Introduction Blue Mountain Resort is a successful ski resort in Canada. The company has shown considerable increase in its activities due to its lucrative business plan. In 1991, the company hired a new human resource manager. The new manager noted that despite the fact that the company was profitable, its reputation was beginning to suffer.
The services offered by the company were poor and the employees had morale problems. After noting the problems, the new manager decided on a plan that began with an executive retreat. During the retreat, the senior managers of Blue Mountain Resort formulated a comprehensive plan that the company would use to improve its services.
The company initiated a service quality program in 1991-1992 ski season (Sheppard 6). This program forced the management act on data collected from customers. In 1993, the company changed the strategy they used in hiring. The purpose of this was to improve the staff quality. The results obtained from the service program encouraged management. However, management felt that they needed to do more.
While focusing on quality, the company had ignored process management. Therefore, in 1994-1995 season, the company organized a process team to cater for problems of signage and call center. By 1998-1999 season, the company’s reputation improved considerably while the customer base also increased (Sheppard 11).
In 1999, the human resource manager organized a team to do a SWOT analysis. The team compiled the report and presented to the human resource manager, he chose three proposals that required careful consideration. Proposals on customer flow, speed of service, and information system were to be addressed in order to improve the quality service quality.
Can Blue Mountain Resort be sure of Delivering Good Service to each Segment?
Blue Mountain Resort is very capable of delivering good services to its customers. This is very evident from their activities in the previous years. Previously, the company had poor services and the staff did not serve customers properly. However, after hiring the new human resource manager the company had improved its service quality considerably.
In fact, the customers’ ratings to the staff improved. In 1991-1992 season, 19.6 percent of the customers classified the resort as better than previously. During the same period, the rating of other resorts in Canada fell from 16.5 percent to three percent (Sheppard 6). In addition to the fact, the company managers showed composure when they realized that, their plan had not encompassed the element of process management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They created a process team to assist in eliminating the challenges that were arising due to their negligence. The process team helped the company to improve its rating further and increase its market share by increasing the number of customers.
The ability portrayed by the company throughout its development period clearly shows that the company is able to deliver goods and services to the different segments despite the challenges. If history serves to predict the future, then, the ability and composure shown by the company through the challenges they faced is evidence enough to prove that the company has the ability to deliver goods and services to each segment.
What is the most Appropriate Course of Action for Dave Sinclair?
Blue Mountain Resort has three major challenges that the human resource manager, Dave Sinclair, has to address in order to improve the services. From the report, it is clear that the customer influx in the resort increased. However, the new guests have a problem of familiarizing with the resort.
The new customers are sometimes misdirected and usually fail to find some basic services. In addition to this, the problem of parking is also affecting the guests who park in restricted areas. The SWOP team identified that the best method of solving this problem is by collecting feedback from customers and acting on the propositions provided by the customers.
However, the resort can do more than just identifying the problem and solving it. For a long-term solution, the use of a strategic plan is recommendable. A strategy is a plan of action adopted by management of organizations for achieving goals and objectives (Kaplan and David 56).
This strategy plan will ensure that company can achieve its long-term marketing goals and cater for the increase in customer numbers without losing a considerable market share to the competitors (Lancaster and Frank 15). Sanchez encourages managers to measure what matters in order to improve the customer relationships (31).
The resort also faces the challenge of delivering services at a commendable speed. The guests are complaining that the speed of service delivery is decreasing. The SWOP team proposed six ways that the human resource manager may use to solve the problem of speed.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Blue Mountain Resorts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Included in the proposals are; better forecasting, improved communications, provision of accurate information, training staff, use of self-service technology, and using scientific methods to schedule staff levels. All these proposals are highly viable and can be adopted by the human resource director in order to improve the services.
However, some of these proposals are short term and may only provide temporary solution. For the resort to work properly they should incorporate all these elements in their strategic plan. The proposal on staff training is extremely important and may improve the speed of service delivery considerably.
However, to ensure that the element of training staff is not a waste of time, the manager should also encourage the idea of using scientific methods to determine the staffing levels. This will ensure that the company maintains staff cost effectively and provides services at the required speed (Friedman 23).
The company also has a challenge in maintaining a proper information system. The swop team found out that the cost of a new information system was extremely high. Moreover, the cost of hiring a profession would escalate the costs further.
To cut on the cost the SWOP team proposed hiring a co-op student. This idea is brilliant, however for a resort like Blue Mountain the room for error is extremely small, and hiring a co-op student may lead to some errors that may be costly later.
Therefore, the human resource director should hire a professional and experienced ICT technician to assist in implementing and monitoring the system. The costs incurred may be high initially but in the long run, these costs may be negligible if the project is well implemented.
Professionalism and experience are handy when a business is installing and implementing a new system (Gruen et al. 42). Anticipating risks that may arise due to lack of professionalism should be part of managerial decisions (Gruca and Lopo 117).
Therefore, in the case of Dave, he should ensure that no risks that may arise if they employ the co-op student. In case the human resource manager sees any risks that may be costly, he should abort the idea and employ a professional ICT technician to monitor and implement the new system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Blue Mountain Resorts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Friedman, Lawrence. Go to Market Strategy: Advanced Techniques and Tools for Selling More Products, to More Customers, More Profitably. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann 2002. Print.
Gruca, Thomas S., and Lopo L. Rego. “Customer Satisfaction, Cash Flow, and Shareholder Value.” Journal of Marketing. 69.3 (2005): 115-130. Print.
Gruen, Thomas, John Summers, and Frank Acito. “Relationship Marketing Activities, Commitment, and Membership Behaviors in Professional Associations.” Journal of Marketing, 64.3(2000), 34–49. Print.
Kaplan, Robert and David, Norton. The Strategy Focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment, Boston mass: Harvard Business School Press, 2000. Print.
Lancaster, Geoff. and Frank, Withey. Marketing Fundamentals. London: Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Sanchez, John. “Building Customer Relationship For Enduring Profit in a Wired Economy.” Customer Relationship Marketing. 10.2 (2009): 1-38. JSTOR. Web.
Sheppard, Mark. “Blue Mountains Resorts: The Service Quality Journey.” Ivey Management Services. 22.2 (2002): 1-19
Fast Food, Fat Profits Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The documentary film Fast Food, Fat Profits is aimed at exploring various issues such as the underlying causes of obesity in the United States, the eating habits of American people, and the factors that shape their dietary choices. This movie can be discussed with the help of frame analysis developed by Erving Goffman.
This approach can show how the authors convey their main message to the viewers. Moreover, this film should be evaluated from the perspective of radical doubt. In this way, one can evaluate the arguments or ideas more critically.
First, one can speak about social framework which implies that the events and trends described in the movie can be explained by the actions and decisions of individuals and organizations that can derive some benefit from current social tendencies (Goffman 22).
In this case, one should speak about the activities of fast-food companies that provide products that are rich in calories. These enterprises can appeal to many consumers because they can sell their foods at a much lower price. Moreover, these organizations resist the attempts of legislators to regulate their activities.
Apart from that, much attention should be paid to the unwillingness of public administrators to raise awareness about the risks of fast food. For instance, many employees of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are affiliated with the producers of fast food. In fact, they can even lobby the interests of these businesses.
Thus, the epidemic of obesity in the United States can be attributed to the activities of corporations as well as governmental officials who have a conflict of interests. This is one of the messages that this documentary film conveys.
However, it is also possible to speak about the natural framework according to which the events should be regarded as undirected or unguided (Goffman 22). In other words, the outcomes should not be attributed to an agent that strives to influence the behavior of other people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This perspective can be applied to this film. For instance, one can say that the epidemic of obesity is driven by the economic inequalities in the American society.
Many people are not able to purchase healthy food products; therefore, they have to buy fast food. Furthermore, many people do not know much about the risks of such eating habits. In particular, some of them are not fully aware of such consequences as diabetes or heart diseases.
Therefore, it is not reasonable to blame only fast-food companies or governmental officials for the growing rates of obesity in America.
By combining natural and social frameworks, one can argue that obesity can be viewed as the result of economic inequalities, the activities of fast food companies, and people’s lifestyles. Thus, the film-makers crafted the main message of this documentary by using natural and social frameworks. This is one of the issues that can be distinguished.
In addition to that, this film can be discussed from the standpoint of radical doubt. In particular, it is possible to assume that people, who spoke about the underlying causes of obesity, had an incentive to conceal or even distort information.
For instance, one can suppose that some critics of these products were affiliated with some competitors of fast-food companies. Therefore, they could be motivated to accuse these businesses of various health problems faced by American people.
Thus, the practice of radical doubt can help a person to examine the arguments of other people more thoroughly. Furthermore, this approach is useful for indentifying the limitations of the statements made by other people.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Fast Food, Fat Profits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, one can say that the authors of this movie did not pay much attention to the sedentary lifestyles of many people. Similarly, the people, who were interviewed in the film, could be willing to accuse fast-food companies because it was difficult for them to accept their responsibility for their eating habits.
This is one of the details that should not be overlooked. In turn, the film-makers did not speak much about people’s unwillingness to do physical exercises which are important for controlling weight. Therefore, the main message of this documentary is not quite accurate. Thus, the notion of radical doubt is a helpful tool for the evaluation of information.
There are some limits to the practice of radical doubt. As it has been said before, this method is premised on the idea that a person has an incentive to lie. Thus, one must show or prove that this motivation is present.
Furthermore, by relying on radical doubt, one can question the validity of every study, report, survey, and so forth. The main problem is that in this way, one can reject virtually every source of information. This is one of the limitations that can be singled out.
Still, this discussion shows that the analysis of cinematographic work should be based on the application of critical thinking skills. In this way, one can better critique the arguments put forward by other people. These are the main benefits of this approach.
Works Cited Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, Boston: Northeastern, 1986. Print.
Ten managerial concepts by Jack Welch Report writing essay help
Jack Welch names ten managerial concepts that every manager has to understand and employ. These concepts are: integrity, change, customer focus, size and structure, constant fight, self-confidence, training, searching for best global talents, informality and global learning (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010).
Jack Welch notes that the concept of integrity is closely connected with acting legally (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010). He claims that managers should always act within the boundaries of the law and make sure their people act legally as well.
Apart from being legal, the concept of integrity is also related to having values and always doing right things. Welch also stresses that true leadership is about making people share the values of the company and accept the concept of integrity (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010).
I agree with Welch and I also think integrity is all about having values and being responsible. It is possible to note, though, that acting legally is an indispensible part of being responsible and sharing values.
Effective leaders should make sure their people have the necessary values and act correspondingly. This will contribute to the organization’s development as all employees will move in the same direction.
Jack Welch emphasizes that self-confidence is one of the essential building blocks of a successful organization (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010). He claims that effective leaders have to build self-confidence in their people. Notably, he is also developing self-confidence of the managers who are present.
He claims that their organization has the necessary tools and resources to enable managers to reward their people. Thus, Welch mentions such tools as big raises, numerous options, stimulating atmosphere, exciting jobs and promotion which are major tools of motivation. Welch claims that these tools have to be employed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The speaker also stresses that the managers who are present are all successful and effective leaders who enable the organization succeed. Welch claims that those present are best managers in the organization. It is necessary to note that he sounds quite sincere. He seems to believe in what he is saying.
Welch singles out four types of managers. The first type is the manager who has values and is effective. According to Welch, such managers should be promoted (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010). The second type is a manager who has the values but is not very effective.
Leaders should give such managers another chance and these managers can transform into type one managers. The third type of managers is a manger who has no values and is not effective. Leaders should fire such managers.
However, the most dangerous type of managers that can have a negative or even detrimental impact on the organization is the fourth type of managers. Such managers are effective and “make the numbers” but they do not have values (Jack Welch final GE mgt meeting, 2010).
These managers can destroy the organization as they only focus on results. They do not have values and they are often concerned with short-term goals and their own interests. However, an organization where such managers exist is doomed to failure.
People who do not share certain values have different views on development. Nonetheless, organization has to have only one vision and one way of development to be successful.
In the recent decades, people have claimed that corporations are machines aimed at gaining profits. There is a lot of tension between corporations and individuals. People strive for diminishing the number of corporations or changing the very essence of these institutions.
We will write a custom Report on Ten managerial concepts by Jack Welch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, Welch considers corporations as certain kinds of communities (Jack Welch on leadership, 2009). He stresses that corporations are not machines, but people. Such ideas can have quite significant political implications. If more people share the same view on corporations, the business world could change.
Legally, corporations will be regarded as a group of people not a single entity gaining profit. This can have positive effects on the development of the business world. Thus, CEOs of corporations will be more responsible and people-oriented.
Notably, Jack Welch highlights effective strategies for the organization to be effective. He stresses that constant change is crucial and reveals a number of ways to implement the change. Welch also mentions that each company, including the company in question has bottom employees who are not effective at all.
To help the organization clean up (and to help the employees understand the gaps in their knowledge or skills), it is possible to employ action research. Action research involves collecting data, developing a plan to drive the change and implementing the change (Lewis, Packard
Love in Different Cultures of the World Exploratory Essay college essay help: college essay help
Analysis of the Word In most cultures of the world, love is something that is highly cherished. As Anker (2004) notes, most of the world’s cultures lay a lot of emphasis on love. The culture from which this word was taken is not different. Swahili culture is found along the coast of Kenya and Tanzania, which are two neighboring countries in Africa.
Penda has a very strong cultural sense and it raises emotions whenever it is mentioned. The word may not find its rightful meaning in English due to the meaning that is attached to it by this society. It is something that is almost worshipped, even though it is not always the case. It finds its closest meaning in the word love.
The sentence ‘nakupenda kipenzi’ is a heavily loaded word. It is an expression of a deep passion, a strong sense of adoration and the need to be together always. In a normal English phrase, it would translate to ‘I love you my love’. Taken in its real context, it is beyond this English word. The love is close to worship.
The society in which this word was taken value romance. They value relationships between couples. They generated other words to describe the feeling that two individuals would develop towards each other when in love and the best word that came out among the rest was penda. In pronunciation, the word should come out in a hushed up tone, with a sense of romance.
Penda should be the right pronunciation. The first syllable should come out with a flat intonation, followed by a falling intonation just to bring emotions attached to the word.
The love for romance saw them restrict the use of the word hence limiting its use to express the feelings between two lovers and one’s love for the country. Chomsky (1973) says that this society strongly believed that the word could only be used to show one is ready to sacrifice his or her life for the sake of that which he or she is expressing his or her feelings.
The word penda was used selectively and in rare occasions. In fact, Gouran, Wiethoff and Doelger (1994) report that the society never tolerated people who misused the word. The word was meant for special occasions to express strong and genuine convictions towards certain people, one’s country or something of value.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Meyer and Bock (1992) note, in its original context, this word could only be used when talking about issues that the society in general valued. This meant that it could not be used in reference to things the society considered childish or of lesser value (Andriacco, 2001).
Words such as ‘Sara anapenda doli’ (Sara loves dolls), would therefore lack meaning. This is because the society never valued this item and it was something that was associated with young children who were taken not to know what love really meant.
This word was used to express the deepest feelings. Schutz (1958) lamented that English vocabulary is limited of words. As used in the sentence ‘Charles na Joan wanapendana’ (Charles and Joan are in love), this sentence expresses the strong bond built out of a strong feeling of the need to belong together.
The sentence, Wale ni wapendanao (Those are lovers) has this emotional touch but from an observer’s standpoint. This is the same meaning of the sentence, ‘naipenda nchi yangu’ (I love my country). Patriotism was then a cherished virtue in the society.
Patriots of war were generously rewarded for their contribution in protecting the society. In many societies, just like in this society, love for ones country was a virtue that was encouraged because it was only through this that an individual would be in a position to defend the country if need would arise (Zueschner, 1997). For that matter, the word has the correct traditional meaning.
As time went by, this society started mingling with other societies. New things that never existed before came into existence. Words had to be developed to express the new feeling or name new objects (Stern,
Building a Compensation Plan Report best essay help
Introduction The aim of the paper is to design a compensation plan for the sales force of an engineering company that mostly entails in B2B sales. The company had posted high sales in 2006-07 but with the recession, sales had gone down.
Apart from declining sales another problem that the firm faces was attracting, retaining, and motivating the frontline sales team of the company. Therefore, a need arose in order to restructure the sales force compensation plan, which comprises the largest employee structure of the company in order to motivate and retain salespeople maintaining the budget of the company.
Further, with economy showing a continuous slowdown, most companies are looking at revamping their compensation structure. The design of the compensation plan is for a B2B sales force.
The sales people are the ones who are more aware and close to the customers than the company. In designing the sales compensation plan for a B2B sales force, the first step would be to identify the key responsibility areas (KRA) of the salespersons.
Key Responsibility Areas One of the primary factors affecting the performance of a salesperson is his ability to be a good team player: “…good teamwork is a determinant factor in winning sales and building long-term partnering relationships” .
Distribution of financial incentives to a sales team is a crucial concern among managers; therefore, one important decision for compensation planners is to decide (a) how much remuneration is to depend on performance, and (b) how the financial benefits should be distributed among the team members.
For instance, distribution of awards can be based on either individual performance or the performance of the sales team. In order to decide on the type of the sales force, first the key responsibilities of the sales people must be ascertained.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The key responsibilities of sales people in the organization and their reporting pattern is delineated as follows:
Primary responsibility will be to effectively utilize the company’s sales strategy and make sure that the revenue and profit objectives by creation of small, mid-size and large accounts.
Generation of new customer accounts for the company is another primary task of the sales person.
The salesperson will follows target oriented sales quota and he will be responsible to fulfill the quota through relationship building with customers’ and multi-level decision-makers through various sales strategies such as direct mailing, person-to-person interaction, direct phone calling, etc.
Maintain database and MIS of customers and on field maintain a direct relationship and contact with the new and old customers.
Understanding the requirement of the customers and generating a product proposal accordingly.
Do market research on related products in the market and analyze what less the company is doing in its offering to the customers for which it may be losing customers.
Reviewing of self-sales performance and assessing the difference between targets.
Given these responsibilities of a sales executive in the company, the next step would be to design an effective compensation strategy for the sales executives, it is important to understand the KRAs of the position. Given the brief of the responsibilities of the sales force, the KRA that are to be looked at for developing a compensation plan are as follows:
Building relationships in terms of new accounts
Maintaining older accounts
Meeting sales target.
Based on these understanding of the sales executive job responsibilities, the compensation plan is devised.
Compensation Plan Base Pay
Based on the sales executive job responsibilities it can be deduced that the primary functions of the sales executive is to
generate new accounts,
maintain existing accounts,
target the right organization,
maintain close relationship with senior decision makers in the target organizations.
Like of most sales force compensation plans, this plan to will be a performance based plan.
The reasons for adopting a performance based compensation plan are to ensure that performance or the actual job done by the salesperson. The idea is to provide adequate compensation for the job they do and not just for the sake of employability.
Most of sales compensation plans are based on a 30% base and 70% commission mix but this plan seems to be more tilted on a larger variable pay. Further, this variable pay is usually directly related to the generation of new accounts, overlooking the effort that is put in by the sales people to retain the older accounts.
We will write a custom Report on Building a Compensation Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, the company must also account for the experience the sales person has, as a more experienced sales person may want a larger base pay than a fresher may. Further, the external environment must also be considered while setting the base pay.
In case of engineering company, it is a well-known brand for all kinds of engineering suppliers. Further, the market for engineering is highly competitive as there are other smaller and a few local brands that compete, and there is a high level of price competition.
In such a case, the base salary for the salespeople cannot be pegged at a low rate considering the external environment. Therefore, the present compensation plan will fix the compensation based on experience of the sales person:
Fresher (0 to 1 year): For someone fresh out of college, the compensation will be pegged at 30% – 70% basis.
Experienced Salespeople (1 year to 5 years): the base to variable ratio will be 50%- 50%.
Highly experienced Salespeople (above 5 years): the ratio will become 60% – 40%.
The structure of the base salary will determine the overall expense and cost structure. The base salary should consider living expenses such as a food, housing rent, travel expenses, phone expense, etc. the minimum base can be set at $1000 to $3000 a month based on the experience of the salesperson.
For instance, a fresher may have a base pay of $1000 while a person with 1 years of experience will have a base of $1500. The base will increase based on experience the salesperson puts in.
The variable structure of the company will depend on the revenue objective of the overall company. Assuming that the company has a sales force of 20 people and a revenue target of $10,000,000, the quota for each salesperson to attain the target revenue is $550,000.
Given this target, the sales people are differentiated into three groups based on years of experience. Table 1 shows the compensation structure that is followed is proposed for the sales force.
The first component as discussed earlier would be the base fixed pay, which would be directly proportional to the years of experience of the salesperson. Therefore, higher the years of experience of the salesperson, greater would be the base pay or the fixed component of the salary.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Building a Compensation Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Table 1: Compensation structure of the Sales force
Compensation Structure Revenue Objective $10,000,000 Uplift of 25% $12,500,000 Subtract CEO Sales $1,500,000 $11,000,000 Sales People 20 Quota $550,000 Compensation for a Sales Executive with 0 year of experience Total Compensation Base Salary 30% $12,000 Variable Salary 70% $28,000 Commission Rate at 100% Quota 5.1 Compensation for a Sales Executive with 1 year of experience Total Compensation Base Salary 50% $24,000 Variable Salary 50% $24,000 Commission Rate at 100% Quota 4.4 Compensation for a Sales Executive with 5 or more years of experience Total Compensation Base Salary 60% $36,000 Variable Salary 40% $24,000 Commission Rate at 100% Quota 4.4 The ratio of the variable component will again differ based on the number of years of experience. Based on the amount of total variable component for a salesperson, the commission rate is determined. The commission rate is determined by dividing the variable pay of the sales person by the target quota of the salesperson multiplied by 100.
This commission rate determines the amount of the variable sales of the individual. This will help determine the fixed and variable component of the salesperson. Therefore, the compensation plan shows higher fixed income as the salesperson puts in more years of experience. Further, the sales quota incentive also increases with number of years of experience.
Apart from this, a separate incentive is provided for generation of new accounts to the salespeople. Table 2 shows that there will be different levels of incentive schemes for the stipulated number of new accounts generated.
Table 2: Sales Commission for New Account Development
New Account Generation Incentive 1 – 5 $1,000 4 – 10 $2,000 7 – 20 $4,000 11 – 30 $6,000 14 – 40 $8,000 Conclusion Therefore, the total salary of the sales person will be determined by the following: Salary = Base Pay Variable Pay Incentive for new account generation
The compensation plan suggested for the sales force considers both the internal and external factors for the generation of the compensation plan as well as looks into the main KRAs that determine the job responsibilities of a sales person. The salespeople compensation plan is robust in its approach and provides adequate incentive based on KRAs.
References Segalla, M., Rouzies, D., Besson, M.,
Influence of Disciplines on Organizational Behavior Essay essay help online
Introduction Organizational behavior involves studies of interpersonal management process, dynamics of an organization and behavior that contribute to success of an organization (Wright, 1997). The outward picture that a company demonstrates is contributed much to by individual’s behavior in any organization. Therefore, it is very important to nurture excellent behavioral practices that can lead to success of the organization.
Influence of traditional Disciplines on Organizational Behavior Sociology
Study of social facet of individuals in an organization does help in improving the organization through shaping of behavior and traits of individuals (Edmonds and Glaser, 2010). Having the social esteem of employees reshaped or shaped would help create a good relationship amongst individuals in an institution. Understanding of norms, team dynamics, status and roles of individual in the organization occurs through social studies.
On psychological grounds, it is believed that breaking the rule a bit might as well lead to an organization achieving great milestones of success (Norman, James
The History of Boston Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Transformation and modernization in Boston from 1950 to 1970
Boston in the 1960’s
Busing Crisis in Bolton from 1974 to 1988
Transformation and modernization in Boston from 1950 to 1970 Boston is one of the cities of the world with fascinating history. Its foundation was laid in 1630 followed by a series of events, which led to developing the city into what it is today. Bostonians were determined to develop the city by erecting structures around a port.
As the area grew, more needs emerged, evoking the need for industries for the manufacture of consumables and other products. This essay analyses the transformation and modernization in Boston from 1950 to 1970.
By the year 1950, the city began experiencing a wide range of transformations. There were countable major buildings that were erected in the city. Importantly, most of manufacturing industries found it hard to operate in the city because of high cost of production.
As a result, a number of them closed their operations and shifted to the southern side of the city, where labor was believed to be affordable. During this time, Boston had several assets including but not limited to hospitals, banks and learning institutions (O’Conner 37).
Politicians moved in to prevent continuous migration of people and relocation of manufacturing industries to the south by implementing urban renewal policies. The enactment of these regulations led to the elimination of neighborhoods like Scollay Square and the Old West End, which were dominantly occupied by Jews and Italians.
These neighborhoods were replaced with the Massachusetts General Hospital, Charles River Park and the Government Center. These policies contributed to the displacement of thousands people, disrupted business and triggered angry reactions (O’Conner 288).
By the year 1963, Boston had 536,986 jobs, while suburban regions registered higher growth for employment opportunities. It was evident that much of the economic growth of the city was occurring in non-urban regions due to affordable land and accessibility of this ring, enhanced by the Interstate Highway connection (O’Conner 79).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Easy highway access further made the manufacturing and distribution of goods to be cheaper and convenient as compared to the use of port and railway services. As a result, Boston became more boring, with people finding a lot of comfort in the outskirts of the city.
The city was also transformed by the kind of buildings, which were designed and constructed for commercial use. For instance, the construction of the Prudential Tower was initiated in 1960 (O’Conner 227). The building made world history upon its completion.
It emerged to be the tallest building in the world, with an exclusion of New York City skyscrapers. This bred rival that led to the construction of John Hancock Tower that was completed in 1975. It surpassed the Prudential Tower by 240m to emerge as the tallest building in the city to-date.
The city also advanced in terms of education. The year 1964 saw the establishment of the University of Massachusetts Boston, with classes being launched in September of 1965. An opening convocation for the institution was conducted in December 1966 in Boston.
However, the University of Massachusetts Boston joined forces with Boston State College in 1982. In addition, the city advanced the establishment of Phoenix Publishers, which was founded by Hanlon Joe in 1965.
This turned out to be a boost in the city’s publication sector. In 1970, Boston opened the Giant Ocean Tank in 1970 as the largest tank of its nature in the world. Importantly, the modernization and transformation of Boston has remained a continuous process.
Boston in the 1960’s In 1960s Boston continued to experience transformation and development in various ways. Economical, social and political factors played a major role during this period. In 1960, the State Legislature expanded Chapter 121A to allow tax breaks on development projects, a move that encouraged development, as the city shared the financial risks on the projects.
We will write a custom Essay on The History of Boston specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importantly, this law was first applied during the construction of the famous Prudential Center (O’Conner 178). Together with other office buildings, the city was able to pull jobs and services, which became the backbone of the city’s economy.
The name of John Frederick Collins is also common in Boston’s 1960s history, who served as the mayor of Massachusetts for eight years, starting in 1960 (O’Conner 210). During 1959 mayoral elections, he was viewed by analysts as an underdog.
