Blueprint Of A Workplace Process Report Cheap Essay Help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


La Camera’s Transformation Process

Gaps in the La Camera’s BTP

Conclusion-Summary of the main findings




Executive Summary In order to succeed in today’s turbulent business environment characterized by increasing levels of competition and ever-changing market conditions, enterprises have to change their processes in order to quickly and efficiently adapt to the changing needs and wants of the marketplace. This is especially true for businesses offering food services.

Arguably, the most radical response of a company is business transformation process. This report examines a successful business transformation process conducted by La Camera Restaurant. Specifically, the report describes the process implementation; the context in which the process was implemented, results of the implementation and concludes with recommendations for improvement in the future implementation of the transformational process at business and industry level.

Introduction Today’s business environment is marked by augmenting levels of competition and ever-changing market conditions. This is specifically true in companies offering food and beverage services. In the wake of dramatic turbulence in the environment in the environment, a company’s ability to adapt, respond and align itself with its business needs is critical for its survival and success. The big question arises as to how an organization should respond.

Among various responses, business process transformation offers radical solutions possibly as dramatic as the challenges. Business transformation process is the elemental review and thorough revamp of processes to attain impressive improvements in significant and existing measurements of efficiency.

In the past, a number of companies have risen to the occasion and implemented business transformation processes. A number of organizations have incorporated BTP’s in the past. These organizations include Tata1; BT’s Network plan2; Dell’s distribution chain scheme for electronic business3, and Wal-Mart’s supply chain enhancement via incorporating their buyers’ systems4.

This report examines process-based transformation with reference to La Camera, a Stylish, modest Italian restaurant in Southbank, Melbourne.

Business transformation process efforts are bound to fail at meeting their goals at a very high rate. The salient observation about this a failure is that an organization has to be in dire need of these changes in order to risk engaging in a business transformation process. There are three major reasons attributed to a failure of BTPs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first is the absence of a sufficient business case. This leads to vague prospect of the results of the BTP. Symptoms of the lack of such an understanding include overemphasis on fundamental change without sufficient focus on existing processes, underestimation of issues related to people and organizational change, and insufficient support and dedication from top management.

Another reason why BTPs fail is due to the absence of robust and reliable technology and methodologies for performing BTP so that there is a failure in executing the efforts. The last reason is incomplete or inadequate implementation5.

Transforming an organization from a function to a process focus entails a key cultural alteration. It also calls for a major change in the information systems that maintain the business.

Organizational members do not know what to expect and are often surprised, angered, or threatened by the proposed change6. If the project does not correctly manage their expectations, it will not be allowed to continue. Lastly, inadequate carry forward of “lessons learnt” and “how-to” knowledge form project to project significantly increases the probability of a failure7.

La Camera’s Transformation Process Facing increasing competition from other players in the tourism and hospitality industry in Australia, the management of La Camera Restaurant identified four focused used strategies for the company. These include operational excellence, focused used revenue growth, knowledgeable and committed workforce, and excellent marketing.

Each of the strategies was spelt out in terms of key performance indicators, financing sources strategic considerations with noticeably distinct accountability centers and due dates for deliverables. The processes affected included ordering of meals, bartending services, and beverage services.

La Camera, the transformation process resulted to a better support team among the coworkers. The staff not only helped one another during peak hours but also encouraged one another to offer their customers the best services possible. In addition, they constantly reminded one another of the restaurant standards.

We will write a custom Report on Blueprint of a workplace process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This kept them versed with the quality of service they should strive to deliver to their clients. A blue print transformation process leads to a better organization structure among the employees. The workforce culture becomes suitable to the transformation8. For, instance, an employee who was initially a bartender in La Camera before the transformation process was in a position to learn the menu and procedures on the bill since the changes meant it possible for the staff to take orders over the phone.

This implies that, an effective transformation process in business leads to the versatility and agility among employees hence complementing one another in the workplace9.

In deed, recent research posits that there is a close link between customer satisfaction and support system among employees, employees’ determination to provide better service and support from seniors.

To add on, the study also indicated that support system among coworkers guided by a specific set of standards is instrumental in motivating employees to provide better client service. As such, a blue print business transformation process should endeavor to come up with a well-managed work force it terms training and motivating staff10.

A blue print business transformation should lead to automation of manual activities. This reduces the cycle time and improves the efficiency11. In La Camera, orders were taken manually before the introduction of the transformation processes. This process was tedious and time consuming. It meant that only the employees familiar with the menu and the dishes’ specifications could handle the customers.

However, with the introduction of ordering and booking, the process was meant effective as it became less involving breathe use other employees previously not able to handle customers face to face due to their commitments could now answer a call for an order or booking. This automation also reduced congestion in the restaurant. Initially, customers the used to crowd it while booking or ordering.

Apart from automation, a blue print business transformation strategy should result to processes becoming more efficient in line with the desired objective and business vision. In the case of La Camera, new coffee machines were installed12. After the introduction of these superb machines, it was now possible to make quality coffee easy and fast than before. This innovation was in line with the company’s belief that “Food is Life”.

Since life is dear and one should safeguard, the transformation changes ensured that the customers consumed quality products that were made using quality machines in the shortest time possible. The transformation process at La Camera also saw the introduction of a new set of wine glasses. This set had a uniform shape complete with the restaurant logo. The innovation made the serving of wine easier, hence, faster. In addition, it also helped to market the restaurant’s name through the logos leading to an increase in sales.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Blueprint of a workplace process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Further, a blue print business transformation makes business policies be changed making them accommodate the transformation program and policy. At La Camera, a new service was introduced that changed the company’s rules. Initially, the company did not have a take-away alcohol service13.

However, with the introduction of the transformation process, the restaurant incorporated the service into its services. This new service made the staff more aware of the liquor licensing laws in Victoria, and the new rules and regulations in the liquor industry. For instance, all new staff has their RSA certificate.

This implies that a blue print business transformation should not only be relevant to the individual industry but also in the entire industry. At La Camera, the altering of its services to include a take-away alcohol service led to an increase in profits for the business. It also allowed La Camera to market its name14.

Gaps in the La Camera’s BTP Despite the fact that the business transformation process at La Camera was a success, there were gaps that needed in case the top management of the restaurant wishes to introduce a similar project in the future. To begin with, several departments were concerned about what was in store for them with the BTP.

This curiosity and anxiety derailed the early stages of implementing the project. Another gap or rather a challenge during the process was resistance to change. Like many of the customers, it was discovered that in spite of flexibility and capabilities brought in by the new changes, some coworkers were not comfortable working in the new areas as was required per the BTP15.

Conclusion-Summary of the main findings Coming up with a suitable business transformation process is not an overnight affair. The initiative starts with an objective. Objectives may include market control, an undertaking into new markets, making more profits, contenting one’s customers, and managing resources.

Other goals for business transformation may entail organizational expansion or managing any business calamity whether present or in the near future. In the case of La Camera, the business transformation was triggered by an urge to satisfy its customers and organizational growth to include new services such alcohol take-away16.

After coming up with the objective of the business transformation process, the next step entails generating ideas to counteract the problem. Ideas are analyzed to verify their viability. After passing the viability, a policy is evolved, and as a result, a plan is drawn to implement the same. The execution is then carried out. It is succeeded by the appropriate supervision result and taking remedial measures to ascertain that the preferred goals are realized.

Recommendations The business transformation process at La Camera provides insights on what a BTP should entail. Nevertheless, the restaurant has to consider a number of recommendations given the gaps that existed in its project. To begin with, their workforce should be trained to inculcate skills required for the new expected roles.

Another point to consider is culture management. With every main transformation, the business’ work culture changes17. In addition, to counter the gaps of resistance to change, curiosity and anxiety, clear communication should be given a priority.

This can be implanted with intranet. Internal communication among the project’s team members can be facilitated through frequent meetings, and presentations by coordinators at cross-departmental meetings it is possible to have a heterogeneous workforce and as such, the changes need to be managed well in order avoid mid-way a failures.

Further, each business transformation process ought to be supported by a well-defined strategy. Lastly, there is a need to develop a feedback mechanism to collect information linked to the transformation results18.

Bibliography Andmine, La Camera Southbank Newsletter. Web.

BT Website, BT’s 21st century network. Web.

Chandran, P. M., Wal-Mart’s supply chain management practices, ICMR Case collection. Web.

Dwyer, J., Communication in business (4th ed). French’s Forest: Pearson Education, 2009, pp 12-20.

Grover, V.


National Geographic Travelers Magazine analysis Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The National Geographic Travelers is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society that enjoys free shipping in the USA. Usually, a magazine has five functional areas namely the administration, editorial, advertising, production and circulation. This paper analyzes the National Geographic Magazine Traveler business model in light of these five areas of practice.

Functional areas In administration, the title ownership of the publication is independent even though it is part of a large group of publications by the National Geographic Society. The other related publication and electronic media by the same publisher include the National Geographic Kids, National Geographic Adventure and the National Expedition.

The editorial part of this magazine reflects its mission statement which is ‘’to increase and diffuse knowledge while promoting conservation of the world’s cultural, historical and natural resources’’ (National Geographic Society 2). The magazine articles inspire people to care about plants, animals, geographic locations, cultures, science and technology (Loma Linda University 1).

With the mandate of increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge, each part of the magazine seeks to accomplish that. The magazine has a very wide circulation and with monthly publications it is able to disseminate this information regularly. Travel and Culture section editors pick different places one can travel and highlight the location.

They also provide tips needed when going to particular places and the top things to see. In addition, they give themed travels, for example, fall themed trips as well as cultural themed travel and tours. Photography section brings the places to the reader and it also has a section for photo contests where readers subscribe to win prices.

This encourages people to travel more and conserve the beauty of the environment so that in many years to come the generations after them will enjoy the same. There are also photography seminars that offer advice on the whole scope of photography and this fulfils part of the mission statement “to increase knowledge”.

Geographical locations featured in the magazine provide new information to the reader and the explorers’ chronicles provide the details needed to entertain and educate. The animals section mainly has features of wild animals and this makes it informative as readers learn how they affect the planet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is also information on conservation of the endangered species; for example, there is a feature on the Virunga Gorillas that are decreasing rapidly in the DRC Congo forests. With the ongoing war, many have been poached leaving just a few (Waitt Foundation 2).

The magazine is sold at a price of $15 for a yearly subscription and $71 for copies at the newsstand. Delivery is within the USA and Canada for C$ 24. However, the online magazine is free and is accessible on the National Geographic website which has over 6 million subscribers.

The online version has over 16.5 million visitors per page and 4.2 million video views. The production function of the magazine shows that the paper size is 8″ x 10 ½’’ and employs a perfect binding method. The cover has a yellow rectangle which runs at the edges of the cover and this serves as the logo for television productions.

There are various advertising opportunities in the National Geographic Travelers’ Magazine. The mission of the magazine is to empower the readers by educating, delivering award winning contents by use of state of the art communication equipment in an entertaining format.

The magazine also runs an online website that attracts over 16 million visitors every month. The website offers consumers with various contents including news, photos, documentaries, and maps. The website has several section s that attract different visitors who may want to view the Travel


Plagiarism Effects Essay essay help

Introduction Plagiarism is the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them as one’s own without proper acknowledge the original author. During the 18th century, copying or imitation of artistic work or expression was not considered to be a moral offense or something unethical. It was encouraged and highly regarded as being extremely close to the masters’ work. This was to discourage unnecessary inventions during the roman movement (Morgan


Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free

Hannah Roberts writes that the white man’s colonization of Australia did not only involve taking away the native’s land, it also included the colonization of the Aboriginal woman’s body.

The white man often used the Aboriginal woman’s body for sexual satisfaction, yet tried to maintain pretence of separation between the colonizers and the colonized because of his obsession with racial purity and pride (Roberts, 2001, pp.188). The Aboriginal woman was considered to be inherently sexual and immoral, and in some cases, was characterized as ‘bond slaves of Satan’.

The colonizers used this line of thinking to justify their colonization of the Aboriginal woman’s body. These women were referred to using derogatory names such as ‘gin’, ‘stud’, ‘breeder’, and so on, to distinguish them from other women, mainly white.

Due to their labeling as sexual objects, aboriginal women’s consent was rarely sought whenever the white man desired to have sex with them. Consequently, the native women were supposed to submit themselves to the colonizers, failure of which would lead to violent acts, as Roberts points out, instances of frequent shootings, torture, capture and rape against such were common.

Roberts further points out that because of the colonizer’s labeling of the Aboriginal women as sexual materials, cases of white men raping these women were rarely brought to court and were likely to fail. Violence against the Aboriginal woman seemed natural and normal and rarely elicited the traumatic effect on her or her husband as it would on a white woman, or so the white colonizers thought. Indeed, the women’s resistance to the colonizers controlling mechanism was further taken as proof of their immorality and only worsened their situation.

Week 9 How does Marie Bonaparte represent the clitoris in relation to female sexuality? What is ‘Freudian’ about this?

Marie Bonaparte writes that the clitoris gives women their distinctive female sexuality, and knowingly or unknowingly, endears them to the males. Consequently, the males have become unconscious worshippers of the woman due to the clitoris.

The importance of the clitoris to the woman’s sexuality cannot be underestimated, as Bonaparte explains, the importance of this miniature object before or during sex may even outweigh the pleasures or benefits of the sex itself in some women (Bonaparte, 1958, pp. 148). She further explains that in the West, many women find more sexual satisfaction from activities that involve the clitoris rather than from the penetration (sex) itself.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As such, Bonaparte explains that clitoridial women find more appreciation of their sexuality from men who understand the importance of the clitoris to them. Such men share their pleasure and loving identification with the woman while paying attention to her wishes, and this only takes place when a man loves a woman enough to care about her. While the clitoris may lead to a gratification of sexuality among women, it may also lead to a tragedy in a similar fashion, particularly from men who are too masculine to adapt to their clitoridal desires.

Whenever a woman recognizes that the male she entrusts to fulfill her clitoridal wishes does not live up to the task, which could be due to the male being too fierce to adapt to the woman’s wishes, she eventually has to adapt to the new environment either auto or alloplastically, a concept that is consistent with the Freudian writings on human sexuality.

Week 11 How did Dennis Altman define the ‘gay liberation’ of the 1970s?

In this article, Altman writes that society has denied the natural bi-sexuality of all humans in two ways, and that it is time homosexuals came out (Altman, 1979, pp. 18). He writes on the persecution of homosexuals in a number of ways, including the labeling of homosexuality as a perversion, and discrimination.

The author defines two main forms of discrimination against homosexuals: denial and tolerance. The former is exemplified in the various media such as in newspaper columns where homosexuals are not allowed to report on their social activities openly.

Altman writes that gay liberation doest not merely entail the liberation of the homosexuals from the above-mentioned discriminatory and repressive acts, but is in fact a liberation of all of us. While many people have tended to ignore this fact, a few people have recognized the potential of a homosexual as a revolutionary in the American society.

He also describes how hard it is for homosexuals to lead outward, respectable lives. This is made difficult by society’s poor labeling of homosexuality that has left homosexuals out of the basic unit of the society, the nuclear family. They challenge the idea of homosexuality that sexuality can only be justified by procreation, and this has further led to the stigmatization of gays.

Liberation is a concept far much wider than even sexuality, and any vision of liberation is one that sees gays breaking out of the quite needless limits on the human potential that exists in the society, and society recognizing the significance and the rights of man to diversity. Besides, society should not be imprisoned by old-fashioned ideas of what is natural and what is normal.

We will write a custom Assessment on Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Week 12 On what basis did Campbell argue, in 1980, that it is heterosexual women who feel the biggest outcasts within feminism?

While Campbell admits that lesbians, celibates, and heterosexual feminists have suffered as a result of the feminist movements, she contends that it is heterosexuals who have suffered more. This suffering began soon after the sexual revolution, which led to the divorce between sex and reproduction.

However, the reality of pregnancy could not be ignored and even as heterosexual relations soared. During this revolution, women were acknowledged to be sexual and men’s duty was to satisfy them, so it was all disappointment among some women who did not experience satisfaction, although this could have been caused by female conditions.

Some scholars attributed this problem to the divergence between the curve of sensual pleasure in the male and female, which caused the man to “reach the peak point of sexual excitement while the woman is still getting there” (Campbell, 1980, pp. 5).

Another problem arising from the revolution was the risk of pregnancy, as mentioned earlier. Although birth control was advocated alongside the positive declaration of women’s sexuality, there was no critique of the conventional heterosexual sex and its essentially (for women) procreative mode.

Consequently, it put women at risk of pregnancy, and led to the labeling of women as the source of problems in heterosexual sexual relations. Besides, sexually independent heterosexual women were criticized for thwarting parenthood and it was argued that sexual liberation could not be achieved at the expense of maternity and parenthood.

Week 7 How has Kinsey’s work been influential in regards the topic of male homosexuality?

In the Kinsey Report of 1948, the author made unbeknown findings about American’s sexual behaviors, particularly among homosexuals. Among these findings was that homosexuality was more common in the United States than anyone had realized, this encouraged more and more homosexuals to come out of their closets and demand for their rights.

He reported that 37 percent of his respondents had had at least one homosexual incident (Kinsey, 1953, pp. 56). He also wrote that 10 percent of American males had been practiced homosexuality for at least three years at the ages of between 16 and 55.

However, Kinsey cautioned his readers and indicated that these figures reported were not absolute, and he even evaded using terms such as homosexual or heterosexual in his report, avowing that sexuality is likely to change over time. He also wrote that sexual behavior can occur both physically and psychologically through desire, sexual attraction, or fantasy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Some of the consequences of colonial thinking about Aboriginal women’s sexuality for Aboriginal women themselves by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result of Kinsey’s work, many people, mainly homosexuals, slowly started coming out and openly declared their sexual orientation. Indeed, the report was significant in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, and helped in the normalization of homosexuality in the American and other Western societies.

Homosexuals were now increasingly treated in a humane manner, a contrast from the previous harsh treatments where gays were persecuted and discriminated against and banned from other social places. However, the Kinsey Report cannot be single-handedly said to have brought about these changes, a number of factors were also at play.

References Altman, D. (1979). ‘Forum on Sexual Liberation’, in Coming out in the Seventies. Sydney: Wild and Woolle.

Bonaparte, M. (1958). Female Sexuality. London: Imago Publishing

Campbell, B. (1980). A Feminist Sexual Politics: Now you see it, Now you don’t. Feminist Review, No. 5, 1980, 1-18

Kinsey, F. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Indiana: Indiana University

Roberts, H. (2001). Disciplining the female aboriginal body: inter racial sex and the pretence of separation. Australian Feminist Studies, Vol 16(34), pp. 186-195


Television Show’s Influences Expository Essay college admissions essay help

Television shows can be classified into views of the society towards women and they relate to each other. There are common patterns in most television shows. To start with, it is evident that most television shows relating to use women bodies as an attractive and catchy features to viewers as well as men as violent people.

They also use humor features in almost all the shows. This television shows require total concentration from the watcher and as such no activity can be expected from them. They also makes people become addictive and therefore it captures all attention and interests of the watcher.

This makes people inactive in other important aspects of life that are fundamental for their empowerment. I feel that the time people spend on such television shows is the sacrificed time for movements and therefore they become less active. Prison break television show have therefore affected the behavior of people negatively by encouraging them to assume violent behavour that may not acceptable in some societies.

When people watch violent show shows like prison break, they are likely to have less thinking when choosing relating to each other. It is possible for an average American child to watchover two hundred violent shows over television for one year. The frequency of the television shows is a pattern that is interesting to monitor in the shows watched.

The shows are more than any other programs on our screens. This is the same trend across the various channels and stations that showed different shows. This frequency is meant to capture the attention of the audience and keep the viewers focused on the television channel.

Some of these shows require callers to contribute making them glued to programs. Direct-call shows contrast with the general shows in terms of their goals. The aim of direct calling is to capture attention of the audience without having to intermediary connections. It presents the audience with the opportunity to contribute directly with show organizers.

Prison break show depicts prison as a place that reflects how people are defined by their role and function in society. Michael and friends have a role in prison, but they both learn that adjusting to society reveals their true lack of freedom. The film reveals that people, like society, are institutional in nature, and hence they cannot define who they are outside the role given to them by society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In that sense, the prison represents how people are imprisoned by society as even their sense of freedom is inseparable from the boundaries of social roles. Prison life reflects how people must continuously adapt to evolving circumstances that define the larger institution of society. Some turn to corruption in order to survive change while others turn to friendship and loyalty in order to achieve redemption.

The show depicts the prison as places in which prisoners such as Michael can find a means to interact with others and create friend to assist him learn away. Michael has a functional role in the prison as the other prisoners view him as influential and reliable. The depiction of the prison is related to how prisons can restrict our sense of personal freedom but also expand it.

The prison reflects how people are institutionalized beings as they are inseparable from the events and circumstances that shape their role in society. After their escape, Michael still feels imprisoned as he is on the run. The role of the prison suggests that people are imprisoned by their social roles, and that finding freedom from these roles can only be achieved by the mutual desire for redemption.

The show represents prison as in a steady decline of hope rather than the perpetual renewal of hope and the prospect for redemption. He argues that prison can have no real beneficial impact on a person as it deprives one of a sense of direction and purpose regarding the future. It is not a backdrop against which great metaphysical dramas are played out.

Prison life is routine and methodical – it does not have the inexorable narrative momentum of the movies, no promise of a heart-warming pay-off. The corrupted nature of the prison is reflected in how the people he works for only undermine his freedom and dignity. The reality of prison life manifests itself in how people are imprisoned by the institutional nature of society.

Most of the audiences of this show are youngsters and teenagers who at a very tender age get exposed to these acts of brutality. There is a strong connection between violence and aggressive behavior. People and especially youngster watching uncensored violence are likely to develop a thinking that justifies a violent and brutal behavior in real life. Children who are in learning stages when exposed to such entertainment soon adopt the same pattern of life.

Conclusion Watching television shows is among the most common interests in the lives of most people. However, these aspects affect people differently at a personal level. They constitute to development of some behaviors among people which are negative in nature. Negative influences could be dangerous and therefore it is important to discourage their course in the lives of different people. Television shows influence starts when people are young and develops along as they grow old.

We will write a custom Essay on Television Show’s Influences specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Assessment Plan of Student’s Ability Essay cheap essay help

Assessment plan is an important tool in education since it provides information about student’s ability. After completing an assessment plan, the next important factor is the analysis how it can be used appropriately. This essay will explain my assessment plan by indicating its importance and use.

The essay will then give justification that led to the selection of the context of the assessment plan. Finally, the essay will identify the reasons why the assessment constraints in my assessment plan are effective in testing the students reading and writing abilities.

Student assessment is an important leaning process to both the teacher and the students and therefore it needs a plan. The need for a plan requires the development of an assessment plan that provides the guidelines on how the assessment will be effected.

The assessment plan is also important since it allocate the available resources according to the expected uses. For the developed assessment plan to become useful, it needs to be understood by both the tutor and the learner. This essay provides an explanation for the assessment and the factors that make the assessment plan effective and appropriate in assessing students.

The main objective of the developed assessment plan is to gather information about the student with the aim of identifying their weaknesses as well as their strengths (Brownlie, Feniak


Transition to Democracy in Latin America Essay (Book Review) essay help free: essay help free

Democracy simply means the rule by simple people. It was created as a solution to abuse of power by rulers. Democracy as opposed to other forms of governments guarantees basic human rights to every individual and ensures that there is separation of powers between different state institutions. Moreover, unlike other forms of governments, it grants sufficient freedom of speech, mass media, opinion and press among other rights.

Wisdom literature sufficiently demonstrates that there has never been any harmony between progress and authoritarianism. On the other hand, democracy guarantees progress through transparency given the fact that it does legitimize public policies since it is based on mutual deliberation and negotiation of interests.

In Latin American, international trade alone has not guaranteed the leveling effect on the remuneration of factors of production. This end can only be achieved through democratic governance. This article will discuss factors that that threaten smooth transition to democracy in Latin America.

Most economies in Latin America flourished during the sixties as a result of direct contribution of foreign investment, domestic private sector and public investment. Despite widespread economic gains during this period, one problem still persisted, transparent and equitable distribution of these financial benefits to the wider public.

To demonstrate political autonomy to the outer world, Latin American countries realized that they needed a transparent political framework sensitive enough to the interests of its people and this could only be achieved through democracy (Calderon, 2008).

Democratic transition and cultural reforms taking place in Latin America has elicited feelings of dissatisfaction and disappointment as well as increased expectations of sustainable progress and change that is certain to be initiated by democracy which is perceived by many to be the ideal form of government. People are able to freely express their feelings of dissatisfaction and disappointment by being more critical and open minded as a result of increased public spaces for dialogue, conflict and participation.

In part, political crisis being experienced in Latin America as a result of increased independence among the citizens can lead to renewed development and democratization (Calderon, 2008). Institutions and equity will finally have to adjust to change and reconfiguration taking place in the region. Equity and poverty are two social problems that politicians must confront if they are to be able to maintain a sustainable politico-institutional balance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Development of democracy in Latin America has often been undermined by politico-institutional risks and crisis situations occurring in the region. These problems need to be addressed by creating a link between the society and institutions. These risks make it extremely difficult to consolidate democracies in the region. The relationship between institutions and society is dependent on how well people’s expectations are managed.

If mismanaged, there could be civil unrest especially in presence of poor economic conditions and fragile public institutions. To enhance consolidation of democracy in the region, it would therefore be paramount to understand the nature of political changes taking place and their resulting benefits before searching for solutions to democratic development.

Intermediation and representation systems in this region face major criticisms from the people. Nobody trusts intermediation mechanisms and political parties anymore. Systems of representation are prone to reconfiguration given the emergence of movements composed of critical, independent and thoughtful citizens who go to great lenghts to demand for recognition, gender balance and local participation.

These problems occur as a result of political parties’ inability to represent people institutionally. It happens that most Latin Americans believe in a democracy that has many political parties, ironically, only a clique of them trusts those parties.

People are asking the government to expand democratic institutions and be more involved in the management of development. Through this, the state can work towards equity and social integration so as to strengthen the economy in terms of globalization. Most people in Latin America support government involvement in development as opposed to privatization so as to ensure equitable distribution of wealth. Citizen oversight over public authorities is seen as a key factor to increased transparency and reduced corruption.

Inequality and poverty pose a great challenge to transition to democracy. These problems are the center of socio-economic changes and influence democratic governance to a great extent. Latin America is one of the most unequal regions in the world. The gap between the rich and the poor is ever widening. The disparities between various subsections of the society in this region is appalling i.e. socio-economic groups, ethnic groups, sexes etc (Calderon, 2008). for instance, women with similar education to men earn relatively more.

Poverty mostly affects the indigenous people who in most cases live in rural areas. Social inequality compounds the problem of governance in the region since most leaders dominate their people instead of guiding them. This problem can only be solved when policies aimed at empowering the poor and improving their civic capabilities are put in place and implemented.

We will write a custom Book Review on Transition to Democracy in Latin America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When people’s expectations are not met, conflict and dissatisfaction are likely to occur. This situation can be aggravated by the extreme levels of poverty and inequality discussed earlier thereby undermining democratic governance. In this case, people dismiss promises under market economy and political programmes as unrealistic and may cause instability if proper checks and balances are not put in place.

Institutional crises occurring as result of poor governance by the ruling class could undermine democratic governance. Structural poverty and uneven distribution of income pose as a challenge to democracy in Latin America (Calderon, 2008). The elites in this region have been reluctant to address the issue of poverty. Corruption in Judicial system and National congress in countries like Honduras make democratic governance to be all the more impossible.

Increase in social conflicts in Latin America is an issue of great democratic concern. Conflicts arising in work places, public protests and reactions have continued to hinder the state and institutions from attaining the objective of social progress, integration and recognition.

People have undertaken more drastic measures to express their dissatisfaction to the government. It is not uncommon to hear of protest movements such as Movement to Socialism in countries like Bolivia and elsewhere who come together to oppose a government that they feel is unable to cater for their needs. This automatically weakens progress made through democratic governance.

Governance is understood best by looking at how spaces of communication relate to political change. Media, especially television, cell phones and the internet are taking central role in politics. Media has become the space through which power struggle takes place. Most Latin Americans have put all their trust in radio and television media houses and most recently, the internet.

The impact of media on politics in this region was felt when President Lucio Gutierrez resigned as a result of mass protests organized against him through common cell phone text messages and email (Calderon, 2008). This indicates a trend of audience democracy that is being perpetuated by media throughout the region.

Reference Calderon, F. (2008). A Historic Turning Point. Political Change and the Socio-Institutional Situation in Latin America. Cepal Review Journal, 96 (3), 123-136. Web.


Theories of Desire Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Theories of Desire


Works Cited

Introduction Sophocles wrote the play Antigone in the classic year 442BC. Antigone continues to draw interests and literary debates in the postmodernism era. Chief among the discussions in the play revolves around theories, obsessions and new perspectives of the classic play. It has been observed that, as a point of fact, the play has been an obsession in the 18th century to date. Indeed, scholastic interest and analysis explain the relationship between Antigone and the modern political, controversial and conflict laden times.

Nonetheless, other quarters are of the view that Antigone presents nothing to be thought about in the modern hence dismissing its relevance to modern interests and applications. This paper takes the modern approach in referring to the relevancy of the play by critically giving an insight on the perspectives of the theories of desire. It is argued that desire in Antigone is greater than the confines of men and laws.

Theories of Desire Desire in this context is used to describe the obsession that people have in the society. Obsession takes different shapes in the society because people have different experiences. An attempt to understand Antigone must be backed by modern adaptations of the play by the likes of Jean Cocteau, Bertolt Brecht, Jean Anouilh and Heaney. In the Anouilh’s text, the greatest concern revolves around an attack of the family, youth, lofty, ideals and love and friendship.

Contrary to Sophocles play, Anouilh leaves the powerful illustration of the philosophy of the desire for death, foreignness and mixed registers. An analysis of these differences between the modern and classical texts helps to understand the mystery surrounding the philosophy of death in Sophocles’s Antigone. In the classical Antigone, Sophocles clearly illustrates that Antigone as a character is foreign to the land of Thebes as indicated by her words to her father shortly before his death. In the play, her nature of desire is hard to understand and is coupled with her religious concerns.

