Blood Gas Measurement Analytical Essay Writing Essay Help

The main gases found in blood are carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen (Bothara, 2007). The blood found in arteries is richer in oxygen and nitrogen while the one found in veins is richer in carbon dioxide. There are some arguments that blood gases exist freely while others view that such gases exist in a frail chemical combination.

As such, certain amount of carbonic acid that exists in chemical nature is found in bicarbonate of soda and the rest forms a base with phosphate. Blood gases refer to quantification of the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen available in blood (Toffalleti, 2001). In addition, it is used to quantify the level of blood acidity.

Currently, there are various methods of measuring blood gases and each strategy has its perceived merits and demerits (Notes n.d.). ‘Mallinckrodt Sensor System’ employs a conservative “blood-gas technology” and it gives the results within ninety seconds. However, this method cannot allow a continuous blood assessment.

Biomedical sensors use ocular quantification methodologies based on illumination from fibre optic bundle across a PH receptive dye. The light generated is returned to the apparatus through a different fibre optic bundle. Nevertheless, this method has a restricted accuracy and it takes more time to react.

CDI 3M Healthcare utilizes dyes that incandesce at various intensities of carbon dioxide, oxygen and PH. It has been argued that this method is less accurate as it needs intervallic convection blood gases for verification (Ricco, 1997).

Pulsed optical fluorescence is another method used in assessment of blood gases. An illumination of specific color intensity is passed through a fibre optic cable and then to a sensor that measures blood gases. In addition, calorimetric carbon dioxide detectors are used in blood gases test. There are those which depend on the acidity nature of carbonic acid and those which depend on ocular assessment techniques.

Mass spectrometer techniques of blood gases can provide a progressive way of assessing oxygen tension (Ricco, 1997). These techniques recognize compounds according to their atomic mass. Another test used in blood gases is “transcutaneous oxygen measurement” which utilizes an electrode placed on the skin to assess oxygen tension in artery blood (Notes n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, there are traditional ‘blood gas electrodes’ such “miniaturized polarographic electrode” (fig. 1) that can be used to assess blood gases. According to Notes (n.d.), this strategy uses a “platinum cathode and a silver/silver chloride anode immersed in an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride”.

A current is then passed through the solution and an oxidation-reduction reaction occurs depending on the amount of oxygen present (Toffelli, 2001). This method has a limitation in that platinum cathode can cause protein coagulation if openly put in blood.

The above illustrated methods have a problem of calibration, reaction duration and assessment of blood flow. As such, these techniques may be defective and misleading. Thus, “Bentley Gas-STAT” method (Optical fluorescence microsensing) (fig. 2) may be appropriate (Notes n.d.). The method has its own calibration machine for primary calibration and this makes it effective to operate.

Furthermore, assessment values can be shown at normal blood temperature. The method also provides prompt, progressive and exact readings. In this technique, illumination of a specific color is passed through the fibre optic cable and then to the disposable sensors (Notes n.d.). These sensors assess blood gases via a membrane that allow passage of hydrogen ions and gases.

Sensors contain substances that are receptive to varying levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen and pH. When illumination produced from the apparatus arrives at the fluorescent substances on the sensor, molecules get stimulated and produce illumination of varying colors (Hasan, 2008). The illumination is transmitted back to the apparatus via a different fibre cable.

The variation in intensity of emitted and received illumination is transformed into arithmetical data (in mmHg for carbon dioxide and oxygen and pH values). This method is widely used in measurement of blood gases “in the extracorporeal circuit during bypass surgery” (Notes n.d.). This is attributed to the fact that its sensor is highly optimized and can provide a steady predictable illumination.

Sensor optimization was achieved by the use of “Taguchi double-signal optimization technique” due to increased needs for optimization during operations (Taguchi, Chowdhury and Taguchi, 2000). In this process, chemical variables were optimized since this technique is based on ‘chemical fluorescence principle’.

We will write a custom Essay on Blood Gas Measurement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are various methods of assessing blood gases with each strategy having its merits and demerits. In line methods have disadvantages in calibration, reaction time and authenticity of their results. However, optical fluorescence microsensing provide a solution to this problem.

List of References Bothara, K., 2008. Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Mumbai: Nirali Prakashan.

Hasan, A., 2008. Handbook of Blood Gas/Acid-Base Interpretation. London: Springer-Verlag.

Notes., n.d. Various current brands available and their theoretical advantages


Product Launch at Credit Master Essay essay help

Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to give an analysis of the internal situation at Credit Master that makes it possible to launch the new product called fast credit. This is a service offered by the company that enables customers and lenders to view credit information over the internet. It protects customers against fraudsters who have increased in the UK.

Credit Master have been using this product for quite some time but it had not followed the marketing procedures involved in launching new products into the market. This paper gives the procedure to be followed when launching new products so that it gets to the targeted customers. This is done by designing a launching plan which has to be included in the budget because it consumes a significant amount of money.

After fast credit has been launched, the company has to modify its marketing strategies or adopt new ones in order to monitor and control the new product. This ensures that its new product (fast credit) get to the right customers and guarantees the company success in the rapidly changing global market. These strategies are effective promotion and marketing mix.

Introduction Starting up a new product is taking a risk; however if the decision is well thought there are numerous benefits that come with investing in business venture. Before one is set to start a new venture there are short and long terms parameters that he should consider to ensure that there will be continuity in the product. The future is unpredictable and so even the smallest details about something should be interpolated before starting up.

It will be appreciated that a company with properly shaped psychological contracts embraces a system that allows employees to air their views to the higher leadership. Conducting an internal analysis helps a company to understand its marketing position and the opportunities than can be utilized to enhance its performance.

This paper gives a brief background of Credit Master Company, looks at the procedure followed in designing a launch plan and gives the SWOT analysis as well as some of the marketing strategies that should be adopted to ensure continuity of the new product.

Background Credit Master is a global agency company that provides financial, marketing, and statistical information to customers and businesses. Its core business operation is to partner with other companies such as banks and credit card companies in the provision of financial information.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As we all know, lending money is a risky business but the information provided by Credit Master helps financial institution in making informed decisions. The work of this firm is to enable lending institutions such as banks to share information related to their customer’s credit accounts. The lender uses this information in making decision on whether or not a customer is eligible for a loan.