After exiting active politics in 1968, Collins held several professorship roles at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for thirteen years. In 1961, Boston witnessed the opening of the Callahan tunnel.
It is said that the tunnel was named in memory of William Callahan’s son, who was killed before end of WWII. In 1962, the Scollay Square was named in honor of William Scollay, who was a militia officer and developer in 1795.
Similarly, 1962 saw the rise of the Boston Strangler, who was responsible for several murders of single women in Massachusetts in 1960s. Even though Albert De Salvo was convicted for most of the murders, investigative findings indicated that crimes might have been committed by a gang and not an individual criminal achievement.
In a span of less than a year starting 1962, the Boston Area registered thirteen murders of women who had been sexually assaulted and strangled with stockings (Lambert 1).
Due to lack of evidence, it was always assumed that those who committed the crimes were familiar to the victims since there was no sign of forceful entry into the apartments. This became a major security threat, forcing a large number of women to relocate to other residential areas.
In 1964, the city was also transformed by the kind of buildings, which were designed and constructed for commercial use. The construction of the Prudential Tower was initiated in 1960 (O’Conner 227). The building made world history upon its completion.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Boston by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It emerged to be the tallest building in the world, with an exclusion of New York City skyscrapers. This bred rival that led to the construction of John Hancock Tower that was completed in 1975. It surpassed the Prudential Tower by 240m to emerge as the tallest building in the city to-date.
Additionally, the history of Boston in 1960s cannot be complete without the mention of the strides the city made in advancing the education sector. The year 1964 saw the establishment of the University of Massachusetts Boston. An opening convocation for the institution was conducted in December 1966 in Boston.
However, University of Massachusetts Boston joined forces with Boston State College in 1982. In addition, the city advanced through the establishment of Phoenix Publishers, which was founded by Hanlon Joe in 1965.
In 1968, Kelvin White was elected as the mayor of Boston, a post he held for sixteen years. The 1960s history of Boston ended with the construction of the Boston City Hall and the New England Aquarium in 1969 (Lambert 1).
Busing Crisis in Bolton from 1974 to 1988 This was a period of protests in Boston after the endorsement of the 1965 Racial Imbalance Act, which banned racial segregation in schools. According to the act’s implementation plan, students from “white” regions were to be bused to public schools predominated by black students and vice versa.
This declaration triggered fury among white people in Boston, leading to intensive riots across the country as people expressed their dissatisfaction with the court’s ruling. These riots caused a lot of trouble as public disturbance dominated. As a result, the act led to a significant demographic change in Boston as most white people enrolled their children in private schools, which were exempted from the law (Hornburger 235).
It is important to note that the ruling by Judge Garrity in 1974 came after a recurrence of cases of segregation in public schools. This became rampant despite the fact that segregation was unconstitutional. It gave the judge a chance to develop a plan for the implementation of the Racial Imbalance Act, which had been developed before by the State Legislature.
The law required all public schools to balance the enrollment of students according to racial identity to prevent the domineering of a single race in some schools (Hornburger 235). Despite the adoption of the rule, most Boston School Committees ignored it and acted contrary to the provisions of the regulations.
The plan to ferry students from different areas for the purpose of racial balance was therefore considered as the only way to implement the act. By the end of his tenure, Judge Garrity made history, for introducing a famous and influential education system in the history of the United States.
The conflict which erupted, mainly affected learning programs in Irish-American neighborhoods of South Boston, West Roxbury, Hyde Park, Dorchester, Roslindale and Charlestown. Additionally, the Italian-American neighborhood was also affected, with the North End region suffering most.
During this time, schools that were far from Boston were not adversely hit as those bordering the city. This was mainly because of the presence of very small minority groups of people (Hornburger 236).
Amazingly, part of the Judge’s ruling was to bus a whole junior class from South Boston School to a black, Roxbury High School. Additionally, half of the freshmen were to attend the other school, while senior students were allowed to make a choice and attend a school of their preference.
It is important to note that the implementation of the act was met with low turn-up of students as parents continuously protested on a daily basis, leading to the cancellation of a football season. Consequently, black and white students began using different bus doors as anti-busing pressure mounted.
Opponents of the implementation plan argued that the idea was meant to affect the poor. For instance, they mentioned that the architects of the bill had not been affected as their children remained in white schools. Moreover, many schools registered low attendance as it was believed that some parents transferred their students to regions that were not affected by the law.
Violence became severe as opposing groups attacked each other. Nevertheless, South Boston High School was the most hit with the violence, forcing it close down for some time, introduced metal detectors and hired five hundred police officers against four hundred students who reported back after the closure (Hornburger 236).
Works Cited Hornburger, Jane. “Deep are the Roots: Busing in Boston.” The Journal of Negro Education 45. 3 (1976): 235-245. Print.
Lambert, Tim. A Brief History of Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Local Histories, 2012. Web.
O’Conner, Thomas. Building a New Boston: Politics and Urban Renewal 1950 to 1970. New Hampshire: UPNE, 1995. Print.
Is the Rise of China a Threat or an Opportunity for Europe? Analytical Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Perceptions concerning China’s rise
China’s Economic Prospects
Europeans view on China’s rise
Introduction The rise of China has become one of the most important phenomena taking place in the world. Policy makers and international relations scholars have come up with numerous debates due to the rise of China. The history of the Chinese government stretches over years, but it is not short of powerful dynasties.
Most countries perceived the Chinese government as a great power in the 1940s. This perception was because of the efforts that were coming from United States, which was meant to enhance the status of China as a great power.
This was done in order for China to counterbalance other countries, which had great power like the Japanese government (Blankert, p. 50). This paper focuses on the aspect of the rise of China and whether it is a threat to European countries.
Perceptions concerning China’s rise China’s rise has raised concerns among many policy makers. This is because of the various threats that have emerged from this aspect. Such threats have been identified as China’s economic threat, military threat, energy threat, and civilization threat among others.
The perception of China being a threat has existed for some time now. For example, in 1949, the United States perceived china as a great enemy. The fact that China’s economy is opening up to the outside world can be regarded as a threat or an opportunity.
China should not be underestimated at any point because it has large reserves for foreign exchange and surpluses in trade. Its increased capability to manufacture various products enabled the country to be ranked among the leading countries in the world economy (Xing, p.59).
As pointed out by Lardy, China’s current market not only presents great opportunities for most of the businesses in Europe, but also the United States (para. 7). This is because the large business opportunities in China outweigh the loss of most jobs from Europe and the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has made Europe have a lot fear because this means that they will experience job drain to China. The rapidly expanding economic growth and large involvement in global trade have made China rise economically. This has also been contributed to by direct investments inflows from foreign countries.
The European economy has come up with policies that try to react to China’s rise due to the fear they hold against China. Europe’s fear stems from the realization that Europe is in the midst of banking and sovereign debt crisis. The assertions in Europe by some policymakers over the European relations China have raised some questions.
This is because of the approach used by the European countries to emphasize on conditionality and encouragement of quality governance. Again, it is because of the approach of the Chinese to put emphasis on investment in infrastructure.
The Chinese analysts noted that the real source of economic threat was the Europeans. This is because the Europeans were still in fear of the developments realized by the Chinese government both economically and in military dimension. Cooney and Yoichir believed that China was too weak to threaten the western power (p. 16).
However, according to other policy makers, China is associated with numerous threats. China is said to be a threat to America and Japan, which serves as an affirmation to China’s national identity. In this case, the Chinese views the rise of China as a result of a pursuit of China’s rejuvenation.
This rejuvenation is the psychological power which was embodied in the concept of China’s rise. This is reflected in the strong belief of the Chinese that the rise of China is meant to restore the lost status rather than gaining any new prospects.
Therefore, the rise of China as viewed by Chinese is meant to restore fairness instead of taking advantage of other countries. This explains why the Chinese people are yearning for increased advancement of their economy, which is too weak for China to go back to its position (Cooney and Yoichir, p. 58).
We will write a custom Essay on Is the Rise of China a Threat or an Opportunity for Europe? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More China’s Economic Prospects China’s gross domestic product had grown higher than in the past years when the country’s economic reform program was officially launched. China has had the fastest long term rate of growth as compared to countries worldwide.
Therefore, this has elicited a lot of fear in the neighboring countries like Japan, the US, and Europe. This has made the country expand and maintain its growth even in times of global recession. For example, in the year 2002, the expansion of Chinese economy was ten times higher than that of Japan.
This made China be ranked third in the world economy. Again, the external trade in China has also expanded more than its economy has expanded. This has been reflected in the country’s openness. For example, in the year 1977, China contributed to 0.6 percent of the overall world trade, which ranked it the seven largest in the global economy.
China’s trade performance had been very strong for quite some time since 1980s until 2001 when it shrank and began again to recover in 2002. Another factor that contributes to China’s rise is the inflows of foreign direct investment.
This signaled China’s intention to open its economic sector after emerging the best in a joint venture law that triggered the creation of special economic zones. China’s economy continues to create a surprise to the neighboring countries.
This is because even when the global inflows continue to decline to low levels, the inflows to China continue to increase at a high rate. This has made China’s economy pose a threat to its neighbors. Although this can be a great threat to its neighbors, it is fair to say that its improved economic performance is not a clear guarantee of its success (Lardy, para. 8).
Europeans view on China’s rise The rise of China leaves most of the countries with a great opportunity that is not limited to its economic coverage area. Some countries like the United States have resorted to frequent use of military solutions because of the slow process of diplomacy. China’s rise is aimed at power restoration and hence stability of the whole region.
Some manufacturers and labor unions blame the factory jobs lost in European countries to the rapidly rising bilateral trade deficit that the European countries have with the Chinese government. The European governments continue to wonder what negative consequences that the rise of China will have on them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the Rise of China a Threat or an Opportunity for Europe? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that the Europeans have the fear that China’s economic development will threaten their security. This has made the European countries consider China as a strategic threat. Some of the economists resolve that Europe should make an agreement on the sale of products within their territories.
They should limit sale of any product that is of low standard. They should also increase job opportunities in their home country and stop Chinese from exploiting cheap currency (Cooney and Yoichir, p. 19).
With its present rate of rising gross domestic product, china would soon go beyond Europe as it has happened with Japan. This is because the Chinese government acquires resources from various regions in the globe so as to increase the investments on infrastructure.
It is also working on its currency as it targets the European currency, which is its strength. Some other scholars have resolved that they do not see China as a great threat to the European economy. This is because Europe can also form its own foreign policies and a good relationship with China.
This can work out well and be beneficial if its structures are well galvanized. On the other hand, Europeans have reason to say that China is a threat to global stability more than the United States and other countries like Iran. This threat is not only viewed from the economic point of view, but from the military perspective.
The Chinese government has been developing high-tech weaponry that threatens the Europeans. Their main objective in this is to project power at a given time (Lardy, para. 13).
Again, China’s adequate labor and the absence of restraints in the environmental and the social sector mean that the country can threaten the whole world. These unfair acts are diminishing most of jobs in the entire world. Also, its demand, which has remained unsatisfied, has raised oil and mineral prices in the world.
Another threat is the fact that China makes use of its economic power to hook up other countries. Its high investments have secured unhealthy acts across most countries in Africa. This has given it the power to make use of other countries’ economic resources and cause exploitation to their efforts.
This has further been a great threat to Europe because China has engaged in colonization of some European countries. This has been witnessed where China has taken control of companies from the Portuguese. They have also taken the Greek ports and other opportunities because of the high economic power.
In addition, China has hindered the spread of democratic values by the Europeans. On the same note, China’s economic progress undermines the European aspirations. This has seen China become an inspiration to other countries (Shi, p. 213).
The rise of China has presented threats and opportunities not only for Europe, but also to the general global economy. The fact that it has an expanding trade has made it an engine of growth. This is because of the large amounts of capital goods that are imported and equipment used in the industry’s processing units.
China has also become an important market for most of the Europeans firms giving European a great challenge. Again, it has been found to be a challenge to most of the countries producing manufactured goods that require a lot of labor.
Such countries have started to invest directly in China resulting to unemployment in the home countries. On the other hand, China is determined to be among the leading global economic powers, and this will make restore its international pride. This is likely to be a threat than an opportunity to the Europeans.
Despite many uncertainties brought about by the neighboring countries, the Chinese still believe that they will realize their great power dream. If the rise of China is taken as the country’s restoration, then China will reject the threat theory by Europeans and refer to it as western prejudice.
It still appears that the Chinese are still confident of casting themselves as having responsible, great power (Hauser, p. 66). This is what helps China to be in a position of addressing other continents’ concerns as pertains to its rise. Again, from the European perspective, it is clear that the European countries will only accept the China’s economic growth and its rise so as to avoid seeing it as a threat to their economies.
This will change the European perception towards China’s rise in an effort to reap some benefits from this move. This is only possible if the two players are ready to form strong economic ties (Schmitt, p.104).
Conclusion The Europeans should see China’s rise as playing a very significant role in the world by recovering the economy. Therefore, they should allow China to take some roles in world affairs. This will contribute to a great advancement in science and technology in the world. Therefore, the rise of China can be heralded as having made positive contributions to the world.
Although China is causing displacement of production in the European market, the challenge is not great. As has been discussed, there is no doubt that China’s rise has led to loss of job opportunities. This has forced the European economy to adjust to this aspect.
Therefore, the rise of China can be viewed with mixed signals. It can be seen as a threat, as well an opportunity. However, the Europeans should take it as an opportunity so as to turn around and reap benefits that can be drawn from this phenomenon.
Works Cited Blankert, Jan W. China Rising: Will the West Be Able to Cope: The Real Long-Term Challenge of the Rise of China. Singapore: World Scientific, 2009. Print.
Cooney, Kevin and Sato Yoichiro. The rise of China and international security: America and Asia respond. New York: Routeledge pub. 2009. Print.
Hauser, Gunther. China: The Rising Power. Frankfurt, M: Lang, 2009. Print.
Lardy, Nicholas. The Economic Rise of China: Threat or Opportunity? 2003. Web.
Schmitt, Gary J. The Rise of China: Essays on the Future Competition. New York: Encounter Books, 2009. Print.
Shi, Wei. Intellectual Property in Global Trading System: Eu-China Perspective. Berlin: Springer Berlin, 2008. Print.
Xing, Li. The Rise of China and the Capitalist World Order. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Pub. Co. 2010. Print.
Cost Effective and Sustainable Practices for Project Construction in the UAE Proposal essay help online: essay help online
Rational The construction industry is a major sector of the economy that impacts heavily on the livelihoods of many people. UAE is a region that has witnessed tremendous growth in the construction industry. This industry employees many immigrants and make use of resources from different parts of the world (Weber, 2005).
As a result, several challenges crop up as growth in the industry is sustained. The most important challenges that need to be tackled are cost effectiveness and sustainable practices (Bliss, 2006). The demand for construction resources has driven up the prices of construction materials and as a result, we need to come up with means of tackling costs.
Sustainability involves analyzing several factors in the process of managing construction projects (Sassi, 2006). Sustainability involves the protection of the environment through the use of different strategies that ensure the environment is protected to a great extent.
The pollution of the water, air and the soil should be minimized and every project should involve a sustainability manager. Sustainability will enable the minimization of costs from different aspects such as reduced cost of energy, water use and other forms of cost savings (VanDerZanden, 2011).
The process of ensuring cost effectiveness in relation to environment sustainability looks into minimizing costs associated with construction. One of the best methods of minimizing costs is to ensure all the major construction activities occur at site (Gorgenländer, 2010).
One of the examples in the minimizing of costs was the construction of the high rise Burj Al Khalifa and Burj Al Arabi projects. Most of the construction activities were conducted on site and this minimized costs associated with transportation, labour costs since there was a lot of time savings (Cavanaubh, 2010).
Huge projects such as the Burj Al Khalifa minimize costs by ensuring that all infrastructural requirements are centred within the project site. The Burj Al Khalifa is an example of a cost effective project and from this project we learn on how to plan on cost savings (Halliday, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, in the process of saving costs, construction project make use of technology to minimize workforce and wasted man hour that would be used if human resources were deployed. The Burj Al Khalifa made use of numerous technologies that meant the project finished on time and saved on a lot of costs (Uqaili, 2011).
Sustainability is a task that ensures minimal destruction is meted on the environment while at the same time a task/project will eventually lead to cost savings. The newest trend in construction is to ensure buildings make use of minimal energy and save a lot on waste production (Edgerton, 2008).
Water is a scarce resource in the UAE and therefore this resource has to be used effectively. Projects such as the Burj Al Khalifa have put in place measures whereby electricity consumption is minimized through use of solar panels that reduce energy consumption (Uqaili, 2011).
Renewable energy and use of creative architecture has ensured new buildings minimize waste production. For instance, buildings such as the Burj Khalifa and the Burj Al Arabi have their own water treatment plants for the re-use of water.
Moreover, these buildings are designed to make use of little air conditioning as a result a lot of energy is saved. Making use of enough lightening in buildings ensures that less energy is spent on lighting and in the end it ensures environmental sustainability (Curwell, 2008).
Aim The main aim of the project is to find out cost effective means and ways of minimizing costs and ensuring sustainable development in the UAE.
Objectives The objectives of the task could be divided into general and specific objectives as shown below:
We will write a custom Proposal on Cost Effective and Sustainable Practices for Project Construction in the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More General Objectives
Clarify what sustainability is and its relevance and importance in the UAE construction industry.
Find out what sustainable measures and practices that are adopted by the UAE construction and their effectiveness in projects.
Judge the cost-benefit-analysis of sustainable construction and the efficiency of how such projects are run.
Come up with policies that ensure environmental sustainability markers are met within the construction industry in UAE.
Develop and maintain standards and strategies that ensure regulation of cost in the construction industry in UAE.
Develop environmental sustainability markers that ensure the environment is protected and hence costs of construction are minimized.
Hypothesis The attainment of sustainable practice in the construction companies and that the efficiency and cost effectiveness of sustainability in the construction field is possible only with the adoption of the current sustainable construction practices.
Research methodology Literature Review
Literature review will be from books, journals, reports, presentations, and websites in order to:
Describe the importance of sustainability
Discuss the environmental impacts by the current construction industry.
Discuss the current practices with construction in the UAE and its impact to the environment.
Explore cost effective and sustainable practices with construction in the UAE.
Establish the relation between Sustainability and Cost benefits with construction.
Data for the writing of the dissertation is majorly collected from the secondary sources. In addition, the information is majorly found online through the internet apart from just a few pieces which are collected through interviews and questionnaires.
After collecting all the data, it is necessary to ensure that they are analyzed using the relevant analytical tools. The quantitative data will be analyzed using online software called the SPSS. Qualitative data will be examined as well, and interpretations will be given.
Writing the research report
A conclusive report, conclusions and recommendations in line with the report will be compiled. The report can aid several departments and sectors make decisions that are likely to register improvements in the construction sector.
Dissertation structure Introduction
This chapter includes the rationale, aim and objectives of the research study and the hypothesis is presented. In addition outline research methodology and the outline structure of this dissertation is also displayed in this chapter.
Sustainability and Built Environment
This chapter describes the importance of sustainability in the built environment in terms of various impacts due to increasing level of CO2 emissions by the current trend, and the necessity to reduce the CO2 emissions in the UAE.
This chapter further discusses the relationship between sustainability and competitive advantage in business and guidelines to implement sustainability in the construction industry. An overview of sustainable constructions and its benefits upon implementation within the construction industry is also discussed in this chapter.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cost Effective and Sustainable Practices for Project Construction in the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Construction Industry and Its Impact on the Environment
This chapter details how the construction industry contributes towards the impact on the environment and presents the current strategy with UAE construction industry and its impact to the environment.
Sustainable Practices for Construction in the UAE
This chapter explores the regional geology of UAE and current practices with construction. The chapter also discusses various sustainable practices for constructions in the UAE to achieve cost-effectiveness and CO2 emission reductions. Benefits of sustainable construction practices and barriers to implement these practices with constructions in the UAE are also described in this chapter.
Research design and methods
This chapter describes research strategies and details the chosen methods for data collection and analysis.
Research results and analysis
This chapter presents the research results obtained from various sources and compares the analysis with the literature review.
Conclusions and recommendation
This chapter presents the conclusions based on the findings from the research. The limitations of this study and further recommendations also form part of this chapter.
This chapter lists the references used throughout this research study.
References Bliss, S., 2006. Best practices guide to residential construction, materials, finishes, and details. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
Volvo Management Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Organizations are part and parcel of every society. This is because human beings are involved in the process of forming organizations with the aim of attaining certain objectives. In essence, human beings are social animals who have the tendency of organizing and ensuring that their affairs are managed within their anticipated objectives.
This is usually done in light of the complex and dynamic environment. For organizations to function there is need to have management. Management is the ability to plan and set down goals and objectives with the goal of ensuring that the set standards are realized within the available resources and opportunities. Organizational change
Change is a complex process. This is because it is more complex than human behavior. Thus, there cannot be a single specified approach which can be regarded as the solution to managing these changes. In essence, a change technique which is applicable in one organization may not necessarily be applicable in another organization.
Organizations are different in many aspects these aspects include the work culture, management and leadership styles, structure and design, employees and their expectations not forgetting the customers who are served within these organizations.
These factors which are dynamic in nature define the entire organizational platform. Thus, for a change to be implemented effectively, one should ensure that the set approaches with regard to the changes are congruent with the dynamics, complexity and the uniqueness of the organization.
What is change? There is a common statement which holds the belief that there is nothing as constant as change. In this regard, there is need to establish what change means. From one perspective, change may imply dissatisfaction with what may considered to be the old and belief in the new.
Dissatisfaction arises from many aspects or sectors. These dissatisfactions may be associated with the perceived deficiency in the approaches which are in use within a given organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, deficiency implies the inability of a system to respond to environmental pressures and the technological impacts. Consequently, change underlies a qualitatively different way of perceiving, thinking and behaving and to improve over the past and the present.
Essentially, change may be perceived in two ways. First, change may be conceived as a continuous and intrinsic to an organization. This means that the changes which are observed within an organization are minute though they are continuous over a given period of time as the organization grows and develops.
In this case, an organization is viewed as state of flux where the elements of its systems and subsystems are always undergoing subtle changes. These changes are minute though they account for major organizational changes which are observed after a given duration of time.
Secondly, change may be viewed as extrinsic and discontinuous. In this case, organizations are viewed as normatively stable structures and change perceived as disruptive, forcing organizations to modify, restructure or reconfigure.
In this case, certain changes occur abruptly and quickly while others take time to occur. In this case they are slow and can be anticipated. In this regard, organizations just like human beings have got certain thresholds for these changes.
Situations where the impacting forces are extremely forceful for organizations present cases where the organizations need to adjust. This is because when these forces are beyond the tolerance level of the organization then progress is usually at the mercy of these forces.
Some organizations are usually not able to adapt to these changes, while others are usually able to maneuver through these changes and come out strong. This is usually a consequence of the creative and drastic changes which are normally taking place.
We will write a custom Case Study on Volvo Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Managing change In order to survive and eventually prosper, organizations must have the mechanisms which monitor and evaluate the environmental dynamics which are playing out. This is a proactive measure which is based on the fact that there are times when these changes could be abrupt and forceful that the organization may not be in a position of adjusting to them in good time.
Thus, the ability to monitor and adjust to these changes in time is an important aspect which needs to be put in place in order to ensure that the objectives of the organization are realized. In essence, successful organizations are not organizations which believe in change per se, but rather they are organizations which are proactive when looming changes are observed.
Past success are important, however, what is more important is the aspect whereby the organization is privy to the fact that past success may not guarantee future progress or even success. Healthy organizations are organizations which are able to link up the past to the present, and the future with the present in dealing with change.
Continuity without change leads to stagnation, boredom and frustrations. Furthermore, stagnation is often associated with the decreased level or ability to adapt to environmental changes, ultimately leading to organizational crisis.
Being able to strike a balance with regard to the prevailing environment is a crucial aspect with regard to managing the changes which are desired. The process of managing change is known as coping with change. This process is not easy within any given organization.
This is until the process is characterized by change consciousness among the stakeholders within the organization. Change consciousness in this case focuses on focus, speed, boundarylesseness and goal elasticity.
Change consciousness is usually the understanding of the need or necessity for change. The fact that it is a continuous process entails retooling of strategy, process and people. This is usually done in light of rethinking about the process of having core competencies which are in line with the organization at hand.
Focus refers to the promptness with which the organization responds to internal and external demands and contingencies at all levels. In this case it represents speed in reaching customers, in being motivated and innovative to be able to meet the dynamics which are associated with the changes at hand.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Volvo Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Forces of change Organizations can be termed as systems which exist within a certain context. In this case these systems exist within the context of an external environment which is characterized by a dependent relationship where they interact in order to grow and survive.
Any factor in the environment that interferes with the organization’s ability to attract the human, financial and material resources it needs, or to produce and market its services or products becomes a force of change. Internal to itself, a number of forces operate in the organization that could facilitate or hinder its functions, processes and actions.
Organizations as systems are usually subject to two types of forces these include the external forces and the internal forces. External forces are forces which affect the organization from the outside. These include political, social, economic and competitive environment. On the other hand the internal forces are those which affect the organization from within. External forces
Political forces; politics plays a key role when it comes to the formulation of policies which inform the operation of an organization. In this case, a political faction might not hold ideologies which favor a certain trend of affairs while another might hold views which uphold and sustain a given trend of affairs.
In this case, when a political approach is taken it depends on the views of the political class. For instance, the laws which are passed are usually influenced by the politics of the day. Thus this ends playing a key role regarding the politics of the day.
Economic forces; economy is a major cause of change. Present and the perceived future changes influence the decisions and choices which are made within an organization.
For example, fluctuating interest rates, declining productivity, uncertainties arising from inflation or deflation, low capital investments, the fluctuating price of oil, recessions and the lowering of consumer confidence have a marked impact on different economies, therefore, on organizations.
Technological forces; the global changes are usually driven by the technological advancements. This century has witnessed dramatic changes which have revolutionalized the approaches which are taken. The world is presently characterized by dynamic and dramatic technological shifts.
The technological shifts and changes particularly in the communication and the information and technology sector have played a key role in organizational changes.
The work place has changed and thus the organizations have also changed. This has resulted in having a different set of affairs with regard to the services which are offered. It is also worth mentioning that advances in technology have contributed to the development of economies.
Government forces; governments play a major role when it comes to changes which are being witnessed within any sector. Governmental interventions in the form of regulations also lead to change. Some of the influences which the government has include deregulations which are put in place by the government.
Deregulation is the lessening of the government rules and the process of increasing decentralization of economic intervention at the level of the state. Foreign laws always play a major role. Foreign exchange affects international trades which in turn affects organizations which are involved in these kinds of trade.
Volvo’s Management Revolt Does the proposed merger between Volvo and Renault discussed in the case represent planned change or unplanned change? Briefly explain
In essence to change is to move from one state to another. In addition, to change is to move from the present to the future, from a known state to a relatively unknown state. In the case, of Volvo, the change is to move from the state of independence to a state of dependence.
