Research Paper Thousands of women in the United States face difficulties with fertility. They suffer from numerous health problems, because infertility always leads to a huge moral pain. Society often views women, who cannot have children, as men-like and incomplete. Even the most expensive reproductive technologies do not help to solve female infertility problems. In this context, biological surrogacy and egg donation represent the two easy ways to help a woman become a mother.
Every year, the number of children born through surrogacy in the United States grows. However, the legal, ethical, and moral limitations of biological surrogacy should not be ignored. Women who agree to become surrogate mothers must prepare themselves for the moral and physical pains of separation with the child. Women who choose surrogate mothers to carry their babies must be ready to accept the child, regardless of his (her) physical state at birth.
At present, biological surrogacy resembles the act of trade, when the child’s genetic parents manipulate the surrogate mother, using their power and finances. Biological surrogacy can give some hope to the women, who have fertility problems, but only when effective legislation is developed to govern the relationships between biological parents and surrogate mothers.
Biological Surrogacy: The Case of Tiffany Burke and Crystal Kelley Biological surrogacy has become so common in the United States, that it is no longer shameful for a woman to say that she is carrying someone else’s child. It is a source of childbearing hopes for many infertile women, as well as a good moneymaking opportunity for the women, who can bear and give birth to a child.
Tiffany Burke, 31, is currently pregnant with the twins she is carrying for her brother and sister-in-law (Hudson, 2012). She is monitoring her health and calls herself as “60% organic” (Hudson, 2012). Tiffany says that the babies she is carrying were formed with her brother’s sperm and her sister’s egg (Hudson, 2012).
She already has a child of her own, and she knows what it feels like being pregnant. It is interesting that Tiffany was the initiator of this pregnancy, after her sister’s uterus was removed as a result of uncontrolled bleeding (Hudson, 2012). She eats organic foods and uses vinegar instead of traditional shampoo. What she does not know is whether her pregnancy will go well for her, the babies, and the biological parents. She does not know what she will do, in case anything goes wrong.
This is the question Crystal Kelley might have been asking herself, when a nice couple she met at the playground decided she could be their surrogate (Chapin, 2013). By the time Kelley agreed to become a surrogate, she already had two daughters and a tragic experience of two miscarriages (Chapin, 2013).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She was fascinated with the amount of attention she was getting from the biological parents. However when, at 21 weeks, an ultrasound revealed considerable health abnormalities, the genetic parents offered $10,000 for Kelley to make an abortion (Caplan, 2013). Kelley refused and moved to Michigan, where she was free to control her body. She gave birth to a girl, who was adopted by the family that has enough financial means to raise her and meet her health needs (Caplan, 2013; Chapin, 2013).
Biological Surrogacy: The Why and How of the Problem Why Women Do It
Biological surrogacy raises numerous ethical and legal issues, one of them being the right to autonomy, privacy, and self-control. Still, the number of families which apply to biological surrogacy continues to increase each year. The basic question is why, despite so many ethical challenges, families choose biological surrogacy.
The answer is simple: everyone wants to have a child of their own. The fact is that egg donation and biological surrogacy greatly increase women’s chances to become mothers. According to Steinbock (2004), a woman who is infertile and uses her own eggs for in vitro fertilization has a 15 percent chance to become pregnant, compared to a 40 percent chance for a woman, who uses donated eggs.
The situation with biological surrogacy is quite similar: for many women who cannot get pregnant naturally, surrogacy provides the only real opportunity to have a child (Steinbock, 2004). Tiffany Burke, who is carrying the twins for her brother- and sister-in-law, understands how difficult it is not to have a child, and this is probably why she decided to sacrifice her body for the sake of pregnancy. However, Burke’s case is a rare example of nobility, unlike other cases, when surrogacy is just a matter of money and control.
Biological Surrogacy as a Commodity
With the absence of effective regulations, biological surrogacy resembles the act of trade, where the child is exchanged for a considerable sum of money, and the surrogate mother is just a physical means for having a baby. Commodification is one of the biggest ethical problems in the context of egg donation and surrogacy.
Women who donate their eggs are paid between $2,500 and $5,000 (Steinbock, 2004). Chrystal Kelley was paid $22,000 for her pregnancy and could receive another $10,000, if she agreed to make an abortion (Caplan, 2013). Thus, “surrogacy for money is about money – not love, or help, or altruism or doing good. Money is most attractive to those who need it most” (Caplan, 2013). Biological surrogacy is very much like renting the surrogate mother’s womb for a good sum of money.
Certainly, it is possible to say that everything in this world is bought and sold. Scientists sell their minds; lawyers sell their knowledge of the legal procedures; and athletes sell their physical abilities and bodies to cope with their daily needs (Steinbock, 2004).
We will write a custom Essay on Biological Surrogacy in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At times, individuals agree to sell their body parts and organs, when they have no other way to earn for living. However, they do not sell their souls or votes, because it is morally unacceptable. No one wants to be treated as property. Nevertheless, in most cases, this is what happens to the women, who have agreed to become surrogate mothers.
No one says that biological surrogacy is absolutely wrong and should not be allowed. Rather, surrogacy cannot be permitted in its present-day form. It should be thoroughly regulated by the state, and it is state that should (or should not) compensate surrogate mothers for their noble decisions. Only then, biological surrogacy will become moral and acceptable, when no financial interests are involved.
Biological Surrogacy and Body Control
Another problem is that of biological surrogacy and body control. Women who agree to rent their wombs for money often have no voice in the medical and financial decisions regarding their body. Many of them understand that surrogacy is a huge responsibility (Hudson, 2012).
For many others, the lack of control over their bodies becomes an unpleasant surprise during pregnancy. Crystal Kelley, who was asked to abort her child because of the health problems revealed during an ultrasound, received a letter from an attorney who was telling her that, under the surrogacy contract, she had no legal right to keep the child (Caplan, 2013). Under the surrogacy contract, she was required to make an abortion in case any health problems were identified (Caplan, 2013).
However, no one can make a woman get rid of the unborn baby. Under no circumstances can this decision be regarded as legal (Caplan, 2013). Even if the surrogate mother signs a contract, its provisions have no legal power. The attorney who was pressuring Crystal Kelley to seek an abortion can lose his license, because his letter was a serious violation of law (Caplan, 2013). Still, biological surrogacy increases the risks of exploitation.
Even providing large monetary rewards for surrogacy can become a form of coercion. Many women cannot resist the temptation to earn some money for being pregnant. As a result, they turn themselves into a commodity. The money they receive for carrying and giving birth to a child may not be worth the risks of exploitation, which these women are facing.
Kelley was threatened that, in case she refused an abortion, she would have to pay back the money she had received from the genetic parents (Caplan, 2013). She was manipulated to become a murderer of the child, which is equal to a serious crime. However, she was strong enough to withstand the pressure and give birth to a child.
She had even more power and strength to find a family that would care for the sick girl. Looking back at Kelley’s case, it is possible to say that “any surrogate agency which conveyed an offer of money to encourage an abortion is guilty of at best bribery and an attempt to crassly manipulate a vulnerable woman” (Caplan, 2013).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Biological Surrogacy in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Now, What Happens Next?
Now that the surrogate child is born, what happens to him (her) and how are his (her) relations with the genetic parents develop? This is the question, which matters a lot but does not receive enough professional attention. Biological surrogacy is often described as a process that starts with egg and sperm donation and ends, when the baby is born.
Yet, it is clear that children who are born through surrogacy lack a physical and psychological link with their genetic parents (Golombok, Readings, Blake, Caset, Marks
“Radio” Final Film Critique Essay (Movie Review) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Storytelling
Actors and acting
Storytelling This movie is based on the real life experiences of James Kennedy and dwells on a coach for a high school football team. The coach is named Ed Harris and the high school for which he coaches a team is found in a small town. He makes friends with a man named Cuba Gooding Jr., who was nicknamed Radio because he was passionate about transistors.
Radio has a developmental disability as described by the author. He is the primary source of humor in this drama. He is the main target of jokes and all the involved teases. The relationship between Radio and the coach initially raises eyebrows, but his developmental progress and prosperity under the coach’s leadership proves to a great inspiration to the local town dwellers making them appreciate their differences (Perez-Pena, 2008).
This summary portrays the coach’s dedication to socializing with less privileged and the fact that he is appreciative about disabled people. People do not believe in this friendship at first. This portrays the people’s insensitivity and lack of appreciation and respect for the disabled persons. However, Radio’s prosperity under the coach’s supervision makes people change their minds and start to see things the other way round (Rosenberg, 2000).
The coach discovered that most of his players were actually bullying Radio who was retarded, young and black, hence vulnerable to mistreatments by others. Having noticed the bullies from his players on Radio, the coach decides to dedicate most of his time as a coach and gives special attention to him.
He makes him useful during sports practice and eventually incorporates him into the school team. Initially, Radio’s mother who is a widow named S. Epatha Mekerson is filled with suspicion while Harold’s wife Debra Winger and daughter Sarah Drew get jealous. Elsewhere, the principal of the school becomes worried and the father of the player Mr. Chris Mulkey gets furious about the whole thing. However, as Radio becomes prosperous and successful, everyone in the community comes to adore and appreciate him (Rosenberg, 2000).
Actors and acting Drama is the main tool used by the director in delivering his message in this movie. The things that Radio becomes victim to are used purposefully to make viewers sympathize with the character. At the beginning, any viewer may be wondering what could make such a man wander on train tracks with grocery buggy but, as time goes, they gain a partial understanding when they find out what he wants.
This brings to the recollection of the viewer all the crazy things they used to do during their early stages of life. I never felt so good when Radio went to town, and a lady whose child was looking at him suddenly snatches the child out of his view. This is totally inhuman as the lady views him as less human and a being that should not get near her child. She doesn’t want her child to look at him either with thoughts that he could cause the child nightmares (Rosenberg, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the beginning of the movie, viewers are provided with welcoming female background voice and the setting is in the south. The members of the community are obsessed with prejudice. This means that they have the tradition of prejudging what someone is going to do. They also have predefined capabilities for every person they meet.
This is a very dangerous belief as it is against innovation. Judging what someone can offer or their abilities by simply looking at them instead of letting them prove themselves to you is not a good way of evaluation. This community is obsessed with isolation of less privileged without caring why people have such problems and what could cause them. Several minds, when put together, can think well than selected few.
This theme again manifests itself in the lady who snatches her child out of radio’s view. She knows that there is nobody in society who can offer their children nothing but danger and tensed environment. Typically, this movie shares nearly aspects with “To kill a Mockingbird”, another film whose relation to it is substantiated by the fact that the spirit of Coach Harold Jones revives the lost spirit of an alienated, desperate man.
Everyone in “Radio” is kind, nice or a bit mean but basically niceness dominates, and this minimizes drama (Hebersky, 2001).
The film is also less gripping as compared to “To kill a Mockingbird “since it lacks a hint of gothic menace, which is actually present in the latter. As I have already said, the existing drama involves childish arguments between the coach and his school principal, which many times reach perfect agreements.