This is done by looking at the amount of credit held by a customer and how it is being managed. Credit Master charges a fee to the lenders every time its record is searched.

However, the customer has to give his consent before his credit report information is searched and for such information to be stored by Credit Master. Customers too have a right to view their credit information but they can only do so after paying a legal charge of £2.

Credit Master Market covers student loans, personal loans, hire purchase agreements, mortgages, credit cards, among others. For a long time, the firm’s customers have being relying on the post in applying and receiving their credit information. However, recently, the company has been using a new product called credit fast which has enabled it to target new markets.

Customers can now apply and receive their statutory report online after passing the authentication process. With credit fast, customers are able to understand the perception held by prospective lenders regarding their credit information and are therefore in a position to determine whether their request will be granted. This new products also protects members against identity fraud which has become a problem in UK.

Literature Review Product launch plan

After product development and having done a thorough scrutiny of the target market, the next step is to develop a product launch plan. This plan will concentrate on the necessary phases that will help boost production, build up marketing strategies, come up programs for sales people training, and grounding of how to set up or sustain the product.

A well prepared product launch plan results in faster and more effective marketing and coordination of activities (Lodato, 2008: 10). Having a product launch plan is very crucial for the success of every business. The following procedure has to be followed in launching new products.

We will write a custom Essay on Product Launch at Credit Master specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understanding the Target Market and market segmentation

Under review of the product launch process; there are certain things that should be put into consideration such as identification of needed activities, system requirement, and organizational responsibilities.

A clear understanding of the target market is necessary in any product launch plan. This is because products launched on markets where most of the audience are not interested results in terrible failures. One has to have a thorough understanding of his audience.

Understanding of the target market is known as market segmentation. The target market should be broken down into small segments to make advertising easy. One of the benefits of market segmentation is that. Companies are able to target specific populations that would have not been reached if mass marketing was adopted.

With this kind of marketing, companies are able to have a closer contact with their potential customers and they are able to understand their tastes, interests, and their economic positions which helps them in determining patterns of consumption and the marketing strategies to be adopted.

With market segmentation, the process of marketing becomes simple because marketers are able to concentrate their marketing strategies on specific groups of people with similar characteristics. They are also able to monitor the process of products in the specific markets with the expectation of better results.

Process Improvement

After reviewing the product launch process, the next step is to develop a process improvement. This involves making improvement on the marketing strategies, organization responsibilities, and design of the product.

In order to achieve an effective improvement process, the best way to go about this is to market and pre-sell the product (as Credit Masters has already done) in the targeted markets before the actual date of launching. Different methods of advertising may be used to drive the message home.

The aim of this pre-selling is to help the product developers get some feedback from the audience of which they can be able to make the necessary adjustments before launching the product (Lodato, 2008: 15).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Product Launch at Credit Master by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integrate Organization

Once the process has been reviewed and necessary improvements done, the next step is to redesign the organization integration. This integration is done among the product launch team members who are responsible for its development.

Responsibilities are distributed among the team members and necessary changes made which then helps to facilitate the launch activities. Trainings are offered to the team members in order to equip them with the necessary skills required in this job.

After carrying out the necessary analysis for the product launch, the product launch team is left with the responsibility of designing the plan. The plan should include method of advertisement to be adopted, projected budget among others.

The plan should be cost effective and cost should be kept as low as possible. After successfully launching the product, the team should monitor closely its progress, get feedback from the users and decide when to raise or lower the charges (Ebbena


Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan Evaluation Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Background and Goals Medtronic Inc is the leading medical technology company in the world, controlling more than half of the world’s annual revenue on the heart-pacing market (Anonymous, 2010). Its headquarters are in Minneapolis, Minnesota and it operates in over 120 countries.

In addition, around sixty-six percent of its revenue is generated locally, twenty percent in Europe, ten percent in the pacific Asia and the remaining percentage in the rest of the world. As it expanded, the firm employed Picker International Corporation of White Plains, New York to assist in running the business internationally.

The founder of Medtronic Inc was an electrical engineer a profession that boosted his knowledge on specializing in medical devices. He established the company by specializing in pace making which has taken Medtronic to very high heights (Anonymous, 2010).

Medtronic is a manufacturer of diversified and exclusive medical equipment, which are capable of handling any medical complication. It continues to develop better and advanced equipment in order to maintain its top position.

Moreover, the firm has recently developed Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes, which is the best device for managing diabetes in the world. Since Medtronic is a world-class company, it aims at coming up with a marketing plan that will enable it do extensive sales in the whole world. The first step is to identify a country whereby its sales can pick significantly.

Medtronic objective To ensure that every person on this earth has an opportunity to live as healthy, innovative, creative, and successful lives as they can.

Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor for Diabetes

For a long time, patients with diabetes have been facing acute challenges in treating and managing their insulin levels due to lack of proper devices. The devices Medtronic made would help the patients but were not as effective.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diabetic patients would have their live revolve around treating the disease which involved boiling of the syringes, sharpening needles, injecting animal-based insulin formulations, checking on the diet and doing exercise.

Maintaining unpredictable glucose levels has been challenging and no single and portable device was available in the market. Patients had to carry a combination of devices for checking glucose levels and injecting insulin (Fowler, 2009).

Minneapolis-based medical technology company Medtronic, Inc. has however developed an Insulin Pump and Continuous Glucose Monitoring System which, integrates a glucose meter and an insulin pump with a dose calculator into one device.

The device combines an insulin pump with a glucose monitor, facilitates data interchange between the two and FDA has cleared and approved the product. The device operates day and night and in case glucose levels gets dangerously low or high, it sounds or vibrates an alarm thus giving the patients confidence of leading a healthy life (Dave, 2010).

The device is meant to enable people to manage their diabetes more conveniently and give them confidence of day to day healthy living. This is because the patient is aware of what is exactly happening in his body instead of doing guesswork with only a couple of finger sticks.

The new device is around as three times as effective as standard therapy (David, 2010). The integrated device can be used in hospitals, clinical and medical research laboratories, blood and plasma collection centers, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, doctors’ offices and by patients at home under physician supervision.

Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan

Having come up with a diabetic device that will ease the daily lives of the patients, Medtronic, Inc has a full opportunity in the USA and outside the country. Apart from the local market, which assures Medtronic more than sixty percent of its annual revenue, the best foreign country for Medtronic to establish extensive market for its new device would be the United Kingdom.