This is different from Anouilh texts that espouse that Antigone choice of death is a motivation by the dullness and lack of passion in life due to loneliness. This life according to Anouilh is one that repeats itself in a cycle explained by boredom from one lack of compelling life cycle to another meaningless in the other. A reference to Anouilh may partly explain the recent happenings of the uprisings in the Muslim and Arab worlds (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 5).

By analogy, the ideal held by the toppled governments represents Creon’s actions in some respects. The young and the old in these states represent the Antigone in Anouilh’s text. Years of state neglect to the necessary and basic requirements of the people found desires and insistence to live better lives embedded in the daily struggle and hearts of the citizens of these countries.

Therefore, it is from one basic act of denying the necessary needs required for better lives in the future that finds form in a forceful nature. This is through sacrifice of lives and blood shedding, just like in Antigone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Sophocles the idea of foreignness shadows Antigone’s actions and desires. Recapping the view of the Muslim and Arab worlds, it is also clear that the citizen’s modern approach to things is extremely foreign to the age old perspectives of the older order.

Fueled by the modern use of technology especially, social media, the youth in these countries have the connection of a family with ideals and views that those in power are not privy to and do not even understand. For the old order, it is their home ground register; however, for the new generations, this is their point of action hence particularly foreign to what has already been established.

The insistence on religiosity is a constant reminder of the value of belief in what is right and justice to follow. For Antigone, this bordered the belief she had in her traditions and hence her religion. For the youth in these countries, the belief in change for a better life and the need to chart new courses resembles what was in Antigone.

However, Anouilh’s text must guide this view in the analysis that the Arab world uprising is not about the choice of death as Creon observes. Therefore, it becomes crucial to note that Anouilh’s text at this juncture departs from the tenets of the Arab life and its consequences to the modern people.

It is the desire to right what is wrong in order that the future generations may reap the benefits of the philosophy of death. This is captured by Sophocles in Antigone of which later Creon finds truth in. In this sense then Antigone from Anouilh becomes a stranger to what Sophocles intended.

The misrepresentation of Anouilh, thus, allows an understanding of the real impact of tragedy one that is well captured by Sophocles. In the words of Marcel Anouilh’s work lacks the quality needed to explain human drama. According to him, Antigone’s by Sophocles, actions and desires can only be explained by invoking the ideas in religion just like Kierkegaard. Therefore, in this view, Anouilh’s text is a secularization of the actions in the tragedy Antigone (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 15).

Sophocles tragedy is a clear emphasis on the absolute contradiction and irreconcilability between Antigone and Creon. Clearly from their perspectives they are both right in a powerful cancellation between the state and kinship. The problem is that they cannot comprehend one another’s moral point of view and power in Sophocles text.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Theories of Desire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflict, as Sophocles espouses appears as a first layer of disharmony through antinomy in that between the two no one is ready to cede ground for the other of which Anouilh fails to indicate just Jean Racine’s text. In these two texts, Antigone’s world is characterized as a doubt between the living and the dead through biological explanations. Creon and Antigone as presented Racine and Antigone indicate that they both had options, but they clearly intended to be antagonistic.

On Antigone’s insistence on foreignness and Kierkegaard rendition of the extent of subjectivity, it becomes clear that conflict between the state and the subject is a guaranteed occurrence. The fact lies in the view that taboos and transgressions in the society act in unison to decide the fate of those who uphold them at the expense of the state. Lacking commensurability in the above view again is a source of conflict between the subject and the state based on guilt held by the subject. In this view Antigone, qualifies for both options in Sophocles classic Antigone.

By extension, this explains the modern relationship between governments and their subjects. While religion states equality and democracy, “just like the flowing waters”; a deep surgical analysis reveals that even the most democratic governments have instances of conspicuous treatment just like in Creon’s rule. Thus, Kierkegaard’s observation that deviating from aesthetics is a necessity brings truth home in the case of modernity.

This reinforces his assertion that it is the rebirth of modern tragedy. Taking the example of the declaration of emergency situations in any nation, it can be noted that not all subjects behave in a certain way to call for such measures. On the contrary, there are citizens who are good at least in light of the situation while their brothers and sisters are on the wrong side of the law. However, in this case, the good suffer without any attempt to rationalize the boundaries.

On the second note, the subject’s desire in favor of her point of view clearly puts the state and the subject on a collision path. A subject has the obligation to follow what the state requires of for effective and efficient governance. In addition, democracy defines that the voice of the majority should be heard. If the subject is not given his or her due demands, then necessary suffering is taken as justice.

This is aimed at restoring the state under the invisible power of the subject. Further, this may translate to blood letting by a few who appear not realistic. In the end justice is achieved by the action of a few who deny their lives for a better cause. Therefore, in this desire, politics and what is necessary right governs the occurrence of such tragedy. Suffering can be in the form of death or even exile.

In Sophocles Antigone, there is the displacement of things from their normal order. In terms of gender and religion, Antigone as a character goes overboard of what is Athenian for her gender. Secondly, Antigone does not represent the state or the kinship and neither the living nor the dead.

This intermixing of desires lacks from Anouilh’s text. The fact that the play supports Antigone, though an outsider to the happenings; Teireisia, reveals that Sophocles’ view of the state as a static entity should be questioned under the guidance of principles not easily settled on common human understanding (Sophocles and Johnston, p. 39).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Theories of Desire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Antigone’s desire is absent according to Hegel. She represents what is admirable and what is acceptable in excess is too good to live. She represents those who cannot allow the state to carry own its activities without regard to whether right or wrong. This excess leads to Antigone showing that the way to gods who live in such excess.

The occurrence of such needs for balance of equality on laws to all things under mankind is explained by this excess. Therefore, Sophocles’ text is a powerful reference to modernity on the will and power of religion, as opposed to the state authority.

Antigone in the theory of desire as presented by Sophocles is finally an examination of the problems of laws, family and state. Antigone’s actions do not support any at either perspectives, and the boundaries that lie between them are the necessary ingredients to tragedy.

The customs, the taboos and religion, and gender all play as factors to make desire in any one of these disastrous and dangerous. In essence, Antigone finds fault in what is established, but not written down as any law. This is forms Antigone’s desire to rise above this tragedy.

Conclusion In this analysis, therefore, it is worthy to note that the desire in Antigone is greater than the confines of men and laws. It is greater than the state and all its wise men, greater than family obedience, greater than love and the powers operating in the realm of human understanding. Antigone’s desire was thus like a process of justifying freedom in the confines of the society. However, religion should guide this proclamation.

Works Cited Sophocles and Johnston C. Ian. Antigone. Arlington, Virginia: Richer Resources Publications, 2007. Print.


Failed Product Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Identification and description of failed product

Why company and product failed




Introduction Analysis of the history of corporations highlights the presence of products introduced in the market, which are discredited by the clientele. This makes it fundamental to phase out the product from the corporation’s product line. The following piece identifies a failed product, describes its tendencies and deduces the reasons for failure. Finally, it presents recommendations that the company ought to embrace through implementing diverse change initiatives.

Identification and description of failed product A case of a failed product incorporates McDonald’s Arch Deluxe, which was launched in 1996. It is a sophisticated burger, which seeks to cater for an adult audience with its different ingredients (Kincheloe, 2002). The Arch Deluxe has a soft buttery bun on top, which is above the mustard.

It equally encompasses the mayonnaise sauce followed by two “fresh lettuce leaves and slivered Spanish onions” (Kincheloe, 2002). After that, there is smocked bacon above the ripe tomato slice and a slice of American cheese. The sandwiching process encompasses the above constituents, cooked beef and fancy tomato ketchup.

Why company and product failed According to Rogers (1995), the five stages critical in a product’s development incorporate, “knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation”. He argues that the tipping point originates from diffusion theory, which is a set of generalizations that aid the spread of innovations within a social change process. Further, there are suggestions that the masses often oppose change meaning that companies should prepare for resistance and the means of addressing them upon the introduction of a new product.

In the knowledge stage, individuals learned about the new idea. There was a need to embrace longer life expectancies and cater for an old market. The feeling that the company’s focus was on children alone, made a significant contribution to the creation of the idea. The presence of the adult market encouraged McDonald’s company to introduce a new range of burgers; thus, initiating the identification process.

There was the creation of a new line of sandwiches instead of changing the menu. The creation entailed extra funds to make the idea a success. Before introducing the sandwiches, the adult market was not consulted to determine the reception of the arc deluxe burger (Kincheloe, 2002). Finally, the burger recorded some of the poorest sales in history, attributable to the mentioned reasons.

The persuasion stage involves forming opinions and attitudes about new ideas developed in the first stage. The company engaged its staff to envision the formed idea. As such, McDonald formed a favorable attitude and tasked its executive top chef Andrew Selvaggo to create the designed burger. The created burger was so big that it stood out. However, it failed since people noticed that it had many calories, which could be harmful to their health.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals engage in activities that suggest their adoption of the idea under the decision stage. The company’s management made a choice to address an adult oriented market. The launch of the deluxe arch burger saw the company spend $100 million on the advert that Fallon McElligolt, a Minneapolis advertising agent initiated. This adoption of the burger idea is among the most expensive campaigns in history.

However, the expensive advert turned off customers who termed it unconventional. Instead of concentrating on food quality in the advert, it featured young children complaining about the burger. The children discouraged sales of the burger because people are not used to such adverts. They refer to it as a rebel advert, which introduces negativity of the company’s products.

The implementation stage involves individuals putting new ideas to use. Lastly, there is gathering of positive feedback about ideas and reversing previous decisions based on negative feedback. After the negative feedback from the adult market, the burger was gradually eliminated from the American market. High prices and caloric contents of the burger contributed to the flop of the product because most people care about their health.

Recommendation In order to make positive change, the company ought to have enhanced the following ideologies. It should have tasked a professional team to research on market aspects to curb possible flopping of the product. As such, McDonald’s should have engaged in an extensive market investigation. This would enable the company determine if the adult marketplace would embrace the Arch Deluxe Burger idea. In the research, the discovery that adults considered the burger unhealthy would have been evident.

A different low calorie burger that could draw little resistant ought to have been created. In addition, the commercials should have avoided using children because the target group was adults. Rogers’s theory argues that an innovation ought to be introduced to individuals who easily use an invention to offer positive reactions. Adults enjoying the deluxe burger would be an appropriate model for the advert. This would ensure positive reaction to early adopters of the new burger.

According to Haig (2011), management in companies should be aware that people do not always embrace change. Additionally, there must be appropriate channels to introduce change in organizations. It is difficult for people to accept innovations, so McDonald needed to learn how to introduce the new burgers in the market. People should have been prepared early for the launch of the burger. As such, they would not complain so much on the changes made on the burger.

Prices of commodities must always be fair if they are to register sales in any market because people will always resist high prices. McDonald’s company ought to set a convenient price for the burger for it to sell. A lower introductory price would sell the “Arch Deluxe Burger” because people would be enthusiastic to try something new at an affordable price. Indeed, no one would complain of high prices.

We will write a custom Essay on Failed Product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When founding and implementing new ideas like the “Arch Deluxe Burger”, consultation with individuals who command the food industry must exist. An individual whose opinion on food is highly regarded is more appropriate in the burger advertisement instead of complaining children. Furthermore, hiring nutritionists to give facts on healthy eating thus propose the burger to adults who wanted to eat healthy leads to high sales. McDonald’s would register more sales because people would be convinced that the burger was healthy.

Conclusion According to Wallach (1995), managers must never think for their clients or forcefully impose changes. Instead, customers should establish their preference through selected media. Improper decisions and lack of proper research have facilitated the failure of products that were highly anticipated. McDonalds made this mistake with their highly publicized “Arch Deluxe burger” that became a major flop. There was an assumption by MacDonald’s management that grown people would embrace the adult burger.

This incensed the public making them reject their productions thus causing embarrassment. Companies should properly evaluate a product or innovation before releasing it for purchase. Poorly researched products can have negative repercussions on the clientele and encourage lawsuits that may be expensive. Therefore, it is prudent for corporations to introduce quality products to their customers.

References Haig, M. (2011).Brand Failures: The Truth about the 100 Biggest Branding Mistakes of All Time. London, LDN: Kogan Page Publishers

Kincheloe, L. (2002). The sign of the burger: McDonald’s and the culture of power. Pennsylvania, PA: Temple University Press

Rogers, M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, New York, NY: The Free Press.

Wallach, B. (2005). Understanding the cultural landscape. New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Environmental Scan and Industry Analysis Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction Environmental scanning is a control mechanism operated by companies in order to ensure growth and stability in the market. It may be internal or external. An internal environmental scan focuses on the companies’ internal control system. It checks on the effectiveness of its present and future objectives.

This procedure assists the company to review the effectiveness of their policies and their capability in terms of facing future risks. The external environment encompasses the factors that may affect the companies’ performance with regard to issues that the management has no control over. These factors may include the market forces of demand and supply, political issues facing the country, environmental and social issues in the community.

Discussion The coffee industry has shown tremendous increase in its market over the years that have passed. These trends fluctuate over time due to the market forces of demand and supply. They may be influenced by government policies over the export and import of the commodity.

Climate change adversely affects the coffee industry where the temperatures in coffee producing areas have risen by half a degree within the past 25 years. This limits land capacity to productivity as well as reduced water availability. This has caused, and will continue causing, increased prices on coffee due to the demand being higher than the supply (Rogers, 2008).

The coffee industry has grown by about 190% since the 20th century. This is due to the wide variety of roasted coffee in the current market. Raw coffee beans have had a decline in prices, making the farmer resistant to cropping the crop. Political influences on coffee production occur from time to time, depending on the country of produce or purchase.

In the 1980’s, the coffee producers had “war taxes”, which made trade, of coffee impossible in El Salvador. The farmers refrained from replanting coffee trees so as to avoid huge loses of their property. In recent years since the year 2000, many competitors have come up the industry thus causing a decrease in the coffee market. (Morrison, 1987)

Developing countries have shown a great percentage of dependency on agriculture as a means of livelihood. Most farmers have shifted to production of cash crops in their farms, with a hope of increasing their income. Coffee and tea are the most widely produced cash crops in the developing nations. This is due to the favourable climate of coffee growing areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The increase in the number of competitors has seen the income to these farmers decrease consistently to a level where the poor farmers have minimal benefit as compared to the retailers. The World Bank records that about 60.5 billion dollars arise from the trade of coffee. Out of this, the coffee producers get less than 3% of the final trade revenue.

The producers acquire the roasted coffee at an incredibly higher price than that of the raw beans. About half of all developing countries depend on exports in order to earn about 50% of the countries’ foreign exchange income.

In Africa, more than 75% of Burundi’s’ exports are coffee and in Uganda 50%. In the past, there was a body regulating the coffee prices in the market, the buffer stock system. The International coffee agreement implemented it but collapsed in the late 1980’s. Since then there has been no standard unit price for the coffee market (Weick


Shekha Mozah 2010 Zurich Speech Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction


Personal Reflection



Introduction Communication is very important in every activity we undertake in the society today or in the future. Communication should pass a clear message that should be understood by the audience or the listeners. One of the modes used in capturing the attention of the audience is persuasion. The best way to achieve persuasion is either through revealing the truth or by stirring up the emotions of the listeners. The character of the person delivering a speech or trying to communicate with the audience is important in the communication process.

During the presentation of the FIFA 2022 World Cup Bid announcement, Sheikha Mozah moved the audience with her speech. Her speech reflected her smart personality and brought out how well she was aware of the realities of the World Cup games. This essay is going to analyze Sheikh Mozah’s speech during this specific event with the intention to find out how effective her speech was.

Analysis Her highness Sheikh Mozah began her speech by asking the listeners when they thought it was the perfect time for the World Cup to come to the Middle East, and this drew the attention of the audience. Once she had caught the attention of the audience, she went ahead to engage the public and explore more on the issues she was about to bring out. Sheikha Mozah did state the facts that indeed, the World Cup had never been held at the Middle East, and her appeal struck the tone of sincerity among the audience.

For instance, she outlined the importance of the World Cup to the Middle East and the role of the football in uniting the whole region. Her speech reflected honesty and credibility concerning the fact that she emphasized what a high status this game succeeded to achieve and that Qatar had to be recognized as a part of the nations contributing to the growing significance of football (Fromherz, 2011).

When she said, “A World Cup in Qatar will send an important message to the world that after 92 years of waiting, we will finally become a recognized part of the global football family.” With this phrase, she raised the question of football being a global sport game, and thus Qatar being a member of the global football family should be also given a chance to host this event (MalaysiaQatar, 2010). Her speech did bring out her character as an honest and convincing leader due to the fact that she focused on the importance of football in bringing unity and peace.

Her speech was to bring out her passion for football, and she achieved this by emphasizing the significance of football in unifying the youth. An example of how Sheikha Mozah incorporated sports with the daily life of the youth can be seen when she states, “Football shows that persistence leads to success, that problems could be solved through teamwork, and also teaches’ them values and rules. And if not, a yellow card will result.” By adding humor to her speech, she sounded more credible.

Her highness made use of indirect appeal to get to the audience in a very personal appeal. She became very passionate in her speech when speaking about values and beliefs in approaching the FIFA committee in a direct way (MalaysiaQatar, 2010). Moreover, she reached out to the audience by talking to them directly, and thus making her appeal more personal. For instance, she pointed out a collective message, “It will show the Middle East and the entire world that it is possible to bring East and West together”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sheikha Mozah used pathos to bring the message when she was not speaking of herself, but revealing the emotions and referring to the whole region of the Middle East. She underlined her message with a fervent appeal when she explained that she was not only the mother of her children but also the mother of a region. She went further to elucidate on how football contributed on achieving peace and unity among the youth in the region (Newman, 2010).

During her presentation speech to the FIFA committee in Zurich, Sheikha Mozah made a logical appeal to the committee to consider Qatar to be the host of 2022 World Cup. In her speech, she emphasized that in the history of the World Cup, Middle East had never had the opportunity to host such an event. She did that by elucidating the importance of the World Cup for Qatar because it would change football and global unity in the region (Rahim, 2010).

Her highness’ speech was delivered in a logical manner since her appeal started with the question ‘when.’ She went ahead to answer that question through the use of the phrases, such as ‘The time has come. The time is now’. As a result, she convinced the FIFA committee of the importance of Qatar’s 2022 World Cup. Her speech evoked the emotions of the audience since she highlighted how sports affected the daily lives of the youth in every part of the world.

However, it included her personality that brought the spotlight on the importance of football in Qatar and the whole Middle East region that touched the emotions of the audience (Wood, 2010). When she spoke of football in the Middle East region, she delivered a collective message that made her speech gain lots of credibility. Her message did show her authority in understanding the situation in Qatar and the Middle East region and told the story of the youth through football in relation to the World Cup.

Personal Reflection When we analyze the speech delivered by Sheikha Mozah, we realize that stating facts in a passionate and credible manner strikes a good rapport with the audience. However, her speech was not only a passionate appeal for consideration of Qatar as the World Cup host. Her speech was heeded by all the people in the Middle East since she spoke on behalf of their dreams, aspirations and believes. Qatar is an Islamic nation with traditional Islamic culture and beliefs practiced all over the country.

Qatar and the Middle East people are mainly conservative, and thus, Qatar’s 2022 World Cup bid was a departure from the past. The Middle East region has been rebuilding and rebranding itself through different events for the past decade (Newman, 2010). As a result, Qatar decided to be among the nations that host a global event such as the World Cup. Sheikha Mozah and, to some large extent, Qatar’s bid to host the World Cup were a marketing tool to attract the people and businesses to the region and make it a global tourist destination.

Qatar’s 2022 World Cup organizing committee understood that the effect of the World Cup being hosted in Qatar would be phenomenal. Since a lot of people would visit the country, explore the culture of the region and get to familiarize themselves with the Middle East (Fromherz, 2011). Consequently, the 2022 World Cup would serve as the best marketing tool for the regional tourism and sport.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Shekha Mozah 2010 Zurich Speech specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Qatar will be hosting the 2022 world Cup, the country will be a sports destination which, as a result, is obligated to build its own team. Young people will be encouraged to play sports, and these sports facilities will be utilized later after the World Cup which contributes to building Qatar and the region as a sports destination (Rahim, 2010).

Conclusion The process of communication is quite complicated and the way we communicate can be perceived differently by many people. During the communication process, the speaker has to deliver his/her message to the audience in the most appealing manner with facts, humor and passion. Sheikha Mozah did her best during the FIFA committee meeting to gain her country the right to be the host of the 2022 World Cup.

Her speech impressed the FIFA World Cup committee, and many people attribute her speech to have helped Qatar clinch the rights of hosting the event. Moreover, her speech was moving in that it was passionate, honest and humorous while at the same time, it delivered strong message to the audience.

Sheikha Mozah made her speech appeal to the audience by making her message personal while addressing the facts as well. The delivery of her speech was majestic due to the fact that she started her speech with the question ‘when’ and went ahead to answer it in the best possible way.

References Fromherz, A. (2011). Qatar: A Modern History. London: Penguin Books.

MalaysiaQatar. (2010). Qatar World Cup 2022 Bid Presentation By HH Sheikha Mozah Bint Nasser. Web.

Newman, W.


Theories of how Advertising Works Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction With innovation and development in technology, most customers are more informed about products that are available in the market. These customers are also more informed about their needs and their requirement from goods and services. Many companies that produce several products have also come up and they all compete for the attention of a similar market. Advertising has been proposed to have two theories of how it works which are a strong theory and a weak theory.

The strong theory of advertising suggests that for advertising to have an impact, an individual has to be persuaded to close the deal for the advertiser by making a purchase while the weak theory suggests that an individual is reminded to make a purchase for a particular brand of product.

However, advertisements use the same concepts to attract and hook the attention of the consumer and finally, close the deal after the client makes a purchase. This paper will take a look into the different communication models that are utilized in advertising and give an example of a successful advertisement that has been made in the 21st century. The paper will also look at the AIDA Attention Interest Desire and Action advertising model used in the Mac vs. PC model.

The critical debate is that, the modes of advertising currently used in the world today have evolved but the concepts that are used are still the same as those that were used a long time ago even before innovation and technology advanced. Even though consumers are more aware of their needs and rights, the concept of persuading and trying to keep consumers loyal to brands remains the same.

Communication Models All advertising and business organizations that intend on selling their products or services to consumers are aware of the need to attract and maintain the attention of consumers so that they can purchase products or services from the company and work to contribute to high profit margins for companies (Barker and Angelopulo 2005, 242).

Many companies spend large amounts of money on advertising just for this purpose. One of the communication models used by many advertising companies is abbreviated as AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action).

Attention Research surveys show that companies have a window of 3-4 seconds to attract the attention of a potential consumer after which the consumer would no longer be interested in the product or service. It is important for a business or organization to maximize on this chance by providing important information to the client such as great value or chance that the client might get (Howard


Reasons for the Success of the Jewish Yishuv in 1947 Report (Assessment) essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Necessity for a Jewish State

Reasons for the Yishuv Success




Introduction The birth of a Jewish nation occurred in 1948 when the United Nations established the state of Israel and the international community recognized it as a legitimate entity. However, this great accomplishment by the Jews took many years to realize. The single entity which is credited with the successful establishment of the state of Israel is the Yishuv. The term Yishuv refers to the “Jewish community in Palestine” and also the national liberation movement by Jews who sought to establish a Jewish State in Palestine territory.

This movement encouraged Jews from all over the world to immigrate to the land of Palestine and establish a Jewish State there. In their quest to achieve this goal, the Jews faced stringent opposition from the Palestinian Arabs who had been the occupants of the territory for centuries. This paper will set out to highlight the reasons for the success of the Jewish Yishuv as proposed by a number of key authors.

The Necessity for a Jewish State Bill and Springborg (1994) propose that any serious attempt to explain the reasons for the success of the Jewish Yishuv in 1947 should look at the events before the date which lay the foundations for this historic success for the Jews. Yishuv was advocated for by the Zionists who sought to establish a sovereign Jewish nation in the Land of Israel. Zionism was a product of the tumult of nineteenth-century Europe which resulted in Jews being met with increasing persecution and enforced isolation from the general non-Jewish society.

Bill and Springborg (1994, p.314) document that prominent Jewish persons in Western Europe came to the conclusion that the only means through which Jews could achieve true equality would be if they created their own state. As such, the hostile environment that the Jewish community faced made the prospects of establishing a Jewish state appealing because it was the only means through which Jews could become liberated and self-sufficient.

Migdal (1998, p.146) agrees that the Yishuv was a singular experience for both the original Jewish settlers in Palestine and the new immigrants since they were both highly motivated to achieve a unified political entity.

The ideological organization and financial resources provided by Western Europe led to the success of the Zionist movement which culminated in the establishment of the Jewish State of Israel. The prevailing ideology of the day was nationalism and colonialist as well as racial supremacy. The Jews therefore borrowed this ideology and applied it to Palestine which they viewed as a neglected corner of the Turkish Empire. Bill and Springborg (1994, p.316) states that the Zionists therefore set out to redeem Palestine through Jewish labor and capital.

Reasons for the Yishuv Success The defeat of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War and the subsequent succession to power by Britain on some of the former Ottoman provinces in the Middle East played a monumental role in the success of the Yishuv.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After this defeat, Palestine emerged as a new country separated from the rest of the Arab and Muslim world and more troubling, ruled over by a Christian power (Migdal 1988, 146). Bill, J, and Springborg, R, (1994) assert that the Zionist aspirations in Palestine could never have amounted to anything without British support in the cause of and after World War I. The prominent Jew professional Theodor Herzl appealed to Britain to support the establishment of a Jewish home in Palestine so as to protect her interests.

Herzl reasoned with Britain that the establishment of a Jewish state at the strategic point where Egyptian and Into-Persian interests converged would strengthen British influence by helping to counter other colonial interests in the region (Bill


Comments for Invisible Man Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Dual Nature of Characters


Introduction When reading the story “the Invisible Man”, what is immediately apparent is that the invisibility in question is not related to actual invisibility but rather a form of social invisibility wherein the inalienable and indivisible rights that should be accorded to all members of an equal society that are absent in the case of the black people within the novel.

The fact that the author never expressly mentions the real name of the narrator, who is the main character in the story, can actually be perceived as a way in which the author portrays the concept of a lack of social identity and acknowledged of not only whites to blacks but of the perceptions of blacks to themselves.

Perception What must be understood is that to call someone by name is to acknowledge their existence; it is to encompass them into your world by virtue of awareness and as a result accord them a certain degree of “spatiality” in the way you perceive them in relation to everything else around you. By not naming a person you relegate them into the realm of “non-perception”. This is similar to the concept of knowing that air is around you yet never really consciously acknowledging the fact that is right there in front of your face.

The “invisibility” mentioned in the novel is, thus, a metaphor for the condition of African-Americans before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. They are there in the background but are never really acknowledged by the white majority; they are right there in front of their faces yet are not accorded the same rights and privileges as the whites, they are “invisible”.

Dual Nature of Characters In fact, it can even be stated that the running theme within the novel is that it is a man’s search for identity and visibility within a predominantly white society that views him as being nothing more than a second class citizen.

Of particular interest within the novel is the sheer disambiguation between what the characters represent and what they actually are, for example, the founder of the university that the narrator attended supposedly rose up from slavery and plays the part of a pivotal role model for the author yet the famous speech of the founder is one of service and humility which in of itself promotes the idea among African Americans that it is their duty to forever be the servants of “the white man”.

Another example is seen in the case of the brotherhood wherein despite the fact that they supposedly fight for the rights of African Americans they are in fact, utilizing them as a means for their own political goals. In fact, the supposedly “invisible man” that the narrator represents is at times not so invisible in that he is often at the center of events of great visibility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Taking this into consideration it can be assumed that the ambiguous nature of the characterizations wherein they are often revealed to be the complete opposite of who they are could be a metaphor for the dual nature of society at the time wherein on the surface they acknowledge African Americans but in reality will never consider them as being on the same level as whites.

Conclusion From a certain perspective, it can be stated that the novel itself is an excellent example of the “black condition” that pervaded African American society before the 1960s. It is evidence of the hypocrisy of society and the way in which people are rendered “invisible” by virtue of a lack of acknowledgment.


Jesus Christ’ Sign Miracles Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

According to Kruse, Jesus performed eight great sign miracles that are recorded by John, a disciple of Jesus in his book found in the New Testament of the Holy Christian Bible.1 John accompanied Jesus wherever he went and therefore acted as an eye witness of what Jesus did.

Even today, Jesus performs miracles by transforming lives of Christians. Dr. Elmer Towns a professor of Liberty University and author of “The Gospel of John, Believe and Live” points out that the eight miracles acted as a proof of His Divinity, that Jesus Christ was God. The miracles of Jesus are used to show the mighty power of God manifested through Jesus Christ who lived on earth like normal human beings though he was God.2

Changing water into wine The first miracle to be performed by Jesus was at a wedding in Cana, a town in Galilee during which he turned water into wine. Jesus was invited to the wedding and he went in the company of his disciples. Wine that had been prepared got finished before all the guests could be served. Mary the mother of Jesus informed him that people had run short of wine. Jesus instructed the servants to take six pots and fill them with water. The water in the pots was turned into wine that served the rest of the guests. Turning water into wine shows that as a Deity, Jesus has power over creation.3

Healing the son of the nobleman In the book of (John 4: 46-54), the bible records that at one time, as Jesus walked around the town of Galilee, he was approached by a nobleman from Capernaum who explained to him about his dying son who was sick and still lying in bed. The nobleman requested Jesus to heal the boy. Just through uttering the healing words, and the faith that the nobleman had in Jesus’ healing power, the boy was healed. On his return home, he found that his son was healed in exactly the same time Jesus uttered the healing words.

This miracle shows that Jesus has power over space. This is because he spoke the healing words at Cana and the boy was healed at Capernaum. The miracle shows that space does not limit the power of Jesus. His mighty hand can reach people from all corners of the world even today.

The Lame Man Towns describe the story of how Jesus healed the lame man in Jerusalem.4 He had been for a longtime living beside the pool of Siloam where the angel of God healed the sick. It was a routine that the Angel of God came and troubled the water and the first person to enter the pool was healed. However much the lame man tried, his condition could not allow him to be the first to enter the pool. Jesus told the lame man to rise, carry his bed and walk and the man was healed.