This would come as a result of a merger between Volvo and Renault companies. There are different types of change. Planned change or developmental change is change which is usually undertaken to improve the current ways of operation.
It is usually arrived at as a consequence of a calculated change. It is aimed at achieving a certain desired output or performance and to make the organization more responsive to the internal and external demands. In the case of Volvo’s merger, it was a form of unplanned change.
This is because despite the fact that the change was based on the realization that the organization was realizing the objectives which it had set in terms of car production and sales.
The change was reactionary and it was intended to avert the challenge that Volvo was facing regarding the sale of cars. The main aim of this change was for the survival of the organization. This eventually led to giving the long term objectives of the organization secondary considerations which were not embraced by most of the stakeholders within the company.
What were the major personal and organizational barriers to organizational change which led Volvo to back out of the merger?
There are many factors which influence the process of change within an organization. In this case, there are some aspects which hindered the process from taking place. The major factor that hindered this process was the prevailing market conditions that were observed.
The employees who were against the merger leaked documents which indicated that Renault did not have a steady intention of a merger. In addition, the prevailing conditions within the Renault Company were not appealing. As an organization, Renault was facing harsh economic times as compared to Volvo. Thus, most felt that joining hands with Renault would not be a wise move.
Secondly, technological advancement was also an issue that arose from the merger. The technological ambitions of these two companies were not in tandem. This was characterized by consistent disagreements when it came to the joint work which was being done by these companies.
Thus, some stakeholders within the Volvo ranks felt that there was something lacking which hindered the process which was being done. Thirdly, there was government interference whereby the French government was not clear whether the company would be privatized on not.
Thus the Volvo group felt that not all issues were being tabled and this hindered the process which was under consideration. The decision to cancel the merger with Renault left deep division in Volvo and some accusations of betrayal and duplicity. What could Volvo have done differently to avoid some of the bitterness that resulted?
Communication is fundamental for any process of change to take place. In this case, communication channels were deficient. Communication was not clear and not everyone was privy to the process thus it was treated with a lot of suspicion. In essence, the leadership of Volvo could have carried out a survey from all the stakeholders to identify the major reasons and challenges which were being faced by this organization.
This would enable everyone to give their views and suggestions which would have paved way for a more inclusive approach in the decision which would have been made. Eventually, the process would have taken place based on mutual understanding.
Based on the information presented in the case study, what can we infer about the organizational culture at Volvo?
What comes out regarding the organizational culture at Volvo is that this is a company where communication is limited. In addition, not everyone is given an opportunity to air out their views reading the future of the organization.
As a consequence there is strife when it comes to make major changes within the organization. What can be inferred from this case study is that communication and consultation are invaluable assets when it comes to running a successful organization. Thus, in everything that is done within any organization, one should always seek to create an atmosphere which favors consultation towards a given objective.
References Cummings, T. G.,
Analysis of ‘Rule of the Bone’ by Russell Banks Essay (Book Review) a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Author’s Perspective on Family
Role of Family in Child Upbringing
Introduction The novel Rule of the Bone by Russell Banks highlights various themes that relate to parenthood and children upbringing. The protagonist, Chappie is a perfect teenager whose criminal mentality begins at childhood.
Banks uses Chappie to highlight the theme of family institution and the effects of poor parenthood. This book review discusses Banks’ perspective on the family. The paper also highlights the failures and successes of family in inculcating values in their children.
Author’s Perspective on Family From the onset, the author points out the importance of the family institution in inculcating the right morals to children. According to Banks, Chappie’s family is broken. His father left his mother when he was still a young boy aged five years and rarely sends assistance to the family.
Although she could have sued his father for failing to send alimony for his son, she does not want him in jail. The rationale is that the assistance would not be forthcoming in any case during his jail term.
Besides, she does not want Chappie to become the “laughing stock” in their town if his father becomes a jailbird. As such, Chappie’s mother failed to sue his biological father who at the time was engaged to Rosalie and had abdicated his parental obligations.
Additionally, his mother gets married to Ken whom according to the protagonist is an alcoholic who has made his mother to begin drinking. His reference to Chappie as ‘him’ displays his lack of interest in the upbringing of his adopted child.
Undoubtedly, Chappie grows to believe that he belongs to his mother in contrary to the belief that his stepfather contributed considerably to his life. As such, the author uses the opening of the novel to show the impact of a broken home on a child.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author holds the perspective that the family is vital for home’s stability and essential to upbringing of a teenager. Due to poor parenting, Chappie gets lost in the world of drugs and fails in school. Indeed, he rarely attends school and views school’s punishment as an opportunity to go and get high alongside Russ and the bikers (Banks 12).
His family seems dismayed by his failure to pass his exams but rarely follows up on his interaction patterns. At his age, he smokes high amounts of weed that a cautious parent will be quick to notice and offer guidance. However, Banks says the family suspects that he is on drugs but shows no intent of planning an exit from the world of drugs (13).
It is apparent that the author depicts Chappie’s family as unable to handle him and offers him ‘independence’ that he yearns for at a young age. As every teenager would attest, freedom from their parents’ rules and regulations is an important aspect of their lives that they feel is overemphasized.
The author therefore uses this platform to show the effect of uncontrolled sense of autonomy amongst teenagers. Due to increased sense of freedom, Chappie fails to see his life beyond drugs. The author however does not blame him for his poor judgment.
On the contrary, he shows that the failure of his family to provide quality upbrinbging has made Chappie a ‘junkie’ who struggles to do what is right but has already internalized an aspect of criminality within him. Banks argues that Chappie had lost his way at the age of six years (14). This is an age that the parents would always be in control of their children, which is no longer the case in the novel.
Despite his unbecoming behavior, his mother and Ken put up with him and fail to give the required guidance to his life. There are various instances that his family undermines the value of proper parenthood. First, Ken and his mother attribute his failure in the education system to his inability to make the right choices.
They rebuke his failure but take no significant steps to enhance his educational success (17). Besides, the author is on point to show that Chappie’s theft of souvenir-coins of his grandmother is not well handled in the context of his family.
We will write a custom Book Review on Analysis of ‘Rule of the Bone’ by Russell Banks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His mother only manages to cry while Ken uses violence to assert his convictions. They do not even recognize the level of addiction that is in Chappie. In addition, when Chappie is caught shoplifting, her mother helps him out and moreover, she gives into the demands of her son who demands twenty dollars to get high on weed (Banks13).
Banks is on point for highlighting the materialistic aspect of family institutions. Chappie is kicked out of his home by his parents and seeks refuge in Russ’s house.
Despite his behavior, he knows how to be accepted back into the family. He buys expensive Christmas presents for his mother and Ken. When he brings the presents to them, they overlook his criminality and welcome him home (Banks 23).
In other words, his family believes that Christmas presents brought by Chappie reflect his improved behavior. The author appraises this characteristic of the family. The role of the parents according to Banks has reduced to materialism and obsession with presents and gifts from their children. They do not even think of the source of the presents, instead they readily accept them and in this case, invite Chappie to stay with them.
Banks is not completely disappointed with Chappie throughout the novel. This is because he gets an alternative family that provides him with the ability to change leading to his success in Jamaica. His association with Russ and the bikers is more fulfilling as an ideal family than it is with his mother and stepfather.
When he is kicked out of his home, Russ offers him a place to sleep while Hector helps him to be on his feet by giving him weed to sell (Banks 57). It is here that his involvement with the bikers becomes apparent and he is able to rebuild his life. Although the bikers turned their backs on him and denied him a place to sleep, he turns from a villain to a hero.
According to Banks, he saves the life of a young woman in the streets and assumes a positive character although it is still embedded in criminality (73). As such, the author perceives an ideal family as capable of identifying the right platform for their children to prosper. In this case, Chappie gets it in an environment of drugs.
Role of Family in Child Upbringing It is also worth mentioning that the author’s point of view regarding a family has switched drastically throughout the novel. At the end, Bone is successful and lives like a king in Jamaica. He is able to assert his decisions on the click of friends that he holds. Indeed, this marks his fall out with Russ whom for long had assumed the role of leadership (Banks 139).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of ‘Rule of the Bone’ by Russell Banks by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the series of adventures that ensue, Bone carries himself with dignity leading to the apparent dependence of characters like Rose on him. Despite the author’s depiction of poor parenting as a causative factor of criminal mentality, he portrays Bone in the second part of the book as successful in his efforts to quit drugs and shun bad influences (Banks 142).
Banks therefore underplays the role of the family in the eventual success of an individual. Bone represents this assertion in the sense that he rarely depends on his family to become independent.
The role of the family narrows down to showing a child his/her way out of criminality. However, the same families have for too long been ignorant of their children’s activities. Chappie’s family provides a ground for child abuse and negligence.
His stepfather sexually, physically and psychologically abuses him in a myriad of instances (Banks 14). Coupled with his nagging mother, Chappie’s chances of becoming a responsible and a diligent teenager are hugely reduced.
To that end, the book portrays family as an institution that is detrimental to welfare of a child if not well managed. Bone finds out his way out from gangs and it becomes clear that his family was the source of his woes. This further asserts the authors perception that family institution is not immensely necessary for success.
Notwithstanding Bone’s success, critics would point out that it is embedded in criminality and illegal activities. He sells weed when living in the streets and engages in activities such as shoplifting that clearly depicts him as a deviant member of any society.
This implies therefore that the perception that Banks creates when he depicts Bone as a pointer of success is far from reality. He rises by leading street crooks since he is one of them. I-Man is an example of a character whose conviction in Rastafarianism had led him to drug addiction yet he remains a close partner of Bone.
Hence, the role of family institution is amplified as Bone succeeds as a crook, which is not considered and celebrated by society. Nonetheless, self-determination and self – realization are the behavioral traits that the author points out as necessary for shrugging off criminality.
Summary In sum, Banks asserts that the contemporary family institution is unable to cope with teenagers. This is due to its characteristics that include violence, alcoholism, materialism and lack of love. In the novel, they have facilitated Chappie to be free and make liberal choices.
As such, Chappie’s criminality emerges from his family’s negligence. However, the author introduces an alternative family for Chappie in the streets. This is where he turns to become successful. The role of his family is not emphasized in the second part of the book as it becomes clear that Bone had succeeded in life.
Although he was able to withdrawal from numerous addictions and bad influences, he remains a criminal. As such, the author concludes that the family has the mandate to provide their children with proper upbringing. Besides, it is upon teenagers to make ultimate decisions and choices regarding their lives.
Works Cited Banks, Russell. Rule of the Bone, New Hampshire: Harper Perennial Publishers, 1996. Print.
Challenges of Women in China Proposal college essay help online: college essay help online
Topic Paragraph In many societies, women are faced by challenges they have to deal with on a daily basis. Some of the challenges they face deprive them of their capacity to sustain their livelihoods hence compelling them to lead lives of poverty.
In China, women who live in rural areas prone to floods go through a lot of suffering when the floods occur (Du and Zheng 75). Some of the factors that make them suffer include lack of planning on how to mitigate the effects of floods and inadequate disaster preparedness.
As a result, there is need for women to be empowered through various projects that attempt to reduce their vulnerability to natural disasters. Among the organizations that have taken the lead in addressing the challenges women face in China is China Women’s Development Foundation.
The foundation intends to work on a project that will deal with the challenges women are exposed to due to natural disasters. This detailed proposal provides the funding agency with a breakdown of how the project will be undertaken (Community Projects Funding 5).
Funding Agency and its Guidelines The funding agency to provide funds for the project is known as Women’s Hope and Education Trust. It is an international organization that funds women’s projects with the aim of empowering them and reducing some of the problems they go through.
The agency has a number of guidelines that should be followed in order for funds to be granted. The first guideline is that the group seeking the funds must have worked for at least two years and its membership must exceed eight people.
The second guideline is that there must be a guiding constitution for the group. The third guideline is that the group should demonstrate leadership qualities and preparedness to impact the community positively. The fourth guideline is that the group should prove its inability to pay the required money and finally, it should be ready to receive further training in educational institutions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature Review Project Summary
Most women in China are exposed to many social problems due to lack of financial resources and the fact that education chances for women are limited.
When natural calamities such as floods take place, people suffer with women bearing the brunt of such calamities hence the need to find ways to reduce the adverse effects that come with floods. In China, women who live in the river basins are exposed to high economic risks since such calamities occur repeatedly.
Despite the fact that the calamities are seasonal, once they occur women lose their livelihoods, housing and even deaths are recorded. This happens as a result of lack of enough planning, absence of organizational skills and ineffective strategies to mitigate against such disasters.
In order to deal with the unfortunate circumstances women find themselves in, Women’s Studies Institute in China intends to put in place mechanisms to counter the risks associated with such disasters and instead raise livelihood chances for the vulnerable women.
The project intends to build capacity for women living in disaster prone areas to assess economic risks, embrace strategies of coping with the disasters and reduce the losses associated with the disasters. In addition, the project will increase the chances of livelihood for women by improving their access to markets, elaborate planning, quality production and encouraging women to work collectively.
The project intends to boost new techniques of carrying out agricultural activities, make use of available subsectors and establish and support cooperatives with a strong emphasis on participation of women. Through the intervention, it is anticipated that women and the community at large will gain new skills that will sustainably improve their chances of livelihoods after disasters.
Women and other disadvantaged individuals in China who live in areas prone to floods are exposed to rising economic risks apart from having to deal with the difficult impacts of natural disasters. The nature of the land and topography in China exerts pressure on the environment hence it causes unexpected disasters such as floods.
We will write a custom Proposal on Challenges of Women in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such disasters affect women negatively and make their lives difficult due to lack of economic sustainability. Floods in China lead to destruction of agricultural land, displacement of biodiversity, reduction in the productivity of human health and loss of livestock. These occasional occurrences make women even more vulnerable, destroying their source of livelihoods and making their sustainability mechanisms unfruitful.
In addition, women more often concentrate on income generating activities that are not sustainable due to lack of enough planning, absence of organizational ideas and ineffective strategies of coping with the situations. As a result, there is need to put intervention measures in place in order to liberate the Chinese women who live in rural and vulnerable regions from the challenges they go through (Jacka and Sargeson 198).
Following a request from the funding agency, this proposal is developed to create and implement an intervention mechanism aimed at improving the lives of the Chinese women and enhance their livelihoods. The proposal discusses strategic approaches that will be used together with the efforts of other organizations in managing disasters and reducing the vulnerability of women.
The main contribution of the project will be the increase in livelihood chances for women, factoring in the natural calamities and working for a long-term sustainability for the vulnerable women. The project will look at the areas where women are vulnerable and marginalized and create strategies that will increase their knowledge and skills in sustaining themselves.
The project’s overall goal is creating better livelihoods for the Chinese women who face many challenges due to natural disasters and underdevelopment.
The following are the objectives the project intends to achieve:
Eliminate the economic risks that face women in rural areas as a result of natural calamities
Enhance the capacity of the targeted women to identify, produce, finance and market the agricultural products they produce.
Support the establishment of community-based organizations and develop strategies for marketing the products produced by the women in order to increase their sustainability.
The following results are expected to be achieved by the time the project will come to an end.
The women will have more knowledge on how natural disasters such as floods affect their economic sustainability.
They will also have adopted appropriate participatory strategies to mitigate against the effects of natural disasters on their lives.
In addition, the women will have acquired skills of managing the community-based activities aimed at improving their livelihoods.
There are a number of components that will be adopted by the project in an attempt to implement the project methodology and eventually achieve the desired goals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenges of Women in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Awareness and education on Disaster Preparedness The project will make arrangements for the women to be taught how to deal with disasters through workshops. This will boost their existing knowledge on disaster preparedness. The main focus will be the economic hurdles that are brought about by natural disasters.
Some of the mechanisms that will be used to prevent the losses that accompany such disasters include community insurance. This will be achieved through institutions owned and run by the community members especially women in order to reduce the economic burden associated with natural disasters.
However, this is a concept that will be designed after consulting the affected communities to assess the needs and risks and then incorporate a participatory approach. At this level, it will be the goal of the project to carry out research and create practices of community insurance to establish mechanisms of handling economic downturns occasioned by natural disasters.
Establishing Community-Based Organizations which are Sustainable Community based organizations make it possible for disaster interventions to be sustained for a long period of time. They are also responsible for promotion of good governance and equity.
The project will offer its support to ensure that community based organizations take up the role of disaster management and marketing strategies in a more systematic way to reduce the risks of natural disasters. By using planned intervention measures, education and awareness will be generated through cooperatives to benefit the women (Chen 92).
New Agricultural Techniques The project will strive towards the introduction of better irrigation mechanisms, cash-cropping methodologies and agro-forestry techniques. The vulnerable women will be provided with technical and financial assistance in order to effect the implementation of the techniques.
Provision of technical assistance will be participatory in nature and also through production strategies. In addition, the women farmers will be given opportunities to attend agricultural fairs and other exhibitions.
Works Cited Chen, Martha. Membership-Based Organizations of the Poor, Routledge New York: 2007. Print.
Community Projects Funding 2009. Web.
Du, Faghqin and Xinrhong Zheng. Women’s Studies in China:Mapping the Social, Economic and Policy Changes in Chinese Women’s Lives, Ewha Womans University Press: Seoul, 2005. Print.
Jacka, Tamara and Sally Sargeson. Women, gender and development in rural China, Edward Elgar Publishing: New York, 2011. Print.
The Challenges Faced by Leaders in Different Organizations Case Study scholarship essay help
Abstract This case study paper explores the challenges faced by leaders in different organizations. The characters of unethical charismatic leaders, which make them withstand critics and have avid followers, are highlighted in the first case study. In addition, factors that limit the board of directors and the chief executive, in making of decision that influence the running of an organization, are discussed in the second case study.
Introduction Charismatic leaders have the ability to win many followers on their side. They create a strong emotional bond with their followers. On the other hand, unethical charismatic leaders can lead their followers towards pursuing and endeavoring in detrimental visions and goals. On this first case study, the characters of these leaders that make them cope with criticisms are outlined.
The upper-echelon of leadership in an organization includes the chief executive office, the president, the board of directors and the executive managers. These top management executives create the policies of the organization and identify new opportunity in the market.
They interact with the external factors and internal factors that affect the operation of the organization. These leaders face tough challenges as they conduct their duties. These challenges are enlisted in the second case study of the Board of Directors (BOD) and CEO’s.
Standing up to a Charismatic but Unethical Leader Charismatic is the ability of person to possess extraordinary power to attract other people. In this case, a leader can command a large following by virtue of being charismatic (Nahavandi, 2011, p. 215). A strong bond holds both charismatic leaders and their followers together. This bond created can cause them to participate in ill-mannered activities at worst the followers can commit suicide.
Both ethical and unethical charismatic leaders have some common characters. They all have self-confidence and enthusiasm in their service. In addition, they use their oratory skills to present their message and drum support from their followers (Avolio
‘Plan Australia’ Strategic Expansion Plan Proposal Report for Human Resource Report writing essay help
Introduction This strategic plan proposal for Human Resource Management is meant to establish priorities, plans and activities for the management of human resource that supports Plan Australia’s efforts of protecting and supporting children and strengthening its management practices (Plan Australia, 2010, Home page).
The proposal focuses on the four organizational priorities which include: strengthening of its human resource management practices, building an effective work force to support children, providing learning, training and developing staffs and the children, and improving the overall organizational health and labor. This proposal is a representation of an important step of Plan Australia toward the achieving of its vision and mission.
Operating Environment of Plan Australia Plan Australia is under one of the oldest but most successful children development organizations in the world with a neutral operating environment; independent from both political and religious agendas. So far it is working in 50 developing countries empowering communities to overcome poverty with the intention of ensuring that children achieve their full potential.
Its mandate around the world is to ensure that at least all children have access to the right of survival, full force development, and protection. The organization is also concerned with the full participation of the children in the family, cultural and social life.
Plan Australia’s organizational philosophy is to communicate its underlying values behind its work because it believes that strong relationships are built on the shared values (Plan Australia,2010, workforplan page). The belief behind this philosophy is that any persons sharing out their value are hopefully welcomed to join hands with Plan Australia.
Organizational Mission For more than 70 years now, Plan Australia has fully engaged its efforts towards protection of the children. Its mission has remained committed to the welfare of persons below the age of 18 years (Plan Australia, 2010, work for plan page). Within this age bracket, the organization discovered that there is greater likelihood of child abuse going on around the world.
The organization therefore came up with policies to direct its mission. These policies consider any form of child abuse unacceptable considering that Plan Australia’s work is to ensure that children are protected and their rights acknowledged.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To be successful in this, the organization developed procedural guidelines which govern the welfare of children worldwide and the way they are handled (Armstrong, 2011). These polices are designed to protect and empower children and the staffs partaking in the organizational mission. So far Plan which is the mother body of Plan Australia has established itself in 50 developing countries where it is actively uniting and inspiring people to transform the world for children.
Plan Australia’s Vision Plan Australia’s vision is to realize a world where children are fully taken care of in terms of being provided for, understood and acknowledged.
Plan Australia is just but a branch of one of the largest worldwide community development organizations which has got an international headquarter in the UK (Plan Australia, 2010, ourwork page). The Headquarters mandate is provide guidelines to its Plan branches to fundraise, build relationships, develop programs, advocate children rights, public educate and inspire young people to participate in its mission.
So far Plan has 18 offices in the already developed countries including plan Australia in Australia which have got the responsibility of fundraising (Australia, 2010, ourwork page). The money collected in these countries is then channeled to the head office which then transfers the resources to the developing countries offices. So far the total number of offices in the developing countries is 50.
Plans Australia’s Strengths and Cultures
The Plan organization has got a culture that goes all the way down its sub-braches. Within it, the organizations sub-branches are expected to uphold the main organizational guide lines which include the creation of ambassadors’ of the organization in its local offices environments.
These people help the organization with its mission and fighting poverty in the developing countries (Plan Australia, 2010, ourwork page). Besides, Plans’ staffs are culturally trained to be in a position to keep things happening according to Plans’ vision and mission. Its board members and the management panel are uniquely constructed in that they report to the board made up of volunteers who are the directors of the company.
This in itself is a strength to the organization since volunteers always have the heart of coming up with genuine suggestions that help stir forward the organization. Again, the organization has got promoters inform of landscape designers and television personalities who help in the promotion of the company (Dennis
Best Bet Business Plan Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Executive summary Best Bet PR officers will be offering private Public Relations services to companies and individuals in China. The firm is owned by three business partners; Felix Adam and Jared. The partners have done other businesses together and one of the partners has actually worked as a PR officer in Hong Kong before.
This means that the partnership has some basic details on the requirements of PR services and related services in Hong Kong. The partners also have business experience since they have other businesses though not in the PR service sector but construction.
One of the partners is also well versant with legal matters, currency and intellectual properties regulation issues. The third partner has stayed in China and worked in a local marketing firm. Best Bet PR officers therefore will benefit from the skills and experiences of its partners.
Best Bet PR officers will be offering personalized PR services. Due to the high cost of running a service business on a rented space, Best Bet PR officers intend to operate from clients’ premises and offices. Other businesses in the industry usually rent out some space and provide transport services to and from the place.
Best Bet however will stand out and be different because the officers will be going to their clients’ premises. This will ease the transport complications for the clients and it will be convenient for the business as well. It will also be cheaper for clients because the running costs will be relatively low compared to other companies in the industry.
The services offered by the company will emphasize on improved customer-company relation, communication among employees, evaluation of customers demands and communication with the media among other PR related services.
There are several other businesses offering PR services in Hong Kong. However, all of them operate in a conventional way where they hire or set up rooms where they offer services to clients. According to PR Newswire, if a start up is to excel it has to go out of the ordinary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Best bet however will be different from hose other because the consultation sessions will be held in clients’ premises and offices. This will make their service cheaper than competitors in the market.
China is densely populated with companies which mean there will be high demand. The business capital will be raised by its three partners’ equal contributions.
Best Bet mission is to help companies through interactive teaching on PR skills to achieve value for their money by being efficient in relation with customers and business partners among other interest groups.
To create a sustainable business relationship with Chinese companies.
To achieve maximum business growth and revenue by the third year in the industry.
To penetrate the service industry in China and its neighborhood.
Have Spending/Saving Habits Changed Due to Harsh Economic Times? Report best essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Method of research
Summary and Conclusion
Abstract Food insecurity is a serious issue in most countries in the world. It has been assumed that only people from third world countries experience food insecurity. However, people in first world countries are also at risk due to rising cost of living. Although costs of basic goods have risen with time, wages have remained the same.
People faced with food insecurity in third world countries seek food aid. For example, Kenyan government declared food insecurity a national disaster in 2011 due to influx of refugees from Somalia and drought (United Nations, 2011). As a result, international organizations donated food stuff. Many people in first world countries do not seek food aid when they are faced with food insecurity.
In San Diego, over 3.7 million adults were faced with food insecurity in 2009 (California Food Policy Advocates, 2011). However, most of them did not ask for food aid. Causes of food insecurity include low income, high cost of living and increased unemployment rates.
Although most victims of food insecurities do not ask for aid, a few of them have been very vocal. Some humanitarian organizations have continued highlighting the issue. (Jewish Community Foundation San Diego, 2011)
In this paper, various causes and side effects of food insecurities are identified. The extent of the problem is analyzed to provide a clear situation in San Diego County. Coded words are used to provide an analysis of food insecurity. This paper use coded words from transcripts of interviews conducted in San Diego to identify the causes and financial implications of food insecurity.
Hypothesis The hypothesis is that several residents of San Diego County in California who are faced with food insecurity have changed their spending and saving habits due to poor income and rising cost of living. Several people earn salaries which are not enough to cater for basic commodities including food.
Other people are not employed at all. This is a serious matter which contributes to food insecurity in several families (United Nations, 2003). The cost of living has risen in recent years. Costs of basic commodities have almost doubled in the last decade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business owners have capitalized on the rising demand for food to enrich themselves. Increased food prices impact negatively on low income earners. Most people have stopped saving and adjusted their spending habits.
Method of research The research method used in this paper is coding. This method is used to organize and analyze key words and phrases which are considered to be important for the research. Results of the coding have been provided. They were obtained from transcripts of interviews conducted in San Diego County.
Results of the research are presented on a page after the interview transcript. At the end of the research, a conclusion shall be drawn to explain if the hypothesis was supported or not. The interview used in the research was conducted within thirty minutes (Berg, 2009).
Interview Transcript I am a 36 year old man living and working in Bostonia town in San Diego County. I have grown in this town from childhood when my family bought a house here. My father was employed as a ranch attendant Yes, I have a family, a wife and two three children, two boys and a girl.
I work in a cigarettes factory. I have been working there for the last 15 years and still standing. My job is not good because I earn a poor salary.
I would say 2008 was the worst year which I experienced food insecurity. In 2001, there was a serious food shortage in some store but they were not expensive as it was in 2008. I would always think and ask myself if a day would pass without worrying about food for my family.