Also, there are baseless appeals by rebellious parents who claimed they wanted Radio excommunicated from school and taken to aninstitution for students with special needs. However, these are lame allegations and definitely unjustifiable as well as self-thwarting ideas.
The theme of alienation unveils itself yet again. When you demand for a school administration to excommunicate a student just because he has developmental in capabilities, you are just but trying to deny someone his rights and freedoms to socialize with friends and attain quality education from an institution where he feels most comfortable, and the learning environments favors his tastes and preferences. I think the director is after elucidating the high level of hypocrisy that prevails in this community, by creating these scenes.
We will write a custom Essay on “Radio” Final Film Critique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The society is composed of selfish members who never see anything beyond their own interests. These women instead of looking for measures that could help the boy, suggest their discontinuation from the school. They have no idea that this could lead the victim out of the frying pan into the fire. He is already suffering from the jeers and bullies from his schoolmates and taking him away from school to a special need institution would make him even more frustrated.
However, Radio enjoys redemptions coming from level of performances. Ed Harris tries to nurture him and shows him the required directions, but still shows him a certain level of awkwardness to prevent him from assuming and acting super human. Under normal circumstances, the news about a mentally handicapped person is supposed to ring a bell and attract a lot of attention.
However, Radio’s situation is underestimated by everyone; it does not take anyone by surprise at all. This is a lack of responsibility by the community. When a person has a problem like this, a good community should be able to empathize and take relevant actions collectively as if they were themselves the victims (Hebersky, 2001).
Cinematography The cinematography is made up of different types of angles including medium long shot and medium shots. The directors’ intentions were to tell the actual story using the movie. This particular film is based on a true story just like I said before, and the actual Harold Jones and James Robert Kennedy are as they are portrayed in the last scenes of the film.
The director simply added flavor to the actual activities that happened in the real story and then organized them into scenes making the movie. This means that the themes that prevail in the actual events are fully developed in this film. The film takes the style of the New Testament since it involves a kind man named Radio who can be compared to Christ and Harold his disciple.
Radio and his disciple Harold try to preach their gospel and spread the message of the need to love and be kind to each other. They deliver this message to a community which is made up people of two kinds, that is, people willing to receive the message and get converted and a larger number who are rebellious and resistant to the message terming it as misleading and coming from unbelievable source.
They refuse to believe the message that is given to them until the end when they see the fruits it bears. This is when they come to discover their foolishness and actually decide to embrace it. The society then gets converted from hating Radio and his disability to appreciating him. This also makes them understand that it is normal for people to be different even if being different means lacking things that others do have (Hebersky, 2001).
After keenly studying this movie, I cannot deny the fact that it is very sad but my observations lead me to several conclusions, one of them is that we should never judge others on the basis of their color or abilities. Less able people are as important as those with perfect abilities. The main target audience for this film is the youths.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Radio” Final Film Critique by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are warned against underestimating their disabled counterparts but to embrace them appreciate them and accept them the way they are. The reason I pick on the youths as the primary target audience by the director is the fact that Radio’s schoolmates, who have been used to the highest capacity in developing the theme of segregation and racial prejudice, are warned against the mistreatments they inflict on Radio. The story revolves around them.
This movie however has neither clearly defined villains nor heroes. The villains that are discussed do not play the complete roles of villains. They also come to welcome a change of who they are later on at the end of the film. The film is also full of emotional scenes. One might think it is interesting but it keeps changing your moods as you watch it. All in all, it is generally emotional.
This is manifested when Radio is left out in the rain; it almost causes the viewer to shed tears. It even gets worse when he tries to run through the field while it is raining and fall in the muddy field. After viewing this movie, it fills a heart and lifts a spirit; it shows that there comes a time when it is wiser to do the right thing instead of a popular thing.
It reminds us that it is fine to do the right thing that seems wrong rather than doing a wrong thing that seems right. When something is right, it remains so even if no one believes it is. On the other hand, a wrong thing is wrong even if everyone thinks otherwise. When Radio is left behind by everyone else, he runs to the field and starts to play alone.
Viewers are reminded that people like Radio and those having similar problems do not chose to be who they are but rather find themselves there. It is therefore their responsibility to make them understand themselves and make them have self-esteem (Hebersky, 2001).
The team learns a lesson in the year 1974 when they decide to leave Radio behind when they have their visit to Northwestern High for a football match. The head coach Fraser claimed that the bus was so full that Radio could not find space. He therefore had to be the one to remain behind.
Jones did not like this all but then what could he have done? He was only the assistant coach by then and had to go by the head coach. The principal also had to work with what Mr. Fraser had said since he was the chief organizer of the trip and was in charge of all aspects; so Radio never made it to Northwestern High School for the match. The team however lost the match 27-20 to the visitors.
From this day onwards, Radio was never left out every game that the team played and was included among those travelling for any competition. After this experience and the consistent inclusion of Radio in the school team squad, the Yellow Jackets enjoyed a series of successful performances all the way to that year’s finals.
This is a clear indication and an explanation of the proverb, “never judge a book by its cover.” Excluding Radio from the football team is accompanied by heavy consequences. They lose terribly when they visit a school to play a football match.
They all come to appreciate his importance to the team. With all the regrets, the squad swears never to repeat the mistake and indeed they see the impact of doing this as justified by the fact that they enjoy fine performance and advance all the way to the final that particular year. More often than not, we are tempted to underrate certain resources due to the fact that we are highly affected by prejudgment. We end up letting go of very important resources for fear that they are useless (Henning
Minimum Wage: Pros and Cons, Effects of Increase Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Minimum Wage Law
Advantages of Minimum Wage Law
Disadvantages of Minimum Wage Law
Labor Union Laws and Efficient Wages
Introduction This essay will explore the law regarding minimum wage in the United States of America, as well as advantages and disadvantages of increasing wage such as beneficial incentives, derailed job growth, and improved job security among others. The essay will also discuss the history of minimum wage law.
In addition, it will explain labor union laws and efficient wages. Minimum wage refers to the least possible salary that employees get from their employers depending on the agreed payment structure (Waltham 20). Employees use various payment structures to offer employees remuneration depending on amount of work done per hour, day, or month. Minimum wage is a crucial element in the labor market because it provides the lowest salary at which employees would be willing to trade their labor.
Benefits of having a limit on minimum wage include improved welfare of workers, observance of equality in recruitment, high employee morale in the workplace, as well as improved efficiency and service delivery for business and organizations (Waltham 27). However, despite these benefits, criticisms have been lodged against availability of minimum wage.
Critics, most of whom apply concepts developed in the neo-classical theory of economics, believe that minimum wage results in low employee output, increased unemployment due to inexperience, and biasness in the recruitment process. Minimum wage is an important aspect of any labor market, as it improves job standards and equality in the labor market.
Minimum Wage Law Minimum wage law is simply a decree passed to prohibit employers from paying workers less than a specifically set amount of minimum wage (Waltham 35). At first, this law applied only to women and children, although it later extended its coverage to include the general labor force.
Violations of this law attract a fine of up to 10,000 USD, and an additional fine of 1,100 USD per extra violation (Lee 78). To understand state minimum wage law, we need to understand where the federal wages law originated. It first originated in Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) that President Franklin Roosevelt signed on June 25, 1938.
During that time, the minimum wage was set at a minimum of 25 cents per hour, which is equal to around 4 dollars. At first, this law only covered 38 percent of the labor force, but it continuously grew over the years, and now covers almost 85 percent of our labor force (Lee 80). Since then, revision of wage limits has happened for approximately twenty two times.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The FLSA requires employers to follow the state minimum wage law, which is usually set higher than the federal law. The current provisions under this law in the United States of America require employers to provide a minimum of $7.25 for every hour an employee offers his/her labor. These provisions have been applicable since 2009 when the last revision of the law happened.
There are various wage categories covered under this law. Student wage category covers students below the age of 18 who work during school sessions or over the holidays (Lee 88).
Another category is the home workers wage that covers individuals paid for work done from their respective homes. Others include the general minimum wage, liquor services minimum wage, as well as hunting and fishing guides minimum wage. Since 1938, the federal government has implemented minimum wage laws through the Department of Labor. The difference between federal and state minimum wage laws is that federal law applies to all fifty states, while state law is only functional in state (Lee 96).
Some states have higher minimum wage standards than the standards of federal law; others have lower or none at all. Although minimum wages have advantages such as helping workers by setting the amount of money employers should pay them, they also have negative effects such as increasing likelihood and duration of unemployment, and discouraging part time work and school attendance among others.
Advantages of Minimum Wage Law According to economic experts, there are numerous advantages associated with availability of a provision on minimum wage in the American labor market. These benefits are universal as they cater for needs of both skilled and unskilled labor (Koshers 132). It is worth noting that minimum wage law has created an even playing ground for various job seekers who at no time feel that the remuneration received is not equal their expertise or work done.
The first benefit is that it helps families. A research done by the Economic Policy Institute in the United States of America established that close to a half of America’s working population had parental responsibilities. This meant that if there were no minimum wage laws, these workers would struggle to provide for their families because they would work for lesser wages (Koshers 139).
The second benefit of minimum wage is that it gives people unemployment incentive. This particularly applies for unskilled and unemployed workers. By possessing knowledge of the minimum wage rate, unemployed people will most likely look for jobs. They can compare the money they earn from unskilled labor to unemployment benefits in order to determine the financial incentive of working (Koshers 144).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Minimum Wage: Pros and Cons, Effects of Increase specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another benefit is that minimum wage law helps employers plan and manage their financial resources effectively. Minimum wage law makes this easier because small businesses that hire unskilled labor know the cost of paying employees before employing them. By knowing their budget requirements, they make better decisions that guarantee future financial stability. Minimum wage laws also help lessen the burden of paying taxes for employees (Koshers 150).
The federal government exempts employees on minimum wages from high taxation compared to employees on larger wage scales. Instead, most Americans on minimum wage often receive assistance from federal and state governments to supplements their little wages. This provides job security.
Disadvantages of Minimum Wage Law The minimum wage law also has disadvantages that stem from the way it influences ability of people to access job opportunities, get into those jobs, and retain them. The disadvantages also entail ability of existing and future employers to create new jobs (Rotenberg 100).
One of the disadvantages is increased levels of unemployment. The concept of supply and demand best explains this. In a highly competitive market where demand for labor is high, low wages discourage people from accepting jobs that offer low remuneration, thus causing unemployment.
The second disadvantage is that it promotes emergence and growth of black labor markets. This means that some firms can dodge the law and offer workers less that the federal minimum wage, as the supply of labor becomes too high (Rotenberg 109). The third disadvantage is that it heightens poverty levels of people on minimum wage.
If a household has one individual earning the minimum wage, there is a high likelihood that the household will forever live below the poverty line. There is always a feeling of complacency whenever people get into employment without considering their income and their daily needs (Rotenberg 116). In addition, putting limits on minimum wage that Americans can receive does not increase the income of poor Americans who have to continue dealing with the same financial responsibilities as before.