We will write a custom Essay on Medtronic, Inc. Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More United Kingdom is located in Europe and Statistics show that the second best market for Medtronic, Inc devices lies in Europe. This is because sixty-six percent of Medtronic’s annual revenue is generated locally and the next twenty percent is generated from Europe.

Coupled with the fact that UK is ranked position three in the list of obese population, then it will be a potential market for Combo Insulin Pump and Glucose Monitor (Anonymous, 2010).

Let us compare the UK and the US market with some potential markets in the world.




The level of poverty in Mexico does not allow it to make a good market for Medtronic diabetic devices. The US-Mexico borders mark the highest population with diabetes in Mexico. By 1997, diabetes was the leading cause of death among the Mexican community at the border whereby the mortality rate was 50% higher than the rest of the country.

However, the living environment in Mexico makes it hard for the population to obtain medical attention. This is characterized by rapidly growing population, poor infrastructure, high uninformed and armed patrols instilling fear to the people, over concentration by the government on control of drug cartels, which sums up to poverty (Zazworsky


Parenting Variables in Antenatal Education Quantitative Research Essay essay help

Theoretical and operational definitions This section of the paper includes the definitions and measurements of those variables that are going to be investigated. The key objective of this study is to determine how antenatal education impacts the perceptions about breastfeeding and breastfeeding practices.

In part, the operational definitions, provided in this paper, will rely on the research article, written by a group of authors under direction of Citra Mattar who investigated the affects of antenatal education on breastfeeding practices (2006).

The first set of dependent variables includes breastfeeding initiation and breast feeding. In this context, initiation can be interpreted as the period of time after which mother begins to breastfeed the child. Citra Mattar et al define breastfeeding initiation as any breastfeeding that occurs within the first two weeks after delivery (2006, p 76).

In turn, the duration of breastfeeding is the timeframe within which the mother breastfeeds the child. This definition may appear to be self-evident; yet, it has been provided in this paper because the duration of breastfeeding can also be understood as the length of a breastfeeding session. Largely, my research will be analogous to that one conducted by Citra Mattar et al (2006).

The second variable is parental feelings and perceptions of breastfeeding. This variable consists of such elements as maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, paternal self-efficacy and parental confidence. These are the main psychological parameters that need to be measured.

Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be defined as mother’s belief or conviction that she is capable of breastfeeding the baby (Wells


Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Heriot-Watt University

Based in Edinburgh, Heriot-Watt University is the leading university in Scotland. The university has a special place both within the country as well as on the global map because of offering practical solutions the current global challenges without neglecting its basic mission of providing appropriate education to local and international students.

The institution is highly committed understanding the challenges facing the modern society, evaluating them and structuring their specialized programmes to address them.

The available programmes in the university are specifically suited to address current global challenges. The interest of the community plays a significant role in designing of the academic courses. The collaboration among professionals and staff from the various fields helps in finding long-term approach that is used in finding solutions to the prevailing challenges. For Herriot-Watt to stay on track as the leading university there is need for the management to have a guiding document outlining the activities that would lead to the realization of this end. Hence, focus on the Future strategy

Focus On the Future Strategy

This is an ambitious strategy whose aim is to act as a guiding document that stipulates that activities to be undertaken in order to achieve the university’s overall agenda. As described in the strategy, the university plans to achieve a 50% growth in the academic base by the year 2015. To realize such ambitious expectations, the university is required to put in place the necessary mechanisms and work plan that must be followed.

As an international institution, the university is committed to demonstrate its leadership in science, technology, and business. Herriot-Watt University intends to concentrate its investments in three focus areas. These subjects, it is believed will address the challenges that globalizations presents to different set up of businesses and internationals organizations across the world.

The institution enjoys a Multi-cultural diversity in terms of the courses offered. This in effect enables the university to address a range of global challenges as experts from different professional fields present different approaches to handling societal challenges. The strategy aims to raise the university’s standing from a national leading university to a recognized international institution that will attract foreign students.

This is to be reflected in the university’s commitment to produce professionals in all specialization. The institution is highly determined to continue growth and investment this in effect is expected to have the institution as a leading international university in key world issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Need

The Need constitutes the initial stage in formulating a programme mandate. This entails a comprehensive assessment of the present organization’s state and the potential capacity for improvement. SWOT is one of the approaches that can be used identifying the need, opportunities, and threats of the institution. The technique helps in estimating the intended activities against the organization’s resources.

Strengths and future opportunities

As the leading university in Scotland, the institution is in better position to advance its objectives of providing solution to the challenges facing the community. The university enjoys the international community’ support as a result of its current track record in producing highest number of graduates in various practical disciplines such as engineering, Built Environment, mathematics and sciences.

The commitment of the university in providing practical solutions to the daily challenges facing the society and her determination to remain on top of other institutions makes it possible to attract support for its activities.

This is further boosted will by the continuous quality assurance checks and by emulation of other world-class institutions. The institution’s sensitivity towards the needs of the community and the readiness to fulfill these needs and those of the students makes the university to remain in the limelight. As a first step towards actualizing the set objectives, the institution has already set the benchmark of the community’s expectations.

The university’s strength also lies in the availability of human capital and financial resources. The institution’s achievements in producing respectable researchers play a significant role in attracting more professionals as well as students from across the planet. This therefore offers more opportunity to the university’s quest to realize the activities and objectives envisaged in the strategic plan.

The successful interdisciplinary relationship presents the university with the opportunity to apply a wide perspective in resolving the global challenges.

This is further strengthened by the wide the concentration of a range of proogrammes, which are in line with the priority themes as contained in the strategic plan. In addition, the concentration of resources on key areas that have a high magnitude impact on the community enhances the support from financial organizations as well as the organization.

We will write a custom Report on Heriot-Watt University Future Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The strength of the university is demonstrated in its existing collaborative programmes, which include ScotCHEM in chemistry and chemical engineering; The ScotgriD advanced IT network; The Scottish institute for Research in Economics; and Edinburgh Research Partnership in Engineering and mathematics (ERPem).

This acts to consolidate expertise in various disciplines where they bring on board their wide experiences in formulating solutions to the modern world challenges.

Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA)

This is an alliance, which brings together eight Scottish universities Physics. The major objectives is put physics in the forefront in the national strategy, also encourage collaboration among institutions, and promote efficiency and excellence within the discipline (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001, p.9).