Jesus healed the lame man on the Sabbath day an act that annoyed Jews because it was to be kept holy. Jesus told Jews that he worked under Gods instructions on when and how to use his power. This miracle was meant to show that God had the power over the Sabbath day. Time is not a determining factor of when God should manifest his power. He does it in his convenient time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Feeding the 5,000 people On the eve of the Passover, a large crowd of people gathered around Jesus to listen to his teachings. The food that was available was not enough to feed the large number of people. There was a boy with five loaves of bread and two small fishes within the crowd. Jesus ordered about 5000 men not inclusive of women and children to sit down. He thanked God, took the loaves and fish and gave it to his disciples to distribute it to the crowd.

The crowd ate to their satisfaction and a remainder of twelve baskets full of leftover was collected by the disciples. The miracle shows that God has power over food. The miracle implies the word of God that fills the souls of men. It means that small amounts of spiritual word satisfy large numbers of people.5

Jesus walks on water Jesus Christ rose to the mountain to pray while his disciples boarded a ship that travelled to Capernaum. In the course of their journey sometime at night, there was a great wind blowing against them that made the ship in which they were travelling in to lose direction thereby endangering their lives.

During this time, they spotted Jesus walking on the sea towards the ship. This astonished them but Jesus assured them that it was him, Christ Jesus and that they should not fear. Soon, the ship reached its destination. The miracle was meant to show that Jesus has power over nature.6

The healing of the blind man Jesus came across a man who had been blind right from birth. Through the miracle, Jesus showed that he was the light of the world while on earth. Jesus anointed his eyes with a mixture of clay and his saliva and ordered him to rinse his face in the pool of Siloam. The blind man was healed. The miracle shows God’s power over physical laws. Even today, Jesus has the power to cure all diseases.7

Lazarus resurrection John 11: 1-44 records the story of Lazarus’ resurrection. Lazarus the brother to Mary and Martha was raised from the dead by Jesus to show the glory of God. Jesus visited Bethany four days after Lazarus had passed away. Jesus assured Mary that Lazarus was not dead and would live again because he is the resurrection and life and whoever believed in him would rise from dead.

Mary believed in the power of Jesus. Jesus went to the grave and ordered them to remove the stone at the entrance of the tomb. He said a word of prayer and in a loud voice ordered Lazarus to come out. Lazarus resurrected and lived again. The miracle was meant to show Gods power over death. Those who witnessed Lazarus resurrection believed in God.8

We will write a custom Essay on Jesus Christ’ Sign Miracles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Miraculous Catch of Fish Simon Peter, Nathanael, James, Thomas, John among other disciples had been fishing in the sea of Tiberia for a whole night with no success. Jesus visited them early in the morning and instructed them to cast their net on the right side of the boat. They cast so many and big fish that they could not pool the net into the boat. They had to pull their nets to the show.

The miracle showed that Jesus can save many people. However hard an individuals heart may be, Jesus can save them from their sins. The eight sign miracles of Jesus were meant to show glory and mighty power of God manifested in different places to different people. The miracles act as evidence to Christians that God is real and his prophesies must come true.9

Bibliography Holy Bible. The King James Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1988.

Kruse, Colin. The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: John. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003.

Towns, Elmer. The Gospel of John: Believe and Live. Chattanooga: AMG Publishers, 2002.

Twelftree, Graham. Jesus the miracle worker: a historical


Role of Women in the Church Essay scholarship essay help

The roles that women play in church leadership today have been of critical importance in enhancing performance of church ministries in both complementary and active roles. Credible studies on egalitarianism indicate that the intention of God regarding church ministry and leadership roles has been that both men and women serve in equal positions and status.

Rakate points out that the perspective of biblical equality embraces skin color, religion and gender while supporting the fact that God created individuals equally with same responsibilities to serve him.1 However, different viewpoints from complementarianism and egalitarianism on the role of women in the church have been areas of critical importance. It is against this backdrop that this paper takes a critical look at the role of women in church ministry.

To begin with, the term elder in the new testament (also called presbusteros) has been used several times to refer to the seventy disciples documented in Luke 10: 1-24, to the twelve apostles in Luke 6: 12-16 as well as other individuals who were in authority and held leadership roles in a Christian assembly.

Hamman points out that the term elder in the New Testament did not denote age, but represented both character and position of a person in terms of honor, experience, dignity and maturity.2 A deacon in original biblical language ‘Diakoneo’ refers to a servant. The term has been used 34 times in the New Testament to refer to a person serving at the table with examples from Acts 6:1 and Luke 10:41.

According to acts 6:3-5, the core qualifications of an individual filling the office of a deacon include good reputation, use of wisdom and manifestation of the Holy Spirit in his or her life. Other possible qualifications include being internally dynamic and good looking.

On the other hand, the qualifications of an elder are too many as indicated by Paul in Titus 1: 6-9 and also in 1Timothy. They include having a good reputation, a long term convert, ability to manage household well, patient, forbearing, hospitable, teachable, respectable, sober, faithfully married to one wife and blameless of any questionable character.

One of the fundamental issues in Christian ministry regarding the involvement of women in the ministry has been whether or not they should serve as deacons and elders. Paul in 1st Timothy 2: 9-15 strongly opposes women assuming leadership roles while favoring complementarianism. He says in verse twelve of Timothy 2: 9-15 that “I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.”3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This statement has been repeated several times in 1 Corinthians 14:13, Titus 1: 6-9 and 1st Timothy 3: 1-13 and strongly indicates that leadership positions are a domain of men. The crux of the argument is that although God created men and female to be equal, it did not imply that the roles and functions they were to carry out were to be similar.4

Conversely, egalitarianism favors women and leadership roles. In Galatians 3:28, Paul says that “there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”5 However, it would be hasty to interpret Paul’s position to mean that women are equal with men in terms of leadership roles. The fact that men and women are one in Christ refers to faith and salvation which is offered to all regardless of gender, race or economic status, and not leadership roles.

However, it is imperative to note that outside the church, women leadership roles are applicable, though it is abundantly clear that it has not been an easy affair as men still dominate many leadership positions. In the church, women have made immense contributions in complementary roles and in leadership roles in some churches. This has been in leading assemblies, composing songs and teachings.

To sum up, the discussion above has been based on the thesis statement that “the roles that women play in church leadership today have been of critical importance in enhancing performance of church ministries in both complementary and active roles”.

From the discussion, it is apparent that different views which are biblically-based have been raised favoring both egalitarianism and complementarianism. As noted from egalitarianism, women play important roles in church ministries and deserve to be treated equally as men since they are equal before God.

Bibliography Hamman, Jaco. “Resistance to women in ministry and the psychodynamics of sadness.” Pastoral Psychology, 59(2010)769-781.

Rakate, Faith. “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries.”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 166-168.

We will write a custom Essay on Role of Women in the Church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes 1 Rakate, Faith, “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries,”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 167.

2 Hamman, Jaco, “Resistance to women in ministry and the psychodynamics of sadness,” Pastoral Psychology, 59(2010)781.

3 Ibid.780

4 Ibid. 781

5Rakate, Faith, “Women in leadership: contextual dynamics and boundaries,”Journal of International Women’s Studies, 12(2011): 168.


Customers and Their Needs – Marketing Channels Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Adopting an effective marketing channel has become a critical factor today since a marketing channel plays pivotal role that impacts in positioning, placement, promotions, advertising, pricing and other important marketing decision. Studies indicate that meeting diverse needs of customers requires marketing channel decisions that ensures services and products are competently offered to consumers for consumption.

Manzerolle and Smeltzer (2011, p.330) posit that in the financial sector, different financial organizations utilize diverse marketing channels that are either direct or which involve intermediaries to meet various needs of their customers. As this paper analyses, all marketing channels have a common factor linking an end customer with a producer but vary in efficiency.

It is against this backdrop that this paper focuses on zero level marketing channels and how effective they are in selling financial services and products to customers. In addition, it compares this approach with other approaches used by other established organizations in the financial sector.

Direct marketing channel, also called zero level channel has become a major marketing conduit that most financial organizations like banks are using to take products and services directly to customers via means like infomercials, telemarketing, direct sales as well as through mails.

Sun and Wu (2011, p. 342) posit that the use of traditional model of utilizing retail channels to penetrate to customers has been regarded as less cost effective and infeasible for companies that are not well established or in the middle market. Direct marketing has emerged as an effective medium for marketing and selling financial services since it leverages on a one-on-one intimate selling.

Manzerolle and Smeltzer (2011, p.332) indicate that in the current fast-paced competitive market, the use of zero level channels makes it possible to spread word of a service or a product to customers more effectively, faster and in a wide area due to the availability of mass communication media. Such media include video conferencing, the internet, fax machines, electronic mail, adverting, computer and televisions.

The effectiveness of communication within this channel has increasingly grown due to the development of technology. Consequently, this growth and development has made marketing of financial services by marketers in the financial sector to consumers to be rapid and proficient when compared to other channels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A producer to consumer channel has been lauded by scholars of marketing management studies like Kim, Hibbard and Swain (2011, p. 524) as a channel which enhances a marketer’s profit margin. The option to adopt a zero level channel has been considered to be attractive by many financial organizations whose objectives have been to maximize profits.

Indeed, as Mary Jo Hatch posits in her model of business dynamics, adopting a zero level marketing channel is a key business concept that enables a producer to manage favorably his sales, reach customers and enjoy all the profits without having to share with distributors or other intermediaries (Manzerolle and Smeltzer 2011, p.332).

Indeed, this channel has become a favorite choice of most businesses such as CityBank, which sell its services and products directly to consumers. Additionally, direct marketing is a common practice and involves aspects such as telephone selling, direct mail and direct response advertising. A typical example is Western Union.

Approaches used by other businesses Studies indicate that using effective market channels has become a central pillar for most financial organizations seeking to win greater national and international markets. An effective market channel has the capacity to link consumers with respective organizations, and as a method of branding, developing loyalty and levering demand for continued market dominance and profitability.

Established financial service organizations like the Western Union and the American International Group have used their various marketing channels to act as major branding forces that seek to reach, persuade and establish customer bases where all consumers and stakeholders consider and feel part the company.

Financial markets are becoming highly competitive because of high specificity of consumers and the levels of marketing channels involved. Gabisch and Gwebu (2011, p. 310) explain that this competitive environment makes marketing complex as businesses are seeking effective ways of reaching customers. Large financial service organizations like AIG have adopted strategies aimed at utilizing superior marketing channels involving complex intermediaries to reach and put across their messages to consumers.

The scenario is even more difficult for small and medium new entrant enterprises that see the move as key threats to their existence. Competition is even more difficult to counter because existing organizations are run with government having major interests in them. The near monopolistic nature of the market is less tolerant to emerging competitors since it is very difficult to penetrate.

We will write a custom Report on Customers and Their Needs – Marketing Channels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The last two decades have seen information technology emerge as an unbeatable force and platform for marketing to reach their target consumers with ease. Sun and Wu (2011, p. 340) explain that many financial organizations in the UK and US have therefore turned to direct marketing because it offers them a chance to provide unlimited information to their consumers. In UK, most organizations have developed websites where marketing communicators post their messages for consumers to read.

It is imperative to note that the large number of people having access to internet makes it easy to reach a large number of populations with great ease. Similarly, companies operating in the US use their websites to post information to their clients. It has been particularly successful because the language can be customized for the customers to select what they are comfortable with.

Emails are further used to reach respective consumers that companies have in their mailing lists. Unlike a website where general information is posted, emails are personal and their use is considered to have a great effect to consumers.

Uematsu and Mishra (2011, p. 10) posit that this is because when consumers are sent emails, they easily get the sense of touch to their respective organizations. Besides, like the website, a lot of information can be sent to consumers through attachments, photos, music and even videos.

To sum up, the paper has noted that marketing channels are important parameters that financial organizations use to reach their customers with products and services. Different organizations use diverse marketing channels to perform marketing functions and improve value.

References Gabisch, J, and Gwebu, K 2011, ‘Impact of virtual brand experience on purchase intentions: the role of multichannel congruence’, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 302-319.

Kim, S, Hibbard, J, and Swain, S 2011, ‘Commitment in marketing channels: mitigator or aggravator of the effects of destructive acts?’ Journal of Retailing, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 521-539.

Manzerolle, V, and Smeltzer, S 2011, ‘Consumer databases and the commercial mediation of identity: A medium theory analyses’, Surveillance


KFC Marketing Strategies Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution of strategies used by KFC

Push and pull strategy used by KFC

The 7 p’s of marketing

Key challenges facing KFC

How KFC can remain relevant in the market

Reference List

Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is a world known chain of fast food restaurants based the United States. It’s the world’s most popular chain of restaurants that sells chicken pieces in a variety of forms.The company receives more than 12 million customers per day in its various restaurants based in 109 countries in the world. Harland Sanders is the person believed to have come up with this recipe more than half a century ago. The cooperation is part of the world’s largest restaurant, Yum! Brands Inc.

Evolution of strategies used by KFC Over the years, KFC has used a number of business strategies that have enabled them to evolve from a one man business to a multi-billion dollar enterprise. One of the skills that it first utilized was ensuring that one’s skills and knowledge is invaluable. The success of a business is greatly affected by the level of expertise the company brings in. it is obvious that the higher the level of skills and expertise, the greater the potential of business success.

It is advisable that people set up businesses based on their own set of skills and areas of expertise just like the founder of KFC, Colonel Harland Sanders. His knowledge and expertise in preparing chicken meals contributed to the success and expansion of KFC (KFC Business Strategies 2011).

Another strategy that was adopted was the strategy of achieving uniqueness. Being able to be set apart from other competitors goes a long way into improving the growth rate of any business. This is only achieved by doing things differently. It is therefore advised that the entrepreneur skims the market first in order to establish what they could do that is different from their competitors and it also has to be appealing to their customers.

The way products are produced, packaged, delivered, or even service delivery to the customer has to be unique and different from other competitors. KFC came up with the pressure fried chicken which set them apart from other chicken restaurants. It also included a special blend of recipes and herbs that made their chicken taste different from the others. Sanders became very popular in the 1930’s for using this technique.

Persistence and focus is another strategy that KFC adopted when it started its business. At the start of every business it is never a guarantee that the business will be a success. It may take some time for the sales to go up and at times the business may even experience a loss.

Persistence and focusing on what works and what doesn’t ensures that in the long run the business becomes a success. Colonel Sanders lost his business at the age of 65 but re-built it in ten years. This saw him opening a total of 600 franchises which saw him earn approximately $300, 000 before tax.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bringing in experts into your business is a good way of ensuring that the business continues to build and grow. The experts can be partners or employees; however, they are the most important people who will structure the business into systems that will outlive even the founder of the business. In 1964, KFC allowed professional managers to take over the business. This saw the business grow from a one man business to multi-billion dollar franchise.It even expanded into the international market and established its outlets in various foreign countries.

They believed that their products had a good market in other states other than the United States. Not only this, but also the production rate as compared to the consumers rate was profitable and they had little or no competition. Ironically, by 1992, KFC was collecting more revenue from the foreign markets than it was collecting from the United States.

Push and pull strategy used by KFC The push and pull strategy is most efficient if a producer wants to supply their stock to stores and at the same time create a demand supply for their products. This is particularly effective for a business that is still starting. The push strategy is whereby the producer of the goods has to work extra hard in order to distribute their products to retailers and wholesalers. Fast moving consumer goods can work effectively well for the push strategy whereby the customers are ready to make purchasing decisions.

The manufacturer can engage the retailers in promotion strategies such as face to face selling and encouraging them to stock the product (Kotler


Collaboration in a Not-for-Profit Organization Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help

Table of Contents Problematic Issues

Myths, Theories and Realities


Works Cited

A not-for-profit organization is governed by a not-for-profit board. Since it is an organization built on the concept of service and the propagation of culture and the arts. The members of the board can even be considered as volunteers. The organization cannot afford to pay them because the endeavor does not create a profit compared to a traditional business organization.

This is good for the venture because all the money that it earns from fees and donations goes back to the system instead of paying hefty wages to members of the board. However, this complicates the management of the organization because there is no way to demand full-time commitment. Therefore, members of the board must learn to collaborate with all the stakeholders of the said organization in order to achieve its primary goals.

The stakeholders are the members of the community, the supporters, the contributors, consultants hired to perform certain duties, management professionals, and the staff. In Nello McDaniel and George Thorn’s treatise entitled Leading Arts Boards: An Arts Professional’s Guide for Creating and Leading an Effective Collaboration with Board and Volunteers the focus is on the board and the volunteers but in order to develop an efficient non-for-profit organization for the arts, the leaders must see the big picture.

The members of the board must focus not only in the interaction between the leaders and the volunteers. In other words it is not enough to simply clarify the work roles and the power structures; it is also imperative to get everyone involved. This assertion is consistent with the realities of leading an arts board as discussed by McDaniel and Thorn.

Problematic Issues The challenges faced by the board, volunteers and staff were correctly diagnosed by McDaniel and Thorn.

They pinpointed three major factors and these are listed as follows: 1) difficulty to raise contributed income; 2) the professional and personal difficulties that results in the selection process for board members and volunteers; and 3). Organizations are saddled by the need to sort out theories and myths with regards to what a board could, should and would do (McDaniel


Mandate of Heaven Essay (Movie Review) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

China’s Yellow River

Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Philosophies

Great Wall and Silk Road

Opium Wars


Introduction The foremost rationale of the report is to seek and provide an elaborate explanation concerning the meaning of the “Mandate of Heaven”. It also covers how China’s yellow river played a role in China’s civilization, how Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism philosophies, Great Wall and Silk Road, Opium Wars, and communism affect China’s civilization. “Ming” in early Chou was in essence the heavenly mandate given to the ruling class.

However, it has undergone two different developments. It initially predestined the moral instructions of heaven. It appears that the superior or the ruling house received authority from heaven to manage and control the people. As such, when the superior or ruler was overthrown, it simplifies a loss in the Mandate of Heaven. Therefore, the concept of Mandate of Heaven resembles the heavenly right of kings in that the right to rule streams directly from God’s will.

The ruler or superior believes that the way they govern a state is in accordance with the will of Heaven, and that people have to obey the superior that has prearranged the mandate or authority to control them. In essence, it was an idea of authority or legitimacy of a ruler to preside over under the heaven. Thus, the superior became an earthly representative to care for the people, as well as the welfare of their subjects.

China’s Yellow River The Zhou and Shang dynasties marked a complex civilization period for China. During this period, Chinese traditions and cultural values were spread and transpired throughout Asia. China’s yellow river played a vital role, as well as the key influence on agriculture in China.

The development and success of cities, resource trading and labor opportunities also relied on the yellow river. The Pamir, Tian and Himalaya mountain ranges, the Mongolian steppe, as well as deserts such as the Gobi and Takla Makan, isolate China from the eastern hemisphere. As a result, travel was difficult due to the gigantic trail of mountains, therefore, making trade and transportation difficult, as well.

Actually, people did not travel by foot since communication would be made tremendously slow. As an alternative, travel was common through Yangzi and Yellow rivers. In addition, agriculture and trade could not be sufficient without the rivers.

Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism Philosophies China has immense history in religion and art. Currently, religion in China is coined “Chinese Religion” since it is not organized but a combined movement. Chinese culture categorizes religion into four traditions: Confucianism, Chinese folk religion, Buddhism and Taoism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most people in China mix religion with their daily beliefs. In addition, the Chinese government plays a crucial role in dictating the religion that people should follow. The Chinese art is founded on these three key religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. The previously mentioned religions put emphasis on love for nature. For this reason, landscapes, animals, flowers and birds constitute the established subjects of the art of Chinese.

Great Wall and Silk Road The Silk Road, which is known as the silk route is a wide-ranging interconnected, set of connections of trade routes that transverse the Asian continent. It connects East, West, and Southern Asia with the Mediterranean countries, as well as the Eastern and Northern Europe and Africa. The origin of the name Silk Road is linked to the extensive trans-continental silk trade that takes place in China.

The silk trade came into operation at a time when China had the reign of Han dynasty. In addition, to silk, the other significant feature is the Silk Road that was used to carry some other commodity to form part of the significant world history. In that same light, the Silk Road is regarded as the world’s oldest intercontinental routes that stretch and upholds a considerable number of religions in particular the Buddhism through Central Asia.

This broadcast/diffusion has not only made a considerable impact on the lives and cultures in exacting countries within the continent, but it has also left the citizens of those countries with an ocean of wonders in literature and art. Art and iconography are the two main forms that have played a noteworthy role in the transmission of religious traditions all along the Silk Road.

The Great Wall of China is a proof and a factual thing to the Chinese’s extensive journey of civilization. The wall was built to protect the country from invaders, as well as a show of wealth and power in ancient China.

Opium Wars The reign of Qing dynasty feared instability due to the influences of the outside world, especially European countries. This resulted to refusal of the traders into the country. As a result, wars were employed to open trade, particularly for opium. China lost the war, and this paved way to signing of treaties that saw large trading companies being opened in Hong Kong.

Communism The onset of communism witnessed an alternate loosening and tightening of political and economic policies. It ensured redistribution of wealth through land reforms, and initiating power structure that was centralized. In addition, communism led to a campaign directed against tax evasion, bribery, theft of government assets, cheating on materials and labor, and stealing government economic secrets.

We will write a custom Essay on Mandate of Heaven specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, communism shifted the economic system to socialist, as opposed to private ownership. China strived to attain economic growth and development founded on purposeful destabilization. The video explores the different aspects that affected the Chinese civilization.


KFC Marketing Strategies Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Evolution of strategies used by KFC

Push and pull strategy used by KFC

The 7 p’s of marketing

Key challenges facing KFC

How KFC can remain relevant in the market

Reference List

Introduction Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is a world known chain of fast food restaurants based the United States. It’s the world’s most popular chain of restaurants that sells chicken pieces in a variety of forms.The company receives more than 12 million customers per day in its various restaurants based in 109 countries in the world. Harland Sanders is the person believed to have come up with this recipe more than half a century ago. The cooperation is part of the world’s largest restaurant, Yum! Brands Inc.

Evolution of strategies used by KFC Over the years, KFC has used a number of business strategies that have enabled them to evolve from a one man business to a multi-billion dollar enterprise. One of the skills that it first utilized was ensuring that one’s skills and knowledge is invaluable. The success of a business is greatly affected by the level of expertise the company brings in. it is obvious that the higher the level of skills and expertise, the greater the potential of business success.

It is advisable that people set up businesses based on their own set of skills and areas of expertise just like the founder of KFC, Colonel Harland Sanders. His knowledge and expertise in preparing chicken meals contributed to the success and expansion of KFC (KFC Business Strategies 2011).

Another strategy that was adopted was the strategy of achieving uniqueness. Being able to be set apart from other competitors goes a long way into improving the growth rate of any business. This is only achieved by doing things differently. It is therefore advised that the entrepreneur skims the market first in order to establish what they could do that is different from their competitors and it also has to be appealing to their customers.

The way products are produced, packaged, delivered, or even service delivery to the customer has to be unique and different from other competitors. KFC came up with the pressure fried chicken which set them apart from other chicken restaurants. It also included a special blend of recipes and herbs that made their chicken taste different from the others. Sanders became very popular in the 1930’s for using this technique.

Persistence and focus is another strategy that KFC adopted when it started its business. At the start of every business it is never a guarantee that the business will be a success. It may take some time for the sales to go up and at times the business may even experience a loss.

Persistence and focusing on what works and what doesn’t ensures that in the long run the business becomes a success. Colonel Sanders lost his business at the age of 65 but re-built it in ten years. This saw him opening a total of 600 franchises which saw him earn approximately $300, 000 before tax.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bringing in experts into your business is a good way of ensuring that the business continues to build and grow. The experts can be partners or employees; however, they are the most important people who will structure the business into systems that will outlive even the founder of the business. In 1964, KFC allowed professional managers to take over the business. This saw the business grow from a one man business to multi-billion dollar franchise.It even expanded into the international market and established its outlets in various foreign countries.

They believed that their products had a good market in other states other than the United States. Not only this, but also the production rate as compared to the consumers rate was profitable and they had little or no competition. Ironically, by 1992, KFC was collecting more revenue from the foreign markets than it was collecting from the United States.

Push and pull strategy used by KFC The push and pull strategy is most efficient if a producer wants to supply their stock to stores and at the same time create a demand supply for their products. This is particularly effective for a business that is still starting. The push strategy is whereby the producer of the goods has to work extra hard in order to distribute their products to retailers and wholesalers. Fast moving consumer goods can work effectively well for the push strategy whereby the customers are ready to make purchasing decisions.

The manufacturer can engage the retailers in promotion strategies such as face to face selling and encouraging them to stock the product (Kotler


The 2008 Financial Crisis Report (Assessment) college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Role of the MBS and CDO in the financial Crisis



Introduction The 2008 financial crisis in United States of America caused the government to take several steps to ease the situation in the economy. The government through the federal and treasury institutions bailed out the insurance giant AIG. There was also the takeover of the Bear Sterns Bank by the government.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act were passed which authorised the injection of $787 Billion in the economy to stimulate demand and employment. The stimulus package was also offered with the aim of mitigating the mortgage foreclosures. There were the homeowners Affordability and Stability Plan that assisted the struggling people to refinance their mortgages.

The government purchased mortgage-backed securities and treasury bills to improve the credit conditions. The treasury also injected capital into the troubled financial institutions in exchange of common equity and preferred stocks in certain cases. Financial institutions were temporarily suspended from short-selling by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The government continued to lower the interest rates in order to increase security. What caused the financial crisis and what was the role of mortgage backed securities and collateralized debt obligations in the financial crisis? These financial instruments contributed substantially to the financial crisis.

The Role of the MBS and CDO in the financial Crisis The financial crisis has its origin in the housing sector. There was a surge in the subprime borrowers in the mortgage sector. The subprime borrowers have certain characteristics. They have low credit scores. Additionally they have high debt service to income ratio that may be as high as 40%.

They take small loans in the range of $100,000. They also have a high loan to value ratio of over 80%. House prices had been increasing from the 1990’s to 2005. In fact in the period 1998 to 2005, the housing prices doubled increasing the investor’s confidence in the market.

The home owners were therefore at an advantage since the value of their houses kept increasing (Weaver, 2008). When they were financially distressed they could sell the house. The mortgage rates were also relatively low in the period 2000 to 2005 so the people could refinance for another product that also had low rates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At this time the adjustable rate mortgages (ARM) became highly attractive to the home owners. This kind of loans also increased during this period. The subprime owners were either getting ARM or other hybrid loans. There was an increase in the amount of loans in this sector that was contributed by a number of factors.

First of all, there had been lax underwriting standards over that period. Annual surveys that were conducted by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) showed that banks had lowered their credit standards in the period 2004 to 2006. The percentage of loans that had been given with full documentation also declined during this period.

There was also increased indebtedness of the subprime owners. In the period 2000 to 2006, the homeowners had been taking higher value loans against their house with the expectation that the prices would rise. The opposite trends in the cost of mortgage credit and the housing prices also made the home owners participate more in the market since the risk of default was much lower (Baily, Litan, and Johnson, 2008).

In 2004 however the mortgage rates started to rise and the house prices started declining. The home owners found themselves in a fix.

The consequences were high rates of delinquencies and foreclosures on the homes. In 2007, it was evident that the subprime borrowers were not the only ones affected by the financial crisis. The crisis had spread to the Alt-A and the prime mortgage products as well.

This turn of events in turn affected the mortgage backed securities. The financial market had turned the pool of financial obligations into a source of liquidity for the lenders and capital for several consumers. These repackaged products caused the housing crisis to affect the markets even more since the products were being sold in the global financial markets (Bullard, Neely and Wheelock, 2005).

The securitization process was a procedural process followed by the financial institutions. A customer would approach the bank for a loan to finance his purchase of a residential or commercial property. The rate of interest would be agreed on based on the credit features of the individual. The higher the risk the higher the interest rates would be.

We will write a custom Assessment on The 2008 Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The mortgage lender would then approach the mortgage banker to be relieved of the risk of default of the customer. The mortgage bankers in the past would issue bonds in the market to sell the loans in the market however now there was an innovative system where the mortgage banker would sell the loan to an investment banker.

The investment banker would get a large group of mortgage based financial products, underwrite it and then sell it to investors. These mortgage backed products would be pooled together into a mortgage backed security. The risk of total default was therefore lower however the returns remained the same. If the customers defaulted, the investors

could still sell the houses and recover their money. The MBSs varied in their form or composition however they gave the investors certain yields either as cash flows over a period of time or the market value of the MBS.

There was also the creation of the CDOs. A collateralized debt obligation refers to an entity that holds the debt as the collateral in order to issue liabilities in the market. These liabilities are issued in the form of tranched securities. The CDO comprises of securities that are rated differently in terms of the timing of the repayment and the risk or seniority in bankruptcy. CDOs have different purposes.

They are those which are issued for the company to be able to hedge the credit risk and minimise the exposure in regulatory risk when it comes to the balance sheet balances. A company may also issue them in order to collect interest on the high yield products while others are issued in order to earn high management fees and exploit the management expertise. The product had existed in the market since the 1980’s however during this period the amount of CDO’s increased immensely.

There were credit agencies that would rate the risk of the MBS and CDOs. These ratings would influence the price of the security in the market and also inform the investment bankers on the risk-weighted capital treatment of these securities according to the Basel II framework.

The credit agencies were rating 80% of the subprime products at the highest credit rating (Jo, Lee, Munguia and Nguyen, 2009). The securities were therefore highly attractive. Banks, hedge funds and pension funds purchased the securities as part of their market portfolio.

The investment banks needed to also seek protection on the low credit rating securities in accordance to Basel II requirements. This came in the form of the credit default swap (CDS) which is a financial derivative. This would assist the holder of the MBS or CDO by insuring him against the risk of default.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2008 Financial Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There was the creation of naked CDS which refers to contracts where neither party was in possession of the security or asset. This would create an avenue for high speculation and loopholes in risk management. The insurance company, AIG, was able to take up a high amount of CDS as the market was highly unregulated.

This was because the product had not been placed in the securities, insurance or futures contract in the financial market. If the insurer was rated highly in the industry, there was no need to provide any collateral. Furthermore the CDSs were put in the financial statements as profits based on the default probabilities the company had calculated based on the experience of the former years.

The securitization of mortgage securities had gained high popularity through the years due to the low interest rates and the rising house prices. The home owners gained immensely form speculation. There were high origination fees earned by the mortgage brokers.