Labor Union Laws and Efficient Wages Labor union laws and minimum wage laws have contributed a lot to the current trend of structural unemployment in the United States of America. This explains the development of the concept of efficient wages (Thomas par 8). Efficient wages entail setting employee remuneration above average wage in order to strike balance between supply and demand for labor. This concept applies based on concepts of the efficiency wage theory.
First, there is increased employee productivity due to good remuneration. Secondly, there is improved employee retention rates, thus reducing cost of operation mainly brought about by regular employee recruitment and employee training (Thomas par 10). When an employer provides wages above average market levels, employees often find it hard to consider other job offers since there is no guarantee of such an attractive remuneration package.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Minimum Wage: Pros and Cons, Effects of Increase by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The third benefit involves an increase in quality and depth of skill in the workforce. One of the things that is likely to attract highly competent and skilled individuals to an organization is a solid remuneration package. This often provides a competitive edge for an organization when it comes to sourcing talent and skills in the job market (Thomas par 11).
However, it is important to note that providing employee remuneration above the equilibrium does not mean the same as increasing the minimum wage. Increasing the minimum wage always results in mixed outcomes.
When the minimum wage is increased, the income of people in employment escalates (Thomas par 3). At the same time, an increase in minimum wage is a disadvantage to people providing unskilled labor because the cost of hiring increases, thus reducing the number of individuals hired. Therefore, increasing minimum wage in the United States of America will definitely lead to increase in rate of unemployment, since the cost of hiring will increase leading to reduced demand for labor (Thomas par 3).
Conclusion Minimum wage refers to the least possible salary that employees get from their employers depending on the agreed payment structure. Employees use various payment structures that involve employees receiving remuneration depending on amount of work done per hour, day, or month. Minimum wage law is simply a decree passed to prohibit employers from paying workers less than the set amount of minimum wage.
The difference between federal and state minimum wage laws is that federal law applies to all the fifty states, while state law is only applicable to one state. Some states have higher minimum wage standards than the standards of federal law; others have lower standards or none at all. Increasing the minimum wage in the United States of America will definitely lead to increase in rate of unemployment, since the cost of hiring will increase leading to reduced demand for labor.
Works Cited Koshers, Marvin. The Effects of the Minimum Wage on Employment. New York: Cengage Learning, 2004. Print.
Lee, Kenneth. Minimum Wage Laws and Administration: The Widening Gap. New York: John Wiley
Why are poor people more likely to be obese? Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Obesity is a health condition that results from accumulation of fat in the body that has adverse effects on health of victims. It is caused by excessive intake of high-energy foods, genetic makeup of individuals, and lack of adequate physical exercise (Wolin 34). It reduces life expectancy and predisposes individuals to other health problems such as type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer (Wolin 35).
Individuals with obesity are more prone to diseases than individuals without obesity are. In olden days, obesity was associated with wealthy people. However, the situation has changed. Research suggests that poor people are more likely to be obese than rich people.
Discussion One of the reasons why poor people are more prone to obesity than rich people is because of poor diet. A major cause of obesity is excess intake of high-energy foods (Smith 44). Many parents from poor households cannot afford healthy meals for their families. For example, they buy processed foods for breakfast and dinner.
In contrast, rich people take time to prepare meals that are balanced in nutritive content. Fast foods and processed foods are usually rich in fat that is a predisposing factor to obesity (Pena and Bacalloa 51). Since fast foods are cheap and readymade, parents prefer them without considering their health implications
Poor people have little or no access to health facilities such as gyms for workouts (Pena and Bacalloa 53). Rich people can afford to subscribe to health facilities for regular workouts.
On the contrary, poor people rely on physical activities such as walking and running for exercise. However, with frequent intake of foods rich in high fat content, ordinary physical activities are not sufficient. On the other hand, parents from poor families do not play active roles in the lives of their children (Smith 47). They allow children do things on their own. As such, children eat junk foods because it is sugary and sweet. Many parents from rich families play active roles in the lives of their children.
They ensure that their children eat healthy foods, and take them to the doctor for regular medical checkups (Levine 2667). In addition, poor people do not get time for exercise because at the end of the day, they are very tired from working. Many poor people work in manual jobs that are very tiresome and that pay small wages. Their little income denies them access to farmers markets that sell healthy foods (Levine 2667).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poor people prefer high-calorie foods because they keep them satisfied for longer. This helps them tackle hard times when they cannot get food readily. A research conducted by the University of Miami found out that whenever people realize that food was scarce, they turn to high-calorie foods that keep them satisfied for longer compared to healthier low-calorie foods (Drewnowski 8).
Foods such as wheat, corn, and potatoes are cheap but unhealthy. It is easier to feed a family with fast food that costs little money than to purchase healthier foods that are more expensive. These high-calorie foods predispose people to obesity. Poor people prefer fast foods because they are cheap and can easily feed their families on small budgets (Drewnowski 10). However, their health implications are adverse and cause serious complications in the long-term.
Another reason why poor people are more prone to obesity than rich people is level of education. Many poor people are uneducated and ignorant.
Therefore, they possess little knowledge on importance of eating a balanced diet (Borland par2). They consider the cost of food first rather than its nutritive value. Poor people do not know the difference between healthy and unhealthy food. Nutritional knowledge would enable them differentiate between healthy and unhealthy foods. However, they know little about negative effects of various foods on health.
Therefore, they consume foods based on how much they cost rather than their nutritive value (Borland par3). They opt for fast foods in order to save money. There is a direct relationship between income and obesity. Poor people prefer cheap food rather than healthy food. In contrast, rich people prefer healthy food even though it is expensive. Poor people buy the cheapest foods that they can get in order to save money (Borland par6). In today’s society, the cheapest foods are junk foods that are rich in high calories.
Conclusion Poor people are more likely to be obese because the foods they can afford are unhealthy and cheap. They do not consider the nutritive value of food but its price. Junk food is the cheapest type of food sold today. In order to save money for other uses, poor people opt for junk food that has high calorie content.
Other reasons include lack of access to health training facilities, and lack of knowledge on importance of healthy eating because of low levels of education. In addition, parents from poor families do not play active roles in the lives of their children. These factors predispose poor people to obesity more than rich people.
We will write a custom Essay on Why are poor people more likely to be obese? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Borland, Sophie. The poor are moiré likely to be obese, says health minister. 23 Jan. 2013. Web. .
Drewnowski, Adam. Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79.1 (2002): 6-16. Print.
Levine, James. Poverty and Obesity in the U.S. Diabetes 6.11 (2006): 2667-2668. Print.
Pena, Manuel, and Bacalloa Jorge. Obesity and poverty: a new public health challenge. New York: Pan American Health Org, 2000. Print.
Smith, Patricia. Obesity among poor Americans: is public assistance the problem? New York: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007. Print.
Wolin, Kathleen. Obesity. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Performance Management Reflection Essay custom essay help
Remedial strategy for resolving cost mix Basically, ABC is a remedial strategy for resolving cost mix changes through the implementations steps contained in it. The ABC program can identify the main elements of costs in an organization. Reflectively, this aspect is critical in the proactive costs assessments through classification of the costs to distribute them in line with the accurate focus.
Nevertheless, the cost brackets identified and classified should be placed on the premise of categories or elements rather than by the shallow organization or product function. For instance, maintenance, fixed, and definite but slightly flexible costs are but examples of the ideal ways of cost classification in the ABC program.
On the other hand, the ABC program offers an opportunity for the easy identification of the vital cost elements that demand attention and control planning in the product cost identity mix. From this, the cost pool strategy will give room for summation of the activity rate for each identified activity through application of planned driver.
Thus, a company may use this program simulation to carry out comparative costing to accurately track and monitor the flows in costs since the ABC simulation offers the application that can facilitate activity-based costing for the purpose of timely planning and business insight within the rationale of optimal performance. Thus, the ABC simulation offers a proactive tool for tracking uncertainty, variability and interdependence of costs and activities against available resources.
Why the balanced scorecard (BSC) is a necessity in Midal Company
Reflectively, a BSC system offers the opportunity for an organization to fill the vacuum that often exists between company actions and strategies adopted. At the same time, the system engages a multi faceted user board in planning for the immediate, midterm and long term strategies.
Also, the system has application for tracking feedback against progress of each strategy and records any changes in the dynamic business environment. Thus, the BSC system can be described as a necessary tool for system evaluation of the strategies in place against future focus in order to successfully translate the strategies into deliverable variables that can be quantified. In relation to Midal Company, the proposed BSC system will fasten efficiency and optimal productivity.
Applying the BSC system at Midal
When successfully implemented, the BSC system is likely to transform the Midal’s corporate plans into quantifiable action plans that can be tracked from one period to another. Thus, the current traditional approach to strategic planning in the company will be transformed into easily identifiable specific, actionable, measurable, time bound and realistic through the BSC system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the BSC system facilitated complete transformation of the Geon Forex Capital into a very efficient company with tracking devises for measuring performance.
How BSC can be integrated in Midal Company
From the above reflection, the BSC system will facilitate scientific management of the company through effective planning and excellent execution of strategies into measurable results. The BSC system will facilitate rational decision making among the executive managers since they will be empowered to support their decisions with quantifiable and justifiable action plans in line with the main goal of quality performance and optimal service delivery.
Customer measurement is critical in planning for product design and delivery in a company. In the case of Midal Company, customer measurement will facilitate maintenance of customer preference since the company will be in a position to benchmark customer measurement results to provide up-to-date services.
Process management Process management is central in a production process. It ensures that goods or services produced are of superior quality. Also, process management helps in identification of areas for improvement. This improves customers’ satisfaction. Process management consists of three processes these are, design, control and improvement.
Provision of quality goods and services is of essence in business. The process of developing quality products is a complex interrelationship of various attributes. It entails identification of customer requirements, identification technical requirements, relating the customer requirements to the technical requirements, evaluating competing products or services, evaluating technical requirements, developing targets, and determining the technical requirements to deploy in the remainder of the production/delivery process.
This process design is comprehensive since it takes in to account all necessary functions of process management. It improves the quality of goods and services produced.
Since inputs are critical in determining the quality of output, companies use special devises for quality assurance and control. These devices detect mistakes early and enable the company to correct. Other than checking inputs, the management also uses these devices during the entire production process.
We will write a custom Essay on Performance Management Reflection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Use of these devices in the entire production process helps in the detection of human or machine error, such as forgetfulness, misunderstanding, absentmindedness, delays, malfunctions, or errors in identification. This helps in correction of the errors early.
The final stage of process design is critical. It entails evaluation of the entire process with an aim of pointing out areas for improvement. Besides, during this stage the management can compare targets with outcome and note variances. Generally, performance management is critical in quality assurance, planning and implementation of different business management models.
Performance Measurement Report essay help free
Introduction The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) model is a mechanism that is mainly used by organizations to enhance their efficiency, particularly when it comes to the issue of strategy management and achievement. Often, organizations rely on several indicators to determine whether their performances are well in track to achieve organizational objectives. Such indicators, including the financial measurements are, however, inadequate in pointing out accurately an organization’s actual position in as far as it business operations and performance are concerned.