In adopting a common approach in terms of staffing, training of the staff as well as issues of research and funding opportunities, the alliance brings together experienced experts as well as encourages training of upcoming scientists. The initiative has enabled Scotland to create the larges group of physics researchers in the UK (Griebenow 2006, p.13).

This has also attracted funding from donors, sponsors, and stakeholders in the industrial market (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, p. 9). The alliance promotes the major themes, which are of great importance to the Scotland economy as well providing solutions to the global challenges.

Such areas that provide solutions to global interests comprises of “energy, physics and life sciences, astronomy, condensed matter and materials physics, nuclear and plasma physics, photonics and particle physics” (Kishore 2007,p. 7 ).

Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA)

This alliance aims to expand Scotland’s research excellence in Informatics and Computer Science. The Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance (SICSA) bring together researchers within computer science and informatics.

The purpose of the partnership of these different fields is to merge and make stronger “Scotland’s ranking as the global researcher informatics and computer sciences key player” (Buchmann


Review of Research Studies on Cultural Bias in Psychology Synthesis Essay essay help online: essay help online

The population of minority cultural and ethnic groups in United States has increasing in the last few decades. It is therefore common for a psychological therapist to encounter a client from a different cultural and ethnic background. In such encounters, there is possibility for cultural bias that can affect effectiveness of the psychological intervention.

Many researchers in the recent past have been concerned about cultural bias in the field of psychology and psychological therapies. The paper reviews a few of research studies on cultural bias in psychology, counseling, and marriage and family therapy.

Counseling is considered the best intervention to psychological and emotional problems. However, considering cultural and ethnic diversity, counseling may not be effective if a counselor exhibits cultural bias. In the article, “Cultural Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen addresses cultural biases assumptions that may affect the effectiveness of counseling interventions.

Pedersen identifies and discusses culturally biases assumptions from an earlier article by Ponterotto and Leong (2003). The author argues that cultural bias has impact on the work of counseling psychologists. Pedersen warns that cultural bias should not be underestimated given that it can have great effect on counseling psychology.

To “internationalize counseling psychological” (Pedersen, 2003), Pedersen proposes that counseling psychologists adopt scientist-practitioner model. In harmony with Pedersen, Snowden (2003) found cultural bias as a major factor contributing to disparity in mental health care provision.

Snowden concludes that although other factors such as economical factors led to a gap in mental health care, cultural bias was the major barrier. He advocates for more research on particular forms of bias that could contribute to the disparities.

Cultural bias is a major barrier to effective psychological therapy. In family therapy, cultural bias can make it impossible for a family therapist to fully understand her clients’ problems and provide an effective therapy. In the article titled “Experiential Tasks and Therapist Bias Awareness”, Bermudez (1997) notes that therapeutic process can be affected considerably by cultural bias against minority cultural and ethnic groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Bermudez, all psychological therapists have assumptions about minority cultural groups. Some of the assumptions and beliefs could be biased and therefore affect effectiveness of a therapy.

Bermudez suggests that cultural bias awareness of a therapist can help her to overcome the bias and be effective across cultures. Bermudez proposes experiential tasks to overcome cultural bias, including role playing, visualization, written assignment, family sculpturing and role reversal.

Effectiveness of a psychological therapist in multicultural and multiethnic settings is depended on her cultural competence. In an article titled “Cultural Competency: From philosophy to research and practice”, Sue (2006) explores the meaning and value of cultural competency in psychological therapies.

Sue argues that cultural competency is trainable and proposes that therapist adopt cultural competency strategies in order to improve outcome. Addressing cultural competency in family therapy, Hardy and Laszloffy (2003) found cultural awareness and sensitivity to be important for cultural competency.

Hardy and Laszloffy argue that ability of therapist to explore her personal cultural issues puts her in a better position to understand other cultures. In addition, the authors summarize how cultural genogram can be a successful training tool for cultural competence (Hardy


Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 Term Paper college essay help

Literature Review The Connection between Vegetation Recovery and Burning Severity of Fires

Before analyzing the images produced by means of remote sensing, it is necessary to analyze the aspects and criteria according to which the images can detect various patterns of vegetation recovery after the fire. Specifically, much research has been done on the analysis of connection between biodiversity and remote sensing techniques as well as other methods for types of recovery vegetation.

According to Kennedy, remote sensing contributes greatly to the analysis of vegetation cover and provides sufficient information about atmospheric chemistry (133). In particular, satellite remote sensing techniques can provide exhaustive data on the patterns and criteria necessary for analyzing sophisticated interactions and mechanisms connecting fire density, vegetation cover, atmospheric chemistry, and climate.

The researcher has found that gas emitted into atmosphere as well as shifts occurred to the atmospheric ratio is possible to effectively detect with the help of remote sensing. However, the examination of such dependencies does not provide viable solutions to the analysis of vegetation recovery in relation to temporal scales. Still, there is a possibility to identify the nature of gasses emitted.

More detailed information on this issue is provided by Turner et al. who have managed to provide sufficient justification to remote sensing images and how they can be used to identify various types of forests and vegetation (306). According to the researcher, “…recording numerous densities at different heights throughout the canopy and enables three-dimensional profiles of vegetation structure to be made” (Turner et al. 307).

With the help of this data, it is possible to detect the potential for such techniques as mapping of sub-canopy layers and emergent tree species.

A great contribution to the analysis of distribution patterns and habitat categorizations carried with the help of remote sensing techniques. This examination has been provided by Debinsky, Kindsher, and Jakubauskas (3281). The researchers have also applied to Landsat TM data analysis in order to evaluate various forest and meadow types in Yellowstone Park.

Importantly, the studies also seek to define the relation between vegetations areas and animal species distribution which is quite essential because the foci of birds and animals can be the indicators of dense vegetation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Particular species can be affiliated to a particular vegetation pattern. Interestingly, the research conducted by Debinski et al, reveals “large differences in species distribution patterns among remotely sensed meadow types” in different temporal dimensions (3283). The same concerns are considered by Gould (1861).

White et al have also been more consistent and pertinent to our research considerations (125). In their studies, they emphasize that aside from vegetations patterns, there are also burning severity patterns resulted in different topographic vegetation. The patterns are received with the help of satellite data that show significant changes in physical characteristics of burnt areas.