The economic depression contributed much of the rising prices. Here in Bostonia, food and other basic commodities were very expensive compared to any other year. Most of my friends and colleagues were complaining about expensive foods and basic commodities but they still went to stores and bought them.
We will write a custom Report on Have Spending/Saving Habits Changed Due to Harsh Economic Times? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Generally here in Bostonia, foods stuff and other commodities were just expensive but they were available in stores and food outlets. Even currently, there are plenty basic commodities but many people cannot afford them because of low income.
People who work in a store, factory and ranches upcountry have poor salary. In the last ten years, there has been no significant salary increment from most employers. Immigrants have provided cheap labor making it hard for residence of Bostonia to ask for salary increment.
No, business owners are not entirely responsible. I believe they sell their commodities based of market rates because this problem is not in Bostonia alone but also in several parts of San Diego County. Sometimes last year I went to Lake View to visit a friend and I found out that they were also complaining about expensive food.
He actually told me that they have started to spend less money on luxury to enable them cater for essential commodities. He also told me that many people with poor salary are faced with food insecurity. This is not a case of Bostonia alone.
My son once companied about my recent modified expenditure. My daughter has been also nagging to her mother to be taken her out over the weekends. My wife too has had a share of her complains. I have not been taking her out frequently as I used to in the last ten years.
I have reduced my savings due to expensive commodities and risk of food insecurity being faced every single day. In fact some months I don’t save at all. In my family, we have always had three meals a day but in recent times I have opted to skip lunch occasionally to ensure that I spend less money because I have a poor salary. This has enabled me to afford all the requirements of my family.
My children go to school where they are provided with lunch. Though I sometimes skip lunch, my children have their three meals a day. My wife has no formal employment. Her job is to provide baby sitting services. This job is not entirely reliable.
She does not like the idea of spending less in basic commodities but I always talk her out. She understands because she knows everything is expensive and we need to spend less money on everything.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Have Spending/Saving Habits Changed Due to Harsh Economic Times? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More No I am better than most people in Bostonia because I have a stable job although with a poor salary. Those people with no formal employment are faced with food insecurity day in day out. They are forced to spend less money on everything because of their low income.
Most of them don’t save any money for future use. I heard that some people in other towns were given donations to save them from food insecurity. Everybody believed that in United States people are not supposed to rely on food aid but due to expensive commodities, people have been forced to do anything which might help them to survive.
People here work overtime or do two different jobs to increase their income. However, not everybody get these extra jobs. I have not worked two jobs all my life but I have worked overtime to increase my income.
My wife on the other hand can accomplish more than one task in a single day but she does not always get the jobs When she is not working she does her chores at home including cooking and laundry.
We cook in the house all week round. Sometimes as a family, we eat in food outlets. But this only happens when we have something special to celebrate about. To cook ensures that we spend less rather than eat in restaurant which is expensive. No we don’t save much when we cook in the house but we ensure that we avoid the expensive restaurants.
Food insecurity is an issue which should be keenly addressed by the government. No, not through food aid but by empowering people to come up with way of increasing their low income or supplementing their poor salary.
This will ensure that they can still buy the expensive basic commodities and avoid food insecurity. Employers too should improve the poor salaries they give their employees based on their performance.
Data. Code sheet
Analysis The results of word coding show that hypothesis of the research is supported. Total frequency of keywords and phrases which were identified is high. These words and phrases have shown that the person who was interviewed is faced with hard economic time which has forced him to reduce expenditure.
High frequency of words likes ‘expensive’ and phrases like ‘spend less’ support hypothesis of this research. Out of 16 words and phrases which were analyzed, the highest five in descending order are; Expensive 11, Job 8, Food Insecurity 7, Poor Salary 6 and Spend less 5,.
The numbers show that food insecurity is a big concern to people in San Diego County. Foods have become expensive forcing people to spend less money on other needs. This is because foods consume most of their income. Poor salary was also mentioned frequently.
This means that poor salaries contribute to food insecurity. The results concur with a report from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2003) which mention poor income and unemployment as the main causes of food insecurity.
Most participants mentioned the word expensive more than any other word or phrase studied. According to Jewish Community Foundation San Diego (2011), poor salaries and unemployment are the main causes of food insecurity.
Low income earners in the area have stopped saving. More people relied on food donations 2008 while schools have started feeding programs to combat food insecurity (Jewish Community Foundation San Diego, 2011).
A press release by California Food Policy Advocates (2011) showed that families earning less than $ 36,000 a year struggle to afford nutritious food. This is an indication that salaries and income play a vital role in food security. Net income determines the quality of food people eat.
Furthermore, the press release indicated that people relying on CalFresh increased in 2009. This is contrary to the results obtained from this study which shows that few participants mentioned ‘donations.’ Most people in San Diego are proud and do not want to be associated with donations.
Although a good number of people are faced with food insecurity, few of them seek donations. These people spend less money on nutritious food. ‘Skip lunch’ was mentioned as a way of reducing cost of food. Restaurants 1, Donations 1, and Eat out 1 had the lowest frequency. This shows that many people avoid eating in restaurants to reduce their spending on food. They cook at home to cut costs.
Summary and Conclusion From the results, ‘insecurity,’ ’expensive,’ ‘food, ‘spend less’ and ‘poor salary’ recorded the highest frequencies. On the other hand, ‘Restaurants,’ ‘Donations,’ and ‘Eat out’ had the lowest frequencies. I conclude that the high frequency of the word ‘expensive’ and the phrase ‘spend less’ show that people have been forced to spend less money on food because they are expensive.
This has forced them to stop saving and concentrate on buying food. Fewer hits were recorded for restaurants, and eat out showing support of my conclusion that people in San Diego have stopped eating luxuriously due to escalating food prices. The hypothesis I drew at the beginning of this research is supported by the findings.
References Berg, B. L. (2009). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn
Managing the Future Evaluation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Apple Inc. is one of the most prosperous electronic firms in the world. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak started this firm on April 1, 1976. The two were electronic enthusiasts who were interested in developing their ideas into business ventures.
They were keen on turning their skills in electronics into a large business unit. Steve Wozniak, popularly known as Woz, was an astute electrician with a keen interest in computers. It was during this time that computers were started.
Steve Jobs on the other hand was a shrewd businessperson. Although Woz was more knowledgeable than Jobs in the art of designing computer hardware, Jobs was smatter in entrepreneurship.
While Woz considered his skills in making computers as a hobby, while Jobs saw a huge potential of stating a computer firm that would rival the then leading computer firm, the IBM.
Jobs managed to convince Woz of the importance of commercializing their skills, and together, they started this company.
They later incorporated Ronald Wayne, a rich businessperson who came in to help the two financially. The trio formed a formidable force, which culminated into a company that is prosperous and very profitable.
Although this company had various challenges that saw it eliminate its Chief Executive Officer, who was one of the founder members, in 1985, the firm was able to overcome these challenges using a number of strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steve Jobs, having been forced out of the firm in 1985 as the chief executive, returned in 1997 with strategies that transformed this firm to what it is currently.
Evans (2012, p. 67) says that Apple is one of the firms that were able to overcome the wave of.com crisis of the early twentieth century that brought down many firm, especially those that were computer based.
When Steve Jobs returned as the Chief Executive of this firm, it experienced massive development, especially from 2006 to 2010. Gountas and Mavudo (2008, p. 58) notes that Apple brand was considered as the most expensive brand in the market for the first time in its history.
It is also reported that in the year 2010, the total revenue of Apple edged that of its main market competitor, Microsoft, for the first time in since their inception.
The future of this firm is however, not as bright as it has been in the past. In the last one year, the firm has been struggling to manage the stiff market competition.
It has also been locked in prolonged legal battles with Samsung, one of its main competitors in the market. This research seeks to analyze the firm’s past performance and determine some of the future scenarios in which this firm will have to operate in the next seven years.
Review of Apple Inc. Management Style from 2006-2012 Apple is one of the current success stories in a group of companies that have managed to be successful in the face of increasingly competitive environment. This is attributed to management its strategies that have helped it cope with the competition in the electronic market.
We will write a custom Essay on Managing the Future specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Handlechner (2008, p. 90), in order for a firm to be successful in the current competitive market, it is important to understand some of the current market forces that directly affect its strategies.
Apple has been keen to understand the market forces in an attempt to find the best approach of meeting customers’ expectations. The period from 2006 to 2012 has been considered as the firm’s most successful period.
During this period, the firm has experienced massive growth in its market coverage. The firm managed to expand to the African market that it had avoided for so many years. Its presence in Asia during this period was massive. It had complete dominance of the American and European markets.
It would be important to analyze some of the forces that could have enabled this firm succeed in this period. It would be important to analyze the performance of the firm over the past decade in order to understand the driving factors of success.
Past performance of the company through the last decade In the past one decade, Apple has been one of the most successful American firms that have managed to create very brands, and increased their market share by a huge percentage.
When Steve Jobs took over the leadership of the firm in 1997, the firm was performing so poorly that other many thought that it would collapse. However, Jobs managed to turn around its fortunes, to make it one of the most successful firms in this country.
The success of this firm could be attributed to superior strategies that the management employed in the market in order to achieve competitive advantage. This research will focus on three areas where this firm has always focused on to achieve this success.
The areas of sustainability, corporate social responsibility, and technology have been the core factors that have helped this firm reach its current position.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing the Future by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sustainability
Sustainability has been defined differently in different contexts. Hult (2011, p. 67) defines sustainability as “The careful and efficient stewardship of resources by businesses, communities, and citizens.
It is the practice of meeting our needs in ways that are respectful of future generation and restorative of natural, cultural, and financial asset.”
This is a broad definition, but it brings out the meaning of sustainability as the process of using resources responsibility, conscious of the need to use them again in future.
In the context of Apple Inc., sustainability would ability of the firm to use its resources, including human resource, efficiently in order to generate profits, but in a way that is conscious of the need to protect the environment.
Sustainability is a relatively new concept, but it has gained massive relevance in the recent past because of its focus on stability. Apple has been concerned of finding the best approach of making its operations sustainable in the market.
The firm has been conscious of the models of sustainability that has worked for other firms in the past. As seen in this firm’s operations, it has been keen to ensure that it observes the three pillars of sustainability.
As McDaniel (2002, p. 116) observes, “Economic pillar for example, looks to sustain natural and financial capital whereas an ecological model looks to biological diversity and ecological integrity.”
According to Laszlo (2003, p. 70), sustainability has majorly been looked at from the perspective of environmental protection. One of the earliest pillars of sustainability to be developed was the planet.
This pillar seeks focuses on the need to ensure that environment is protected from any form of degradation to ensure that it is able to support the future generation. As Husted (2011, p. 39) says, development projects that are not focused on protecting the future generation are not sustainable.
This scholar says that the current development should be beneficial to the current and future generation. Apple Inc. has been seen as one of the firms that have developed programs to help fight environmental degradation.
Although their effort has not been able to meet the level of e-wastes directly related to their products, it has earned praises from some of the industry players as one of the firms that have managed to reduce the level of their pollution greatly.
This has helped it earn trust with the market, especially in the United States, which makes the major market for its products.
As Hill and Jones (2010, p. 40) note, it is through corporate sustainability policies that firms can manage to achieve success in the current competitive market.
Corporate sustainability can be defined as a business strategy that seeks to create long-term value to all the stakeholders within an organization while protecting is socio-economic and cultural environment.
It involves development that is conscious of risks that may be countered during normal operations. Corporate sustainability is a term that has been commonly used in reference to large corporate organizations with global market coverage.
Apple is one of the firms that have been considered to have the best-thought corporate strategy sustainability policies. This has enabled the firm understand market forces.
It is able to determine the possible impact of its production activities, and ways through which some of the negative consequences can be mitigated. It has come to appreciate that its operations can only successful it they are supported by the natural environment.
For this reason, it has been keen to protect the natural environment from any possible destruction due to issues such as pollution.
Apple has always focused on achieving sustainable development in its operations over the past decade. This is what has contributed to its current success. According to Maser (2012, p. 26), sustainable development may mean different things to different people in different contexts.
It has commonly been defined as the kind of development that helps in meeting the current needs in a way that do not compromise future generation’s ability to achieve their needs.
Steve Jobs, the former chief executive officer of this firm, once defined sustainable development as the ability of a firm to achieve the current developmental needs in a way that would assure it of future developments (McKenzie-Mohr 2011, p. 37).
This definition of sustainability by the chief executive of this firm demonstrates how Apple has been approaching the issue of sustainability.
It is a clear indication that this firm has considered sustainability as a way through which it can achieve its current developmental needs without compromising the firm’s ability of future developments.
The firm has avoided temptation of going for projects that would help the firm experience quick profitability, while ignoring the need for future development. This explains why this firm has been consistent with its development over the past years, especially from 2006 to 2012.
As Steve Jobs would insist while still the chief executive of this firm, sustainable development is focused on all factors of that may have an impact on the firm in one way or the other.
As McDaniel (2002, p. 51) notes, sustainable development seeks to ensure that any gains made in the development process do not create a room for future failures within a firm.
This means that when a firm is seeking to achieve sustainable development, the main question should always be on the impact it may have on future prosperity.
The aim of this firm, as the former chief executive would note, is not to achieve massive short-term success followed by a series of failures, but to have a consistent growth, however minimal it is to the firm.
This way, Apple managed to become the most profitable firm in the year 2010. In the same year, its brand was ranked the most expensive of all other brands in the world. This was an indication that the firm’s past activities were sustainable.
Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility is another field that this firm has been focusing on in the recent past. According to Hooley (2008, p. 38), firms take a lot from the environment and the society through their normal operations.
Apple Inc. understands that there is need to pay back to the society what it takes from it in the form of corporate social responsibility. It is referred to as a responsibility because it is a duty that should be performed, and not a favor that firms should only engage in at will.
Apple has defined its corporate social responsibility into two broad areas. The two areas include concern to the environment, and concern to the society.
On its concern to the environment strategy, this firm focuses on the need to have to reduce amount of its industrial effluent, including the greenhouse gases. This firm has always developed policies that are meant to reduce its industrial emissions to the environment.
In its production plants, the firm has developed systems that help it ensure that only treated effluent leave the firm through clearly defined and accepted channels. The firm has also ensured that its greenhouse gases are reduced as much as possible.
It has done this by developing more efficient production strategies that is conscious of the issues relating to the environment.
According to the report by McLaughlin and Aaker (2010, p. 84), Steve Jobs, the former chief executive of this firm, had proposed for a strategy of collecting their e-wastes from the environment.
Although this project has not been put to practice, it has been lauded as one of the most desirable strategies that would help protect the environment from e-wastes.
In this strategy, customers are encouraged to present their old phones to any of the firm’s outlet, and the customer would be given a brand new phone at a subsidized cost. This would help fight the habit of irresponsible disposal of the firm’s e-wastes.
The firm would then find a way of recycling some parts of these e-wastes. Those that cannot be recycled would be disposed in a more responsible manner. In implemented, this policy will help reduce the level of e-wastes in countries where this firm operates.
The second concern has always been on the need to help enhance the well-being of the society in which it operates. In its normal operations, this firm needs the society in one way or the other.
It needs the society to be part of its employees, its market, its suppliers, or any other relevant fields that enable this firm operate. It has a responsibility to it. In the developed countries such as the United States, this firm has been sponsoring popular games such as the Super Bowl Games.
In developing countries such as Afghanistan, the firm has been keen on supporting the needy within the society. The firm has sponsored various educational programs as a way of empowering the society.
Technology is the third field in which this firm has been focusing on within the last six years. Since 2006, Apple has been coming up with strategies that are meant to upgrade its production system as a way of enhancing quality of its products.
According to Montiel (2011, p. 49), emerging technologies are changing the face of the world in various fronts. This scholar says that emerging technologies have had massive impact in the field of electronics.
Apple has been one of the firms that have been keen to use the emerging technologies for its own benefit. The firm has been able to apply some of the new technologies to enhance its production processes. Through this technology, the firm has been able to improve its production process.
The rate of producing a single product per unit time has significantly dropped. This does not only help in reducing the cost of production, but also helps this firm in reducing the amount of emissions into the environment. The firm would take shorter time in the production process than before.
Technology has also helped this firm market its products in the global market. According to Viardot (2004, p. 68), Apple is one of the firms that have heavily used the social media as a means of reaching out to its clients.
The firm has successfully attracted a large pool of customers to its products through Facebook, Tweeter, and YouTube marketing. The firm has also been using other means of internet marketing to help expand its market share.
Technology has also helped this firm improve its communication strategies. Apple has developed internal communication systems that allows for inter-departmental communication as a way of sharing vital information on the normal operations of the firm.
The management has also used technology to develop system that would enable the top management at the firm’s headquarters monitor operations of this firm in the overseas market.
A critique of the management’s performance in the identified areas The management of Apple has scored favorable in the field of sustainability. As shown in the above discussion, the management has laid down a number of strategies that would help it remain competitive in the market.
The firm has been keen to take into consideration the three pillars of sustainability. It did not ignore any other pillars, a sign that its sustainability has a strong foundation. However, it should implement the policy on collection of e-wastes. Good plans should not just remain on paper.
They should be implemented so that their benefits can be enjoyed. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the performance of this firm can be give a score of above average. It has been focused on environmental protection and enhancement of the society’s welfare.
The score is not excellent because most of its corporate social responsibility has not spread to the third-world countries where its products have become very popular.
In the area of technology, the score of this firm can be considered as good. This firm has been one of the industry leaders when it comes to the use of emerging technologies to produce new better products in the market. It has been a pacesetter.
Analyzing the company’s management approach using theoretical model In the past six years, Apple Inc. has focused on introducing products that meet expectations of the market. To achieve this, the management has embraced change in its management strategies. It has been keen to ensure that it changes its market approaches with the changing market needs.
It is important to understand some of the theoretical models that this firm has been using to protect its future interests. The Future Wheels Diagram below shows some of the drivers of change in the external environment that could have motivated this firm to be dynamic.
Future Wheels Diagram for External Factors that Motivate Change
Changed marketin’ strategy The above future wheels diagram shows some of the possible external factors that could have motivated the management to initiate change. As demonstrated in the above Future Wheels diagram, one of the external factors that may motivate organizational change is government laws.
Government always comes with laws and regulations that are meant to streamline operations of various sectors of the economy. This firm is bound by law to change its operational strategies based on the changes that may be imposed by the government through regulatory measures.
One of the possible outcome of this factor may be changed production methods in line with the new measures put by the government to reduce pollution. Another outcome may be a changed transport system to reflect the changing regulation.
Another outcome from this factor may be reduced cost of the product in order to motivate other sectors. In all these cases, the management, and the entire fraternity of the firm, must change with these new developments in order to help the firm run as per the changed laws and regulations.
The second factor that may motivate change within an organization is economic changes. Economic changes always bring with it far reaching consequences to business units. A firm must be able to determine how to change in order to operate optimally within the current external forces.
In this regard, the management of Apple would determine if the economic forces would be favorable or unfavorable to this firm. Depending on the economic changes experienced in the environment, the outcome of this may be a reduction or increase of prices of the products.
Competitors play an important role in defining activities of a firm within a given market. It is one of the strongest motivators of change within an organization.
According to Chaston (2009, p. 29), a firm cannot ignore activities of the competitors and dismiss them as inconsequential or irrelevant to its operational strategies.
This assumption can be suicidal because any change that gives competitors a competitive edge over this firm is a serious threat that may force it out of the market.
The outcome of competitor’s activities may be a series of changed marketing strategies that would help the firm acquire a similar or even better advantage in the market. This may explain changing strategies used by this firm in the market.
The fourth factor as identified in the diagram above is technology. As Ferrell (2011, p. 90) observes, technology plays an important role in influencing changes within an organization. Firms cannot ignore changes that are brought by the emerging technologies.
It is important for the firm to find the best ways that it can change with the changing technologies in order to achieve the best results in their operations. The management has been keep to adopt to the emerging technologies as soon as they are developed.
Scenario Development: Assessment of the Contextual Environment (2018-2020) The world is changing, and Apple must find a way in which it can operate successfully in the market. Scenario development helps in creating a conceptual environment, which is a representation of the future environment.
This conceptualization is always important in enabling a firm identifies some of the future market forces that it must conform to in order to remain competitive.
This way, it may start preparing on how to manage these issues early enough to avoid difficulties that may be encountered during the implementation process. At this stage, the research will focus on the environment in 2018-2010, in which this firm will have to operate.
The world in which the company must operate in 2018-2020 As Gerber (2008, p. 46) observes, during the normal operations of a firm, it is always important to understand the future of the market. Understanding the future helps a firm prepare for possible opportunities and threats that may be presented in the market.
Apple must realize that by understanding the future, it can end up being successful or otherwise, depending on the approach taken. In order to analyze the future environment in which this firm will have to operate, it is important to understand the three concepts identified above.
It will have to analyze the future in terms of sustainability, corporate social responsibility, and technology.
As mentioned above, sustainability has three pillars, which must be sustainable. The three pillars are always categorized as the environmental pillar, the social pillar, and economic pillar of sustainability. The diagram below shows the three pillars.
Figure 1: Pillars of Sustainability
Source: (Cavagnaro 2012, p. 27)
In 2018-2020, Apple must understand that soceital factors shall change in terms of customer needs and employee demands. Given the increasing relevance of performance contract, it is possible that in this period, employees will be paid as per their contribution to the firm.
Apple must be ready for this. It is also likely that it will be difficult to retain employees at the firm because many would want to explore other industries. The management must find a way of dealing with this high employee turnover.
To the customers, this firm must realize that they will demand for very high value for their product.
The production manager must be ready to supply this quality. It is also likely that e-marketplace will be stronger than brick-and-motar markets. This firm must find ways of making this shift before the time comes.
Environmentally, some changes are expected during this period. The society will be demanding for a reduction of rate of environmental pollution as a way of enhancing sustainability. This firm will be forced to find ways in which its production processes will not pose a threat to the environment.
Economically, it is expected that the third world countries shall have made steps towads becoming major markets for electronic products.
Apple will need strategies that would enable it capitalize on this growth. This firm must be ready to deal with all the three issues identified as the economic pillars.
Corporate social responsibility
There will be a paradigm shift in the approach taken on issues related to corporate social responsibilities. Although the activities may remain the same as they are currently, the future market environment in which this firm will operate may impose some conditions.
For instance, a country such as Afghanistan may demand that all firms operating on its soil must commit a certain percentage of their profits towards various activities meant to elevate the condition of the society.
In this case, Apple may not have the freedom of choosing when to engage in corporate social responsibilities, and the amount of resources to commit. The approach taken in these activities in 2018-2020 may also change.
Governments in countries where the firm may change policies on how these activities should be carried. For instance, a government may decide to introduce policies that allow them to be involved in such activities.
In such cases, Apple must find a way through which it can align its strategies to the changing environmental laws.
It is definite that there shall be a massive change in the field of technology by 2018-2020. Technology has been changing rapidly in the recent past. It is therefore easy to predict a complete shift in the products that will be offered in the market as dictated by the shifting technologies.
Apple should be ready to use some of the production methods that will be introduced by technology during this period. It should be ready to find better ways of using technology to deliver superior value to the customer.
In 2020, it is very likely that marketing will go digital due to increased technological invention. This firm should prepare itself for this massive shift if it expects to remain competitive in the market.
It should be ready to spend more in research during this period, as there will be need to understand the dynamic environmental culture. The increased expenditure will also help cater for the costs of buying new machines, and training users on how these machines are operated.
Requirements of management in the scenario developed In the part of this paper in section C, it is demonstrated that this firm needs to understand some of the changing environmental patterns and the way these changes may affect the normal operations of this firm.
In this section, Future Wheels Model was used to identify some of the possible drivers of change, and some of the impacts these drivers may have on the firm.
Apple must understand some of the requirements it needs to meet by 2018-2020 in order to be able to operate successfully in the market.
According to the model given above, this firm needs to understand the four drivers of change, which include government laws and regulation, technological changes, forces of the competitors, and economic fluctuations.
Each of these forces should be treated uniquely in order to understand their changing patterns. The firm should then find a way of adopting to the pattern in order to avoid any conflicts in its normal operations.
This means that it should follow changes that shall be made in laws and regulations governing its operations. It should be able to understand the economic forces and align its operations to it. It should also find a way of conforming to technological changes in this future environment.
Finally, this firm should ensure that it does not ignore activities of its competitors. The competitors may as well be the main downfall of this firm.
Analysis of requirement of future needs and current company competencies The management needs of this firm by 2018-2020 have been identified, and the current company competencies stated. As Bissoondoyal (2006, p. 37) notes, ability of a firm to overcome future forces always depend on its current market strategies.
This means that ability of Apple Inc. to manage the changes in the environment by 2020, its current competencies must be showing signs of ability to do this. To understand this, the analysis will be done on the three factors of sustainability, technology, and corporate social responsibility.
According to the analysis above, Apple has been keen to observe the three pillars of sustainability. Its operations are increasingly becoming conscious of environmental needs, it appreciates the importance of its employees and the market, and cares for them, and its profits have been attractive.
This means that based on sustainability, the competency of the firm is aligned to its current and future requirements.
In terms of technology, Apple has been voted the most innovative firm in the world on several occasions. This means that it is competent enough to manage future technological changes that may be brought in the environment.
The current policies of Apple on corporate social responsibility may be considered as adequate based on the current requirements.
However, the changing environmental factors may demand some changes in these policies in future. The firm’s current performance points out to the fact that it is capable of managing its future environment.
Conclusion Apple Inc. is one of the most successful firms in the electronics industry. This firm has been keen to align its operations with the prevailing market conditions. The firm has been keen to ensure that it provides the market with products of high value as a way of creating a pool of loyal customers.
Its global market coverage has enabled it to understand different market conditions that may affect its normal operations. The strategies of this firm have been very appropriate and have helped it attain its current prestigious position.
However, the future may present completely different factors that may demand for a new approach in the market.
The scenario development of the nature of environment in which this firm may have to operate indicate that some changes would be needed in order to make this firm sustainable in its operations.
The firm must find a way of changing its strategies according to the changes taking place in the environment.
In 2020, it is expected that several changes shall have taken place in the economic, social, political, and technological sectors.
This firm must be ready to work in these changing environmental factors on order to operate sustainable. The management should always be positive and flexible to these new developments.
List of References Bissoondoyal, U 2006, Total quality management: a practical approach, New Age International, London.
Cavagnaro, E. (2012). The three levels of sustainability. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.
Chaston, I 2009, New Marketing Strategies: Evolving Flexible Processes to Fit Market Circumstance, Sage Publications, London.
Evans, D 2012, Social media marketing an hour a day, Wiley Indianapolis.
Ferrell, C 2011, Marketing Strategy, Cengage Learning, New York.
Gerber, K 2008, Marketing communication, Pearson Education, Cape Town.
Minority Population at Risk: Homelessness Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The inability of homeless population to access same services from the public, command equal rights, and respect as well as get equal responsibilities like other social groups in society leaves this population at risk. Inequality among the homeless makes the study a social justice issue.