The BSC provides an elaborate mechanism for organizations to determine several indicators, which are all used in determining strategy. This paper seeks to discuss the use and efficiency of BSCs by organizations as they pursue their strategies and objectives. In particular, the paper seeks to discuss Tesco Plc. and its application of BSC.
Tesco Plc. is the leading British retailer of food, selling more than 4000 varied food products. The retailer has further expanded its portfolio to include the sale of other non-food items, including electronics, kitchen utensils, stationery, and clothing among many other commodities.
The Tesco chain of stores is currently ranked as the third largest in the world, after global leader Walmart of the USA and French company Carrefour. Apart from operating in native Britain, Tesco also has a presence in at least 13 other countries across the globe (Datamonitor, 2011). In 2012, Tesco achieved a total group sales value of £72 billion and £3.8 billion in profits before taxation. The underlying diluted earnings per share increased by 2.1%, while the full year dividend per share stood at 14.76% (Tesco Plc, 2012).
Tesco introduced its BSC in 1998. Over the years, the BSC has been critical in enabling the firm to achieve its strategies and objectives. Each year, the firm reviews its BSC with the intention of ensuring that its organizational goals are achieved. There is strict adherence to the BSC in Tesco.
Weekly data is accumulated and stored. The scorecard in every store helps managers to also access the corporate scorecard that is presented on quarterly basis (Witcher
The role which has been played by blogs and social networking in altering our daily usage of the internet and the World Wide Web Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The development of the internet has been perhaps the best thing which has ever happened to human beings, as far as computer-based communication is concerned. Ever since its introduction in the world way back in 1965, the internet has continued to play a significant role in our lives.
The advanced use of the internet or the World Wide Web in the contemporary world has had a revolutionary impact to the people all over the world, thus helping to improve their lives in a special way. The human life in vast areas of accountability has been made easier through the possibilities of world wide communications currently offered by the internet.
As it would be observed, culture and commerce are some of the key aspects involving humans today that have been impacted largely by this modern trend of communication which continues to touch every part of our lives. On this particular note, the internet has played a major role in enhancing communication and interaction among people of different cultural backgrounds, through interactive elements like search engines and social networking sites found on the internet.
More importantly, the evolution of the internet has continued to play a key role in today’s business arena in a number of ways. In regard with this subject, this paper examines how the use of blogs and social networking has altered our daily usage of the World Wide Web and the internet.
The constant use of blogs and social networking as some of the main tools of communication offered by the internet has altered the way people use the World Wide Web. Just a couple of years ago, the internet would be seen as a platform for kids and idle adults to kill time in ways that could not be more useful.
This would include things such as sharing of pictures and rants, email communication, and computer gaming, among other engaging activities. However, today, things have completely changed, and internet has emerged as one of the many things courtesy of the computer technology which have proved to be very useful to the human life. As a matter of fact, millions of people across the world have discovered just how the internet could be used for other beneficial ways, apart from simple communication and gaming (Goh
A Travel Back in Time: Analysis of David Walker’s Appeal Essay essay help online
When taking a look back at the stages of the world history, one might be wondering how different the world would be if at certain points, people had undertaken different actions, made different decisions and considered different ideas. Sometimes, the choice between a plethora of options would have done nothing; in other cases, the solution to a specific dilemma would have waged the fate of millions of people.
Changing the outcomes is one thing, however; changing people’s mindset is another. Taking the famous refusal to accept David Walker’s Appeal will be a perfect way to illustrate the aforementioned idea. One might argue that David Walker’s famous brainchild, Appeal, and its further rejection by the Founding Fathers at the time of composing the declaration of Independence predetermined the further course of the USA development, with its horrible history of slavery and the further racial discrimination, particularly against Black people.
However, assuming that David Walker’s Appeal would have changed people’s minds entirely would be rather naïve. Despite the fact that by 1829, the citizens of the United States have accepted the ideas of equal chances, rights and freedoms, it would have been wrong consider that the U.S. citizens were ready to accept the concept of rights and freedoms for everyone.
Abolitionist ideas have not yet sunk deep enough with the common people, and it was thirty-six years until the Civil War, which could possibly mean only that the then dominant USA population would have not considered David Walker’s Appeal as a possible idea. Therefore, in terms of the relationships between the white and the Black population of the USA, the Appeal would have solved nothing.
Moreover, further conflicts between the Americans and the African Americans would have been spawned, which means that the Civil War might have been somewhat crueler and it would have taken more than four years to win the battle. Overall, even if Walker’s Appeal had been considered in the Senate, it would have made the conflict between the two cultures even longer and more complicated. Some of the changes might have been speeded up a bit, yet the majority of the historic events would have remained in their places.
However, with all these issues in mind, Walker’s argument cannot be considered as radical; despite its tone and premises, i.e., the dissatisfaction with the policy towards the African American people, Walker’s work is written as a suggestion instead of a demand or a call for action, which means that Walker’s Appeal cannot be considered as a thrust in a direction towards the derogation of the white people.
Walker must be credited for a very strong opinion on the policy that the American government was implementing. He did not hesitate to express his concern with the lack of humanity and to critique the very concept of slavery, as well as the policies that supported it. Some might argue that Walker’s appeal never had any Black Nationalism implications in it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, it would be rather unexpected in the era when the African American population was oppressed that a person of an African American origin, even a man of education and intelligence of Walker’s, would have decided to promote the ideas that would have diminished the role of the dominating part of the population.
According to the existing researches, the fact that Walker suggested the ideas of equality in the era when slavery was a widely accepted phenomenon can hardly be posed as a supportive argument – in fact, abolitionists have done their job by 1820ies, and a number of the African American people had learned about the basic abolitionist principles by that time.
Considering some of the passages from Walker’s famous work will help define the parts that have been interpreted as the start of the “Black Nationalism.” Among the most daring statements, the following must be quoted:
I have been for years troubling the pages of historians, to find out what our fathers have done to the white Christians of America, to merit such condign punishment as they have inflicted on them, and do continue to inflict on us their children. But I must aver, that my researches have hitherto been to no effect.
It is important to stress that in the given sentence, two basic ideas can be traced. On the one hand, walker makes it clear that there is no basic difference between an American and an African America.
Walker does so by stating that the Black people might have deserved such cruel treatment and such unbelievable injustice by only committing a terrible crime to the entire race of the American people. Otherwise, walker implies, such an attitude is completely pointless and unexplainable. Thus, Walker draws parallels between the Black people and the white people, claiming that they are on the same level, and that slavery can only be explained – but not justified – by a terrible mistake that one could have done in the past.
Rather understandable plea for justice, the given statement seems innocent enough; however, when considered closer, it supposedly could be viewed as a reason to start an eye-for-an-eye battle between the oppressed and the dominating ones; since the African people are equal to the American ones, it would only be fair that the latter should pay for the years of humiliation and abuse.
We will write a custom Essay on A Travel Back in Time: Analysis of David Walker’s Appeal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Still, viewing the given passage in the light of Black Nationalism does not seem possible. Walker’s question can be considered demanding, persistent, solution seeking, even demanding for a change, yet it does not have a single tangible element of stating the need to establish a specific nation and represent a specific culture.
Another element from Walker’s work might be considered a manifestation of the Black Nationalism relates to his attitude towards the white people. This is the point at which his statement stops being a typical peace-seeking statement and where the demand for establishing the status quo stems from.
owever, this can also be viewed as the point that spawned the most turmoil and caused even greater conflict between the Black and the white population. For example, such passage as “The whites have always been an unjust, jealous, unmerciful, avaricious and blood-thirsty set of beings, always seeking after power and authority” shows clearly that the author did not have a very favorable opinion of most of the USA white population.
Clearly, the given opinion was voiced by a person who knew the white people from their worst side and, therefore, had the right to pass such harsh and stern judgment. However, the given judgment did not serve the purpose that the given document had, i.e., providing the African American people with the rights and freedoms that they deserved. Indeed, the ways in which Walker describes the white population of the USA, as well as the white race in general, starting from the Romans, as slaveholders for their selfish reasons.
Even though at some point Walker states that in no way did he want to insult the representatives of the European origin and was only attempting to provide freedom to the entire nation: “Let no one say that I assert this because I am prejudiced on the side of my colour, and against the whites or Europeans”, the given specifics of the paper does make the statement weaker.
Nevertheless, it would be absurd to consider the ideas of the man who appealed to “humanity, kindness and the fear of the Lord” in his major work as the ones that promoted radical actions.
In the light of what slaveholders did to their so-called “living goods,” the principles of equal rights that Walker heralded could be regarded as the most peaceful response possible: “Why, I thought the Americans proclaimed to the world that they are a happy, enlightened, humane and Christian people, all the inhabitants of the country enjoy equal Rights!! America is the Asylum for the oppressed of all nations!!!”
To give Walker credit, though, his work did accelerate the process of recognizing the rights of the Black people and freeing them from the burden of slavery that they had been carrying for so long. Nevertheless, as it has been stressed above, the tone and the overall straight-forwardness of the paper made it hardly applicable in the late 1820ies settings.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Travel Back in Time: Analysis of David Walker’s Appeal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Walker’s statement could not have been considered radical simply because he preferred reasoning with the people oppressing his kind instead of straight calling the Black people to take revenge on the oppressors.
Therefore, it can be assumed that Walker’s paper was more than appropriate response to the anti-abolitionists. Sadly, the complicated XIX century relationships between the African Americans and the rest of the American population would not have been saved with a single document, even with such glorious and meaningful as Walker’s Appeal.
While its contribution into the history of the United States cannot possibly be doubted, the issue concerning the adequate treatment of the African American people, as well as the ideas concerning freedom, equality and fraternity, do not change rapidly. It takes time and great patience to convince someone that a nation must not be judged on the merits of the looks of its representatives, religious beliefs, political system, etc.
While the goal that Walker pursued by promoting his Appeal as the guiding principle of the new policies towards Black people, it must be admitted that he chose the wrong time and the wrong tone. While the fact that the Appeal would have caused a surge of Black Nationalism is rather doubtful, it is still clear that, once adopted, the given law would have triggered numerous protests from the owners of slaves, the supporters of slavery and all the people who were not ready for the changes in their attitude towards the Black population.
It is clear that the results would not have changed either way; in the latter case, it may be assumed that the 1861 bloodbath would have been lengthier and bloodier, yet slavery would have finally been dealt with, while equality principles would have had to wait for another century. That being said, it can be assumed that Walker was ahead of his time; he had written his Appeal for a different era and for the people of different and more tolerant mindset.
Reference List Robinson, Dean E. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2001.
Walker, David. David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University. 2002.
Footnotes Dean E. Robinson, Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 11.
David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 16.
David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 20.
David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 28.
David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 28.
David Walker, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 82.