The researchers have discovered that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about electromagnetic energy. In this respect, they have also defined that “…more severely burned areas have less vegetation cover and different radiation budgets in post-fire years” (White et al.124).

Such important deductions will be of great relevance to our research because different patterns of burning severity will assist in analyzing the patterns presented in Yellowstone National Park.

With regard to the consideration presented above, it should be emphasized that the vegetation recovery change patterns largely depend on the burning severity of fire. This linkage is revealed through carbon dioxide density, biophysical characteristics of burnt areas, radiation and spectral analysis, and electromagnetic energy.

Spectral Analysis with Regard to Vegetation Recovery Patterns

A possibility to distinguish the changing patterns of vegetation recovery and burning severity cannot be solely relied because such factors as the process of spectral analysis and carbon dioxide density are crucial in providing an accurate and consistent examination of temporal characteristics of vegetation recovery.

In this respect, it is necessary to analyze the connection between carbon dioxide emission, and how they relate to fires and vegetation patterns. It is also imperative to prove why remote sensing, spectral analysis and Landsat TM techniques are crucial in identifying the influences of fire on vegetation recovery.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research provided by Jakubauskas and Price offer a clear picture of the relations between biotic factors and spectral analysis of forests in the Park (1375). With the help of multiple regression models, the researchers have provided the correlation of digital spectral analysis and biotical factors.

The results have revealed that “tree height and diameter combined to form an index of crown volume, which in turn combined with density for an index of canopy volume” (Jakubauskas and Price 1379). The scholars have also detected other crucial, though less significant, factors and dimensions of spectral analysis such as leaf area index and vegetation index.

Although the research provided by Jakubauskas and Price is of great value for further examination, it can be supported by the studies analyzing vegetation dynamics with regard to temporal scales (1378). In particular, Shannon and Lawrence are more close to the analysis of vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal scale (551).

The value of their research consists in presenting change vector analysis with help of 1985 and 1999 images. This analysis is “a rule-based change detection method that examines the angle and magnitude of change between dates in spectra space” (Shannon and Lawrence 551).

The process of change detection has succeed in presenting the changes within herbaceous and shrub land vegetation. The spectral and change vector analyses have detected that “there was a decrease in grass lands and a relative increase in srublands” (Shannon and Lawrence 554). The presented research can greatly assist in the exploration of vegetation recovery patters of change in Yellowstone National Park.

The above-presented research provides consistent information about pattern distributions, but it lacks information about fire factor and its impact on vegetation recovery and accuracy of the research. This gap can be complemented with the explorations provided by Turner, Hargrove, Gardiner, and Romme (731).

In general, spectral analysis plays an important role in identifying the changing patterns of vegetation recovery. It is also significant in defining various species of vegetation and describing pattern distributions on a particular geographic area.

Technical possibilities and Limitations of Remote Sensing Techniques

Remote sensing approaches can differ with regard to various resolutions of remotely sensed images. In order to succeed in researching our objectives, the analysis of advantages and limitations of these techniques is crucial. The studies presented by Wright and Gallant (582), Asner (2), Cohen and Goward (535), and Murtaugh and Philips (99). All scholars provide a comprehensive evaluation of all limitations to using remote sensing tools.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Vegetation Recovery Using Remote Sensing Image In Yellowstone National Park after the Fires in 1988 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to critically assess the technical possibility of remote sensing techniques, Wright and Gallant have provided a historical background of previous researches dedicated to the efficiency assessment (582).

The results show that “remote sensing is the moderate spatial and spectral resolution of multispectral instruments like TM sensor” (Wright and Gallant 584) Therefore, it will be difficult to distinguish forested upland and forested wetland in spectral terms. The application of remote sensing techniques cannot be solely applied, but in combination with ancillary data.

Due to the fact that carbon dioxide is considered to be the indicator of vegetation recovery and burning severity of fire, ancillary technique should also involve carbon mapping as well which will back up the date collected form remotely sensed images (Asner 2).

Such devices are quite relevant and applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation because carbon spectral patterns of change can also be the signifiers of vegetation recovery stage. In particular, carbon densities can be easily correlated with burning severities, and vegetation recovery, and species analysis. More importantly, the carbon analysis includes the acquisition of maps depicting types of forest, disturbance, and deforestation.

Remote sensing techniques are also applicable to temporal analysis of vegetation patterns. In this regard, Murtaugh and Philips provide a bivariate binary model for evaluating the shifts in land cover with the help of satellite images received at different times (99).

Such classification is aimed at correlating random variables that are dependent on the pixel resolution. Importantly, the researchers have applied to Landsat imaging for pixel classification and its correlation with land cover changes.

Cohen and Goward also emphasize the importance of using remote sensing to assess temporal and spatial characteristics of ecological environment (535). In the particular, they used date obtained from Landsat sensors for constructing biogeochemical cycles and for characterizing vegetation biophysical attributes with regard to biodiversity.

The research find remote sensing valid and reliable for analyzing vegetation and land cover change. In contrast, Ravan and Roy consider it necessary to introduce Geographic information systems for the analysis of various vegetation patterns and obtaining relevant information (129). The combined approach is much more efficient in detecting such characteristics as vegetation shape, size, patch density and porosity.

The research results has revealed significant different between different zones of Madhav National Part of India (Ravan and Roy 130). The structural analysis has provided vegetation recovery also largely dependent of biomass distribution and species diversity. Arising from this research, remote sensing and GIS can be successfully applicable to the temporal analysis of vegetation providing more accurate information.

Innes and Koch state that remote sensing is considered the most efficient tool in assessing vegetation, and other biophysical characteristics such as structural criteria of forest stands, the canopy type and the present of coarse woody debris (397). The researchers emphasize that it is possibly to rely solely on remote sensing when investigating the spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetations.

Interesting discoveries are offered by Turner, Ollinger, and Kimball who also approve remote sensing techniques for evaluating spatial characteristics of vegetation (574). In particular, the researchers resort to remote sensing tools and ecosystem modeling to study the terrestrial carbon cycling.

Pursuant to remote sensing limitation, explain that this device is constantly upgrading and it is possible to select the appropriate resolution of images to analyze the reflectance properties of vegetation and assess biogeochemical processes controlling carbon transformation.