The rating agencies experienced high demand for their services and earned high profits while the investment bankers were earning high amounts in securitization fees. All the relevant stakeholders were gaining and happy with the process. The investment bankers got even more involved in the process after April 2004, where the Securities and Exchange Commission allowed the investment bankers to borrow even

more money. They now took on more securitization of mortgage loans. Companies such as the Lehman Brothers now adopted generous lending standards. In the year 2007, the MBS market was now valued at $2Trillion while the CDO market was valued at $521Billion. This was despite the fact that between 85-95% of the CDS products were based on speculative circumstances.

The housing crash therefore affected investors and halted their cash flows. The lower house prices saw the prices of the MBOs and CDOs depreciate even further. The risk of default increased and the foreclosures and delinquencies thrust the country and the world into a financial crisis.

wThe CDO and MBOs started receiving adverse credit ratings as most of the products were subprime or non-agency categories. The Moody Company downgraded 30% of the products they had rated. Some of the products that had been graded highly were also downgraded. There had been an assumption that the housing prices would just continue increasing however it turned out not to be so.

The credit rating companies did not put into consideration the risk of defaulting en masse or the relaxed rating standards that were in place at that time. Insurance companies like AIG found itself facing high insurance payouts due to the massive defaulting the banks were experiencing (Roger and Stacey, 2001). They had to increase their capital in order to adequately deal with the change of circumstances. There was suspicion from the public towards the financial institutions that further aggravated the situation.

Depositors now wanted their money from the banks and the hedge funds. The interbank lending rates soared as banks were now reluctant to lend to each other. They were not

sure or certain of their value in the financial statements after the crisis and were also reluctant to lend to banks which they could not correctly affirm their credit worthiness. The firms that had specialised in the use of MBO and CDO in order to get funding could no longer receive any money due to the increase in the interest rates.

When the Lehman Brothers and AIG started facing great pressures, the money market became even more restrictive in their lending practices. The consequence was a credit crunch which affected firms adversely as they needed loans for liquidity.

Conclusion The financial crisis in 2008 was therefore caused by a myriad of factors. There was the lending to subprime borrowers to the financial institutions. There was greed in the sector with the brokers focused on the high rewards. There were also the credit rating agencies that were not prudent in considering several risk factors in grading the subprime mortgages.

However, the biggest cause of the crisis was the innovative financial products that had been introduced in the market in the recent years. The MBS and CDO involved huge companies such as banks, hedge funds and pension funds. When the housing prices fell and the mortgage rates went up, these big institutions magnified the impact of the defaults, the foreclosures and the delinquencies of the home owners. There was a credit crunch, firms collapsed and the government had to step in order to save some of the companies.

There was a need to minimise the impact that would be felt in the market. A stimulus package had to be injected into the market by the American government. There have been steps in the regulatory environment to streamline the risk management process as a result of the financial crisis.

References Baily, M., Litan, R. and Johnson, M. (2008). The Origins of the Financial Crisis. Fixing Finance Series, 3, pp. 1-47.

Bullard, J., Neely, C. and Wheelock, D. (2005). Systemic Risk and the Financial Crisis: A Primer. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 91(5), pp. 403-17.

Jo, H., Lee, C., Munguia, A. and Nguyen, C. (2009) Unethical misuse of derivatives and market volatility around the global financial crisis. Cambridge Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 33, pp. 563-580.

Roger, L. and Stacey, L. (2001) A Model of Financial Fragility. Journal of Economic Theory, 99(1-2), pp. 220-64.

Weaver, K. (2008). The sub-prime mortgage crisis: a synopsis. Global Securitization and Structured Finance, 4, pp. 22- 31.


Pearl Harbor Attack Descriptive Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Pearl Harbor is located at Hawaii in the United States of America. This was a military base of the US military forces during the Second World War. Japan was very keen on conquering the larger Asian region, having successfully suppressed China. It had entered into an alliance with Germany and Italy.

This alliance formed the central power that would fight the allied forces led by Britain. This country was one of the strongest nations during the Second World War and its leaders were keen on asserting their control in Asian region.

The United States of America had taken a low profile in the war at the beginning. It preferred supplying both weapons and food to both sides. This stabilized it economically, which would later help it in strengthening its military. Japan was weary of the US and wanted to suppress it as it was the only threat to Japan’s conquest.

The German soldiers convinced Japan that Britain and France were under control. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans was still recovering from the German attack. The only threat was the United States of America (Rottman 45).

Tension between the two countries started building up in early 1940s. Both countries were suspicious of each other. The US was keenly monitoring the rate at which Japan was arming itself. Japan was also aware that the US was heavily armed.

Japan therefore decided to attack the US for one main reason, which was to offer the US a devastating blow that would completely discourage it from going to war. They expected that after the attack, the US either would be too weak to join the war or would be scared. This would enable their advancement to other Asian countries since there could not be any threat from major powers.

In 25 November 1941, Japan decided to launch its offensive. It attacked the US military base at Pearl Harbor. This was one of the US main military bases located in Hawaii. This resulted to death of over 2400 Americans and wounded about 1300 people. Several ships were also destroyed and the harbor was damaged, though not to a large extent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The US had expected such an occurrence but had not predicted this kind of damage. The damage would have been worse but it was poorly planned. Furthermore, the military strength of the US forces was under-estimated by the Japanese senior commanders. It did not take much to repair the ships and get them back to the sea.

The United States of American responded to this attack very swiftly. It was convinced that Japan was an enemy that could no longer be assumed. They could no longer watch this war from the fence but had to join it actively. They declared war on Japan. This immediate cause forced America to join the Second World War officially.

This reaction was expected by German and Italy, which responded immediately by declaring war on the US. However, Japan did not expect this eventuality. They expected the US to be scared meaning that it could not be in a position to join the war.

The United States of America entered the war for two major reasons. One of it was to save its friendly nations such as Britain and France, which were under siege. In addition, it had to react to the attack on its military base. Although the US helped in suppressing the all-powerful Germany, its main target was Japan.

Works Cited Rottman, Gordon. World War 2 Pacific Island Guide. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. Print.


Ulysses and Gilgamesh Essay college admission essay help

The following is a comparison of two characters, Ulysses and Gilgamesh. Both are characters of epic stories where Ulysses is the main character of the Homer’s epic, who is one of the most famous heroes of the Greek epos. He is also known to the general public as Odysseus.

Ulysses is shown as a brave warrior who participates in the fight against the Trojans, in the Trojan War. Gilgamesh on the other hand is a character of Andrew George’s epic, which is a translation of the Sumerian mythology so that people in the modern world can understand it.

Gilgamesh is an adored icon in the Sumerian society , he was a hero and many perceived him to be a god (George 56). The following is a brief comparison between the two characters on their similarities their differences with each other.

Ulysses is a demigod as per his contemporaries, who viewed him with a lot of admiration. He goes to war with the Trojans and he leads the Greeks to victory. However, the god of the sea holds him back when on his returning to Ithaca and this means that his long awaiting return leaves his fanatics disappointed.

On the other hand, the suitors who concluded that Ulysses died are wooing his wife. Gilgamesh is also a hero in the Sumerian world (George 45). The writers refer to him as to one who surpassed all the kings and who was certainly a hero in the Sumerian world.

The two texts are probably descriptions of the two ancient worlds, and for the purpose of this essay it is important to analyze what could happen if the two heroes meet each other, and what would they talk about. What kind of discussion would Ulysses and Gilgamesh of Sumerian have?

First of all, they would talk of their different geographical locations and its beauty, Ulysses is from Ithaca whereas Gilgamesh is from Mesopotamia, where people practiced Agriculture, and regions that are considered to be the homelands of ancient civilization. Ulysses would talk about Greece as a land of mythology where people loved to think (Homer 67).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They would also have a lively discussion about war and how they had fought many battles. Ulysses would speak of the long battles with long time enemies of his people. He would talk about how he led his people during war against Trojans, and about many perils they experienced in the sea. Gilgamesh would seemingly be listening to Ulysses, but he would be in deep immersed in his own reverie about many battles he fought, especially the one he fought with Humbadda and how he won it.

They would also talk about many journeys. Gilgamesh would certainly talk about his journey with Ekiddu to meet the Upa-nishti so that he can be immortalized, and how he stayed in cold forests, and his encounters with wild animals, as well as how the long journey took him. Ulysses would also share with his interlocutor the story about many journeys he met on his way home.

He would also talk about how they met the beautiful sirens. This would include how he was tied to the pole so that even after hearing their beautiful music he would not jump into the sea to go to them. He would also tell about how he was held captive by the god of the sea. (Homer 80).

Then they would talk about their encounters with gods, Ulysses would tell how he met the god of the sea and how he was able to interact with him. He would also talk about how the god of the sea held him captive even after expressing his desire to go back to his family. Gilgamesh would also narrate of how he was disappointed when he finally met Uta-nipishti after his long journey, and how Upa-nishti denied him immortality, and he therefore had to return to Uruk, his homeland.

They would finally have to chat about their lives after failing to achieve what they wanted to achieve. After his late homecoming to Ithaca, Ulysses cannot be celebrated anymore, he also feels disappointed that he found his wife very old. He narrates to Gilgamesh how he decided to go back to the sea and explore the seas once again. This is how he finally puts as described by Homer “Though much is taken, much abides and though, made weak by time and fate, but strong in will to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.”

Gilgamesh would also tell about what he decided to do after he was denied immortality even after fighting hard and spending his youth in pursuit of immortality (Homer 29). Gilgamesh has a sad ending because even after he was given a plant to renew his youth by Upa-nishti, he decides to test its effectiveness on a dying snake which shads its skin to youthfulness, but he lost the opportunity to revive his youth and relive his life again. He recalls with tears.

That is what a discussion could be between the two heroes. It could also be emotional as they recuperate their victories and their lows. The two characters are indeed heroes of the fictional world and they characterize the heroes of the ancient world.

We will write a custom Essay on Ulysses and Gilgamesh specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited George, Andrew. The Epic of Gilgamesh, London: Penguin Classics, 2000. Print.

Homer. The Odyssey. London: Penguin Modern Classics Paperback, 2000. Print.


Outsourcing of Facilities Management Case Study essay help free: essay help free

Introduction All businesses manage their facilities as a way of supporting the business processes. Facilities include offices and commercial premises. Facility management is the process of streamlining efforts to maintain business premises to support and aid a business’s operations. Maintenance of the premises involves the effort of technical and administration staff to keep assets in good physical conditions for better performance.

In today’s business, managers strive to avoid wide error margins that could jeopardize their businesses in the increasingly competitive environments. In an effort to achieve effectiveness and efficiency, they take appropriate strategies that will help minimize costs and still offer good services. The strategies adopted by different businesses differ depending on the nature of competition and services required.

Outsourcing is one such widely adopted strategy in today’s hospitality sector due to the many benefits accrued to the practice. This paper studies use of practice in Hong Kong’s hospitality industry with a deeper analysis of benefits and challenges incurred in adopting the practice. This strategy is intended to increase productivity and returns, while lowering costs and operational risks that can be quite costly.

Background By outsourcing, the business employs a strategy whereby it gets more for less. A number of countries have become involved in practice with a large number of industry players in the hospitality industry adopting this method in their businesses. It is critical that we understand hoteliers’ motivation for outsourcing as a determinant of business success.

The wide adoption of the practice has not failed to catch researcher’s attention, calling for a number of studies on the trends and viability of the practice. Studies on the practice in the hotel industry have, however, not been intensified. In this study, we shall look at the issue of outsourcing from a corporate perspective.

This is because empirical assessment on the viability of the practice is often done at industrial levels. This will, therefore, provide us with good information for dissemination and analysis, enabling us to draw accurate conclusions.

Outsourcing in the Hotel Industry There are many ways by which management can outsource services in the hotel industry. Some firms attempt to lower operational costs by laying off employees. This reduces costs in terms of salaries and wages for employees. Some partner with external expertise companies in particular areas of interest. The external companies then perform the services by franchise, contacts, or simple agreements [1]

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another common strategy used in the industry is employing workers in part time. This way, employees with specialized skills are engaged on a temporary basis as they continue to work in their parent companies. Besides, this way the business avoids having to pay fringe benefits to employees as a measure of reducing labour costs [1]

At times, outsourcing is done for maintenance purposes. In such cases, strategies for sourcing include in-sourcing, out-tasking, outsourcing in order to save cost, and outsourcing due to lack of capability. All these options have their strengths and weaknesses and before selecting an option, a clearly established and researched framework has to be instituted to aid selection [2].

Types of Outsourcing Studies have shown that bigger hotels tend to outsource more than smaller hotels in Hong Kong. This stands at 42% in-house services compared to 52% out-sourced services. Some hotels outsource services fully, partially, or selectively. Partial outsourcing means that specific services are outsourced for specific needs such as cleaning upholstery which is done occasionally.

This method is beneficial as it allows for greater monitoring of quality, at the same time reducing safety risks. It, however brings about confusion among workers, raises security risks due to the short time that the contactors spend at the firm. Besides, the short periods increase dishonesty among workers and lack of consistency in performance [3].

Although not popular this days, selective outsourcing requires that the sourcing firm engages more than one firm in the provision of services. This method is advantageous as the sourcing firm has a choice over the contractors chosen for the job. If one fails or offers poor quality services, he can disqualify the contractor and work will go on by other contractors.

The problem with this kind of outsourcing, however, is that it increases confusion between contractors and in-house staff and among the contactors. In some cases, services and jurisdiction may overlap so that each firm claims or shuns responsibility over some area [4].

Complete or full outsourcing occurs when a firm is contracted for entire provision of services at full time basis. This method saves time for the business, eliminates training costs for in-house staff, and specialized attention to tasks that require such. This method can, on the other hand pose security concerns, poor worker skills, management has less control over services and product, and in-house staff motivation is reduced.

We will write a custom Case Study on Outsourcing of Facilities Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because they tend to feel that the contracted staff are infringing into their rightful space. Employees also confuse their loyalties as it is divided up between the sourcing firm and their parent firm. Employees tend to be loyal to whoever pays them, and in this it is the sourcing firm, but their employer is then contractor firm. [5]

Complete sourcing reduces flexibility of operations in the hotel. This is because all services and their details are spelt out in the contract signed. A task that may be related but falls outside the specified tasks will not be performed by the contractors. Such will require adjustment of contract details before performing the task [4]

Need to Outsource Maintenance of complicated machinery and works are better outsourced. This is because these tasks are too complicated for in-house staff and it would be costly to hire maintenance personnel in the areas. Such maintenance needs are not frequent to deserve a full time employee. Hiring such an employee would, therefore be too costly for the business. In such a case, outsourcing becomes the best option [6]

Cases of licensing also require outsourcing of services, but these have to be done by respective registered experts. These include areas such as escalator installations and fire protection systems. Registered contractors should be contracted on an occasional basis like annually to carry out inventory and upgrade the services. Once again, it would not be feasible to employ such services on a full time basis; they are better outsourced [7]

Other factors to consider includes associated risk of the tasks. If risk is too high, the tasks are better outsourced so that it is passed on to contractors who are experts in the area and are likely to manage and mitigate the risks. Some tasks require use of special tools and equipment. These may be too expensive for the business to purchase. It is, therefore advisable to outsource such tasks to firms that possess the tools and who have specialized knowledge on handling them [7]

Commonly outsourced services in the hotel industry include technical areas such as marble and granite flooring, cleaning of upholstery, chandelier, and glass, and in managing pests [5]

Changes in the Industry The initial trend was that firms offered their workforce contracts to perform these tasks. However, with the institution of labor friendly laws and legal measures, firms were forced to change the way facilities were managed in their organizations.

They had to stop burdening the employees with loads of maintenance work, which most of them were not trained in. They focused on ways of achieving quality without having to stress their workforce with labour hassles. The quality services are now provided by external parties on a contractual basis [8]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Outsourcing of Facilities Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Advantages of Outsourcing By outsourcing some aspects of business, a business is able to employ extensively its scarce resources in areas it wishes to specialize on, thereby increasing its competence in these areas. A global trend now dictates that organizations come up and stick to concrete and distinct mission, vision, and core values. Because of this, organizations find it necessary to accumulate the few resources available in achieving their core goals in the perfect manner possible.

In-house workers are able to concentrate on other areas such as house keeping, concentrating their energies and resources on them. Services that are secondary to these goals are, therefore, outsourced so that quality is maintained without the organization having to use its resources which are used elsewhere within the organization [6]

In many cases, it has been proven that outsource contractors posses more specialized knowledge and skills in the particular matters than in-house staff. Outsourcing, therefore, enables a business to get quality services more efficiently without putting pressure on the employees.

Contactors are premised to be more efficient in providing technical knowledge and skills, posses appropriate equipment, fast in executing tasks, flexible in carrying out operations, and have sufficient manpower. Provision of these services by employees will require that the business employees a big number of specialized employees who will demand more in terms of salaries, and this is likely to increase the business labour cost in the long run [9]

By outsourcing, associated risk is also transferred to contractors. Some maintenance and repair procedures may be quite risky and expensive to the business. Because most employees lack the specialized expertise needed for such procedures, it is feasible to outsource the tasks to contractors who are more specialized and familiar with the procedures.

During the signing of contract between the two parties, legal aspects of risk and damage are detailed so that the contractor takes responsible for damage in such cases. This way, the firm minimizes costs of maintenance [7]

Disadvantages of Outsourcing Outsourcing a few operations may not be that costly as the costs are neutralized by better production in the areas that the business specializes in. However, outsourcing entire business operations can be quite costly, overriding strategic expectations.

While a number of businesses have thrived on this strategy, an almost equal number have also failed due to the strategy. Decisions concerning outsourcing need to be carefully made, bearing in mind all factors and expectations. Outsourcing should not be done arbitrarily, but rather with a clearly defined scope and purpose of engaging in the practice [4]

The decision to outsource is arrived at when outsourcing becomes cost effective and more appropriate than in- sourcing. The transaction cost theory can be used to determine cost efficiency where the calculation is not straightforward. The effective sourcing alternative must be lower in cost in all aspects of planning, work transaction, implementation process, and service agreement [1]

Although outsourcers believe that outsourcing guarantees best quality services, it has been found that a number of outsourced contactors do not meet the quality standards. This can negatively and adversely affect the business which spends a lot in services that turnout to be poor, not meeting customers’ expectation. Before outsourcing, therefore management needs to research on contractors and use the very best renowned in the particular services or products [2]

Another challenge inherent with outsourcing is the risk involved and agents taking advantage of the outsourcer. The outsourcer needs to be aware that business people will always tend to pursue self interests at the expense of the consumer, who in this case is the outsourcer. He must, therefore during the process monitor possible opportunities for opportunism by the contractor [10]

Risks that are likely to arise during the transaction should be properly envisioned and apportioned between the outsourcer and contractor fairly. This, if not well articulated in the performance contract can cost the business large sums of money in replacement and repair if the service providers tamper with machinery or premises facilities [10]

Trends in Outsourcing Flexibility is an emerging trend in the practice of outsourcing in the hospitality industry. This is achieved by using the short-term approach in contracting. This process allows the outsourcer to terminate the contract when he feels necessary at low cost. To avoid this, the outsourcer should seek a contractor with flexible terms of negotiations’ so that adjustments can be made to the contract, modifying it to the outsourcer’s satisfaction [7]

More and more firms are now seeking modern information technology (IT) systems. Large firms do not have integrated IT systems because they were formed by mergers or have not upgraded their systems because of the perceived costs.

IT systems are crucial in the hospitality industry to enable management of inventory, revenue appropriation, to track customers and monitor their activities, and connect with other related industry players such as travel and tourism firms. This is in an effort to offer the customer integrated and complete services [9]

Another trend in today’s outsourcing is that of multi-sourcing. The sourcing firm partners with a number of service providers in specific areas where they are best specialized in. This is rather than sourcing the entire project to a single provider that may t posses all skills required in the project. This enables businesses to obtain optimal expertise services in each area of the project [8]

Conclusion Outsourcing is an inevitable practice in the hospitality industry. Some services have to be outsourced due to their complicated nature and possible lack of sufficient knowledge by in-house employees. Adoption of the practice is not a haphazard procedure whose decision is arrived at vaguely. Deliberations and critical analysis of the benefits and costs accrued to the practice have to be made before adopting it.

Upcoming managers should know that, at any one point, outsourcing can be both beneficial and costly. A calculation of the costs to be incurred visa vis the benefits to be gained is what determines its adoption. While given services may seem costly to outsource, other benefits such as building and increasing consumer confidence in the firm must be factored in the analysis.

The manager needs to know that outsourcing is not the end of the maintenance process. He has to monitor the process constantly approving the progress made. Unsatisfactory progress should be noted and informed to concerned parties.

References Yadav I. Hospitality Industry Shifts towards Outsourcing? Express Hospitality. 2011 June 17: 34(2): 124-127.

Tsang A. Strategic Dimensions of Maintenance Management. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering. 2010 February 17; 8(1): 7-39.

Char K. An Empirical Study of Maintenance Costs for Hotels in Hong Kong. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property. 2009 August 6; 7(3): 35-52.

Lam I,


Missing you maintains us Essay (Article) essay help: essay help

Article Review Paper: Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, by Le, Korn, Crockett and Loving.

The prevalence of long distance romantic relationships has portrayed an increasing trend in the recent past. The cause of the increase is career development of the participants especially during their schooling.

As a result, many researchers have embarked on several studies on the various aspects that are characteristic of long distance romantic relationships. This paper entails a review of an article based on one such study, Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, by Le, Korn, Crockett and Loving.

As aforementioned, long distance relationships have attracted the attention of several researchers. Some researchers have studied on the predictors of satisfaction of individuals involved in long distance relationships. In addition, some have researched on the interrelatedness of closeness, attachment as well as the satisfaction of students engaged in long distance relationships especially those in higher institutions of learning.

Other studies highlight the nature of the long distance relationships with specific interest on the degree of interaction of the individuals in a given dyad and their perception about the effect of their commitment to their partner as well as to the relationship. The researchers employ either the equity theory or the interdependence theory in their studies. Both are extensions of social exchange theories. Most of the researchers study long-term long distance relationships.

Only few researchers have studied some aspects of short-term long distance relationships. Drigottas, Safstrom and Gentilia carried out a research to study infidelity and commitment during short-term geographic separation relationships among college students (Le, et al., 2011, p.656). Recently, some researchers have focused on short-term geographic separations of individuals involved in romantic relationships.

The authors of the article, Missing you maintains us: missing a romantic partner, commitment, relationship maintenance and physical infidelity, employed the interdependence theory to carry out a study based on short-term geographic separation of individuals in romantic relationships during their holiday.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The major goal of their study was to examine the experience of missing a romantic partner as a function of the processes associated with commitment; relationship maintenance as well as physical infidelity as far as romantic relationships are concerned. The authors also acknowledge that the development and existence of romantic relationships involve a process that has two important aspects namely initializing the relationship and its maintenance.

The article highlights the important factors that lead to the development of a relationship-relationship enhancing strategies. They include fidelity, optimism, commitment and task sharing between the two parties. They also note that a sense of belonging to the same social network is instrumental in enhancing the development of a romantic relationship.

To ensure the durability of a relationship, irrespective of geographic separation, the dyad should uphold some relationship maintenance behaviors. Such behaviors are associated with satisfaction, liking and mutual control of all the aspects of the relationship. Of major importance is commitment of the partners to the relationship.

The authors argue that commitment is important in determining the experience of missing a partner in a romantic relationship. They argue that partners who show much commitment to a given relationship adhere not only to the relationship enhancing strategies but also to the relationship maintenance behaviors to enhance the strength of their bond. Moreover, committed parties miss each other thus resulting in their zeal to remain in the relationship.

In carrying out their study, the authors used a longitudinal design in examining the relationship between commitment and the associated experience of missing a partner across short-term geographic separations. They had a sample of 88 students-59 females and 29 males. They were all in romantic relationships thus experienced a geographic separation during their holidays.

In order to attract these respondents to the study, the researchers made advertisements in the college website besides offering $5 to all the participants. The sample offered a good representation of all the races within the college. They collected data in four-time periods using internet-based surveys.

The researchers collected their first data before the geographic separation. From their study, they found out that there exist a significant positive association between commitment and missing. They also pointed out that, commitment over shadowed positivity as the major aspect contributing to missing a romantic partner. Commitment determined an individual’s loyalty to the relationship enhancement and maintenance strategies-positivity being one of them.

We will write a custom Article on Missing you maintains us specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors’ choice of the interdependence theory in the study is a major strength of the article. According to Rusbult and Lange (2003), the interdependence theory identifies the most significant characteristics of different intra-and interpersonal relationships by employing a comprehensive analysis of a given situation (p.352).

Geographical separation presents different concerns that were the point of interest for the researchers thus best placed to employ the interdependence theory since they were interested in knowing the relationship between commitment and missing of a partner in a romantic relationship.

Just as the article points out, commitment determines the level of missing as well as moral and physical fidelity in any romantic relationship. Individuals who are not committed to a given party and a relationship do not miss their partner thus increasing their chances of both physical and moral infidelity in their relationship (Stafford, 2005, p. 56). The article is also very informative as the authors acknowledge the works of other researchers on the phenomenon.

They point out the works of Drigotas, Safstrom and Gentilia as well as Diamond, Hicks and Ottre-Henderson’s work. This gives the strategic place as well as the significance of their study in shading more light on long distance romantic relationships. It is an instrumental aspect of every work of study to link the relevancy of its findings to the works of other researchers in the given field.

The article has a weakness: the authors did not highlight the assumptions that they made in carrying out their study. Assumptions are a fundamental aspect in most statistical works. For instance, they could have assumed that their payment did not deter their respondents in answering their questions.

The $5 acted as an incentive to attract many respondents to the survey. This could have made some or even most of the respondents to answer the questions just for the sake of receiving the money without giving much attention to some questions providing false data for the study.

I concur with the authors’ interpretation of their findings because I strongly belief that commitment in a romantic relationship results in the missing of a partner during geographic separations and that a committed party would follow the relationship maintenance strategies as well as uphold fidelity in the relationship.

The article gives a clear account of missing a romantic partner as a functional process associated with commitment, physical infidelity as well as relationship maintenance in romantic relationships in periods when the involved undergo geographic separations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Missing you maintains us by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, further research based on the significance of social networking sites in romantic relationships under geographical separations would be helpful in understanding the subject in this era where scientific and technological advancements are becoming more rampant in the society.

References Le, B., Korn, M. S., Crockett, E. E.,


Human-Computer Interaction in Health Care Essay essay help site:edu

Medical errors are increasing in hospitals and normally considered as a result of human fault. Poor interface design which is because of poor human factor engineering (HFE) is the main factor which causes medical errors. Lack of usability testing of medical instruments is another factor which results in medical mistakes.

Poor human factor engineering arises problems, such as poorly designed indicator lights inside ambulances and siren speakers on ambulances. Most indicator lights in ambulances are not properly designed to maintain a proper operation process during the day and night and may cause unnecessary considerations affecting driver’s visibility.

On the other hand, siren speakers may produce a lot of noise which will interfere emergency workers inside the ambulance to perform their work, and this may cause errors (Carl, Aaron


The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Reference List

Introduction The hospitality industry uses large amounts of natural resources and also releases wastes that degrade the natural environment. In order to minimize the negative effects on the environment, hotels and tourism resorts are adopting environmental sustainability in facilities management. Environmental sustainability refers to the responsible management of natural resources in order to preserve the lives of human beings and other organisms in the ecosystem.

Human beings impact on the environment through releasing toxic chemicals in the atmosphere that deplete the ozone layer. Human economic activities also use up natural resources as a source of energy. Economic activities also produce wastes that pollute the environment. All these factors have led to serious degradation of the natural environment. There are devastating consequences of environmental degradation such as global warming.

Failure to adopt sustainable practices will lead to the depletion of natural resources and pollution of the environment and consequently, the earth will not be able to support any form of life (Blackman and Carter, 2009). People are getting more informed about the effects of business activities on the environment. The hotel industry uses a lot of energy and water due to the nature of its operations. Many hotels are embracing environmental sustainability in hospitality facilities management.

They achieve this through using sustainable building materials, furniture, lighting, and cleaning supplies in the facility in order to cut costs, save energy, and improve the guest experience. Many hotels are also pursuing environmental sustainability certifications such as the ENERGY STAR and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certifications. Hotels also participate in the various green lodging state programs.

For a hotel to achieve a LEED certification, it must attain several sustainable requirements in indoor environmental quality, energy use, materials and resources, water efficiency, design process and innovation (Steiner, 2012). This paper explores the concept of environmental sustainability and its impact on facilities management and the hospitality industry. The drivers of change towards sustainability in the hospitality industry are also discussed. In addition, the importance of knowledge in environmental sustainability to future tourism managers is discussed.

Background Facility management refers to processes that are required to maintain and operate businesses to support its principal goals. Developing facilities management programs enables managers to achieve several goals. It facilitates the preparation of future capital budgets that are more accurate. They are also able to reduce expenditure by developing more accurate and meaningful space requirements forecasts.

Facilities management programs also provide a framework for meeting the budgets that have been established. Space utilization is improved. Improved efficiency and morale of the employees is also increased. Reduction of the consumption of energy is also achieved. Moreover, the managers are able to effectively control and allocate resources needed to support all the operations. It also ensures the establishment of a more flexible, functional, and cost effective facility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager is also able to develop efficient standards for equipment, workstations special facilities and offices. The overall cost of procurement is reduced (Atkin and Brooks, 2009). Environmental sustainability is one of the trends that are gaining popularity in facilities management in the hospitality industry.

There have been growing concerns over the protection of the environment and now most customers prefer hospitality facilities that are environmentally sustainable. People in the hospitality industry have become more aware about the impacts that the development and operation of hotels can have on the environment. Several factors have led to the adoption of sustainability, including investors’ changes in attitudes towards the environment, the need to cut on operating costs and strict regulations on development and operation of facilities, among others (Chen, 2011).

The concept of environmental sustainability began in the 1950s when some hotels in places such as U.S. Virgin Islands on Maho Bay and Caneel Bay Camps decided to enhance the experience of their guests by using natural elements in the resorts. In the 1960s and 1970s, increased awareness of how human health was affected by pollution and increase in environmental disasters led to the initiation of modern environmental sustainability efforts.