Smoking: Problems and Solutions Report online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Case Study: Canada
Introduction The tobacco industry is worth billions of dollars in annual profits made from the sale of cigarettes. This industry promotes the smoking of cigarettes by millions of individuals in countries all over the world. While most people enjoy smoking, this habit has many harmful effects that outweigh any perceived merits. Tobacco smoking is the number one cause of preventable deaths in most nations across the globe. The United Press International (2010) reports that, “more than 440,000 U.S. residents die annually from cigarette smoking” (p.1).
Smoking not only affects the smoker but also the people around him who are forced to inhale the polluted air. The CDC (2013) reveals that secondhand smokers incur adverse health conditions and even death because of the exposure. In addition to the negative health consequences associated with tobacco use, smoking leads to loss in productivity by an individual costing the economy billions of dollars annually.
The CDC (2002) further notes that smoking leads to a loss of money for citizens as they use thousands of dollars each year to sustain their habit. Considering the significant negative impact that smoking has on the society, measures should be taken to address the problem. Policies should be implemented to ensure that people are dissuaded from smoking.
If measures are not taken, the deaths and disease burden of smoking-related illness will continue to be prevalent in the society. Even more troubling, more young people will take up this damaging habit. The financial cost of smoking will also continue to be felt by the society.
Solutions To solve the problem, I would impose laws that restrict adults from smoking in the presence of children. Specifically, parents would be prevented from smoking at home when their children are present. A report by Wang and Phil (2011) reveals that children who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home are likely to engage in smoking themselves in future. Making smoking in the presence of children illegal would therefore have the desirable effect of preventing most children from taking up smoking in the future.
The community should engage in preventative programs to reduce smoking prevalence. Smoking remains to be a major problem due to the significant percentage of new smokers each year. Such programs would especially be effective to the youth who are thinking of picking up smoking.
Lovato (2012) states that “teenagers are likely to start smoking due to peer influence while at school” (p.363). With effective preventative programs targeted at such groups, the number of new smokers will remain low ensuring that the problem of smoking is mitigated. The National Cancer Institute (2013) suggests that greater investments should be made in efforts to assist individuals to quit smoking. A large percentage of smokers attempt to quit the habit at some point.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reid et al. (2012) reveal that most of the smokers who are successful in their quitting attempts get some form of assistance from health care providers and community workers. To fund these solutions, the government can increase the taxation on tobacco companies. Such an action will not only provide the necessary finances but also increase the price of cigarettes therefore reducing consumption due to high prices.
Case Study: Canada One developed nation where the impacts of smoking are felt is Canada. CBPP (2013) reports that in Canada, 16.7% of the population smoke with the daily smokers, who consume an average of 13 cigarette sticks a day, being 13.1%. The highest percentage of smokers were found among the young adults aged between 20 and 24.
The Lung Association (2013) documents that approximately 37,000 Canadians die from smoking related conditions annually making tobacco a major killer in the country. In addition to this, the disease increases the risk for various forms of cancer, leukemia, and coronary problems. The CDC (2002) asserts that smoking “produces substantial health-related economic costs to society” (p.1).
In recognition of the problems that tobacco causes in the country, The Canadian government has taken steps to reduce smoking in the country. Reid et al. (2012) note that the government has engaged in aggressive campaigns to promote awareness of the adverse effects of smoking. CBC News (2010) reveals that the government has “forced cigarette manufacturers to carry picture-based warnings” (p.1).
These efforts have led to a marked decline in revenues for the industry as sales in the country have dropped. In spite of this drop, reports by CBC News (2010) indicate that “nearly one-fifth of Canadians call themselves smokers” (p.1). This indicates that the smoking problem is far from solved in the country. Better solutions will have to be implemented to ensure that the problem of smoking is mitigated and eventually eradicated from the society.
References CBC News. (2010). Statistical look at cigarettes and Canadian smokers. Web.
CBPP. (2013). Tobacco Control. Web.
We will write a custom Report on Smoking: Problems and Solutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More CDC (2002). Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs – United States, 1995-1999. Web.
CDC (2013). Tobacco: Fast Facts. Web.
Lovato, C. (2012). School and Community Predictors of Smoking: A Longitudinal Study of Canadian High Schools. American Journal of Public Health, 103(2), 362-368.
National Cancer Institute (2013). Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit. Web.
Reid J. L., Hammond, D., Burkhalter, R.,
Immigration bias on Hispanics in North Carolina Essay essay help: essay help
Immigration bias against the Hispanics has been witnessed in the State of North Carolina based on implementation of Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). Section 287 (g)’s implementation in North Carolina has been controversial since it has infringed on the rights and freedoms of the minority Hispanics in the State. Section 287(g) allows the Immigration and Customs Enforcement to create accords with state and regional police agencies in the process of enactment of immigration laws.
State officials have been conducting random traffic stops and searches in the guise of napping or targeting the Hispanic community. The implementation of the INA act and in particular section 287(g) in regard to memorandums signed between the State agencies and INA has been criticised. These MOA’s have given powers to state agencies who in turn have been conducting immigration searches in a discriminate manner.
Moreover, state officials in the State have undertaken the implementation of these MOA’s with lack of transparency and in defiance of the law. Hispanics have complained of prejudiced abuses and lack of protection from the police. In one instance, a Hispanic mother of four US citizens was detained under the INA act due to her racial status. Although, the law gives powers to state officials to undertake immigration searches, it only applies to undocumented immigrants.
The ICE usually focuses on immigrants charged with heinous acts but in the state of North Carolina, law enforcement agencies use section 287 (g) to target suspected illegal immigrants charged with small offences. For instance, in 2008 around 84% of immigrants had been detained and charged with minor traffic offences in Gaston County. This clearly proves that state officials in North Carolina are not implementing section 287(g) as envisaged in the act.
Since, section 287(g) is misused as an immigration artillery and instrument for bullying and segregation of foreigners of Hispanic extract. The actions of the state officials contribute to discrimination and racial profiling of the minority Hispanic group in the society. As a result, the Hispanic community have encountered a profound sense of discrimination which has breed mistrust and scepticism towards State and regional institutions.
Most of the Hispanic people believe that State officials are looking for justifications under the INA act to repatriate them. As a result, the co-operation of the minority groups in State activities is greatly diminished due to mistrust. According to section 287 (g), state officials are only allowed to screen for immigrants once they are in custody over other offences.
Therefore, the actions of the officials in North Carolina are breaches against the law and thus these officials have to rectify their actions. The US constitution has provisions that allow for community participation in making of law and thus the MOA’s signed between States and the ICE should include community input. Community based groups should be involved in the process of drafting the MOA’s under section 287 (g) so as to cater for welfare of all interest groups on immigration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Making use of the input of the community in the process of enactment of laws will assist greatly in ensuring a balanced view on any issue is achieved. Moreover, the community will feel co-operative since its input has been considered in the process of making decisions that impact directly on the lives of community members. State officials in North Carolina should respect the US and State constitution while at the same time involving the community in the process of implementing section 287(g) of the INA act.
Under what situations might outsourcing of EC services not be desirable? Research Paper college essay help
Everyone wants to outsource some works to third parties. It is necessary when business owners want to focus on their high-level jobs. However, there are certain situations under which outsourcing may not be desirable. Reasons may vary from one organization to another (Turban and King 549).
No firm would want to outsource EC business when the cost of outsourcing is too high. In most cases, businesses outsource some jobs in order to cut costs related to permanent staff and training of IT staff. However, under rare situations, the cost of outsourcing could be expensive, especially for startups.
Core business competencies
Firms should not outsource their core business competencies. This is where the competitive advantage of a company is. Firms use such competitive advantages to achieve their strategic objectives and missions. Thus, any attempt to delegate or transfer such jobs to a third party could compromise the main reason for business existence.
Dynamic business functions
There are business functions, which are highly dynamic and difficult to predict in terms of risk factors. For instance, customer service has become unpredictable as customers have become demanding and dynamic. Thus, such services should remain in-house because the service provider may lack the capacity to meet such challenging and dynamic roles.
Changes in management
Outsourcing should not take place during shifts among top executives. The incumbent team is the best for facilitating implementation of the process because it understands the company’s core business and the need for outsourcing.
Outsourcing is an undertaking that requires dedicated resources like time, finance, planning, and implementation with supportive leadership. Thus, firms should put on hold all outsourcing plan when there are changes in management team, until the new executive articulates business mission and the need for outsourcing.
Some firms undertake major restructuring. This might not be the best time to outsource services. Usually, when the economy is weak, some organizations may embark on internal restructuring as a way of cutting costs, reducing hierarchies, eliminating unprofitable units, consolidating, transferring staff, and refinancing operations among other initiatives. On the other hand, firms may start new operations in a strong economy without negative impacts on the business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When firms undertake such restructuring programs, they should avoid any outsourcing without adequate orientation. Under such situations, any attempt to outsource services could result in high risk by distracting employees, executives and introducing complications in the system. Thus, any outsourcing plan should be under the management plan of senior executives so that they can have adequate concentration, stable operations, and adequate time to allow them to achieve the desired results from outsourcing.
Firms should not outsource knowledge-based functions. This is an intellectual capital, which should stay in-house. A knowledge-based economy depends on a competitive advantage. Thus, any organization must be able to control its internal business secrets and develop new concepts out of experience and skills.
Core functions that do not require any form of risks
Some risks may hamper the delivery of core functions to a firm. This is risky in situations where foreign firms provide outsourcing services. For instance, countries with political risks may undermine attempts to deliver services and payment. Thus, the firm must have special ways of mitigating and managing risks. Although such risks could be manageable, they may consume time and other resources.
Works Cited Turban, Efraim and David King. Electronic Commerce 2012: Managerial and Social Networks Perspectives. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print.
The Role of Communication in the Relationships Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The way people communicate is extremely important, especially in a marriage, as individuals can get lost in the routine and daily responsibilities. An article “Can we talk? Researcher talks about the role of communication in happy marriages” examines the issue of what happens to couples and how to avoid the distancing that takes over the relationship.
One of the most problematic areas for married couples is the content of their conversation. It must be centered on their individuality and personal problems. People must look deeper, past the surface of the daily duties that involve children, family matters and work.
They must disclose personal information and this will lead to proper communication and understanding. It is very possible to relate to the article and advice given because in the modern world, people often get preoccupied with the fast pace that is required by their work, responsibilities and necessities of life (Sole, 2011).
From a personal point of view, there have been several times when a situation did not get resolved due to a simple misunderstanding. For example, a choice of restaurant was offered and a person who offered the type of restaurant did not really see the difference between many kinds of places.
Their partner did not want to offend their choice and so, had to go with the offered location. Once there, the setting was not very well established and the couple had a mediocre experience. Once they got home, it turned into a minor argument where one was displeased with the place and was asking for the reasons of such a poor selection.
The person who offered that specific restaurant did not really care for the setting and so, this situation could have been avoided if both expressed their attitude towards the location. If the person displeased with the setting had honestly admitted about their dislike, a different selection of the restaurant could have been made.
