were considered dominant.

In order to spare his group from this disastrous attack, Moshoeshoe mooted a security plan to whisk his people in a mountain fortress called Thaba Bosiu with virtually impenetrable frontiers. While safely marooned in their new residence, Basotho could cultivate their crops and keep their cattle undisturbed.

Moshoeshoe was also endowed with excellent diplomatic skills besides good leadership and this enabled him to have clientship relations with many individuals and groups that were incorporated in his society.

Cited Works Eldredge, Elizabeth A. A South African Kingdom: The pursuit of security in nineteenth-century Lesotho. New York; NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

McKenna, Amy. The History of Southern Africa. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011.

S.A.H.S. (South African Historical Society). South African historical journal, Issue 30. Cape Town, South African Historical Society, 1994.

Stokes, Jamie. Encyclopedia of the People of Africa and the Middle East, Volume 1. New York, NY: InfoBase Publishing, 2009.

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Harley-Davidson Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help

Overview The onset of the 21st century saw the inception of the Harley-Davidson Motorcycle Company. The motorcycle manufacturing firm started off its operations in Wisconsin, United States of America (Harley-Davidson, 2006). Although it had a small beginning, Harley-Davidson has grown to be a renowned global market leader in the manufacture and sell of heavy duty monocycles.

The company successfully went through the hard economic times of the 1920s, which was largely contributed by its unwavering strong background in leadership, marketing and customer satisfaction (Armstrong

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Religious Values in War and Peace Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes that can give good reason for the use of armed force

The intent motive behind using force

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction World religions make use of the scripture to justify their actions, which are ultimately deployed in the context of war and peace (Almond 45). It is arguably evident that scriptural passages have been quoted as the guiding principles for the engagement in warfare and the establishment of peace.

This implies that scriptural knowledge is vital when analyzing the religious values on war and peace, especially in societies whereby religion is used as a motivation and justification of war and peace (Daryl 85). This paper bases on comparative religious studies in order to have a comprehensive overview of the justifications for war and peace basing on the religious scriptures.

The fundamental argument that forms the basis of the paper is that all religions in the world have within themselves the seeds that can be result to the establishment of either war or peace. It is also vital to take into account the viewpoint that factors that determine peace and war in the world religions are based on the divine commandments, teachings attained from the scriptures and the divine interpretations of the scriptures by the believers (Gopin 100).

Basing on the scriptural comparisons of the various world religions, this paper discusses their respective religious views with regard to the elements of war and peace.

A consensus among all the world religions in relation to war and peace is the opposition to use of force that is deemed lethal or killing. There are exceptional cases where killing and the use of force is justified, but only under particular circumstances (Hertog 74). A comparative review of the scriptures of the various world religions reveals that there is a fundamental rule against killing although there is a variation relating to the strength of the applicability of the rules.

In the context of Buddhism, every person usually trembles during the times of violence owing to the fact that life is cherished by every individual. According to Dhammapada 10.130, putting oneself in the place of another individual, a person is not required to kill. In addition, an individual is not required to compel another person to kill (Super 145).

With regard to Christianity, killing is condemned in the bible. Matthew 5:21-22 clearly states that “thou shall not kill; and whoever kills will be in danger of judgment…” This clearly indicates the stance of killing with regard to the taking of another person’s life (Irving 147). It is believed that an individual has no authority of taking another person’s life. Hinduism also lays emphasis on the respect for another person’s life as a core requirement for the establishment of peace.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As outlined in their scripture at Bhagavad Gita 16. 1-3, the supreme personality of Godhead outlines three transcendental individual qualities including fearlessness, having self-control, nonviolence, having a compassion for all living things and being free of anger (Hertog 96).

These qualities are needed for the development of divine nature. In addition, their stance against violence is emphasized by the fact that the religion is against the use of attacks, even for those who are deemed most despicable. Furthermore, attacks should not be directed at those who are peace-making (Daryl 78).

Islam is also against the taking of human life, which they perceive as made sacred by Allah, except in circumstances that call for just cause. This is stated in the Quran 17:33, and indicates the stance of the Muslims against killing. Jainism is also against the use of violence and people should avoid being involved violence as much as possible (Hertog 102).

From its scriptures, Purushyartha Siddhyapaya 60, states that “having precisely understood the meaning of violence, its outcomes, the victims and the executor, individuals who embrace the values of the religion should restrain from violence, to the best of their capacity. The guiding principles of Judaism are somewhat similar to those held by the Christian faith; the doctrine prohibits individuals from committing murder, as stated in Exodus 20:13 (Gopin 125).

It is arguably evident that all the world religions oppose the taking of another person’s life, which has been emphasized using commandments for the Abrahamic religions; moral standards and virtue in the case of Buddhism; and an advocacy for the establishment of peace and non violent activities in the case of Sikhism. Jainism does not have any exceptions and killing is prohibited for all forms of life (Gopin 126).

Causes that can give good reason for the use of armed force In cases whereby force is deployed, all the world religions except for Jainism attempt to rationalize the use of armed force for just causes. Jainism emphasizes on the rule of non-killing. The different religions in the world have diverse conditions and scenarios that justify the use of force, with an emphasis on just causes and right motives.

In the context of Buddhism, killing is only justified when protecting the Dharma by the kings, lay men and the upasakas as outlined in Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Chapter 5. Hinduism justifies the use of killing basing on the religious duty of fighting (Daryl 100). Armed force is also justified in Buddhism when an individual’s life is threatened, for the case of self- defense and protecting the people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Religious Values in War and Peace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hinduism prohibits the use of war for the purpose of conquest and a person has the authority of killing an assassin who has shown his/her intents of murder, such an acts results to no guilt, which is justified by their scriptures that state that “ fury recoils upon fury” as outline sin the Manu Smrti 8.348-350. In addition, armed force is justified in cases whereby a person is administering punishment to a person who rightly deserves the punishment, provided that they are under the due process of justice (Hertog 148).

Islam justifies the use of armed force when fighting for the cause of Allah, especially for those individuals who are against you. However, limits are not supposed to be transgressed because they are prohibited in Quran 2:190 (Irving 145). Armed force is also justified to ensure that there is prevalence of justice and faith in the context of Allah.

Fighting is also justified against the people who do not believe in Allah and for defending one-self. The religion of Jainism does not justify any sort of killing whatsoever. Judaism on the other hand justifies killing for just causes of the Lord, as evident in Numbers 32:20-22. Justification also bases on penalty for taking someone else’s life vests on the life of the killer; that is life for life and an eye for an eye (Almond 147).

It is arguably evident that the justifications for the use of armed forces and fighting are many including protecting the religion and righteousness, as the case of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism; protecting the innocents, as in the case of Hinduism and Islam; fighting to end oppression, as in the case of Islam and Sikhism; administering punishment to the performers of evil, which is the case of Christianity and Islam; self defense as in the case for Hinduism and Islam and acquisition of the promised land of God for Judaism.

Jainism on the other hand does not justify any form of killing, even for the case defending one-self and protecting other people (Gopin 100). It is also important to note that self-defense is not viewed widely as a religious cause, resulting to its rejection in some religious scriptures such as the New Testament (Hertog 147).

The intent motive behind using force The motive underlying the deployment of force is also an important aspect outlined in the doctrines of the various religions in relation to war and peace (Daryl 47). Even in cases where there is a justification of the cause, the values of most religions emphasize on the view that armed action must be undertaken with the true motives and attitudes.

A comparative scriptural analysis reveals that Buddhism and Christianity stress on the importance of love and compassion for the enemies and those individuals who are receiving punishment. In the context of Hinduism, proper motive is determined by the undertaking of one’s duty; this implies that using violence with wrong motives and unjustified killing results to negative consequences on oneself, as outlined in the principle of Karma (Gopin 78).

The Islam scriptures outline the consequences of not acting with the right intent, which includes hell for any person who kills a believer purposefully. In the religious values of Islam and other religions such as Judaism, the right intent should aim at the fulfillment of the will of God. Sikhism on the other hand encourages their fighters not take think of their own lives and that self-sacrifice is case of martyrs. Jainism does not justify any intent for the case of killing, and a thought about killing constitutes a sin (Irving 74).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Values in War and Peace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With regard to the authority to use force, Buddhism gives the king the power to punish. Christianity on the other hand gives the ruler the power of the sword and considers it as a right that is God ordained. Hinduism authorizes the kings and warriors to use armed forces when in a righteous battle.

The Quran on the other hand lays emphasis on the going to war for the cause of Allah; it does not offer authority to specific people to wage war. Such authorities are allocated to the imams and Muslim leaders (Gopin 78). When deploying force as the last option, Buddhism lays emphasis on the soft approach, Christianity emphasizes on forgiveness, while Islam states that those in the quest for peace shall receive peace while those engaging treason shall be thrown back.

Conclusion This paper has discussed the values of various religions towards war and peace. It is arguably evident that engaging in war needs a strong justification and that taking human life is only permitted under specific scenarios for important causes outlined in the doctrines. A general consensus across all the world religions is the opposition towards taking another person’s life.

The religious scriptures offer an important indication on the levels to which war and violence are embraced in a particular religion. The limitation is that it is subject to different interpretations, which has resulted to misrepresentation of the religious values relating to war and peace.

Works Cited Almond, Gabriel. A String Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Daryl, Charles. War, Peace, and Christianity: Questions and Answers from a Just-War Perspective. New York: Crossway publications, 2010.

Gopin, Marc. Between Eden and Armageddon: the future of world religions, violence, and peacemaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hertog, Katrien. The complex reality of religious peacebuilding: conceptual contributions and critical analysis. New York: Lexington Books, 2010.

Irving, Horowitz. The idea of war and peace: the experience of Western civilization. New York: Transaction Publishers, 2007.

Super, John. Religion in world history: the persistence of imperial communion. New York: Routledge, 2006.

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Adult Education for Social Change: The Role of a Grassroots Organization in Canada Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

History of SUCCESS

Issues Addressed by SUCCESS

The Role of Adult Education in Social Change

The Principles and Values of Community-Based Adult Education

Analysis of Oppression

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Adult education encompasses the alternative educational curriculum designed for adults who, for one reason or another, dropped out of school before acquiring essential basic skills needed in life. Adult education has profound social benefits and as such, an agent for social change.

Adult education is of significant value as a means of addressing social problems and providing solutions to issues affecting disadvantaged groups in society. It provides means of bridging the social inequalities that exist in contemporary societies with regard to reproductive health and social empowerment, especially in relation to economic, cultural and political engagement.

Adult education, when considered according to the practices and principles of community-based education has the potential of reducing and even eliminating existing social inequalities. Community-based education for adults is based on the assumption that any community, urban or rural, has the capacity to generate solutions to its own problems. It serves as an instrument for promoting and strengthening social capacity to address various social challenges.

The United Chinese Enrichment Services Society (SUCCESS) is one such a program that involves diverse community development initiatives to foster adult education for a Chinese immigrant community (Guo 107). The organization, based in Vancouver, Canada, provides accessible adult education and social services to new Chinese immigrants. Success has created a community of immigrants that plays multiple roles in relation to the provision of adult education.

These include provision of adult education programs, facilitation of community development, and advocating on behalf of the Chinese immigrants in relation to citizenship. The ‘SUCCESS’ education programs and services addressed the needs of the adult immigrant community, and as such, facilitated social change.

History of SUCCESS Immigrant communities in countries such as Canada face challenges such as the language barrier and social skills that deter them from fully participating in the society. Additionally, mainstream government agencies may not efficiently provide services that meet the social and cultural needs of immigrant communities. It is against this backdrop that SUCCESS was established. It saw its dawn in 1973 to enhance accessibility of adult education programs and other social services to new adult immigrants from China (Guo 111).

Initially, SUCCESS started out as a Chinese Connection Project (1973-1979) funded by Health and Welfare Canada to enhance accessibility of social services to new immigrants primarily from Hong Kong, China. The services provided during this period comprised of language skills, taught through the English Language as a Second Language (ESL) classes and settlement services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Between 1979 and 1989, the immigrants from Hong Kong substantially increased following the Sino-British pact. This meant that SUCCESS had to increase the volume of its services to match the high number of immigrants. SUCCESS also had to expand its services to different locations as the immigrants continued to settle in different geographical locations beyond Chinatown region, Vancouver. From 1989 to 1998, SUCCESS expanded tremendously both in its program offerings and scope.

It incorporated a number of services and programs for immigrant communities (Chinese and non-Chinese immigrants). The high numbers and the changing composition of the immigrant population forced SUCCESS to expand its program offerings to suit immigrants from other regions. Currently, SUCCESS offers a number of professional programs to immigrant communities mainly from China, enhancing community development and education for citizenship, and providing advocacy services for the immigrants.

Issues Addressed by SUCCESS Since its inception, SUCCESS has played a pivotal role in promoting community development for the Chinese Community. In particular, the organization primarily addresses issues to do with citizenship and settlement procedures of new immigrants, adult education to enhance social participation, and advocacy services.

With regard to citizenship, SUCCESS provides educational programs that enable new immigrants to acquire citizenship and settle in Canada. The organization also directs immigrants to the appropriate service providers, including translation services to overcome the language barrier and enable them to seek services from immigration agencies in Canada. The organization also advocates on behalf of immigrants in relation to public participation and discrimination.

For instance, SUCCESS initiated a nationwide protest campaign against stereotypes broadcasted in Canadian mainstream media that satirized the accent of new Chinese immigrants. To address social exclusion, language barrier and facilitate participation of new immigrants in community development, SUCCESS programs cover six broad areas.

These include language and settlement procedures training, reception of immigrants at airports, training on employment opportunities, counseling services, training on small business ventures, and community services.

The stakeholders of this organization include various Chinese organizations, the media, volunteers involved in providing interpretation services and the federal government. The Chinese organizations such as the Chinese Benevolent Association, the Chinese Cultural Centre and the Chinese Merchants association provide social services, business training and language training services to new immigrants. Many mainstream organizations also provide a variety of services to immigrants under the auspices of SUCCESS.

We will write a custom Essay on Adult Education for Social Change: The Role of a Grassroots Organization in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These organizations include the law enforcement, the healthcare institutions, schools and the media. “The different classes of government in Canada (municipal, provincial and federal) are involved in funding of SUCCESS’s immigrant services” (Guo 109). In particular, the provincial governments fund educational and health services for immigrants.

The Role of Adult Education in Social Change In the context of Chinese immigrant community, the lack of services that address the social needs had a significant impact on their social development. Thus, SUCCESS’s educational programs and services served to transform the social status of the immigrants by improving accessibility to economic opportunities in Canada. According to Derwing, adult education geared towards social change involves educational activities that transform the society within which they are implemented (194).

As such, with an objective of transforming the society in which they operate, there should be an organization of educational activities. Adult education can serve as an instrument for transmitting new values with an aim of bringing about social change.

CIT perceives adult education as a means of creating a renewed sense of motivation and transmitting fundamental values and attitudes that allow people to tackle new challenges in whichever social context they find themselves. SUCCESS educational programs instill new forms of perceptions that enable new immigrants cope with cultural change and participate in community development.

The main purpose of adult education is to equip adults with necessary skills and knowledge that enables them to manipulate their social environment well and attain individual and community development.

In this sense, adult education confers social freedom for the survival and development of individuals and by extension, the community. SUCCESS recognizes that adult education can serve to expedite social/community development, hence the provision of necessary skills to immigrants to enable them participate in community development.

Grossi examines the lack of participation by the public in their community development (123). He argues that cultural stereotypes facilitate a sense of indifference in oppressed populations with regard to seeking solutions to their plight. This prevents them from actively seeking a solution to their own problems.

Thus, participation is a crucial process that involves the masses in formulating their own goals and working together to achieve them. Among the stakeholders in SUCCESS’ educational initiatives are Chinese organizations such as the Chinese Benevolent Association and the Chinese Cultural Center, which understand the needs of the immigrant community. This means that the educational programs and development projects undertaken by SUCCESS reflect the social needs of the Chinese community.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Adult Education for Social Change: The Role of a Grassroots Organization in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Derwing argues that the planning and implementation of the adult educational initiatives should not rely entirely on expert opinion; rather it should involve a needs assessment that involves the participation of the individual members (201). The challenges faced by new Chinese immigrants, including language barrier, and citizenship and settlement difficulties were identified by the Chinese organizations that form the principal stakeholders of SUCCESS.

The idea is to enable the new immigrants to participate in their own development and as such, be agents of social change. Through SUCCESS’s adult education programs and services, the immigrants are able to inquire and obtain necessary information that enables them to address their problems in the context of the larger Canadian society.

Since adult education facilitates the development of the community within the larger society, it is, therefore, an instrument for social change as community development reflects social mobility and transformation. In the context of Vancouver, the immigrants have less skills and knowledge resources to participate in the development. Thus, being a minority, they are prone to challenges such as unemployment, lack of opportunities and social alienation from the mainstream society.

Social change means changed perceptions and lifestyle patterns with regard to providing solutions to problems and making life better for the entire community. According to Derwing, the role of social change is to transform attitudes, values, knowledge and skills (192).

Accordingly, the purpose of SUCCESS concurs with Derwing’s assertion. It facilitates the acquisition of language skills and knowledge by immigrants that enable them to operate in Canadian society. Additionally, SUCCESS advocates on behalf of immigrants to eliminate social exclusion and foster their participation in the larger community development.

The Principles and Values of Community-Based Adult Education Friere suggests that education for the oppressed or minority in the society helps them to become conscious of the social determinants in their lives (93). He argues that social change only occurs “when each individual becomes aware of the social determinants in his/her life and undertakes to transform them for the common expedient”. In other words, to effect social change, it requires both the learner and the instructor to engage in the process of reflection, dialogue and action, i.e. praxis.

Friere defines praxis as “a reflection on a particular action that translates into an improved action” (94). In this regard, the social stereotypes and the lack of skills such as language skills can impair the minority individuals’ reflection on an action often because of lack of motivation to pursue social justice in the context of mainstream society.

In Vancouver, prior to the inception of the SUCCESS program, the lack educational programs and services to cater for the needs of the immigrants, means that they were socially disadvantaged. The SUCCESS programs equipped the immigrants with fundamental skills and advocated for a social environment conducive for their development to improve the quality of their life.

Therefore, praxis is an essential principle for adult learning. It entails stimulating individuals’ inbuilt reflection to bring about an appropriate action. Praxis can serve much in transmitting skills, knowledge and attitudes to adult learners and as they put the new attitudes and skills into practice, they reflect on their actions (Derwing 202). Central to the theory of adult education is the vital role played by reflection on subsequent actions.

Adult learning process involves four cardinal stages; firstly, the individuals encounter with a particular experience, which in this context was a language barrier, limited opportunities, citizenship, and settlement difficulties experienced by early Chinese immigrants into Canada. The second stage involves reflection and analysis of the experience; this influenced the early Chinese immigrants to establish SUCCESS to assist other immigrants to cope with new challenges.

The third stage involves seeking action in response to the experience. Hence, SUCCESS’s provision of programs and services tailored to meet the diverse needs of the new immigrants. The last stage involves the use of a new approach to tackling issues; SUCCESS’s programs enabled the new immigrants to integrate in the community and seek solutions to challenges they faced in the wider Canadian community.

The principle of praxis enables adult learners to develop their learning plans in such a way that participants are able to apply what they learn. In this way, the members are able to reflect their actions both as the decision-makers and as subjects in their cultural contexts. SUCCESS involved Chinese organizations and individuals in the development of the training programs.

Thus, in this case, the educators and the learners interacted directly in any of SUCCESS’s programs. Additionally, the staff comprised of immigrants settled in Canada, who understand the native languages and culture of the new immigrants. This ensured the meeting of the diverse needs of new immigrants, especially with regard to settlement procedures.

The development of the counseling services had the cultural and linguistic aspects of immigrants in mind. A multilingual staff English, Cantonese and Chinese Mandarin) offered the counseling services to the clients’ native languages. Additionally, the Chinese organizations, in partnership with SUCCESS, offered the advocacy and community development services.

Immigrants, who once participated in SUCCESS’s programs offered support for this cause in the grassroots. Thus, the principle of praxis results to a designed approach with set objectives such that the content taught reflects these objectives. In other words, the members of the community have to take an active role in tackling the social problems that they face.

The expansion of SUCCESS to incorporate non-Chinese immigrants reflects a multi-sectoral approach to community development. Grossi describes the best practice principles for adult education organizations (124). He contends that the organization must formulate multiple goals and actively involve most participants in community development.

SUCCESS involved multiple Chinese organizations, former participants as volunteers, mainstream organizations and the government to achieve its three-pronged goals; providing adult education programs, advocacy and liaison services and facilitation of citizenship and settlement for immigrants. Additionally, Rose suggests a multiple approach to adult education in order to have maximum impact on the community.

This is the contingency approach, which requires the analysis of the cultural values, the community characteristics and the nature of the social problem in order to design appropriate educational programs. SUCCESS’s programs and services address the challenges that face new immigrants to Canada.

Analysis of Oppression Oppression in the context of the immigrants involved cultural stereotypes and social inequalities arising from limited opportunities and necessary skills by immigrants relative to the rest of the population in Vancouver. This form of oppression is known as marginalization, where individuals especially minority population are excluded from the mainstream social and economic activities. In Canada, the 13.4% of the general population are minority groups (Derwing 197), with the majority born and raised in foreign countries.

Their language skills and knowledge do not match those required in a contemporary Canadian society owing to the cultural differences. As such, the minorities cannot participate fully in their community development. Derwing contends that marginalization is the worst form of oppression as it excludes individual from social life (198). This has the potential of resulting to material deprivation, especially when the ‘oppression’ extends to the economic sector.

Additionally, Grossi identifies two injustices that arise from material deprivation in contemporary Western societies. The first injustice relates to the provision of social welfare services (121). In Canada, prior to the establishment of SUCCESS, government-funded welfare services, e.g., language training programs to enable new Chinese immigrants integrate into the society were lacking.

This amounted to oppression; a practice SUCCESS sought to combat through various adult education initiatives that impart necessary skills to immigrants to enable them participate in their own development. The second injustice regards the exclusion of particular individuals or groups from full citizenship rights.

This makes these groups to depend on bureaucratic institutions for social support services, and as a result, they are subject to punitive treatment by policies imposed by these institutions. Additionally, this denies the marginalized group the right to satisfy their social and health needs in a culturally appropriate way. SUCCESS combats this directly through its advocacy and liaison services and programs, job training and culturally appropriate counseling services.

Social exclusion is oppressive in the sense that it prevents individuals from participating in social cooperation and community development. It denies the oppressed group access to social and health services of high quality as those for the mainstream society. In this way, social exclusion creates social inequalities with regard to the provision of services. Derwing contends that with or without social support, marginalization breeds a sense of uselessness and disrespect for the marginalized groups (201).

Thus, while marginalization primarily encompasses injustices in resource distribution, it extends to cultural and social deprivation by limiting social interaction and cooperation. SUCCESS’s programs and services aimed to bridge the social gap between the immigrant community and the mainstream society. It also gave the Chinese immigrants an opportunity to interact in economic and social contexts in order to foster their development as a community.

Conclusion Adult education is a vital instrument for addressing social problems affecting disadvantaged groups. SUCCESS’s programs and services aimed at providing necessary skills and knowledge to new immigrants primarily from Hong Kong, China, who faced difficulties integrating in the mainstream society.

The immigrants faced language barrier and lack of welfare services, which amounted to oppression. SUCCESS’s service offerings were three-pronged; language training, facilitation of citizenship and settlement procedures and enhancing community development. SUCCESS’s approaches concur with Friere’s praxis principle that regards community-based education as an agent for social change.

Works Cited Derwing, Tomy. Instilling a passive voice: citizenship instruction in Canada. Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1997. Print.

Friere, Petr. The Politics of Education. Massachusetts: Bervin and Gravey, 1985. Print.

Grossi, Foster. Adult Education and Rural Development. Convergence 13.3 (2004): 121-125

Guo, Shibao. Adult Education for Social Change: The Role of a Grassroots Organization in Canada. Convergence 10.4 (1999): 107-119.

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Organization Theory and Behavior Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction An organization is a set of people with a particular structure who are under a central administration and has a collective objective. An organization is centrally managed and has departmental structures, each with a specialized delegation that works together with an aim of achieving one objective.

The central administration defines the duties, responsibilities, powers and activities for each department of the organization as well as the structure of the organization’s management. An organization, being defined as a set of people, therefore has its fundamentals vested on the people under it. It is the people who manage an organization as well as carry out its activities.

The productivity of an organization will therefore depend to a large extent on the participation of the people who are part of the organization. The participation of the members of an organization on the other hand depends on a number of factors.

Some of the factors affecting participation include efficiency of the members, attitude, knowledge and skills, administrative structure of an organization and the environmental factors of the given organization among others.

Organization theories have over time been developed to help in the day to day running and management of organizations. The theories have been expressed in each and every department or sector of organizations. The sectors such as finance, marketing, human resource, information and technology and communication among others have adopted different theories to enhance their operations.