In general, the majority of the above-described researchers prove that remote sensing is one of the most efficient instruments in conducting the assessment of vegetation recovery with regard to its temporal and spatial characteristics. Nevertheless, the analysis will be much more successful if to apply this technique together with GIS approach.

Overall Recommendations and Conclusion The analysis of image obtained by remote sensing allows to detect various patterns of vegetation recovery with regard to temporal characteristics. The Yellowstone National Park has been analyzed in three various time – 1989, 1999, and 2010. The image obtained from Landsat TM, ISODATA being an ancillary mechanism revealed that there significant changes in vegetation recovery patterns in relation to temporal characteristics.

In addition, classification scheme of vegetation used to shrub land, herbaceous vegetation, sparse vegetation, and bare land has turned out to be flexible and relevant for the research. The presented research proves conducted by Jakubauska and Price (1375)

The results have also show that vegetation recovery patterns are closely connected with burning severity of fire. Importantly, the spectral analysis and Landsat TM show biophysical characteristics of burnt areas. The evaluation has also succeeded in defining the changes of species allocation on the territory of Yellowstone National Park. The technical approach used for the data analysis still had some limitations.

In particular, it was difficult information without geographic information system because some characteristics were impossible to detect, such carbon dioxide cycle. Nevertheless, the classification of species was successfully identified and carefully analyzed with regard to temporal characteristics.

In future, we plan to investigate this area and other territories, but with another combination of techniques either to justify or disapprove the effectiveness of those as compared with the above presented ones. This area is quite wide and, therefore, there is much store for investigation.

Works Cited Asner, Gregory P. Tropical Forest Carbon Assessment: Integrating Satellite and Airborne Mapping Approaches. Environmental Research Letters 4 (2009):1-11

Cohen, Warren D., and Samuel N. Goward. Landsat’s Role in Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing. BioScience. 54.6 (2004): 535-545.

Debinski, D. M. and Kindscher, K., and Mark Jakubauskas. A Remote Sensing and GIS-based model of habitats and biodiversity in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosysyem. Journal of Remote Sensing. 20.17 (1999): 3281-3291.

Gould, William. Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Plant Species Richness, and Regional Biodiversity Hotspots. Ecological Applications. 10.6 (2000): 1861-1870.

Innes John L., and Barbara Koch. Forest Biodiversity and Its Assessment by Remote Sensing. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. 7.6 (1998): 397-419.

Jakubauskas, Mark, and Kevin P. Price. Empirical Relationships between Structural and Spectral Factors of Yellowstone Lodgepole Pine Forests. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 63.12 (1997, December): 1375-1381

Kennedy, Pam. Biomass Burning Studies: The Use of Remote Sensing. Ecological Bulletins. 15 (1992): 133-148.

Murtaugh, Paul A. and Donald L. Philips. Temporal Correlation of Classification in Remote Sensing. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics. 3.1. (1999, March): 99-110

Ravan, Shirish, A., and P. S. Roy. Satellite Remote Sensing for Ecological Analysis of Forested Landscape. Plant Ecology. 131.2 (1997): 129-141;

Savage, Shannon L., and Rick L. Lawrence. Vegetation Dynamics in Yellostone’s Northern Range: 1985 to 1999. Photogrammetric Engineering


Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Discussion The bank of England acts as UK’s Central Bank (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). The bank plays a number of roles in the UK financial system, and these roles include: one, issuing notes and coins. These notes and coins are then sold to banking systems which in turn distribute them to clients as they make withdrawals in their accounts; two, supervises the financial system.

The Bank of England often works in conjunction with other institutions set up specifically to regulate distinct parts of the financial system; three, manages UK’s gold and currency reserves (Great Britain Committees on Currency and Foreign Exchange, 1978, p. 159). This role enables the Bank of England to influence the level of exchange rate; four, acts as banker to government.

It does this by managing UK’s national debt and arranges for the issue of new loans to cover government’s current borrowing; and last but not least, the bank plays the role of acting as a banker to the banking system.

Normally the Bank of England comes to rescue banks that get into short term problems, unable to raise enough funds to meet customer demands. In this case, the Bank of England will supply cash to the banking system to relieve the liquidity shortage (Gomez, 2008, p. 349).

The roles of the Bank of England compares to the Federal Reserve System in varying aspects.

This paper examines the roles of the Bank of England compared to the roles of the Federal Reserve Bank of the US in terms of; regulation of the financial system, comparison of the roles in terms of facilitation of the financial system, comparison in terms of ensuring financial stability in the market, and lastly comparing their roles in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection.

Comparing Regulative Aspects of the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System In the UK, domestic banking regulation has been far less formal compared to the United States of America. This may be so entirely because London city is the preeminent centre of the European market. Differing from the United States regulators, the Bank of England operates on the assumption that bankers are prudent, honest individuals who know as much if not more about banking than regulators do (Singleton, 2011, p. 20).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, the approach of the Bank of England for years was not to impose regulations and ratios on banks; instead it requested for periodic reports from banks.

On this basis, the Bank of England discussed informally with the top management of each bank on the quality of the bank’s loan, its liquidity, any features of the bank’s condition that the Bank of England portrays as unusual or out of line, and any suggestions that the Bank of England might make with respect to the banks’ operations (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).

The current monetary responsibilities for the Bank of England were established through the Bank of England’s Act of 1998. The banking supervisory functions under this Act had previously been under the mandate of the bank of England was transferred to the Financial Services Authority (FSA).

In essence, overall financial stability issues responsibility was spread among three legal separate entities; the Bank of England, Financial Services Authority, and HM Treasury (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 87).

A memorandum of understanding was established among the three as there was no legislation that formally sets out their responsibilities. This kind of arrangement blended smoothly with the Bank of England’s long time tradition by facilitating the maximum amount of flexibility in the banking system and avoiding the red tape and restrictions of various sorts found in other countries (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).

The Bank of England treats foreign financial firms operating in the UK much the same manner as domestic UK banks. The Bank of England allows a bank to establish a branch in London with minimal red tape as long as it recognizes the bank is reputable in its home country.

Foreign investing banks did not have to put in any capital to open an office in the UK. All they had to do was to accept to comply with certain regulations, and it was accorded similar rights to engage in banking that any other bank in Britain had (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30). The Bank of England rather presents a casual regulation of foreign banks.