Homelessness may occur when a person is not able to secure a job in order to sustain herself/himself, hence cannot get permanent accommodation.
With great social stratification and classiness, this group is classified as the have-nots who cannot afford basic life needs (Baum
Antwone Fisher’s Problem from the Cognitive Behavioral Theory Perspective Critical Essay college essay help
Translating the life stories of real people into feature films is one of the most challenging tasks. However, when directed the right way, such movies can reveal a treasure trove of psychological insight.
By basing the psychological twists of the movie on the principles of the Cognitive Behavioral Theory, the director and the cast managed to come up with a careful analysis of Antwone Fisher’s story.
From the perspective of the CBT, Antwone’s problems stem from his bitterness, which, in its turn, originates from his having been rejected as a child.
The hints regarding the roots of Antwone’s problem are scattered all over the movie: “’Who will cry for the little boy?’ – ‘I will. I always do” (Antwone Fisher, 2002).
Though Antwone has to confront not one, not two, but three psychological issues in the course of his life, each of these issues takes its roots from the same childhood trauma that the lead character suffered from.
Therefore, his current behavior was predisposed by the circumstances that Antwone was exposed to as a child.
More to the point, such CBT patterns as automatic thinking, which results in a series of nightmares that haunt him at the beginning of the movie, or the reminiscences of Mrs. Tate shouting in his face that even his own mother never wanted him (Antwone Fisher, 2002), can be observed in Antwone’s behavior.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The given thinking patter, Antwone has a number of catastrophic thoughts rushing through his mind, which aligns with the principles of the CBT theory.
In addition to the aforementioned issues, Antwone is clearly afraid of changing anything in his life; he doubts the value of living and the extent of his own abilities, which is another CBT pattern that has to be changed.
For instance, Antwone fears the very idea of being more powerful: “It felt like a surprise” (Antwone Fisher, 2002).
It could be argued that Antwone suffers from what the CBT theory defines as being socially phobic; in other words, Antwone is afraid of social interactions, since he realizes that he may get emotionally involved and., therefore, hurt in the process.
As a result, Antwone has what Davenport defines as an “anger problem” (Antwone Fisher, 2002) and which, in fact, is the projection of Antwone’s anger of his own fears onto the people around him.
From a CBT specialist point of view, two major treatment goals are to be pursued. To start with, Antwone has to realize where the source of his bitterness and psychological torture comes from (Butler, Chapman, Forman
Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
This paper is aimed at discussing the book Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins. In this work, he explores the underlying causes of World War I, its effects on people’s experiences, and the long-term effects of this political and social catastrophe.
This topic has been examined by various historians, but Modris Eksteins takes a slightly different approach to this question.
The author focuses on various aspects. In particular, he speaks about the culture of the western civilization; moreover, he mentions that war, sacrifice, and violence were inseparable parts of this culture (Eksteins 15).
He tries to demonstrate the link between modernism and the political history of the western world. Moreover, the writer discusses the nature of diplomatic alliances existing at the beginning of the twentieth century.
In this way, the scholar attempts to identify the motives that could have prompted various states to enter into this military conflict. This source is also aimed at examining people’s perception of this war. This is why he focuses on various literary sources as well as diaries.
One of the author’s intentions is to examine the way in which soldiers grappled with this war. This is why Modris Eksteins mentions the so-called Christmas Truce (Eksteins 97).
Furthermore, the writer discusses the implications of World War I. For instance, this book throws light on the rise of National Socialism in Germany and Italy (Eksteins 321). Furthermore, Modris Eksteins’s book demonstrates how this military conflict paved the way to World War II.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, he refers to the Treaty of Versailles and its limitations (Eksteins 253). These are some of the main aspects that can be identified.
This book does not follow a strict chronological pattern. Moreover, Modris Eksteins can draw the connections between the events that do not seem to be related. Overall, the scholar focuses on such themes as culture, attempts to adjust the word of war, and post-war beliefs and attitudes.
They are critical for describing the history of the twentieth century. The scholar looks at various countries, but he takes the greatest interest in the cultural and political history of Germany.
One of the most important themes examined by the writer is the peculiarities of the Western culture. At the beginning of the book, Modris Eksteins discusses the famous ballet The Rite of Spring composed by Igor Stravinsky.
He attracts the readers’ attention to the idea that the idea of human sacrifice plays an important role in this artwork. In his opinion, “the celebration of life through sacrificial death” represents the spirit of the twentieth century (Eksteins 15).
Eksteins argues that the modernist art, which began to emerge during that period, “transcended reason, didacticism, and moral purpose” (Eksteins 15). Moreover, it did not portray war and suffering as something outrageous. More likely, war and violence were glorified.
This is one of the main aspects that can be singled out. Yet, it is important to remember that Modris Eksteins does not fully explain the causal relations between various artworks created during that period and the military conflict which engulfed the entire Europe.
We will write a custom Essay on Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, one can also argue that culture simply reflected the attitudes and values of many people. It might not be the driving force of history.This is one of the limitations that should not be overlooked.
The writer views culture as one of the factors that could have prompted some nations to enter this war. For instance, he notes for Germans, this war was a way of expanding the influence of their culture (Eksteins 77). German intellectuals emphasized the importance of a person’s inner freedom.
In their opinion, this quality distinguished Germans among other European nations. Moreover, it is vital to remember that many German artists and philosophers called for a leader who could achieve greatness for the country (Eksteins 315).
The combination of these worldviews greatly contributed to the violence committed by the German state. Nevertheless, this view on World War I completely excludes economic and geopolitical considerations.
Additionally, Modris Eksteins does not show why similar tendencies were not observed in other countries like France or England. So, some of his conclusions can be disputed because the scholar excludes the examples that contradicts his arguments. This is one of the points that can be made.
There is another important theme which should not be overlooked. In particular, one should speak about people’s attempts to reconcile the experience of war with their values, customs, or traditions.
The author shows how German, British or French soldiers attempted to make this existence more acceptable or livable. In this way, they attempted to show how senseless this war had been. This is one of the issues that Modris Eksteins focuses on.
For example, he describes a short truce during the Christmas of 1914 (Eksteins 97). This event has been described in literary and academic sources. To examine the experiences of soldiers, Modris Eksteins examines various primary sources.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Among them one can distinguish the famous novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. The author speaks about other sources which can show how people could adjust to war.
Overall, this approach is helpful for understanding the hardships that soldiers had to overcome. Apart from that, this perspective is useful because it enables the readers to learn more about individual narratives that are often overlooked by historians.
This part of Modris Eksteins’ book is probably the strongest one.
The post-war existence of people is the theme that Modris Eksteins examines. The author admits that the end of World War I did not resolve many tensions and potential conflicts within Europe.
He recognizes the limitations of the Versailles Treaty which placed the burden of responsibility for this war only on Germany (Eksteins 253). One can even say that it was a truce which only postponed war. This opinion is shared by other historians.
Modris Eksteins is quite right in identifying the drawback of this treaty. Much attention is also paid to the culture which began to develop during that period. To a great extent, it reflected people’s need for peace and stability. Yet, there are some important trends that should be taken into account.
The author speaks about the idealization of technology and will. This argument is particularly important if one speaks about Charles Lindbergh who became extremely famous for his non-stop flight from Long Island to France (Eksteins 243).
The main problem is that such attitudes contributed to the idealization of people who claimed to posses the strength of will. Among them, one can certainly distinguish Adolf Hitler and Mussolini.
To some degree, they wanted to be viewed as ideal human beings who had a right to govern or even subdue other people.
These examples can be very convincing, but this line of reasoning is not applicable to such countries as England or the United States in which there were no autocratic leaders. This is one of the drawbacks that should not be overlooked.
It is possible to say that the author wants to draw connections between the culture of modernism and political history of western civilization. One of the main points is that that modernism turned the political history of the twentieth century into a nightmare.
Nevertheless, he does not want to admit the idea that modernism was just a response to the horrors of wars that broke out very often. This is one of the details that should be identified.
Moreover, the scholar does not want to consider the conflicts between and within various countries which could have led to many military confrontations.
As it has been said before, one cannot overlook economic and political history of western states. The cultural history of this period is certainly important, but it cannot be separated from areas of human activity.
On the whole, this book can be of great interest to people, who are interested in the origins of World War I. This book is important for illustrating the attitudes and beliefs of people who lived at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Moreover, this source may be helpful for examining the attitudes of people during the period between the two wars.
Nevertheless, the author makes very broad generalizations that are not fully substantiated. Still, these limitations do not undermine the potential value of this book for a great number of readers.
Works Cited Eksteins, Modris. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age, New York: Mariner Books, 2000. Print.
Implementation of Electronic Medical Records Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Proposal on Implementation of EMR
Proposal on Implementation of CPOE
Introduction Information technology has recently become one of the most reliable technologies in efficient service delivery. Implementation of the system within health sector is viewed as a move in reducing medical errors, hence promoting patient safety as well as reducing costs. However, implementation of the new models requires variety of measurable elements capable of creating an impact on patient safety initiatives (Borkowski, 2009).
Proposal on Implementation of EMR Electronic Medical Records are associated with many functions within the health care system. Patient health records contain important information, such as patient health care, financial breakdown, legal information as well as detailed research and quality improvement cases.
Such information is always necessary within the medical field, hence it needs to be shared amongst many professional medics within the health care field. Such demand makes it a little cumbersome to use paper health records calling for the development of an automated health recording system.
Electronic Medical Record will provide chances for improving quality of care and patient safety within health organizations. The system will help in providing solution to the challenge of dealing with integrated healthcare delivery by providing detailed, reliable and accessible timely information on patient health status across the medical field whether in primary or secondary health care.
The EMR will reduce the costs on keeping paper records as well as decreasing inefficiencies within health care sector. The EMR has got increased storage capabilities enabling data to be stored from any region and for longer periods of time, enabling instant retrieval of information to many people even in remote sites (Young, 200, p 99).
The idea on fragmentation of clinical records posed by paper records will be minimized hence reducing costs, which could have been otherwise incurred on current and future patient care (Schloeffel, 2001, p 1). The built-in intelligence capabilities of the EMR system will assist in recognizing abnormal laboratory results. The system provides efficient access to protocols, care plans, critical paths and other databases on healthcare knowledge such as pharmaceutical information (Borkowski, 2009).
Start-up costs might be of disadvantage to many since it can be excessive at times. Allocation of capital to information system provides added costs on health care expenditure. Another disadvantage is that it requires substantial technical knowledge for the system to be used efficiently. This calls for all the physicians and clinicians to have prior knowledge on the system operation for purposes of realizing benefits of interactive on-line decision support (Borkowski, 2009).
Proposal on Implementation of CPOE Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) presents one of the point-of-care products which will help in playing the key role in dealing with the cases concerning patient safety objectives.
The system involves electronic communication of orders as well as detailed protocol for checking against drug references and other medical information. CPOE is physician-focused and will help in the issues of developing fewer medication transcription as well as order errors. The tool will help most physicians in selecting correct medication and therapies for each patient.
The equipment’s ability to customize ordering processes will assist in easy identification of physician needs and most importantly allow for prevention of problem occurrence by counter checking errors before completion of any order. The tracking system involved in this technology will help clinicians and physicians to evaluate their actions and compare to those of their peers in addition to comparing treatment recommendations within the given standards and guidelines (Borkowski, 2009).
However, the CPOE may not be effective on its own until it is integrated together with other crucial clinical information systems. Another disadvantage is that there is still possibility of incurring errors within the system owing to the natural assumption that computers are always right.
There are also multiple steps involved in operating multiple screens required for completion of order signing. This proves to be time-consuming when used by many people is at the same time. Frequent computer access might not be possible, especially in cases where only few computer stations are available in spite of many users (Borkowski, 2009).
Changes within organizations normally occur either as planned or unplanned. Planned changes are known to arise from either single or series of changes linked to organization goals and objectives. While unplanned changes normally arise as a result of the unexpected uncertainties within the organization.
Various changes are required for the purposes of incorporating the modern computerized equipment with the work environment. The change undergoes three environmental stages including; societal environment, task environment then finally internal environment. Within the societal environment, EMR technology will have to be approved by the legal authorities within the government by looking at its technological and economical impacts within the health sector (Borkowski, 2009).
Technologically the equipment has the capability of speeding up the recording on individual health matters as well as ability to store large amount of data and sharing it over wide area within the shortest time possible. It saves on costs since it makes health records available within reach of medical practitioners and patients.
The socio-cultural forces which tend to oppose the nature of the records in exposing patients medical records to the public would be dealt with by promising confidentiality to the patients’ medical information through the use of specified passwords.
Only the patients and trusted medics would be allowed to use the specified password whenever they want to access the patient’s medical information for the purposes of further treatment. Legal acts like the HIPAA would be enforced to ensure that tough measures, including fines are imposed on those trying to misuse individual’s medical records discriminatorily. In some places, employers use medical records to discriminate individuals on employment opportunities (Borkowski, 2009).
The task environment includes several players such as employees, special interest groups, competitors, customers amongst others. Dealing with competitors will call for marketing the superior abilities and qualities of the technology. Employees would be placed on thorough training on how to use the equipment confidentially without loosing on the confidence of the patients concerning their medical records. Suppliers would be endowed with the task of working with computer specialists for the purposes of EMR installations.
Internal forces related to the structures, processes as well as resources within the organizations which at times lead to low profit margins could be addressed by ensuring the efficiency of the equipment through delivery. This could save on costs required for the storage of large amount of documents; the technology would as well confine all medical data to one source making it easier for services to be delivered without fragmented processes (Borkowski, 2009).
Some of the challenges involved include such cases as lack of autonomy, especially in the process when patient’s data is shared amongst health care providers without informing the patient. The exposure of patient’s data does not guarantee fidelity in any way since it can be stolen by unknown parties. This could easily lead to compromised treatment within the society since patients may be overwhelmed by fear of exposure.
Conflicts arise within the medical ethical principles concerning safety of patient health records. There is a breach on confidentiality and right to privacy on the side of the patients. Hence patients can easily be discriminated within the market place as mentioned earlier in the article (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998).
Computer-based Electronic Health Records presents one of the technological advances within health care system. Such technology is of great benefit in health sector since it has helped in improving the level of access and quality at affordable costs.
On the same note, computerized system will help in providing accurate information on billing hence allowing medics to forward any payment claims electronically. This would ensure timely and efficient payment to health care providers. It would save the patient hectic time, which might arise in providing information over and over whenever they seek medical attention (Lohr, 2007).
The use of computerized medical systems enables improvement on the quality of care provided and also guarantees reduction in medical errors. There is improvement in the level of efficiency and reduction in medical costs since the methods enable easy coordination between health care providers on patient’s care. The system would enable smooth transfer of information, eliminating the possibilities which had earlier been experienced in duplication of health information by the third parties (Hartzband and Groopman, 2008).
References Borkowski, Nancy. (2009). Organizational Behavior, Theory, and Design in Health Care. NY: Jones
Economical Globalization in the United States Evaluation Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Globalization is the process of enabling financial and investment markets to operate internationally. This is as a result of deregulation and improved communication. On the other hand, economic globalization refers to the interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movements of goods, services, technology and capital (Held and MacGrew 4). It is also the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of global markets.
Globalization has shown a paradigm shift in economic activity from agriculture to service in both developed and developing countries. The kinds of growth noted have been in total as well as per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) mainly in the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) or the developed countries (Munck 21). In spite of this growth, freeing other parts of the world from poverty has been a great challenge.
Before the global economy came into being, the world economy was ruled by the United States, however with industrialization of many powerful countries, the monopolistic nature of the United States has reduced to about 20%.The United Kingdom has one of the greatest open economies in the Europe. About two decades ago, foreign exchange trade controls were removed and the financial markets have since then been gradually deregulated (MacKinnon et al. 1).
Impact of Globalization on the British Economy Advantages of Globalization
The advantages are as follows:
High levels of direct foreign investment. Basically the UK has been favored by overseas direct investment. This has been due to favorable tax system and a high trust on industrial relations (Tompkins 1).
Structural change in Industry. The issue of unemployment in textile industry and other manufacturing industries has been solved by the global economy in that, the immobile output that has accumulated for years is being be traded globally. This has not just revived the industries but also provided much income and employment opportunities.
Rising level of import penetration. This has been beneficial in areas where comparative advantage had been lost. Such loss was evident in the manufacture of low value adding electronic products. Hence, more sophisticated imports from various countries worldwide were increased.
Efficiencies in production. Globalization has resulted to increased efficiency in resources allocation. Efficient use of resources results to high productivity which consequently increases the total domestic output of goods and services. In addition, increased competition promotes innovative methods which employ advanced technology in marketing and product distribution (Tompkins 1).
The consumers in various countries are also able to obtain greater supply of a variety of goods and services. Increased competition also ensures goods and services are offered at lower prices. This mostly benefits the consumers.
The countries that are involved in free trade experience rising living standards, increased real incomes and higher rates of economic growth. This has resulted from increase in productivity and efficiency in competitive industries.
There are great effects of globalization on the lives of individual citizens in every country. These effects have been noted especially in the lives of young people (Held and MacGrew 20). Globalization has had a lot of influence on young people in various aspects. These are both negative and positives.
In the area of social and media outreach, globalization has lead to an awakened youth in both UK and other countries in the wider globe. This shows that there is a large percentage of well educated and politically endowed youths worldwide. These youths are able to channel their energy into protests for better change. This is due to the uneven distribution of costs and benefits through globalization in the trading sector.
Disadvantages of Globalization
There has been a notable increase in the cost of living in the UK. This has seriously affected citizens who are living on low incomes. Thus, a reliance on family and local support.
Due to media globalization, events happening in other countries are normally infiltrating in almost all countries media stations at a greater speed.
The issue of free trade may result in unemployment in the near future. This may impact the economy negatively as the government will have to go an extra mile so as to save its citizens from poverty (Tompkins 1).
Lower incomes, Gross Domestic Product, domestic demand and falling export incomes as a result of recession may affect the economy. This is because of increased instability in domestic economy. Therefore, globalization predisposes businesses, employees and consumers to downturns.
Foreign debts may be accumulated by countries that deal majorly on agricultural products. This is due to low export income that is incomparable to high import payment. These import prices result from the so called high value added imports (Munck 50).
Competition in a highly flooded market is at times very challenging. Thus, development of new industries may be hard with lack of short term protection policies (Tompkins 1).
Terrorism. As the world reflects or is actually a global village, it becomes easier to access various countries. This is very dangerous in terms of terrorist’s attacks. Such wars can destabilize the economy and can ruin a country through fateful suicidal attacks. In the current news, there was a discussion between the US embassy and the UK officials on the need to provide Olympic security inputs for the 2012 Olympic Games. It was reported that the UK had been working on issues of security matters and that no one had given substantial information about security status that could result to a check up. This was said after there were claims by the American embassy on a terrorism plot come 2012 (MacKinnon et al. 1).
Conclusion Since various countries have experienced a better part of many downturns, some countries have come up with effective ways to counteract the negative effects. For instance, in ensuring positive effects on poverty and communities, the UK has decided to change its labor markets and employment practices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, it has also reverted to digging deep into research. This has been done by the UK Government to ensure that its people are empowered with job creation capabilities instead of depending on the external market for jobs. In this research, the UK also is planning to find new ways of combating the issue of competitive markets.
This is by dealing in more sophisticated goods and services. Globalization is one of the risky steps that the worldwide countries decided to agree on, but each country needs to be careful and focus on the future rather than the present. It will be safer to be caught a wares in future in case of any downturns than to be caught unawares. Therefore, each country should be heads up to monitor the global economy.
Works Cited Held, David and Anthony McGrew. Globalization/Anti-Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007.
MacKinnon, Danny, et al. Globalization, Labor Markets and Communities in Contemporary Britain. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 4 March 2011. Web.
Munck, Ronaldo. Globalization and Social Exclusion: A Transformational Perspective. West Hartford: Kumerian Press Incorporation, 2005.
Tompkins, Wayne. “Benefits of Global Economy Uneven”. Courier-Journal. 2005. Print.
Sexual Content in Broadcast Media: United States Case Essay essay help free: essay help free
United States Case Study The television was invented around 1925 but became popular in 1950s, and in America, there were more than 50million television sets in use during that period. Nearly every living room in America had a TV. Questions were then raised about the content, whether to regulate it or not, and how to regulate it. The television and radio were similar in some ways: both were broadcasted through airwaves (before cable), and both were regulated by the federal government. This paper shall discuss these issues in depth.
Since the beginning of broadcast regulation, there were not enough channels for all who wished to broadcast their information, the electromagnetic spectrum had been deemed to be a publicly owned natural resource. The “scarce public resource” then made simple come up with broadcast regulation basis.
Both television and radio broadcasters operated under the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). With this, broadcasters applied, for licenses, to use a section of the “public property”, a definite frequency (UCSB SexInfo Online n.p.). Broadcasters, on the other hand, had a duty to serve the society’s interests. The obligation requires a licensee to ascertain the society’s needs and then provide a service to cater for those needs of the society. The FCC has the right to censor or restrict content with obscene material, requires fairness in political programming and segment broadcast percentages for certain content, for example, content for “public use” (Kaarina 233).
Obscene programming is considered whereby an average person, with contemporary community standards, finds the material appealing to the prurient interest; the content demonstrates or defines sexual behavior in an offensive way; the material lacks literary, political, artistic or scientific value. Indecent programming is whereby the contemporary community standards measures the broadcast medium and describes excretory or sexual activities and organs in the broadcast (Kaarina 231).
Indecent material was prohibited in the 1950s but later it was only aired after hours when the children have slept. The meaning of “indecent content” has changed over time. The National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (Center for Media Education 5) then came up with ways to call for censorship whereby there was self-censor with decency standards and production codes.
The first Amendment of the US Constitution declares that the congress shall not make any law that will abridge the freedom of speech or the freedom of the press (Perebinossoff 234). However, the state legislatures and the congress have tried to hold back speech that is considered indecent, harmful to minors, obscene or injurious to children, such as pornography (Perebinossoff 234). Common legislation seeking to regulate media content is seen mostly in an election year.
The US content regulation differs by the medium of expression. The 1st Amendment projection has affected the print publications to the highest degree. Radio and Television, on the other hand, have enjoyed the least protection degree. Initially the Fairness Doctrine and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) required broadcasters to have time to reply to those who said their views were criticized (Center for Media Education 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That rule was then killed in 1987. Another rule that still stands till now is the “equal time law” for the political candidates. The broadcasters are restricted to barring the transmission of profane material, obscene content or indecent material over the airwaves. These rules do not apply to print publications.
Congress has tried repeatedly to tackle this problem. However, their efforts have been in vain. They came up with the Communications Decency Act, 1996, which was struck down as unconstitutional. It then came up with Child Online Protection Act (COPA), 1998, which still remains in a legal uncertainty.
It went ahead and came up with the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), 2000, which has been upheld by the Supreme Court of the country (Wayne 234). CIPA facilitated the use of technologies to filter and keep off pornographic content from computer screens in schools and libraries which received funds from the federal government.
Indecent content is material which contains excretory or sexual material that is not at the level of obscenity and is clearly offensive. The First Amendment protects indecent speech though the Supreme Court has held it back. The high court allowed restriction of indecency for some certain main, for instance, TV and radio broadcasts. The same court recently disallowed Congress proscribing of indecent material on the internet or cable TV.
The Federal Communications Commission’s rule of banning obscene and indecent material from being broadcasted on the radio or TV was backed by the Supreme Court. The Court established a public interest in the prevention of transmission of questionable material via broadcast medium, from 6.00am to 10.00pm. From 1978 up to around 2004, the FCC enforcement of rules against indecency was limited, that was until the Janet Jackson and Bono sagas.
Janet Jackson, who was considered “the infamous wardrobe malfunction”, on February 1, 2004, was featured in the Super Bowl XXXVIII which was aired by CBS (Gunter 67). The show featured many celebrities, including Kid Rock in a poncho from an American flag cutout. Dancers repeatedly grabbed their crotches writhing to the music. In the finale, Justin Timberlake ripped one side of Janet Jackson’s bustier which then exposed her right breast to hundreds of millions of viewers in a split of a second.
Many viewers were not sure of what they saw until the radio, internet, and newspapers accounted on the next day. Others wanted to have a second look. Hence, the show became the most replayed over the TiVo digital video recorders. CBS was fined by the FCC $3.5 million, the highest penalty ever, for this and other indecency violations. CBS refused, insisting that the incident was not planned for, which then turned around to the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia and challenged the indecency fine.
We will write a custom Essay on Sexual Content in Broadcast Media: United States Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another account was on a rock star called Bono. He was awarded in the Golden Globe Awards on January 19, 2003. The awards were broadcasted live and without taped delay. While accepting the award, he declared, “…this is fucking brilliant…” (Perebinossoff 234). The FCC Enforcement Bureau declared that he did not use the word to describe sexual activities or sexual or excretory organs. Thus, there was no basis for the argument in the indecency law.
Congress managed to pass the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act, 2006, increasing the fines to $325,000 for each day of a violation or the violation itself, and a maximum of $3 million for failure to act or any single act.
However, in 2007, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals said that fines could not be collected from companies for so-called “fleeting expletives” because, in recent times, even top leaders use the expletives in a manner that no reasonable individual would believe that it has been used to describe excretory or sexual organs or activities. There were several acts against obscenity and indecency including
Child Pornography Protection Act (CPPA) was passed in 1996. It banned all visual depictions of minors, even if no minor is used. This law was then considered unconstitutional because it focuses on canning the content instead of banning the production.
Deleting Online Predators Act (DOPA) was passed in 2006 by Congress but was not voted by the Senate. The bill mandated e-rate portion to prevent minors from accessing chat-rooms and commercial social networks in schools and libraries. This measure would not grant the FCC the power to regulate or decide which sites were to be blocked.
In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act (Prosecutorial Remedies
Oligopoly Industry Characteristics Coursework online essay help
Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of marketing. In the discussion, attention is given to the oligopoly industry and its key features. This will be illustrated using the oil industry which comprises firms which do the business of oil and gas. The discussion also looks at the concept of price fixing by exploring the detergent industry especially in Europe and the economic rationale behind not fining Henkel, one of the companies which were found guilty of price fixing by the commission in charge of competition.
Discussion Oligopoly industry
Oligopoly is a market structure which is characterised by few but big firms. The firms usually know each other very well and they are characterised by sharing the whole market in terms of percentages. For example, if there are four big firms in a certain field, each usually occupies a certain percentage of the whole market in terms of capital base and the number of customers (Vives, 2001).
One characteristic of oligopoly is a cut throat competition. This means that the firms in an oligopoly industry usually compete for the customers but in very unique ways. Some of the ways in which firms compete is through what is referred to as differentiation and positioning.
In marketing, differentiation is the process of distinguishing a product or service from the rest through describing its unique differences and or characteristics. It is done for competition purposes with a view of creating a market niche for that particular product or service. Differentiation seeks to create a good image about a particular product among the targeted consumers so as to ensure that they perceive it as unique and different from other similar products (Armstrong and Kotler, 2009).