The theories or concepts employed in these departments are primarily aimed at ensuring that particular projects adopted and initiated by the departments or the organization as a whole are successfully accomplished and that the intended goals achieved. This paper seeks to discuss the aspects of theory and behavior in an organization with respect to project management.

The paper will explore the various aspects of human behavior in organizations and how they influence the results of projects undertaken by their organizations. The paper will also look at the influence that an organization’s culture has on the outcomes of its projects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Organization Daft Richard formerly defined an organization as a social unit with laid down goals and objectives, whose structure and systems are administrated with a link to the surrounding of the entity. The core aspect of an organization is the people in the organization and their relationship with each other.

Organization administrators have established the fact that this is the basis of every organization and efforts are nowadays being made to enlighten and empower the human resource on the achievements of the organization’s objectives.

Moves such as promoting horizontal interactions and cooperation in an organization’s activities as well as friendly relations with its environment which include its “customers, suppliers and even competitors” (Daft 11) is a key towards achieving goals and objectives.

Among the important concepts in an organization include: administrative levels and authority, conflict resolution and management, establishment and implementation into goals and objectives as well as evaluation into their success, adjusting to the emerging issues in the organization’s environment as well as meeting the expectations of its relevant stake holders.

The management of organizations has evolved to their structure and context in relation to their environments. The key to success therefore depends on the organization of the people in these social units to meet the expectations of organizations (Daft 15).

Project Management Haynes defined a project as “an undertaking that has a beginning and an end, and is carried out to meet established goals within costs, schedule and quality objectives” (Haynes 3). Projects are temporary undertakings which are supposed to be completed in a given time span with the objectives achieved.

The whole project should include: establishment of the project to be undertaken, planning, implementation, completion and evaluation of the project.

We will write a custom Assessment on Organization Theory and Behavior specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The important variables in the project management strategy are time, quality and cost. The quality of the project results relate to the final results of the project with reference to its goals and objectives. (Haynes 7). The project process includes planning which is supposed to offer an outline to the project.

The implementation process of a project management factors in the administrative role of organizing the available resources, of which human resource is an element, motivating the human resource into productivity, providing instructions into what is supposed to be done as well as exercising control over the people and the processes involved in the project.

The processes and activities are however not distinct and varies from one project to another and from one organization to another (Cleland and Ireland 53).

Organizational Culture and Human Behavior Culture refers to practices and modes of operation that have been employed in the past period and, due to their effectiveness, adopted as acceptable practices. Fused into organization’s project management, the organization culture are practices that have been outlined and adopted by an organization as a result of their long term application in the organization’s projects.

The practices are therefore introduced to the organization’s new members as guidelines. The organization’s culture can range from its “structures and practices, strategies, goals, philosophies and assumptions” (Koster 51) that has over time been adopted by the organization (Koster 51).

The cultures are in most cases management measures that are adopted to enhance productivity of individuals in the attainment of the goals of the project. Some of these measures look into the issues related to the human resource employed by the organization for a particular project.

Organizational cultures often cover the level of autonomy and involvement of the organization’s members to a project, adaptability to processes, and welfare of the project workers as well as recognition of diversity in the organization (Koster 51).

According to Wong, human behavior refers to the aspects of an individual person that induces emotional effects to part of or the whole body of a team. The human behavior is caused by factors such as experiences in life and relations with people.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Theory and Behavior by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An understanding of human behavior is important in the interaction of members of a team to a project and the outcome of a project in general. The behavior or attitudes of team members towards each other will influence the results of a project in either a positive way or a negative way (Wong 3).

The organizational culture and human behavior is discussed in the following aspects Organizational Culture Influence

A culture that is adapted by an organization has a critical effect in shaping the environment within the organization. Aspects of performance such as ability to learn, creative reactions to challenges at work, reactions to threats or even emerging opportunities highly depends on the working environment in the organization.

A culture that has been adapted by an organization establishes a uniform guideline to all the members of the organization. By setting common standard or tradition, the organization creates unity and harmony among its members as their interactions and conducts are based on the same principle. A tradition towards positive achievements will also have an influence on the individual employees of the organization.

A person who would otherwise possess contrary opinion to that adopted by the organization would feel alienated and sort of a rebellious element as the rest or the majority is aligned to the traditions of the organization.

A strong organizational culture that is based on the aspects and fundamentals of success will promote this success as new employees and teams in the organization always adopt the already running culture of an organization. This ensures that objectives, conducts and relations within the organization are guided by the organization’s main agenda.

An organization that empowers its employees and gives them the room and freedom to adapt and change in accordance with emerging circumstances, for example, promotes positive results. One of the effects of this liberalization is that it motivates the workers into responsibility and authority (Daft 387).

According to Daft, there is a significant relationship between organizational culture and the level of success of the organization. It has been established that “companies that intentionally manage cultural values outperformed similar companies that did not” (Daft 387). The culture adopted by an organization can however have a negative impact on the activities and success of the organization.

A culture adapted by an entity can over time be outdated or become regressive due to environmental changes. This is because a culture is adapted and then implemented over time. The innovations, practices and other aspects that proved successful and became acculturated into the organization may after some time be ineffective due to changes like technology and knowledge that undermines the organization’s culture.

A characteristically nomadic culture is therefore the best idea for an entity. The culture in an organization should have the capacity to offer room for adjustments and adaptation to the changing external environment.

The adaptive culture recognizes elements such as minimum boundaries both in the organizational structure and with its environment, equality and trust among employees, risk taking and adjustability to change and improvements among others. It is therefore important that an organization develops cultures that are flexible to enable it instill values in its structures as well as adapt to its changing environment (Daft 390).

Project Leadership

The implementation of a project plan is occasionally a team work that is headed by a leader. The leader, in most cases and to a great extent, determines the level of success of the project. Lewis explains that the type of a project leader and the type of leadership offered is very fundamental to the outcome of the project. Lewis described effective leaders as the leaders who are never “satisfied with the status quo” (Lewis 94).

The leader who will drive the project to its success does not sit back to accept a situation posed by challenges but insists on solutions to the breakthrough of the project. He however argued that the way in which the leader challenges his or her subjects is also an equally important aspect of the success to the project.

The leader must have an impersonal way of challenging those under his or her supervision since a personal approach could have a negative impact on the workers, an issue that can derail the success of the project. The leader must also be able and willing to venture into risk taking activities that have not yet been explored.

This, in one way or the other, could motivate the other team members to innovativeness that can create means into breakthroughs in the project. The leadership into effective results also calls for facilitation rather that authoritative imperialism. The effective project leader will promote interdependence among team members and empower the team members.

As a result, a motivated spirit of teamwork is developed that creates eagerness to success. The authoritative leader on the other hand could lead team members into working as a formality rather than out of interest with a result of a poorly implemented project. Lewis also described effective leadership as the leadership by example.

The facilitator-leader who is willing to venture into risks and as well demonstrate, in a participatory manner, how the project is to be worked out stands a higher chance of winning the loyalty of team members into hard work and determination. The project leader should also be an individual who is optimistic to create hope among his or her team members.

Encouraging people to have hope and focus on the final results can generate strengths where people would have been discouraged by challenges in their project. The leadership offered in the project is therefore important in terms of motivating people to success or discouraging the same people into ruining a particular project (Lewis 101)

Creating and Managing a Successful Project Team Project teams often comprise of strangers. This is partly due to the fact that most projects are short term agenda and organization therefore source for the personnel when a need for a project arises. The project leaders therefore have the task of creating successful teams out of these individuals for the realization of the objectives of the project.

Once the individuals have been developed into a desired team, managing their productivity becomes the next interest. Exercising influence over the team members is one aspect of creating a successful team. This exercise ought to be free from any sort of authoritativeness or imperialism which can indicate some sense of dictatorship on the group members.

The establishment of an effective, or in other words a successful team, requires a number of steps and measures. Some of the measure required for a successful project team is a solid sponsorship for the project. The project sponsor, whether the subject organization or a client, must put in place steps to ensure that the management of the project is not compromised.

The sponsor must also ensure that avenues are created to handle conflicts and problems that could arise in the process of undertaking the project. During the establishment of the team, commitments in terms of time and energy must also be required of the team members. Success cannot be achieved if members are either not available for the project or they are not willing to put in the necessary efforts when required.

A clear outlining of roles of each member of the team is also necessary to ensure responsibility and accountability. Common ground among team members also helps in building interpersonal relationships among team members, an aspect that promotes team work.

The project is itself a unifying factor among the team. Other factors could be things like personal interests, hobbies and past experience in project works. Establishing the notion of team work is also a tool to creating a successful project team (Kendrick 84).

Once a successful team has been developed, it becomes necessary to ensure that the level of efficiency, commitment and integration created within the team is not lost. A management strategy is therefore necessary to ensure that the team operates at its established level of productivity. Kendrick describes this measure as maintaining the unity and motivation of the team.

The management of a successful project team requires an established loyalty of the team members to the team leader and to the organization. It calls for the need to provide necessary support to the team members and the provision of resolution mechanism to emerging issues such as conflicts and problems encountered in the project work.

This will generate confidence among the team members and enhance their cohesion. Effective communication mechanisms together with appreciation and recognition of the team members are also necessities in maintaining the effectiveness of the successful team (Kendrick 85).

Managing Relationships Managing relationships require a deep understanding of the different aspects of emotional behavior. In order to manage relationships in the project team to foster success of the project, the manager needs to understand the team members in terms of their behavior as pertains to “self-awareness, self-management and social awareness” (Mersino 150).

Understanding the emotions of the team members as well as other stake holders improves the relationship and even trust and loyalty to the project manager. This as a result creates a more cohesive atmosphere for the success of the project. Enhanced communications also ensures a better understanding among the stakeholders in the project.

Communication between the team leader and the team members, the team leader and other stakeholders like the organization’s management and other relevant parties of interest as well as the interpersonal communication between team members are important.

The communication among team members can be strengthened by organizing interactive forums as well as training on communication skills and the importance of communication. The team leader can enhance his or her communication with team members by being a coach and a mentor.

Interactive one to one experiences between the leader and the team members and even among the team members is an important tool in developing the relationship in the project team. Enlisting an accountability partners is also a step to improving relationships.

An accountability partner has the role of a guide to help a person develop in areas of weakness. Once relationships are effectively managed, the project team members together with other stakeholders to the project can work collectively for the success of the project (Mersino 154).

Influence of Organizational Structure on the Success of a Project The success of the project also depends on the structure of the parent organization. The degree of the influence of the organizational structure however depends on the risks involved in the project. In cases where the project risks are high, the organizational structure notably affects on the success of the project. The structure actually hinders the success of the project.

The matrix structure is under these circumstances preferred as opposed to the organizational structure. In a matrix structure, a person is under the supervision of two managers. The normal organizational structure puts team members under the supervision of one team leader. Its inefficiency is however realized when the project is complex and more expertise is required.

Extra management, supervision and directions are then called for. The normal organizational structure cannot under complex inter departmental projects get an all round team leader who is an expert in all the involved fields. An adoption of the organizational structure would undermine expertise which in turn might lead to failure or inefficiency in the results of the project work (Lewis 348).

A functional type of structure has departments aligned according to the functions that they perform in the organization. Employees are grouped with respect to the types of activities they perform in the organization. A cross functional structure on the other hand has people who perform different expertise duties working together in a given department to perform a given task.

A matrix structure on the other hand involves operation to achieve more than one field of objective. An example is when a team is working on an innovative production of a commodity. In this case, a production as well as a research or design expertise is needed at the same time. The choice of the structure adopted can negatively influence the success of a team if necessary expertise is not available.

Adopting a functional structure when cross departmental expertise is required will lead to poor outcome due to lack skills in cross departmental functions. Types of organizations in terms of whether they are mechanical, or organic also affects the success of a project.

An organic organization is characterized by decentralization, flexibility, inter-relations which empower the employees. A mechanical organization on the other hand is on the other hand characterized by strict cultures and bureaucracies that leave the employees to puppets of the management’s orders. A mechanical organization can limit innovation to success contrary to an organic type of organization (Darft, 104,110, 154).

Organization Design Organizational design is a tool that is used by the organization to “integrate people, information and technology” (Autry 1) in the organization. Organizational structure on the other hand refers to the framework of the organization in terms of its authorities, roles and responsibilities.

The organization’s design is therefore means to achievement of objectives while the structure is a defined strategy to the achievement. As a tool, the organization design is used to reconcile an organization and the objectives that it aspires to realize. The aim of the organization’s design is to enhance the chances that the human resource applied will in the end be successful.

In establishing an organizational design, both the administration and the other members of the organization consultatively define the desirable system through which the organization can operate in its optimum capacity. The design defines the administrative hierarchy of the organization and the authority vested upon each level of the structure and each member of the organization.

The challenge of organization designs is that they are dynamic. The effectiveness of a design varies with the activities of an organization as well as the people in the particular organization. Subjecting a project team to a design that is not favorable to either the project or the team members will negatively affect the success of the project.

Organizations should therefore not acculturate designs as one design that succeeds in an organization could terribly fail in another due to difference in the nature of the organizations or the people in the organizations. This effect on the organization will then be reflected on teams of the organization such as project teams.

The concept of organization design can also be applied to the design of project teams. An implementation of an inappropriate design will most likely ruin the success of the project (Autry 1).

Motivation Motivation of project team members can take a variety of forms. One of the most common modes of motivation is rewarding employees besides their usual remuneration. Rewards are given following an attained “results, performance, competence or even skills” (Beel 6).

There are many reasons for rewarding employees. Among the aims of rewarding includes: appreciating people for the value that they have contributed to the organization, promoting the growth of the culture of performance, instilling the culture of commitment to the activities of the organization and improving efficiency and morale among employees.

Leaders are also meant to motivate, build on employee satisfaction and to “encourage behavior that contributes to organizational objectives” (Beel 6). Even though rewarding employee is an extra expenditure to the organization, it promotes the success of an organization.

A model illustrated by Beel indicated that once motivation has been developed among the employees, their performance level is boosted and the success of the organization is eventually achieved.

Even though the concept of employee motivation has been welcomed by professionals on the corporate world, issues have been raised that extrinsic motivational approach has geared employees’ focus towards getting rewards rather than their responsibilities in organizations.

Though the motives towards getting extrinsic motivations may be different among employees, its net effect is to improve the performance of the employees and hence the success of the organization (Beel 10).

Communication and Interpersonal Skills Communications among members of an organization or a project team is an important tool in creating a collaborative environment. Communication is necessary both vertically and horizontally across the organizational structure. A good communication is defined in terms of its “quality, content and frequency” (Babler and Ekins 195).

An effective and efficient communication also enlists an individual’s personality, skills and character. The interpersonal communication skills helps in maintaining good ties and interpersonal relations, a factor that improves cohesion and hence unity in objectivity in a project team and an organization as a whole (Babler and Ekins 196).

Inefficient communication is always pointed out as asset back in the success of a project. Cornelius indicated that each and every assessment conducted after a project indicated that better results would have been obtained with better communication.

Improved communication in a project work to the expectations of the project team members is therefore an important factor in enhancing the success of a given project (Cornelius 3). For effective communication within the project team, an effective communication plan should be developed and implemented.

A good communication plan should predefine: the types of communication that are necessary for the project, the person in charge of communication, the methods to be employed in communication, the timings of the communications as well as the rate or frequencies at which the communications will be made. The communication should also be comprehensive to include the project plan.

In the project plan, the goals, expected time frame and outcomes together with the organization’s vision and the team’s vision are outlined. If implemented, this outlined communication will ensure the cohesion, unity and motivation among the project team members and hence enhance the success of the project (Cornelius 4)

Productivity and Total Quality Management Total quality management is a management approach that puts emphasis on the quality stages and activities that are involved in the production of goods and services. If imitated by the organization’s top management and facilitated by the notion that quality is critical in production processes, the total quality management can lead to an outstanding success.

Total quality management also focuses on empowerment of employees and the enhancement of team work. The use of total quality management may however not yield much success if it lacks a proper implementation process and sufficient managerial support. Lack of proper focus on the desired results is also a drawback to the success of total quality management on the productivity of an organization (Grobler and Wamich 143).

The control and monitor stage of project management involves analysis of measurements and trends in the project process in order to reconcile the actual processes with the ideally expected trend in the project plan. The stage ensures that inefficiencies are detected and corrective measures are taken.

The monitoring and control stage is therefore a tool to achieving the total quality management by checking for and ensuring that efficiency is maintained in the project processes. The monitoring stage of the project management has a significant effect on the level of productivity of a project.

In its implementation, the process ensures that the project is implemented as planned. The monitoring stage also ensures that any flaws or inefficiencies are identified for correction. If properly implemented, the monitoring stage will ensure that every stage and aspects of the project is efficiently handled. This will as a result enhance the productivity of the project (Schwalbe 255).

Decision Making and Problem Solving Decisions are often made in an organization in an attempt to solve a problem or to initiate a process. The process of decision making in the view of problem solving involves “analysis and creativity” as well as “evaluation and choosing from alternatives” (Maximiano and Pinto 3). The initial step into decision making involves either conceptualization of ideas or critical thinking that is based on observable factors.

Based on the conceptions or the observations, decisions are then made with the aim of developing strategies or helping people to work together. The kind of decision made will to a great extent influence the solution to the subject problem as well as the people who are involved. (Maximiano and Pinto 3). In an effective decision, the team leader should understand the circumstances under which the decisions are to be made.

The possible options should then be extensively considered and an appropriate moment be identified for making the decision. The team leader or any other member making a decision should ensure that they are not under panic when making decisions. The decision makers must ensure that they have the capacity to stay calm ever in events of crisis (Brezina, 8).

Strategies to decision making includes identifying decision to be made as either easy or challenging. The decisions are then allocated the structural hierarchies of administration in their respective order complexity with the simple decisions allocated to lower levels of administration.

Though the classification of problems as simple or complex is not normally an easy task, it makes the decision making process easier. An example of a decision making strategy could follow the order of defining the strategy to use in making the decision, considering the circumstances surrounding the problem, evaluating the cause and effect factors followed by a corrective measure.

A decision that involves skills and strategy is bound to be accepted by team members and to yield successful results in a project (Forgang 36).

Work Environment The environment in which a project team will work has a significant effect on the results of the project. The work environment is occasionally a concern to project team members even before the work is in progress. The work environment includes the relations among the team members, the work conditions like working hours and motivations among others.

Empowerment of team members is also an element of the work environment. It is the duty of the team leader in collaboration with other stake holders to ensure that an optimum work environment is created for the team members. A favorable work environment that for example promotes relations and interactions among team members as well as a good team leader can foster success of a project work.

The team leader has to be in contact with the team members even if the members are not centrally located. The contact should be preferably to to create a collaborative environment. Flexibility of working condition like office hours are motivational and occasionally yields the same if not better work output.

A good work environment can further be created by motivating team members and providing for satisfaction of their interests. Understanding the team members and influencing their behavior and attitudes towards the objectives of the project also enhances a favorable environment for the team members as opposed to authoritative control over them.

Empowering the team member in a project work is another tool to a favorable work environment. When the team members are satisfied with the environment in which they are working, they are motivated and their efficiency enhanced. This in effect improves their productivity and hence the success of the project (July 48).

Planning The results obtained from a project work greatly depend on the project planning. The skills taken into account during the planning of the project will determine the level of success of the project, if it is at all successful. The first step in planning, according to Blair Gerard, is the specification.

The project specification is the definition of the project to be carried out and states the goals and objectives of the project. It is important in identifying the activities in the project. Lack of specification can at times lead to an implementation of a wrong project.

It also helps in eliminating misunderstanding and assumptions that could be in conflict with each other. The next aspect of a project plan is its structuring. The framework that includes communication system and allocation of tasks provides cohesion in the team. The planning also ensures that evaluation is done by providing for specifications for testing on fitness of time allocations and purpose of the project.

The planning stage therefore has a direct influence on the processes and activities of the project which in turn dictates the success or failure of the project. the elements of the specification includes the time period allocated to the project, the necessary resource required for the project and the third parties upon which the project may depend.

The resources should include the human resource, competent team leader and members. An efficient planning will under strict implementation and monitoring will ensure success of the project. Allocation of the correct type and amount of resources, including competent members and team is therefore significant in the final success of the project (Blair 1).

Conclusion Project management, as a process of planning, organizing and managing resources to a project involves a great aspect of human resource. The success of a particular project therefore depends to the behavior of people involved in a project and their response to the environment in which they are working.

The above discussion has focused on the elements of human behavior and aspects of organizational culture with the aim of establishing their effects on the success or failure of a project.

A view of aspects like culture, structure and design of an organization as well as the responsive human behavior establishes the fact that these aspects have a very significant influence on the success of a project. A project will experience success or failure depending on how these elements are handled by the relevant parties in an organization.

Works Cited Autry, Roy. What is organization design? Inovus, 1996. Web.

Babler, Scott

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GIS and groundwater management Essay (Critical Writing) essay help

Background Water is a very important resource. Its importance cannot be emphasized as every living creature requires it for metabolic processes, besides, other processes that occur naturally on earth require water. For example, most of the geological processes on earth are accelerated by this precious resource, these include erosion and other earth forming processes.

97% of all water found on earth is present in oceans or seas, this makes it salty and can only be used for industrial or recreational purposes. Desalination is a very expensive way to produce water for domestic use. The remaining 3% is fresh, of which three quarters exists in frozen state in the Polar Regions. The rest is found below the ground while a small proportion is found above the ground or in the air.

Groundwater Groundwater accounts for approximately 20% of all fresh water on earth and exists below the ground level in soil spaces and fissures in underground rocks. These rocks are known as aquifers. Groundwater can flow to the earth’s surface naturally or artificially. It flows to the surface naturally through springs and can form oases or wetlands that eventually flow through the influence of gravity to form rivers.

It can also be pumped out through wells and boreholes and used for household, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Since groundwater contains little or no polluting materials, it is a very important source and can sustain large populations for many years if it is used efficiently (Thomas and Tellam, pp. 158). Managing such resources requires special tools and this is where GIS becomes useful.

GIS GIS, short for geospatial information system, is a method used to capture, store, evaluate, and present information relating to different locations on earth. It combines cartography, statistical analysis, and database management and is applied in archaeology, geography, remote sensing, public land management, natural resource management, and urban planning, among others.

GIS is applied in numerous fields of geography and has most recently been used to map and quantify groundwater. This process aids in the harvesting of these water resources, management, and reducing contamination of the same.

For example, during urban planning, it is imperative that underground water resources are identified so that structures such as industrial plants, landfills, and sewage recycling or disposal areas do not contaminate them. Besides, in the event of groundwater pollution and the need for a subsequent clean up, an existing map of the groundwater system would be very useful.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, we will look at how GIS systems can be applied to groundwater resource management and protection.

Groundwater Management through GIS Systems Predicting Groundwater Quality

Groundwater resources around the world are generally underused due to an increased likelihood of contamination. The risk of contamination increases when the groundwater is located in a town center or city. However, a GIS system can be used to predict water quality before construction of a borehole commences in an urban area.

The system uses a probabilistic risk based management tool to establish the contamination levels of groundwater based on the structures that exist in the vicinity of the potential borehole area (Tait et al, pp. 1111).

This ensures that boreholes are only constructed in areas within the city where the water quality meets the conditions for its use, whether human, industrial, or for irrigation. Since the construction of a borehole is a tedious and expensive process, it is imperative that the water extracted meets the requirements for its use.

The level of contamination or purity can be achieved through a GIS-based system. The GIS system uses information on the city’s sewerage system, industrial plants, landfills, charge recharge, and other sources of pollution and calculates the water contamination levels through a simulation process (Tait et al, pp. 1112, Thomas and Tellam, pp. 158). It uses the pre-installed program to perform this process.

This is important as it helps in determining the best sites for constructing underground wells and boreholes. Despite its relative accuracy, the model cannot exactly simulate the intricate interactions between a city and its underground water resources due to natural uncertainties.

Knowledge of Discharge and Recharge

Groundwater goes through the water cycle and hence effective management of this resource requires that we have a working knowledge of its discharge and recharge. Discharge and recharge is the exchange of water between the saturated zone, unsaturated zone, land surface and the atmosphere (Lin et al, pp. 460).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on GIS and groundwater management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Knowledge of this cycle is important as it aids authorities in managing the supply of water within ciiities and municipalities. Early discharge-recharge studies were tedious and required a lot of time, however, application of GIS technology can considerably reduce the time spent on these studies with increased accuracy.

This is made possible by the GIS system’s ability to process geospatial data spread across numerous datasets, this is an improvement of traditional systems as the GIS systems is able to handle missing data and make estimations depending on past analyses.

The ability of the system to pool studies from different geographical locations permits faster analysis of recharge and discharge data, hence gives authorities a hint as to groundwater levels at different locations within the city, it can then make plans on how to transport water resources to areas with deficits.