We will write a custom Essay on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It operates and continues to operate on the logical assumption that foreign banking branches are inextricable part of the parent. This portrays that it is not easy if not impossible to regulate these branches as independent entities.

It also implies that the bank’s natural assumption that these branches are being regulated by banking authorities in their parent countries, which regulates the activities of the parent bank as a whole (Bernan, 2008, p. 99).

In the United States, evolution of banking took a different route compared to UK banking system. Financial institutions were chartered either nationally or at state level in the US. A restriction on branch banking at branch and federal level implied that thousands of banks at state level continued to be established.

In addition to the monetary responsibility, the board had regulatory authority over Federal Reserve Banks and banks which, by owning stock in Federal Reserve Banks, became members of Federal Reserve System (Bernan, 2008, p. 100).

Banking in the US is in a form of dual regulatory structure in which federal and state agencies carry out a mixture of unique and joint functions. The US Federal Reserve differs with the system presided over by the Bank of England (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).

As a regulator, the Bank of England consists of a highly concentrated market structure as one powerful regulator. It operates in a close-knit, exclusive community that relies upon understandings, convention, trust and tradition in performing its functions. The US Federal Reserve System on the other hand, consists of a highly decentralized market structure.

Regulation was more dependent on formal and bureaucratic rules in the Federal Reserve System compared to UK banking system. The two systems are however similar in terms of their commitment to relative independence of central banks from government (Hafer, 2005, p. 53).

Comparisons of The Roles of the Bank of England and Federal Reserve in terms of Facilitation Facilitative or catalytic roles are very necessary for central banks to operate effectively. The Bank of England has established close relationship with private sector participants for the purpose of maintaining active communication over payment system development and to promote specific initiatives. In the United Kingdom, these relationships are formal as it is represented on the board of the country’s banking association.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bank of England Role Compared to the Federal Reserve System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the US, the relationships may be less formal but no less influential, for instance, the Feds role in promoting check 21, the law that facilitates check truncation (Hafer, 2005, p. 53). Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System promote and initiate important changes in retail payment systems and also serve as catalysts as they undertake important research programmes (Hufner, 2004, p. 96).

Comparisons of the Roles in terms of Ensuring Financial Stability The Bank of England cooperates with the Financial Services Authority and the Treasury assist in the filed of financial stability. The cooperation pact between thee three agencies sets out the role of each authority and details how they work together towards the common objective of UK’s financial stability.

The divisions of responsibilities between the three agencies depend on accountability, transparency, a voidance of duplication, and exchanging information on regular basis (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 88).

The bank of England contributes to the maintenance of UK’s stability of financial system. This responsilities involves: acting in markets to solve liquidity challenges in order to ensure stability of monetary system as part of its monetary policy functions; supervising infrastructure in financial system systematically important to Britain. This particularly involves payment systems based either in the UK or overseas.

The Bank of England remains at the heart of the payment system as bankers’ bank. It advises the Chancellor, and responds for its advice on any critical challenges that emerge in these systems (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, p. 89).

The Bank of England is also closely involved in infrastructural development and improvement, and strengthening of the financial system to assist reduce systemic risks; maintaining a broad supervision of the whole financial system. The Bank of England is strategically placed to perform this.

This is because the bank is responsible for the financial system stability and has high profile representation on the Financial Services Authority Board. Normally the bank is represented in the FSA by the Deputy Governor (Singleton, 2011, p. 229). It is because of this involvements’ in markets and payment systems that the bank is able to identify potential pitfalls first.

As a consequence, it is able to advice on the implications for the Britain’s financial stability of developments in domestic and foreign markets and payment systems.

It also provides assessments of the impact on monetary conditions of events in the financial industry; and last but not least, the Bank of England undertakes official financial operations in exceptional circumstances in their established memorandum with the FSA and the Treasury.

This is for purpose of limiting the risk of problems facing particular organizations spreading to other parts of the UK financial system (Great Britain HM Treasury, 2008, 89).

Similarly, the Federal Reserve System plays a critical role in overseeing the retail payment systems in the US. Both the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve do not have their oversight responsibilities explicitly set out. The payment oversight responsibilities of the Bank of England for instance, is non statutory. In the US, the Federal Reserve’s authority depends on assortment of statutes and agreements (Hafer, 2005, 52).

The Federal Reserve just like the Bank of England and other central banks plays a key role in retail payment system. The Federal Reserve’s legal foundation of involvement in retail payments is entrenched in a number of statutes.

These statutes include; the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the 1978 electronic Funds Transfer, and the Check Clearing Act of 2003. The Federal Reserve stresses overriding objectives for payment policies such as; safety, efficiency, and accessibility (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).

The Role of the Bank of England in Financial Stability and Depositor Protection The UK government gives the Bank of England authority to play an important role in special bank administration procedure for the purpose of facilitating successful resolution of a bridge bank. This is designed to maximize the chances for successful disposal of the bridge bank to private sector within the statutory time period and at the best price possible.

The UK authorities through the Bank of England ensures that appropriate funding mechanisms are introduced to ensure that special bank administrator is able to maintain the residual company functioning to achieve the purposes of the procedure (Bernan, 2008, p. 2008).

Practically, the bridge bank would always be expected to pay for the services provided by the residual company on normal commercial terms, but provisions are made to allow access to additional funding if needed to ensure viability of residual company for the purposes of these procedure. The Bank of England also fulfils the role of a creditors committee in a special bank administration procedure.

The Bank of England ensures the special bank administrator provides information in relation to exercise of his functions and generally help the special bank administrator in discharging in his functions (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).

In addition, the UK government considers that the Bank of England has additional functions in special bank administration procedure due its unique nature (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 30).

These additional roles include: considering and approving special bank administrator’s proposals for attaining the objectives of the procedure with or without modification; plays an important role in providing information to the special bank administrator in relation to the financial position of the residual company and the bridge bank; approves those assets, or types of assets that may be realized for the benefit of creditors;

Effecting subsequent transfers of assets and liabilities between the bridge bank and the residual company; establishing with the special bank administrator what essential services, assets and contracts the residual company would be obliged to continue to provide in support of a bridge bank; determining whether to approve to the taking of certain actions in the procedure where those may prejudice the successful resolution of the bridge bank; and accepting that the procedure may be terminated (Great Britain Parliament, 2009, p. 35).