Product differentiation makes the targeted consumers not compare a particular product with others; which gives that particular product a competitive advantage over the others. In doing differentiation, marketers or product owners may rely on advertisement, promotions, improved product quality, lowering or increasing the prices as well as the lack of understanding on the part of the consumers regarding the price and quality of the product being differentiated (Armstrong and Kotler, 2009).
A company may engage itself in differentiation of several products at the same time. This makes it have a definitive number of customers, who are sort of owned by it due to the uniqueness of its products or services. This is what is called positioning. Positing entails using various strategies like promotion, distribution of products or services and production of unique products with unique pricing to build an identity of a particular company or organization in the minds of particular consumers (Vashisht, 2005).
Positioning seeks to stabilize and retain the positions of the particular differentiated products for a particular company so as to retain the competitive advantage of the company in regard to those products. For a company to create and maintain a particular position in a market, it needs to do a thorough research and consistent monitoring of market trends so as to modify or readjust the differentiation and positioning strategies for its respective products (Ferrell and Hartline, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firms also compete through increasing their efficiency, which entails the maximization of their resources and ensuring that they provide services which are very efficient, reliable and of high quality. Those firms which are more efficient are the ones which use the minimal resources to achieve the maximum results. They can for example engage in what is referred to as human resource development, which entails things like training of employees on various tasks, so that the employees can work on various departments at different times. This makes the firms save on hiring more employees especially on contract basis because their full time employees are competent to undertake various tasks at the same time.
A good example of oligopoly in work is the oil industry, which is controlled by the body known as OPEC. The firms under OPEC usually dominate the oil industry in virtually all parts of the world. The key competitors in the oil industry include Saudi Arabian Oil Company (259,900 million barrels per year), National Iranian Oil (138,400 million barrels per year) and Qatar General Petroleum (15,207 million barrels per year) ( Petro Strategies, 2011).
What this means is that they try as much as possible to beat each other by competing for the customers for oil and gas products. It is usually not possible for one firm, say for example Arabian Oil Company to hike its prices or lower the quality of its products. This is because doing so would make it lose its customers to their major competitors.
In some cases, oligopoly leads to formation of business cartels. This happens when the firms agree to increase the prices of their products beyond the reach of many consumers. They can also decide to reduce the supply of some products so that the demand may go up, which consequently makes the prices to shoot up. This is however illegal and when the firms are detected, they are usually fined heavily by the relevant government authorities (Levenstein, Suslow and Oswald, 2003).
This is a conspiracy between buyers or sellers to control the trade of certain products for their own benefits. This conspiracy usually leads to creation of a cartel, which is usually illegal. Price fixing involves an agreement between the sellers or buyers of a product to have uniform standards, terms and conditions for the supply and demand of the product (Levenstein, Suslow and Oswald, 2003).
Sellers can conspire to purchase a product at a uniform price thus fixing the price at the level which they want. This is because the sellers can easily conspire through various forms of sophisticated communication and fix the prices of certain products. When this happens, the loser is always the buyer. The sellers usually achieve this thorough having uniform costs of production which entail transportation, labour, discounts and bonuses. Their ability to control and coordinate the flow of the goods and services as well as to communicate with each other on what price they should offer on a certain good or service further makes it hard for government authorities to detect their illegal practices (Bonin and Goey, 2009).
Price fixing usually takes place in industries which are dominated by few large firms, a characteristic of oligopoly discussed above. One such industry is the detergent industry in Europe. This industry is usually dominated by three major players namely the Unilever, Procter
The Public Library Descriptive Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The services provided by the public library
The cooperation with political and governmental structures
Introduction Rapid development of information technologies, especially Internet and various social changes contributed to the decline of public library usage in the United States and many other countries (Goulding 2006, p. 112). This trend urges these organizations to improve their practices and find new ways of attracting visitors.
This paper is aimed at describing an imaginary public library that will serve the needs of a middle-sized city with a population of 150,000 people. In particular, it is necessary to identify the major services that it will provide. Secondly, this essay will explain how this institution will cooperate with other public libraries and governmental structures. Thirdly, one has to explain the principles that will govern this organization.
One should note that this organization will operate in the environment which does not yet exist. This means that this institution will not have to face budgetary constraints as it is often done by public libraries. Secondly, it will work in the environment in which the government fully appreciates the educational importance of such organizations and supports them.
The services provided by the public library First, we should say that this organization will be a part of a large library system. The thing is that such networking enables libraries to better share resources and information (Wilson 1992, p. 166). It is particularly important when we speak about books or periodicals.
Secondly, these institutions will able to share information about user’s most common requests. As it has been said before, this organization will work in a middle-sized city. Its population will have various educational, informational, and developmental needs and this library will serve these needs.
At this point, it is necessary to speak about these functions in more detail. First of all, this public library will support those people who pursue their education. In this case, one can mention school, college, or university students and those people who want to acquire new knowledge in their professional area (McClure
What is the Importance of Ethics When it Comes to Governance? Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Ethics is the study of what should be done. The terms ethics and morality are often used interchangeably . The word ethics comes from a Greek word ethickos – meaning an ethos, habit, pattern of behaviour or prevailing attitude. It has been widely viewed that ethics is not an easy word to define.
We believe that ethics has no substantive form, has no single method and is not in the domain of any one discipline or individual. Rather, ethics is best characterized as a space, a region of turbulence, where the space is defined by what is at stake – values, relationships, behaviour and human flourishing. This space contains many of the things that people care about, but about which not everyone can agree.
What is governance? It may be loosely defined as the act manner, fact or function of governing. This implies that to govern is to rule with authority, to exercise the function of government . Governing is therefore a whole range of actions, in a spectrum from the rule through influence to self – control.
In essence, governance may be seen as a process for reconciling the ambitions of the individual with the need to preserve and develop the ‘common weal’ which binds individuals through shared interests.
Why does governance matter? Governance has been largely taken for granted in the past, both because its failure was only apparent in infrequent crises, such as revolutions, or major systemic failures such as that caused by the Black Death. For most of human existence governance has been imposed on the majority by small elite, whose power has been legitimized by a priesthood which had a virtual monopoly of knowledge.
This form of governance depends on curtailing the freedom of the ruled in order to maximize the power of the rulers. Thus we can conclusively say that governance is concerned with the intrinsic nature, purpose, integrity and identity of an institution with a primary focus on the entity’s relevance, continuity and fiduciary aspects.
Governance involves monitoring and overseeing strategic direction, socioeconomic and cultural context, externalities and constituencies of the institution. Governance is usually delivered through an agreed constitution, through a complex web of customs and practices, underpinned by a shared system of ethics, to a range of stakeholders in that institution.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus with the above definitions it is quite clear that ethics is an important aspect when it comes to good governance . There are certain factors which influence ethics. These include values, culture and transformation. This leaves us asking, what is the importance of ethics when it comes to governance?
In essence, ethics serves to protect the basic human needs. In this case, ethics corresponds to basic human needs. Ethics also builds on credibility among the public, that is, ethics creates credibility with the public especially so when in the governance sector. With this in mind, it is worth noting that gaining the confidence of the community is vital to the public sector.
Public opinion is the most powerful force in a democratic society. It is a way of achieving higher standards of ethical behavior. Ethics provides a common language for aligning a company’s leadership and its people. Ethics, when perceived by employees as genuine, creates common goals, values, and language.
Lastly, ethics helps in better decision making. Ethical decisions made by the company will always be in the interest of the shareholders, other stakeholders, public, and their employees. This is because respect for ethics will force the management to consider all aspects of a question – economic, social and ethical.
Some of the decisions which have been made in the process of governance have several implications towards the sustenance of ethics as a necessity to good governance. It is worth mentioning that the BAe system case study presents a series of decisions which were made and which can be categorized as laudable, culpable or non culpable decisions.
An example of a decision which can be classified as culpable is the manner in which the Tanzanian government used the funds that it had got from the United Kingdom. This was made prevalent by the level of furiousness which was exhibited by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown in the year 2001. Essentially, the exchequer was furious by the fact that the Tanzanian government had diverted its funds to cater for military traffic control systems.
Whereas ignoring the intended purpose of the money which was to cater for the Tanzanian education. Essentially, the President, Mr. Mkapa was on record contesting the reason for the furiousness. On the other hand, Alan Johnson, the minister in the Department of Trade and Industry responded by stating that there was no evidence of corruption in the deal.
We will write a custom Essay on What is the Importance of Ethics When it Comes to Governance? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another case, the ‘AL – Yamamah’ contract for the sale of BAe was associated with underhand dealings which were not straight in their operations. There were rumours that there was a benefactor who was taking in the profits for helping to set up the deal. Mr Aitken was imprisoned for perjury, because he claimed his wife paid the hotel bill when the couple spent a weekend at the Paris Ritz.
She did not. Wafiq Said was at the Ritz during the same weekend. This led to the establishment of a committee to probe into the dealings of the BAe. The Woolf committee which was set up recommended that BAEs should:
Establish a Corporate Responsibility Committee (CRC) of the main board, to set ethical standards and to oversee all conduct relevant to ethical and reputational risk.
Establish a team, led by a senior executive accountable to the Chief Financial Officer, and responsible for ensuring a group-wide ethical business programme worldwide.
Proactively advocate high ethical standards, including openness and transparency.
Make all ethical policies and procedures publicly available and easily accessible.
Develop, publish and implement a global code of ethical business conduct, including specific behavioural expectations for managers, to take precedence in any dilemma.
In the medium term (3 years), develop systems to achieve audits of ethical and reputational risk as thorough as audits of financial risk and set up processes to evaluate all business risks.
Make the Internal Audit function responsible for assessing ethical/reputational risk.
Provide in its annual report a public update to shareholders outlining the findings of external and internal audits of ethical and reputational risk.
In the medium term (3 years), publish an independent external audit of ethical conduct and management of reputational risk; and do likewise at regular intervals thereafter.
In their performance appraisals, monitor senior management’s ability to demonstrate high ethical standards.
In the variable element of their remuneration, pay people according to their ability to demonstrate high ethical standards.
Keep a central register of spending on gifts and hospitality, itemised by individual recipients, by customer, by country and in aggregate, reported annually to the CRC.
Where possible, eliminate facilitation payments immediately, though it may not be possible to do so immediately in some countries.
Report all facilitation payments to the board and develop systems to implement a global policy to forbid and eliminate them completely over time.
Make customers aware of BAES policy regarding gifts before contracts are signed.
Ensure rigorous selection and due diligence in hiring advisers, including face-to-face interviews with BAES lawyers; and make their identity known to potential customers.
This brings us to the question, which was the best way of dealing with the case? Essentially, this is a philosophical question which touches on moral philosophy . In this case, moral philosophy attempts to answer the question of how one should live and how one should behave.
In the case above, it is worth mentioning the fact that moral philosophy would have played an important role reading some of the decisions which were being made. In general, moral philosophy as a whole can be usefully divided into three basic areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. In this case we are interested in normative ethics.
Normative ethics involves substantive proposals concerning how to act, how to live, or what kind of person to be. In particular, it attempts to state and defend the most basic principles governing these matters. For example, in the earlier case, it would be considered immoral to substitute education of the masses for the benefit of a few. Secondly, it is immoral to receive commissions based on underhand dealings when it comes to public governance.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that when it comes to ethics. Normative ethics should be given considerations with regard to governance. This is because normative ethics is concerned with stating and defending the most basic moral principles.
Reference List Chandrasekaran, B
Challenges of International Information Systems Management Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction Information refers to a piece of data or a message that needs to be passed from one individual to another. A system is a combination of interrelated items that work together to achieve desired objectives (Peng, 2009). Information Systems refers to a combination of information, the people concerned and the technology that supports the operation.
It also involves the management of information (storage, transfer, interpretation and consumption of the information) and the decision-making process. International Information System refers to the information system that is able to support the communication and coordination of persons at local and international levels.
Information needs to be transferred from one individual to another for it to be meaningful. The process of passing information from one individual to another is referred to as communication. Communication is very important. Kaplan (2009) argues that communication is the only way that an individual can make known what is in his/her heart to another individual. In the business world, nothing can transpire without this vital component.
The only link between a firm and its customers is communication. Through this, a firm will make known what it offers to the market. It will also need this business component to pass other pieces of information to the target market. The customer on the other hand needs communication in order to be aware of firms offering products that satisfy their needs in the best way possible (Muniz
Buyer Behavior and Integrated Marketing Communications Analytical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Buyer behavior refers to characteristics exhibited by consumers when making the decision to purchase an item. It examines the reasons behind decision making on the side of customers on when and where to buy a product. It puts into consideration, factors such as demographic and psychological factors that affect the decision of the buyer in the market.
Communication on the other hand refers to the passing of a message from one party to another. In the context of marketing, communication refers to the art of passing a message from the firm (or business unit) to the market and back, from the market to the firm. Evans (2010, p. 25) asserts that communication is the core to business success.
Communication creates and maintains positive relationship between a firm and its customers. It is through communication that a firm can pass information to the customers about introduction of new products into the market. Buyer behavior is strongly affected by marketing communication. It is very important for a firm to manage communication properly if it is to succeed in customer attraction and retentions (Falkow 2010, p. 19).
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline that majorly operates in the European nations. With its head office at Dublin Airport, this airline has experienced a massive growth within the past one year. In a market characterized by strong competition from the world’s renowned airline like British Airways, Air France, the Virgin Atlantic among other giant airlines, Ryanair must come up with strategies that will enable it survive the market wave.
Communication offers the best way to reach the customers and develop a relationship with an aim to crating new customers and retaining existing ones. The airline positions itself as the cheapest airline in the market for domestic and across border travelers within European countries.
The target markets for this airline are the travelers who seek to travel within the European nations either for leisure or for other purposes but are looking cheap air transport. This airline comes in as the preferred option for such customers due to its affordability. The airline therefore needs an integrated marketing communication in order to reach this market segment.
It also needs to understand factors that determine buyer behavior so that it may be in a position to manipulate customers’ decision to opt for the airline as their preferred airline. With Turkey’s growth of the tourism sector, this airline finds itself poised for success if the management makes the right steps in implementing the right marketing strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buyer Behavior Analysis and Integrated Marketing Communication Analysis of buyer behavior can best be approached by segmenting the market first. Market segmentation can be done by taking into consideration the demographic composition of the market. The age, level of income, taste, preferences, and other psychographic factors should be put into consideration when coming up with the market segment (Klein 2009, p. 35).
The Target Market Profile
The main target markets for Ryanair airline are the Britons and the Germans who are aged between eighteen to forty four years. Most of them are able to travel by air to attractive destinations as tourists or private travelers. However, they are middle-income earners who are trying to balance between leisure and the importance of saving. Customers who are price sensitive characterize this target market. Any slight change in the price of the air tickets leads to a massive shift of the market. This market can further be segmented by age.
The first segment will be those aged between eighteen to twenty four years. These individuals either are at college or have just entered the labor market. They do not have much in terms of wealth as they are trying to establish themselves as responsible adults. This group is easily influenced by peer pressure as they try to fit in everything that seems trendy. They would try to imitate what superstars do and they tend to be rebellious towards anything that appears to limit their freedom.
Most of their actions are also influenced by the desire to be seen as responsible adults with the ability to make decisions on their own. However, they are financially crippled, as they have to depend on their parents in most of the cases. This makes them prefer cheaper airlines when on tours or making private travels.
Wayne (2008, p. 54) explains that they have the willingness to pay for the high priced add-on services on board, but lack the ability. They therefore settle on the basics when making their travels. They would therefore make a shift the moment there is a slight readjustment of the ticket price.
The next sub group is aged between twenty-five to thirty-four years. They are stable financially and are in gainful employment. They form the most attractive group in this market segment. They are independent and are therefore able to make their own decision. These individuals always like travelling for leisure, either as newly married or couples planning to marry. Most of their buying decisions are always influenced by the need to please their partners.
According to Giddens (2009, p. 52), this group have limited time but have the desire for leisure away from their jobs. For this reason, cheap airlines are the best alternative modes of transport as they try to balance between their careers and the need to for leisure. Kabani (2009, p. 42) reports that most Britons and Germans always start investing at this age.
We will write a custom Essay on Buyer Behavior and Integrated Marketing Communications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With attractive investment in Turkey, most of this group is likely to frequent this country. Coupled with the beautiful sceneries in this country, the airlines plying this route have great opportunity to tap from this group. It accounts for the highest percentage of the Ryanair customers.
The last group in this category is individuals aged thirty-five to forty-four years of age. These individuals are stable financially, with some having made serious investment. They are always relaxed with life and comfort and security is their major priority when travelling. It is therefore unlikely that they can settle on cheap airlines as they consider them less comfortable and more prone to incidents and accidents.
They are insensitive to price change and are always willing and able to pay for extra comfort at extra costs. Because they are nearing self-actualization in life, they would go for things considered classy (Gorchels 2004, p. 37). A number of them are middle level managers and therefore travel for executive reasons. The flights may be booked on their behalf, leaving them with no choice but take the booked flights.
Buyer Behavior Analysis
2 page summary and 2 paragraph reflection on a the link below need it done in THREE HOURS https://www.understood.org/articles/en/understanding-universal-design-for-learning?utm_source=google-search-nongrant college essay help online
1. Read “Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction for Secondary Inclusive Classrooms”: K306 Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction.pdf. Download K306 Planning Differentiated, Multicultural Instruction.pdf. Summarize the big ideas/main points of the article and discuss its application to your teaching practices (Guideline: Approx. 1-2 page if you choose written response.) AND 2. Select an article/video/blog/podcast/TED talk, etc. of your choice on the topic of culturally relevant Universal Design for Learning in secondary classrooms and provide the link or citation. Be sure it is current and relevant. Please highlight the main points of the document and discuss its application to your practice as a teacher (Guideline: 2 paragraphs).
Whole Foods Trends Case Study college essay help near me
Table of Contents Bargaining Power of Consumers
Threat of New Entrants in the Market
Suppliers Bargaining Power
Whole Foods SWOT Analysis
Whole Foods Market, the world’s largest retail chain of organic and natural foods supermarket was founded in the year 1980, from what was initially a local supermarket for health and natural food stuff and products. For nearly three decades now, since its inception, Whole Foods Market has proved to be a leader in the supply of natural and organic foods across the United States.
The company is widely recognized for its constant ability to supply food products that are free from preservatives and ingredients, and also for their stringent standards to sustain agricultural practices in the country.
The company’s unique mission in business is stipulated by its organizational motto, which bears the slogan, ‘Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet.’ This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the trends applied by the company in retailing organic foods and its competitive power in the market as it is observed from the provided case.
The organic food sector has shown consistent growth in the past several years. Some of the key factors contributing to this abundant growth would include more consumers getting informed through education and conscious concerns of health that processed food products are likely to bring to humans.
These practices have further facilitated developments in the sector over the time as mainstream supermarkets continue to utilize the available opportunities to diversify their selection of organic and natural products. Some of the most common trends pertaining the retail of organic food products in the industry include the ups and downs within the farming sector, concerns of the environment, and concern of healthy lifestyles.
All these trends would have a significant impact in Whole Foods Market. Uncertain climatic patterns for instance, would negatively influence the supplies of the products in the market, leading to shortages in case of a bad season. More importantly unavoidable weather situations such as tornadoes and hurricanes can also occur anytime, contributing to loss of crops.
Regarding environmental concerns, consumers tend to believe that organic products come with positive effects towards the conservation of the environment. It is also understandable that people are now paying more attention than ever before, to what they ingest. In that case, the necessary steps are being applied in diverse settings to promote healthier lifestyle for individuals and families.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Whole Foods Market is making up and down attempts to establish major suppliers of organic supplies to cater for all chains and stores across the states. Food 2008 is a major player in the American food industry. Competition of the key players in the American food industry has increased rampantly in the past few years, owing to the heightening demand for organic and natural food products. Most Whole Food products target all categories of people in the society.
These products have continued to attract increasing consumer concerns from across the states owing to their unique market standards. It is easier to evaluate the competitive environment of the company using Michael Porter’s competitive forces that shape competition strategy. The five forces as observed by Porter include bargaining power of consumers, threat of new entrants in the market, suppliers bargaining power, competitive rivalry, and substitute products.
Bargaining Power of Consumers The company is known for its commitment and involvement in charity missions among other community citizenship activities. More importantly, all these would happen as the firm continues to maintain its quality standards on all their products. In that case, the firm’s customers have less bargaining power since their demands and requirements are appropriately catered for and in the most charming manners.
However, owing to the increasing number of players in the food industry, buyers are likely to learn new ways in the long run, thus gaining added advantage on negotiating leverage. This way, consumers would tend to shift to other vendors on realization that they can always land on an equivalent product from the market.
Threat of New Entrants in the Market As it would be observed, the initial concept of Whole Food Market was more innovative. However, current market trends are pushing the firm far from the scope of innovation and into mainstream.
According to USDA, the overall production of organic food products has been going up since the year 1990 in all regions, making organic food products the fastest advancing segment of agriculture. Rapid growth of market, coupled with minimal barriers to entry has attracted many participants in the industry, thus leading to stiff competition in the market.
Suppliers Bargaining Power Just like any other firm, Whole Foods Market largely depends on a wide range of suppliers for its products. In most cases, some of these supplier groups have been active and powerful in determining the company’s competitive strategy in a number of ways. For instance, much attention is given to food processors in the country, which enjoy all the bargaining power. Only a very little percentage of farms are used for organic and natural food products.
We will write a custom Case Study on Whole Foods Trends specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competitive Rivalry Whole Foods Market faces great rivalry presently, from the many competitors in the food industry. In normal circumstances, some of the common ways through which the firm is affected by rivalry include introductions of new products and services, improvement of services, advertising campaigns and price discounting among other implications.
The fact that competitors in the food industry are numerous and roughly equal in power is enough to increase the intensity of rivalry or competition in the market and this reduces the productivity levels of Whole Foods Market.
Substitute Products The company faces a high threat of substitutes from conventional food products that are processed artificially in the country. For example, many people in the U.S. would tend to see fast foods such as snacks and drinks as more convenient, compared to other food stuffs that are made at home.
Most of these fast foods are artificially processed and preserved, and they pose serious threats to the firm’s productivity. In most cases, these cheap preserved foodstuffs would tend to offer a significant price-performance trade-off to the natural and organic food products offered by the company. In such circumstances, it is easy for buyers to turn to conventional retailers, as there is no cost for doing so. In this regard, these substitutes have continued to limit the company’s profits and earnings in normal times.
Competition from major rivals in the industry remains the most significant threat to the firm. This also includes the stiff competition posed by conventional stores across the states. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the year 2000 would see most conventional supermarkets in the country sell more organic food products, compared to the country’s natural food stores.
Even though a recognized leader in the supply of organic and natural food products, the company continues to suffer the cost of a high market competition from existing and new ventures in the market. In order to successfully combat this threat, the company should adopt an effective strategy that incorporates three significant tactics: Market, Product, and Operational.
In regard with marketing and product, things such as quality products, fair prices and effective ways of promotion would apply. On the other hand, operational strategy would incorporate the use of effective and exclusive store operations for improved outcomes.
Whole Foods SWOT Analysis Strengths Huge variety items/products
Marketer of nationally known food products
Outstanding experience in the market
Weaknesses Low advertisement budget
Location of most stores in affluent regions
Lack of coupons in promotional offers
Opportunities Effective advertisement and promotion to attract more customers
Introduction of rewards systems for consumers
Expansion of private label selection
Introduction of cost-effective ways that will favor customers
Threats Bad or uncertain economy
Availability of local farmers
Conventional stores and supermarkets
regular changes in government regulations on natural and organic food products
It is possible for Whole Foods to achieve a sustained competitive advantage over its competitors in the market simply by making effective use of these strengths and opportunities. For example, the company deals with a variety of products that are nationally accepted as foods, and this could be a certain way of attracting and retaining huge numbers of consumers in the market. More importantly, the company has great business potential considering their large stores located allover the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Whole Foods Trends by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These facilities can be utilized in a number of useful ways, apart from only acting as selling stores. Holding exhibitions and educational forums regarding the products on sale to potential consumers are some of the useful ways of utilizing the stores. Effective promotional strategies would help in publicizing the company’s products whereby the introduction of a reward would play a significant role in the attraction and retention of consumers in the company’s products.
Innovation in Brazil Exploratory Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Innovation is increasingly becoming a fundamental aspect in the development of the modern world. Apart from development of services and products for purposes of improving quality, innovation also involves new business systems, processes and methods of management, all of which present a very significant impact on business productivity and development.
As it would be observed, innovation is arguably the most powerful force for transformations and developments in almost every sector of the global economy. For this reason, many developed and developing countries have started to embrace the insurmountable opportunities presented by this upcoming trend to increase and sustain their economies.
Today, every organization in the world is experiencing the impact of current global issues such as globalization, technological revolutions, and uncertain weather patterns, among other turbulences. There is no better way we can address these challenges, but through the considerable effort of innovation. This assignment examines the case of Brazil as a country seeking to bring out significant changes in its growing society, through a greater focus on innovation in its organizations and institutions.
Brazil is ranked the fifth-largest country globally, with a population rate of about 185 million people. Attempts to foster innovation have been among the major challenges the country continues to face, as a nation striving to get recognition in the global economy (Sennes 46). This dream, however, seems to come true following the country’s recent plans to adopt policies that would boost innovation as a key driving force for regional integration and economical developments.
This intervention would see Brazil adopt a number of effective laws and policies targeted on innovation, over the years, as one way of addressing the many challenges facing the global population today. These laws are intended to promote the country’s social and economical developments, through a strategic plan that will take place within a system of innovation. Following is a summary showing the Brazilian laws on innovations and how they affect business development for both local and foreign organizations in the country.
The Intellectual Property Law was enacted in the year 1996 to protect the right of original work in the country. This regulation would contribute to increased number of patent in the following years, owing to the regulation of intangible right about ideas. More importantly, this law has continued to play a key role in encouraging innovative practices in the country.
In the year 1999, the Brazilian government would introduce ‘the Sectoral Funds for Science
Allure Cruise Line Case Study college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The way of Market Penetration by Allure
Allure’s main competitors in this market
Uniqueness of Allure from Its Competitors
Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines
Introduction The purpose of this case study is to discuss market entry strategies of Allure Cruise Line, the main competitors of this company in new markets, positioning strategy, and the difference between Allure and other companies.
Company Overview Allure Cruise Line is a small company in the North America, which started its journey in 1993 with only three ships to sail out of Landerdale, Florida, San Juan, and other itineraries within the Caribbean Sea (Dereskey, 2007, p.1).