A GIS system for studying discharge recharge can identify and distinguish natural variables to make predictions for future underground water levels, hence authorities are able to make informed decisions regarding the distribution of water resources.

Likelihood of Nitrate Contamination

Leaching of chemicals is common in agricultural areas, unfortunately, they reach the underground water and thus contaminate it. Among the toxic chemicals that are mostly found in underground water is Nitrates (NO3).

High levels of this chemical in water causes blue baby syndrome, hence there is need to investigate the likelihood of nitrate pollution of an underground water resource, again, a GIS system can come handy in this process (Lake et al, pp. 316).

The system consists of a model based on the nitrate levels of the water leaving the root zone of a piece of land, presence of low-permeability superficial material, and the type of rock that makes the aquifer (Lake et al, pp. 316).

The system creates models of underground water vulnerability using GIS to link information regarding soil leaching, soil characteristics, permeability of the soil, and the type of rocks that make up the aquifer. These variables are then used to determine the likelihood that underground waters have been contaminated with nitrates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on GIS and groundwater management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Quantity and Quality of Recharge

Effective urban planning requires that authorities are well informed on the quantity and quality of the recharge, usually, this is rarely done. A GIS program can be used to assist urban planners in determining the volume and constituents of the recharge. The program also determines the processes that are most active in contaminating underground water in cities.

The program can also serve as a tool for identifying the connection between land use and contamination of groundwater. Preliminary results indicate that recharge is higher in cities (or paved areas) than in rural areas (or non-paved areas), hence recharge rate is higher in cities. However, this also implies that contamination levels are higher in cities than in rural areas (Thomas and Tellam, pp. 177).

Quantification of Rainfall and Flooding Effects

A final application of GIS in managing underground water resources is in the documentation of rainfall and flooding effects on underground water levels in areas where irrigation is practiced (Khan et al, pp. 359). It is observed that areas in which irrigation is carried out in large scale regularly have a higher water table wich results in salinization of underground water.

Heavy rainfall further increases the salinity. Therefore, it is vital that we comprehend the regional underground water dynamics in order to implement sound land and underground water management. A GIS system is important in assessing these dynamics.

This system maps the net groundwater recharge due to flooding and irrigation for an area that experiences heavy irrigation. After analysis, the mapping may show a spatial arrangement of the effect of flooding on the water table and salinity of underground water (Khan et al, pp. 366). This information can enable city authorities to devise better ways protecting groundwater from pollution.

Works Cited Khan, Shahbaz, Ahmad, Aftab and Wang, Butian. Quantifying Rainfall and Flooding Impacts on Groundwater Levels in Irrigation Areas: GIS Approach. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 4, 2007. 359-367.

Lake, Iain R. Evaluating factors influencing groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution: developing the potential of GIS. Journal of Environmental Management 68 (2003). 315–328.

Lin, Yu-Feng, Wang, Jihua, and Valocchi, Albert J. A New GIS Approach for Estimating Shallow Groundwater Recharge and Discharge. Transactions in GIS, Vol.12(4), 2008. 459–474.

Tait, N. G., et al. Borehole Optimisation System (BOS)—A GIS based risk analysis tool for optimising the use of urban groundwater. Environmental Modelling

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9-1 Final Project Submission: Strategic HR Plan. Submit your final project. It should address each of the four sections (People, Organization, Workplace, and Behavioral Competencies) that focus on HR best college essay help

Submit your final project. It should address each of the four sections (People, Organization, Workplace, and Behavioral Competencies) that focus on HR initiatives that move across an organization.
In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes:
 · Develop strategic human resource initiatives for supporting the recruitment and retention of qualified talent within an organization
 · Formulate recommendations that support organizational effectiveness based on an analysis of internal elements
 · Determine the impacts of external factors that influence an organization for mitigating risks
· Develop strategic approaches that incorporate relevant human resources behavioral competencies in addressing organizational issues
For the final project, you will assume the role of an HR professional for an organization. You will apply technical and behavioral competencies to develop strategic HR initiatives across the organization. You will be required to support the organization’s recommendations using data, specific examples, and detailed explanations of how these HR initiatives address organizational goals.
Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:
I. People: In this section, you will develop strategic HR initiatives around acquiring and retaining qualified talent for an organization. Provide specific examples.
A. Talent Acquisition: Determine appropriate strategies for acquiring qualified talent and explain how the strategies support organizational goals.
B. Employee Engagement and Retention: Determine appropriate employee engagement strategies and explain how this approach will increase retention.
C. Learning and Development: Determine learning and development opportunities aimed toward attracting and retaining qualified talent within the organization. D. Total Rewards: Identify appropriate total rewards strategies to increase employee retention and explain how these strategies support the goals of the organization.
II. Organization: In this section, you will analyze employee and labor relations that positively impact organizational effectiveness. Provide specific examples.
A. Employee Discipline: Analyze punitive and nonpunitive disciplinary approaches and explain their impacts on employee relations.
 B. Performance Management: Determine the elements of an effective performance management system and explain how well the employer’s system meets organizational needs.
C. Employee and Labor Relations: Determine the differences between union grievance procedures and nonunion complaint processes and describe improvements that could be made to a nonunion complaint process.
III. Workplace: In this section, you will analyze external factors that influence organizational effectiveness while mitigating risk. Provide specific examples.
A. Diversity and Inclusion: Explain generational differences within the workplace and describe appropriate strategies for managing a diverse workforce.
B. Risk Management: Determine appropriate proactive HR activities and policies for mitigating risk and explain how these strategies can be used within the organization.
 C. Corporate Social Responsibility: Describe HR’s role in creating a culture of social responsibility within the organization and the organization’s community.
D. HR in the Global Context: Determine appropriate strategies for properly preparing employees for an expatriate assignment and explain how these approaches ensure ongoing engagement.
IV. Behavioral Competencies: In this section, you will determine strategic HR initiatives that support people, organization, and workplace under the technical competency while selecting the most appropriate behavioral competencies. You must select at least one behavioral competency in addressing each domain (i.e., business, leadership, or interpersonal).
A. Determine HR initiatives that support the people technical competency and explain which behavioral competencies within the business domain are the most appropriate.
 B. Determine HR initiatives that support the organization technical competency and explain which behavioral competencies within the leadership domain are the most appropriate.
C. Determine HR initiatives that support the workplace technical competency and explain which behavioral competencies within the interpersonal domain are the most appropriate.
 D. Recommend strategic HR initiatives across the organization that utilize a combination of behavioral competencies and explain why this is the most appropriate approach.

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Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help

The following essay offers an analysis of the article Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory: Evolutionary Paths and Future Advances, with an eye to the authors’ depiction of how the theory of organizational knowledge creation has evolved over the last 15 years.

Since its inaugural use in 1986, the term knowledge management has consistently and stubbornly resisted a clear definition, largely due its inherent contradiction (Wilson, 2002).

Knowledge itself fundamentally defies management, as it is a personal internal mental process unique to each individual, a process that encompasses the private mental processes of comprehension, understanding and learning that occur within the confines of each individual’s mind (Dierkes et al., 2003, p. 493).

For the purposes of this article however, the term knowledge management has been subsumed by the clearer concept: organizational knowledge creation (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1179).

Organizational knowledge creation facilitates the method of providing, accessing and augmenting the knowledge generated by the individuals that make up a company, with the added benefit of applying that information to the larger organization’s knowledge system, so that the base of knowledge continually grows and expands (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1179).

Relevant information and applicable knowledge that employees derive from their wider life becomes beneficial to their organization and their fellow colleagues (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1179). Organizational knowledge creation theory helps to clearly elucidate this process for organizations and employees alike.

The theory has been gaining ground in academic circles in the last decade and, as a result has transmogrified management as a whole, becoming “broadly diffused in management practice over the last 15 years” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1179). The engine behind this movement in management the authors attribute to a broadening of perspective held and developed amongst management scholars.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors assert that “since the mid-eighties …scholars have increasingly recognized that ‘information’ and ‘knowledge’ are not interchangeable. The construct ‘knowledge’ was increasingly accepted and now occupies a central and legitimate role in much mainstream organizational and management theory” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1200).

The authors of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory: Evolutionary Paths and Future Advances attribute the evolution of organizational knowledge creation theory to the materialization of numerous disparate epistemologies as the main driver in its development (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1200).

The first important step in the evolution of organizational knowledge creation theory, the authors assert, was the establishment of a workable definition for knowledge, one which addressed the contradiction and difficulty inherent in attempting to access the inner workings of a private mental landscape.

In the early nineties the gap that persisted between explicit and tacit knowledge was finally bridged, according to the authors, by the revelation that knowledge is simultaneously explicit and tacit.

Forms of knowledge which can be “uttered, formulated in sentences, captured in drawings and writing” the authors understood as explicit knowledge, whereas the more internal forms of knowledge such as that which derives from the “senses, movement skills, physical experiences, intuition or implicit rules of thumb” the authors identified as tacit knowledge (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1182).

The ensuing definition freed scholars previously locked in to the “Western epistemology with its strong focus on explicit knowledge” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1182).

More importantly, this definition breathed life into the discipline because it allowed scholars to accept that “elements of perception, skills, experience and history” constitute a vital element of knowledge, and cemented the understanding in academia that “knowledge is never free from human values and ideas” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1182).

We will write a custom Assessment on Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The important breakthrough here, the authors assert, was to understand the impact that the social environment has on individuals and how it shapes their acquisition and utilization of knowledge within the organization (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1182).

Building upon the foundation of the workable definition, the authors maintain that the theory expanded as a result of understanding the action of knowledge – known as knowledge conversion – n as it travels from within the person to within her organization (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183).

This includes how knowledge becomes established, how it moves through an individual’s socialization into her mind, and how her mind then applies that knowledge to her work (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183). According to the authors, knowledge travels a four-stage process known as SECI: socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183).

Socialization strives to share tacit knowledge amongst an organization’s employees, while externalization takes concepts derived from this tacit knowledge and ground them in overt exterior concept — explicit concepts (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183).

Combination gathers these various forms of explicit knowledge, while internalization reengineers this explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183). The net effect is synthesis. As the authors describe, “in knowledge conversion, personal subjective knowledge is validated, connected to and synthesized with others’ knowledge” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1183).

Based on the insights offered by this article, the future of organizational knowledge creation theory will continue to grow and evolve as long as it can continue to utilize and amalgamate insights gleaned from diverse epistemologies and wider academic and business perspectives to enhance the academic understanding of how knowledge travels through an individual into an organization (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1200).

The comprehension that knowledge is affected by socialization, in particular, has broader management application and expands the practice as a whole (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1200). As the authors aptly note, the study of organizational knowledge creation theory “benefits from keeping its boundaries open” (Nonaka et al., 2006, p. 1200).

Reference List Dierkes, M. et al (2003) Handbook of organizational learning and knowledge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Evolution of Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nonaka, I.

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Organisational knowledge Management Report (Assessment) writing essay help

Table of Contents Organisational knowledge

Value creation and organisational knowledge

Conclusion

References

Organisational knowledge The business world is increasingly becoming competitive with new approaches to businesses being developed in different industries. An organisation attains its corporate objectives by proper management of its human resources and building of orchestrate teams.

To nature invention and innovation, an organisation must develop strategies that grow and preserve organisational knowledge(Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003). This paper discusses how organisational knowledge contributes to value creation; it will use real life cases to discuss the topic.

Value creation and organisational knowledge Knowledge management assists a company have a pool of knowledge of a certain industry; the knowledge is vested in its databases and employees. With past trends in business, it is very easy to predict current trends and future business trends. Current business management strategies and mechanisms are targeted at increasing the value of their business.

Business value can be seen from two aspects, the financial value in the form of returns and the value of commodities and goods produced. With a pool of knowledge, a company is able to develop strategies that can lead to effective and competitive business, they will be able to beat their competitors and the result is an increased business income.

For example, Toyota Motor Corporation supposed General Motors’ in 2008 to be the world largest motor vehicle supplier because of customer responsive strategies developed after analysing its pool of wisdom and using research and development approaches (Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003).

Product value is dependent with the target customer; with a pool of knowledge, a company will understand the expectation that its customers have and then aim at developing more customer-oriented products.

In the late 1990’s Apple Inc was facing reduced business, the company revival is attributed to tapping of the knowledge of its former founder and manager Steve Jobs. Steve understood the market so well that in a span of three years, he revived the company; currently the company is the largest electronic company in sales volume in the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The following diagram shows the process for organisational knowledge management:

This major process Includes these activities Gathering Data entry, OCR and scanning, Voice input, Pulling information from various sources and Searching for information to include Organizing Cataloguing, Indexing, Filtering and Linking Refining Contextualizing, Collaborating, Compacting, Projecting and Mining Disseminating Flow, Sharing, Alert and Push (Chong, Keng-Boon, Binshan and Pei-Lee, 2010).

How can the processes and systems of the organisations be effectively utilized to support the sharing and creating of knowledge

An organisation can be defined as a coordination of different processes to attain a certain goal, corporate goal. Management can take deliberate measures to ensure that it maintains and grows its knowledge asset. Globalisation and competition has resulted for companies to look for intellectual assets management over and above traditional business assets like physical and human resource.

Knowledge can be tapped in two major ways, information storage and the use of human resources as tools of information maintenance in an organisation. Knowledge management has been facilitated by advanced in technology with homemade and commercial tools used to produce and distribute information within and without a business.

These tools include internet, intranet, CRMs and advance intellectual data management tools. Business intelligence tools are also considered as knowledge management tools (Singh

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Article by Jansen Joy Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Methodology

Presentation of Findings

Data Interpretations and Conclusion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Reading is one of the most important skills that English teachers should posses for effective teaching. However, English language teachers face a formidable challenge in reading. Reading is a complex skill that is vital for achievements of learners of the English language. The author Jansen Joy is interested in knowing the specific topics to be addressed to ease reading.

This paper is well structured because it begins by an introduction, followed by reviewing literature related to challenges of reading in learning English and then compares the reviewed literature to the empirical findings from a survey that was conducted (Toohey 96).

The paper concludes by a conclusion. The paper was chosen because it addresses important issues facing reading in English Learners. What is interesting in the paper is how the author brings out the difficulties experienced by English readers because I thought reading in English is simple.

The author introduces his study by explaining the main theme of the study that is reading difficulties for English learners.

The introduced professional problem is publicly identified and discussed. The study thesis is pointed out in form of research questions that captured issues to be addressed by teacher educators in order to improve English reading. The inquiry is phrased in terms of a problem with possible solution techniques listed (Janzen 707).

Theoretical Framework Theoretical framework involves review of past literature on the study topic. The researcher reviews both theoretical and empirical literature. Various theoretical readings are covered in the paper both recent and old. A survey by Birch indicates that there is need to bring ELLs to a grade level (139).

Au argues that some variables such as the first language of the learner, proficiency in reading and the strategy used in learning are affect the development of L2 reading proficiency (303).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Garcia adds that other issues are textual variables (syntactic features, cultural content and structure) and contextual variables (instructional approaches). Researchers such as Bernhardt and Fitzgerald emphasized the importance of textual, linguistic and processing concerns for L2 students (300).

Through these theoretical studies, the author clearly brought out the difficulties that English learners experience in reading English. The study also pointed out possible solutions such as instructional practices, working with a range of learner proficiencies and use of learning materials.

Other solutions include coping with mainstream teachers and school demands and working with learners with limited proficiency. Additionally, the author used many empirical surveys in the field of English learning. A study of Cummings pointed out that the attainment of academic literacy for ELLs could take several years ranging from 4-7 years (79).

By reviewing the literature, the author did not define the key concepts of the study. Some of the key concepts that were not defined include English language learners (ELLs), materials, thematic teaching, decoding and writing skills (Janzen 708).

Methodology Methodology is an important part of a survey. This paper utilized a qualitative survey and not quantitative. A qualitative survey includes the collection of primary data using interviews from respondents in the field. Qualitative data does not involve much of numerical and statistical calculations as indicated in this survey.

The survey is appropriate for the given research questions because this survey is a social survey and not a survey in natural sciences that requires use of statistical tool such as regression. The use of this research paradigm is similar to most empirical surveys as indicated in the empirical study. For instance, Garcia focused on K-12 ELLs using such a paradigm (819).

Various aspects of qualitative survey are mentioned in the survey. The researcher used clustered sampling to select the study sample while the study population in the district was chosen basing on the availability of ELLs. Data was collected using interviews questions that investigated various areas such as the background of teachers, students, and beliefs and practices about the reading practices for ELLS.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Article by Jansen Joy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the choice of the methods, the researcher only justified the use of open-ended questions in the interview as to provide respondent with room for expansion of their answers. He does not justify other methods used. In addition, he does not include measures to maximize reliability and validity of the study. Lastly, the researcher does not mention any use of ethical issues in the survey (Janzen 713).

This survey employed qualitative research methods and therefore the analysis of data involved qualitative data analysis. There is no use of statistical methods such as regression. However, the researcher used transcription of interview tapes. However, there is no justification of the chosen method.

The researcher should have included structured interview question hence the use of SPSS analysis because this is a social science survey (Celce-Murcia 72).

Presentation of Findings The findings in the survey are well linked to the theoretical literature and other empirical surveys through comparison. Given that the survey utilized qualitative research methods, the researcher did not include any graphs or charts to illustrate the findings. Only theoretical models were used.

Despite the findings being relevant to the field of study, there are no reliability and validity measures provided by the researcher casting doubts on whether the findings are reliable and valid. However, the study measures what it claims to measure (Valdés 210).

Data Interpretations and Conclusion The findings of the survey are consistent with other findings as discussed in the literature review of the paper. The author has successfully generalized the findings of the study regarding possible ways to solve issues of ELLs.

The limitations of the study are given that the initial author’s concerns of individual perspective as insufficient because they do not support group learning experiences such as teachers, learners’ wider techniques.

The author concludes by supporting the study findings by offering alternative explanations. The conclusions are relevant because they provide possible solution for improving reading among English learners. The author suggests a further study in classroom learning methods (Ovando

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Ethics and Morals at Workplace Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

In every action, may it be ordinarily or non-ordinarily daily activity undertaken by human beings, there is a risk associated with the action, regardless of its magnitude. That is, in everything that we do ranging from resting to participation in rigorous bustles involving rescuing work, or warring against adversaries, a certain degree of risk is always there.

Surely, this portrays that risk will forever be there in all human daily life activities, however, there are varying extremes of the risk depending on the kind of activity, or work being done.

If we view resting as having its own associated health risk, it’s vivid that the most important thing for a person to understand is the kind of risks embedded within the work s/he does, after acknowledge that little can be done to bring it to extinction (Barnett, 2005).

For many centuries, workplace incidents leading to work fatalities have been matters of great concern in all major industry categories; thus, over the years, efforts have been put to reduce the number of workplace injuries in most of the major industries of mining, transportation, building

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Religion and God on the Brain Research Paper essay help online free

The investigations conducted by Benson and the team of sophisticated scientists (2006) are based on the fact that intercessory prayer may influence the process of recovery in a variety of ways.

However, Benson et al. evaluate the conditions when people with CABG suffer from depressions and inabilities to control their illnesses even under being properly treated and supported by prayers and offer the idea that prayers should not be regarded as one of the main factors of human recovery.

The experiment aims at dividing people into several groups where some people are aware of receiving intercessory prayer and some people are not aware of this fact. The results were not as impressive as expected: the chosen intercessory prayer “had no effect on complication-free recovery from CAGB” (Benson et al., 2006, p. 942).

Such conclusions were made by the researchers, still, they wanted to support the idea of religion in treatment and admit that such results could be predetermined by the limitations set on the study: some constraints were placed without any kind of feedback.

This is why the result of the study should not challenge the chosen belief and make people doubt about the God’s existence. The main point was to discuss how prayers may influence treatment, and this article show the rationality of the required medical interference.

The works by Newberg et al. (2010, 2005, 2006.

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OSHA recommendations regarding workplace safety Essay essay help online: essay help online

Abstract How to promote workplace safety is a continued debate. Organizations invest millions of dollars in workplace safety training. Nevertheless, the current state of safety leaves sufficient room for improvements.

This paper discusses and evaluates OSHA recommendations regarding workplace safety in the meat packaging industry. Cultural and language issues in workplace safety training are discussed. The duty to guarantee workplace safety is reconsidered from the deontological and utilitarian perspectives.

How to protect employee safety in the workplace is a continued debate. Academic literature and OSHA provide safety recommendations for organizations in different industries. Unfortunately, the current state of workplace safety leaves much room for improvements.

Organizations fail to meet even the basic demands for employee safety in the workplace. Immigrant workers are particularly susceptible to various workplace safety risks. In this situation, organizations are morally obliged to engage immigrant employees in workplace safety training that fits in their cultural conditions and teaches them the basic safety rules in their native language.

Manufacturing organizations invest millions of dollars in workplace safety initiatives. Throughout the 20th century, the number of workplace-related deaths dramatically decreased (Anonymous, 1999). Nevertheless, the level of safety in the workplace leaves much to be desired. In 2005, OSHA investigated workplace conditions in meat packaging enterprises in Nebraska (Gonzalez, 2005).

The organization reported numerous, severe human rights and safety violations in the meat industry (Gonzalez, 2005).

Some of the recommendations provided by the Human Rights Watch organization included (a) stronger laws to stop underreporting of workplace incidents and injuries; (b) stronger enforcement of worker compensation laws; and (c) new laws to guarantee safety of employees, irrespective of their immigration status (Gonzalez, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the seriousness of the situation, the recommendations provided by the Human Rights Watch are incomplete.

I fully agree to OSHA and Human Rights Watch in that organizations are morally obliged to guarantee workplace safety for all employees, irrespective of their immigrant status (Gonzalez, 2005). OSHA obligates employers to furnish places of employment that are free from the risks of physical injury or death (Eckhardt, 2001).

The logic behind this duty is simple: from the utilitarian perspective, employee injuries and deaths cause heavy financial consequences on enterprises (Eckhardt, 2001). From the deontological standpoint, employers are socially responsible for promoting employee wellness (Eckhardt, 2001). In this situation, developing and implementing sound and fair standards of workplace safety is a must.

Unfortunately, OSHA and Human Rights Watch forget about the role of culture in developing workplace safety initiatives for immigrant employees. Achieving the desired level of workplace safety is impossible, unless employees have sufficient level of literacy and proficiency to understand safety policies in the workplace (Johnson

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Enterprise architecture: Enterprise Architecture Center Essay argumentative essay help

Enterprise architecture can be defined as the developed scheme for business activities and IT capabilities revealing the standardization and integration requirements of the organizational operating model (Enterprise Architecture Center, 2010). In this regard, the information system is viewed as more as a strategic exercise, rather than a technical one.

It explains the roles and contributions made by IT structures (Enterprise Architecture Center, 2010). However, this vision is not consistent with existing organizational policies that increase productivity and introduce advanced levels of management.

On the contrary, the main aspects of the presented model can discourage social interaction within an organization, misinterpret the role of IT in advancing company’s productivity, and create problems with the decision-making process.

While evaluating social and technical gaps as presented by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), one should note that it fails to define accurately the role of IT in carrying out business. Particularly, introducing the best technological novices cannot be considered as the most effective IT strategy.

The point is that managers should strike the balance between IT advancement and training programs introductions to reconcile knowledge management and technological side. In this regard, organizational issues should be tackled equally with the technological ones, being more concerned with effect that software and automation process have on organizational behavior and development (Nobel, 2010).

Similar problem is connected with organization management and role of software in knowledge management. According to Jenkins et al. (2005), the effectiveness of enterprise architecture systems relies on three pillars: content management, collaboration, and culture.

The latter is missing in interpretation provided by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), where primary emphasis is focused on advancing information-based systems rather re-shaping organizational behaviors with regard to the on-going changes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The majority of managers firmly believe that introducing changes and encouraging technology advancement can solve their organization problems, particularly the pitfalls of a decision-making process. In this respect, Nobel (2010) asserts, “[t]echnologies that make the acquisition of information easier at the lower level of the hierarchy are association with a decentralization of the decision-making process” (n. p.).

Despite rapid development of communication technologies which, to some extent, promote problem-solving, technology is still evaluated within one dimension that disregards its role in industry performance, productivity, and academic studies (Picot et al., 2008, p. 157). Wrong perception of this category causes a managers’ failure to consider manifold effects of technology on communication and social interaction.

More important, a multidimensional assessment matters not only for companies’ productivity and organization, but also for labor market situation where communication technology and information access influence salary distribution (Bernus et al., 2003, p. 617).

In general, information technology is still a core component of any modern organization and, therefore, managers should take a closer look at the problem of building IT infrastructure.

While assessing the outlook presented by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), it can be concluded that the dominance of operating model can hamper social interaction and communication, decentralize the decision making productivity and decrease the levels of company’s productivity within an organization.

The investigation has proved that an excessive focus on technology integration and negligence of social issues and organizational behavior will not positively contribute to the improvement of organizations’ strategic frameworks.