Moreover, the hospitality industry started focusing on strategies of conserving energy after the energy crisis that occurred between 1973 and 1974. The United Nations introduced the concept of sustainable development with the aim of conserving the natural resources for our use and also for future generations. The Earth Summit also encouraged environmental sustainability in the 1990s through initiatives like environmental certification programs for the hospitality industry and green building.

As from 2000, there were increased sustainability efforts in the hospitality industry. Hoteliers embraced environmental sustainability as a corporate social responsibility and partnered with environmental organizations. Hoteliers further increased their sustainability efforts in their operations and equipment after the 2008 financial meltdown in order to reduce costs (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

I chose a global perspective because the issue of environmental degradation is affecting the whole world. Problems like global warming are a threat to the existence of the entire human race. Therefore, hospitality facilities all over the world should adopt sustainable practices in order to reduce the carbon footprint in the atmosphere. Every person is responsible for promoting sustainability in order to preserve the natural resources both for ourselves and for future generations.

Some of the hotels that have adopted environmental sustainability include The Proximity Hotel and Marriott international. The Proximity Hotel received Platinum, the highest LEED certification, in 2008. This hotel was constructed using sustainable materials, some of which were locally sourced while others were recycled. This helped in avoiding a lot of waste from being produced and dumped in landfills. The hotel also has windows that are energy-efficient and during the day, it utilizes the sunlight for lighting.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hotel also uses solar panels as a source of energy for heating water. The building has also adopted efficient plumbing fixtures to save water including Cimarron Kohler toilets, faucets, and Kohler showerheads. The hotel also reduces the contamination of indoor air through the use of organic carpets and paints in the guestrooms. The Proximity Hotel acquired the facilities locally, including furniture, staircases and artwork (Steiner, 2012).

The Marriott International is another hotel that has shifted towards environmental sustainability. It has over 3000 hotels worldwide and is adopting environmentally sustainable strategies in all its branches. It uses recycled materials to make keycards, paper products and pillows that are environmental friendly.

The hotel aims to achieve the LEED certification by attaining sustainable construction standards, reducing the usage of water and fuel, using solar power, mobilizing the employees and guests to adopt sustainability and helping in rainforests preservation. This will reduce their carbon footprint. The hotel also plans to offer coreless toilet paper to the guests to help preserve trees and water. In 2010, Marriott International unveiled a prototype to help it in building sustainable hotels (Wauters, 2010).

Companies in the hospitality industry that aim to achieve environmental sustainability face several challenges. Firstly, they experience the challenge of introducing change to the organization. Introducing sustainability takes a lot of time and effort and it is challenging to convince the workforce that change is necessary. People are used to a certain way of doing things and introducing change is not easy.

If the management is unsupportive, introducing sustainability can be difficult to achieve. Another challenge is the perception that introducing sustainability is an expensive venture. Many people are not aware that the long-term economic gains will be higher than the investment costs. Ignorance is another challenge facing the adoption of sustainable practices in the hospitality industry. Many hospitality managers have little environmental awareness and therefore, they have no motivation to adopt sustainability (Dambyte, 2011).

Adopting sustainable practices in the hospitality industry presents several opportunities. Firstly, the facilities are able to achieve reduced costs in energy use, water use, and waste management. In addition, sustainable practices lead to improved guest experiences and this may help the hotel in attracting and retaining clients. Sustainable hospitality facilities also achieve sustainability certifications which show their commitment towards environmental preservation.

This can help in attracting investors. Sustainable trends in hospitality facilities management include, water and energy conservation, use of environmental friendly cleaning products and using sustainable building materials. Sustainable hospitality facilities can adopt several strategies.

They can start programs to reuse linen in the guest rooms. Hotels can also use LED light bulbs and turn down air conditioning and heating when the guests are not in the rooms. Lights should also be turned off in unoccupied rooms. The cleaners, paints, and sanitizers used should be nontoxic (Tiller, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Environmental Sustainability Concept in the Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Body There are several drivers of change towards environmental sustainability in hospitality facilities management. These include cost reduction, improved customer experience, retention of employee, indicating a sense of corporate social responsibility, among others. Saving of costs is one of the main drivers of sustainable practices in the hospitality industry.

Sustainable practices lead to the conservation and efficiency of energy, water, and waste management. Hoteliers are investing in environmental technologies as an incentive to reduce operational costs. With the adoption of proper strategies that ensure performance and optimization of equipment and employees, the hospitality industry can be able to achieve reduced costs (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Another driver towards environmental sustainability is economic incentives. Various governments, organizations, and agencies have enacted economic incentives to encourage environmental sustainability in buildings. Such incentives include grants to support sustainable projects, insurance premium discounts, low interest loans, and tax credits, among others. In addition, the shift to environmental sustainability has been driven by increased environmental regulations.

There are various regulations governing hospitality operations such as waste management, handling of hazardous materials, and environmental safety and health. There are other legislations governing design and construction of hospitality facilities and operations. There are legislations focusing on emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere, among others. Therefore, hoteliers adopt sustainability in order to comply with legal and regulatory standards (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Another driver of change is improving the guest experience. Hoteliers are adopting sustainability in order to attract and retain guests by improving their experience. Use of some environmental technologies such as sustainable HVAC systems and devices for managing energy can improve the air quality and thermal comfort of the facility, resulting in a better guest experience. Employee retention is another driver of change towards sustainability.

Environmental sustainability helps in boosting employees’ satisfaction and morale and therefore, retaining them. Some professionals prefer to work in environment conscious companies. Organizations that encourage and uphold sustainable practices are more likely to attract and retain employees.

Other companies adopt sustainability because they want to demonstrate corporate social responsibility to the investors. Investors are looking for performance indicators of sustainability. This has led to the adoption of sustainability programs by many organizations (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Environmental sustainability is important in facilities management as it helps in saving costs through sustainable operations. The hospitality facilities management is mainly concerned with water, energy, and waste. Hotels use energy for various purposes including lighting, HVAC operations, cooking, space heating, refrigeration, water heating, ventilation, office equipment and other uses. Reducing the amount of energy used can be achieved through a process called commissioning.

Energy consumption can be minimized through reducing the plug load, closing the building envelope, and lighting retrofits. Moreover, energy can be preserved through enhanced equipment scheduling, efficient ventilation of the facility, avoiding concurrent heating and cooling and appropriate sensor calibration. The use of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal, solar, and wind can reduce the energy costs.

Water is also used in hotels laundry, food preparation, in the bathrooms and in other maintenance operations. Hotels conserve water through use of rain or recycled water, reusing of towels and linen, treatment of grey and black water, improvement of plumbing and HVAC systems and fixture retrofits. Hotels also generate waste including food wastes, construction wastes, waste from equipment, appliances and consumables, and harmful materials such as cleaning detergents.

In order to reduce the costs of transportation and processing of wastes, hotels adopt strategies to recycle, reuse, and reduce wastes. The wastes are processed and converted to alternative sources of energy which are then sold to hotels at low costs. Facility management in the hospitality industry also focuses on training programs for staff to increase their satisfaction and performance, sustainable procurement and the quality of indoor environment including air quality (Tiller, 2009).

Environmental sustainability has numerous benefits to the hospitality and tourism industry. It helps in cutting costs in energy and water use and waste management. Sustainable practices lead to reduced operation costs because there is a reduction in energy and water use and effective waste management through recycling. It also helps to improve the customers’ experience and therefore leads to attraction and retention of guests.

Sustainable practices also enhance employee satisfaction and retention. Adopting sustainability also helps in boosting the company image and attracting investors. It also enables the company to get grants from governments and other organizations. Companies that adopt sustainability will not have legal problems as they will be in compliance with the environmental regulations (Sloan, Chen and Legrand, 2009).

In order for the hospitality industry to successfully implement sustainability, some needs have to be met. Firstly, they will need finances. Many hotels cite lack of finances as the main reason why they are unable to implement sustainable practices. There are many sustainable technologies in the market today and the hospitality owners will need the investigation and validation of these technologies in order to choose the most appropriate and cost-effective for the hospitality industry.

The hospitality owners also need verification of the financial benefits of the sustainable technologies so that they can be able to make proper investment decisions. The hospitality owners also need the processes of procurement and implementation of sustainable projects to be streamlined to make them easier and less time-consuming.

This will encourage more hospitality owners to adopt sustainability. After the implementation of sustainable practices, there is a need to conduct proper training of the staff in order to ensure that they adopt effective operational practices. Failure to train staff will lead to inefficient implementation of the sustainable practices (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

As future tourism managers, knowledge about environmental sustainability will enable them to make sustainable decisions and strategically manage tourism resorts and institutions. The tourism managers will be able to prevent environmental degradation while providing a good experience to the tourists through sustainable practices. They will be able to instill sustainable practices in their employees and enlighten them on the benefits of sustainability.

Future tourism managers who will be enlightened in environmental sustainability will be able to contribute towards a more sustainable environment through implementing practices that will reduce the carbon footprint in the environment. They will ensure that all the facilities in the tourism resorts are environmental friendly. The tourism managers will also be able to explain to the guests the reasons for adopting sustainability, for instance, through reusing towels.

They will also be able to cut costs in the facilities that they will be running through adopting sustainable cost-effective alternatives. They will be able to oversee the construction of sustainable hospitality facilities to cut on both the cost and carbon footprint. Moreover, they will be able to attract and retain clients in the hospitality facilities because of adopting environmental friendly practices.

The manager will also be able to improve the image of the organization through sustainable practices and achievement of sustainability certifications like the LEED. The manager will facilitate the implementation of sustainable practices in the hospitality facility and this will improve the morale, satisfaction, and retention of employees. The tourism manager will also be able to assess current trends, goals, and strategies in sustainability in order to achieve enhanced harmonization of sustainable efforts in the facility (Gossling, Hall and Weaver, 2009).

Conclusion From the above discussion, it is evident that environmental sustainability is a growing trend in the hospitality industry that cannot be ignored. Many hospitality companies are adopting sustainability to reduce operational costs, improve the customer experience, comply with environmental regulations, retain employees, attract investors, and reduce their carbon footprint. They are constructing sustainable buildings and adopting practices in water and energy use and waste management.

Therefore, knowledge in environmental sustainability is indispensable to future tourism managers as they will be able to implement sustainable practices in the hospitality facilities that they will be running. The hospitality industry uses a significant amount of natural resources.

Therefore, adoption of sustainable practices will lead to conservation of natural resources like water and energy and reduced environmental pollution through waste recycling. Consequently, we will live in a more sustainable environment with enough resources for our use and for the survival of future generations.

Reference List Atkin, B. and Brooks, A. (2009).Total Facilities Management. UK: John Wiley and Sons.

Blackman, R. and Carter, I. (2009). Environmental Sustainability. USA: Tearfund.

Dambyte, R. (2011). Limitations and Incentives for Sustainable Tourism Development. Web.

Chen, J. S. (2011). Advances in Hospitality and Leisure. USA: Emerald Group Publishing.

Goldstein, K. A. and Primlani, R. V. (2012). Current Trends and Opportunities in Hotel Sustainability. Web.

Gossling, S., Hall, C. M. and Weaver, D. B. (2009). Sustainable Tourism Futures: Perspectives on Systems, Restructuring and Innovations. USA: Taylor


Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick Essay cheap essay help

Introduction What is ethics? Society has tried to amplify the meaning of this word but it seems that it is ever faced by differing myriad of challenges which are associated by it. In essence, the term ethics has been associated with a code, or rules which govern what one thing ought to be and what another thing ought not to be.

This rule in most cases has been used as a bar which marks the line between distinguishing what ought to be the case and what ought. It is important to note that ethics does not just exist it is derived from values which we have acquired in the course of life. These values have come to the point that they define what is and what is not. Furthermore, they ensure that there are acts which we can follow and those which we can do away with or even ignore.

In general, ethics is a branch of philosophy which puts to task the questions of morality while evaluating concepts such as what is good and what is evil, what is right and what is wrong, the issues of value and justice. Thus this field is widely known as moral philosophy. Ethics has many other branches though that is not what we are going to be looking at in this paper.

The Movie Since ethics as a concept can be used to analyze the on goings in the society, we are going to take into this concept in detail. The subject matter shall be the movie Blood Diamond. This a movie which was produced in the year 2006 by Edward Zwick in which Leonardo DiCaprio, Djimon Hounsou and Jennifer Connelly are starring.

This movie is titled Blood Diamonds symbolizing the diamonds which are being mined in African war, in a country that was torn out by the struggle of soldiers and rebels. Throughout this movie the main aspect which is referred is the fact that these diamonds are mined and sold in order to raise funds which are to finance and to sustain war and conflict. Through this war, the warlords and companies which use diamond as raw material for their end products end up benefiting.

The movie as well is a bright and vivid in depicting battle scenes of colourable nature.

The Setting The setting of this movie is a reflection of the events which took place in the West African country of Sierra Leon in the years 1992 – 2002. This was a decade which was characterized by civil war and anarchy between rebel forces and government soldiers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this time, a lot of atrocities were witnessed. Some of the atrocities which were witnessed include maiming of arms and limbs, rape and all manner of social evils which were taking place in that country for that entire period. This was meant to hinder the people from exercising their legal right to vote.

This movie ends up with a conference which took place in South Africa in the year 2000, with the aim of ending the civil conflict which was claiming lives in Sierra Leon. Eventually, the conference led to what would be later known as the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme.

This scheme was ratified with the aim of ascertaining the source of the diamonds. This was believed that it would aid in reducing if not stopping the trade involving illegal diamond which had contributed to the war.

The Plot This movie starts with the capture of a fisherman by the name of Solomon Vandy by forces which were loyal to the Revolutionary United Front rebels. During his capture, the rebels destroyed the village. Incidentally, these persons did not maim or cut off his limbs, instead they sent him to work and toil in the mines under the command of a warlord named Captain Poison. The proceeds from these mines are used to fund the war.

As this happens, Danny Archer is arrested while he was he was suspected of trying to smuggle diamonds into another West African country. In spite of the fact that he is arrested, he manages to work out his own release from the prison and consequently, he also manages to get Solomon also released from the prison.

The two get into a deal whereby if Solomon leads him to the precious commodity, he will help him locate his family. During this time, the RUF capture the capital Freetown and plunder the city devastating it to the core. Fortunate for these two, they manage to survive this battle and they flee from this city by night. As they escape they bump into an American journalist and humanitarian by the name of Maddy Bowen who enables them to escape in exchange of information on the “blood diamond”.

Eventually the duo go back to the mine which is under the command of Captain Poison to try and rescue Solomon’s son Dia who refuses to acknowledge him and also salvage some of the diamond for their benefit. Towards the end of the movie, Archer dies and he aids Solomon to flee. As it is witnessed in the movie, the eventuality is marked with a standing ovation in favour of Solomon during the Kimberley conference in South Africa.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emerging issues from the movie This movie depicts issues which have emerged due to the conflict in Africa. Some of the emerging issues include human rights abuses, issues to do with environmental damage and terrorism. In this paper we are going to be looking at each of these issues in detail and look into the way one can be able to deal with them. Human Rights Issues

Human rights can be recognized as those values and dignity that people hold which set them apart from the others. These values are oriented towards protecting the sanctity of life and enhance the ideas of respect, justice, fairness and equality. It is important for us to recognize the value of human rights because they are important with regard to shaping our thinking patterns about the issues which might be affecting human life. These rights are basic and fundamental to human life.

They include the right to life, education, and right to fair trial, free speech and freedom from any form of torture or inhumane treatment. These rights were derived from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which were adopted and agreed upon by the nations on 10th December, 1948.

Environmental damage

These are issues which have to do with wantonness in environmental damage. For instance, the destruction of the forests to create room for mining has had its impact on the environment. This eventually leads to the destruction of the environment, like poisoning water, the land which becomes useless for raising, etc.


The subject of terrorism has been on the lips of every person on this planet. In essence, terrorism is an act which is characterized by the use of force in order to achieve political milestones or aims. Terrorism instils fear over the citizens that impair their ability to perform as effective citizens.

Ethical theories and their application There are several ethical theories which can be applied with regard to the ethical issues which are emerging in this movie. These theories include the consequentialism theory. This is a theory which holds the opinion that most of the actions that we delve into depend on what is known as the non moral consequences that the actions bring.

In this case, what is important is the ability to evaluate what relationship exists between the good and the evil that one’s action produces. Essentially, we should be human beings who perform actions based on the fact that there are issues which are best dealt with when we are better able to analyze the consequences in light of the goodness or badness of the activity involved. Thus, in relation to the movie, it is important for the warlords to be able to ascertain what those values that they hold are.

Secondly, value clarification as a theory emphasizes on evaluating what one believes to be right. This is based on the belief, feelings, and systems of thought which are held by a given number of people. It is a theory which is also known as philosophical relativism. In this approach what is fundamental is the fact that thinking and action should take place in line with the Socratic approach.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Concept in “Blood Diamonds” film by Edward Zwick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thirdly, the utilitarianism is an ethical approach which is based on the principle or moral standards which should be geared towards the best long term interest of the masses, that everyone who is concerned with the choices and decisions which you make as a person. In this approach, there are two forms of utilitarianism.

That is the act utilitarianism in this case the right act which is considered to be the right utilitarian act is based on the ratio of good to evil for all the persons who are concerned. Secondly, there is the rule utilitarianism which is based on the fact that there are acts which may not possess the greatest utilitarian value therefore there are rules and regulations to ensure that the general rules are formulated to ensure that these acts are enforced.

The forth important principle is the moral absolutism or legalistic moral absolutism. In this case, there are acts which have multiples of consequences. For instance, pluralities have absolutes and some of these pluralities may not necessarily conflict. This implies that acts which are considered evil will still remain to be evil no matter the circumstances thus we do what is good and hope that the goodness will sustain the act itself.

The fifth principle is what is known as the situational ethic. In this form off ethical consideration, the value is placed on virtues such as helpfulness, absolute love ad particularity of moments otherwise known as kairos. This is an important aspect because it is based on the fact that love and justice are human aspects which can never change.

The sixth principle is the ethical realism. In this case, there is need to distinguish or evaluate amidst norms and values what is that which holds lesser value or greater value. This is based on the belief that every solution ash got its own alternatives and the preferred should be on that which produces the lesser evil.

The seventh principle is the graded absolutism or what is known as ethical hierachicalism. In this case, there are situations when norms might conflict. In this case, it is important to seek the higher order values. That is we ought to choose the greater of any two goods. Lastly, what is known as the cognitive moral development theory. This theory is based on the fact that morality develops with time and interaction with information.

From this principle is it important to note that there are different levels of moral development which everyone has a level in which they operate. This implies that, for one to be able to emerge as an ethical person, it is important that one learns to engage the Socratic method of thinking. This is because this method offers solutions to dilemmas which might seem to be in conflict.

In conclusion, it is important that we noted that there are three major classes of ethical theories. These are the consequentialism, deontological theories and the ethical relativism. In reference to the movie, it is important to note that there are cases where the value of human life has been trodden upon and it is on this basis that the deontological approach to ethics needs to be put into proper perspective.

In cases where there is need to secure the right of a human being, the value of choice and the utility of that human being needs to be placed into proper perspective. It is therefore imperative that the issues such as environmental degradation, human rights abuse and terrorism which are highlighted in this movie be brought under the scrutiny of these ethical principles.

The big question Why do these problems occur in the current society? That is the question which worries the minds of many people throughout the entire world. It is important to note or even to realize the fact that issues which emanate or have been associated with negative outcomes in places are based on policies which are formulated by people towards the sustenance of the lives of the masses.

It is of utter importance to note that values should provide the direction and impetus to act. It is only through this approach that invaluable policies and principles will be put into the right perspective thus resulting into realizing the goals and wishes of the masses. Insight into the causes of these ethical problems bring to the fore the following issues.

First the issue of lack of information, in the movie, it is quite clear that the time that these atrocities were taking place, it seemed as though none had the knowledge of the universal human rights which serve to protect the inferior in the society. Furthermore, it is worth noting that lack of knowledge is a major issue especially with regard to what is being taken place in the lives of human beings.

Secondly, the lack of proper values and principles among the elite. In this case, the leadership sought to benefit themselves at the expense of the masses. This meant that there were times when the rule of law was ignored in order to meet the demands of the warlords who were reigning at that time.

Essentially, when the principles of right and wrong, good and evil or what is ethical and what is unethical are put into perspective, the back stops at the people who hold the power to effect those changes and values. It is essential therefore to ensure that when the leadership lack ethical foundations then it is highly likely that the masses shall suffer the repercussions of the same.

Lastly, terrorism brings about these devastating effects. It worth noting that fear is a major component which waters down values and it leads to human beings believing that what is good might wait at the expense of what seems to be right and convenient at that particular point in time.

Conclusion In conclusion, the question which lingers is, was the movie worth the effort? From my personal view, I think it did despite the fact that the movie vividly depicts violence, men killing each other; children being taught to fight and to struggle, and, as a result violence and cruelty, from an early childhood.

First, the film brings to light ethical issues which face African leaders and brought to light some of the probable solutions. Throughout this movie, one gets the feeling that despite the fact that this has been brought to light, there are other issues which are unethical that are taking place especially in the business world. There are situations whereby the business person is faced by situations where there is an ethical dilemma.

This implies that the prevailing circumstances limit his ability to purposefully establishes which choice to make or with route to take. In essence, in such kinds of situations, business persons have found themselves displaying as multiplicity of persons with regard to the way they respond to issues. In addition, the importance of the issues at hand should therefore spur the business person into the realm of evaluating which values are fundamental and which values can be ignored if not dropped.

This implies that one has to assess the objectives of the business in relation to the fundamental values that one holds. This is because the essence of decision making is based on benchmarks of understanding and ethical principles in business enterprises. Thus the most fundamental thing to do is to seek to understand what kind of deals one gets into and what are their moral and ethical obligations.

Each business person should seek to evaluate the moral impact the business has on the people it serves. Furthermore, it is very important to synchronize value based ethics and actions which sustain business enterprises. Through these ventures, the world one day will be a better place to live unlike a shocking reality of the Mende village. One day it will be come a pretty and idolized village in Africa.

References Chirban, JT 1994, Ethical dilemmas: crises in faith and modern medicine , University Press of America, Maryland.

Ferrell, OC, Fraedrich, J


Psychoanalytic Theory Term Paper essay help

Abstract The name personality has several meanings that suit various situations. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is one of the theories describing the personality in human beings. According to Freud, the theory seeks to explain why people behave the way they do, studies human’s brain, and explains more about their personality.

This paper discusses the various elements of the theory, its history, development and research. In addition, it takes a detailed look at Sigmund Freud who came up the theory and seeks to explain the various elements of the theory, and reliability of the research.

Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was developed at the end of the 19th century in 1880’s. It was based on the discovery made by Breuer, who studied a person who had a trauma in childhood, consequently affecting him during his adult life. According to this research, it was discovered that someone’s personality is related to his/her childhood experiences.

Freud states that it is through mechanical terms that people’s mental energy is released. Through various stages of child’s development, a person changes his/her character and releases his/her mental energy.

Psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud is arguably the most famous amongst the personality theories. According to Freud, family life has a subconscious influence on a human’s sexual drive. Family also affects the individual’s nonsexual development. According to the psychoanalysis carried out by Freud, there are other effects that affect our thoughts (Carver and Scheier, 2011).

The thoughts and the motivation we have around us are such factors that affect the way we act, as well as the way we do things. According to Freud, the main drives or motivators of an individual’s personality are related to the sexual and aggressiveness. The theory further explains that the problems experienced during a person’s adult life are as a direct result of the conflicts during their childhood experiences.

As a result, the theory breaks down the process of childhood growth according to the psychosexual motivators as a child develops. These stages of growth seek to show that at various stages during growth, a person (child) has various motivators that shape their behavior, and keep changing as they move to the next stage of psychosexual growth. Any faulty growth or unsuccessful/unhealthy passage of any of the stages is said to result in the adult life conflicts, which eventually determines a person’s personality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like any other theory, Psychoanalytic theory has its assumptions. One such assumption is the fact that humans have unconscious urges in their brain. The unconscious mind contains desires which the mind wish for, but the desires are usually limited by the world as they may not always be fulfilled.

The Psychic determination is the other assumption. It is assumed that everything that goes through people’s mind is as a resultant of an identifiable element. Through this assumption, things like accidents and miracles are eliminated. There is also the assumption that though the brain is an internal structure, it has several separate parts that are always competing amongst each other.

To learn about Freud’s theory, it is important to understand the basics the developer of the theory lays down first. One of the things he puts across is existence of a conscious and a non-conscious mind. The conscious portion of the mind is all about anything that we are knowledgeable about. Since this portion includes things we know of, it is usually easy to retrieve them whenever they are needed. Therefore, retrieving information from this part of the memory is usually very easy.

The section of the body that contains this information is referred to in Freud’s theory as the preconscious portion of the brain. The unconscious mind is like a reserve that contains thoughts, the feelings a person has as well as the memories that the human mind is not aware of. The main content of information of this portion is feelings of pain and anxiety. However, though we may be unaware of these feelings, it is evident that they are also involved in controlling our behavior (Beystehner, 2001).

Freud highlights three elements that are contained in a person’s personality; the super ego, the Ego, and the Id are the three elements that affect an individual’s personality. When a person is born, the id element of personality is in him/her. The id element is unconscious and contains primitive and instinct behavior of the person.

It is simply what would be considered as the primary component of a person’s personality. Notable about this element is the fact that it uses the pleasure principle (Carver and Scheier, 2011). The pleasure principle focuses on how the needs of a person are met. If for instance the needs are not met within the required time, anxiety and tension results. Id is important especially when it comes to children in their young age as it allows them to express their feelings through crying so that their demands are met.

However, satisfying the demands that we may have is not always possible. The pleasure principle is therefore not always applicable. However, according to Freud, a primary process results in a bid to ensure that the tension created by the pleasure principle is resolved. The second principle in this theory is the Ego. The ego component is all about the reality of life and it tends to express the Id element in the real world. Ego encompasses all the parts of the mind previously discussed.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Psychoanalytic Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principle incorporated in this element is the reality principle, which aims at fulfilling the Id element in an appropriate way. Through using the reality principle, the Ego basically tries to fulfill the images created by the Id element. Fulfilling the Id element is done by finding the solution in the real world by looking for an object to fit the image at the primary process level. Super Ego is the other element that forms part of the personality (Pervin, 1996).

It comprises of all the aspects that a person gained from the society or the parents and people around them. It is through this that a person learns what is deemed right and what is wrong. Judgment is developed from guidelines. Super ego may further be broken down into two main parts; the ideal ego and the conscience.

The ideal ego is inclusive of what is considered good behavior by people in the society or the parents. When a person gets to follow the rules laid down in the society or by the authority, a feeling of accomplishment and pride is the resultant.

On the other hand, conscience is inclusive of engaging in actions that are considered not right by the society or the parents. When a person does these wrong acts, the resultant is a feeling of guilt.

Interaction between these elements is different amongst different individuals. For a person to live what would be considered healthy living there is need to ensure that a balance of the three elements is reached. One must have what Freud referred to as Ego strength so that he can fight the competition brought about by these three elements.

Individuals who have good ego strength are able to strike a balance between these forces, while those people with low ego strength may succumb to this pleasure. Research shows that there exists a balance between explorations of the child with their safety for the exploration to be there. According to International Journal of Psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis therapy may be in single consultation therapy and may as well take about one year or more to achieve success on a person.

Psychoanalytic theory uses free association as a way of measuring the personality in humans. Free association entails the patient speaking out on a certain subject and then an analysis carried out from what the he says. It is from this analysis that a conclusion is later derived. However, there have been issues of reliability of this tool of measuring someone’s personality.

For one, it is hard for the analyst to be sure that the memories that he accesses are representing the actual memories or what the patient is imagining. Sharp criticism was bestowed upon this method of inferring conclusions. Those opposing the theory argued that by having patients talk out their issues to a professional and having them draw conclusion based on the information, there were no precise guidelines and predetermined checklist or comparing and measuring the information given so as to make reliable conclusions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychoanalytic Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another criticism based its argument in the fact that different patients of mental illnesses talked to different professionals, and there being no guidelines to gauge the information, interpretations were likely to vary between different professionals. Though there have been issues of validity of measurement of people personality, success may only be achieved through having the analyst inspect the transcript closely (Beystehner, 2001).

Research onto this theory has brought out the fact that there certainly is a relationship between an individual’s behavior and the subconscious portion of the mind. The theory forms a base of the modern day psychopathology. Research has also shown that, as a method of treatment for mental illnesses, psychoanalytic theory attempts to change and work on the unconscious part of the brain. Ultimately, the theory proposes that a person’s personality is dependant on the three main components of personality.

The Id component is all about the person getting gratification for the needs that he requires. On the other hand, Ego tends to fulfill the desire of Id but in a realistic way, since at times Id may not always be realistic. Finally, super ego aims at adding morality in ensuring that the ego is fulfilled.

One of the great cornerstones of Freud’s work was interpretation of dreams. Through interpretation of dreams, the subconscious mind is brought out. It also made it easier for analysts to learn and understand people’s personality well. The way a person behaves is entirely dependant on their experiences as they grew up as well as the environment one is brought up in.

Freud clearly outlined in the psychoanalytic theory that the particular way in which humans behave is determined by psychic energies and their experiences during psychosexual development. A healthy adult life can thus be achieved by successfully going through the early childhood experiences or psychosexual stages. Such are some of the things the theory talks about.

The theory emphasizes on how learning of the subconscious bit of a person can lead to the analyst unraveling important information about the patient (Pervin, 1996). By way of analyzing and understanding both the conscious and the non-conscious mind of a person, it is possible to infer the individual’s behavior as well as why they result in that particular behavior. Though there are various elements of criticism of psychoanalytic theory, its contribution to modern day therapy is undeniable.

Progress has been achieved in treatment of mentally ill patients through the bases of Freud’s work outlined in his theory. It would therefore be unfair to discard it since it offers much contribution to modern day science. Though some people dismissed psychoanalytic theory as not belonging to the science field based on its lacking methodology, the theory brought about a new branch in the science field called experimental psychology.

References Beystehner, K. M., (2001). Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Retrieved from

Carver, C. S.,


Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan Essay (Article) online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary Mountain Equipment Co-Op can be regarded as one of the best illustrations of an environmentally responsible company. In the late 1990 the company worked out new strategic plan which focused on increase of buildings’ energy efficiency. At the same time the company revealed its environmental responsibility.