This shows how important it is to express personal feelings. Even if there is a possibility that a person might get slightly offended, it is better to try to do it in the most kind and respectful way, as to explain own reasons and state why they do not prefer a certain choice. This would help avoid a much greater conflict and argument. Self disclosure is very important in a relationship because it allows people to express their inner emotions and likes, which will help people to get to know each other better.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also, it will aid individuals to adjust to the interests and be able to predict what can and cannot be done in a certain situation. The similarities between genders are very obvious. Both men and women appreciate affection and honesty. Attention that is paid to details goes a long way and helps find a common ground. Both males and females have specific taste preferences for food and favorite drinks.
The amount of common likes and dislikes is enormous but most of all, both genders need and look for love and understanding from their partner. Generalizations in relation to communication are common for all. People should involve themselves in conversations more, as well as personal sharing (Schoenberg, 2011).
The human ability to transfer understanding and ideas to others is extremely important, especially in marriage and any other relationship. People should engage each other to share and relate to common interests and themes.
References Schoenberg, N. (2011). Can we talk? Researcher talks about the role of communication in happy marriages. Washington, United States: McClatchy – Tribune News Service.
Sole, K. (2011).Making connections: Understanding interpersonal communication. San Diego, United States: Bridgepoint Education, Inc
Global Health Priorities Definition Essay essay help online
Every year the World Health Organization (WHO) collects health information from all member states. The health information is used to formulate both short term and long term goals.
This information is then shared with all stakeholders. Based on this information, priority areas are selected and appropriate interventions formulated. Health priorities vary from region to region but there are some that are generally considered to be universal. This paper will discuss the global health priorities. It begins with a brief overview of the health related millennium development goals (MDG).
The WHO has traditionally formulated global health priorities using the millennium development goals. The millennium development goals related to health include MDG 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 (WHO, 2013). MDG 1 is concerned with childhood malnutrition especially reduction of underweight while MDG 4 focuses on child health and immunization. MDG 5 is concerned with maternal and reproductive health. The health aspects covered in MDG 6 include malaria, tropical diseases, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS.
The seventh millennium development goal covers water and sanitation. Global health priorities emerge from the MDGs. Some health concerns are confined to some regions but due to huge socioeconomic burden they exert on communities, they qualify to be regarded as global health concerns. Other health priorities include universal health coverage and access to essential medicines in all countries, healthcare for people living with disabilities, and prevention and control of non communicable diseases.
Reduction of childhood health problems is a universal priority. The emphasis is on childhood malnutrition and immunization. Other childhood diseases are also covered. Immunization is among the most effective ways of reducing childhood diseases and mortality (WHO, 2013). WHO has setup a global vaccine action plan to ensure worldwide access to immunization services.
The aim of the program is to ensure that vaccines are availed to both privileged and underprivileged communities at the same time. Child underweight is associated with maternal underweight. An underweight mother is likely to give birth to an underweight infant. Therefore, WHO advocates for weight and nutritional monitoring during the antenatal period. Diligent management of other childhood conditions and illnesses like diarrhoea is necessary for future national development.
Maternal mortality remains one of the greatest concerns of the WHO and member states. This is captured in MDG 6 which envisages improved maternal health and reduction of maternal mortality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve this, WHO requires mothers to attend antenatal clinic at least four times. It further advises that mothers should deliver in the presence of skilled birth attendants. Maternal health has a great effect on the health of an infant. Reproductive health services also contribute to improved quality of life. The World Health Organization has asked governments and other agencies concerned with maternal health to provide essential equipment and drugs to support maternal and child health.
Water and sanitation is a huge health concern. At the moment, over 1.1 billion people in the world cannot access clean water (WHO, 2013). This poses a great danger to the affected communities. There are several diseases that are associated with poor sanitation and dirty water. It is the hope of the World Health Organization that all communities will access safe water and sanitation services in the near future.
Malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are among the leading causes of preventable deaths. HIV/AIDS is a manageable disease yet it still causes huge socioeconomic burdens to communities and individuals (Chipeta, Schouten, Aberle-Grasse, 2004). The WHO has prioritized programs geared towards prevention and control of these diseases.
References Chipeta, J., Schouten, E., Aberle-Grasse, J. (2004). HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors. Retrieved from .
World Health Organization. (2013). The World health statistics 2013. Web.
Prison Term Policy Recommendation Proposal essay help free
Abstract The aim of this paper is to give legislators recommendation for the new bill that seeks to increase the term by double for criminals sentenced for armed robbery. Despite the state legislature argument that the bill is popular the prime question should be will the bill act as a deterrent to armed robberies? It is hard to conclude on the right recommendation in a society that believes on the adage that ‘’do the crime, do the time’’.
The effectiveness of the bill if it passes into law is hard to define if it will deter crime to offenders and potential offenders. Robbery is a crime of stealing by use of threats or force. It is also referred to as larceny. Where the offender uses a weapon inflicting injury on the victim the offender is charged as armed robbery or aggravated robbery (Schmalleger, 2012).
Armed robbery is rampant in the United States hence becoming a major concern for the society, legislature, and criminal justice system. Armed robbery is punished as a capital offense; however, sentencing is depended on several variables such as state laws and procedures, past crime record, if state has diversion program or even if there are any sentencing improvements.
This bill should seek to address crime reduction is the United States and not just a bill to deter crime. The bill will get to root cause of crime and project where crime is headed today in the United States of America. Research might bring secondary solutions that might help curb the situation and have outcomes that are more successful (Schmalleger, 2012).
In many states, the out practice has discouraged habitual crime but in others, it has had no effect. For instance, in Lincoln, Nebraska there are several inmates with more than five hundred arrests. In other states, habitual criminals spend years in prison only to get out and commit yet another crime ending up in prison again.
Although there is no warranty that this bill once passed into law will deter crime however, there are recommendations that once implemented can be of use to both society and criminals.
A strict code of conduct should be set for the convicted and those who follow and demonstrate ability to live by it once but there can be released. These procedures include behaviour modification, vocation training and education, counseling, work experience, proper nutrition and exercise. These procedures will ensure that convicts are rehabilitated rather than being incarcerated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rehabilitation methods to be proposed in this bill include behaviour modification, training, education and vocation, work experience and proper nutrition and exercise. In some places where rehabilitation has been implemented it had failed due to lack of cogent method of implementation.
Presently, many prisoners just eat, watch TV, lift weights, and do little work. Many spent their time in the cold cells. The question that remains in many people’s minds what is the fete of those who will eventually be released. What is the recidivism rate of the prisoners if convicted? This bill should address these major goals (Schmalleger, 2012).
To many citizens and members of the state legislature, the bill should pass the clean bill of health. In the society, robbery criminals should perish in prison cells without light of the day. However, the prime goal of every judicial system and prison system is to correct and rehabilitate the convicts into good citizens so that once they are out they can serve their country patriotically. The theory and adage that do crime more time is retrogressive and time barred.
The disparity in judicial sentencing in the judicial system. This disparity is variations and equities resulting when convicted of same crime are given different sentences whether in the same State or in a different state (Schmalleger, 2012).
This disparity is unfair. There should be equal sentence for same crime. The judicial system should thus create a scorecard that is to be used when delivering sentences. This score should cut across all states and all judges. In this respect, I would wish the bill to accommodate the recommendation that all crimes receive same punishment.
Probation is allows an offender to get another chance. It can be given in addition to the normal jail term. It allows an offender to join his community with supervision from his/her probation officer. The probation officer sets the terms such as classes, curfews, and monitoring.
This is a well thought out recommendation, as it is not every offender is a repeat offender (Schmalleger, 2012). We cannot lay a blanket judgement that all are capable of doing a repeat offense that is what this bill seeks to achieve. Where a first time offender gets double maximum prison term by just committing their first crime, this will seem like the system doesn’t want them o prove themselves. This is not a good point on part of the offender.
We will write a custom Proposal on Prison Term Policy Recommendation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parole is a recommendation where an offender sentenced to jail has the ability to get another chance of redeeming himself. It involves amnesty to those who have displayed good habits and frequently reports to the authority (Schmalleger, 2012).This recommendation will help in cutting down tax payers money spend on offenders besides giving offenders room for reformation and correction to patriotic citizens. In this regard, the bill should not pass the clean bill of health on the floor of the house.
Reference Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminology today: An integrative introduction. (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Biological Criminal Behaviour Essay best essay help: best essay help
Over the years, crime rate has been on the rise. The increase in crime rate has resulted in criminal behaviours becoming one of the world’s biggest challenges. Most governments have invested heavily in measures to combat crime, but at times, the investments resulted in no effect or have had little effect.
The failed efforts have prompted research about the root causes of criminal behaviours in hominids. The outcomes of the analytic studies have attributed criminal actions to genetics, psychology, and environmental factors.A child brought up in an environment with high crime cases may have his or her morals corrupted. Children living in a drug-infested zone tend to engage in drugs-related criminal actions because of peer influence (Alper, 1995).
The biological composition of an individual is also one of the major determinants of a person’s behaviour. In some families, the insanity has been identified to be hereditary and the genes causing insanity transfer along a family line. Some people also tend to be naturally antisocial so their intended thoughts or actions may be camouflaged. This poses a serious threat as they at times end up committing a crime without an indication (Alper, 1995).
In various cases, insanity has been used as a defence against criminal actions. This has also led to the intervention of psychiatrists, to determine the mental condition of criminals. In various federal states, the law postulates the mental status of a criminal or offender to be a cogitated factor in determining criminal responsibility. An example of such a law is the Anglo–American law, which avers that a lunatic cannot be held legally responsible for a crime committed while in an unstable mental state (Huckabee, 2000).
Initially, the insane plea laws had been lenient as the defendant just required to prove beyond doubt that at the time of the crime, he or she remained insane. Over time, the various standards and laws set to determine the sanity of an individual have been determined to have a loophole that has enabled criminals to go unpunished. This has cost many families their loved ones besides even the United States of America losing key leaders (Huckabee, 2000).
In a case study about the death of President Reagan, Hicnkley was acquitted of the shooting. This led to condemnation from the public, prompting a revision of the insanity plea edict to avoid criminals from avoiding punishment. The revisions of the law helped reduce criminal impunity.
Furthermore, the revision catered for the rights of those who killed unwillingly or because of insanity. A psychological disorder affecting John may have prompted him to shoot Reagan and the other officials. John later claimed to have done it as a way of expressing affection for Foster (Huckabee, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States of America government in combating these crimes introduced laws where one could be declared guilty but mentally ill thus have to receive mental treatment through institutionalisation. After institutionalisation, offenders are taken to a facility that helps them correct behaviour.
On the other hand, if a person is acquitted of insanity, he or she has to be released once it has been determined that he is of no harm to the public. Though factors like the environment and a person’s upbringing contributes to criminality, biological composition stands also as a key factor contributing to criminality. Individuals with genes that predispose them to crime should be treated through ways that discourage the replication of bad genes.
References Alper, J. S. (1995). Biological influences on criminal behaviour: How good is the evidence? British Medical Journal, 310(6975), 272-273.
Huckabee, H. M. (2000). Mental disability issues in the criminal justice system. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas Publishers Ltd.