Consequently, multidimensional effects of technology on knowledge management and enterprise infrastructure should be deeply analyzed to fill in the gaps of organizational development and information management.

We will write a custom Essay on Enterprise architecture: Enterprise Architecture Center specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Bernus, P., Nemes, L., and Schmidt, G. (2003). Handbook on Enterprise Architecture. US: Springer.

Enterprise Architecture Center (2010) Enterprise Architecture Organizational Readiness and Change Management. Web.

Jenkins, T., Kohler, W., and Shackleton, J. (2005). Enterprise content management methods: what you need to know. US: Open Text Corporation.

Nobel, C. (2010) How IT Shapes Top-Down and Bottom-Up Decision Making. Working Knowledge: Harvard Business School. November 1. Web.

Picot, A., Reichwald, R., and Wigand, R. (2008). Information, organization and management. US: Springer.

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Informed Consent in Psychology Essay essay help site:edu

Informed Consent refers to the premeditated and thoughtful approval or assent given by an individual or corporation. For assent to pass as an informed consent, then the party involved must be properly, clearly and in details be informed on the matter at hand.

This should be followed by an elaborate explanation and expounding to ensure there are no ambiguous words and ascertain the matter is crystal clear to the participant before making any binding decision. In research projects, informed consent is very important.

Research and behavioral study are very important fields in psychology. If a research on a specific group of people or an individual is conducted without informed consent, the research findings and recommendations are deemed to be unreliable and lack authenticity.

Such research could lead to the prosecution of the researchers, as it is illegal and raises major ethical issues. The main aim in the creation of the informed consent rule was mainly to shield people from the medical practices of psychology.

The rule clearly stipulates that no research can be conducted without the involved party’s knowledge and most important, approval. The ethical issue arising emanates from the notion that human beings are born free with a free will, no effort should undermine that freedom.

Therefore when an individual is used as a specimen without his/her approval, then the endeavor to always let people exercise their freedom is tampered with.

Ethically, human beings should not be used as objects of research with the notion that the end justifies the means, rather human beings should at all time be viewed as the end itself. Informed consent at times leads individuals to get involved in fatal practices, raising the ethical issue whether we have authority to choose life and death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competence Competence refers to the conventional needs, requirements and expectations to be met for any person to be deemed as suitable and preferred to take charge of any given task. Competence could also be mental. Mental competence is the ability and capacity of any given individual to properly, efficiently and objectively participate in legal proceedings.

Competence is a very important aspect in professional practice. Competence in any given field like in psychology, or medicine ensures delivery of services is in the appropriate professional manner. This ensures people are catered for their specific needs.

In psychology, competence ensures clients are treated for the respective disorders and the diagnosis is for the right ailments. This saves time, resources and creates a healthy society whose needs are properly catered for. This in turn creates order and harmony in the society eliminating chaos.

In professional practice, competence is maintained in a number of ways. The most important is making sure the professionals are highly qualified in the specified field. Specialization is thus very central in maintaining competence. Qualification should be both in academic and experience gained. To ensure the right personnel are hired, it is important to hire workers on merit and weed out corruption.

Competence is also maintained through formulating of the right policies in running an institution. Policies and rules guiding the personnel should be objective, clear, and implemental. Laws governing the practice and conduct of professionals are also in place and effective to ensure those who are not competent are suspended or at times charged.

Use of the appropriate IT facilities has also been emphasized, this ensures more materials to refer to are available and professional sharing is facilitated. Competence is the key to successive and objective professionalism.

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Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Ethical dilemmas are parallel situations that demand an individual to take one side and leave the other. Whichever side one take, there is a moral conflict that is ensued. The two choices carry almost the same weight. Laws of a country may sometimes conflict with the moral and ethical standards creating a legal conflict in Professional Psychology.

Professional psychology has many hard tussles and complexities distinguishing it from other branches of psychology. The patient client and the medics have an obligation to one another, to abide by the set guidelines and binding laws stipulated by the association representing the American psychologists.

A dilemma can arise when a professional psychologist is faced with a case of woman client who has conceived after being raped. Rape is an atrocity violating human rights and there is no where in the world where it is allowed.

The woman is carrying a pregnancy she did wish to have and it was forced into her, the psychologist is faced with the dilemma when advising the mother on whether the conceived fetus has rights and in any case it has, then how do the rights of the traumatized mother is to be balanced against the right of the fetus.

If the mother is advised to carry an abortion, then ethical issues about abortion will arise, some will argue the fetus is living hence abortion is murder.

If the mother is advised to keep the pregnancy, some experts will argue that this will be a source of trauma and psychological torture to the mother and the fetus has no right to be there, as it is a product of violence. This gives the mother the right to terminate it if she wishes to rid herself this ugly scar of rape.

Some rape victims might end up being mentally unstable posing dangers to members of the society. Rape, consumes most of the humane nature of humans rendering the victims to be merciless and thus are capable of harming members of the society. Most rape victims do not want to be known by the members of the society and thus hard do identify them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When such victims becomes mentally disturbed and does not want people to know the psychologist, is caught in a dilemma of, to both observe the anonymity norm and keep quite or notify members of the public especially family members, and in the process violating professional ethics.

Another result might be that if the pregnancy is not terminated, then the mother will most likely become mentally disturbed and might result in violence. Either decision carries a repercussion with it.

However, there are conventionally agreed steps to follow in order for the judgment to be as objective as possible. These steps are many and vary with the situation at hand thus some need a form of adaptation in order to conform to the situation given.

The first step the psychologist will do is to anticipate the various people who will be affected by the preferred advice to the client. We exist in a society and every society has norms and culture. It is good to first understand the client’s society, the way rape is viewed compared to abortion. How the value of human life is safeguarded and whether the fetus is regarded as human life.

Another action to be taken by the psychologist is to first categorize and single out the circumstance that requires ethical deliberation and quick resolution making. A cruel act of rape was committed to the client and might lead to mental disorder, however aborting the fetus, assuming the fetus as a person, will be committing similar cruelty.

Not getting rid of the rape conceived pregnancy will be like continuing the atrocity to the client and the intention to relieve the client the pregnancy will not necessarily be morally and ethically right. Good intentions do not make a morally bad act good. Having this in mind, it will be easy to weigh the options.

It is also advisable to clearly distinguish the client. Whether it is the person being addressed as having been raped or is it the person paying the fees. Is loyalty to be accorded the person paying the fees or the client herself? The mother might be pressured to either keep or abort the pregnancy.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is thus very important to establish the real intentions of the client then weigh them according to ethical guidelines. The client should be the main subject instead of other factors like the person paying the fees. The source of the mental disorder should also be critically analyzed, is it the act of rape or the stigma from the society?

The psychologist must also asses his/her area of specialization, competence and of missing know how and skills including experience. This enables professional, objective decisions.

If one has handled such case of rape before with success, then it will not be hard in making the right decision. If this is the first time then it is advised to take some in analyzing the situation more and if there is another source of knowledge well versed with such cases, it will be for the best interest to consult.

The fifth step to consider is the legal standards. It is good to visit and find out what the law says about abortion, rape, right of fetus, rights of the mother and the clinicians directly or indirectly. If the laws are clear or there are ambiguous and conflicting legal standards on the raised sectors.

Whether the law support or rebuke the acts and persons mentioned. Different state has different laws especially on abortion. This will enable the clinician not to advise the rape victims to carry out illegal acts as what might be ethically right might be illegal.

Knowledge and research evolve with each day that passes. It is thus preferable that the psychologist reviews the relevant theories and credible authentic research findings. This provides a wide scope in which to address the issue from. The response and recommendations will thus follow after a rigorous research. The client will thus be satisfied and aided in the best possible way.

The eighth step to consider is personal feelings, biases and at times self interest as they might affect the psychologist’s decision. This is important as one’s conviction of what is ethically right might lead to conflict with law. The rape case will trigger more emotions in females than males.

Consideration of these factors removes one from subjective decisions to objective ones. It also removes preconceived ideas and judgments.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the decision making, it is also crucial to apply an effect, which is if any, brought about by cultural, societal, religion or similar factors versus the ethical responses. Different societies treat rape and abortion differently. Some argue life starts at birth while others at conception. Different religions like Islam and Christianity also have varying and at times contradictory views.

Once equipped with that knowledge then the decision will be for the right problem. Another step will for the psychologist to look for possible alternatives if any from his own imagination. These alternative sources need critical evaluation. So the next step is evaluation in a critical way of the alternative courses developed.

The eventual impact one could have under the best possible way or the worst imaginable result. The risks involved, immediate and long term consequences for every party involved including the psychologist. Benefits realized to an individual and the society.

So as one to come up with the most ethical response to such a dilemma the psychologist needs to put herself/ himself in the shoes of the people who will in one way or the other be affected by his/her counsel. The question on what each person would regard as the most ethical reaction should be put across.

The compensation the less favored party would get. These questions and the psychologist’s assumption of the omniscient role will drastically shape the way the rape victim will be advised

The final step is to assemble the steps discussed above, carefully evaluating removing bias, fallacies, considering contextual situation like religion, laws and the ethical implications. A decision is now made. A decision that is clear supports, with detailed explanations the reasons for making it in a pool of thousand choices. Justice should not only be done, but there be a process to show its doing.

This decision above all should lean toward moral and ethical righteousness. It is particular and specific but its process of deliberation should be conventional and can be used to solve a similar scenario (Garber, 2008).

Ethical decision-making is very important in professional psychology. This help in the understanding of individuals’ behavioral pattern. Ethical decisions enable psychologists to successfully eliminate fallacies brought about by various subjective agencies.

These subjective agencies include language, culture, religion and environment. Most ethical rules are universal while others are particular, for example it is universally accepted that no individual should take the life of another individual, or no stealing is allowed. These provide basis for professional psychology to establish its guidelines.

Due to ethical decisions, psychologists are able to explain the various challenges faced by those who are unethically treated by others. Since rape and killing are prohibited in many societies, those who commit these atrocities tend to be affected psychologically in a certain way likewise those that fall victims to these atrocities have their own behavioral pattern.

Soldiers who go to war and are forced to commit unethical deeds tend to be psychologically affected in a certain negative way. The ethical decisions aid in the analysis of human mind and consequently those with various disorders are given the attention needed to normalize their conditions.

The ethical convictions of an individual directly or indirectly affect the decisions they make. Psychologists in professional practice study their own ethical standards before making various decisions for their clients thereby avoiding errors associated with personal feelings.

Ethical dilemmas are encountered in our day to day lives. The way we handle the dilemmas are determined by various factors making it to have a conventional way of solving them. Ethics addresses questions about morality especially the concepts such as good versus evil, right versus wrong, virtues versus voice, the justice system and so on.

There are various fields in ethics and all try to address the issue of ethical decisions. Such branches include ethics in: normative, Meta, applied, moral and descriptive. Ethical decisions and professional psychology are intertwined (Cohen, 2007).

Reference List Cohen, M. (2007). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. Web.

Garber, P. (2008). The Ethical Dilemma. Web.

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Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Narrative research possesses various forms, and it is founded on various disciplines of both social and humanity. In qualitative research, the term narrative is attributed to any text used in inquiry mode, with a particular focus based on narratives told by people.

According to Pinneger and Daynes (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), narrative can be described as both a phenomenon and procedure of study. As a procedure, narrative is composed of events that occurred in life situation of people.

Understanding and analyzing of told stories have been introduced by different writers. In qualitative design, the narrative is comprehended as a spoken account detailing experiences that are connected in sequence. The method used in undertaking this research is based on attaining data from the stories told by one or two people. The data collected is later to be defined.

The various fields used for study have incorporated their own ways of undertaking the research even though the narrative research base its origins from sociology, education, history and anthropology. Interdisciplinary efforts are a crucial factor in narrative research and should be encouraged according to Josselson and Riessman (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 1).

Narrative studies therefore contain a particular contextual focus that may involve either teacher or children in classroom. In addition to this, narrative may incorporate the stories told regarding organizations only that this time they may be guarded in a theoretical lens view (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 3).

Types of narrative studies Narrative analysis

Analytic strategies imply one of the ways used to differentiate the various types of narrative researches. According to Polkinghorne (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), analytic strategies are used to define the various themes that sustain stories. In narrative analysis, researchers take note of the happenings and events, and summarize them into a plot.

Chase approach to narrative research was almost similar to that of Polkinghorne, as it suggested that by paradigmatic reasoning researchers could undertake a narrative study thereby developing an interpretation of the interactive performances (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biographical study

This is a type of narrative where the researcher not only writes, but also records life’s experiences of another person. The traditional inquiry nature of biographical study involves an individual telling the researcher his life experiences, while the role of the investigator is to translate the story into text.

According to Scruggs and Mastropieri (2006), biographical study is suggested to be an axis for personal change. The various types of biographical studies include life history, oral history, individual biographies, and autobiographies.

While undertaking this type of study, the researcher involved has to explore the available written documents and records of the subject of interest and elaborate the person in terms of the different stages involved in life.

The written documents of another individual are normally brought to life in the investigator’s narrative. In addition to this, the investigator possesses the ability to indicate the already existing relationship between him and the main character (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006, p. 5).

Autobiography

Autobiography involves both the writing and recording of the experiences and events involved in the life of the subject study, which also plays the role of the writer. Here, the writer brings life to his or her own life experience by writing it down.

Oral history

In oral history, a set of activities is undertaken. Some of these activities involves gathering of personal experiences that range from one person to many people. The effects and causes of these experiences are also gathered for analysis.

Procedures for conducting a narrative research

The methods used in undertaking a narrative research are not guided by a lock up stop approach; but contrary to this, it undertakes an informal summation of topics. The procedures involved are mainly guided by the procedural guide that was used as an approach by Clandinin and Connelly.

We will write a custom Essay on Narrative research on vicarious trauma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Primarily, the researcher has to decide whether the research question is best suited for the narrative research about to be undertaken. In case the researcher intends to capture detailed life experiences, the narrative research is the best way forward especially if the research touches on individual life or collective lives of people.

The researcher then has to choose one or more persons that possess stories or experiences involved in life. On attaining the subject person, the researcher has to spend considerable amount of time with them, acquiring their life stories using multiple kinds of information. These stories have been referred to as field texts by Clandinin and Connelly.

The stories collected from the participants may be recorded in a diary or journal form. On the other hand, the researcher may alternatively use the observation method of observing the individuals and recording the field notes acquired.

In addition to this, the researchers may also use letters sent by the subject individuals, acquire information from the subject’s individual family members, obtain memos pertaining to the subject individual, or acquire photographs and the individual’s family artifacts. These resources will guide the researcher in developing a solid record of the individual’s life experiences.

Thirdly, the context information of these stories must be collected. Individual stories, for instance, are situated within the subject individual’s personal experiences that include homes or work place, one’s culture, and historical background. On attaining this, the next step is to analyze the stories acquired from the participants, and restructure them within a framework that makes sense.

The process of reorganizing the stories acquired is called restoring. The frameworks under which these stories are organized into consist of gathering stories, analyzing key elements and restructuring the stories in chronological sequence whereby, casual links are provided among the many ideas.

One of the main attributes of chronology is that the stories have the three sections that include a beginning, middle and lastly an end. Apart from this, a chronology may involve ideas from past, present, and future. Crucial elements like time, scene, and place are also included in the story line. Qualitative data analysis may be described as both the themes and story that emerge from the plot.

Finally, the researcher has to collaborate with the participants by letting them play an active role in the research. In the process of collecting stories, the researchers not only establish relationships but also offer smooth transitions between them and the participants. In this process, there is a negotiation on the definition of stories thereby validating the analysis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Narrative research on vicarious trauma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The story may contain epiphanies within its context, which indicates the various turning points of the story line. In summary, the story indicates unfolding events of the individuals in a chronology based on experiences. According to Clandinin and Connolly, Narrative inquiry is described as the stories that occurred and told (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5)

Limitations

Narrative research has been a challenging method to use due to characteristics and procedures attributed to it. Thorough and extensive information regarding the participant needs to be acquired first in order to have a satisfactory understanding of the subject participant.

In addition, maximum concentration is needed in order to acquire and identify the various sources materials attributed to the stories that capture the experiences of the participants. According to Edel (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), it is important to reveal the entire context of the multilayered life.

The participants stories need to be discussed extensively thereby emphasizing active collaboration between the researcher and the participant. In this active participation, political background and personal reflection are some of the attributes needed to restory the account.

In the process of collecting, telling the participant stories, and analyzing of the same stories, a number of issues are bound to occur. According to Pinnegar and Dayner (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), the owner of the story, who is responsible of telling the story, is at liberty to change it and the effects of the stories within the community we live (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5).

Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay In the introductory segment on vicarious trauma, the researcher defines the present day situation of effects of trauma. In the process of introducing the subject at hand, the researcher also defines the various types of trauma according to their category.

In the modern world, not only is one faced with the high chances of attaining direct trauma, but also the other categories of trauma that include historical, secondary trauma and intergenerational trauma. The mentioning of the various types of trauma introduces the topic to be researched on and provides the researcher with boundaries where the focus studies focus will be based.

The narrator introduces the effects of trauma by indicating that people with traumatic experiences are seeking solutions in therapies, family members, drugs, and alcohol. Family members and medical professions are introduced as the second set of participants.

The place of research is also introduced in the introductory segment of the narrative research. Small northern communities are defined to process limited options of solution to the traumatic experience. The North according to Berman has also the feature of geographical isolation that is also referred to as tyranny of space by social geographers.

The introduction will also incorporate experiences obtained from a nurse working in the North. It is from this experience that the researcher can base his or her story from. Apart from the nurse working in the North, the researcher introduces Neely-Price a participant whose 30 years experience in the North will proof to be of great need when bringing life to the experience in the North (O’Neill, 2008, p. 1).

Significance of the research topic In the significance of the topic, the writer uses geographical locations and people to establish a relationship that will signify the selection of the research topic.

The geographical locations identified in the narrative research are located in the northern British Columbia and the participants are the Yukon communities and their specialists. The researcher establishes the relationship between the participants and the geographical location by indicating the long distance as the key hindrance, preventing people from accessing help on trauma issues.

In addition to this, the writer brings life to the experiences of the people living in Northern British Columbia by indicating other factor that hinder them from accessing specialists. These other factors include cultural and economic factors.

The narrator goes on to indicate the various trauma experiences that are experienced by the participants. For instance, people living in the first nation are the subjects that undergo the various kinds of trauma experiences that include historical trauma.

Oral history type of narration research will be best suited for in identifying and recording of the various experiences put forward by the participants. Maximum concentration that is required in narration research is of great importance especially when differentiating the direct and indirect psychological effect left behind by the generation ahead.

Oral history type of narrative research is also crucial in identifying the different experiences of intergenerational trauma in the non-First Nation families and First Nation families. In using the oral history narration research, the narrator will be identifying the particular context of trauma that not only affects the First Nation people, but also the non-First Nation people.

In order to accomplish this, the narrator will have to undertake gathering of personal information from the various people living in the two nations. In understanding the level of knowledge possessed by the specialist, the writer has no option but to investigate through asking question and recording the input data received (O’Neill, 2008, p. 2).

In indicating the significance of the topic, the narrator has expounded on the limited knowledge that is possessed by the practicing practitioners. The writer describes the situation as critical as helping practitioners from outside are hired for the sole reason of providing service to the community.

A relationship is said to develop between the helping practitioners and the trauma patients that results to secondary traumatic symptoms to the practitioners. The secondary traumatic symptoms are caused by repeated exposure of the practioners to the clients (O’Neill, 2008, p. 3).

In the research while defining historical trauma, the narrator uses biographical type of research. The narrator describes the experiences of a particular person (Marie yellow) and records them down. According to the narrator, it is through the concept of historical trauma that Marie yellow was able to develop her seminal work. Historical trauma is hence described as traumatic events legacy (O’Neill, 2008, p. 34).

Impetus for research In the narrative research, the narrator has to identify the place of research study and the subject participants who will provide the necessary experience to undertake the research. In the Impetus for research, the narrator has indicated that northern helping practioners were the subject participants as they were to be used in acquiring data.

The writer has also used autobiography type of narrative research to clearly explain her own experience, having lived and worked in the North as a helping practitioner. In the autobiography type of narrative research, the narrator who is still the subject participant normally writes his or her own experiences down.

In recording the experiences, life is brought forth from the writings. In the vicarious trauma research, the researcher questions herself whether the experience acquired from the clients will be equally in order to be termed as vicarious trauma (O’Neill, 2008, p. 4).

In identifying the trauma issue affecting the workers in the First Nation community, the narrator will be undertaking the procedural path of narrative studies where one has to choose if the topic to be researched on is appropriate.

The narrator has to find one or more people whose experience would be used to write down the data achieved from the research. In the vicarious trauma research the narrators indicates the northern helping practitioners’ experiences were used to establish the link between historical trauma and vicarious trauma.

Preventing vicarious traumatization of mental health Narrative study was used to acquire experiences from six therapists that had to respond to a given question. Incorporation of typology analysis is also crucial in analyzing of data. In this case, the formation of the question or the identification of the question helps to establish and focus on the subject at hand thereby avoiding time and resource wastage on other unnecessary activities.

Identification of the therapists to be questioned indicates the specific area of interest the narrator has zeroed in as part of potential source for extraction of experience. The risks posed by traumatized people to the practitioners attending to them is also elaborated and described clearly in every aspect.

According to the narrator, it is the practitioners’ responsibility to bear the burden of listening to the horrific events unfolding in lives of traumatized individual. The narrator goes on to mention the aftermath effects affecting the practioners that include emotional and physical symptoms similar to those of their clients (Harrison and Westwood, 2009, p. 203)

According to French, Reynolds and Swain (2001), narrative methods have gained popularity over the past decades. Narratives methods of research have been incorporated in various disciplines, which include social work and psychotherapy. In narrative researches, it is upon the researcher to be an attentive listener and the participant a storyteller instead of a respondent.

In using the narrative method of research, the agenda will be particularly to entice development and bring about change based on the narrator’s experiences. In using the various approaches of narrative research a common perception will be establish that indicate that the life we live is based on stories that shape and our identity.

In the research topic, vicarious trauma the experience attained is based on information attained from the therapists and the subject participants, this means that narrative is used as unit of an individual’s life due to its articulation and experienced. The experience of a person’s life is dependent on his or her character in the narrative thereby one can give an account of his or her experience (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220).

Conclusion It is through narratives that isolated and oppressed people can attain the voice to challenge opposing stereo types and advance their strength. In the research the voices of the traumatized and isolated Yukon communities are voiced as the research indicates the trauma they undergo and the difficulties they face while trying to seek an audience with the practitioners.

In using of narrative research, the respondents dictate the order of experience flow to elaborate the events and actions unfolding in their lives. In understanding the research framework of narrative research, positivist researchers will not only be interested in the accuracy and truth status of the participant’s story but also the facts related to the story.

In researching the vicarious trauma using the narrative research approach the narrator will be putting in practice a life story in order to make sense of the experiences, events and actions unfolding in the lives of human beings (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220).

References Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (2006). Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (Attachments).

French, S., Reynolds, F. and Swain, J. (2001). Practical research: a guide for therapists. MA: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing.

Harrison, R. L. and Westwood, M. J., (2009). Preventing Vicarious Traumatization of Mental Health Therapists: Identifying Protective Practices. Washington DC. American Psychological association. (Attachments).

O’Neill, L. K. (2008). The Experience of Northern Helping Practitioners. University of Victoria. (Attached material).

Scruggs, T. E. and Mastropieri, M. A. (2006). Applications of Research Methodology. CA: Elsevier Ltd.

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Concepts of Decision of making Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Decision Making

Conclusion

Reference list

Introduction Decision making is act of making a choice between alternatives. On the other hand uncertainty is the absence of all or some information about the future. According to Longford, S. (2008) intelligence is not only the information that has been selected and collected, but also analyzed and evaluated and distributed to meet the unique policy making needs of an enterprise.

Decision Making Intelligence can be a possible way of reduction of the uncertainties that may exist in making decisions. This is made possible through the intelligence cycle. Intelligence cycle commence with direction, collection, collation, evaluation, analysis in respectively.

First intelligence enables the decision maker to deviate from the norms. By so doing the decision maker reduces uncertainty because new and better actions will be taken to reduce the risk in decision making. Indicators is a prerequisite in this case because there must be some set of limit.

Secondly, for one to possess intelligence, he/she must have undergone training. Training is a means through which one acquires the essential skills, models, tools and techniques for processing information. Employment of this tools and skills enables one make appropriate decisions hence reducing the uncertainties.

Another process in the intelligent cycle is direction. Direction is the definition of the problem which the decision makers want to make. When a vague and uniformed direction is undertaken improper decisions will be made and uncertainties increased. Skills posed by intelligent decision makers help them give specific and informed direction leading to reduction of uncertainty.

After defining the problem, pertinent information must be gathered to aid in decision making. Intelligence ensures planning and lateral thinking i.e. considering all possibilities. When all possible results are incorporated in decision making, the uncertainty level gets filled. Planning as well makes sure that proper sorting is done thereby availing the appropriate data. All this is only possible when there is intelligence.