This is, undoubtedly, a winning strategy which can be applicable in the contemporary business world as now people are more and more concerned with environmental issues. Though the strategy has certain flaws, the company will benefit from it. The company will only need to collaborate with likeminded companies and organizations. It should also launch a project to encourage talented designers to create new winning designs.

Background Mountain Equipment Co-Op founded in 1971 acknowledged the importance of environmental sustainability. In 1990s the company’s executives realized that MEC retail stores negatively affected environment. Notably, 1990 was the time when people started paying particular attention to environment issues.

Therefore, the executives decided to increase energy efficiency of its retail stores and decrease harmful emissions. One of the first buildings to be changed was the store in Toronto. The work had already started and the building was modified in terms of energy sufficiency. The project proved to be successful as the building was 35% more efficient than other buildings at that time. The company inspired by this successful project started constructing energy efficient buildings.

Situation Analysis Admittedly, contemporary society pays much attention to environmental issues. More so, companies that reveal their responsibility gain favorable image and additional publicity. Thus, when in 1990s people started being preoccupied with such environmental issue as emission of ozone-depleting substances, MEC responded to these concerns.

The company was committed to reduce the amount of such emissions produced by their buildings’ cooling systems. This was the right decision as people welcomed such changes and the company became one of the leaders of the movement. More and more companies started responding to the problem but MEC was still the first one to gain considerable success. Thus, the company gained a favorable image.

Strengths As has been mentioned above, the decision the company made was a winning one. The company obtained publicity. It also created a favorable image. The company attracted many consumers who appreciated the company’s environmental responsibility. MEC increased energy efficiency of its buildings. The company was among leaders of the movement which later involved many other companies and organizations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses Nonetheless, there are certain weaknesses in this strategy. For instance, though the company increased energy efficiency of its buildings, it was not always cost efficient. Thus, some projects would take years or even a decade to realize paybacks.

Opportunities However, there are quite many opportunities for the company. MEC will also attract many new customers as more and more people tend to purchase products from socially and environmentally responsible retailers. Besides, the company can co-operate with likeminded companies and organizations to work out new ways, e.g. ways to improve efficiency.

Threats However, there are certain threats. For instance, the company cannot focus on environmental issues only. It is essential to allocate funds reasonably. Thus, extra expenditures can negatively affect business. Remarkably, recent financial crises also limited companies’ ability to fund various environmental projects. Therefore, it is important to take into account various financial constraints as well.

Analysis of Alternatives Admittedly, the company should continue working on its environmental projects and continue constructing energy efficient buildings. However, it can be also effective to collaborate with other organizations and companies to work out new environmental projects. This will help the company to save considerable sums of money, and, at the same time, to remain in the mainstream of the environmental movement.

Of course, there is another option for the company. It can give up financing such projects as constructing new ‘sustainable’ buildings. Nonetheless, this will be the step backwards as the company will lag behind the companies which already reveal their commitment in the sphere of sustainable technology. This will negatively influence MEC’s image. This can lead to loss of customers, too.

Recommendation Therefore, the company should continue working on its environmental projects. It should go on constructing ‘environmentally-friendly’ buildings. However, the company should not stop developing new ways and strategies. Thus, MEC should try new (more efficient) designs. As has been mentioned above, the company will be able to save funds when collaborating with other companies and organizations. Thus, sharing experiences can positively affect the development of business.

Implementation First, the company can negotiate with other construction companies, other retailers and organizations concerned with environmental issues. The company can start a project which will be beneficial for the companies involved. This will reduce costs of technological development.

We will write a custom Article on Mountain Equipment Co-Op Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Besides, the company can launch the following campaign. It can encourage designers to come up with ideas concerning construction. The company can choose the most winning projects and offer the most successful designers a job in the company.

Finally, the company should analyze its own experience and other company’s experience in the field. This will help to work out new strategies and projects. Of course, the company’s executives should take into account the changes which are taking place in the contemporary society.


History of the Great Chicago Fire Essay college admission essay help

Formal Outline Fire is one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to massive losses that it can cause to both individuals and property. Fire incidents may be categorized as either natural or man-made. For instance, the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871. This fire outbreak destroyed property and killed hundreds of people.

Reports indicate that the fire began in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn. Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its way.

Survey reports after the fire indicated vividly that the damage caused by the raging fire damaged dozens of property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. It is against this backdrop that the ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most fundamental practices in society bearing in mind that poor level of preparedness has quite often been cited as the main cause to massive loss of life and property in such incidents.

In addition, preparedness guarantees the needed security and prevention measures which is needed to promote higher levels of productivity. Due to the fire outbreak in Chicago, measures have been put in place to prevent another occurrence of the same.

Introduction Fire forms one of the most destructive and distressing aspects in the modern times due to its related losses to an individual, organization, and the country as a whole. In the year 2008 alone, the United States fire department noted that it had responded to about 1,451,500 fires in the country that resulted to 3,320 fatalities and over US $ 5,478,000,000 worth of property in terms of losses (Ethington, 2002).

At this point, it is imperative to mention that the most anguishing fire outbreak was the Great Chicago fire that razed the wooden city in 1871 alongside destroying property and killing hundreds of people. Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) posit that fire codes and inspections for protection are very critical in this era of highly dynamic consumerism patterns. The only way to guarantee sustainable growth and development within a country is based on the holistic capacity to address all the incumbent risks factors.

It is from this consideration that fire safety becomes very critical in disaster management as a way of reducing its extended affects. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore the great Chicago fire, its cause and whether it was a code or inspection failure. In addition, the paper examines fire prevention that would have been set in place to avoid massive fire outbreak of that nature and magnitude.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The great Chicago fire: Origin and spread of fire “ The fire that razed Chicago in the summer of 1871 was a conflagration that spread about nine square kilometers destroying property and killing hundreds of people (Ethington, 2002). Reports indicate that the fire begun in the night of October 8 when a cow owned by Catherine and Patrick O’Leary kicked a lantern that was burning in the barn.

Being a windy night and coupled with some human agency, the fire quickly spread to the neighborhood destroying everything on its wake. However, other reports on the origin of the fire point out that the cow story was not the cause of the fire. These reports from the Chicago Republican pointed out that although the fire came from the barn it was unclear whether it was by human agency or fire from the chimney.

Ethington (2002) posits in his article The Great Chicago Fire and the Web of Memory that the spread of fire was enhanced by the nature of buildings that were erected those days in the city. Most of them were made of wood designs and were closely packed. Besides, there had been a drought in the land and most things were dried. With the southwest strong winds, flying embers of fire were blown into the city and the neighboring surroundings.

It is important to note that in the city, fire inspectors and fighters just as the citizens were not overly concerned when the fire began and made errors of not reacting immediately. Eventually, the fire became gigantic and overwhelmed fire fighters who after long and unfruitful struggles, got exhausted. The fire then spread to apartments, houses and mansions devastating everything on its path leaving over 100,000 homeless and over 300 dead (Ethington, 2002).

The Chicago fire department did not receive fire alarm until after the fire had began spreading. When the alarm came form a guard at a pharmacy, the firefighters were sent to fight fire on a wrong location giving room for fire to spread further. The fire spread to all corners of the city engulfing tall church buildings, theatres, the opera house, Chicago City Hall, department stores and hotels. When the winds and wood diminished, the fire ceased having wiped out 34 blocks from O’Leary property to the northern side Fullerton Avenue.

Aftermath Survey reports after the fire indicate that the damage caused by the raging conflagration property within a width of one kilometer and a length of approximately six kilometers. Most of the property that were destroyed were estimated to be about 17,500 buildings, 2000 lamp posts, a 190 kilometers stretch of sidewalk and a 117 kilometers of road all estimated to a loss of $ 222 million (Ethington, 2002).

At that time, the population in Chicago was about 300000 people of which 3% were left homeless (Ethington, 2002). Other important facilities which were destroyed included libraries and schools with over three million books lost. When the fire had died and the number of bodies had been counted to over 300, the city began setting up fire standards to prevent similar occurrences.

We will write a custom Essay on History of the Great Chicago Fire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of the fire- Code or inspection failure The ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key fire risks forms one of the most important concepts in the society that guarantees the needed security and prevention measures to promote higher levels of productivity. From the Chicago event, the risks from fire outbreaks that people face in their various homes and cities have been the core causes of suffering and loss of property as well as life.

As a result, these uncertainties are considered to be key threats that not only reduce their ability to be productive, but with key potential of causing major dependency in the society. It is from this consideration that fire prevention processes and codes should be well established to curb fire risks in the society. A risk that may lead to a disaster such as that experienced in Chicago would indeed be highly unwelcome to many.

The question that many analysts seek answer to is what was the major cause of fire and why were fighters unable to control the fire. Was failure on the aspect of inspection or was it on codes? While different analysts have at times tended to differ on what the failure was, the results presented by various investigations have proved that failure was on fire inspection.

In the case of Chicago fire, the risk that resulted to the massive damages and loss of people’s lives culminated from the poor fire emergency procedures. The claim is indeed very true as the systems to alert fire fighters and offer right directions were not effective. As such, inspection failure should be blamed for risks that individuals in Chicago faced.

Impact on codes and process As indicated earlier, the fire in Chicago initiated many major developments of preventing and fighting fire outbreaks. One such initiative was the emergency communication warning system. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), the effectiveness of fire protection systems in a country should be based on the holistic consideration of the entire fire protection capacity to effectively coordinate their detection and initial fire suppression as well as emergency operations to reduce loss of life and property.

One central factor that cuts across the whole process of fire protection, preparedness, and operations is the emergency warning communication system. They record that once fire has been detected, failure to offer the necessary emergency communication may lead to massive losses to life and property.

Roles and implications Emergency warning and communication system employs audio, visual, or both in alerting the people about the existence of fire in a particular area. Whereas different disaster management units for different organizations assimilate either audio or visual mechanisms to alert the people on the presence of fire in a region, Damon (2007) points out that a combination of both is important for higher efficacy levels. Analysts indicate that had emergency warning and communication system been effective in Chicago, it would have had the following major roles in fire fighting; To begin with, it would have formed a critical icon in alerting citizens in Chicago inside a factory or a building about the existence of fire in their premises.

At the notification, those alerted would have immediately tried to suppress fire in its point of origin using the available fire fighting equipments like waters pipes and fire extinguishers in their premises. However, citizens’ skills in using the different fire fighting systems and equipments in a nation are critical.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Great Chicago Fire by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By informing individuals in Chicago on the presence of fire in buildings or premises, they could have been able to move away from the scene and therefore escape danger. Ferguson and Christopher (2007) indicate that one of the most important concepts employed by fire fighting protection is preventing loss of life for both the employees and public.

Slap (2001) explains that to the public, emergency warning and communication system informs them on the existence of fire and therefore requires them to clear from the site of incidence and allow fire specialists to operate with minimal struggle in rescuing life and property. Particularly, road users are expected to cooperate in offering the best access to the site of emergency for the fire fighters vehicles either ferrying extinguishing water, chemicals, or ambulances transporting casualties.

Types of emergency warning and communication systems

In his review of disaster management systems, Pinkowski (2008) indicates that modernistic methods are critical in perfecting fire control considerations. In the public domain, outdoor warning sirens, citizen alert systems, and radio broadcasting system may be employed.

These techniques among others should be able to reach the maximum number of people near the fire occurrence area. After the Chicago fire in Chicago, voice broadcasting as well as other communication technologies was employed to alert people to keep away from the site of fire (Pinkowski, 2008). Provision of emergency warning and communication to the public were designed to provide guidelines and directions to the public as opposed to leaving them shocked of the incidence.

Besides, they were to provide the public with alternative routes to use in order to reduce traffic towards the area of fire occurrence in addition to giving information on the dangers of getting closer to the site and the need to provide effective environment for fire fighters operations.

Impact on codes and process from Chicago fire on modern fire prevention Fire Detection and Suppression Systems

Over the years, since the great Chicago fire, the ability to address fire problems is based on a nation’s or society ability to effectively detect it at the earliest incidence possible. According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), it is essential that organizations prepare themselves effectively for emergency cases by establishing the best fire detection systems. Fire detection and suppression over the years have seen great advancement towards more intelligent systems with higher levels of efficiency in detecting and suppressing fire at the earliest stages possible.

Fire experts have accredited the last decade reduction in fire outbreak cases and indeed losses to the increased ability to detect and suppress fire at early stages. Though application of modernistic methods as Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007) indicate have been highly limiting due to its inherent costs especially for small business units and individuals, their efficiency have been cited to be very high compared to the traditional methods. Some of the methods employed in the modern systems include.

Aspirating smoke detectors This is a modernistic system that is based on smoke concentration to determine presence of fire. Damon (2007) indicates that this method employs a nephelometer which is fixed on an enclosed chamber within which smoke particles are sucked and detection recorded in terms of light scattering levels. Unlike the traditional methods where human sight was employed to detect presence of fire, aspirating smoke detector can be able to detect smoke even before the particles are visible to the naked eye. This method is highly effective when it is employed in a stable environment with a relatively constant air composition. It is critical that fire suppression system is established to prevent fire progression, extinguish it, and provide emergency service on time.

Vision based real-time early flame and smoke detectors Following increasing concerns based on devastation on economic and ecologic outcomes of fire whenever they occur, more elaborate systems that can cover larger areas and provide more accurate information is essential. Vision based real-time early frame and smoke detector are surveillance systems that provides automated coordination that rely on spatial temporal characteristics of smoke and frames to determine the intensity of fire.

To bring out the actual intensity of fire during the outbreaks, this method compares smoke and colour histograms models which employ Continuous Adaptive Means Shift (CAMSHIFT) to determine the spatial temporal probability of frames in real time. This method as Keating (2004) indicates, require specialized skills in smoke and frame characteristics through algorithmic models for efficiency.

In addition, it requires application of specialized equipments and full time response units that can attend to the fire warning. Like the aspirant smoke detectors, this method calls for strong coordination between a local society and members of an organization or the fire department to promote efficacy of reduce the affects of fires.

Heat detectors According to Li, Zlatanova and Fabbri (2007), fire detection can also be affected by assessing the rate of heat changes. The design of thermo detectors is based on the principle that in case of a fire outbreak, temperatures generally rise above the ambient levels which can be detected to either sign a warning or set on an automated suppression system. Notably, thermo detectors operate more effectively when located in indoor settings as opposed to the outdoor areas.

One major advantage of modern thermo-detectors is that they are able to record changes of temperatures in a progressive system that can be used to further ascertain presence of fire in a building. Unlike the vision based real time frame and smoke detectors, thermo detectors lack the ability to effectively establish the actual area that the fire may be originating from.

To add to that, there is need for constant maintenance to ensure high efficiency levels in detecting changes of temperatures and fires. To promote greater levels of efficiency using this method, specialists indicate that it should be employed alongside other methods of detection, suppression, and fire extinction.

Water-mist system Water mist system is a suppressive application that is employed to protect high risk equipment like machines in factories and companies. They are also employed in areas that have high probabilities of igniting fires like machine rooms, kitchens, and stores for inflammable chemicals. Water mist system operates in an automated system where detectors that sense onset of fire are fixed to set water sprays towards then fire in action. Pinkowski (2008) indicates that this method has high levels of accuracy as it is targeted at the regions which have the highest possibilities of causing fire in a building or an industry.

At instances when the water system may be unable to suppress fire from its onset, it is still considered to be effective as it reduces the acceleration rates which can give people time to move away from the site of fire; a consideration that may reduce fatalities, destruction and also provide the fire fighters with time to launch their fighting mechanism well on time before major losses are incurred. Therefore, it is very crucial that emergency response units are always on the alert to supplement the operations of a water-mist system as a mechanism of promoting efficiency.

Lift Control and usage in fire situations Over the years, lifts have been employed as some of the most effective mechanisms for climbing new heights of tall buildings with speed. However, the untold story of their operations is technologically complicated and can lead to malfunctioning during fires outbreaks. Control and use of lifts during fire outbreak is a critical component that dictates the efficacy that fire fighting units can achieve at any particular moment. In case of fire outbreaks, people should avoid using lifts and instead follow the emergency exits as a major precautionary measure.

After reports warning of fire outbreak through emergency warning systems, the lift controller should guide the lift to his point of control and immobilize it there after confirming that all the occupants are out. Though disagreements have constantly recurred over the best model to use lifts in cases of outbreaks, most of the emergency rescue experts give the following reasons. To begin with, operations of the lift may be affected by the fire and trap the occupants in it.

This may be very dangerous especially in cases where the fire is spreading with speed. Besides, use of lifts may pass through sections with frames and Smalley (2005) indicates that allowing use of lift during fire outbreaks would lead to overloading and possible malfunctioning during the emergency period. To guarantee efficacy in the rescue units, use of emergency foot stairs is considered the best option.

Though use of lifts is not recommended during events of emergencies, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that special cases may require their monitored use to perfect fire protection mechanisms. To begin with very tall buildings are inconvenient for the occupants to take stairs to the ground floor. Use of lifts in this case assists them to easily move down and escape from the burning site.

Secondly, when the occupants of the buildings at the time of fire outbreak were characterized of people with disability, their ability to move down the stairs may be greatly compromised. Failure to offer the disabled people with an alternative route down stairs as Keating (2004) indicates is like condemning them to fire since they are helpless. For other cases like hospitals, use of lifts is accepted to assist in moving the patients from the danger scene. It is critical that use of lift during emergency period is effectively monitored to avoid confusions.

Fire fighters and air traffic controllers should also have access to the lifts as their tasks require speed and coordination to address the fire from the source and communicate to the public respectively. To promote efficiency in fire protection, modern building codes require that special lifts are established to improve efficiency in their fire fighting mechanisms and evacuation procedures.

Building evacuation systems Evacuation systems entail removal of the people from the danger sites to regions of safety or hospital for treatments. Fire protection building evacuation systems seeks to ensure that all the people in a building are guided or taken to safety as fire is extinguished. Building evacuation systems requires strong planning, organization of the system, and careful supervision.

Organization of the building evacuation system requires a clear plan that defines the roles and responsibilities of different members of the evacuation team. Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the participating members’ duties are complemented with respective equipments that are necessary for use in case of the need for evacuation (Lewinnek, 2003). Besides, effective evacuation policies and plans could be established to enhance better management and coordination with other departments.

Diagrams and evacuation routes should be effectively provided in a building. The policy should also provide for imminent danger definitions and determine how the central control should operate during evacuation.

Then evacuation should also include an effective detection reporting system on the situation which culminates to the decision of conducting evacuation in the building. At this point, Austin and Roger (2007) indicate that the evacuation team should operate in direct conjunction with all the other departments to make them understand their tasks and the expected conduct during fire outbreaks.

According to Austin and Roger (2007), the evacuation team should have a clear outline of their expected movements and operation during their operations. This is perhaps the most critical part of the system as it gives the necessary information of the equipments for suppressing fire especially to keep the exit routes free for all the people. Depending with the nature of a building, evacuation system may require that the group effectively possess special equipments like parachutes for evacuating people in tall buildings.

However, it would be incomplete to talk about an evacuation system without emphasizing on their communication. One critical element that determines the ability of an evacuation unit is its capacity to communicate among them effectively. As indicated earlier, evacuation is done to facilitate faster removal of people from their areas of high danger to safer points; therefore coordination is very critical to reduce panic and confusion.

Finally, en evacuation system should have an effective inspection and command system that provides the central command for the operations. This becomes very critical especially on tall buildings where coordination has to be effected at different heights. In addition, inspection and evaluation is essential as it offers the evacuation process undertaken with an assessment to determine how effective it was and provide recommendations for improvement in later emergencies (Ferguson


Dealing With Inmates Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

A towns’ image is vital for establishing a formal relationship with the outside world. A decent towns’ image will make it easy, for people living there to establish a long lasting relationship. The healthy relationship is beneficial for attracting investors who help in boosting the economy of the town. Investors get scared when the town is famous for having a poor relationship with outsiders. Therefore, a wholesome image helps the locals interact with outsiders and share ideas.

The major cause of increased investment in any town is security. The image of a town is crucial for creating and maintaining a favorable image. Therefore, the government should intervene in this situation so that it can make the town secure. An acceptable image is also notable for making the town a pleasant place for educational achievement.

The entire image attracts more students than a town that is famous for insecurity. A town that is famous for being a prison centre is seen by people as a highly insecure place that is not safe for investment. The town is seen as a centre of criminal acts because of the prison.

The mayors’ panel should comprise all the stakeholders of the town. The stakeholders in this case, are Alice Rugby, David Halloway, Arnold Kitchen, John Edwards and Angela Bakersfield. All these people have a key role in the security and proceedings of the daily activities in the town. The above people have different perspectives on the issue at hand.

The people of the neighboring community have an issue with the security caused by the existence of the prison in the town. The people have a negative view because of the existence of the prison, and will propose that the town be rebranded into a town focused more on education than now when they focus on prisons.

The media reporters will want people to learn to live with the fact that the prison is in the town, and claim that they have to make the proceedings available to the other parts of the country. All the stakeholders have a different view of the situation, and they only thing that one can do is to try making them come to a consensus is allowing them to share their proposals and perspectives then negotiating on the best way forward.

The town does not need to change its image; instead, the stake holders should negotiate and come to an agreement on how to handle the situation. In this case, the way forward is to negotiate with the prisons department to make sure that the prisoners change their clothes before leaving the prison premises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prisoners should also leave the premises at the time when their bus is ready to leave town so as to stop them from loitering in town. However, the media should also report on the other aspects of the town like the university and businesses.

The shift of focus from the prisons to the university and other will have a negative impact on the economy because many people come to the town to witness the executions which the media advertizes. This is impact can be reversed by the increase in the number of students who come to the university to study.

The people affected by the release of prisoners are the school children and the business people. However, it is better for businesses to lose a little amount of money and ensure the safety of the people.


Grand Canyon Geology Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents The formation of the Grand Canyon

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks

Grand Canyon’s fossil


This is a great feature in the world. It is in the list of the most scenery worldwide.

The formation of the Grand Canyon “ Grand Canyon formation occurred an exceedingly long time ago. However, no one is pretty sure of how its formation took place. Nevertheless, geologists come up with some guesses about this. Some say that there was a combination of some forces that led to its formation.

One strong suggestion is that there was erosion who’s the main cause was water and wind. Other forces that also contributed to the formation of the Grand Canyon are; volcanism, continental drift, some vibrations in the orbit of the earth and many others.

Water had an immense impact on Grand Canyon since it occupies the largest percentage of the world’s space. This becomes a complicated issue especially because the Grand Canyon is found in the desert. The soil that is in the canyon is extremely hard and does not absorb water whenever it rains. This is what makes it truly evident that water caused that erosion.

Another cause is water in the form of ice. When it is hot, the rocks in canyon crack. After this, during the cold season, the water freezes inside the rocks. This causes expansion of rocks. As a result, the rocks may fall, which in most cases leads to the formation of a landscape in the canyon.

The origin of the Grand Canyon rocks Geologists come up with a conclusion that the rocks formation was from the combination of forces like continental drift, and volcanism. The earth is not fixed in one place rather it floats on molten rocks (Beus, and Morales, 1990). The earth consists of layers “plate” of rocks. The North American rock is the one that contains the Grand Canyon.

During those old days, the canyon was located on further south side. The location changed gradually with change in climate. The earth’s continents are separate, although they move a bit on the molten rocks.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is what enabled the North American rock move towards the west and collided with the Pacific plate. As this conflict took place, there arose a mountain at the point of contact. Mountains and ranges were formed like the mountains of California. These Rocky Mountains form the base of Grand Canyon.

As our planet’s climate warms, its median sea level rises and falls. This is caused by melting and freezing of the polar caps. The land that is close to the coast sometimes submerges when altitude is low. This is what caused the layers of rocks that exist in Grand Canyon. In conclusion, the Grand Canyon consists of sedimentary rocks, which were formed in the shallow coastal plains.

The Grand Canyon is formed at the bottom of the ocean since that is where sedimentary rock are present. The current top layer of the canyon is Kaibab limestone. The Kaibab limestone contains sandy limestone.

Grand Canyon’s fossil It contains fossils creatures that were aquatic like fish teeth, mollusks, worms, sea lilies, and many others. These make it less complicated when it comes to the fact that the Grand Canyon formation took place in the ocean. The shape of the Grand Canyon is due to many mountains that existed many years ago even before it was there. Its base is due to erosion of the mountains until a plane was formed.

Reference Beus, S. S.,


The Case of Heineken Inc. Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Changing distribution system and opposition from people

Benefits of changing the distribution system

Possible effects of opposing change


Managing organizational change in a business has become one of the most important pillars supporting business productivity bearing in mind that through change, the performance of a business is enhanced, workers are motivated and new methods of innovation are introduced. Studies indicate that change management is an imperative structured approach that managers apply to transit organizations as well as employees to desired outcome.

Many individuals in organizations are quite often opposed to the process of change. They rather prefer status quo. Beugelsdjk and Slangen (2001) posit that by overcoming forces restraining change, organizations can make tremendous developments in terms of growth, sales and productivity. This paper examines organizational change in the distribution system at Heineken Inc. and its impact on the business.

Heineken’s distribution system has been considered to be one of the best among beer distributors in the world since its inception. Besides exporting its products, Heineken also sold its beers via agents to small and big pubs which were linked to consumers in the beer market.

After the Second World War, Freddy Heineken, the CEO at Heineken foresaw the forthcoming developments in technology where machines such as televisions and refrigerators would be introduced and revolutionize the market. On that front, he felt the need to radically abolish the traditional distribution system and initiate changes in distribution that would meet the expected changes in marketing patterns.

Changing distribution system and opposition from people In 1947, the traditional distribution pattern at Heineken was changed from pubs to wholesalers and supermarkets where more people frequented after television and refrigerators were introduced.

However, as indicated earlier in the paper, the move to create a change encountered massive resistance from other leaders of the organization who felt that by shifting from the traditional system of distribution via pubs, chances were that they would lose their crucial distribution channel.

Besides, change would interfere with the normal routine the business had of distribution by opening up to professionals from wholesaler groups and supermarkets.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Benefits of changing the distribution system Mary Jo Hatch posits that change in the culture and normal practice of a business plays a pivotal role of enhancing performance and raising sales levels (Frimpon, 2011). The decision to change the distribution system at Heineken increased sales of beer by 35 litres per person in 1968 from the previous 10 litres in 1949. In addition, reports indicate that its market share also rose by 18% from a low of 21 to a high of 39% (Beugelsdjk


Aristotle’s Philosophy Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Renford Bambrough seeks to express the importance of the discussions made by Aristotle with the aim of solving the problems that philosophers have struggled with throughout history. According to Bambrough, Aristotle made attempts to demystify the notion that philosophy is a continuing and a living activity which is separated from historical studies done.

Aristotle emphasized a need to incorporate classical works of ancient philosophers into the debates solving philosophical questions (Bambrough 378). This should be done with restraint and caution in order not to compromise the validity of modern studies and to avoid bias, as evident in the studies of some historical philosophers in their quoting of particular texts of Aristotle (Bambrough 381).

“There has also been hostilities extended towards the philosophers, not only those of the past, but also those of more recent times, in their exploration of the nature of the universe with specific dissatisfaction extended towards their theorizing instead of making empirical conclusions” (Bambrough 382).

This has encouraged some analytical philosophers to denounce the classical sources that their studies are based on, despite their dependence on the same, hence expressing bias in their deductions.

The author explains that though philosophy has enjoyed its fair share of interest over two thousand years, some philosophers argue that philosophy should now yield to science and religion. Aristotle’s work has served greatly to unite these fundamental specifications on the need to understand the universe as well as the need to understand the human being in a societal context” (Bambrough 382).

In this regard, philosophy should not be viewed as dominating the views of science and religion, but rather as their ‘hand maid’, as a reference point (Bambrough 382). This paper will discuss Aristotle’s views on human nature and , state in relation to and slavery. In addition, it will discuss the different partnerships mentioned in the books 1 and 2. Furthermore, the paper will discuss the concepts of citizenship outlined in the book 3 of Politics and compare the philosopher’s position regarding slavery outlined in his Politics and will.

A mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves Politics

Aristotle, like most Greeks who lived in his time and before him, did not believe that human beings could ever live a good life without institutions and social relationships. Aristotle defined a man as a creature adapted for life in a city-state or polis. This is in relation to Aristotle’s famous saying that man is a political animal by nature.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aristotle’s saying that ‘who is delighted by solitude is either a wild beast or a god’ has become a proverb (“Whosoever_is). Aristotle points out that to lead a happy life, a man has to live in a community where each person should strive for the development of the community in general and not his or her selfish goals. He claims that the state has to exist since individuals or even the family unit is too weak and too limited to support themselves.

While there may not be much interest in saving lives of certain individuals, it is important for all people to live in cities because they were designed for living in the state community and cannot exist separately. from community (Bambrough 384).

The environment provided by the city is also helpful for personal development where individuals can enjoy personal happiness as they exercise their intellectual and moral virtues. It is also imperative that the city or the state is self-sufficient and can sustain itself and it doesn’t need to be a part of a group or a larger community.

In his teachings, Aristotle reiterated what his predecessor Plato had said that as to the aspects of planning and governance, the Greek polis would make the most natural and ideal form of society where man can give his best. Aristotle, however, disagreed with Plato by indicating that moral and political virtues should be branches of knowledge just like navigation and medicine.

In addition, Aristotle also disagreed with Plato’s concept of creating a happy community by proposing that happiness is an individual activity that cannot be shared though it can be enjoyed concurrently with others. Aristotle also identified that, it is up to individuals to attain happiness from the state and not the state to attain happiness from individuals.

According to Aristotle, this is because the state exists for the benefit of individuals and not individuals exist for the sake of the state (Bambrough 392). He also rejected the offer of the communal ownership of property, wives and children that had been previously suggested by Plato.

Aristotle noted that if everything is made up of everybody’s business, then it will be nobody’s business. This is because individuals would have very little personal attachment to what is declared state property and as a result would not be interested in preserving and improving it.

We will write a custom Essay on Aristotle’s Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another important aspect of Aristotle’s philosophy indicated his acceptance of slavery as one of the most important characteristics of the community of his times. One of the most important arguments provided by Aristotle for justifying the institution of slavery in Politics was a mutually beneficial association between masters and slaves.