Comparison with the Federal Reserve System Comparatively, the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System differ markedly on the nature of deposit protection arrangements and the appropriate role for the central bank in the payment system.

The Federal Bank maintains that it is important for a central bank to have a role in banking supervision, even though its own role has covered only a part of the banking system. The Federal Reserve shares the responsibility for regulating and supervising in the US financial system with a number of federal and state government agencies (Hufner, 2004, p. 95).

All chattered banks in US states are under the Federal Reserve System. Besides overseeing activities of banks in Federal Banks, the Federal Reserve also oversees US operations in oversees banks. The Federal Reserves also have supervisory obligations holding companies, though bank subsidiaries of those holding companies are often supervised by other agencies (Hufner, 2004).

For instance, the banking of commercial activities of holding company subsidiaries with national bank charters is supervised by the Office of Controller of the Currency. The Federal Reserve finds it essential for a monetary authority to have some direct links with the banking system, not only for financial stability but also to help with the conduct of monetary policy (Hafer, 2005, p. 31).

Conclusion In sum, the banking systems in the UK and US compare in a number of ways, for instance: branch banking is prevalent in the UK where banks have branches which control total deposits of the country. The US embraces unit banking as a system of banking with no branches or with very few branches.

The banking system in the United Kingdom is centralized. All banking institutions in the UK are under control of the Bank of England. The authority to issue notes and control credit solely rests on the Bank of England. The US on the other hand, has a decentralized central banking system.

The banking system is distributed among the US federal states under one Federal Reserve Bank (Hafer, 2005, p. 52). Control by the Bank of England is very effective as the number of banks are minimal compared to control by the Federal Reserve System which is not as effective as it is in England because of the existence of large number of unit banks.

In terms of establishment, the Bank of England was formed as a private joint stock bank and gradually it assumed all the powers of a Central Bank. The Bank was then nationalized in 1946.

The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, began as a central banking system which came into existence by passing the Federal Act of 1913. The Federal Reserve was empowered by the Act to perform all the central banking functions (Hafer, 2005, p. 55).

The Bank of England is currently nationalized, where as the Federal Reserve banks are owned by member banks of each district as entire share capital is contributed by them. In England, commercial banks seldom approach the Bank of England for rediscounting of their bills, instead they recall funds lent to the Discount Houses who go to the Bank of England for rediscounting of bills.

Thus, commercial banks obtain accommodation from the Bank of England only indirectly. In most cases, they are reluctant to approach the Bank of England for accommodation as it appears as a sign of weakness.

In the US, member banks approach the Federal Reserve banks for getting their bills of exchange and other papers rediscounted. Unlike in England, commercial banks in the US are not reluctant to approach the Federal Bank as they feel they have a stake of ownership of the Federal Reserve Banks (Singleton, 2011, p. 229).

The Bank of England adopts fixed fiduciary systems for regulating issuance of notes. The Federal Reserve System on the other hand, adopts proportional reserve system for regulating note issue. Another good comparison is in terms of commercial banks maintaining reserves with the Bank of England by convention. In the US, member banks maintain reserves with the Federal Reserve Banks by legal compulsion.

The Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System also compare in terms of effectiveness of bank rates. In England, the bank rate is very effective. Bank rates in the US are not as effective as it is in England.

The member banks sometimes do not increase their lending rates in accordance with increase in bank rates. This is due to the fact that some member banks may have surplus reserves and therefore, do not need any accommodation from the Federal Reserve Banks (Hafer, 2005, p. 54).

Reference List Bernan, L


“Interaction” in Human Computer Interaction: iPad’s Design Framework Essay argumentative essay help

iPad’s Design Framework The iPad’s entry into the market signaled a new era in Human-Computer interaction. It came with enhancements that have revolutionized how man interacts with computers. The concept of Multi-touch moved touch screen technology many steps forward.

Some of the novel interaction features of the iPad, which were not previously in the iphone, include the spread-or-pinch feature, bundle creation, and page navigation. The iPad’s iPhoto application allows for expansion or closure of a pile of photos as part of its new multi-touch interactions through a spreading or pinching motion applied by two fingers. It is also possible to make piles out of multiple slides in order to move or delete them.

This involves selecting the first slide, then holding it, and then tapping on the rest of the slides. The slides form a bundle, which is now ready for movement to a desired location.

This applies to mail where the user can form bundles of mail for mass deletion. In addition, a page navigation function included in the iPad allows a user to preview the contents of a page before opening it by pressing and holding the scroll bar area. It brings up a viewer through which the destination page is previewed.

Two functions, currently enhanced in the iPad, that were already in use in the iPhone are the scrolling tabs and the contextual keyboards. The scrolling tabs feature allows for shifting from one tab to another while the contextual keyboards displays a keyboard relevant for the application in use.

For instance, it brings up a numeric keyboard for input of numeral based functions such as time input and mathematical calculations, while a text-based keyboard appears for input of text based applications such as messaging.

Music is one of the popular iPad uses, supported by numerous iTunes applications. Several apps meet the various needs users have ranging from the creation of music to playing it. One of the applications used to create music that is benefiting from the bigger multi-touch screen is the Groovemaker app. There was a previous release for use with the iPhone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it had a practical limit as to how effectively one could use it because of the iPhone’s smaller screen. The purpose of the Groovemaker is “beat-making”. It works by sequencing loops from a huge library and forming layers to make a track. The main control is by drag-and-drop, which allows a user to easily pick desired tracks and remove undesired ones.

The bigger screen now allows users to control up to eight tracks simultaneously, a feat not possible previously. After creating the music, it allows for exportation to a computer. There are three options for the application, house, hip-hop, and Drum ‘n bass, depending on a user’s preference. It is available in the different packs in the iTunes store, with a free release pack and other enhanced packs, costing at least four dollars.

The iPad fits the description of a bigger iPhone because it came with many of the apps that were present in the iPhone, while providing enhancements to take advantage of the new capabilities of the iPad. Edge and Faas (2010) confirmed this when they said, “Most applications that run on the iPod Touch and the iPhone can run on an iPad”. An iPhone user would easily recognize the apps used by the iPad.

When compared to the MacBook, the two devices’ designs are for different uses, which complement each other. The iPad has its own unique strengths such as better surfing experience and better photo display, as compared to the Macbook, which is essentially a computing device that allows for storage of larger files and supports document processing better than the iPad.

Reference list Edge, C.