Moreover, the intelligence stage of evaluation is instrumental in the minimization of uncertainty. Evaluation can be described as the determination of the quality and than truthfulness of information. Awareness will then be created and tactics designed to help mitigate the menace of misleading information. When this is reduced, the decisions undertaken will be viable and this reduces uncertainty levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cognitive bias makes a decision maker to be skewed in the kind of choice made. It entails the situation where perception outweigh need and the mindset that limits the scope of wider thinking. Intelligence reduces this problem by encouraging products delineated assumption and specific uncertainty and sources.

It also ensures periodic reexamination, emphasis on procedure and realism. This will add value to the decisions made and thus declining the uncertainty levels

Conclusion Finally, effective dissemination of information also reduces uncertainty. If information is properly disseminated, the loophole of conflicting sources that may further increase uncertainties is eradicated. In this way intelligence reduce uncertainty, It can thus be concluded that intelligence reduce uncertainty and therefore should be upheld when making.

Reference list Longford, S. (2008). Uncertainty in decision-making: Intelligence as a solution. In G. Bammer

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Schneider Electric (China) marketing Strategy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction The intense competition in the global market has made all the world-leading organizations to restructure their marketing strategies as well as streamline their management. All these deliberate attempts are done with the aim of positioning the firms strategically to be able to compete with its competitors. It is for this reason that the Schneider Electric (China) has adopted some pricing and distribution strategies.

Since the firm is an international venture, the organization management is vigilant to ensure that it is competing with other global firms for the scanty market opportunities. Despite its vast production superiority, Schneider Electric is facing some strategic marketing challenges that are limiting it from exploiting its full potential.

Therefore, this report endeavors to highlight some of the challenges that the firm is facing and provide redial measures to solve them. To achieve this, a thorough evaluation of some economical theories and concepts will be examined to generate a cohesive and a well-integrated report.

The secret behind all prosperous organizations are dependent on the strategies, which they formulate specifically to steer the firm’s production capacity to greater heights. Scholars have revealed that strategic planning is only successful when implemented by a well-informed management organ.

The management is not only expected to posses the right management skills and competencies but also it is support to carry out regular research to adjust their management accordingly.

Furthermore, an international organization like Schneider electric requires an up to date state-of-of-the-art to predict the future changes in global prizes and demand. Such timely warning systems play a vital role in influencing the decisions of the management.

Objectives of the report This report aims at exploring the following issues;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Investigate the Schneider Electric (China) pricing and distribution strategies

To understand Schneider Electric’s internal environment

To understand the external environment of Schneider Electric company

Research Methodology The report covers the Schneider Electric (China) specifically the operations and activities of the marketing department. This report endeavors to evaluate the marketing strategy that is employed by the firm to reach out to its customers with ease while making the required profit. The report provides the information that is obtained to provide recommendation and the way forward.

This report is a case study that was carried out in Schneider Electric (China). It specifically covers the Marketing unit with the aim of understanding the effectives of pricing and distribution Channels. The findings of the report are to be used in helping the organization to better its performance.

This research is a case study to obtain in-depth information about the internal information of the organization. This method was selected due to its effectiveness in obtaining information about the internal information or the where the information covered is conformed in a small geographical region. Hence, this research method proves effective in obtaining the finer details.

In this research data and information was obtained from secondary sources. Mainly, information was got from the internet. Therefore, the scope of information was restricted to the information that is given to the public domain by the firm via internet. Secondly, this choice was opted for due to the long distance that discouraged primary data collection.

Literature Review Pricing and Distributions Strategies. Low Cost Leadership

Schneider Electric Company has always maintained its policy of low cost leadership in order to meet the needs of its clients in the most convenient way. This has been made possible by its enormous capital base that has made it to produce in large scale (Pattnaik, 2010). Pattnaik (2010) further asserts that the huge capital base has ensured that the firm is enjoying economies of scales.

This concept is founded on the basis that the firm’s ability to purchase supplies in large volumes thus getting high discounts rates. In addition, voluminous manufacturing of the electronic equipment has made it possible for the firm to cut its operation cost. This is because increased production does not require additional management personnel’s (Sawyer, 1985, p.47).

Although low cost leadership is a traditional competitive strategy most organizations finds it difficult apply it for a long time in the modern economic era. However, Schneider electronic has been able to do this due it continued use of nuclear energy resources (Pattnaik, 2010).

We will write a custom Report on Schneider Electric (China) marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The long overhaul of its operation has made Schneider to assume an experiential advantage in dealing with logistical issues in a more competent way than its competitors. The firm has also managed to invest heavily on other sources of energy such as Geothermal and solar energy to supplement the nuclear energy. All these have made it possible for the form to sell it products at lower prices compared to its immediate competitors.

The firm has also maintained its low cost pricing strategies due to its principal of transferring human resource. The cost of human resource varies from one country to another depending on the wage rate and the living standards of a country. Schneider has always resorted to hire some competent human resources from countries with lower standard of living to work in countries with higher wage rates.

According to the ILO report, the wage rate in UK is about ten times the wage rate in the Indian. Hence, by importing labor from India to work in the UK helps the firm in keeping it production cost low. However, the organization does not total rely on foreign labor force but it reserves the senior management to the Chinese nationals to provide guidance and management guidance.

Lengeot (2000, p.3) asserts that major Chinese organizations are run from Hong Kong and they pay salaries are closely related to those paid in America. In addition, he demonstrates that the Chinese people are more versatile and are more interested in facing new challenges rather than sticking to one job.

For this reason, the Chinese lacks loyalty and therefore most Chinese firms have to cope with high employee turnover (Lengeot, 2000, p.2). Since development of employee, loyalty has proved a tedious task and rather than incurring high expenses in promoting this, Schneider prefers using expatriates (Lengeot, 2000, p.7).

The low cost leadership strategy, largely, has worked in the favour of the Schneider Electric company. However, evaluation of economic theories suggests that the strategy should be implemented with great care. Just like the giffen goods whose demand is positively related to prices; when the prices of some apparatus falls their demand decreases due to the notion that such goods are of poor quality.

Such a notion might be borrowed thus wrongly damaging the reputation of some normal goods whose prices is reduced. Generally, lowering the prices means the goods are of poor quality (Jain

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A Case Analysis of Tip Top Markets Essay college essay help near me

Executive Summary The management of Tip Top Markets has been charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the business operations of the chain supermarkets are effective. Such conditions are necessary to ensure that business will develop and flourish because only observing these rules company or firm may expect and be sure that it will meet customer’s needs and ultimately maximize its utility.

That is why, it is necessary to point out that management is also responsible for ensuring efficiency of the aforementioned business operations so as to guarantee that minimal resources are used, but the objectives are still met. for example, Samson mentions that operational management is a key to the organization’s success (2008). This task requires implementation of thorough quality management and overall total quality control (Latona

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Ethical Industrial Engineering Ethics Essay essay help: essay help

Abstract Engineering is a vital profession in the society. This is because it has direct consequence on the quality of life for the society. Every engineer is expected to carry him or herself with the highest degree of integrity when discharging duties. In addition, engineering services need to consider public health and sustainable development.

Failure to embrace this by past engineers led to the establishment of code of ethics that guide all engineers in their day to day execution of services. The code holds engineers accountable for their services and gives guideline on how they are expected to behave when discharging their duties.

Introduction Background information

Engineering ethics refer to a set of applied ethical and moral principles that dictate on performance of engineers. The ethics outline obligations of engineers not only to the society but also to their customers and profession. Engineering profession became popular during 19th century.

At this epoch, engineers saw themselves as autonomous practitioners working with big companies. It was hard for companies to manage or control their conduct bearing in mind that they immensely required their services (National Society of Professional Engineers, 2003, para.1).

Conflict rose between employers and engineers as the former tried to gain control over engineers they employed. As the profession continued gaining power in United States, it led to emergence of four engineering societies. By this time, ethics were held on personal level and were not viewed to affect the engineering profession in any way.

By the beginning of 20th century, numerous tragedies were reported due to poor engineering designs. Bridges collapsed as well as railway lines due to shoddy jobs done by engineers. This raised question about conduct of engineers and greatly affected their reputation. To counter the situation and clean their image, engineering societies came up with code of ethics that was to govern their practices in the industry (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000, pp. 4-8).

The impacts of the tragedies called for engineers to be accountable for any damage suffered by the public due to their negligence. In addition, the society demanded that all engineers had to obtain license prior to them starting to work. To get the license, they had to have met several standards which comprised of skills, education and testing prerequisite (Layton, 1986, p. 72). Today, all engineers working in areas that pose a threat to the public, property, life and health are required to obtain licenses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are efforts to ensure that engineers uphold ethics as they discharge their duties. For instance, societies such as American Order of the Engineers and Canadian Iron Ring require their members to vow an oath to defend ethical conducts and they have a ring that acts as a reminder to the members.

Generally, it is hard to come up with simple solutions on matters to do with ethical cases. However, measures are being put in place to help in getting clarity on ethical issues that engineers face in their day to day activities. Efforts are underway to fight corruption and bribery that is rampant in the engineering industry.

Objectives Engineering field is a very vital entity in the society. It is hard for any country to develop without depending on services offered by engineers. The objective of this paper is to bring out ethical issues facing engineering field today and look at the established code of ethics that govern engineers. The paper also aims at bringing to the attention what is being done to ensure that the established code of ethics are upheld as well as the emerging ethical issues are dealt with accordingly.

Literature review The broad standards of code of ethics for engineers cut across the globe. Engineers are expected to ensure that they consider safety and health of the public as they discharge their duties. In addition, they are expected to ensure that they uphold the principle of equitable development. This principle was reached upon after the society suffered great damage in 19th century due to negligence by the engineers (Layton, 1986, pp. 83-91).

Today, all engineers are held accountable for their work and any damage may lead to their licenses being revoked and or facing legal charges. To ensure that engineers are accountable for their work, they are only expected to offer services in areas that they are competent with.

No one is expected to offer services on what he or she has not qualified for regardless of the nature of the service. Besides, engineers are expected to only accept to coordinate a project that they have certified to have been approved by a qualified engineer. Otherwise, they are expected to turndown such a request as it contravenes their code of ethics.

As most customers hardly have knowledge in engineering, they are susceptible to exploitation by engineers. Therefore, engineers are presumed to be authentic to their clients and act as trustees. They are expected to make known all possible conflicts of interest that may lead to them offering substandard services (Petroski, 1985, pp. 137-145). Unless it has been agreed upon by all parties, engineers are not supposed to allow payment from more than one person for a single service.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Industrial Engineering Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, they are not supposed to accept valuable rewards from parties that are not directly associated with the project being carried out. Accepting such rewards is deemed to be dishonest and may compromise the quality of their services. It is termed to be unethical for engineers to accept contract from government institutions on which a member of their society works.

Due to the nature of their services and threats they pose, engineers are obliged not to give false information regarding their qualification in bid to be employed. They are required to always present factual information regarding their accomplishments, previous employers and associates when soliciting for employment.

Engineers are not supposed to bribe, ask for a bribe or receive a bribe in order to manipulate reward of a contract by public institutions. This has been a major problem in United States where engineering societies have complained of losing millions of dollars to international engineering companies that bribe clients to be awarded contracts (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011, p. 15).

It is the duty of engineers to uphold high values of honesty and integrity. Accordingly, they are required to be accountable for their work and not in any way make an attempt to distort facts. Rather than safeguarding their interests at the expense of clients and employers, engineers are bound to advise their clients on finding out that a project is not feasible (National Society of Professional Engineers, 2007, p. 5).

They are expected to discuss with their employers before accepting outside employments which may adversely affect their current relationship.

All information regarding technical processes or business transacted between an engineer and a client ought to remain confidential. No engineer is expected to disclose it. For an engineer to use such technical process or experience elsewhere, he also she has to seek permission from the former client. To partake in an adversary interest related to a previous project that an engineer had undertaken the engineer has to seek permission from the project’s owner (Harris, Pritchard

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Standardized Tests Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Introduction No one can avoid being evaluated by society, where society includes oneself, at least once in a while. There are guidelines and benchmarks against which a person is considered ‘suitable’ or not.

Formal education is not just a platform for the understanding of society and life at large as it is also a place for people to learn about themselves, who they are, love and eventually help them decide what they would like to do from a broad perspective for the society or the world especially in this era of globalization.

But it is hardly one’s place to decide where one can fit for whatever role. Although such cases exist for example Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg, college drop-outs who have succeeded without having a university certificate to prove it, but such people are very rare. Otherwise, people are meant to be tested at every level of education; failing one level by not doing well in a test means that one is not fit for the next stage.

Evaluation through Standardized Tests (STs) is only one of the ways through which people’s knowledge are quantified before they are considered ‘fit’. Definitely, STs are not the best way for doing the job, as they do not reflect the truth about one’s ability to learn.

Discussion STs have been criticized for being too simplistic (Smith, 2011); given that they assume that the one who scores highest is the smartest. For instance, through STs one can find out if a student knows the year that World War I, for instance began. While the student may know the exact year, he/she may not know the factors that led to it or how it came to begin.

One’s capability to learn is much larger than performance in STs. STs only measure one’s ability to pass exams, which requires that one can remember the ‘right’ answers within the set time: “they reward a student’s ability to answer superficial questions that don’t need actual thought” (Fairtest.org, 2007).

This ability to remember answers may be as a result of continuous drilling and rote learning, as well as the ability of one to cram small bits of facts. It does not cater for those who have the answers but are slow in catching up with the time deadline.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another limitation of Sts is their emphasis on the ‘right answers’ (Engine4ed.org, 2011) since STs insist that that there’s only one right answer to every single question. In addition, the student does not have the room to decide what the right answer is if it comes from the teacher. And these answers are not given to the students to provoke knowledge and develop intelligence, instead they are offered because they are convenient and assessable (Engine4ed.org, 2011).

The problem with the ‘right answer’ is that while it works for purposes of STs, real life situations are not as black and white. They can have all kinds of ‘right answers’, some of them contradictory which must be considered relevant as long as there are valid arguments to accompany ‘the’ answers. Unfortunately for the learners, having the ‘right answers’ hoodwinks someone into believing one is smart, yet, it is in the very hunger for such answers and knowledge that lays one’s ability to learn.

A student’s ability to learn and how one learns it are two different things, but ‘how’ one learns defines a student’s ability to learn; this ‘how’ is known as aptitude. For instance, some students learn best through in-depth reading, while some learn best by listening to the teacher. It is likely that the latter student will fail a Standardized Test, as he/she may not know the ‘right answers’ that the teacher gives in class.

STs overlook a student’s aptitude, which is a cognitive process since these tests are still based on the argument of the old behaviorist psychological theories which assume that people learn by absorbing bits of broken knowledge (Fairtest.org, 2007). The recent theories on developmental and cognitive psychology acknowledge that people learn through associating the knowledge they have and that which they are searching for.

This is the basis of inference; that one can use already acquired knowledge to respond to a new situation, by overlooking this, STs have overlooked the very basis of judgment on whether one can learn or not. And so STs fail to achieve the very task they set out originally to accomplish.

The assumption of IQ tests is that “intelligence is a single entity that can be put on scale and measured”, and also that “intelligence is static and permanent” (Fairtest.org, 2007). Contrary to this stance, however is that psychologists think that intelligence is a variety of abilities since intelligence is the ability to answer to the question “what do you think”, while IQ enables one to answer “what is” (Smith, 2011).

Intelligence includes one’s ability to write, to extract meaning from a text, to comprehend scientific reasoning and methods, to grasp concepts of social science, to use math and apply the same in real life situations.

We will write a custom Essay on Standardized Tests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A student’s ability to learn requires intelligences, not just IQ; STs insists on putting IQ ahead of intelligence. Since they do not allow students to exercise their skills, creativity, critical thinking, reasoning and deductive logic (Smith, 2011). As such it may end up rewarding all the wrong candidates.

There are so many arguments against ST’s approach that it is quite hard to come about documents that favor STs. For instance, proponents of STs argue that they are practical, meaning that they are easy to administer as well as efficient in term s of time and grading; that they prepare students for the college test-taking skills; that they are a consistent means of comparing student aptitude and knowledge; and that they are unbiased in the sense that they are graded by machines, and so test scores are free from subjectivity of the examiners (eCampusour, 2009).

But these arguments look feeble in the face of criticisms that are directed at STs. No one argues against the fact that these tests are efficient; in fact, it is partly the need for this efficiency that STs are there. Opponents of STs are asking that efficiency is not to be emphasized at the expense of students who cannot cram for the sake of tests. But their argument on the objectivity of STs is debatable, if it is true for instance that STs are unbiased when it comes to grading.

But this is just as far as that objectivity goes. However, every other aspect of it is human-manipulated; for instance, the contents and wording of the tests, the determination of the ‘right’ answer, choosing and administration of the test, and how the results are used are decided by ‘subjective’ humans (Fairtest.org, 2007).

The implication of these arguments is that supporters of Standardized tests do not dispute the arguments presented again STs, which could also mean that they agree on these limitations of STs. The only difference is that, for them STs as a form of evaluation is all there is to it and so all they can do is to look on the ‘bright’ side, and avoid the ‘dark’ side of Standardized Tests.

Conclusion The forwarded limitations of Standardized Tests are real, but it is equally important to note that, before this test can be removed or modified there have to be proposals on what should guide the development and implementation of a possible new system of evaluation. One such factor is that that the next system, either new or a modification of the Standardized test should be able to test intelligence which encompasses a variety of other measures.

As observed by one author “relying on IQ scores without substantiating/proving the findings with the help of other sources of data is a disservice to the students and gives wrong information to policy makers” (Gilman, 2001). Also, the assessments made and the consequent interventions should take into account the differences in individual aptitudes and development (Gilman, 2001). Lastly, tests should be designed as tools that facilitate students to learn and not for ranking and classifying purposes.

In this regard, a close observation of a student by the teacher, tracking and documentation of a student’s work and assessments based on performance can be crucial ingredients. All these should involve an evaluation that directly checks a student’s real learning efforts and tasks, and ultimately provides teachers, parents, communities and the government with useful material for the implementation of such a policy (Fairtest.org, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Standardized Tests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References eCampusour (2009). Arguments for and Against Standardized Testing in College Admissions. Web.

Engine4ed.org. (2011). Problems with Standardized Tests. Web.

Fairtest.org (2007). What’s wrong with Standardized Tests? Web.

Gilman, L. (2001). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Web.

Smith, S. (2011). What Are Standardized Tests. Web.

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Does Parental Involvement and Poverty affect Children’s Education and their overall Performance? Coursework essay help

Abstract The purpose of this study will be to address the question of whether poverty and the involvement of parents in the education of their children will affect their overall performance.

The discussion will look at the various ways in which parents are involved in the academic performance of children and also whether poverty affects the involvement of parents in the academic performance of their children. The various types of parental involvement will be examined as well how the measurement of children’s performance is based on this involvement.

Introduction Various researchers have concluded that the involvement of parents in the education of children usually has a positive influence on their academic performance. Epstein et al (1997) for example noted that the consistent effort of parents in the various stages of their children’s education had a positive effect on their overall performance.

The researchers developed a model that would be used to explain the overlapping spheres of influence in a child’s education which included the family, the school and the society at large. Epstein et al (1997) noted that all these spheres had to have a relationship for them to meet the educational needs of the child.

With regards to the types of involvement needed from the parents, Epstein et al identified six types of involvement that were based on the partnerships that the parents had with the school and the community.

The six types of involvement included parenting where the skills used to raise children were used to enhance their learning abilities, communication where well maintained communication channels within the home improved the child’s performance in school, volunteering where parents who voluntarily participated in their children’s education improved their performance, learning from home where children were homeschooled by their parents, decision making and collaboration with the community where the society’s members were involved in the education of the child like for example neighbours participating in the tutoring of the child during school breaks while the parents are at work.

Epstein et al (1997) noted that all of these types of involvement needed to be included in the education of the child so that there could be successful partnerships between the various stakeholders involved in the child’s education.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coleman (1993) noted in his study that parental involvement acted as an intervening variable between the family background of the child and their academic performance in school.

Other researchers that conducted studies on parental involvement in children’s education were Hong and Ho (2005), Baker and Wiseman (2006) and Englund et al (2004) who all agreed that the involvement of parents in the education of the children had a positive influence on their overall academic performance.

Children who experienced parent involvement in the school work and homework recorded higher grades than those who had little or no involvement from their parents. Jeynes (2005: 2011) in his meta-analysis of the topic concluded that parental involvement in the education of children had a positive influence on their academic performance and other educational outcomes.

In terms of poverty, Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1997) noted that most low-income parents were reluctant to be involved in the education of their children as they were more concerned with providing food, clothing and shelter for their children.

They identified three psychological factors which contributed to their lack of involvement in their children’s education and these were the family perceptions of the role of parents in their children’s education where low-income families viewed the school to have the primary role and responsibility when it came to their children’s education.

The second psychological factor was that parents who were low-income earners had lower feelings of efficacy when compared to high or middle income earners and this translated into their belief of whether they had any impact on their children’s education.

The third psychological factor according to Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1997) was that schools which served low-income families lacked the necessary efforts to involve parents in the education of their children.

We will write a custom Coursework on Does Parental Involvement and Poverty affect Children’s Education and their overall Performance? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This lead to lower parental involvement as most parents felt like they were being excluded from school and educational activities.

Apart from these psychological factors, other reasons that were given as to why low-income parents were not involved in the education of their children included the communication styles used by school teachers and instructors, the amount of respect that teachers offered low-income parents and the recognition of diversity in the school setting where children from low-income families are treated the same as children from middle and high income societies (McDermott and Rothenberg 2000).

Much of the research that has been conducted on whether parental involvement and poverty affects children’s education has examined various aspects such as the number of parents that volunteer in their children’s tutoring, the income-levels of the parents, the perceptions of low-income parents on educational involvement, the number of parents that attend school meetings and the characteristics of parents who are low-income earners and how these characteristics affect the educational achievement of their children (Baker and Soden 1997: Senechal and LeFevre 2002).

Other researchers such as Cooper (2006) noted that the development of human beings within the family context acted as a mediation in the association that existed between poverty, the involvement of parents and the academic achievement of children.

References Baker, A.J.L.,

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Pepsi VITAMAX Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Pepsi Co. is one of the biggest non-alcoholic drinks manufacturers in the world, selling its products to its consumers globally. To continually retain its market leadership position in the UK and continuously grow its market share, Pepsi has recognized that it should continually come up with innovative products that will allow the company to meet its objectives.

UK consumers would greatly benefit from a Pepsi product that encourages healthy living, hence the introduction of Pepsi vitamin water under the brand name “Pepsi VITAMAX”.

Pepsi is well known for its R

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Body dysmorphic disorder Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of the disorder

Impacts of the disorder

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder is a very common situation in many people where an affected person is so obsessed with appearance that the person always sees some imperfections in body image. Such individuals tend to spend much time in front of the mirror trying to see where and how the fault makes them look.

Many affected people may not realize the disorder as people may think that it is one’s liking to stay in front of the mirror. In most cases, people with this disorder tend to opt for cosmetic surgery to correct the flaws that they think they have. Believe it or not, some people with this order may avoid mirrors as much as possible to avoid seeing the flaws in question.

Other common behaviors in affected people include: over grooming oneself, enquiring on the appearance of the flaw from other people over and over, avoiding social places where there are many people as well as being anxious when around people with the fear that they might see the fault. Body dysmorphic disorder can be relating to a number of eating disorders which involve concerns on one’s body image.

The common areas of concern in this condition are facial features, hair and skin imperfections. The most affected group is the teenagers whose bodies are continually changing in shape and size (Alexandra 2008, p. 1).

Causes of the disorder Research shows that body dimorphic disorder is caused by both biological and psychological factors with much attention being given to the biological factors involving the brain. From the neurobiological view, unregulated levels of serotonin, which is a chemical neurotransmitter of the brain, results to many of the obsessive disorders that are related to anxiety.

The most vulnerable people are those whose close family members have suffered from depression or anxiety. Psychological factors involve experiences of trauma or emotional imbalance especially if it occurred during one’s childhood. People with low self esteem are equally vulnerable to the disorder especially teenage girls who feel that they do not fit in a certain group of people say in campus or college.

Other cases involve teasing of girls by the boys causing the girls to feel less beautiful. Peers may also affect one’s anxiety, for instance, some teenagers may groom themselves in a certain manner that makes the other age group members to feel less good looking (Ahmed, 2010, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assessments of the neurology functioning have shown that the brain is more involved in causing the disorder. General poor performance by BDD patients has been proven especially on control of body responses towards neurons. Similarly, BDD patients have major problems in memorizing both verbal and non verbal information.

This results from improper organization of one’s memory which consequently results to failure of the frontal-striatal circuits to mediate the executive functioning of the brain. However, proper integration of the brain alone has not completely eliminated the memory dysfunctions.