Aristotle stated that slavery can improve the humanity in general. He Aristotle noted that some men are made to be slaves and therefore achieve their purpose in life by performing servile duties to those who are higher than them. Though these views may be disputed in modern times, it is important to realize that Aristotle made his statements on principles and details that were related to the city-states of his own time.

In his exploration of property such as slaves, Aristotle justifies this phenomenon by pointing out at the existence of persons who are slaves by nature and consequent justification of slavery. According to Aristotle, some people need to provide services to others whom they consider as inferior to them to achieve their own telos (life purpose).

According to AristotleFurthermore,, Aristotle noted that every household should consist of slaves and free persons to be complete (Bambrough 385). A complete household requires effective association between men and women and between masters and slaves.

Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians. For this reason, most of Aristotle’s work gives not only his views on how things should be, but also how things were at the time he lived.

Book 1 In Aristotle’s book 1, the author stated that states are based on certain partnership that is formed for the members to achieve certain desired good deeds. The author noted that, human beings are universally selfish and they always strive to achieve the goals which they perceive as advantageous for them (Bambrough 385).

Therefore, according to Aristotle, the state is a political partnership. Aristotle defined the state as a group of people who understand that they cannot live separately from this group and decided to create an association.

According to Aristotle, Tthe distinction between the a master, estate manager, statesman, and a slave is based on their nature and innate features. king has also been highlighted to be of contention, as some people base their definitions barely on the numbers that are ruled by people holding these titles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Aristotle’s Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Aristotle admitted that the process in which an individual comes to power is of great importance. Like a king holds power on his own, while a statesman is one who follows the principles dictated by the science of statesmanship and takes turns with others to rule and govern (Bambrough 386). Slaves obey their masters because they tend to be ruled since their birth.

Therefore, the agreement between those who govern and those who are being governed is one of important principles of the science of statesmanship. Though Aristotle’s views on slavery may be considered as a prejudice, it should be noted that this period marked out the superiority of the Greeks over other nations who were considered inferior and called barbarians.

Aristotle noted that some people tend to be ruled since their birth (Bambrough 377379). For this reason, Greeks suggested that all barbarians were inferior to them and all barbarians were equal to slaves. Under the influence of stereotypes which were dominant among the philosophers of his time, Aristotle considered males to be superior to females.

Moreover, according to Aristotle, women in the barbarian community are equal to slaves and occupy the same position in the society (Bambrough 383). Aristotle concludes that it is right for Greeks to rule over non-Greeks because the latter are inferior and tend to be ruled by their nature. Therefore, in his Politics Aristotle defines slaves as weak creatures who tend to be ruled and includes all non-Greeks into this category.

According to the assumptions Aristotle made in his Politics, slaves are nothing more than tools which are needed for satisfying daily needs in the household. Analyzing Hesiod’s saying concerning the house, a wife and an ox which are needed for every man to run a successful household, Aristotle associates an ox with a slave as a tool required for performing certain household operations (Bambrough 383).

Taking into account the slaves’ natural desire to be ruled, it can be stated that that masters abd slaves have common interests which result in their mutually beneficial association. However, regardless of the obvious benefits of this association, masters should acquire an art of being masters for improving the effectiveness of this partnership.

Analyzing the assumptions concerning the innate features as the primary cause of the institution of slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics, it can be stated that the ancient philosopher accepted the institution of slavery as something that is taken for granted and is not disputable.

Comparing these assumptions to the decisions outlined by Aristotle in his Will, it can be stated that the latter are compatible with the philosophical doctrine included into Politics.

In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter marries, she shall be given 500 drachmas and the female slave she has at present” (Diogenes 64). Therefore, Aristotle left by will his slaves which were part of his household to his children so that they could become parts of their household in the future and the mutually beneficial association could continue.

Enslavement by convention As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle in his Politics justified the slavery by nature but questioned the justice of enslavement by convention. Aristotle admitted that his opponents claiming that slavery is unjust had certain right on their side.

In his Politics, Aristotle distinguishes between those who are slaves by nature and those who are slaves by convention or by law. Regarding the first category, Aristotle noted that they were designed to be ruled and even their physical characteristics are suitable for this task. In other words, slaves are physically stronger because they have to do the household tasks, whereas their masters are physically weaker because they were designed mainly for the art of being masters and political affairs.

However, the situation with those who were enslaved by convention is different. Aristotle discussed the counterargument to his theories, namely the position that the possibility to execute superior power cannot become a proper ground for justifying slavery. Discussing the enslavement as the product of war, Aristotle pointed out that it could be unjust if the beginning of war had been unjust.

Then, wellborn persons can be enslaved and their children would be slaves as well. However, Aristotle admitted that a person who did not really deserve to become a slave would never become a slave (Bambrough 389).

The ancient philosopher linked his assumptions concerning the injustice of enslavement by convention to the discussion of innate desire to be ruled as the main cause of enslavement. However, it should be noted that Aristotle’s assumption tat all barbarians are slaves is incompatible with his idea expressed later in Politics that there are people who never and nowhere can become slaves because of their innate virtues.

As an example, Aristotle discussed Helen’s words who admitted that nobody would dare to call her a servant because she had gods on both sides of her family tree (Bambrough 390). However, as it was further argued by Aristotle, the claims of those who are well-born or low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether they are or are not slaves. Aristotle admitted that not always good parents produce good children and even though it is frequently true, there are certain exceptions.

In his Politics, Aristotle noted that people who are slaves or masters by law not always are such by nature. Therefore, it can be concluded that nature and innate qualities should remain the main criteria to be used for distinguishing between slaves and masters, whereas people’s origin and the fact that they were well-born ot low-born cannot be used for answering the question whether a person can become a slave. Aristotle also pointed out at the negative consequences of ruling over those people who do not tend to be ruled.

Due to Aristotle’s assumption that a slave and a master in their mutually beneficial association are parts of a whole, the philosopher concluded that ruling over those who are not slaves by their nature can have a negative impact upon masters as well as their slaves (Bambrough 390).

According to Aristotle’s Politics, a slave can be defined as a separate animate part of his master’s body. A master and a slave have common interests if their relationship is natural and they have tended to be free or enslaved since their birth. However, if the association is based on force only, it is harmful for both of them.

Analyzing the assumptions made by Aristotle in his Politics and provisions for slaves the philosopher included into his will, it can be stated that the provision to liberate some of his slaves after his death is compatible with the arguments discussed in Politics. In his will Aristotle noted: “When my daughter is married, Tacho shall be freed, and also Philo, and Olympios, and his son. The executors are not to sell any of the slaves who looked after me, but to employ them.

When they reach the appropriate age, they should set them free as they deserve” (Diogenes 64 ). It is obvious that Aristotle asked to liberate the slaves, whom he considered to deserve freedom. Otherwise, the association between masters and slaves by convention but not by nature would have been unjust.

As it can be seen in the text by Bambrough, Aristotle stated that the principles of governing and being governed are significant for the science of statesmanship and existence of this association (382). There are several types of partnership ranging from the family unit to the village and in some cases a group of states where one state rules over others.

Aristotle went on to discuss the management of the state and then the property of the state, its nature and its administration. He concluded that the state occurs naturally and human beings are also naturally designed to live in the states. There are, however, individuals who by nature do not belong to any state and they therefore are either inferior beings or superior beings.

If a person is inferior, then the person is considered a slave, but if the person is superior he/she is obviously dangerous because all he seeks is war. Aristotle also stated that the state should be prior to families and particular individuals because the part cannot exist without the whole (Bambrough 385).

The relations between an individual and the state can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well. Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state.

Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64).

On the other hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories tended to be ruled. On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that his slaves were his property and he as a master could give liberty to them if he wanted to.

Book 2 In the book 2, Aristotle reviewed political partnerships in reference to good governance by identifying constitutions that are either theoretically beneficial or that are enjoyed by the states men. “In a good state, where there is a partnership, the people should commonly hold everything that belongs to the state that can be possibly held as so” (Bambrough 387).

In addition, as described in Bambrough’s text, Aristotle stated that, there is a single locality to the state and all citizens belong to it to show that state properties are commonly owned by its citizens as a partnership (Bambrough 394). The ancient philosopher suggested that a state ceases to be a state if it develops into unity.

This is because the state is naturally plural and if it grows in unity, the state becomes more of a household than a state. The state should also consist of individuals who are uniquely different. These people can come together because of their similar goals to form a state, but not due to their similar nature.

A group of states may come together to form an alliance of states. This is driven by the similarities in their goals. The most common goal in this case would be to avert aggression. This concept can be illustrated by an example of a difference between the state and the tribe.

Tribes may usually compete against one another, however in times of harsh and desperate times, they will unite together. The tribes are all strong when united together. As a result, the stronger they can combat and defeat a common enemy. This is related to States, which also form an alliance in a similar case and collaborate, due to their external needs.

As it can be seen from the book by Bambrough, Aristotle noted that if all individuals are equal, as suggested by Plato, where property, wives and children are owned communally, then the attention to things will be inversely proportional to the number of people who will take responsibility (386).

This is because people ignore the responsibility and assume that someone else will take it. Due to the selfish nature of a man, there might be a situation where nobody may come up to take the responsibility.

Aristotle also stated that “It is not easy for people living in this context to avoid troubles such as unintentional and intentional homicide, assault, insulting each other and fighting” (Bambrough 395). According to Aristotle, the main two rules which should be observed in a society include self-control in relation to women and generosity in relation to property.

Book 3 In book 3, the author explored the concept of citizenship by raising the question ‘what do we mean by the word citizen’ where he concluded that this term may be explained differently by different thinkers, as democracies and oligarchies define citizenship differently.

This question can only be answered through exploration of the process of becoming a citizen which leads to the consequent problem of whether these processes are just or unjust. Aristotle raised the question of defining a just citizen and wondered if a just citizen can be defined as a good person whereas the tenets characterizing just citizenship and goodness are different (Bambrough 398).

The conventional definition of a citizen is a child whose parents were both citizens. Aristotle stated that some people extend this requirement to two or three generations back (Bambrough 404) This raises the question of how the parents or these other prior generations became citizens in the first place, if they were also subjected to such a law. Will

Analyzing the provisions made by Aristotle in his will and comparing them to the assumptions made in his Politics, it can be stated that they are compatible because in both of them Aristotle distinguishes between slaves by nature and slaves by convention and recommends treating them differently.

The relations between an individual and the state similarly to those between a master and a slave can be compared to those between a part and the whole. Aristotle uses an example of destroying a foot or a hand when the rest of the body can function. However, destroying the whole body would mean destroying a foot and a hand as well.

Consequently, a part cannot exist without the whole, a hand or a foot cannot exist without the body, an individual or a particular household is not self-sufficient and cannot exist without the state. Additionally, a part not only is included into a whole, but entirely belongs to it. The same goes for slaves who are considered as parts of certain households and entirely belong to their masters.

Aristotle emphasized the link between slaves and their masters, admitting that association based on force can be harmful for both of them and a true art of being a master would exclude ruling over those who are free by their nature. In his will, Aristotle admitted that he would like to give liberty to some of his slaves after his death (Diogenes 64). On the one hand, Aristotle would give liberty to those who according to his theories did not tend to be ruled.

On the other hand, his decision to give liberty to some slaves clearly demonstrates Aristotle’s belief that some people would never become slaves regardless of place and situation. Therefore, it can be concluded that Aristotle implemented his theoretical principles regarding slavery, association between a master and a slave and different categories of slaves when he provided provisions to give some of his slaves to his children and liberate other slaves after his death.

Conclusion Analyzing the philosophical assumptions concerning the human nature, the state and slavery made by Aristotle in his Politics and decisions he outlined in his will, it can be stated that the philosopher considered the state as an important condition for well-being of people who cannot exist separately from the stateslavery as a natural phenomenon of any community and an important element of any household.

According to Aristotle, people were designed for living in the states and can be regarded as parts of the state, while the state as a whole is prior to individuals and particular householdssome people were designed to be ruled whereas others were designed to rule over others.. Aristotle accepted slavery as a natural phenomenon because he hypothesized that some people tend to rule, and others tend to be ruled.

Additionally, as it can be seen from Aristotle’s will, the philosopher considered slaves as property of their masters who can give liberty to their slaves if they would like to.However, another important assumption made by Aristotle in his Politics is that slaves were designed to obey their masters and their purpose in life to provide services to masters who are regarded as superior to them.

The conclusion drawn by the ancient philosopher is that a master and a slave share common interests and the association between them is mutually beneficial. However, this association would be ruined if a master or a slave does not belong to their role because of their innate qualities.

Aristotle accepted the fact that in some situations slavery can be unjust and even harmful for the masters who rule over slaves who were born to be free. This assumption explains Aristotle’s provisions to liberate some of his slaves after his death. Therefore, looking at his slaves, Aristotle regarded some of them as slaves by nature and ordered to give them to his children, whereas others he saw as free people and ordered to liberate them. In general, the Assumptions made by Aristotle in Politics are compatible with provisions of his will.

Works Cited Bambrough, Renford. The Philosophy of Aristotle. New York: New American Library, 1963. Print.

Diogenes, Laertius. “The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers”. Trans. Charles Duke Yonge. Course Booklet. n.a. n.d. 64. Print.

“Whosoever_is_delighted_in_solitude_is_either_a.” Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press, 1996. 17 Nov. 2011.


Wesfarmers Case Study college admissions essay help

Introduction The current position of Wesfarmers is largely due to the Global Financial Recession that threatened to grind its operations to a halt but thanks to the company’s broad conglomerates, it has managed to sail through, albeit with some financial shortcomings.

Wesfarmers’ acquisition in November 2007of Coles Group, which was one of the leading retailer chains in Australia, made it the biggest retailer and private employer in the country. However, the purchase, which was worth $19.3 billion, left Wesfarmers without adequate funds to operate its numerous businesses.

The global financial crisis further compounded the financial status of Wesfarmers between 2008 – 2009 (Huang, 2010).

Wesfarmers’ management and leadership style, however, has also enabled it to be the brand name that it is in the Australian markets. At corporate level, the company has directors who manage different functions and at the same time head various divisions.

This lessens the bureaucracy that would have otherwise existed between senior management, middle, and lower management levels. Moreover, the choice of these managers is made on merit and experience while underscoring teamwork for the success of the company. This paper, therefore, attempts to answer the CEO’s, Richard Goyder (Huang, 2010).

Macro-Environment Analysis Summary Political/Legal Forces

The politico-legal environment in Australia provides a good ground on which Wesfarmers can thrive.

The Australian government has provided good infrastructure for movement and communication within the country and given Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses it can easily communicate with customers, make deliveries, and receive supplies for its stores. Although it is headquartered in Perth, Western Australia, it is able to easily conduct its business all over the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sound infrastructure provides opportunity for Wesfarmers especially its online divisions (Coles online supermarket), which requires Internet thus making this division a viable project.

Trade liberalization has also opened up a wealth of opportunities in economies such as the European Union markets with un-entered and new target markets which the company can take advantage of (Mahadevan, 2004).

Economic Forces

With the global financial crisis behind it, Wesfarmers can exploit the budding post-financial crisis economy of Australia. The Reserve Bank of Australia has directed commercial banks to drop their lending rates from 10.2% in 2009 to 8.91% in 2011 (Juckes, 2009).

This is an indication of the brighter future for Wesfarmers because it can obtain loan cheaply to undertake its operations. Coupled with the low inflation in the country, people have money to spend and owing to Wesfarmers’ diverse businesses, at least one-half of its divisions must record increase in sales.

Equally important is the exchange rate against US dollar, which is AUD 1.08233 per USD. and AUD 1.35 per Euro (Juckes, 2009). International trade thus poses a great opportunity for Wesfarmers’ numerous businesses with relatively better returns.

Socio-Cultural Forces

The social dynamics of the Australian population provide an opportunity for Wesfarmers to expand its business and sustain its growth rate.

The company runs a total of nine divisions with various businesses and owing to the consumerist nature of Australians, they often flock retail stores to purchase food suppliers, home appliance stores, among others. In this era, the Y generation is the spendthrift customers who must be impressed by the products.

We will write a custom Report on Wesfarmers Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quality issues emerge strongly and must be addressed by the company for it to cash in on this dominant group. Australians have become conscious about the effects of junk food and green energy both to their lives and to the planet.

Wesfarmers energy generating divisions face close down due to perhaps boycott if it does not generate clean energy in the near future. Similarly, the retail division that deals in human food must produce whole grain stocks and reduce the junk type in order to make the business sustainable in the long-run.

Technological Forces

Technology has an irresistible influence to the operations of a company’s activities. The advancement has been so rapid that a company that lags behind is working its way out of business.

The federal government in cooperation with state governments has ensured that there is sound infrastructure that facilitates the availability of technology in every corner of the country. Consequently, companies have adopted the use of technology to give them a competitive edge.

Wesfarmers can use its scarce resources to institute a management information system where technology is used to effectively and efficiently manage the daily operations of the company, more so given that it is a large conglomerate.

The acquisition of Coles, for example, enabled Wesfarmers to have an online supermarket where customers can place and pay for their orders upon delivery (Huang, 2011).

Environmental Forces

Issues dealing with environment issues have significantly affected the modern macro-environment for most companies, including Wesfarmers, in the negative. The reason being they have influence on the financial arena such as decline of profit for green and carbon compliance schemes deployed by the Australian government.

These forces, irrespective of the industry, are set on long-term basis hence their influence of a company’s growth cannot be underestimated.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wesfarmers Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the cost of common resources increase such as the cost of crude oil, costs of other resources also rise thus increasing wholesale and supplier costs. Consequently, the potential profit and growth are reduced and felt by associated organizations (Baker, Graham


Management Theory- The Tucker Company Case Study a level english language essay help

Introduction Reorganized Organizational Structure of the Tucker Company: Causes of Problems after Reorganization

The interdepartmental conflict between Mr. Hodge and Mr. Franklin, after the adoption of the above organization structure at the Tucker Company, had both personality and structural bases.

The Structural Basis

The new organizational structure adopted by the Tucker Company was classical in nature as many industrial oriented organizations are not (Spender, 1989). In following a structure formulated along product lines it adopted the basic principles of division of labor which is itself an integral aspect of the classical theory of management (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

In the classical theory of management, success is based on a few basic principles. Foremost, the notions of authority and responsibity are intimately intertwined (Almashaqba et al, 2001). In accepting to exercise your authority in a particular area, you also, out of necessity, accept the responsibilities inherent in it.

The second principle is that of unity of command. This principle states that each person should only receive commands from a single source (Almashaqba et al, 2001). This is because multiple commands would lead to confusion, and eventually conflict. A third principle is that of unity of direction.

It states that members of an organization should work towards the achievement of similar overt goals (Almashaqba et al, 2001). It is in the unity of objectives that harmony within the organization is achieved. Lastly, member of the organization are expected to harmonize their interests with those of the organization.

If there is conflict between the two, individual interests should be subordinated to those of the organization; this is called the principle of Subordination of Individual Interest (Almashaqba et al, 2001).

Due to its hierarchical nature, Tucker Company’s new structure falls in the bureaucratic subgroup of the classical theory of management which can be summarily characterized by a few features. Foremost, bureaucracy is typified by specialization. Job positions and the corresponding are offered to persons who are most qualified in carrying them out (Mullins, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also characterized by hierarchical authority which is reliant on levels that are vertically oriented (Mullins, 2005). For a bureaucracy to work, it is regulated by a system of rules and regulations. These rules are understood to be of utmost importance and as such they cannot and should not be subordinated to personalities (Mullins, 2005). These principles should have served to avoid conflict at the Tucker Company. They were however undermined by structural oversights, limited resources, divergent personality types and the neglect of these principles by members of staff as will be shown below.

To start with, the reorganization of the company into three main divisions whose vise-presidents were directly and independently answerable to the company president meant that they were autonomous from each other. This arrangement per se is not the cause of the ensuing conflict. Rather, it led to the fact that the company did not have access to unlimited resources to ensure that the implied concept of autonomy was not just theoretical. Since the company could not afford to equip and staff entire laboratories for each division, it carried on with the previously operational arrangement where the Laboratory, which was structurally under the Military Jet Engines Division, would serve all the other divisions. This was the mistake.

The resultant cross-departmental interaction had great potential for conflict. This is because the Classical theory of management is characterized by vertically oriented relationships. There were therefore no clear stipulations of how Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges, coming from different divisions and answering to different authorities, should have related.

In this respect, the conflict between the two can be blamed on either the incapacity or unwillingness of the company to actualize the autonomy of the three divisions or on the inability of the classical theory to facilitate healthy horizontal interaction.

As has been aforementioned, the classical management theory seeks to dispel ambiguity by regulating relationships by means of clearly laid down rules and guidelines. Such guidelines assist in reducing uncertainty in interdepartmental interaction which in turn aids performance (Hickson et al, 1971). This was however not the case in respect to Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges. In light of the probable efficiency of Mr. Hodges’ predecessor, there had never been need to establish such guidelines.

The restructuring of the company should however have been implemented as an opportunity to introduce the codification of such guidelines in light of the existing evidence that they are effective in reducing the number of opportunity for interdepartmental conflict and in providing means of conflict resolution (Smythe, 2000). The company management overlooked the potential danger of relying on the personal efficiency of Mr. Garfield and the risk of assuming that his replacement would be equally effective.

The Personality Basis

The conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges could also be looked at from the human perspective. Foremost, Mr. Hodges filled a position previously occupied by Mr. Garfield. It is significant to note that Mr. Garfield had efficiently fulfilled his duties and managed to satisfy all the departments that relied on his lab. The fact Mr. Hodges was unable to do this is a clear indication of a personality perspective to this conflict.

We will write a custom Case Study on Management Theory- The Tucker Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, Mr. Hodges was overlooking the authority and responsibility principle of the classical theory of management when he sought to have a say in the material selection process of Mr. Franklin’s department.

The fact that Mr. Hodges would not have been found answerable were something to go wrong is evidence enough that he should not have been accorded such authority. Having risen to the level of head of department Mr. Hodges would be expected to understand the workings of the new structure adopted by the company. Therefore, that he made such demands is a pointer to a personality weakness.

Lastly, the basis that Mr. Hodges raises for making these demands is that he feels he would be better at doing the job than Mr. Franklin owing to his training as a metallurgist. This constitutes lack of professional courtesy towards Mr. Franklin.

Implicit in this assertion is his questioning of Mr. Franklin’s capability to fulfill his responsibility and as well as the means by which he came to hold the position of head of manufacturing. Mr. Franklin also shows a weakness of character in hanging up on Mr. Hodge. This reaction might be attributable to the apparent perception of Mr. Hodges as a difficult man who only cares for his own interests at the expense of the company’s and others’.

Recommended Structure

It is clear that the conflict between Mr. Franklin and Mr. Hodges was a complex matter. However, it would have been avoided by restructuring the organization as follow:

The new Laboratory and Allied Division, coupled with a codification of regulations guiding its interaction with other divisions, would be advantageous in that it would eliminate structural and resource sharing problems discussed above.

Its main disadvantage is that it would be costly to establish a fully functional Laboratory and Allied Division. It would also still be beset by those that arise from personality differences and the neglect of observance of rules and regulations. Still, it would be the best.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Theory- The Tucker Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Almashaqba, Z., Alajloni, M.,


Hospital Administrator Job Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Human Resource is one of the most important departments within an organization. According to Muller (28), employees are the most important assets to any firm. They shape the direction of the firm and determine its success.

A work force that has the right qualification is determined to achieve and receive the right motivation, which would most definitely steer the firm towards achieving its strategic goals. To have this kind of a workforce, there must be an appropriate leadership in the human resource department. This leadership should be impartial in hiring and managing the human resource. It is therefore very important to have the right person with required qualifications holding this office in an organization (Shawn and Mazin 23).

Job Analysis of a Hospital Administrator Hospitals are some of the busiest organizational units in any society. Unlike other organizations, hospitals deal with health of people. This makes it very sensitive. The employees, who are doctors, nurses and other subordinate staff, have the lives of their patients in their hands. They have the responsibility to ensure that patients brought to them get the right medication and get back to the right health. This is not an easy task because it involves working for longer hours than expected.

At times, employees may be recalled after they have left work, especially at times of emergency. This task is very stressing. It is therefore important to note that an administrator of these employees should be in a position to understand them in order to work with them appropriately.

This position requires an individual who is able to master the art of human management. Furthermore, an administrator should have a clear understanding of the requirements of various medical units within the hospital. Such an individual should have a clear understanding of the requirements of a medical officer.

An administrator in such an institution should be a medical doctor by profession or a nurse. This is important because it would be easier to determine the capacity of his or her workforce. It would also help in determining the scope of employees in terms of ability in handling health related issues. This administrator should have some additional qualifications in human resource management to help him or her understand the art of personnel management.

The officer should have at least six years experience as a medical doctor or a nurse in a busy medical institution. The individual should also have a two-year working experience as an assistant human resource manager, or an equivalent position. He or she should have good interpersonal skills and the ability to work under extended time limits as an administrator.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This position is very sensitive since it determines the success of any organization. It is therefore important to offer a competitive remuneration to workers in the department. Holders of this position should receive about four thousand seven hundred dollars in a month as the basic salary. Any extended time spent at the institution should be paid differently in an hourly basis. This should be about twenty-four dollars per hour.

As an appreciation to dedication to the organization, they should be given other rewards in order to motivate them. This may include holiday leave, a team building tour or other financial benefits. It is through this that a health facility may have the right candidate for the position.

Works Cited Muller, Max. The Manager’s Guide To HR: Hiring, Firing, Performance Evaluations, Documentations, Benefits And Everything Else You Need To Know. New York: New York Press, 2009. Print.

Shawn, Smith and R, Mazin. The HR Answer Book: An Indispensable Guide for Managers and Human Resources Professionals. New York: AMACOM, 2011. Print.


“Winning” by Welch Essay (Book Review) best college essay help

The book “winning” is an all-inclusive guide targeting all the aspect of any business. The author emphasizes on the importance of being the pace maker in a particular business discipline. This book gives business managers, owners, average employees and associates advice on how to relate amongst themselves in order to create a conducive environment for business growth and stability.

Welch illustrate with mild and reasonably balanced opinions on how to create a better business environment for the business community, which puts a particular business establishment at the top of the performance gauge without compromising any party’s stake and comfort. The book illustrates various practices and regimes that have been the recipe for some of American companies’ cause of success, and other practices and moves that have brought about downfall and crippling of some businesses beyond redemption.

Welch does not draw any strict lines in business and even continues to say that business is a game with a dynamic range of maneuvers and moves. The author insists that there are no definite governing principles in business, but principles that largely apply rationality and balance are most appropriate. Welch describes the techniques that an individual in business must adopt despite their seemingly contradicting nature. Welch outlines areas that require strict practice and those that require liberal thinking and flexibility (Welch and Suzy, 2).

The book emphasizes the importance of business ethics for business survival. In addition to ethics, the book shows the need for focus as an important accessory to all employees’ ethics in order to thrive. The author has succeeded in presenting a non-radical stance while engaging in highly effective competitive business practices. A mission statement coupled with a plan on how to achieve the objective of that mission is a crucial ingredient for realizing success.

Every company employee or an affiliate of the company should be subconsciously aware of the organizations targets and goals in order to chart a common route and direction to achievement. Customers as affiliates of the company should be treated in a liberal and free atmosphere in order to create a sense of belonging. Taking advantage of the customer’s vulnerability or difficult situation has been cited as the undoing of some companies resulting in their instability and eventual collapse.

Enron Corp and General Electric (GE) have been discussed as examples of companies that through contrasting ethics realized different endings in their businesses. Quick profit making moves are not always the best and may not provide stable and lasting business architecture. However, practices such as candor are allowed to a moderate extent to facilitate success. This practice of being friendly to customers and business associates has an enigmatic ethical standing but is a necessary practice.

Although specialization has often been viewed as unfair, it has been recommended as a means of getting rid of business sectors that perform poorly, and encourage faster growth. Leadership is an important responsibility in a business organization according to the book.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders are advised to have qualities such as openness, transparency, candor, ability to stand their ground however unpopular, and the courage to make unbiased decisions for the sake of the organization. Implementing new ideas is an advisable norm for managers. These ideas may be implemented from within the company, and require the managers to be more enterprising.

The hiring process, according to Welch, is a challenging task and a lot should be invested in it to ensure that those hired are of upright morals and have the required skills, knowledge and discipline. Human resource management is crucial to the success of any organization (Collings 5).The author continues to point out that new employees should be subjected to a fair system of management and should be motivated in order to get maximum value out of them.

Motivation can be achieved through techniques that are not necessarily monetary based (Lawler 60). The author advises that a serious approach should be applied in problem solving. Although a business manager should be optimistic, he or she should have an open mind concerning the possible outcomes of a crisis. Welch say that careful planning is always a good strategy for the business advancement.

Maximizing gains and limiting risks are important factors to consider in drawing out a healthy budget for the business. However, too much caution is discouraged as unhealthy and calculated investments are deemed important. Welch encourages people to find good jobs where they can fit in. This does not necessarily mean the most paying job, but the one, which fits the individual’s passion and ideal job model. The balance between life and work is encouraged by the book.

An individual should be assertive and able to work within the scope of his or her responsibilities. In addition, the author advises on how to get along with superiors. Good relationship with superiors, while maintaining satisfactory results at work and a balanced life, are necessary. The author of “winning” has also managed to lay down fundamental practices necessary for any business to succeed and accomplish its mission while maintaining clean moral and ethical record.

Works Cited Collings, David G., and Geoffrey T. Wood. Human resource management: a critical approach. London: Routledge, 2009. Print

Lawler, John J., and Greg Hundley. The global diffusion of human resource practices institutional and cultural limits. Bingley, UK: Emerald JAI, 2008. Print.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Winning” by Welch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Welch, Jack, and Suzy Welch. Winning. New York: HarperBusiness Publishers, 2005. Print.


Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The article written by Mr. Viscusi outlines characteristics of a good employee in work places. The four main characteristics that make an employee safe in his job are being visible, ready, easy and useful at the work place.

This is an advantage to the employee because when it comes to firing employees, the first people to go are those that the employer does not know. He encourages employees to be visible by coming to work before and leaving after the boss.