The Ways of Greenhouse Gases Reducing Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
List of References
Introduction Global warming is a global problem that has raised a lot of concern. This issue has attracted attention of many researchers with the aim of finding ways of address it. The environment is vital for human survival. Both plants and animals entirely depend on the environment for growth and development.
Casper (2010, p. 94) argues that since the days of industrial revolution, the environment and its resources have greatly been threatened. Industries have been reported to affect the environment at a very high rate. This is because of the high levels of greenhouse gases emitted from these industries. This situation is worsened by the fact that now many nations are developing and there is a rising level of industrialization.
The concentration of greenhouse gases in the environment is increasing on daily basis. Carbon sinks have been cleared with the increase of the high demanding population across nations. Epstein (1990, p. 121) points out that effects of global warming are evident and felt with serious damages to nations. For example, many nations are suffering from frequent floods, droughts, tornadoes, poor and unequal rainfall patterns, and many other effects resulting from global warming.
Among the developed nations, the United States and China lead in emission of the greenhouse gases and hence frequently suffer from the effect of the same. The developing countries are equally emitting high levels of greenhouse gases in their quest to develop. These emissions however produced from different nations have a global impact.
According to Ramseur and Yacobucci (2008, p. 112), the environment as said earlier is very useful for sustaining human life. For people to continue enjoying the environmental resources the environment should therefore be conserved and its resources harvested sustainably. This paper seeks to explore the ways in which greenhouse gases can be reduced to curb global warming.
Discussion With an effort to address global warming, many suggestions and ways have been raised to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gases and avoid global warming are not a one man’s or one nation’s duty. There is need for nations to collaborate.
A participatory approach where every member of the society is involved can be very effective. Many ways can be employed to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. The governments should enact and implement policies that are geared towards reducing emissions of the greenhouse gases. These policies should strictly encourage a Zero emission of greenhouse gases. If an industry has to emit either of the greenhouse gases, a fixed level of emission that is harmless to the environment should be stated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The government should ensure that such industries, companies, and businesses report publicly on their carbon emissions. This will make the companies to be extra careful not to emit or exceed the required emission levels. Low- carbon technologies should be encouraged in all sectors to reduce greenhouse gases emission.
This may be achieved by the government offering some donations to its citizens to install low-carbon technologies like use of solar energy. A nation may also apply principles like the polluter pay principle where a company or an individual pays a certain fee for polluting the environment. Industries may be forced to pay equally to the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the environment.
This will help in making the companies and the public to be more responsible and careful in handling their emissions and other wastes. According to Casper (2010, p. 78), Carbon sinks such as forests have been cleared for agricultural purposes to provide for the needs of the daily increasing population.
Nations should create awareness to the public on the need to have small families. The importance of forests should as well be explained to communities. By so doing, these communities will consequently conserve the forests.
This will highly contribute in reducing the concentration levels for greenhouse gases. There is need for nations to encourage companies and people within the communities to practice recycling and re-use of items. Things like polythene bags may be recycled. This reduces the accumulation of such polythene bags into the environment thereby reducing the amount of emissions when they are burnt as wastes in the environment.
According to Ramseur and Yacobucci (2008, p. 78), there are many other ways although not put into consideration by many nations that can help in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases effectively.
These may include holding energy management awards, rewarding companies with zero or less emission, promoting carbon-trading, rewarding communities with well-conserved forests among others. These factors motivates companies and communities to work hard towards ensuring that they do not ,engage in ,activities that in any way leads to the emission of greenhouse gases. All these factors when applied results to a greenhouse gases free nation, thereby curbing global warming and its impacts.
We will write a custom Essay on The Ways of Greenhouse Gases Reducing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The discussion above clearly points out that environment is a source of livelihood for many lives. Reducing greenhouse gases is very important in ensuring that this environment is protected in order to ensure its sustainability. The greenhouse gases have serious negative consequences to the environment. The impact is long lasting and devastating. If not addressed properly, this issue may create a permanent negative impact on the environment.
List of References Casper, J 2010, Greenhouse gases: Worldwide Impacts, Facts on File, New York.
Epstein, J 1990, Controlling the greenhouse effect: Five global regimes compared, Brookings Institution, Washington.
Analysis of Article: “Where is Culture in Cross Cultural Research?” Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Title of the article: Fischer, R. (2009). Where is culture in cross cultural research? An outline of a multilevel research process for measuring culture as a shared meaning system. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9(1), 25-49.
Summary of the article The article entails a comprehensive analysis on how firms’ management teams can measure culture in order to be effective in their cross cultural management practices. The author has achieved this by incorporating various multilevel approaches ( Fischer, 2009). The author has also outlined the various meaning of the word culture.
One of the dimensions that the author has focused on relates to the shared value system. Moreover, the author has outlined a research framework that HR managers can use in the process of measuring and assessing various cross cultural variables. The author has emphasized on the importance of considering culture as a collective construct.
In an effort to illustrate how culture can be measured, the author has integrated two main models which include the equivalence and organizational research models. Additionally, the author has emphasized on the importance HR managers undertaking a comprehensive analysis of culture both at an individual and national level. The author has highlighted the importance of cross cultural differences in enhancing organizational success.
For example, the article has illustrated how culture impacts the behavior and attitude of employees. Barak (2011) asserts that failure to manage cultural differences can hinder organizational sharing which is paramount in firms’ effort to attain the desired level of synergy (Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf
Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Self-defense abortion is a highly controversial moral issue that is open to different interpretations and definitions. It is unacceptable to Christians and pro-life activists. However, liberals and groups such as politicians and medical practitioners have different interpretations. Acceptance of self-defense abortion can be based on the doctrine of utilitarianism (Boonin 35).
Utilitarianism holds that individuals should make decisions that have beneficial outcomes and that do not promote suffering and pain (Shaw 64). As such, self-defense abortion is acceptable because it promotes the wellbeing of a mother who decides to abort. In addition, it protects the mother from danger and avoids exposing the unborn baby to future pain and suffering.
The practice has been debated for a long time among medical practitioners, religious leaders, law experts, and human rights activists. However, they have not reached a consensus. Self-defense abortion is moral and permissible because it protects mothers from risks of physical and non-physical harm.
Background information Self-defense abortion is performed when conception occurs due to rape or incest, when the health of a mother is in danger, or when a mother is not willing to deliver the baby because of possible emotional or traumatic experiences she might possibly experience after delivery (Boonin 37). According to the utilitarian doctrine, there is no absolute right or wrong. The moral value of an action or act is solely determined by the outcome (Shaw 68).
A proponent of utilitarianism would first consider the question whether abortion would result in favourable outcomes or not. According to the doctrine, abortion is right in case a mother’s life is in danger, the mother is unable to take care of the baby financially or if the baby is malformed (Shaw 71). In addition, it is acceptable in case a baby’s birth would endanger either the physical or the mental well-being of the mother. Abortion is also permissible if birth of a baby would cause conflict among family members.
Non-physical harm Abortion is moral and permissible if a fetus exposes the mother to risk of non-physical harm. Several situations validate acceptance of abortion as a necessary method of preserving the well-being of a mother. These include potential damage to the mother’s mental health, financial prospects, career, or family plans (Davis 177).
If birth of a child interferes with these aspects of a mother’s life, then abortion is permissible. Under these situations, self-defense abortion ignores arguments presented by religious leaders and biologists that a fetus has a right to live because even though small, it is a human being (Davis 178). It is unethical to allow a fetus to develop if a mother’s mental health is in danger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mother’s health is priority and if birth of the child would affect her health or life quality, then abortion is permissible. Two utilitarian philosophers, Bentham and Stuart Mill, taught that by following the utilitarian doctrine, individuals should yearn for creation or increment of happiness (Shaw 78). Bentham provided a definition of happiness as presence of pleasure and absence of pain.
Emotional, psychological, and mental disturbances are common outcomes of pregnancies from rape or incest. Abortion is permissible in case of rape or incest because a woman would be unable to live with guilt and shame of raising an incestuous child or a child from a rape ordeal (Davis 183).
If a woman was forced to have a child against her will, then she has a right to abort. On the other hand, the woman may not want the child or may not have financial ability to care for the child. Therefore, the baby would suffer because it would lack motherly love and care. Instead of exposing the child to a harsh life without love and care, it is better to abort it.
Physical harm Abortion is also permissible if a fetus puts the mother in physical danger. For example, ectopic pregnancies put the mother’s life in danger of death if the fetus is not removed (Huffman 287). Ectopic pregnancy occurs when conception takes place in other places such as the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
Medical practitioners usually recommend chemical abortions to women who experience ectopic pregnancies. Research has found out that those women who experience ectopic pregnancies usually die because of health complications that develop during development of the fetus (Huffman 288). Utilitarianism denies the argument that abortion is evil. Instead, it maintains that if an outcome is pleasurable or brings greater good, then it is justified (Shaw 76).
Utilitarianism holds that the end justifies the means. According to utilitarianism, a woman may abort under any circumstance or for any reason given that the outcome of the abortion brings happiness or promotes a greater good (Huffman 291). If self-defense abortion brings happiness to a woman, then a utilitarian would consider it justified and acceptable.
Objections Opponents argue that despite the life of a mother being in danger of physical or non-physical harm, self-defense abortion is immoral, unethical, and impermissible. Even though it aims to protect the mother, it kills the unborn baby. Opponents present several arguments to validate the immoral nature of abortion.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First, they argue that a fetus is a human being that has a right to live (McDonagh 49). Therefore, killing a fetus to alleviate a mother’s future suffering contradicts values of compassion and respect for human life. Rape and incest are not good enough reasons to allow abortion.
In addition, abortion is associated with stigmatization that makes life difficult for mothers (McDonagh 50). It exposes women to risk of developing emotional and psychological complications because of discrimination in the society. In many societies, women who abort are considered evil and outcasts. It is difficult for such women to live with guilt of killing in communities where they are discriminated and segregated.
To avoid such consequences, self-defense abortion should not be allowed because it has severe consequences on mothers. However, consequences of allowing birth of an unwanted baby are more severe. Research has shown that women who abort willingly do not develop emotional or psychological disturbances later in life. In addition, unwanted children go through a lot of suffering and hardship because their mothers abandon them later in life (McDonagh 54).
Second, they argue that abortion has severe health consequences on involved women. It causes irreparable damages to the mother. Research has revealed that abortion can affect a woman’s ability to give birth after an abortion. Examples of long-term effects of abortion include miscarriages, stillbirths, low birth-weight babies, and infertility (McDonagh 57).
On the other hand, procedures carried out during abortion expose mothers to several health complications that risk their lives and well-being. These include tearing of the cervix, fever and peritonitis, uterus perforation, thrombosis, and risk of infection during blood transfusion (McDonagh 59).
Other risks include increased possibility of tubal pregnancy and death from hemorrhage. These complications have been reported in cases where unqualified individuals conducted abortion. Abortions that are conducted by certified and experienced practitioners are safe and few cases of complications have been reported. Opponent’s arguments are not strong enough to explain why a mother should be exposed to harm by failing to conduct an abortion.