According to the part one of the case study, it has more than 1000 employees (including crews, managers, board members, engineers and so on) and this company recruited the crews from 40 different countries and nationalities considering complex culture and importance of advance communication system to provide quality service. However, the following two figures show Allure’s vision and mission statements and organizational structure –
Figure 1: Allure’s Vision and Mission Statements
Source: Dereskey (2007, p.1)
Figure 2: Organizational structure of Allure cruise Line
Source: Dereskey (2007, p.3)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The way of Market Penetration by Allure The top-management team of Allure Cruise Line needs to research on the global cruise industry to find out potential market to enter and gain competitive advantages.
Before attempt to enter new markets, it is also essential for this company to consider its mission, vision, corporate structure, current challenges, political and cultural factors, financial position, legal barriers, leadership, human resource management, and market competition, size and growth of the cruise industry particularly North American, cruise industry and so on.
However, Dereskey (2008, p.35) pointed out the hierarchical model of market entry modes to help the companies select the suitable entry route strategy, for instance,
Figure 3: The hierarchical model of market entry modes
Source: Dereskey (2008, p.35)
The above figure demonstrates non-equity modes and equity modes of market entry; however, considering the service features of Allure Cruise Line, it can be argued that equity modes strategy would be suitable for this company to enter new zone.
In this context, the management of this company should contact with the management of small companies of the new selected markets to sign joint-venture agreement, which will give the opportunity to the Allure to share its resources and technologies with other companies; however, it is important for Allure to assess financial risk of joint-venture agreement.
We will write a custom Case Study on Allure Cruise Line specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, the management team has the opportunity to acquire small cruise line companies to penetrate new potential markets, for instance, the company has significant prospect in the European or North American markets because target customers of this zone have enough financial capabilities to take service of this company.
On the other hand, the management of this company also considers the service categories and must try to sign joint venture agreement with different service providers and acquire the organizations, which offer similar services to avoid any financial risks; however, the following table provides more information regarding this issue:
Features Market entry modes Adventure and expedition cruise ships It is important to have smaller ships to access more destinations. The positive sector is higher passenger return visits. Allure Cruise line can sign both acquisition or joint venture agreement to enter new markets. Boutique cruise ships It needs small cruise ships, but the marketers have to ensure quality service; however, higher passenger return visits influenced the business operators to penetrate this market. The management has opportunity to acquire or joint venture with the cruise ship operators of new markets or ports. Mid-size cruise ships These ships have greater port infrastructure demands, require larger channel depths and wharf berthing. Allure should consider joint venture agreement with other companies. Mega-cruise ships It should require the biggest cruise vessels, major port infrastructure, larger channel depth, longer wharfs for side berthing, and international traveler processing services. At present, it is not possible for Allure Cruise line to enter this market. Military vessels This sector dominates by the large companies because of high operating costs (more than $400/ day per crew); in addition, it needs at least 5000 crews in one ship Allure should not show any interest to enter this market as a small company in the industry Table 1: The way of Market Penetration by Allure
Source: Self generated
Allure’s main competitors in this market Allure Cruise Line has to compete with both direct and indirect competitors in the national and international market; however, presence of numerous competitors is one the key challenge for this company.
It is difficult for this company to compete in this industry by penetrating new market with only three small ships; in addition, the company has many barriers like communication problems and social misunderstanding, unethical behavior of the crews, old technology, global financial crisis, threats of terrorist attack/pirating, unusual accidents and so on. However, the following table gives more information about the main competitors:
Major Companies Key characteristics Carnival Corporation (CCL) Market leader of cruise ship industry as it generated $24.32 billion in 2011 and it operates more than 90 ships in the global market. In addition, it has more than 91,300 employees, net profit was 1.62 billion and gross profit margin was 33.75% in 2011. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd It is second largest company in this industry and it is operating largest cruise ship; however, in 2011, net profit was about 607.42 million, gross profit margin was 34.42%, and total employees was 60,300. Genting Hong Kong Limited It is a private company in this industry; however, in 2011, total income was more than $68.10 million, and total employees was only 4,430. Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd Norwegian Cruise Line is another private company in this industry; however, in 2011, total profit was over $22.60 million, and total employees was more than 13,769. Table 2: Direct and indirect competitors of Allure Cruise Line
Source: Self generated from Yahoo Finance (2012)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Allure Cruise Line by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Uniqueness of Allure from Its Competitors The dynamic operational strategy of Allure Cruise has aimed pose itself distinguishable in the cruise industry relation to its competitors, the organization has emerged with its unique operation from its human resource management, marketing and customer relationship management that contributed the company with tremendous growth of its passengers and crews.
In fact, in the cruise market the major challenge is high rate of employees’ turnover, the industry has an overall turnover rate of 35%, while Allure reduced it at 31% and the HR policy Allure allowed its crews to entertain as a family without discriminating the culture, ethic group, ranks, and position.
In the operation of Allure Cruse, the crews enjoy definitely a ‘brotherhood mentality’ among the management and crewmembers who hate to class difference, without differentiating nationality it has developed a culture to be more collective, quiet, with cooperative attitude that delivers best performance of the employees.
In Allure Cruse, there are crews’ almost forty different nations with different culture and habit with different age group from nineteen to forty, rather than any other players of the industry Allure mitigate this difference with unique strategy fundamentally different from others. For instance, while there are different tastes among the crews of different nationalities about their food habit and all of them would like to get attention and priority, Allure introduced to serve three times rice everyday for all crews at their dining.
For the cruise industry, there are so many recruitment agencies and all the competitors uphold their recruitment process through those agencies, but Allure’s recruitment process is extremely different from its competitors. The company uses the service of the recruitment agencies for only souring the candidates from different forty countries, but selection, recruitment and training of the company would be conducted by Allure itself, as a result, the company gets more competent candidates than the competitors in the industry.
For cost effective solution, most of the competitors use common training from the outsourcing agents; but Allure have its own standard of training both shore and onboard and the company spend 65% of its total cost for labor.
Allure has most sophisticated training system to train the crews onboard while it allow full pay for the trainees before starting work, the trainees also get similar dining and living facilities without any discrimination. Such differential operational practice provided the company enough space to generate a strong base of satisfied passengers that contributed the company for not to be affected by the incident of nine eleven.
Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines According to the following figure, the position of Allure Cruise Line in this industry is not in satisfactory level due to existence of many established brands like RCL and CCL; therefore, the mission of this company is to provide unforgettable and unique vacation experience to the passengers to become larger market player in this sector (Dereskey, 2007). However, the following figure shows Brand positioning map of Allure –
Figure 4: Brand positioning map of Allure Cruise Line
Source: Self-generated from Yahoo Finance (2012)
Allure bring into beginning of fundamentally different ways of competing in the market through its positioning strategy that pointed the lower rate of employees as a competitive advantage within the cruse industry.
However, the company provides sophisticated training and satisfactory compensation package to its crews that has generated higher extent of crew’s service quality and produced large base of satisfied passengers; consequently, the management has dared expand its target market in new routes.
In the following figure, it has demonstrated that the cost leadership and uniqueness of the services are the source of Allure’s competitive advantage, while Allure Cruse has aimed to drive from lower target market to higher definition market through right use of its resources and capabilities.
Figure 5: Positioning Strategy of Allure Cruse Lines
Source: Self generated
The management of Allure Cruise explored its intention for further expansion of business while the senior leadership team has alarmed that there are few factors of the crewmembers onboard may impede to implement the superior business plans that the company is going to introduce and it could put at risk for the accomplishment of the Mediterranean extension of service.
Reference List Dereskey, H. (2007). Allure Cruise Line*—Challenges of Strategic Growth and Organizational Effectiveness: Part 1. Web.
Dereskey, H. (2007). Allure Cruise Line*—Challenges of Strategic Growth and Organizational Effectiveness: Part 4. Web.
Dereskey, H. (2008). International management, managing across borders
The Large and Culturally Diverse Teams Management Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction The 21st century economy is increasingly liberalized and collaboration in teams that cross different cultural boundaries has become the norm. More often than not, teams are scattered across geographical locations and work through communication enabled platforms made possible by advancing technology.
These teams are normally involved in complex projects and ideally, they are supposed to bring experience and pools of knowledge that should make work easier by creating competitive advantage. In practice, however, many teams do not realize their potential as they create less value due to clashes precipitated by different backgrounds.
According to Johnson et al (1998, p. 89), modern-day firms cannot afford to ignore culturally diverse teams since their value to realizing corporate objectives can no longer be underestimated. It is therefore to corporations and project management firms’ interest that they learn to assemble and effectively manage complex global and culturally diverse teams.
In this discussion, focus will be on the unique complexities that come along with the management of large and culturally diverse teams. These complexities pose obstacles to success of projects which both new and old management approaches have not been able to effectively address.
Great project management teams are those that work together in harmony, using their diversities as strength to consistently deliver superior performance and results. Success of a project is measured against performance variables such as time, budget and predetermined quality specifications.
There is a consensus among many project management experts that a project team does not necessarily have to be large to deliver good results. However, contemporary project teams are too big, disjointed and overly diverse, providing numerous complexities to their managers who rely on old and typical methods of management.
According to O’Rourke
Adolescent Sexuality and Sexual Health Analytical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Pregnancies among the adolescent is a norm among many societies in the world. According to a Neelofur-Khan (2007) approximately 14 million teenagers, aged 15-19 get pregnant each year. In the sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the populations of women give birth before they attained the age of 20.
The regional birth rate among the sub Saharan adolescents is approximately 115 births per 1000 pregnancies (Neelofur-Khan 2007). However, this reality is not limited to the developing countries in the sub Saharan region only; some of the developed nations are acutely affected by the menace of teenage pregnancies.
While the concepts of modernization, law, and other controls have led to a slight decrease in cases of adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy remain prevalent in most regions of the world. The number of girls getting pregnant during their teens, all over the world, remains high despite the worldwide campaigns launched to discourage teen pregnancy.
Adolescent pregnancy affects all communities and countries in the world. In fact, both the developed and the developing nations encounter the problem of adolescent pregnancies. In the United States, for instance, adolescent pregnancies remain higher than in most of the developed countries.
Although the number of pregnancies among adolescents between aged 15 to 19 has decreased by an estimated twenty-one percent in developed nations, the number of adolescent pregnancies in the America remains high (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). Approximately 40% of women below the age of twenty in America get pregnant annually (Dangal, 2006).
National statistic records in the United States indicate that an approximate 12,000 female below the age of 15 are pregnant (Rothenberg and Weissman 2002). With these staggering figures seen in the United States seeming hard to beat, it is astonishing to learn that the numbers of adolescent pregnancies in the sub-Saharan Africa are higher. Research conducted in the 1990s show that sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of teen pregnancies (Demographic health surveys 1995).
The sub Saharan region is affected by various factors that encourage teen pregnancies. Factors such as poverty, sexual abuse, and lack of career opportunities among other causatives lead to early pregnancies among the sub Saharan adolescents. Teenage pregnancies are accompanied by various risks. Some of the risks include potential death of the mother, spread of HIV to among the adolescents and high potential death of the infant (Matson 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolescents may suffer death in case they try to abort under unsafe conditions. According to a report released World Health Organization, the number of abortions in the United States range between 2 and 4 million per year. Adolescents resort to unsafe procedures performed non-professional doctors because abortion is illegal in most countries of the world. The unsafe procedures performed these doctors increase the risk of teenagers contracting HIV and AIDS.
Winter (1997) in his paper ‘why teenage girls become pregnant’ revealed that, a number of factors might lead to pregnancies of the adolescents. He noted that most teenagers became pregnant because they lacked ambition.
Moreover, Poor grades, low self-esteem, unrealistic expectations, and lack of proper parental control lead the teenagers into the trap of early pregnancies (Harrington 2004). This paper discusses some determinants of adolescent pregnancy. Moreover, this article describes an intervention program that has had some success in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy in adolescent.
Adolescent Pregnancies in Sub-Saharan Africa Teenage pregnancies in the sub Saharan countries is almost a norm in most societies. Poverty in these countries is very high and most children, especially the girl child, do not get sufficient education to sustain their future needs.
Therefore, by the time a girl attains the age of 14, she may be married or pregnant (Sarri
Shuzworld Company Evaluation Essay college essay help
Workflow at Shuzworld (Discussion and Recommendations) Shuzworld’s case embraces the aspects of workflow. This section of the paper discusses the workflow provisions and provides appropriate recommendations applicable in this context.
This will ensure credible workflow augmentation in the Shuzworld Company with specific reference to Chinese plants. For example, the workflow in the production system is not efficient enough to serve growing demands for several types of shoes globally.
It is notable that the company takes nearly 46 minutes to produce one Rugged Wear Workboots product. There are recommendation on how this timeframe can be reduced (per process) to ensure efficiency, quality, and enhanced output.
Workflow recommendations and Justifications Firstly, it is recommendable for the company to use sound management principles and decision analysis in order to make sense of the available options. Although it is impossible to merge some of the processes due to protocol disparities, it is recommendable to restructure the production line as Catherine Pang drew it on the white board.
The company will save time and money as demanded by any proficient workflow. This is a critical provision when considered critically. It is notable that the workflow can either proceed to B or C after passing through process A.
Process E and F can also be selected for viability and time factor. Supportively, Shuzworld should use process ACDEGH, which will consume only 36 minutes instead of the current 46 minutes. Thus, it is appropriate to assert that the company should restructure its production line/processes as shown the subsequent output forms.
Shuzworld’s Rugged Wear Workboot Assembly Schedule Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Another recommendation is that the company can increase the number of its workstations within china in order to curb the workflow challenges. Additionally, it can purchase more machines that will be able to handle numerous tasks simultaneously.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relying on fewer machines might distract the production system especially when one machine breaks down. Another recommendation is for the company to hire proficient and reliable workforce capable of operating the machines faster and accurately.
This will help in enhancing the workflow and other related concerns. Additionally, Shuzworld ought to improve the efficiency of its plants by enhancing competence and providing the correct number of workstations.
The company should also schedule the production of new products coherently in order to enhance the workflow. It is also important to enhance the reliability of the three machines meant to produce casual deck shoes. One production process should not interfere with others.
Notably, the company has been grappling with the reliability of machines. If one machine breaks down, the production is highly affected. Indeed, no shoes are produced if one machine has a problem. Therefore, there is the need for the company to improve the reliability of the machines in the plant by acquiring other reliable ones.
These should be put on standby waiting to replace the broken ones. This will obviously enhance operations and the ultimate output of the concerned operators.
Alternatively, the company can hire new employees, train them appropriately, and nurture their workmanship in order to enhance the workflow, productivity, and profitability of the company. This decision will reduce delays, lower labor costs and improved output.
With regard to frequent machine breakdowns, the company can acquire new machine models or hire qualified machine repairers then distribute them to different plants for reliability and efficiency. Another recommendation is to assign operators on jobs they know best.
We will write a custom Essay on Shuzworld Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of having four operators, whose labor costs shift from one process to another, the company can facilitate the specialization of employees on single jobs. For instance, job machine operator C ought to handle process 1 owing to reduced amounts of costs.
Indeed, the company can save at least $3 dollars in this process. Second, Machine operator B ought to handle process 2 due to the cost efficiency as well. Process 3 should be the work machine operator D while the last process should be the work of operator A.
Job Machine Operator A B C D 1 $10 $12 $10 $11 2 11 9 11 11 3 9 8 11 9 4 10 8 9 10 Justification Output By improving the company’s workflow, the company will increase its output. At the outset, there will be an apparent and a marginal reduction of labor costs ($4) associated with machine operators. Besides, specialization improves the quality and the flow of work due to the improved skills for the specialists as depicted by Ryan (2009).
Second, the company will also enhance its ability to meet its customers’ needs without having by increasing its machines and hiring some skilled professionals. Although the company will incur significant costs by hiring more laborers to handle the new sandal line, it will break even within the second month of operation. Therefore, no customers will be waiting in the line. Below is the output form after the required changes.
Copy of the prospected output Task Prospected time after merging (Minutes) Predecessors A 10 None C 3 A D 8 C E 3 D G 3 E H 9 G TOTAL 36 Output for machine operators Job Preferred operator Cost 1 A $10 2 D $11 3 B 8 4 C 9 Work Flow Analysis Tool The Shuzwolrd case demand a viable workflow analysis tool, which addresses all the issues fronted to the new employee ranging from the assembly line issues to inventory challenges. The decision analysis tool was chosen because it was comprehensive and could tackle all the issue that faces the company.
Additionally, it could give quick and well-analyzed resolutions to the issue faced within the company and the industry at large. Concurrently, the tool could be used specifically in some areas to address particular issues raised by Cynthia Crowninshield, Alistair Wu, Catherine Pang, and Gloria Rodriguez among others.
For example, when analyzing the mall store sales, the tool can prefers on employing one efficient cashier for cost effectiveness. Another reason behind this choice is the ability to attain precise decisions on critical matters.
It is important to claim that the analysis tool used in scrutinizing the mentioned workflow and other relevant provision is viable, feasible, and applicable in various contexts. It is from this concern that the entire workflow concerns rest.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shuzworld Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Precisely, the tool used is practicable, considerable and comprehensible indicating its applicability in this context. This is an important consideration.
Cost Analysis Analysis of the initial and ongoing costs
The entire costs that the company incurs include the costs associated with inefficiencies evident in highlighted workflow analysis ranging from assembly line issues to transportation factors among other provisions. The Maui Sandal Project presents the company with a huge opportunity to improve its global appeal and ultimately its revenues.
The production costs of women’s shoes are quite varying. This depends on the four machine operators with regard to which job type each one of them assumes (Fischer, 2008). It is important to assign each operator on a job, which he does best. This will help in reducing the costs indicated upon analysis.
Additionally, the transportation costs assumed by each plant while serving each of the three warehouses vary considerably. It is notable from analysis that the cost incurred by Shuzworld F (on a per unit basis) is higher when shipping products to warehouse 3 ($6 per unit). Nonetheless, it is cheaper to move from Shuzworld F to warehouse 1 ($2 per unit).
Concurrently, the Shanghai plant incurs a considerable cost when transporting products to warehouse 1 ($4 per unit). It is crucial to note that the three plants can reassign their operations such that each plant ships its products to less costly destinations.
Additionally, the plan by the Shanghai plant to increase its capacity from 1300 units to 2800 units translates to additional costs despite the benefits. Nonetheless, demand for more products has not increased as stated by Alistair Wu.
The inventory costs are equally infuriating. Shuzworld utilizes 300,000 pairs of shoelaces annually. The cost is estimated at $125 each time an order is made to the supplier. Since the cost of storing shoelaces in inventory is 10 cents a pair, it is improper to stock or purchase more than necessary. This is costly for no apparent reasons.
The company will also have to incur set up costs since the batches of sandals will have to begin after setting up the machines. Besides, the costs of designing the efficient processes that will oversee the production of singular units notwithstanding the pairs of sandals that is in a batch (Sharp
Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Organisational culture is a set of rules and priorities which help the company meet its mission and vision, complete tasks, satisfy customers’ needs, and create its image. Depending on the country the company performs into, the principles of the organisational culture may differ.
The innovation in organisation change may vary because of the peculiarities of business running in a particular country. The innovation is a set of actions aimed at solving the problems by setting up new decisions, approaches, etc. Considering the problem of innovation, change, and organisational culture and applying the issues to personal experience, it may be stated that the main purposes of this paper are to review the theories of the nature of organisational culture.
We are going to dwell upon the impact of innovation in those theories and critically discuss how the leaders of an organisation can affect the change. We will examine how culture influences behaviours related to innovation and change in an organisation in the investment banking, and recommend the strategies and actions that could be implemented by the organisation’s leaders to improve or create a fitting culture.
A critical review of the theories of the nature of organisational culture, including how it may impact innovation, and how it may be affected by the leaders of an organisation
The notion of organisational culture is similar to understanding business and leadership. However, there are several differences noticed only because of the organisational culture. Therefore, some sources claim that the leadership is a notion, which has the same definition in different cultures, however, due to the cultural differences, the organisations usually point at the characteristic features of the leaders.
Thus, being charismatic personalities, the leadership style under such characteristic feature aims to seek for transformational style of leadership with the purpose to set up innovation. Thus, in some cultures “one might need to take strong, decisive action in order to be seen as a leader, while in other cultures consultation and a democratic approach may be the preferred approach to exercising effective leadership” ([email protected] 1999, p. 1).
Considering such approach as the nature of innovation and the difference as the personal characteristic feature set on the leader, it may be stated that the failure to meet the requirements of the leadership in a particular organisational culture may lead to failure to run business. The organisational culture is to meet the social processes, corresponding to the environment and meet the rules prescribed in the country.
Dwelling upon the nature of the organisational change, many scholars believe that there are three layers of organisational culture which imply the correct functioning of business in the frames of one specific tradition. The lower layer of the organisational culture is the assumptions, the issues that are taken for granted. The next level is the beliefs which control behaviour. The upper level is considered to be the values which usually cover the mission, the vision and the objectives of the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each of these layers performs a particular purpose that cannot be substituted. Moreover, each layer is responsible for particular characteristics which accept that the organisational culture of a particular company is unique. This theory is believed to be rather effective as it explains the information mentioned above about the similarities of understanding the organisational culture and the similar approaches in most cases but different in performance.
The organisational culture may be compared with iceberg in this case, when the visible part of it represents the issues which are accepted by all of the cultures and are considered to be similar, and the biggest part which is hidden from the eyes of others which is considered only inside of the company.
Such approach is effective as following the commonly accepted rules. Each company may refer to one specific model of creating the organisational culture which does not contradict the commonly accepted rules and at the same time has specific peculiarities (Holbeche 2006).
Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) have developed the theory that behaviour of the employees depends on their ethical decision-making processes which depend on the intrusion of the company. The authors are sure that the company is to play an essential role in the decision-making and ethical consideration of the company as these beliefs form the organisational culture. Moreover, they are sure that the behavioural ethics influences other aspects of organisational culture.
If to accept the fact that organisational culture is the collection of assumptions, beliefs and values of the company, it is impossible to disagree with the theory. According to the literature review conducted by Trevino, Weaver, and Reynolds (2006) and the definition of the notion “organisational culture”, it may be concluded that the belief that the ethical behaviour is the basis for the organisational culture is correct as the nature of this notion is in the organisational expression, the way how the company is represented.
This aspect is considered to be the main in the discussion of the organisational culture as the company is usually perceived on the basis of the behaviour of its employees and the way the company operates at the market, which is also the activity and one of the main characteristic features of the organisational culture.
The companies are to review the behaviour of their employees based on the ethical beliefs to make sure that the organisational culture presented in the mission, vision and objectives is exactly how the company is perceived by others on the basis of the behaviour of the company employees. The unity of the concepts and believes positively influences the organisational change and shares the responsibility among all the members of the company (Belcher 2006).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Islamic Culture: Land Ownership in Pakistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a belief that the organisational culture differs greatly in the companies where either men or women predominate on the leadership position. Considering this aspect as one of the theories about the organisational culture, a thorough research may present the following results. Several years ago, male and female organisational cultures were absolutely different as the style of running companies was different due to characteristic features of male and female leadership style.
Nowadays, the characteristic features in leadership lose gender feature and the organisational culture is defined by means of other issues ([email protected] 2005). However, remembering the Arabic countries, it is possible to state that the gender may play a significant role in the development of the organisational culture as Arabic people do not want to be run by women and this desire is expressed in their decision.
Doman, Glucksman, Tu, and Warren (2000) stress on the formation of the organisational culture on the basis of the talents of employees. Such theory is not effective as it is impossible to imagine the organisation which does not pay attention to the behaviour of employees, their vision and mission, motivation, company image, etc.
In case the company bases its organisational culture only on this aspect, the innovation and change processes are to be complicated by the outside processes which are to be weighted but the company does not refer to them due to cultural peculiarities (Shiu,
The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka Analytical Essay best essay help
Introduction The stay of mankind on planet earth has often witnessed moments of helplessness when natural disasters have stuck; thus, destroying many lives and disorienting mankind in the process. From our earliest ancestors to the modern man, we have not been safe from the anger of natural disasters.
Ranging from volcanoes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and the destructive tsunamis, we are susceptible to an array of natural disasters that is always waiting to strike. Such was the case when a tsunami hit the coastline of Sri Lanka on 26th December, 2004.
Without warning, thousands of people were killed by the 2004 tsunami. Such is the common story that is often told when catastrophic disasters like a tsunami strikes. Although we have evolved in science and thus learned many secrets of our world, we have not been able to subdue natural disasters. Since all life is precious, it is our responsibility to use the resources we have, and adopt a behaviour that can help us preserve even a few lives during catastrophic events.
Generally, a tsunami can be defined as a series of wave disturbances which usually originate from a vertical displacement of a water column (Abek 1561). The word “tsunami” has an origin in the Japanese language. Here, “tsunami” can be directly translated as a series of waves that often form at bays (Hassain 51).
Usually, anything with a potential of displacing, or moving a large volume of water can cause a tsunami (Vitarana 84). The most common causes of tsunamis include earthquakes, moving heavenly bodies such as meteorites and asteroids, volcanoes, and landslides (Vitarana 84).
Earthquakes Most tsunamis originate from earthquakes. Once an earthquake occurs on a sea bed, a large mass of water is displaced upwards. Due to the force of gravity, the displaced volume of water will move downwards to regain its original position (Vitarana 84).
A repetitive cycle where a water column moves up and down is created; hence forming a wave. Usually, a displacement of a water column will occur when part of a sea bed is displaced (UNEP 12). A fault line in the earths crust can especially create a boundary where a vertical displacement of the sea bed can easily occur (Liu 106).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Earthquakes that occur on subduction trenches are the main causes of most tsunamis (Liu 106). The tsunami waves that originate from an earthquake source can then move away from the place where they originate thousands of miles (Moore 143). Knowing the magnitude of an earthquake can especially be useful in determining the scale of tsunamis that have travelled thousands of miles from their source (Hassain 51).
Landslides Tsunamis can also originate from landslides. Landslides can occur at the seabed, or at the coast (Vitarana 84). Possible causes of such landslides include the earthquakes, the erosion of sea slopes, and volcanoes (Hanson 67).
The erosion of coastal slopes can occur as a result of rain action, from sea waves, and storms (Hanson 67). Due to a displacement of sea water as a result of displaced debris from landslides, a series of waves that has a potential of causing a tsunami is formed (Van 24).
Volcanoes When a volcano occurs above the surface of the sea, but in proximity to the sea’s surface, a large quantity of rock debris is thrown into the sea. When such debris falls into the sea, it displaces water; hence, creating waves that can cause a tsunami.
However, volcanic eruptions that occur under a sea are more hazardous in forming tsunamis (Hassain 51). Tsunamis can originate from a displacement of water that is caused from a rising slope of a volcano (Van 24).
Besides, gases that are usually released from an erupting volcano can also cause a large water displacement; hence, forming a tsunami in themselves (Hanson 67). Moreover, a volcano can also trigger an earthquake, which can then trigger a tsunami (Damen 106).
Meteorites, Comets and Asteroids Our earth is constantly in danger of colliding with heavenly bodies like comets, asteroids and meteorites (Hanson 67). While one might think that great damage from such collisions will occur if such bodies hit the earth’s surface in an area that is densely populated (such as a town), a greater catastrophic damage will happen if such bodies strike at sea (Abek 1561).