Employees should be smartly dressed, participate in volunteer works, make presentation and represent their boss in functions so that they can be recognized. Employees should be easy by giving the working conditions for the boss easy listening and following instructions given to them.

Otherwise, chances of being fired are high in difficult employees. Employees should avoid unnecessary complaints like the quality of chairs they use or the system of lighting. They should be contented with what is provided to them.

Employees are allowed to take part in office but they should measure their words before letting them out. Punctuality is very important, as employees should make sure that they arrive in their offices early but leave a little bit late. This is to say that they should be beyond time expectations of the company.

A good employer should set apart some time to train other employees on the importance of taking part in extra tasks in jobs, being responsible as well as giving support to their boss. Employees should be ready for issues arising unexpectedly by updating their resumes and networks, enhancing their interview skills, adding knowledge to their skills as well as maintaining good relationship with employers.

They should also have cash with them in banks. According to Viscuss, the most important factor in work places is the relationship between the employer and the employee.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He asserts that bosses hold the fate of employees and therefore employees should maintain good relations by looking and sharing interests common to both. Socialization is very important in work places. It is difficult for the employer to fire employees who are his friends.

Following those laws prevents an individual from being fired in a case where employees have to be reduced. All employees regardless of the position they hold in the organization should follow the rules (Little, 1986). Some of the aspects expounded in the article are good in work places but others are subject to criticisms.

Employees should take part in activities in work places such as presentations, representing their boss, arriving in jobs early and leaving late, for success of the organization but the reason behind good participation should not be for the boss to recognize you.

Firing employees should not be based on the level of interaction between employer and employees. Whether friends or not, this should be based on the quality of work done by employees. A good employer should be in a position to fire his best friend if they are not performing.

Employees have rights to demand what best fits them. They should be allowed to put forward their complaints that the boss should listen to. If they do not have say, then they lack freedom. These rules should make employees feel empowered.

These rules benefit labor because employees will be working to their best to produce quality and quantity work so that the boss can recognize them. The employer should discuss the regulations with his/her employees before passing them to be laws so that employees are not pressed up.

The advice given by Mr. Viscusi contributes to alienation in the work place, a condition in which an employee feels foreign. Employees are not comfortable in work places if they do not meet some of the conditions.

We will write a custom Essay on Karl Marx’s Take on Work Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, employees who are not friendly to the boss are always insecure when it comes to reducing the number of employees because they stand at high chances of being fired regardless of the quality of their work. In addition, employees are not free to demand for their rights because if they do so, they will be the first to go. Such conditions make employees to remain in a condition of fear.

Karl Max argues that alienation in work places is brought about by capitalism. In the theory of alienation, he asserts that workers are deprived of their rights in capitalistic societies that make employees to lose hope in their lives and destinies.

In these societies, employees are not given rights to choose what to do or not, but are expected to follow laid down instructions that may be offending (Cutler, 1977, p. 227). The working is directed by rules and activities passed by those who own the means of production.

The bosses want the employees to work as much as possible so that they can get huge profits out of their work. They also ensure that the wages they pay to the employers is too low. The main beneficiaries of the work are the owners even though employees do most of the work.

It is obvious with employers that they want employees to work to their maximum for their benefit. The major role played by employees is not realized when it comes to payments. In the same case, extra work should be done for an individual to be recognized according to the article.

Creating a friendly environment with the boss is an added advantage to the employee. Employees who are not ready to adhere to the policies outline in this article are likely to be fired (Hindess


Growth of China’s Economy Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

It is obvious that within the past two decades China’s economy has grown. It has become the second largest economy in the world which was because of government initiatives into encouraging foreign direct investment, local entrepreneurship and real estate development within the country.

Also, the outsourcing industry has helped in improving the Chinese economy within the past 20 years causing rapid development and expansion of cities and factory complexes in China.

It was seen though in the study of Country Report (2011 ) which looked at the 70 million housing surplus units within China showed that most if not all if these units had price schemes well above what an average Chinese worker would be capable of affording (Economic forecast, 2011: 7).

In looking at the case of Country Report (2011) the rapid economic growth and development within China came also with an equally good expansion of China’s real estate with hundreds of thousands of construction projects expected to reach their completion periods by the end of 2012 – 2015.

The problem as explained by Country Report (2011) is that while there is a high rate of property development that is happening within Chinese cities there is a lot of housing surplus within the country with well over 70 million surplus housing units at the present.

The problem when looking at this situation based on the findings of Country Report (2011) is that while having housing surplus would be fine if such housing were created in order to meet expected demand within the near future the problem is that what is being made is not housing or subsidized housing schemes which are in great demand within China due to a lot of urban poor and urban workers but what is being made is high end property development which few people can afford.

Another way of looking at this issue is through the article of Lan (2011) which looked at changes in China’s social development. Lan (2011) points out that within recent years, as result of China’s increasing manufacturing industry, a relatively new segment of the population developed as a direct result of China’s progressive economic growth and development over the past 20 years and as such has come to become an influential factor in the local economy (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The problem as indicated by Lan (2011) is that this relatively new upper class is unfamiliar with the concept of wealth and privilege and as such have actually modeled their spending habits on that of the western world. It was seen in various instances that they spent a lot of money recklessly, lavishly and usually concentrated these purchases on high end real estate.

Data released by the Boston Consulting Group has estimated that the number of affluent/ middle class households within China will reach roughly 130 million by the end of 2020 (Lan, 2011: 47 – 49).

What is seen though in the case of China, as explained by Lan (2011) is that real estate development within the country has been that same as that of the affluent/middle class population growth but instead has gone past it with nearly 70 million homes/apartments meant for that particular population segment already having been built.

In the case of tier 2 cities Bennet (2002) explains that “the housing backlog (referring to the amount of unsold surplus units within buildings) was set for 1 year as determined by the developers during the initial phases of construction however in cities similar to Qingdao such as Dalian and Wuhan the housing backlog has reached 7.5 years to 8 years” (Bennet: 2002: 1).

A clarification of this particular statement by Zhang (2011) is that during project planning and construction developers thought that the apartments units that they had built would have been sold out within one year of construction yet the end result was that 2 to 3 years after construction barely 20% of units within apartment complexes in cities such as Qingdao were sold resulting in an excess in the amount of products present.

This particular problem is which is further worsened by the fact that even more properties are continuing to be built which few people can afford (Zhang, 2011: 514).

The problem with this is that there are too many homes versus too few people willing to buy which creates a potentially bad situation for China since up till this day construction projects of new homes continue to increase despite no one buying or too few people with money able to actually afford such places.

We will write a custom Essay on Growth of China’s Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shedding more light on this situation is the study by Wang et al. (2011) which looked at average home prices within China’s cities and the average salaries of workers within China.

Wang et al. (2011) showed that the average median home price within the country is equivalent to $114,900 while an average worker earns 2,000 to 4,000 Yuan per month and within an average year they could earn 24,000 to 48,000 Yuan.

Using to examine the current exchange rate it was seen that $114,900 is equivalent to 734,170 Yuan, as of the November 2011 exchange rate. When deducting the average cost of expenses that an ordinary Chinese worker has it can be seen taht it would take them a very very long time to earn even half of what is needed to buy even an average home with China’s current cities.

The underlying theme of Country Report (2011), Lan (2011) and Wang et al. (2011) is that there are too many surplus housing units within China since they focus too much on catering to the upper class instead of the lower class and the lower class is unable to buy because of the high prices.

This is connected to China’s current position in the multilateral trading system since as seen in the work of Zhang (2011) China has been using its current construction boom in order to artificially increase its GDP. The problem with this situation as explained by Zhang (2011) is that there is a limit to how much artificial GDP increase can be done which China has already clearly exceeded.

This leaves the country at the threshold of a possible real estate bubble burst which the Chinese economy must fix before things get much worse within the immediate future. The problem with China becoming a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system is that it would have to impose certain reforms in order to be considered “responsible”.

First and foremost among these possible reforms are issues regarding its manufacturing industry and its devaluation of its current currency.

Consumer Reports (2008) examined the spread of copied goods coming from China, it showed that the spread was a direct result of the outsourcing industry that China’s manufacturing industry was able to grow as fast as it did compared to other countries since China didn’t need to wait for technologies to develop within the country but rather copied the necessary technologies and processes needed to market their own goods (Real or FAKE, 2008: 12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growth of China’s Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that due to the low cost of doing business in China local manufacturers that copied the technologies and processes of companies that had outsourced to China were able to undercut prices resulting in situation where more international consumers chose to buy from these new companies due to the relatively lower prices for the same product.

It must also be considered that China’s manufacturing infrastructure as well as the various manufacturing technologies and processes that were brought into China by various multinational companies that were copied by local manufacturers enabled them to produce the same type of product at a lower cost.

The Economist (2010) states “it was the culmination of these events that brought about the development of a new Chinese upper class composed of businessmen and entrepreneurs that increased local demand for high end real estate development as well as high class foreign goods” (Safe as houses, 2004: 41).

One of the current negative issues regarding China has been the issue of technology stealing, undercutting prices and the cheap labor in order to overwhelm markets. Based on the facts presented so far it can be seen that such practices have actually greatly benefitted China.

If China were to become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system it would need to implement reforms in order to ensure such practices are either abolished or limited in some way. The problem with doing so is that this would affect China’s local economy which is dependent upon the manufacturing industry to continuously churn out large amounts of goods.

Any slow down in the manufacturing industry would affect the current real estate market thus bringing about a housing bubble burst that would negatively affect China’s economy.

The same can also be said of China’s currency, if China were to correct it’s obviously undervalued currency the result would also create negative effects in the manufacturing industry which will also trigger another housing bubble from collapsing.

Becoming a “responsible stakeholder” in the current multilateral system involves having to conform to distinct guidelines, trade rules, international agreements as well as a variety of other possible regulations that would definitely affect China’s local economy.

You have to question whether a country would intentionally cause a widespread economic collapse within its borders all for the sake of “playing nice”. Another way of looking at this is by examining China’s previous course of actions over the past 50 years.

It can be seen that even in terms of being a “responsible state” it has considerably diverged from that due to reports of humans rights abuses, the limitations of human rights as well as an assortment of other questionable activities.

Even when China became a manufacturing hub for a large percentage of man-made products it as continued to disregard rules regarding the proper disposal of industrial waste as well as limiting the amount of C02 being released into the atmosphere.

Overall the country has continue to flagrantly disregard a lot of international rules all for the sake of continuing its activities. Now when taking into consideration the facts presented by the three articles presented in this paper it can be seen that not only has China not been a “responsible stakeholder” in a large percentage of its international actions but it seemingly only pursues actions which are to its benefit.

Thus, when presented with a situation such as a potential housing bubble burst should anything happen to its local economy it is can be stated that based on its previous history alone of non-compliance it is obvious that China will not be a responsible stakeholder in the near future.

One way in which China has been attempting to fix this issue is to implement stricter building policies however this has yet to actually affect the sheer amount of excess housing units within China.

In order for this to actually be resolved China needs time in order for either the units to get cheaper or for the government to come up with a way to fix the current housing problem.

As such it is very unlikely that China will seek to become a responsible stakeholder in the current international system but rather will continue along a route of destabilization since this is the only way it can prevent its local economy from collapsing under the weight of so many excess housing units.

Conclusion Based on an examination of the articles published in 2011 as well as the various articles utilized in supporting their arguments it can be seen that their underlying theme has been China’s overexpansion into high end property development within its local real estate market despite a majority of the demand being in affordable housing settlements.

While this particular action was in part precipitated by assumptions that China’s growing elite would buy the new properties the fact remains that estimates show that too many projects were built too quickly which many experts now agree could result in the worst real estate collapse in history.

Furthermore, due to the fact that any subsequent interference in China’s local economy would cause the housing bubble to burst it is unlikely that China would proactively become a responsible stakeholder in the current multilateral trading system since this would result in a devastating blow to its local economy which China doesn’t want.

Reference List Bennett, JT 2002, ‘The Minimum Wage: Some New Evidence’, Journal of Labor Research, 23, 1, pp. 1-2, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Economic forecast’ 2011, Country Report. China, 5, p. 7, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Home truths’ 2010, Economist, 395, 8684, pp. 73-75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

LAN, X 2011, ‘China’s West: Generating Change’, China Today, 60, 4, pp. 47-49, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.

‘Real or FAKE?’ 2008, Consumer Reports, 73, 1, p. 12, MasterFILE Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 ‘Safe as houses’ 2004, Economist, 371, 8377, p. 41, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost.September 2011.

Wang, S, Yang, Z,


Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks Essay online essay help

Pre-historic Greek artworks have influenced cultures and arts in many countries around the globe, especially in the sculptural and architectural arts. Right from the Roman Empire in the West to the Far East including Japan, ancient Greek artworks are a source of inspiration (O’Kelly 1982, p. 88).

The Greek architecture left a lasting impression in the architectural design of public buildings. Contemporary buildings and the ancient Roman arts copied a lot of things from the Greek. This paper compares the Parthenon, a well known surviving building of ancient Greek with the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, which is a piece of contemporary architectural artwork.

The Parthenon building on the Acropolis, in 5th BC to replace an old temple destroyed during an invasion (Beard 2010, p.12). The temple building in Athens and it acted as a sign of Athenian dominance in the Greek Peninsula.

The War Memorial Opera House located in San Francisco on Van Ness Avenue opposite the City Hall opened its gate to the public in 1932 (Couret 1998, para. 2). The building was among the last main American building built in the Beaux-arts style. This style of art borrowed a lot from the ancient Greek and Roman architectures.

The Parthenon (Neils 2005, p. 3)

The War Memorial Opera House (SFWMPAC Online n.d, n.p)

The Parthenon building to served as a temple for one of the goddesses of Athens. It was built to offer thanks to Athena the goddess for their success and victory in the war. In fact, the name originated from a cultic statue housed in one of the rooms, in the temple.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The building later invaded and turned into a church in honor of the Virgin Mary. On the other hand, the War Memorial Opera House was built to commemorate the people who died during the World War I. It also served to host the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center since 1932 when it opened its doors (‘Parthenon, Lovell Minnick and Fisher Lynch Conclude Acquisition of H.D. Vest Financial Services’ 2011, para. 2).

Classical Doric order or style, which, is normally calm and sturdy was used in building both buildings (Michos 2002, para. 7). The Parthenon, credited as one of the perfect Doric temple ever built in the world while the War memorial Opera House constructed using paired columns, an application of Doric order (‘The Webby Awards 2001(R) Will Take the Stage at San Francisco’s War Memorial Opera House’ 2001, n.p).

Doric style applied the directly standing columns on flat pavements known as stylobates and alternated metopes a feature common with the two architectural works under consideration. Ionic columns were also clearly used in both buildings.

The materials used to make the two pieces of architecture were different mainly because of the different in their respective location. Wooden roofs, marble tiles and marble statues made up the Parthenon’s interior. Other materials used in the building were ivory and gold, and it stood on a limestone rock.

Coffered ceiling; large aluminum and glass paneled chandelier made up the War Memorial Opera house’s interior. Sculptures are a common occurrence in the two buildings despite the difference in age (Clark 1997, para 5).

An explosion destroyed the Parthenon, but the War Memorial Opera house in San Francisco continues to stand. It maintains a lasting impression of the ancient Greek architectural designs, and buildings (Kaldor 2010, p 23). Technologically, the building has advanced, but it refuses to let go of its ancient world’s ‘theater feeling’.

Until late 20th century, the Parthenon laid destroyed, but the Greek government set out to revive the ancient building. Now it is meant to become a museum, but unfortunately, the original design cannot be recovered. Only an impression of it is possible.

We will write a custom Essay on Visual Arts in Pre-historic Greek Artworks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Beard, M., 2010. The Parthenon, Profile Books.

Clark, A., 1997. After the quake: Andrew Clark attends the re-opening of San Francisco’s refurbished War Memorial Opera House Financial Times, pp. 08-08.

Couret, C., 1998. San Francisco’s historic opera house re-opens, The American City


Innovations in Payment Systems: Square Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Description of company

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints

Analysis of possible solutions

Recommendation that need to be adopted

Works Cited

Description of company Square Inc is an innovative company that was launched in December 2009. Its president and the co-founder, Jack Dorsey, is also the co-founder of Twitter, a social network platform. The logic behind Square Inc. is to use paperless money as a mode of payment and transaction where every tweet would be a transaction.

The company is on the verge of changing the mode of payment in the U.S to ensure that payment is carried out through the use of smartphones (Romo 2). However, the president of Square Inc. has recently admitted that the company entered in the market prematurely.

Square Inc will ensure that payments are transacted everywhere since they are supported by android phones, iPads, and iPhones. According to the company’s president, the goal of Square is to enable customers accept payments instantly, everywhere.

Nonetheless, the company is wary of the anticipated competition from other emerging players like PayPal, Apple, and Google. The company has also devised a method of using the smartphones as cash registers whereby a squared credit card reader is connected to the Smartphone and transactions carried out easily (MacMillan 44).

Lastly, the innovative payment system of Square Inc. does not require fixed costs, hardware costs, and credit check like other credit payment systems. This makes it unique and competitive as people are on the lookout for the best mode of payment that is up to the current recession and changing market trends.

Problem definition, Goal, and Constraints The problem is to determine whether Square Inc. is wary of, and ready to accept and face competition from other emerging companies that have adopted new modes of payments in the industry.

Square Inc. has to make sure that its new payment transaction system has no loopholes that could be used by other companies as a competitive advantage. However, their goal is to “enable people to accept payments immediately, everywhere” (Siegler 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, this has not been achieved yet since the company is facing hardware shortages, although it has ordered for the parts. Another constraint facing the company is the inability to carry out transactions in the quickest time possible as some incidents of delay have already been reported to the Square management team. This problem could have resulted from its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities (Siegler 4).

The company is also faced with the fear of customers caught up in fraud cases in the course of carrying out their payment transactions as this could dent their image. Although Square Inc wishes to execute a modern method of carrying out transactions through mobile phone innovations, the mode of payment faces a major blow if cheques re-emerge as a mode of payment.

The company also faces stiff competition from emerging competitors like, PayPal, Google, and Apple who could offer better modes of transactions and services than Square Inc.

Lastly, the company is constrained by its inability to handle risks associated with charge backs by determining the transactions limits (Siegler 4. This could lead to incidents of fraud and other malicious issues on the part of the users.

Analysis of possible solutions For Square Inc. to remain relevant and competitive in the market, it has to devise solutions that will help the company to address the current problem and constraints facing it.

The constraints act as impediments in realizing the company’s goal, which is to enable payments anywhere immediately. The solutions that follow would enable Square Inc. to solve the current problems as well as allowing the company to compete favorably and effectively in the market.

Square Inc needs to develop strong encryption software that would address the risks of fraud thus promoting security (Romo, 2011). This would ensure that crime cyberspace is reduced since hackers or fraudsters cannot access credit cards in the process of carrying out transactions.

We will write a custom Case Study on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also supposed to create awareness to its customers on the need to secure their phones and passwords as fraudsters could take advantage of their carelessness to commit frauds. The company has to address the issue of the hardware shortages by importing or finding a reliable supplier who will address the increased demand by Smartphone users.

This would ensure that customers are not swayed away by other payments providers like the NFCs system of Goggle or PayPal.

Customers have already filed complaints, and the President of the Square Inc has also acknowledged that there have been delays in carrying out transactions. The company needs to view the causes for delays during transactions immediately before consumers lose their loyalty towards the brand and adopt other modes of payments.

Square Inc needs to improve its underwriting infrastructure facilities and capabilities to a competitive edge. This will increase its competence and the speed required in financial transactions. Technology improvement is the core solution to the problems facing Square Inc. Therefore, the company needs to address its problems before entering the market with full force.

Lastly, the looming problem facing Square Inc. is the emergence of other rival companies who are bound to introduce competitive rivalry through perfect substitute products. The company can operate at low costs by minimizing the transactional costs.

This would create a competitive advantage to the company, thereby increasing its profits margins. Through marketing methods and structures, Square Inc. can make the new mode of transactions acceptable by its customers and other people who posses Smartphones or are willing to adopt one. This would ensure that it gains adequate market share, making it competitive.

Recommendation that need to be adopted Based on the analysis of the problems, constraints, and the available solutions, it is recommended that Square Inc. adopts all the solutions because they address all the issues currently being experienced. No problem should be taken for granted as a single mistake would affect the customers affecting their loyalty.

Other than solving the problems, it is recommended that the company adopts a more efficient and the latest technology accessible to all customers. With competition increasing in the industry, Square Inc could operate under economies of a scale after reducing the transactional costs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovations in Payment Systems: Square by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would ensure that the company remains relevant and that it realizes its competitive edge. Square Inc has the capability of turning the whole industry into a technological hub. To retain its capabilities, the company needs to devise a means of improving its software and hardware to meet the changing consumers’ demands and the markets trends caused by technological advancements.

In conclusion, although Square Inc seems to be the latest option that will change payment transactions, the company needs to address all its problems in advance. This will ensure that it remains relevant in the market as it competes favorably and effectively.

Works Cited MacMillan, Douglas. Turning Smartphones into Cash Registers. Bloomberg Businessweek, February 2011. Web.

Romo, Venessa. Square Businesses ‘Square’Away Client Bill Pay. January 2011. Web.

Siegler, Michael. “Square Delays Mass Roll-Out, Admits They Began Before Things Were “Fully Baked””. June 2010. Web.


The concept of space and time Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Three Times

Sabu’s Monday


Works Cited

Introduction Over the years, individuals have been baffled by the nature of both time and space. Kant was the first philosopher to doubt the existence of both space and time. He conceptualized that they (time and space) were mere ‘intuitions’ or perceptions invented by our own minds.

Later, in 1900s, Minkowski and Einstein were back at it again and found that time and space can be interchanged. For painstaking systematic reasons, they swapped time with ‘spacetime’.

In 1986, Szamosi delved into the subject again this time round detailing how the perceptions of space and time developed from earlier attempts of primitive life forms to understand their world to become the modern impression we have of space and time.

In this paper, I will show that dominant conceptualizations of Time and Space do not just exist, but are produced; I will base my arguments on 2 articles and two films which will be relevant to the understanding of space and time perceptions.

Everydayness The “Mystery of the Everyday”: Everydayness in History is an article build around an object of modern intellectual history. Harry Harootunian’s work on “the everyday” presents the reader with a strict definition of concept of time and space. Harootunian’s work is a critique of everyday life.

He wonders how people situate and frame the everyday as something to be experimented, thought, and to be analyzed critically. Lefebvre views modern artwork as not just obscure objects desiring explanation but rather as explanations. Under capitalism, modern artwork is nothing but multiple responses to the condition of everyday life.

Lefebvre focuses on political time. For example, he wonders why modernity, tradition, and postcoloniality are labeled as interventions in the field of political time. To him, modernization theory and post-colonial discourse are a group in the historical continuum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This article, which looks at modernization in Japan, argues that “modernity is a specific cultural form and consciousness of lived historical time that differs according to social forms and practices” (Harootunian 62).

Lefebvre opposes the various descriptions of modernities such as alternative modernities, divergent modernities, competing modernities, and retroactive modernities. According to him, this term is wrongly used to the existence of an “original”.

The terms were mere creation in the “west” but due to a series of “copies” and lesser variations, the terms acquired new meanings. These conceptions of modernities were only built upon transmuting a temporal lag into a qualitative difference.

The idea that Japan and other societies transforming into a modern order at different paces reveals that modernity is an idea of western capital. On the concept of space, Lefebvre refers to a unity called “West”.

To him, space is inexistent. He looks at the dyad term west and non-west and wonder exactly where is west on the world map. This idea invented by western capital tends to determine the geographical location of other places in relation to modernity.

“Split-space” In the article The Discursive Space of Modern Japan by Karatani Kojin, sheds light on how the concept of time and space is produced. His theory of “split-space” emphasizes inflection of certain terms and or concepts that brings the complex relation of philosophy and history into clearer focus.

Kojin argues how periodization and history are inseparable. Societies mark of a period by assigning a beginning and an end so as to understand the importance of events occurring in their life. Kojin begins by demonstrating how the Showa period began.

We will write a custom Essay on The concept of space and time specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He says that the word Showa and the dissertation concerning the Showa period began in 1987 during the time of the emperor’s illness. By the start of 1989, the Showa period came to an end. Afterwards, it came to be known that a “Showa period” existed. This is what he calls “periodizing history”.

Karatani in particular criticizes Japan for neglecting the possibilities present during its inception that were instead replaced by modernist ideology and the nation state system. According to Kojin, comparative history is not fit for measuring Japanese historical trajectory against another build upon European-based model of development.

Such a move, he advises, is likely to yield problems as it may endanger productive discussions. The Japanese ‘feudalism’, connected to Tokugawa political system, put Japanese history in a relative framework and pitted Japanese historians with those from medieval Europe.

Such a formulation suggests a comparison without connection; labeling Tokugawa Japan “feudal” imply placing Japanese development with events happening in Europe and in a different era. Terms like “Early Modern Japan” means an entirely different thing.

Karatani points to the Christian calendar and Japanese periodization saying that “both serve to make explicit the fact that each nation’s ‘era/world’ is only a communal, illusory space, and that a plurality of worlds (eras/worlds) exists simultaneously, maintaining relations with one another” (Kojin 77).

To Kojin, history relies on the marking of a period so as to understand the importance of events and occurrences. History is all about the question of periodizing and periodization has the tendency of altering the importance of events!

Kojin’s split-pace theory of reception as it appears tends to suggest that in the future, his own theory will be split and decentered. To kojin, centers and margins are a play of transposition. We cannot entirely argue that margins and centers do not exist.

The center is somehow blind and the peripheral or the margins do not necessarily need to cope with. Kojin fail to understand that the west has been marginal itself. Karatani focuses his theory towards the west rather than being post-colonial. It tends to get lost in concepts of time and space it is supposed to analyze.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of space and time by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Three Times Hou Hsiao-hsien’sThree Times is the only of his many movies that delves into historical material. This is a triptych of stories of love that are narrated in different time periods but stared by the same actors.

In this movie, Hou Hsiao-hsien combines the past and the present in a way that he creates free floating narratives that are not tied to any chronological progression.

Hou Hsiao-hsien puts a lot of effort in the development of these semi-related tales and at no one time in the movie does he succumb to straightforward duplication. The film is entangled with its director’s conviction in the powerful influence of history on here and now (Three Times 2007).

The ‘Three times’ has a 1966 introductory segment titled “A time for love”. The plot however shifts backwards in time and tell of an actor named May’s maiden arrival at the pool-hall.

This is a way for Hou Hsiao-hsien to make his audience to revisit and reassess through their memory what led to the current situation. It is worth noting that this is only a primer to the following stories that are full of historical shading.

Part two of the movie-“A time for freedom” is yet another rumination of historical episode. The scene is set in 1911 in Taiwan reflecting the difficulties, and unbalanced realities facing mankind during the start of the century. Qi’s performance in this part reflects Taiwan as she struggled to free herself from imperial Japan rule.

The final episode – “A time for Youth” is a depiction of modern day Taipei youth mixed in the millennium Mambo’s pop music and juvenile aimlessness. When Hou Hsiao-hsien displays a suicide note on the monitor although having said so in narration, he makes his audience revisit the past again. This is a plea to the Taiwanese to embrace their history.

Hou Hsiao-hsien is a puppetmaster. “A time for Love” happens when Hou Hsiao-hsien was about the same age as two of the lovers. This could only be taken to mean that his age may not be the same to that of the youth of the present. However, he is looks more at ease in the future than in the past. With Hou Hsiao-hsien, time and space do not exist – they are notions created in the peoples’ mind.

Sabu’s Monday In Sabu’s ‘Monday (2000), the scene is a hotel room and a man, Takagi, wakes up not knowing how he got there in the first place. Takagi reaches over the table and pick a newspaper, checks the front page and realizes that it’s Monday. The last day he can remember is Saturday.

Takagi has no recollection of what occurred between Saturday and Monday! Sabu leaves the audience to work out the puzzle with him as he leads them through Takagi’s scrappy memory of his missing 48 hours. When a packet of sanitizing salt falls from his pocket, he starts recollecting what occurred.

We are taken back to a funeral scene, a graveside; the conversation turns out to be a shoot-out after Takagi disagrees with his girlfriend. The audience then shifts from the unsteady weekend of Takagi to the hotel scene. This makes flashback gain relevance. Outside the hotel, Takagi learns from a hotel TV that he is surrounded by police (Monday 2000).

From the story, we learn that after the quarrel following the burial, Takagi got angry and armed with a gun from a Yakuza club, he embarks on a vigilante killing orgy. Takagi not only killed the boss of the yakuza gang but also some street punks in the process. Takagi shifts from being sober and at times he becomes murderous.

The goal of Sabu’s movie is to show how the world is capable of drawing out the dark side that each of us possess. The movie lacks the aspect of time. To Sabu, we are capable of traveling anywhere in the notion of time.

Conclusion The four works have demonstrated how time and space are creations of the mind that help mankind understand the world. In the Mystery of everyday: Everydayness in history, Harootunian clearly demonstrates how the west created the term modernity and industrialization in the process of marking Japan and other slowly developing countries as lagging back in time.

He criticizes labeling japan underdeveloped in the sense of time because of its peripheral location on the world map. Karatani Kojin in The Discursive Space of Modern Japan argues that periodization – creation of time – is inherent in history, to mark the beginning and the end of a certain period of interest.

In Three times, directorHou Hsiao-hsien tells a story devoid of both space and time. His film is set in three different times and places.

Hou is capable of making his audiences traverse between different times with ease. He is not in any way restricted by timing in the setting of his movies as both are notions to him. Sabu’s Monday, is similar to Hou Hsiao-hsien’s ‘Three times’. Sabu makes his audience traverse between the past and the present in the process erasing the notion of both time and space.

Works Cited Harootunian, Harry. History’s Disquiet: Modernity, Cultural Practice, and The Question Of Everyday Life. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2000. Print.

Karatani, Kojin. The Discursive Space of Modern Japan. London: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.

Monday. Dir. Hiroyuki Tanaka.Perf.Shin’ichiTsutsumi, Yasuko Matsuyuki, Hijiri Kojima. download, 2000. DVD.

Three Times.Dir. Hsiao-hsienHou.Perf. Qi Shu, Chen Chang, Fang Mei. Ifc, 2007. DVD.