Conclusion Abortion is a contemporary moral issue that is unacceptable in many societies. Self-defense abortion takes place in cases where birth of a child puts the life of the mother at risk of either physical or non-physical danger. In addition, it is acceptable in some societies on basis that a woman has a right to chose what is best for her. The utilitarianism doctrine holds that individuals should perform acts whose consequences result in beneficial outcomes.
From that definition, self-defense abortion is allowed if it results in gratifying outcomes that avoid painful consequences. It is permissible and ethical to save a mother from physical harm such as death, and non-physical harm such as mental, emotional, or psychological disturbances. Self-defense abortion saves many women from physical, emotional, and psychological suffering. Opponents argue that abortion is unacceptable and immoral.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Self-Defense Abortion Permissible? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They argue that self-defense abortion is murder and a fetus has a right to life. In addition, they argue that it exposes women to health complications such as sterility and miscarriages in future pregnancies. However, they ignore the fact that consequences of allowing birth of an unwanted baby are more severe than aborting it. Therefore, self-defense abortion is acceptable and permissible.
Works Cited Boonin, David. A defense of Abortion. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
Davis, Nancy. Abortion and Self-defense. Philosophy and Public Affairs 13.3 (2002): 175-207. Print.
Huffman, Tom. Abortion, Moral Responsibility, and Self-Defense. Public Affairs Quarterly 7.4 (2003): 287-302. Print.
McDonagh, Eileen. Breaking the Abortion Deadlock: From Choice to Consent. London: Oxford University press, 2004. Print.
Shaw, William. Contemporary Ethics: Taking Account of Utilitarianism. New York: John Wiley
The Great Depression: A Diary Essay essay help
The Great Depression: A Diary is James Ledbetter’s and Daniel Roth’s edited version of Benjamin Roth’s personal diary that he wrote during the financial crisis of the 1930s. Being a lawyer with a wife and three kids, Roth experienced the major financial crisis of his life. Until today, historians have not wrapped their mind on matters that relate to the depression of 1930-1940, and why the crisis took that long.
As a lawyer, Roth documented the confessions from his clients and that of his friends to his journal for 10 years. According to these confessions, it is evident that everyone in all lines of businesses was struggling to earn a living (Ledbetter and Daniel 88). With the prices of everything going down, bank savings getting frozen, tenants being unable to pay rent, and just everyone struggling to survive, it is obvious that the economists of the 1930s had messed up some things along the way.
Having taken so long to retain the economic status of Ohio, it was Roth’s conclusion that neither the government nor the economists were any good. He had stopped believing in anything the government said; all he heard were depressing concerns from his clients, friends, and people around him. All businesses were getting worse; people had given up on the government in reviving the economic condition, and some people lost everything in their quest to look for safer forms of investment.
Given that his job depended on the financial stability of others, Roth was caught up in a crisis that would only be solved by venturing into other investments. Just like many people, he had ideas on how to invest safely, but had no money to do so. Though there are various theories mentioned that explains the cause of the crisis, Roth clearly insists on concerns about the war that was approaching as the major interruption that affected the intervention of the government in reviving the economy, and the stock market (Ledbetter and Daniel 201).
The book is an episode that entails the events that uncovered during the most fascinating era of the American history. For this, the book fails to entertain the readers as all the happenings documented are depressing. However, this was not the intention of Benjamin Roth as he only wrote this in his journal as a reminder of how hard times were, but it was his son Daniel who took it upon himself to published the diary as a book.
The book covers very little on the normal lifestyle of the people in Youngstown before the crisis; all that it documents are the hardships that describe Ohio as a hopeless place to live. With the current form of leadership, there are great lessons to be learnt from these events that took place decades ago. Having struggled for years to bring prosperity back, Roth understands how government policies and politics affect the future.
Having lived through this crisis, the book offers sincere and factual causes of the great depression, the hardships, and prices people had to pay to survive. The book is recommended for everyone as it documents events that took place in the 1930s that might be handy in getting ready for such crisis. It is an eye opener to those that are facing the current financial crisis as it holds a historic value that helps in avoiding the repetition of the mistakes that were made decades ago.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Ledbetter, James, and Daniel Roth. The Great Depression: A Diary. 1st ed. 2009. New York: Perseus Books Group. Print.
A Discussion on Bureaucracy essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
In recent years, it is clear that the focus of many management scholars and managers have been to depict the concept of bureaucracy as unacceptable in modern-day environment.
Most notably, it is argued that bureaucracy is inflexible, reduces organizational efficiency, and is therefore completely unsuited to today’s rapidly shifting world (Grey 2013). The general trend, therefore, has been to replace bureaucracy with flexible organizations that are viewed as more suitable for our increasingly fast-changing business environment. The present paper purposes to assess this view, with the objective of demonstrating that bureaucracy is still relevant in modern-day environment.
One of the reasons proposed for adopting modern paradigms of management (post-bureaucracies) is that they stimulate creativity and innovation by allowing people to act on the basis of shared values than rules (Grey 2013).
While such a predisposition has borne fruits for companies such as Google and Yahoo, it cannot escape mention that lack of rigid rules in organizations was substantially to blame for financial crisis that rocked the world in 2008-2009, and also for the subsequent downfall of big corporations such as the Lehman Brothers, Enron and the Bank of Scotland.
A critical analysis demonstrates that non-hierarchical, personally focused and trust-based organizations reminiscent of post-bureaucracies played a substantial role in triggering the banking bubble that led to the financial crisis.
Another reason progressed by pundits of the post-bureaucracy paradigm is that the bureaucratic approach is dehumanizing and degrading to employees. In attempting to supplant bureaucracy, these pundits argue modern-day flexible organizations should always ensure that responsibilities are assigned on the basis of competence for tasks rather than hierarchy, and that employees should be treated fairly as individuals rather than impersonally (Grey 2013).
However, previous research done on companies such as Nippon CTV (utilizes new forms of management such as lean production, just-in-time approach etc) and ValleyCo (uses traditional practices) found substantial similarity between ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ forms of working in things such as employee treatment and participation, task assignment and hierarchy (Grey 2013). This evidence demonstrates that bureaucracy is still implemented in modern-day organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moving on, advocates of modern-day flexible firms argue that “post-bureaucracy does away with the turgid old nonsense about impersonality, yearly promotions and fixed salary scales in favor of individual treatment where reward is based on merit” (Grey 2013, p. 84). These are noble virtues for any organization, but implementing them boils down to the fact some rules must first be put in place to determine, for instance, how employees will be rewarded and which measure will be used.
Consequently, it is evident that bureaucracy must be present for flexible firms to be able to operate efficiently and effectively. If these so called flexible organizations fail to adopt bureaucracy to implement practices, they will certainly dysfunction as fairness, consistency and transparency will not be achieved (Grey 2013).
The last reason deals with change management. While it is evident that bureaucratic organizations have been overly accused of resisting change efforts, it should not escape mention that the so called flexible organizations equally resist change.
Indeed, there has been a misconceived perception that post-bureaucracies respond quickly to change and therefore are more efficient by virtue of being faster than bureaucracies. Another misconception is that change is a new concept and therefore modern organizations need to be flexible enough to deal with the fast-changing environment (Grey 2013).
However, the truth is that change has been there since time immemorial and organizations using the ‘old’ approaches encountered shifts in the environment in as much as modern-day organizations are encountering. To drive this point home, research demonstrates that over 70% of change efforts implemented by the so called flexible organizations result in failure (Grey 2013).
In conclusion, therefore, it can be said that bureaucracies are still relevant in modern-day environment and the solution for the increasingly fast-changing environment cannot be found in the adoption of flexible organizations. Rather, managers must adopt the technical efficiency provided by bureaucracy and then attempt to align their firms with factors both internal and external of the organization’s environment.
Reference Grey, C 2013, A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying organizations, 3rd edn, Sage, London
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How war is depicted in films of different generations Essay best college essay help
There is a sharp contrast in the manner in which war is portrayed when comparing old generation and new generation movies. These differences are attributed to changes in technology and the tactics employed to tackle war. The general perception of war has also contributed to this contrast, taking an example of the movies; “Top Gun” a war movie produced in 1960s and released in 1986, and “Taxi to the Dark Side” produced in 2003 and released in 2007, to illustrate these differences.
In the 1960s, war was depicted as a measure of sovereign might and power. In the “Top Gun”, Maverick, a naval aviator lieutenant, develops a reckless flying habit because he is angered by his father’s death during the Vietnam War (Top Gun 1965). He does this to prove he might and even differs from fellow military men. He also engages in combat with every person who differs with his personal opinion.
Although, Maverick is considered the finest fighter pilot in the world, he finally leaves the Navy and goes on to fight its top command. This causes a great rift between him and the Navy. Nevertheless, he is sought after later since he is the only person with the expertise to rescue a stricken communication ship. This justifies his course of war, and the indispensable powerful personality. This portrayal can be as a result of just having come from the World War II, where the most powerful nation was the one with the best military prowess (Taxi to the Dark Side 2007).
On the contrast, new generation war movies portray war as a justified action taken to protect its citizens or help fight a social vice as portrayed in “Taxi to the Dark Side”. An innocent taxi driver is tortured to death by the United States military personnel in their quest to extract valuable information about terrorists who had attacked the states. Although innocent, the military personnel take no heed to the driver’s cry of innocence. This depicts the extent to which the military is committed in rooting out terrorism.
They are determined to employ even the dirtiest tactic including assault and torture of detainees. These movies focus on the root cause of war unlike the earlier show of military supremacy, this change can be attributed to the establishment of human rights and civilian organizations which were not there in 1960s. The two generations are both against unwarranted wars between states which may expose innocent civilians to inhuman conditions and only advocate for war when there is a genuine threat to be eradicated (Top Gun).
A clear similarity between the two generations in the production of the war movies is that, in both cases, war is employed as the last resort of dispute resolution. In the earlier case, lieutenant Maverick only resorted to war when there was no amicable resolution to the disagreement between him and the Navy led by Lieutenant Tom “Iceman” Kasansky (Top Gun).
In the second case, the United States military resolves to war as the only available option to fight terrorists believed to be hiding in Afghanistan. The innocent taxi driver is tortured to death because he fails to cooperate with the military. In the two periods, war is also associated with the elite in society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The civil populations in both cases are innocently affected by the war as in the case of Charlie and the beautiful lady in Top Gun, who pass on when Maverick and Kasansky engage in battle and the innocent taxi driver who is tortured to death in The Taxi to the Dark Side (Taxi to the Dark Side).
Works Cited Taxi to the Dark Side. Dir. Alex Gibney. Perf. Alex Gibney, Brian Keith and Allen Moazzam. New York: THINKFILM, 2007. Film.
Top Gun. Dir. Tony Scott. Perf. Tom Cruise, Kelly McGillis, Val Kilmer, Antony Edwards and Tom Skerrritt. California: Paramount Pictures, 1965. Film.