Research into this matter implicates the hippocampus which is naturally involved not only in memory formation but also in motivation and emotion development. Another structure of the brain involved in BDD is the amygdala whose over activity causes attention misconceptions which result to social anxiety.

Besides proper integration of brain structures which results to failed executive functioning, other regions of the brain that are involved in perception of facial emotions are also involved in development of BDD. Such structures include the inferior frontal cortex, insula and the occipito-temporal cortex (Saxena, and Feusner, 2006, p. 48).

Severe cases of the disorder may lead a person into engaging in certain weird behaviors such as avoiding people even to the extreme of avoiding family members where the individual stays locked into a room. Isolation from society members may as well result leading to avoidance of social gatherings. Some people may also hate themselves to the point of committing suicide.

Many of the people suffering from body dimorphic disorder tend to get depressed to the point of seeking clinical help. In most cases where surgery is involved in an effort to modify one’s body appearance, frustration tends to result because most of them do not get satisfied to their expectations.

Other complications resulting from this disorder are lack of friends and other relationships, abuse of drugs, eating disorders where one tries to keep a certain body size or/and shape (Watkins, 2004, p. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Body dysmorphic disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though the prevalence of the disorder is now low affecting only 2% of a population, researchers believe that it is now rising especially with the development of better diagnosis techniques as well as the increasing desire for people to look good especially now that modernization has been adopted in many countries.

Unlike eating disorders which are more prevalent in women, the body dysmorphic disorder equally affects both males and females although teenagers who suffer most are the girls compared to the boys counterparts (Veale, 2011, p. 1).

Impacts of the disorder The most felt impact of the body dysmorphic disorder is psychological where the person affected gets depressed and may even suffer other depression related disorders especially eating disorders. When such individuals keep themselves locked in the household, they tend to engage in a lot of eating, mostly involving junk food, in order to avoid thinking about their faulty body parts.

These eating behaviors may eventually result to other health problems. Anxiety is another very common effect of the disorder which leads to certain behaviors such as panic or uneasiness.

A person suffering from body dysmorphic disorder is likely to suffer from emotional breakdown may be because of self-esteem which results to inferiority complex. When this happens, such people always find themselves crying whenever they think of the situation. Some may even go to the point of blaming God for not making them perfect (Mayo Clinic staff 2010, p.1).

The social life of an individual is as well affected when one suffers from this disorder. For instance, many such people avoid social gatherings and are always afraid of meeting people. Some may even lack friends because they think that they do not fit in and therefore they cannot be accepted by a certain group of people or classmates.

Occupational functioning may equally be affected when a person suffering from the disorder is reluctant to go to work because the person does not want to be seen with the faulty appearance. Some people may even give fake excuses for not being able to go to work especially when there are visitors at the work place (MedicineNet 1996, p. 1).

Conclusion Body dysmorphic disorder is a serious illness and should be dealt with immediately when identified to prevent the mentioned complications from occurring. If one suspects certain behaviors form a friend or a family member, it is advisable to inform them in order to seek psychological help as early as possible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Body dysmorphic disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Ahmed, I. (2010). Psychiatric Manifestations of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.

Alexandra. (2008). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: When the Mirror Lies. Web.

Mayo Clinic staff. (2010). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.

Medicine Net. (1996). Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). (1996). Web.

Saxena, S. and Feusner, J. D. (2006). Toward a Neurobiology of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. MBL Communications, pp. 48

Veale, D. (2011). Body Dysmorphic Disorder – FAQ. Web.

Watkins, C. K. (2004). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.

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Berkley College Strategic Plan Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Project implementation is the process through which one puts a project into effect. It involves utilization of resources, materials, and techniques to achieve certain pre determined goals. Successful implementation of projects requires a carefully formulated plan which is often unique for each project.

Through the implementation plan, an organization is able to clearly outline the processes required to successfully accomplish a specified task. The implementation plan should incorporate a periodic review that ensures that all operations are carried out in accordance to the implementation plan.

Project administration refers to all activities which are involved in management of all the resources required to implement projects. Project administration facilitates among other things, efficient supply chain management and adherence to the implementation plan which promotes successful execution projects.

Responsibility for Retention Efforts Retention efforts are aimed at maintaining skillful and talented employees until successful completion of the project. In most situations, it is almost impossible to ensure retention of employees which calls for organizations to implement measures that are geared towards maintaining its pool of labor adapt failure to which may interfere with the outcome of the project.

Some of the most common strategies employed by management to ensure retention of skilled workers involve provision of handsome wages, titles and recognition, as well as work promotions.

The project manager in Berkeley College strategic plan 2010-2015 should assume the role of ensuring that employee compensation is constantly reviewed and revised depending on the worker’s output in the project. They should further motivate the staff members and award exceptional performers.

The strategic plan supervisory committee should evaluate performance of each stakeholder throughout the project in order to analyze their performance. Poor performers should be fired through consensus by board members while good performers should be motivated through financial incentives in order to ensure retention of efficient human resource component.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Staffing Needs Gathering the work force and correct staffing is an important aspect in implementation of projects. It is very important for project manager to assemble the required skills and expertise necessary for effective execution of the project.

The roles of the staff members should be clearly outlined and each position should be adequately described from the onset of implementation process. However, it should be noted that in some incidences, the roles and responsibilities of staff members may change which requires staff members to be flexible to such unprecedented changes.

Successful implementation plans need to be formulated under the oversight of skilled and experienced project management. Dario Corte has ensured the coordination of the Berkeley college strategic plan through the assistance of the strategic planning committee, the sub committees, board of trustees, senior administration, the Berkley college community and other task forces (Cortes 2).

The college strategic planning committee is charged with the responsibility of monitoring the strategic planning process and is comprised of the chairman of the board of trustees, two deans, an alumni representative, and five staff representatives among other members. These members are expected to promote and advocate for the implementation of the college’s strategic plan to both internal and external stakeholders.

Budget Needs Due to the uncertainties surrounding project implementation, the cost of the projects is often estimated at the onset of the project through identification and valuation of various constituents and resources necessary to meet the project’s objectives (Rad 1). When the project is conceived, the estimated cost is extremely in accurate due to limited availability of information and dynamism in the project environment.

However, as the project evolves, more information becomes unveiled and the estimates can be fine tuned to higher levels of precision. Implementation of the Berkeley strategic plan 2010-2015 requires huge amounts of financial resources to facilitate the implementation of the laid down objectives.

The established 2009-2020 capital plan therefore provides a substantial amount of investment to cater for the financial resources required to achieve the college’s long term goals.

We will write a custom Essay on Berkley College Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Project Plan A project plan sets forth the ideas on how one seeks to achieve pre determined set of objectives (Gido 7). A project plan begins with the definition of objectives which is followed by a list of all the necessary actions that are required to accomplish these objectives. This may be enhanced by a graphical representation of the logical precedence relationships among the activities necessary to accomplish the project’s objectives.

Berkley College strategic plan 2010-2015 aims at developing, supporting, and delivering an academic curricula, programs and services that are designed to prepare students for both professional and personal success (Cortes).

In order to achieve these objectives, the project administrators have to engage in extensive recruitment and retention of faculties and staff members who meet the future global academic requirements, promote growth and steer positive change within the organization, adoption of green initiatives, and promotion of corporate responsibility in the institution.

Communication Plan Communication plan requires the project manager to identify all the relevant project stakeholders in order to assess the most suitable and effective means of communicating with such stakeholders.

The decision may be based on past project performance results and should be agreed upon by both project managers and team members. The communication plan is therefore an extensive means through which project information is communicated to all the relevant stakeholders (Dow

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Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to best college essay help: best college essay help

Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to your class and invite them to become part of the learning experience. You may create special events or simply identify opportunities during the school day where they may participate. The second part of your newsletter will contain information on local resources and services that families may need or find helpful. Helping families connect to the community can further increase student success. Include resources that can be found in your area. · Be creative and make your letter visually engaging – use color and pictures · Use a newsletter format · Identify 5 different ways that parents can become involved in your classroom and describe each opportunity. Be sure to include a wide variety of ways parents can participate.. · Identify 5 different resources and services available to help families in the community. Briefly describe each service as well as provide pertinent contact information.

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Fawville Public Library Efficient Director Coursework custom essay help

Table of Contents Defining the problem

Causes

Generating Alternative Solutions

Decision

Taking Action and Following Up

Reference List

Defining the problem The key problem identified in this case is the inability of Fawville Public Library trustees to find a person who would be act as an efficient director of this organization. At the moment, they have already tried several candidates: one of them, Sam Grillo, proved to be entirely unsuitable for this position partly due to his character and partly due to his lack of managerial skills (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).

At this point, the members of the staff are acting on their own since there is no one to fill the vacancy of director. Trustees believe that such a situation is hardly permissible as because this organization is entirely deprived of leadership. It serves the needs of 14.000 people, and if the trustees to find a good candidate, it will fail to perform this task.

Causes In order to solve this problem, one should first understand why no one except Sam Grillo applied to this job and why the interviewers found him suitable for this job. To some extent, this issue can be explained by the external factors. First, Fawville is a relatively small town and this place attracted Sam Grillo because he associated it with “peace and quiet” (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).

However, a more ambitious person might have argued that this job does not offer any promotion opportunities. The second reason is inadequate compensation offered to the candidates. Judging from the case, the salary offered by the trustees could have suited only a very undemanding person. As it has been mentioned in the case study, a person, who has to sustain family, will not be interested in this position (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).

Furthermore, we should take into consideration that people who accepted the candidacy of Sam Grillo, did not know very much about the competencies and skills which a library director has to possess. This person must be able to act as administrator who organizes the work of employees and as a leader who brings innovation and change in the organization.

He/she must be skilled in information technologies, HR management, performance assessment and many other areas (D’Andraia, 1997, p 52; Stueart

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Tesco: Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction The company, Tesco Plc, must prioritise its activities, decision, and other factors to resolve the effects of the current economic depression on the company with the resolve to avoid such pitfalls. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and communication management policy includes on maximizing the significant variables in generating revenue-generating balance scorecard recommendations.

The study focuses on the supply chain aspect of profitably resolving the current economic depression crisis affecting the United Kingdom grocery chain market segment. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication includes the implementation of a customer-based supply chain crisis management delivery system that retains and increases the current accounting period’s revenues and profits.

Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication process must continue prioritising the most effective solution to the many factors propping up the current economic depression on the company’s maintenance and increase of its current revenues and profits. Company Profile Tesco PLC (or “Tesco”) is an international retailer.

Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.

The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).

Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.

Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).

Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.

The current economic crisis continuously triggers a relentless decline in the demand for the company’s products and services. The economic crisis started in 2009 within the United States. As a United States business partner, the United States economic crisis extended its outstretched arms towards the United Kingdom businesses.

Many United Kingdom businesses sold their products and services to the clients living within the United States. Thus, the United States depression created a decline in the demand for United Kingdom products. To increase its revenues, management focused on its biggest price-based advertising and promotion campaign within the past ten years.

ASDA’s advertising campaign to earmark 250,000 in prices triggered an increase in ASDA’s revenues. Being one of the major competitors of ASDA, Tesco realized that the ASDA advertising campaign may trigger the transfer of many of Tesco’s current and prospective clients to ASDA branch stores.

To resolve the profit decline crises, Tesco management rightfully focuses on first gathering crisis –related financial, economic, and other profit- related analytical data. The analytical data includes PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, and Porter’s five forces discussion.

Further, Brenda Sternquist (1994) reiterated the retailing market segments in the United States as well as in Western Europe, Japan, as well as in Australia have become highly mature and sophisticated. Many new retail marketing formats, techniques, and systems have emerged in the past 20 years and have significantly enhanced the nature and character of modern retailing.

We will write a custom Essay on Tesco: Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Older retailing procedures that include the presence of department stores and supermarkets have reached a stage of modernization and maturity and are today tackling the formidable competition from a new category of retailers classified as “category killers.”

The popular specialty warehouse outlets include competitors like IKEA and Toys R Us, membership clubs such as Costco and Pace, specialty niche retailers, off-price retailers and electronic home shopping.

There is no single variable that can probably explain the remarkable metamorphosis of the United Kingdom retail industry. A series of environmental factors — consumer affluence, new lifestyles, work culture, and technological advances – continue to affect the complexion of world retail industry.

The implementation of computerized data processing systems has helped retailing in many areas — site selection, merchandise planning, and inventory management. It has metamorphosed a retail operation into an automated system of consumer needs management.

In addition, some of the significant outcomes of these developments is what may be coined the internationalization of retailing. Markets are today being globalized. Parallel consumer profiles are emerging in all parts of the world, though in varying degrees.

Just as a new product idea gets parallel acceptance and becomes marketable in several social classes, just like the recent retail market segment theories do new retailing concepts. Innovative retail formats are finding their way into all parts of the world irrespective of disparities in income, culture, and political system.

One can find Benetton in Bombay, Warsaw, and New York. IKEA furniture outlets have created their network all over the world from Europe to North America, from the Middle East all the way to Australia.

Socio Economic Factor Tesco hires employees from communities where each Tesco retail outlet is strategically located; the company aids to government in reducing unemployment rate (Taylor, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tesco: Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic Factor In terms of company’s significant macroeconomic situation, the current financial crisis during the past few years precipitated from the current economic recession enveloping the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.

Further, David Giibs (Gibbs 2002) emphasized in recent years the aspect of changing the current environmental change has become a major key area of debate. There is an increasing concern that the consequences of industrialisation are increasingly negative and that action needs to be taken to remedy this.

Although there is no absolute consensus that major environmental changes are occurring (see, for example, the stalwart pressures brought to bear on the US President in the run up to the Kyoto climate change summit in 1997 by representatives of the cars and automobile, steel and oil industries), there is a broad agreement that these changes are in train and that some form of response is needed.

David Gibbs proposed this agreement breaks down is in the form of the appropriate response to environmental change. There are many wide diversity of opinion here from deep green ecologists who require a wholesale restructuring of society, through to some economists who believe that market instruments are capable of restoring the ‘environmental equilibrium’ and that the basic socio –economic target forms can remain intact.

On the other hand, the increased influx of immigrants from European countries under the European Union charter increases the demand for Tesco Company’s grocery and other related products and services (Czinkota, 2006).

Technological In line with Tesco’s crisis management and crisis communication process, the company uses an online website, https://www.tesco.com/, to spread the many advantages of shopping at the nearest Tesco branch within the United Kingdom. The website displays some of the company’s major grocery products. Clients can make an order by emailing the company.

Payments can be down through PayPal, credit card, or other modes. With the advent of the internet, Tesco is currently reaping the laurels of the one borderless world economy through increased online sales of its products and services (Czinkota, 2007).

The Tesco Company pays each subordinate the minimum daily allowable by United Kingdom and other related laws. The company complies with all tax and other statues implemented in communities where each Tesco Company retail outlet is located (Baumueller, 2007).

Profitability of the U.K. Retail Market Segment Rosemary Varley (2001) reiterated profitability is compulsory if a retail business is to survive, but achieving profitability is a complex task, given the variety of transactions that take place within the retail arena. Profitability is a short term, a medium term and a long term issue.

For example, in the short term enough profits have to be generated on the sales of items to cover the costs of buying in the product; and in the medium term, enough profit has to be generated to pay the costs of running the business (rent, staffing costs, distribution costs and so on); but in order to develop the business a further chunk of profits will need to be set aside for reinvestment, for example, into an additional or larger outlet.

Eventually, there are two methods of increasing retail profitability; one is to increase the profit margins made on the products that are sold, and the other is to reduce the costs involved with selling the products. Chapter two outlined the role of the buyer and merchandiser who, in a traditional organisational structure, share the responsibility for profitability management within the department.

In some organizations, the merchandiser takes on the bulk of profitability issues, such as managing margins and price reductions, however the person who negotiates cost prices with suppliers will also make a significant impact on departmental profitability.

Trade-offs between product features and prices will be the selector’s concern. The role of the category manager, discussed in chapter three, puts a great emphasis on profitability in the guise of efficiency improvements, throughout the efficient consumer response.

U.K. Geography Hugh Matthews (2000) the key changes in the United Kingdom geography of leisure are introduced and outlined. In the last decade or so there have been significant changes in terms of the location of key types of leisure which have had dramatic impacts on city and country alike. These changes have been both physical and visual affecting the fabric and land-use of cities and countryside.

Certain kinds of leisure that two decades ago were in one kind of location in the UNITED KINGDOM’ now occupy very different locations. In addition there have been important changes in the ‘symbolic landscape’ of city and country. For example, the countryside has hitherto been regarded as a place of peace and quiet, a location for gentle leisure activity that is also small scale.

Current updates have reshaped the countryside in very significant ways, changing what we imagine the countryside to be. There have also been changes in the symbolism of cities, most notably in the revamping of many inner-city districts in response to new investment and demand for dance and music clubs, with zones of decline being transformed into symbols of new youth culture.

This review of changes in the geography of leisure in the United Kingdom makes particular reference to the process called consumption, which will be more fully explained in a later section (pp. 268-71). Here, suffice it to say, leisure has become much more commercialised during recent years and this has led to new patterns and locations of leisure development and activity.

The attraction of the United Kingdom leisure sites, in terms of global tourism, is an important influence on the kinds of places and sites that have been developed. Tourism and leisure overlap as activities and many attractions are valued for both.

Environmental The company does not throw its waste products into the crystal clear waters located near its display stores. With the current climate change issues, Tesco can reduce transportation delivery schedules to reduce Tesco’s vehicle pollution activity.

U.K. Retail Market Segment Demography Hugh Matthews (2000) theorized the United Kingdom demography provides an important backcloth to the developments taking place in the United Kingdom, but it is neither unchanging in its nature nor neutral in its effects.

The term is used here to refer to the size, distribution and composition of the population and the patterns of life-course events which maintain or alter these, notably the three basic components of change in population numbers (births, deaths and migration), but also the many factors that affect household formation and family building.

The demography of the United Kingdom’ has undergone some major changes over the past three decades, including greater longevity, lower fertility, higher divorce rate, accelerating cohabitation, later marriage and childbearing, increasing lone parenthood, larger numbers living alone, a fluctuating migration from the busy large cities, a switch from net emigration to substantial international migration gain and the increase in the number of persons belonging to the United Kingdom’s non-white population.

Each of these raises policy issues for society, most of them immediate and obvious in their implications but some with major long-term impacts such as the continuing passage of the 1960s/1970s baby boom and bust through the age structure.

Market Structure The grocery retail chain in the United Kingdom is focuses on serving the basic needs of clients. The three major players are Tesco Sainsbury, and ASDA.

The laissez faire economic environment influences the Grocery market segment. Ash Amin (2002) emphasized A central role that the local United Kingdom directory social economy is expected to play is that of creating new forms of employment in excluded communities. The European Commission (EC), for example, has identified nineteen fields of activity on the basis of which it has proclaimed an ‘Era of Tailor Made Jobs’ (CEC 1998a).

The other centre-right national governments for whom the local social economy offers the promise of ‘bottom-up’ regeneration with new sources of employment flowing from the conversion of ‘needs into markets’. The special hot economy organisations normally contribute to employment outcomes fall into two main categories: direct employers and labour market intermediaries.

The direct employers are expected to create jobs by exploiting new areas of anticipated growth. These include, for example, environmental schemes as a basis for socially useful employment

Each competitor influences the other competitors’ revenues and selling prices. The retail grocery chain market segment is giving its best to attract as many U.K. clients as possible. The company advertises its products in and sets up shops to reach current and future clients (Palmer, 2004).

In addition, Alfred Marcus reiterated (Marcus 1984) brainstorming and t mere discussions about regulatory changes involve fundamental questions about the power of the federal government and its relation to the private sector. An increase in federal authority over business and as well as the imposition or assertion of business power are among the most notable changes in business-government relations in recent years.

To date, the analyses of some regulatory changes has often been limited to obvious indicators–readily available statistics on the number of employees and the budgets of regulatory agencies, the cost of regulation to the private sector, and the number of agencies and regulatory enactments.

The effectiveness of the sales owners’ implementation of the new motives or usefulness of the measures, however, is limited in considering governmental activity and its impacts, as several crucial and interesting questions are tainted with tour political in nature. This chapter criticizes conventional measures and develops a political viewpoint on the topic of regulatory changes.

Conclusion Based on the above discussion, crisis management and crisis communication focuses on resolving the effect of the current economic depression on the company’s retention and increase of its revenues. Tesco Plc’s business organisation maximises many scarce but significant variables in generating balance scorecard recommendations.

For example, the financial statement ratio data shows Tesco gets a high passing grade for maximizing its assets to generate profits. To eliminate the crisis, Tesco Plc advertises the many benefits of its grocery brands. Next, Tesco Plc implements a customer based supply chain crisis management delivery system to increase revenues by increasing grocery inventory.

The company’s balanced scorecard indicates the company successfully resolved its major crisis issue, decline revenues, by maximising its scarce resource. The company continues to generate net profits for 2008 and 2009 alone from satisfied clients. The current favourable financial success must be continued by offering high quality products at the same affordable Tesco- style shelf prices.

In terms of the balanced scorecard’s customer crisis management and crisis communication aspect, the company correctly continues its current strategic direction of advertising the company’s picturesque image as the best client-based retail store over the next ten years.

To the other stakeholders, including the 2008 and 2009 Tesco income statement’s net income data as part of the crisis to support solutions to persuade the stockholders, suppliers, customers showing the company generated profits to persuade the stakeholders the company will be able to increase its revenues within the next five years.

The income statement indicates Tesco sold more than enough products and services to cover its daily store operating expenses. Definitely, the crisis communication correspondences will include audited income statements showing profitable sales figures for 2008 and 2009.

The advertisements will show that the company is slowly regaining its former lead in the United Kingdom grocery market segment by filling the discriminating needs of the local clients.

In terms of the balanced scorecard’s internal business crisis management and crisis communication process, Tesco management must continue its current strategic direction of improving the company’s current high quality supply chain strategy over the next ten years.

The Tesco Company’s internal business process balanced scorecard status indicates the company has a passing grade; the company offers high quality grocery and other related products and services at acceptable prices, Consequently, Tesco has a huge chunk of the Retail industry.

In terms of the balanced scorecard’s learning and growth crisis management and crisis The surveys will serve as starting point to enhance the Tesco currently economic depression crisis management and crisis communication process in terms of retaining the company’s brand image, service quality, and grocery customer loyalty.

Lastly, Tesco Plc must innovatively implement crisis management and crisis communication strategies to remove the current economic depression that incorporate the recording and avoiding actions, activities, and other factors that will precipitate to the decline in the company’s current revenues and net profit figures.

Indeed, Tesco was able to resolve its key issues of generating revenues and profits by managing (maximizing) its scarce but significant resources fully.

References Amin, A. Placing the Social Economy. London: Routledge Press, 2002.

Baumueller, M., (2007) Managing Cultural Diversity. London, Lang Press.

Gibbs, D. Local Economic Development and the Environment. London: Routledge Press, 2002.

Marcus, A. The Adversary Economy. London: Quorum Books, 1984.

Matthews, H. The Changing Geography of the United Kingdom. London: Routledge Press, 2000.

Sternquist, B. European Retailing’s Vanishing Borders. London: Quorum Press, 1994.

Varley, R. Retail Product Management. London: Routledge Press, 2001.

Czinkota, S., (2006) International Marketing. London, Wiley

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Draw an EER diagram for the following problem using this textbook’s notation. [Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes insi argumentative essay help

  [Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes inside supertypes” notation.]
A nonprofit organization depends on various distinct types of persons for its successful operation.  The organization is interested in the following attributes for all these persons: SSN, Name, Address, City/State/Zip, and Telephone.  Three types of persons are of the greatest interest: employees, volunteers, and donors.  Employees have only a Date Hired attribute, and volunteers have only a Skill attribute.  Donors have only a relationship (named Donates) with an Item entity type.  A donor must have donated one or more items, and an item may have no donors or one or more donors.
There are persons other than employees, volunteers, and donors who are of interest to the organization so that a person need not belong to any of these three groups.  On the other hand, at a given time a person may belong to two or more of these groups (e.g., employee and donor).

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Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? Argumentative Essay argumentative essay help

Money and power are among the main yardsticks which success in life is measured today. America has come to be known as the “land of opportunities” because it gives people an equal chance to prosper regardless of their social economic and political background. Americans have always been proud of their status and country. However, the United States is no longer regarded in high esteem as was the case a few years ago and many countries now view it in a negative way.

Americans are no longer as proud of their country because they have to struggle with the harsh economic conditions, compared with their counterparts in Europe. The line between the “American Dream” and capitalism is very thin and for this reason Americans have always known that through hard work they can become successful.

Although there are many ways to define success power and money are two of the generally accepted measures of success (World Public Opinion, 2007). The United States is supposed to be a country where everybody can attain the American dream through hard work and ingenuity regardless of their socioeconomic background. However in the last 30 years, the American dream has turned into the American nightmare. This is because the economy has not been doing very well, meaning that jobs are hard to come by.