We will write a custom Essay on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, scientists estimate that if an asteroid that is about six kilometres in size was to fall in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, a third of the US population would be killed (Damen 106). The gigantic speed and size of a typical asteroid can create huge waves (tsunamis) that can cause a devastating damage to our population (Liu 106).
Although the possibility of us experiencing such a collision (from a heavenly body such as a comet) is almost zero, there is always a possibility, however remote, of such a catastrophe (Abek 1561).
Activities of Man Any human activity that can result in a displacement of a large volume of sea water can lead to the build-up of a tsunami wave. The carrying out of nuclear tests in deep sea can especially release large amounts of energy which can then displace large volumes of sea water; hence, leading to the development of a tsunami wave.
Characteristics of a Tsunami As we had seen earlier, a tsunami originates from a displacement of a large volume of water (Van 24). Such a displacement creates a wave that moves up and down. A tsunami is therefore a wave that is very similar to the kind of wave ripples that we usually observe when we throw a stone in a tank of water (Damen 106).
Very often, a tsunami will travel as a series of multiple waves; hence, it is usually called a train of waves (Damen 106). Once it forms, a tsunami can travel thousands of miles in the sea before reaching a coastal area (Liu 106).
For example, a tsunami with an origin in the Atlantic can travel at an incredible speed of over 1000 km/hr to reach the Japanese coastline within 24 hours. Usually, tsunamis travel at very high speeds in deep sea waters (Hassain 51).
However, on reaching shallow waters, the speeds of tsunamis usually reduce gradually (Van 24). Such behaviour results from an energy flux that remains constant during a wave travel (Hanson 67). Since the energy flux of a tsunami is proportional to the speed and amplitude of a tsunami wave, tsunamis at deep waters will travel at high speeds and low amplitudes.
Unlike their counterparts in shallow waters, such tsunamis will usually consist of waves that are small in amplitude and long (in horizontal size) (Abek 1561). Indeed, it is sometimes difficult to physically observe a tsunami wave that is travelling in the deep sea (Moore 115).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, as a tsunami moves into shallow waters towards a coastal area, its speed decreases while its amplitude increases. Travelling at a speed that is proportional to the square root of gravity constant multiplied by depth, a tsunami that is travelling in water that has a depth of five kilometres can move at a speed of over 800 km/hr.
On hitting a coastline, such a tsunami can travel at amplitude that is within ten to fifty meters. Such tsunamis can be observed as a series of water waves forming a series of rises that alternate with falls at the coastline. Usually, tsunamis can occur for several hours.
Like any other wave, tsunami waves can add to one another to form waves with higher amplitudes, or subtract from one another to form waves of lower (or zero) amplitudes (Moore 116).
The 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka The date of 26th December, 2004, will be remembered for a long time by many people in Sri Lanka. During this particular date, a tsunami of a large magnitude and scale hit the coastline of Sri Lanka (Liu 117). The 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka was caused by an earthquake of a high magnitude that occurred in the western coast of Sumatra (Moore 138).
The focal depth of this particular earthquake was about thirty kilometres (Liu 117). Described as the worst earthquake to occur in the history of our planet in the past five decades, the earthquake that caused Sri Lanka’s tsunami measured over 9.0 on the Richter scale (Liu 106).
The above earthquake originated from an interaction of Australian, Sunda, and Burmerse tectonic plates. Here, as much as 30 meters of the sea bed covering a distance of over one thousand kilometres was displaced (Abek 1561).
Thus, the displacement that was caused by the described tsunami resulted in a vertical displacement of a very large volume of water; hence, creating a tsunami (Moore 129). Moreover, the 9.0 earthquake caused a series of about fifteen other earthquakes in the affected region.
As a result of a water displacement (caused by the resulting upward movement of the sea floor) that was caused by the 9.0 earthquake, a series of three tsunami waves was formed (Liu 106). Time duration between these tsunami waves averaged about twenty minutes.
Effects of the 2004 Sri Lanka’s Tsunami When a tsunami reaches a coastline, it travels with high amplitude (from ten meters to even fifty meters). Thus, water overflows from the coastline towards the inland. Such a moving volume of water travels at a high speed, and with enormous energy that can cause huge destructions.
The 2004 tsunami, which hit the Sri Lankan coastline, affected more than two thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. More than 20% of the Sri Lankan population was thus affected by the 2004 tsunami. Here, the moving tsunami wave drowned and killed thousands of people.
There were especially many deaths since the country was not expecting a tsunami, and was not therefore prepared for an emergency evacuation. It is reported that due to ignorance, thousands of Sri Lanka’s went to learn of what had happened when the first of the three series of tsunami waves hit their coastline (Liu 119).
Usually, due to interactions with a coastline (often leading to a loss of energy), the first wave of a tsunami is often less devastating than those that follow after it. Thousands of people here were thus caught unaware and killed by the second wave of the 2004 tsunami.
The total number of people who were killed in Sri Lanka by the 2004 tsunami has been estimated to be around 31,000 in total (Liu 119). A larger proportion of those killed by the 2004 Tsunami consisted of women and children.
It is estimated that over 10,000 of those killed here during the tsunami disaster consisted of children (Liu 119). Apart from deaths, about seventeen thousand people were injured by the tsunami tragedy while more than five thousand were reported as missing (Liu 119).
Moreover, the overflowing waters of the 2004 tsunami resulted in a massive destruction of property along the Sri Lankan coastline. As a result of the 2004 tsunami tragedy, more than eighty thousand homes were destroyed; hence, displacing about a million individuals as a result.
So as to cater for the needs of the people who were displaced by the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka, about 800 camps for the displaced were formed. Many of the people in these resettlement camps had lost their property and livelihoods as a result of the tsunami tragedy. Many others had to undergo psychological trauma due to the negative ways in which the tsunami had affected their ordinary living.
Apart from houses, many infrastructural facilities were destroyed by the 2004 tsunami; thus affecting transport, communication and also posing a reconstruction challenge. A lot of debris could be seen around all the areas that had been affected by the tsunami.
Besides, the 2004 tsunami affected the ground fresh water table through salinization of fresh water sources. It will take a lot of efforts and time to clean some of these water tables that were affected.
Since the Indian Ocean bed has been proven to contain lesser amounts of titanium as compared to the Pacific Ocean, more studies will be required before we can determine if large amounts of titanium was deposited inland during the 2004 tsunami.
Economic Impacts The 2004 tsunami affected the economy of Sri Lanka in several negative ways. Many people lost their sources of livelihoods as a result of the 2004 tsunami. Some of these people who had lost their livelihoods had lost their businesses and houses, which had been destroyed by the destructive tsunami waves (Dawson 224).
Moreover, since a large community of the Sri Lankan population depends on fishing, many fishermen became poor as a result of losing their boats to the destructive tsunami waves that had hit their coastline (Dawson 224). A United Nations report on the 2004 tsunami catastrophe estimated that about two hundred thousand people in Sri Lanka were in danger of becoming poorer following the 2004 tsunami tragedy (Dawson 224).
Because a large part of hotels, beaches, among other tourist facilities were destroyed by the tsunami tragedy, the tourism economy of Sri Lanka was affected negatively. With no places were tourists could visit and relax, the number of tourists arrivals in Sri Lanka decreased significantly.
As a result, many people who were directly employed by the tourism sector lost their jobs. Moreover, due to a decrease in tourist arrivals, Sri Lanka was thus losing an important source of foreign exchange for developing her economy.
With a destruction of her infrastructure as a result of the tsunami tragedy, billions of dollars were needed for restructuring. With limited resources, it will be difficult to meet the cost of restructuring affected infrastructure. Meanwhile, as a result of infrastructural destruction, many businesses were affected negatively (Dawson 224).
Many of these businesses depend on telecommunication, electrical power, and transport to carry on with their day to day activities. Most of these businesses are small businesses that contributed positively to the Sri Lankan economy (through employment of people and paying of taxes).
Since most of these businesses have suffered from a displacement of people (hence a loss of market and human resource), and also from a physical damage of their properties and facilities, they have found themselves in a very repelling environment to operate in; thus, limiting their capacity and output to the Sri Lankan economy.
Measures that can be taken to Avoid Future Tsunami Disasters No matter how much we prepare, we can never be ready for natural disasters. However, a possible measure of precautions and preparedness can help us to avoid, or minimize the destructive effects of natural disasters.
Although there is uncertainty on the effectiveness of using technology to mitigate the effects of natural disasters such as tsunamis, we should always work in the direction of utilizing such technologies if we can save a few lives as a result.
Together with several countries, the United States has developed and placed sensors at specific areas on the seabed of the Pacific Ocean. These pressure sensors have been designed to detect possible tsunami waves (UNEP 18).
Since tsunamis consist of waves that have rising and falling amplitudes, the resulting difference in the depth of water can cause pressure alterations at sea beds. These pressure alterations can thus be detected by pressure sensors at the seabed (Meihde 56).
However, since such a process of measurement is highly complex, it is very difficult for sensors at the sea bed to have accuracies that can detect tsunami waves. Still, the progress that has been made in using sensors to analyse data for a possible tsunami waves is positive (UNEP 12).
Moreover, since tsunamis interact with the coastline in a way that is difficult to predict, it is equally difficult to predict their behaviour. Sometimes, tsunami waves can add together or cancel one another; hence, making it difficult to determine their eventual behaviour (Meihde 56).
Several researchers remain uncertain if the tsunami warning technology in the Pacific Ocean can be replanted in the Indian Ocean. Still, Sri Lanka has been part of an ongoing program that has been working with several other countries to develop a system that can monitor for possible tsunamis before they occur (Liu 106).
Under the tsunami warning system, The Sri Lankan meteorological department will work together with Japanese technologies and the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC) to possibly help in the detection of future tsunamis (Yadav 107).
Although we do not have a reliable system of detecting tsunamis, the above development is progressive in developing reliable systems that can be useful in detecting and monitoring tsunamis before they hit a coastline (Andrew 23). However, since the Indian Ocean bed is different in structure and complexity to the Pacific Ocean bed, there is a need for scientists to develop a warning system that is unique to the Indian Ocean (Patra 362).
Currently, there has been a debate on whether to allow building of houses a few meters from the coastline (UNEP 21). Here, it will be useful to develop buildings that are protective and safe from tsunamis. Importantly, there is also a need to conserve the Sri Lankan coastline (Meihde 56).
A huge part of the coastline should be planted with mangrove forests (Patra 362). A thick cover of mangrove forests is useful in cutting and breaking tsunami waves before they move further inland (Yadav 107). Conservation of the Sri Lankan coastline will thus be useful in at least reducing possible damages that may occur from future tsunamis (Andrew 22).
Importantly, the political leadership in Sri Lanka has become more aware of damages that can result from natural disasters like tsunami attacks.
With such awareness, the political leadership in Sri Lanka can prepare for emergencies and move with speed to mitigate damages that can arise from similar disasters in the future (Patra 362). Here, it will be useful to develop a quick response system that can help in quick evacuations and treatments during times of natural disasters (Yadav 107).
An important area that needs to be utilised for the purposes of mitigating the effects of future natural disasters is the use of technology. Here, technology can especially be used to help in assessing the damage that could have occurred following the occurrence of a natural disaster (Patra 362).
Importantly, technology can be employed to communicate with the people who are in danger of being hit by a natural disaster (Andrew 22). It is fruitful to relay information to a target populace with instructions on where they can move to stay safe, what they can do, and how they can ask for help during such times (Meihde 56).
As we had seen earlier, a large number of people who died during the 2004 tsunami attack died from the second wave (Yadav 107). Having heard of what had happened, many people moved in ignorance to witness the effects of the first wave before the more deadly second wave hit (Yadav 107).
With the right communication, these people could have been told to stay away from the beach; hence, cutting on the number of fatalities that occurred (Patra 362). As it has been proven time and again, an effective system of coordination and communication is essential in saving lives during times of natural disasters (Andrew 23).
Conclusion Natural disasters will always remain a part of us during our stay on planet earth. So as to minimize the loss of lives during natural disasters, it is useful for man to utilize all resources at his disposal to preserve lives during the occurrence of natural disasters.
Such a direction would involve understanding the science of natural disasters like tsunamis, and thus develop measures that can help in warning, planning and rescue programs when natural disasters strike. The 2004 tsunami has especially provided us with important lessons on the direction that we can adopt to prevent massive deaths during such disasters.
Adopting programs that are helpful in preparing for such disasters can be fruitful in saving many lives.
Such a direction would involve developing an efficient system of communication, designing and implementing a standby resource of manpower and machinery for emergencies, using technological systems to warn for possible oncoming disasters, and importantly, developing a system of peaceful coexistence with our natural environment (such as the planting of mangrove forests along coastlines to help in subduing tsunamis).
Works Cited Abek, Kennedy, “Physical Size of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes from Tsunami Data.” Journal of Geography Research, volume 84.1 (2006): 1561-1568. Print
Andrew, John, “Tsunami Generated Forms.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 10.1 (2003): 21-34. Print
Damen, Michiel, What are Tsunamis? New York: McGraw, 2008. Print
Dawson, Foster “The Identification of Tsunami Deposits in Coastal Sediments.” Science of Tsunami Hazards 9.4 (2000): 206-423. Print
Hanson, Briggs, Sea level Change in North Iceland, London: McMillan, 2004. Print
Hassain, Kundsen, Effects of the 2004 Tsunami in India, Mumbai: McGraw, 2007 Print
Liu, Fearn, History of Tsunami Catastrophes, Beijing: McMillan, 2009. Print
Meihde, Mark, Characteristics of Tsunamis. New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print
Moore, Normark, Giant Hawaiian Landslides, New York: McMillan, 2005. Print
Patra, Singh, Agrochemical, Mumbai: McMillan, 1996. Print
UNEP, Early Warning Systems, New York: UNEP Press, 2011. Print Van, Frank, the Science of Tsunamis, New York: International Institute For geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print
Vitarana, Tissa, Sri Lanka after the Indian Ocean Tsunami New York: International Institute for geo-information Science Press, 2006 Print
Yadav, Agarwal, Soil, Water Conservation. Mumbai: Oxford, 2007. Print
Mattel’s China Experience: A Crisis in Toyland Case Study a level english language essay help
Company Overview of Mattel Corporation In 1945, two entrepreneurs established Mattel Corporation with small range of product line, but now, it is the largest Toy Company in the world. According to the report of Gamache, et al (2), the name of this company derived from two founders.
At the initial stage of formation, this company only manufactured picture frames and dollhouse furniture for the customer though the owner intended to diversify products and concentrated on the new products development to increase profit margin. However, the management of this company had changed its strategies over time considering the influence of pop culture on the society, and change of customer behavior.
In addition, the management team also considered the suggestion of the outside members, for instance, it had introduced three-dimensional doll “Barbie” because Elliot’s wife (one owner) suggested this idea for the development of the company and now this company generated 50% profits from this product (Gamache, et al 2).
Important Historical Milestones
The most important historical milestones has included in the following table –
Year Historical overview 1945 Harold Matson and Elliot Handler formed this company 1959 Introduction of Barbie doll in accordance with the suggestion of Ruth Handler; however, Barbie was name of her daughter 1960 Enlisted in New York Stock exchange and rapidly ranked in Fortune’s list of the 500 largest US industrial companies 1964 Mattel started its first International sales outlet in Switzerland 1968 Hot Wheels was introduced, became the second biggest hit since Barbie 1970 Mattel tried to tap into electronic games though it was not successful project because competitor’s low pricing strategy 1975 Elliot and Ruth Handler, founders of Mattel, leave this company 1977 Mattel adopted diversified strategy and penetrated the new fast growing electronics game field and introduced the Intellivision home video entertainment system 1982 Mattel’s next large “hit” product briefly assists the company balance the success of the Barbie doll with a boy’s toy 1986 This company had entered into a joint venture arrangement with Bandai, Japan’s largest toy company; in addition, it acquired Hong Kong–based ARCO Industries to gain competitive advantage 1987 Mattel developed a strategy for maximizing core brands to maintain profitability and consistent profits streams 1988 The company revived its association with the Walt Disney Company to introduce different products infant and preschool toys based on famous characters like Mickey Mouse. In addition, it Mattel agreed to buy Corolle S.A., manufacturer of collector-quality dolls based in France. 1989 It acquired Corgi Toys Ltd., a British maker of scale-model, die-cast cars 1991
China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Introduction The UnionPay systems requirements granted the service suppliers to offer payment services using electronic cards to carry out transactions in foreign currencies. Under this system, the Chinese authority categorically stated that the devices used in payment card processes must conform to the entity systems requirements.
In addition, it was required that all the cards used in these transactions must bear the UnionPay’s logo. Another bone of contention under this electronic payment system arrangement is that the Chinese merchants were granted some exclusive rights to access the payment cards. However, the other members who were using this system of payment were meant to negotiate before they were given these access rights.
Analysis of the UnionPay case in China The US dispute on China’s UnionPay case
Under the Unionpay program, the United States of America questioned the legality on the country’s authority to issue credit card for electronic payment services. The US thought this would be a means of encouraging fraud and fraudulent activities regarding the electronic payment systems. Therefore, the US claimed that China was permitted only to use UnionPay for issuing electronic payment transactions that were mainly denominated and done in Chinese renminbi.
The United States’ cause of the rejection of the UnionPay services in China
The US never wanted to accept these UnionPay services because China was flouting the rules governing the electronic payment services. For example, the United States of America argued that China was acting inconsistently with the GATS rules, which regulate such services. The most affected sections of the GATS were the Articles XVI as well as XVII (WHO 1).
Analysis of the main idea for the case
The main idea for the UnionPay case is that it was thought by the United States of America to be contravening the established rules and measures that regulate the electronic payment services. In its defence, the US wanted to see that there was a legalized system that dealt with payment transaction services.
In fact, anything that would contravene the established GATS legal frameworks was not good to be adopted as appropriate means of payment (WHO 4). Therefore, the Chinese authority was found to be contravening the rules governing the electronic payment transactions, and the US could not definitely support such kind of a system.
UnionPay in China and its services
This organization can be regarded as the main bank card company in China, which was established in 2002. Therefore, the UnionPay refers to the banking card that is used by many consumers across the entire country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the UnionPay services in China are also important to other foreigners such as the American merchants, owing to its ability to perform interbank transactions by connecting to other ATMs facilities in the county as well as other parts of the world. The UnionPay cards are also famous with the Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS), thus making it easier for the merchants to carry out payment transactions promptly.
Solution and Conclusion for the case
In sum, there are imminent fears and allegations attributed to the use of the UnionPay systems in China. Therefore, the best solution was found to be a legalized and harmonized framework between the two countries since it was evidenced that there was a legal conflict in the sense that the system operated under the Chinese laws and regulations, which the US thought to be contravening the established GATS rules. This solution would include sound rules and measures on administration and circulation of UnionPay cards.
Work Cited World Trade Organization (WTO) 2010, China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services. PDF file. Web.
Public Health Perspectives on Tobacco Control: The Framework Convention Report college admission essay help
In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) member states successfully negotiated the organization’s first ever framework convention on tobacco control. The aim of negotiating this particular framework was with a view to ensuring global accountability in public health. This means that the Public Health Perspective on Tobacco Control is recognized and certified by the World Health Assembly (WHA). At the moment, it is made up of nearly 190 member states.
Prior to drafting of the FCTC, a number of products and services provided by individuals and corporations both locally and internationally had resulted in a lot of damage. Therefore, the FCTC was meant to address some of these issues regarding tobacco products as well as their processes. Look at from another perspective, the FCTC could be regarded as an attempt to protect and save millions of lives who have are daily exposed to the dangers of tobacco use (Hawkes
Epidemiological studies of tuberculosis Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which mainly affects pulmonary system, but can affect kidneys, brain, and bones. The causative agent of tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of deaths globally because it is an infectious disease, which spreads through the air.
Epidemiological studies have revealed that tuberculosis is prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS in low-income countries because of compromised immune system and poor accessibility to healthcare services (Pang et al., 2014; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The revelation implies that immune system and accessibility of healthcare services play an important role in prevention of tuberculosis.
World Health Organization (2014) reports that tuberculosis 9 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2013 out of which 1.5 million people died (360,000 living with HIV/AIDS). These statistics indicate that tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths globally and is prevalent among people with HIV/AIDS in epidemic regions, such as low-income countries. In this view, the essay examines global epidemiology of tuberculosis in epidemic regions such as the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia.
Epidemiology The United States
The prevalence rate of tuberculosis in the United States is the lowest when compared to the prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), 10,528 cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2011, which amount to an incidence rate of 3.4 cases in every 100,000 persons.
Epidemiological statistics indicate that tuberculosis is prevalent in states such as Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii for they have incidence rates of 9.3, 9.1, and 8.9 respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The epidemiological statistics, therefore, indicate that prevalence of tuberculosis varies from one state to another with Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii having the highest incidence rates.
In the United States, there is disproportionate prevalence of tuberculosis according to race. According to the report of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), the incidences rates of American Asians, African Americans, and White Americans are 20.9, 6.3, and 0.8 respectively.
Epidemiological study undertaken to establish the prevalence of tuberculosis among American Indians shows that their mortality rate is 5 times that of national average (Pang et al., 2014). The incidence rates of tuberculosis among African Americans are considerably higher than that of White Americans owing to poverty (Hotez, 2008). Place of birth determine predisposition to tuberculosis in the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other epidemiological studies have indicates that children of foreign parents and foreigners have higher incidences of tuberculosis when compared the children of Americans and Americans (Pang et al., 2014). Regarding co-infections, World Health Organization (2014) holds that HIV/AIDS contributes to the occurrence of tuberculosis. Hence, it is evident that the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States varies according to race, place of birth, HIV/AIDS.
The prevalence of tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa is very high because it has predisposing factors such as HIV/AIDS and poverty. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Mali, amongst other have high incidences of tuberculosis.
Mboowa (2014) states that the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 255 cases in every 100,000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa because it has about 70% of all cases of HIV/AIDS globally. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS cases in Sub-Saharan Africa implies that a significant number of people have compromised immune system, which predispose them to tuberculosis.
A study done to reveal the association of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates that 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS, who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, develop tuberculosis in their lifetime (Adeiza, Abba,
Assignment: Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Part 2: Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity and Professional Ethics scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Nurse-scholars have a significant obligation to their community as well. Their work must have academic and professional integrity. Their efforts are designed to add to the body of knowledge, advance the profession, and ultimately help in the care of patients. Work that lacks integrity is subject to erode quickly or worse.
Fortunately, there are strategies and tools that can help ensure integrity in academic and professional work. This Assignment asks you to consider these tools and how you might apply them to your own work.
In this Assignment you will continue developing your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan by appending the original document you began in the previous assignment.
Reflect on the strategies presented in the Resources for this Module in support of academic style, integrity, and scholarly ethics.
Reflect on the connection between academic and professional integrity.
Part 2, Section 1: Writing Sample: The Connection Between Academic and Professional Integrity
Using the Academic and Professional Success Development Template you began in Module 1, write a 2- to 3-paragraph analysis that includes the following:
Explanation for the relationship between academic integrity and writing
Explanation for the relationship between professional practices and scholarly ethics
Cite at least two resources that support your arguments, being sure to use proper APA formatting.
Use Grammarly and SafeAssign to improve the product.
Explain how Grammarly, Safe Assign, and paraphrasing contributes to academic integrity.
Part 2, Section 2: Strategies for Maintaining Integrity of Work
Expand on your thoughts from Section 1 by identifying and describing strategies you intend to pursue to maintain integrity and ethics of your:
academic work as a student of the MSN program and
professional work as a nurse throughout your career. Include a review of resources and approaches you propose to use as a student and a professional.
Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.
Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report college essay help
Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.
High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.
For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.
Introduction Problem Solving
Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.
When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.
The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.
Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson
Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report essay help online: essay help online
Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.
High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.
For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.
Introduction Problem Solving
Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.
When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.
The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.
Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson
Theory Integration in Intelligence Expository Essay essay help
Table of Contents Rational Choice theory
Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies
Rational Choice theory George Homas is a sociologist who developed the rational choice theory by assuming that people make economic decisions by considering the greatest benefits and wants that will cost less for more returns. The theory is common amongst economists in cases where the majority of people want to balance less cost for greater profits.
The theory is also applicable in Intelligence Science because the presumption forms part of human behavior that is characterized by wanting greater benefits by giving less contribution. Therefore, looking for information about security threats such as terrorism becomes easier because it is assumed that terrorists or their targets are individuals who want to gain benefits by using easy ways that pose threats to a given country.
Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies The rational choice theory is applicable in every field because choices that free persons make are mostly for self-interest. Every person needs to gain more by contributing less. This scenario brings problems to areas such as economy and security in a country.
A country wants to sell more of its products to its neighbors,but at the same time buy less of what the neighbors are selling, thus jeopardizing international relations. It is interesting to develop a“hypothesis based on this theory in every research subject that human’s choice is relevant” (Gottschalk 2009, 35).
The greatest threat to any developed economy in the contemporary world is terrorism. Terrorism is viewed as a threat coming from religious dogmas. However, it is based on deception, which “is an aspect of human perception that is in turn shaped byobjective reality along with physiological and psychological factors” (Bell 2003, 244).There are huge investments made in the “developments of human intelligence” (Davies and Gustafson 2013, 154).
The contemporary world is incomparable with the past due to the huge developments that have been made in areas such as communications technology, weaponry, and transport developments. During the Cold War era, economic growth of developed countries stagnated due to threats, but it was easy to know every move that an enemy made due to human intelligence and undeveloped technology that was in place at the time.
However, today’s world is more dangerous than it was during the Cold War era due to the advanced technology that makes it hard for human intelligence to keep an eye on the enemy’s moves. Communication technological developments pose a threat to any country in the modern world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, there are numerous sources of threatsdue to the technological revolution; hence,highly sophisticated mechanisms of intelligence science are required to counteract the threats. However, it is very hard for any country to attain confidence in its intelligence science because the enemy knows how to camouflage in the presence of intelligence agents’ watch.
A terrorist would use technology to carry out a terror attack and an intelligent agent would use the same to keep an eye on every move made before the attack. Aware of that, a terrorist would act like a harmless person to keep off the intelligence officer. Hence, technology and huge investment on human intelligence are not anassurance of the successful fight against any threat to a country.
Conclusion The application of the rational choice theory is critical to the human intelligence developments because it requires the identification of the threats posed by human decisions and working them out. The theory depicts that human intelligence needs to find out the reasons why a person would do something that poses a security threat, and hence invest in counterattacking the threat by offering other alternatives that such a person would use to achieve a given goal.
Reference List Bell, Bowyer. 2003.“Toward a Theory of Deception.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 16, no. 1, 244–279,
Davies, Philip, and Kristian Gustafson. 2013. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage outside the Anglosphere. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press.
Gottschalk, Petter. 2009. Policing Financial Crime: Intelligence Strategy Implementation. Sydney: Universal-Publishers.