An opinion poll that was conducted by the Pew Research Center revealed that many of the countries surveyed still dislike the United States. In addition, not many countries view Americans positively (Pew Research Center, 2007). The negative image of the United States and its people is so great that even the most popular policies in the country cannot repair it fully.

Majority of the traditional allies of America have an unfavorable opinion about the country and its people, with Canada and Great Britain as the only exceptions. According to the survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, China is gaining more popularity compared with the United States because of its constant economic growth, even in the face of the recent global financial crisis.

On the other hand, the economic growth of China has elicited mixed reactions with the pluralists and majorities in Spain and France arguing that the economic growth of China would impact negatively on their respective countries.

In spite of the recent negative views of the American people and their country, majority of the Western countries who took part in the survey associate Americans with such positive characteristics as “inventive”, “honest” and hardworking (Pew Research Center, 2007). On the other hand, a big number of the participants also associate the Americans with such negative characteristics “violent” and “greedy”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More GlobeScan and BBC World Service commissioned a poll that was conducted by World Public Opinion in 26 countries to determine if the United States has impacted on the world negatively or positively. Of the 26 countries that took part in the poll, “30 percent say the US is having a mostly positive influence in the world while 51 percent say the US is having a mostly negative influence” (World Public Opinion, 2007).

In addition, 20 of the countries that took part in the survey had a negative view about the United States. Only four countries were of the opinion that the United States has impacted on the world positively. On the other hand, two of the countries had evenly divided views over the issue.

Many researchers have focused on the existing cross-country differences with regard to their subjective well-being. Many of these students have tried to compare the United States with Europe and in this case the United States seems to rank lower in regard to levels of satisfaction compared with countries in Europe, who have lesser per capita incomes. For example, because there is a great deal of mobility in the United States, Americans manifest a mild distaste for inequality compared to their counterparts in Europe.

In the last couple of years, trends in the well-being of Americans have declined tremendously and as a result, the incomes of most Americans have reduced (Wessle, 2005). Jobs in America are to come by and the available ones do not pay as much and as such, Americans can no longer enjoy life like they once did. As a result, most Americans have not changed their view about their country and they no longer see it as a land of opportunity.

Although Americans are thought to be extremely upwardly mobile, in reality, this is more complicated that we might imagine. Since 1970 the gap between the poor and the rich has increased tremendously and as a result, it remains exceedingly hard for a child born in poverty for example, to attain wealth and power.

Even with affirmative action social change in the community and increased opportunities for education, the economy is still not doing well, and this means that the upward mobility of Americans is limited. Already Americans are slowly realizing that their country is no longer a place for exceptional opportunity because they are faced with daily struggles.

Through years of research scholars and researchers have come to the realization that contrary to what they thought, the American society is less mobile. During the late 1980s, economists conducted numerous studies that revealed that children in America now only get a limited amount advantage that was the case years ago. Again this is proof that modern day America is very different from that of the 1960s.

We will write a custom Essay on Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A report by Globalscan notes that “within Europe there has been a hardening of negative attitudes toward America compared to a year ago” (Globalscan n. d.). In France, negative views about the United States increased from 54 % to 65 %, according to the poll, while in Great Britain, the negative views increased from 50% to 57%. On the other hand, 46% of pluralists Italians view the United States and the Americans negatively.

This is in comparison with 2004, when only 40 percent of the respondent had a negative view of the Americans and America. The Chinese have also increased their negative view of the Americans (from 42% to 62 %), as well as the Brazilians (whose negative view of the Americans has increased dramatically from 51% to 60 %).

America was once regarded as the land of opportunities because anybody could enjoy increased social status regardless of their social, economic, and political background. However, this is no longer the case, seeing that the country’s social and economic structures are no longer as robust as they once were. Consequently, Americans now have a negative view about their country, while other countries in the world also are increasingly viewing Americans and America in a negative way.

Reference List Globalscan. BBC poll: attitude towards countries. Web.

Pew Research Center. (2007). America’s Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project. Web.

Wessle, D. (2005). Escalator Ride As Rich-Poor Gap Widens in the U.S., Class Mobility Stalls. Web.

World Public Opinion. (2007). America’s image in the world. Web.

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History of Quality Management: Riyad Bank Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Selection and placement

Training and development

Performance management and CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)

Career development

Recommendations and Conclusion

References

Introduction Quality management is a vital process in a firm, an organization or a business entity that will either accrue success or will deem the institution a failure. In relations to this, It is very important to take keen note of the selection, recruitment and employment of the people who are to work in the institution (Boxall,

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Economics and Immigration Research Paper essay help online free

Introduction Migration of labor has already become an essential element of the global economic reality. Globalization, communication, transport, and opening borders facilitate the transfer of workforce from one part of the world to another. The United States has always been the world’s most attractive immigration target; and most studies were focused on the effects of immigration on the economic, social, and labor processes in the U.S.1 The effects of immigration on other countries, including Japan, were persistently overlooked. Given the growing inflow of foreign workers to Japan, their effects on wages and career prospects need to be better understood.

The main question to consider is why in the Japanese macroeconomic contexts, where the majority of foreign workers are limited to unskilled jobs, the skills and qualifications they develop over time have little effects on their economic and career advancement.

Economic advancement of immigrants as the function of wages Wages as the key indicator of immigrants’ economic integration

Japan is believed to be one of the “recently” immigrant countries.2 In the article on human capital, wages, and immigration to Japan Takeyuki Tsuda discusses the effects of immigrant skills on their wage prospects and career advancement. Tsuda believes that the level of wages is the central indicator of immigrants’ economic integration in Japan.3

This is mainly because immigrants bring their human and social skills to the host country, and the level of earnings they obtain in return reflects the degree to which these skills are accepted and used by the host society.4 It is no wonder that changes in wages and earnings are at the heart of the economic debate concerning the patterns of immigration to Japan.

The role of human capital in wage earnings

Human capital theories have long been at the center of the immigration debate. Human capital, or skills, is believed to be the main factor of professional and career growth among immigrants. Tsuda writes that the human capital construct encompasses individual skills, education and qualifications, and experiences.5

Previous studies of immigration to the United States showed that human capital determinants were the principal drivers of immigrants’ economic advancement in the host country.6 These findings reflect and build on traditional models of wage determination, in which human capital accumulation drives the subsequent growth in wages.7

However, Japan differs greatly from other countries of the world. Its immigration and macroeconomic contexts reduce the validity of traditional economic theories and models. It is possible to assume that skills, qualifications and experiences of immigrants to Japan play a minor role in their economic and professional advancement. Tsuda’s article and additional analysis will answer the following question: does human capital matter in immigrants’ economic and career advancement in Japan?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macroeconomic contexts and immigration patterns in Japan Migrant workers in Japan: Statistical and pattern analysis

In 2002, a total of 1,851,758 foreign residents were registered in Japan.8 61.5% of them were temporary residents.9 A defeated nation, after WWII Japan did not introduce any foreign labor policies, as its rural territories exemplified an ample source of productive labor force.10

It was not until the middle of the 1980s that Japan faced the growing inflow of foreign labor force.11 Since the inception of the first immigration policies in Japan, all incoming workers were classified as either professional or unskilled.12

At the end of 2002, Japan had an estimated 554,200 unskilled workers registered and actually working.13 Estimating the number of illegal foreigners working in Japan does not seem possible, but the results of statistical analyses suggest that the number of unskilled immigrants coming to Japan constantly increases.

One of the main reasons why more immigrants come to Japan is because native working age population rapidly declines. Following the global recession of 2008-09, Japan slowly expands the pool of foreign labor force in the country.

The official data provided by the Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training suggest that the number of immigrants coming to Japan slowly but steadily increases. However, the current economic and social environment in Japan does not favor immigration.

Table 1: Changes in the number and percentage of native workers in Japan

1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2025 2050 Working age population, 15-64 years old (thousands) 78,689 85,875 86,365 84,487 81,572 71,652 51,790 Working age population, 15-54 years old (proportion among the total population, %) 67.4 69.7 68.2 66.3 64.2 59.3 50.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (58).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economics and Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigration policies in Japan and human capital considerations

Japan remains increasingly exclusivist toward foreign entrants. Japanese immigration policies build on three important considerations: first, foreigners are admitted only as a measure of last resort; second, the entry of unskilled workers should be prohibited; and third, immigration must be temporary.14 Foreigners are treated differently from natives; and even amongst foreigners, the quality of relations and career patterns largely depends upon the immigrant’s family and ethnic origin.

Table 2: Changes in foreign labor inflows to Japan

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (thousands) 516 568 614 655 695 723 753 339 486 563 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (% of total labor force) 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (84).

“Foreign workers are confined generally to dirty, dangerous and low status occupations. Besides problems in occupation, the workplace and public policy, foreign workers in Japan encounter specific social problems, such as language barriers, lack of health care, and other social benefits.” (Tigno 70)

These macroeconomic and policy conditions reduce the validity of traditional human capital considerations; the latter have dominated the economic theory for many years. Understanding Japanese macroeconomic environments is extremely important, as most developed countries rely on macroeconomic factors to filter migration.15 More often than not, employers in the host country disregard the skills and knowledge previously accumulated by foreign workers.16 One of the main questions is what exactly drives immigration to Japan.

Dual labor market theory and immigration to Japan Factors affecting international immigration to Japan

Previous models of wage and capital formation do not explain the nature and consequences of immigration to Japan. Dual labor market theory re-evaluates the patterns of immigration in macroeconomic environments. Based on the dual labor market theory, structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography change the principles and patterns of international immigration. First, structural inflation greatly affects the quality of immigrant workforce.

Employers are particularly interested in low-skilled and unskilled workers, since it is cheaper than hiring native employees.17 Native workers typically avoid working in low paid jobs, and raising entry wages for native workers will necessarily require changing the entire structure of wages.18

Second, motivational factors of international immigration differ from those affecting native workers: native employees want more than just work; they want status and career growth, whereas immigrants perceive jobs as just a means to earn money.19

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economics and Immigration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Third, most developed labor markets are characterized by inherent dualism, meaning that native workers are driven to the capital-intensive sector with higher wages, leaving the secondary sector with its low wages and job uncertainty to foreign newcomers.20

Fourth, advanced societies experience the growing demand for female labor, coupled with the rapid decline in birth rates; unable to satisfy the growing demand for labor, industrialized societies gradually realize the hidden benefits of attracting immigrant labor force.21

Skills and professional qualifications do not matter

In light of this information, Tsuda makes the final conclusion that, in the Japanese macroeconomic environments, human capital does not allow for greater wages and economic integration of immigrant workers. Japan is a recent country of immigration, and its immigrant labor markets are still in the state of infancy.22

Immigrants who come to Japan but cannot use local social resources have few opportunities to advance themselves in the Japanese labor markets.23 Based on the dual labor market theory, host country employers are not interested in hiring foreign workers to the jobs and positions requiring greater responsibility and higher levels of skills. Immigrants in Japan can successfully accumulate new knowledge, qualifications and skills.

These skills, as it appears, do not matter, unless these workers have access to social networks and resources that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs.24 As of today, Japanese employers are strongly in favor of hiring male workers of Japanese origin who were born and brought up abroad.25

The wage levels of immigrants indicate the degree of their economic integration with the host country, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.

Conclusion Japan is becoming a popular object of macroeconomic and population analysis. A recently immigrant country, Japan is attracting more foreign workers. The number of foreign newcomers slowly but steadily increases; nevertheless, the country remains increasingly exclusivist in its immigration decisions.

Those who come to Japan seek decent employment and good earnings. Simultaneously, their career and wage growth prospects are rather modest. More often than not, foreign immigrants in Japan have few opportunities to advance themselves professionally; human capital plays only a minor role in immigrants’ wage and career growth in Japan.

The dual labor market theory suggests that international immigration is driven by four essential factors: structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography. In this sense, Japanese employers are highly motivated to hire foreign workers, who are cheaper than native employees and seek nothing but money.

Contrary to the earlier models of wage determination, human capital alone does not help immigrants to achieve a better economic status in Japan. Immigrants require access to social networks and connections that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs. The wage levels indicate the degree of immigrants’ assimilation with the local economic environment, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.

Works Cited Fiorio, Carlo and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010. Print.

Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 431-66. Print.

Sato, Makoto. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 19-34. Print.

Solinger, Dorothy J. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 455-478. Print.

Syed, Jawad. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 28-45. Print.

The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. Databook of International Labor Statistics 2011. The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, 2011. Web.

Tigno, Jorge V. “Migration, The Market and Society: issues in Philippine Labor Flows to Japan.” Philippine Social Science Review, 51.1 (1993): 57-78. Print.

Tsuda, Takeyuki. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641-59. Print.

Footnotes 1 Carlo Fiorio and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010, 2.

2 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011), 641.

3 Ibid., 641.

4 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.

5 Ibid., 641.

6 Ibid., 641.

7 Ibid., 642.

8 Makoto Sato. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 22.

9 Ibid., 22.

10 Ibid., 22.

11 Ibid., 23.

12 Ibid., 24.

13 Ibid., 24.

14 Dorothy J. Solinger. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 461.

15 Jawad Syed. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 31.

16 Ibid., 31.

17 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.

18 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.

19 Ibid., 442.

20 Ibid., 443.

21 Ibid., 443.

22 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.

23 Ibid., 641.

24 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.

25 Ibid., 641.

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Collection Development Policy Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Executive Summary The paper evaluates Collection Development Policy and its overall benefits to libraries. It starts by introduction and the meaning of Collection Development Policy, its components and benefits. Then there is explanation on the general requirements for successful implementation CDP. Finally there is review and evaluation of the existing stock within the library and conclusion.

Introduction All libraries have got one primary task of making information available through collection, selection and preservation. Such process is normally made easier through application of relevant policies such as Collection Development policy. The policy assists libraries in organization through effective management of information and other resources (Strong, 1999).

Definition of Collection Development Policy A collection development policy presents a written statement of a library’s intention for building collections. The CDP describes collections components including strengths and weaknesses as well as providing clear guidelines for the library employees. The development of the document requires time and careful considerations for the purposes of proving its relevance to the subject.

Purpose of CDP

The main purpose for a library in normally to sort and provide necessary access to relevant information and resources. Improvement in technology has guaranteed libraries the chance to migrate from holdings method to access strategies which enable information to be provided efficiently and in time. Collection policies are on the increase therefore making libraries prepare in disseminating widely available information (Strong, 1999).

Explanation on Collection Development Policy (CDP)

The document is expected to provide updated information as well as being flexible when it comes to adapting to various changes. At the same time the guidelines provided should be modifiable in line with the library’s collection needs. Consequently, the collection development policy should be placed on the World Wide Web as a resource for the library’s patrons and source of reference for other libraries (Johnson, 1994).

Policy statements normally provide parameters through which employees and users of the library work. Collection Development Policy serves purposes such as; selecting materials, describing current collections, and at the same time makes the staff aware of the aims and objectives of the organization.

In addition it gives the various priorities attached to different activities and assists in the processing of budget and overall collection management activities. In general terms CDP prevents the library from being controlled by events as well as individual interests. The document also controls the purchase of resources preventing the cases of obtaining resources not in support of the library’s mission (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Components of a CDP

The collection development policy provides the necessary guidance to staff in the process of selecting and deselecting resources for collection. The various processes involved include; acquisition, housing, weeding, retention and archiving, placing all manner of material within their relevant subjects. Such organization helps in reducing the level of bias since all individual selection decisions are guided within the context of the objectives of collection practices.

This ultimately assists in identifying and filling the gaps within the responsibilities associated with collection development. Such practices ensure existence of consistency in the process of selection and revision done on materials. Collection Development Policy also helps in defining the purpose and scope of various collections as well as allowing deep evaluation on selection decisions. The guidelines provided makes it easier for the training of new staff and at the same time provides answers to most questions raised by selectors (Johnson, 1994).

The collection development policy also provides relevant base necessary for future planning. This assists in planning of the available financial resources making it easier when it comes to priority determination. There is provision for protecting library funds since the policy grants clear guidelines on acquisition bids based on fair allocation of resources.

The document in its formal presentation ensures continuity hence of great benefit in acquiring knowledge on collection as well as acting as reminder of library goals and objectives. The defined objectives are helpful in guiding other activities related to collection such as cataloguing, selection and de-selection and other relevant delivery activities (Johnson, 1994).

The other benefit of CDP is that it offers the required public relations amongst the library users, administrators and related funding organizations. The document gives clear objectives indicating the position of the organization on demonstrating accountability and following the stated goals.

Relevance of the document is determined by active participation of users and administrators which acts as source of strong relations between library users and the employees. The CDP serves as a contract document between the library and its users and at the same time giving clear functions of the library in terms of collections and various services offered to institutions. It makes it easier for the justification of individual selection based on standard objectives and also makes it possible to reject unwanted materials (Johnson, 1994).

Benefits of establishing a written CDP for the Limerick Institute of Technology Library

Limerick Institute of Technology Library policy document would identify various issues such as the level of access, content, and engagement of the community in which it will be established, also important is the education standards as well as the training programs which assists in achieving the mission and vision. Operating under the strategies of Limerick Institute Library requires specific initiatives for collection development, some of which are explained as below (Shenton, 2005).

We will write a custom Report on Collection Development Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The CDP will consider increase in the virtual space and easy access to the collections either manually or electronically on a twenty-four hour basis six days a week. This would also entail access to other materials such as Library catalogues and other services. There would be issues on subscription to several relevant electronic databases which would make it easier for clients to access services irrespective of the region where they are stationed free of charge.

Creation of more materials through digital processing would be given priority and these would entail cultural materials inform of music, manuscripts as well as pictures. The community would be engaged in online exhibitions and at the same time staff being educated and trained on the rural and remote communities, granting them the opportunity to have the skills required in operation of the internet and usage of online library resources (Shenton, 2005).

The library would offer sufficient space for readers making it capable of accommodating many people in one sitting. There would be improved access to collections and exhibition galleries. The project would grant the community the opportunity to access virtual library services with clients capable of adjusting available spaces to suite their needs. The internet services would replace paper-based resources making work and accessibility easier.

The method implemented on electronic storage of information would present various key benefits to Limerick Library some of which include; easier and timely delivery of information enabling clients to access information irrespective of their locations. There would be free access to all Limerick Library catalogues through their website making selection of titles easier to clients.

Collection Development Policy would also enable digitisation of heritage resources which enables scanning of various materials such as photographs and maps. This would promote access to wider range of materials which previously proved restrictive. The digitisation also enhances the library’s role in collecting, preserving and access to several materials linked to heritage (Tedd and Large, 2005).

However some few challenges are involved which include the right to ownership and access to materials. The problem of digital resources being accessed by anyone from all over the world provided they have authentic entry through database provider. The process of archiving presents some considerable challenge where the relative costs of archive and print versions differ (Tedd and Large, 2005).

Requirements for implementation and revision of the CDP

The first requirement for the implementation of the CDP is the library’s mission statement, the purpose for which the policy is drafted and the audience it should address. Some of the inclusions the document requires are statements on user groups, types of programs served by the CDP, the nature and size of the collection and detailed budget. The various cooperative agreements on policy and practices are also provided for (Dahl et al, 2006).

General and Narrative Statements

General statements would be required for implementation purposes. This comprises the listing of all characteristics which determine the nature of development required for the collection.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Collection Development Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These include such issues as current situation, acquisitions, the kind of resources involved in form of periodicals, monographs and the like, kind of language applicable, format whether in printed or electronic form, sources of funds, the various policies safeguarding collection and maintenance. Within these important subjects on relevant policies and rights of complaints are all necessary for complete implementation purposes (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).

Narrative statements are also important since it helps in defining the library services in relation to the community it serves. The statement should provide for languages and regions as well as intellectual coverage based on chronological order.

Also the library units responsible for the collections with the subjects being described based on the library classification scheme is a consideration. And finally the relationship between disciplines and the required policies should be followed for the purposes of acquiring information (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).

Subject Profiles

Subject profiles are necessary for the purposes of revealing and helping in collection evaluation. This proves important in the process of periodic updating of information reflecting on changing times. The overview of collection strength and intensities is very vital before implementation process.

The overview represents the general synopsis on the network’s coordinated collection policy. Such a collection is normally referred to as conspectus report which provdes evaluation on the library’s division, categories and subject. The information is useful in managing library resources hence making it possible to ascertain on relevant decisions required for the general operations of the library (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).

Review and evaluation of existing stock The library consists of printed books, manuscripts as well as archives of lasting value, antiquarian and modern books for intellectual and historical contents. The existing collection strength include availability of resources such as; History and Literary collections in Irish and other languages, Irish Literature, Celtic studies, Medieval studies, Religion in Ireland, Estate papers, Official Publications, Intellectual history of University College, Law and Comical artefacts.

The section on Special Collections and Archives involves collections in different formats which includes; printed materials, manuscripts, facsimile formats, maps, photographs, musical scores as well as microfilm. There are also copies of theses written from higher degree courses which include maters and PhDs fro Limerick Institute of Technology College (Tedd and Large, 2005).

All important records generated by Limerick Institute of Technology and which more so relates to the history of the institution are organized and preserved by the institute Archives. All the donations and other internal transfers are generally controlled by agreements as well as necessary transfer procedures. Relevance of overall Special Collections is reviewed for validity purposes (Tedd and Large, 2005).

Conclusion The collection methods and techniques are required to ascertain on the depth and strength of the existing collections. The useful techniques required for implementation of CDP are either collection-centered or client-centered. The work of the collection-centered is to assist in examining the content and nature of resources and their information for the purpose of determining their relevance with external standards.

On the other hand client centered techniques provides detailed descriptions on the collection’s effectiveness and relevance. The combination of the two techniques during implementation alongside quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques provides accurate and reliable results for present and future use.

Reference List Clayton, P.

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Promoting Library Collection Policy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction All libraries face complex challenges in identifying, acquiring and managing appropriate information resources. Traditional formats and ever more technologically interesting information sources are expected by patrons in communities of all sizes. Small and rural public libraries have always faced unique challenges in this arena.

Some of these challenges include: limited budgets for materials, licenses, and equipment, limited staffs (sometimes only one person performs all library functions), too many inappropriate and unsolicited gifts, limited space for print material and limited computers for electronic access, time constraints, and limited opportunities for library training and education within easy access (Evans

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Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country Research Paper essay help

Introduction Living as a non- English speaking artist in an English speaking country is a fascinating challenge and an advantage to a nation since aliens in a country are play pivotal role in promoting cultural activities as well as innovation. Empirical and past comparative studies indicate that in the history of civilization and human culture, aliens in any given country have always been known as one major source of social vibrancy since they share local traditions with the local people alongside passing their own cultural values to the local population.

In cases such aliens are quite intimate with the local population. Then it is indefinite that a lot of unprecedented cultural exchange will indeed take place leading to a positive outcome. Brandellero indicates that due to the uniqueness of strangers or immigrants, local milieus dealing with production have developed keen interest of attracting and retaining them for purposes of enhancing growth and sustaining their economies (10).

As this paper analyses, artists are important personalities in any cultural economy bearing in mind that they act as forerunners in harnessing and generating capabilities through their own artistic works. By so doing, they directly contribute towards economic growth of the respective countries they are living in. It is also against this scope that this paper explores non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, their impact on the economy and some of the challenges facing them.

Understanding cultural and ethnic diversity In her publication, Brandellero argues that cultural diversity and its link to the status of an outsider is a factor that creates tension, but has a positive effect towards innovative potential (11). While cultural diversity has myriad of similarities to ethnic diversity, it is prudent to mention that the former is a key driver and a potential source of innovation, creativity and building positive relationships. The latter are essential in enhancing mutual competitiveness.

In their cultural theory, Schwartz and Thompson elaborate that a new entrant into a foreign country may act as an intersection between the local community and outside world largely due to multiple ethnic and spatial ties. To emphasize on this, it is worth noting that contemporary immigrants, English or non-English speakers, are contributing immensely in strengthening of advanced urban economies by enhancing competitive advantages.

Effective understanding of cultural and ethnic differences have become some of the most fundamental requirements which businesses and immigrant artists need today since it assists them in building relationships by fostering understanding of the cultural values of members of different cultures alongside interpreting of their behaviors and actions.

The efficient performance of a non-English speaking artist as well as his or her participation in the growth of the economy of a host English speaking nation is to a larger extent, influenced by cultural differences experienced through complex interaction between the environment and individuals. Brandellero makes a significant contribution related to this argument by pointing out that an understanding of cultural diversity and ethnicity easily affect the degree of satisfaction, motivation results and behavior of individuals (35).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His argument concurs with Hofstede’s model and networking theory that demonstrate how cultural differences impact on the dimensions of an organization in terms of networking, gaining social capital, relationship marketing and development of human resource (Brandellero 54). Additionally, the differences also directly impact on intra organizational communication, problem-solving capabilities and creativity levels.

An artist who is living in the contemporary cultural economy has a greater advantage since the modern global economy has emerged as a thriving market offering colossal employment opportunities in many cities and countries globally.

Brandellero posits that the cultural economy offer potential support for artists of all nation whether English speaking or non- English speaking, and massive opportunities to generate artistic capabilities for productive purposes (20). This is made possible by the spatial manifestations created by the cultural economy, which play a pivotal role of attracting substantial and significant attention, which is an important playing field in the revolution of culture in a new economy.

Living as a non-English speaking artist Living as a non-English artist in another country as opposed to one’s own native land is a major challenge brought about by the diverse changes that are mainly structural, of global proportion and that continuously alter and impact on experiences. Research studies clearly indicate that living and working in a foreign country may affect a worker’s private realms and social life due to issues such as industrial capitalism and rational forms.

Scholars on modern sociology point out that a lot of transformations involving cultural, political, economic and social processes happen differently in diverse nations and result in the emergence, development and flourishing of new structures of social life that may affect an immigrant worker.

Brandellero argues that non-English speakers migrating to other English speaking nations in order to work ought to understand the culture of the country they are going to live in bearing in mind that this will shape how they relate with the locals and enhance their business performance (14).

Needless to say, cultural understanding in a foreign land is of great essence if an artist is to reap the optimum benefits out of his or her artistic work. It is also prudent to underscore the fact that should cultural differences between artists and locals clash at any given point, then the expected benefits either to the artist or host country will be null and void.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importance of effective understanding of cultural differences by non-English speaking artists National culture is a phenomenon that distinguishes one group from another. Therefore, different nations have unique cultures that affect or largely determine how they run their affairs. A country may express its culture through conceptual elements such as arts, rituals or beliefs. For non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, it is definite that they indeed encounter myriad of challenges brought about by national culture.

Besides, when employed, they serve, co-work and interact with workers and customers from different cultural backgrounds who manifest various gender, ethnic, regional and national beliefs. This calls for an effective understanding of the local or national culture of a host nation and development of coping strategies in order to be productive. Most importantly, the barrier posed by language differences may not be eluded in most cases since an artist may not be a multilingual speaker.

According to Brandellero, for individuals or companies to perform successful business ventures in countries different from their own, they must have an effective understanding of different cultures (12). Besides, they must apply knowledge in management as tactics which are important for success.

It is imperative to mention that non-English speaking artists have to be flexible and keep changing their strategies to meet the needs and challenges a new cultural environment presents. Those intending to innovate or invest in the cultural economy must incorporate knowledge in management with the strategies they have devised. With globalization taking rapidly taking effect, these artists must come up with ways to overcome organizational and national cultures and the diverse challenges posed by the same.

Using Hofstede’s model, it is important to note that special cultures of diverse nations are based on different independent dimensions that include short term or long term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity or femininity, individualism or collectivism and power distance (Brandellero 62).

Understanding of the different independent dimensions will greatly assist a non-English speaking artist to predict how societies or nations that host them culturally operate. It is imperative to note that the culture of a given society is the sum of its assumptions, beliefs and values.

The man-made part of the culture of a society is influenced by the perceptions individuals have of their social environment. As such, a prescribed behavior of a particular society is shaped by those shared perceptions (Brandellero 43). An artist may not be able to directly observe culture, but can easily infer it from verbal exchanges and daily societal activities.

Knowledge of different cultures enhances networking

According to Pettigrew Whipp’s model of dimensions of change, effective understanding of different cultures assists business owner to develop their social networking behaviors (Brandellero 18). This argument clearly indicates that a non-English speaking artist who intends to succeed in his or her operations in an English speaking host country must possess or develop positive patterns of behavior necessary for social networking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, many businesses today are operated with an intention of growth and maximization of profits. Positive networking behaviors should be enhanced by the non-English speaking artists as will not only aid them to effectively understand the cultures of the environment they are situated and build good relationship, but will also assist them to acquire scarce resources for business growth.

The effective understanding of factors such as masculinity and femininity cultures in a host country will enhance a positive networking behavior that will improve an artist’s relationship with the different cultures and aid it in obtaining external resources necessary to drive up arts business (Brandellero 19).

Brandellero supports the above notion and points out that effective understanding of different ethnic cultures of a host nation is a means of success for business owners who have developed networking skills (35). In fact, it is a common denominator underlying a business agenda and is suitable for establishing a higher networking behavior.

Mourkogiannis contributes to Brandellero’s argument by indicating in his moral purpose model that entrepreneurs, and in this case non-English speaking artists, should effectively and efficiently include social spheres in expanding their networks with a bid to develop a competitive advantage in a host nation (Brandellero 20). An artist can achieve this by raising his or her social status via vertical social mobility and learning the local language.

Additionally, studies have indicated that effective understanding of different cultures by a business creates for it a dyadic and interconnected relationship that has diverse ties such as influence, exchange and information. It is imperative to note that the aforementioned ties are part of a business’ assets that legitimizes the business, enables it to access resources and provides it with information.

In agreement, different scholars have used interactive perspective to link cultural and economic resources to economic opportunity structure in analyzing the effectiveness of businesses understanding diverse cultures. According to them different ethnic groups, depending on the structure of economic opportunities, brings income to a business.

From an interactive perspective, Brandellero points out that effective understanding of cultures helps in distribution of resources through built relationships (42).

Different societies vary in terms of status, power and class. As such a non-English speaking artist in an English speaking host country will be supplied with capital from ethnic networks depending on social relationships and ties built on social obligation and trust. It is imperative to note that customer relationship and ties with a business depend on a cultural enclave the business is in.

Knowledge of culture and relationship marketing

According to neoclassical microeconomic theory, relationship marketing is an important marketing activity that businesses having their operations in different countries carry out for successful establishment and sustenance of relational exchanges (Brandellero 32). An artist in a foreign nation can create a long-term relationship between his business and individuals or groups within a particular host culture in a relational market.

Neoclassical microeconomic theory presents a transactional school of thought that indicates that effective understanding of different cultures by a business will assists it in developing relational exchanges with the locals.

Consequently, this will aid it in the maximization of profits if it is found in a competitive market. Additionally, an artist living in an English speaking host country can develop exchanges with the locals and demonstrate rational behavior that shows a deep understanding of diverse cultures. Consequently, this will cause an artist to fashion his or her products to meet the cultural demands of the host country thereby making the artist to become a utility maximizer and a price taker.

Statistical literature revealing imbalance in art and theater

Past statistical research evidences have indicated that receive neglect in some countries. For instance, a report carried out in the nineties indicated that the Australian media failed to show a reflection of the diversity of the Australian people. Advertisement pictures and other programs conspicuously made exclusions to cultures that are not English speaking while portrayals in comedy only showed stereotypical images of the non-English speaking people.

Current statistics on non-English speaking representation in the media have shown estimations that slightly less than two percent of roles in the acting industry, especially in regards to mainstream drama in television, were directly played by other ethnic communities of Australia and the aboriginals (Bertone, Keating

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Potato Chips Industry Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The question of which market structure accrues most benefits for all stakeholders can be attributed to a number of factors. There are four major market structures, but for the purpose of this assignment, focus is on monopolistically competitive and monopoly markets structures. “Wonks” is a conglomerate of many potato chips companies, which initially operated as monopolistically competitive firms in potato industry in the Midwest in 2007.

These firms were that run on equilibrium such that they achieved a normal rate of return, improved efficiency and other advantages which accrue added benefits to all stakeholders. However, in 2008 the firm were conglomerated into “Wonks” by two lawyers and thus operated in a monopoly market structure. As a monopoly “Wonks” accrues a number of benefits ranging from long term economic profits, market protection among others.

However, in a monopoly market structure, the social cost of a monopoly to both the stakeholder and the consumer is much higher than the cost of monopolistically competitive firm. Both monopolistically competitive market and monopoly structures offer certain advantages to “Wonks”; however, the company needs to revert to monopolistically competitive structure to accrue more benefits to both the entrepreneurs and consumers.

From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly To bring up all the potato chips producers together meant that the market structure was changed from monopolistically competitive to a monopoly. This shift in market structure significantly affects the relationship between the input, the output and commodity prices. In the monopolistically competitive markets, various potato chips makers established competition on production efficacy rather than on pricing.

Hypothetically, one of the competitors enhances production efficiency more than others, thus leading to competition. Efficiency is further enhanced by increasing the output (production) at minimum cost of production (Mankiw, 2011; Taylor, 2009). This has a direct impact on the cost and quantity of commodities; increasing output means only minimum increases in cost of production. Thus, the average cost of production is lowered.

In a monopolistically competitive market, price (which is equal to marginal revenue) is determined by market demand among other factors. This implies that each of the competitors may sell as much commodities as it can on the current market price. This is achieved by improving production efficiency (and thus lowered cost of production).

This phenomenon is further compounded by the existence of more than one type of demand; demand seen by a particular competitor and the actual demand for the commodity. As such, to survive in a monopolistically competitive market, potato chips makers had to product-differentiate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This creates several types of demand for each of the products. Therefore, there are short term profits but on the long term there would not be any economic profits since with time, the demand for that differentiated product decreases while the cost of production increases. Thus, competitors are likely to increase prices of good without losing market share (since price must equal marginal cost).

The reorganization of the markets structure from monopolistically competitive to monopoly has several implications. While there are many determinants of monopoly, this type of monopoly is attained by having complete control of basic resources (potatoes) by one owner, “Wonks.”

To begin with, it is imperative to state that the shift in market structure affects the demand-supply mechanism. In a monopolistically competitive market structure there are various types of demands. These demands are determined, by the number of competing interests within this environment, thus production is based on product differentiation. However, in a monopoly, there is only one demand; the demand as perceived by the single seller (Mankiw, 1998).

As such, there is only one demand for potato chips, which is only defined by “Wonks”. This phenomenon is as a result of several factors. However, bringing all potato chips markers together mean that there is only one producer, in this case “Wonks”, who not only fails to product-differentiate but also becomes the only seller of potatoes chips. Monopolies esteem to produce as much goods as possible to supply the demand as they see it.

This also means that monopolies draw all the profits there is within their given markets (Lindeman, 2001). Since “Wonks” monopolizes production, demand and supply of potatoes chips, they are also able to monopolize prices with the aim of generating as much profits as possible. As such, for monopolistic business owners, there are direct financial returns.

In monopolistic markets structures, the government becomes a major stakeholder, either directly or indirectly. Regardless of this fact, the government stands to gain from market monopoly. In many countries, governments allow monopolies to operate, for both economic and political.

Controlling resources creates market entry barriers, since no competitor has access to those resources. However, most monopolies need government protection to create legal market entry barriers. This is usually aims at protecting monopolized markets from entry by external forces. While this to protect local entrepreneurs, it also benefits the government in two broad ways. First, the government protects local entrepreneurs, thus helping to build local production capacity.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Potato Chips Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is usually good for economic growth. Secondly, in the process of protecting local markets from infiltration by external producers, the government negotiates higher taxes payable by monopolistic firms. As such, in most countries, companies that have market monopolies end up paying relatively higher taxes, in return for protection against competition (Mankiw, 2011). Thus governments benefit in form of increased revenue from higher taxes paid by companies within monopolized market structures.

With time, companies within monopolized market structure realize that while they have the absolute power to adjust prices to suit their profits targets, such adjustments do have a general effect on total revenues. For instance, monopolies have the power to adjust prices upwards since they do not have any competitor which might offer price competitive goods. While this is aimed at increasing profits, it also has a negative effect on total revenues.

Unlike in competitively monopolistic markets, in a monopoly Price increase means that fewer consumers will be willing to buy those goods. In the long run, this reduces a company’s total revenue due to reduced sales. In this regard, “Wonks” would realize the need to increase profits through efficient production.

There are two ways through which monopolies achieve this. They either lower the cost of production by reducing wastages or add value to their products by improving on the product quality. Since Quality goods ensure the best value for money, customers are likely to pay more for those goods (Mankiw, 2011). In this case, by improving the quality of potatoes chips, “Wonks” benefits its consumers. As such, similar to monopolistic competition, consumers benefit from high quality goods as well as improved efficiency of production and delivery.

However, by conglomerating all potato chips makers into “wonks”, the Midwest potato chips market structure shifted from monopolistically competitive to a single monopoly market structure. This means that the output-input-price mechanism is changed. As explained earlier, in a monopoly, there is only one demand (the demand seen by the producer) and thus no product differentiation (Lindeman, 2001).

Thus, “Wonks” would only produce its own brands of potato chips. Unlike a monopolistically competitive market where profits are only sustained on the short term, monopolies are able to sustain profits for a long time, since there is no price competition. This is facilitated by the fact that there are strict market entry barrier and thus no chance for sharing those profits. Unlike a monopolized competitor, a monopoly operates at a level where marginal revenue is equated to marginal cost of production.

This also implies that either reduction or increase in a unit of production leads to increased profits; adding a unit of production increases revenues more than the cost of production while reducing a unit of production reduces the cost of production, thus increasing the profits (Lindeman, 2001). This is in stark contrast to a monopoly where a reduction in a unit of production is likely to increase the cost per unit of production.

“Wonks” is formed with a monopoly market structure in mind. However, the major question is on the cost of both the monopoly as well as monopolistically competitive market, and which of the two is most efficient for both the company and consumers. A monopoly has several inefficiencies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Potato Chips Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, inefficiency is achieved through setting the price of commodities above marginal cost, leading to higher prices as compared to monopolistically competitive market (Mankiw, 2011).

As such “Wonks” is likely to hike its prices. Additionally, monopolies accrue added expenses in terms of higher than normal taxes paid to government as kickback for market protection. While monopolies achieve productive efficiency, the level of such efficiency cannot be compared to the type of efficiency achieved in monopolistically competitive markets.

In a monopolistically competitive market structure, efficiency is achieved mainly through product differentiation as well as one of the ways of reducing the cost of production. As such, the more the competitive the market is, the more efficiency production becomes (Taylor, 2009).

This results not only to higher quality commodities which assure consumers of the best value for money. Due to this “Wonks” is likely to produce potato chips at a higher cost per unit (and eventually priced higher) than a monopolistically competitive firm. Additionally, product differentiation is common in monopolistically competitive markets. Thus this is likely to result to innovative products, which also add value to consumers’ lives.

Additionally, product differentiation ensures that there are numerous alternative commodities (Taylor, 2009). This increases the choice of consumer products, unlike in a monopoly where commodities have absolute distinctions (thus no choice of consumer products). Monopoly markets only have one demand; the demand as seen by the monopoly firm.

However, for a monopolistically competitive market there at least two types of demand; demand created by each competitor and the actual market demand for the product. In this case, while it seems a smart move to conglomerate all potato chips makers into a monopoly, for more benefits to the firm as well as the consumers it would be imperative for them to revert back to monopolistically competitive firms (Lindeman, 2001).

Conclusion The purpose of turning “wonks” into a monopoly was to probably control the market and create a market barrier. This would have ensured increased profits, since price is slightly higher than the marginal costs. However, while monopolizing the potato chips market seems like a smart idea, it is more costly to both the firm and consumers of potatoes chips.

Therefore, the two lawyer need to rethink their decision and revert to monopolistically competitive markets structure, in a monopoly there are fewer benefits to all stakeholders, limited productive efficiency among others limitation. This will ensure a more stable consumer friendly market.

Reference List Lindeman, J. (2001). EZ-101 Microeconomics. Arkansas: University of Arkansas

Taylor, A. (2009). Principles of microeconomics: global financial crisis edition. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning

Mankiw, G. (1998). Microeconomics. Orlando, FL: Ted Buchholz

Mankiw, G. (2011). Principles of economics. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning

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Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Executive summary

Introduction

Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient

Emotional intelligence skills

Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence

Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence

Conclusion

Recommendation

Reference List

Executive summary This paper analyses emotional intelligence and its applicability at places of work. The introductory part defines emotions and explains what emotional intelligence, and distinguishes it from academic intelligence or intelligent quotient. In the main body, deeper discussions of the tenets of emotional intelligence are explored.

The causes and underlying reasons for emotional breakdown are discussed with concrete examples. The paper further explains how modern organizations are trying to adopt emotional intelligence, and how this component of modern human resource management can impact the performance of organizations.

Introduction Have you ever been angry with your workmate? What prompted your anger and how did you react? Do you think your reaction was justified? These questions introduce us to the subject of managing emotions which is also referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence commonly abbreviated as (EQ) or emotional quotient is one of the key tenets of modern human resource management.

Emotions occupy a very big part of human life, thus this subject deserves much attention. Emotion is defined as the disturbance of the mind and passion, and which excites the mental state of a person. It is usually marked by a strong feeling to act. On a daily basis, people experience different happenings in or out of work.

The modern world economy is dominated by economic constraint, for instance the economic recession that was experienced in early 2008 (Weiten, 2009). For a longer period of time, it has been believed that the success of a person at the place of work depends on the level of intelligence of that person known as intelligence quotient (IQ).

This is presumed to work in the academic field and not the real open work field. It has been noted that the performance of a person at the place of work goes far beyond the intelligence quotient. The modern workplace demands for varied resourcefulness. What is needed is a different kind of mental smartness; that is, emotional intelligence (Singh, 2006).

Since the start of 1990s organizations and researchers in the United Kingdom began to accept and implement emotional intelligence. From then, consultants in management and psychologists have dug deep into research to know how important emotional intelligence is at places of work in relation to productivity, the general management and in sales. They appreciated that emotional intelligence is a basic need more so in jobs where interaction between people is a must (Gold and Mumford, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient Chakraborty (2008) observes that many people have failed to separate these two subjects. They use these terms in similar contexts with assumptions that each is the antonym of one another. It is good to note that the two have a kind of a complex relationship. Emotional intelligence is based on emotion while rational or intelligent quotient is based on academics.

Nonetheless, the two interact in a certain manner and go together in some instances. Emotional responses can be managed well through conscious efforts. When this awareness is inexistent, rational thinking is overridden by emotional actions (Chakraborty, 2008).

Emotional intelligence skills There are a number of emotional intelligence skills that are very fruitful when they are learnt and adopted. They include being empathetic. When a leader in any organization has grasped this skill, he or she is able to feel and listen to the demands and complaints from employees (Stein, 2009).

Responsibility is also an important skill of managing emotions. Managers who have a grasp of social responsibility give room for a participatory approach in management. Such managers take good care of the community and the environment they are working in and respect the rules that govern that society (Stein, 2009).

Leaders who are emotionally intelligence know how to relate well with other people. Good interpersonal relationship skills help these leaders to maintain a positive relationship with all other people in the organization. Good interpersonal relation skills help leaders to cultivate relationships they want in the organization (Stein, 2009). Emotional intelligence has to come with the ability to control impulses.

This skill comprises of patience, and it allows a leader to listen to the employers of the company. Therefore, employers are able to clearly understand the views of employees and they can make an attempt to integrate these views in the organizational working framework thus drawing away bad feelings and protests at the place of work.

Happiness is another important emotional management skill that leaders need to have in order to manage emotions in the organizations that they lead. Happiness pulls people closer to the organization. Employees will always prefer to work with joyful and rejuvenated leaders. On the contrary, they will shun from leaders who are gloomy and unfriendly (Stein, 2009).

We will write a custom Report on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence has to be accompanied with tough mindedness. For any leader to gain success, he or she has to have a lot of resilience. This enables one to easily respond to tough and challenging situations. They manage to persevere when faced with obstacles. It is easy for them to overcome challenging situations and easily contain pressure arising from these constraints.

Tough minded leaders must have high self-regard because people with high self-regard have confidence and self-assurance. Leaders who possess the skill of self-regard have a strong understanding of their strongpoints and their weak points. They use confidence to counter tough situations and moments of the organization.

Tough minded leaders must have high levels of tolerating stress. This means that one must be ready and know how to deal with tough situations as they arise. Though attending to a taunting task, one is able to keep focus and control himself in relation to the activity that he or she is handling (Stein, 2009).

Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence The bottom line in operation of a business, companies or even the government are impacted by emotions that are derived from the work, the management and the customers. Organizational culture and climate are determined by emotions and how the emotions in the organization and how these emotions are managed. The feeling and performance of employees influences the feeling, satisfaction level and loyalty of customers to the company.

These in turn work to affect the performance of the organization. Emotions whether they are positive or negative affects everyone in the organization. In “What makes a leader” in the Harvard Business Review, Daniel Goleman (2005) states “When I calculate the ratio of technical skills, IQ and emotional intelligence as ingredients of excellent performance, emotional intelligence proved to be twice as important as others for jobs at all levels” (Stock, 2008, p.18).

He goes on to say, “When I compared star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of difference in their profile was attributable to Emotional Intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities” (Stock, 2008, p.18).

There is evidence supported by many researchers that emotional intelligence lays at the centre of efficient leadership. Efficient leaders are modelled by their thoughts and state of mind as they perform their work. Good leaders have self awareness as well as the influence they have on other people.

Self awareness is more vital. Leaders who have performed well in management have high abilities to control or manage their emotions. They do not at any point let emotions control them but rather are always on top of their emotions are good in adjusting their feelings (Stock, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational culture is a combination of different tenets that include values, beliefs and behaviours. These tenets work together to determine the climate of an organization. Analysts argue that emotions have economic value. Profitability of companies are determined by behaviours of employee most of which are shaped by emotions (Stock, 2008). Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization.

The improvement in the attitude of employees leads to an improvement. Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization. The management of companies are in these times finding it important to handle employees in a nice way. It has been found out that if at any instance, the attitude of employees rises, the satisfaction of customers will equally raise (Spritzer, 2007).

Stress normally has a big impact on the management and the workers. Stress emanates from bad emotions and feeling that renders people unable to withstand what the environment demands from them. Demands of the jobs and the social setting of the society are unlikely to change soon. This is making it very important to develop skills to held cope with these demands thus a call for emotional intelligence skills. On the other hand, there is good stress also called eustress. This is fuelled by positive emotions (Stock, 2008).

Research indicates that when anxiety, fear or even despair enters a persons mind, a person become defensive and seek for personal security. On realization the people who surround cant offer the security, the person becomes frustrated. This results in a turndown in performance. The taunting nature of tasks at places of work is being accompanied by stress. Jobs that come with a lot of complexities call for high levels of emotional intelligence.

At the workplace there is rising need to help manage stress. Stress management is not a simple activity. It requires one to have high levels of emotional intelligence in order to solve this problem without harming the activities of the company where one works. Successful managing of stress and its related conditions has positive impact to the profit patterns of the company (Singh, 2006).

Social and emotional intelligence works have been adopted by organizations. A person’s social and emotional intelligence goes deep into making the person successful. If extrapolated, this can be reflective of the entire organizational culture. People who manage famous organizations keep in mind that their workers are their key assets thus by developing them; their organizations are bound to be successful.

In order for organizations to maximize on their competitive abilities, they have to pay maximum attention to motivating and satisfying the needs of their employees. Ability of the organization to weigh and fully understand the socio– emotional intelligence is a beginner step to see to ensuring that an organization has reached its maximum potential.

Organizations that are devoid of emotional intelligence stand a high risk of not attaining their goals. Emotionally intelligent organizations on the other hand, have a high rate of attaining their goals and objectives. They promote an open culture where issues of openness and transparency are the key norms (Singh, 2006).

Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence Leslie works in a young advertising, and she has good friendship with the workmates. Much of the leisure time, she spends time with her friends. She describes the manner in which she relates with the bosses. The bosses are very nice, and they forward them online emails and jokes. A lot of workers gather on his computer to view latest emailed jokes (Spitzer, 2007). This is so creative of the leadership of the organization.

Though, after working for very long hours, she fills guilty leaving earlier whenever she has to do so. The reasons why people or employees get faded up with the work they do originate mostly from their supervisors or bosses. The leading teams in organizations affect the organization through directing, and guiding and the manner of responding both to the employees and the external world.

Leaders in any organization are the steers of the organizational ship. People needs to be full aware of where the ship they are travelling in is meant to reach. Employers need to understand that the leadership is competent when it comes to organizational decision making and that they are guided by the interests of the organization they are leading (Stein, 2007).

Conclusion From the discussion, it is clear the world we live in today is full of challenges that emanate from both the economic and social spheres of life. These challenges have a great impact on people and their behaviours. Therefore, the modern society has to accept the realities that these challenges pose to organizational performance.

In an effort to counter the challenges, they have resorted to introduce and cultivate the culture emotional intelligence and management. Emotional intelligence is however a subject that is still very young. Nonetheless, smart organizations that have adopted this technique are doing well. Emotion intelligence has become more of a necessity in organizations in current time. Each organization faces emotional related problems and thus by adopting this practice can help them maximize productivity.

Recommendation Organizations should conduct research about the changes on the emotions of their employees, so that they can determine the best motivational strategies to apply. In addition, employees should be consulted when implementing strategies in the organization to ensure they accept them.

Reference List Chakraborty, A., 2008, Emotional intelligence, Berlin, Springer.

Gold, J., Thorpe, R.,

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