Billboards Research Paper A Level English Language Essay Help

Billboards also commonly referred as hoardings are large structures used for outdoor advertising/ marketing (Katz 12). In most cases, billboards are found on streets and busy roads especially highways (Illegal Tender). Billboards are placed in high points where they can be easily viewed by passing pedestrians or drivers.

To attract people, billboards are designed in large sizes and contain creative messages, which are very unique or distinctive (Katz 12). In most major cities, it is common to spot billboards due to high population. This paper will discuss usage, effective, and application of billboards in different sectors.

Discussion History of billboards. Billboards date as early as 18th century. Early billboards were made of large posters, which were placed on top of tall buildings to catch people’s attention (Katz 12). However during that time, billboards contained limited commercial value and were not very popular.

With industrialization and improvement of infrastructures especially roads and railways, billboards become more popular in the business fields.

The first ever billboard was invented in the year 1794 (Meth 25). In the 19th century, billboards went internationally and a number of companies started using them. Today, billboards have become accepted internationally and have undergone a lot of changes. In 2010, the first ever-scented billboard was produced in the US (Katz 23).

Types of billboards. There are many types of billboards to fit different needs and situations. Bulleting or painted board is one of the most common forms of billboards; it is small and is mostly located in highways, busy streets, and on sides of buildings (Meth 67).

Posters are other types of billboards that are commonly of medium sizes. Mostly posters are located in “primary and secondary roadways” (Meth 54). Due to their unique feature, posters are used to target a specific region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third type of billboard is Wallscapes, which are very large and commonly used for outdoor advertising (Meth 54). They are large to enhance visibility since they are located in large cities or metropolitan areas. Most companies prefer them because of their size and effectiveness in outside marketing. Digital billboard is another type of billboard (Katz 72). Digital ones are large in size and are very flexible.

Due to their flexibility, digital billboards are mostly used for media advertisement (Illegal Tender). Others include multi-purpose billboards, which are used for multiple functions apart from advertisement. This form of billboards is integrated with other things. The most common is street lighting poles, which also incorporate billboards hence serving more than one function..

Billboards and usage. Billboards are mostly used for advertisement purposes (Lu Hsu and Roxy 68). This is because they are very effective in providing information to pedestrians and drivers on streets and highways.

However, for a billboard to be effective in advertisement, it should be big enough and visible from a distance of about 50 meters. Otherwise, if it does not meet these requirements, it cannot be effective in advertisement and neither can it be classified as a billboard.

In early days, before inventions of vehicles, billboards were used to inform or warn people travelling by horse or walking by foot (Lu Hsu and Roxy 68). Such billboards were used to describe, explain, or list different services.

Today, with the emergence of technology and globalization, the need to do advertisement has increased substantially and many businesses rely on marketing, which is a success ingredient especially in this era of globalization.

Different billboards attend different needs and serve diverse function depending on their location. Most billboards located on highways advertise hotels, restaurants, and shops located miles ahead. This helps in informing drivers and other travelers about different services they can find on their way to different destinations.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Billboards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the billboards on the highway may carry a message such as Highway Restaurant and Bar, just 100 meters away. They also play a vital role in providing directions to vital services such gas station and so on. In addition, billboards located on the highway are also used for beautification purposes (Lu Hsu and Roxy 71).

Other billboards found on stations target travelers who are waiting for trains or buses. These types of billboards help in “maintaining a safe, vibrant, and neat environment” (Lu Hsu and Roxy 69).

There are also other kinds of billboards that are used as big name advertisers. Such billboards are found in densely populated regions especially in urban areas. Mostly, they advertise crucial and “big” services such as banks, phones, computers, cars, movies and other essential services.

Some billboards are used to advertise tobacco and alcohol among other drinks. Such billboards are not common, as many governments have banned alcohol and tobacco advertisement as a way of curbing excess use of drugs. In the US, tobacco can be advertised on billboards but not in the media (Wallace 185).

There is also another category meant for education. Billboards in this category target learners and parents in the education sector. Such billboards are found on school buses, near schools, on school gates, and even inside school compounds.

Such billboards promote school logos, encourage learners, and advertise college/universities (Wallace 187). Example in this group include At St. John’s School, we meet your needs, Education is the key to success, Strive and you will get the best, We lead, others follow and many others.

Lastly, billboards are used to inform and educate citizens. There are many non-commercial advertisements done by governments and non-profit organizations (Toxel, Inc). Some billboards are placed on highways, streets, and densely populated areas to educate and inform the public about different topics.

Billboards in this category carry educative messages such as Drive slowly and you will get there, HIV Aids is real, Do not Drink and Drive, and others (Meth 27). This category of billboards are meant to inform and educate the public. Others in this category include religious messages such as God wants you to come to his kingdom: Take a stand today.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Billboards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Environmental and road safety concern. Environmental experts have argued that billboards lead to destruction and clearing of trees causing a major environmental concern (Wallace 187). Because of this concern, many people have campaigned for eradication of billboards especially on highways. On the other hand, there is also the road safety concern.

Many people argue that billboards distract drivers and cause accidents (Wallace 189). Traffic researchers did an extensive research and studied the relationship between accidents and billboards however, findings revealed that billboards are not significant distracters on the road (Wallace 190). Because of these concerns, different governments have come up with policies and rules regarding billboards usage.

Effectiveness and advantages of using billboards. Billboards are still the most effective means of advertisement today (Lu Hsu and Roxy 72). Despite of emergence of media advertisements, billboards still have a great impact in the business and marketing.

Effectiveness of billboards in advertisement varies with the type of billboard. Billboards are more reliable since they are cost effective (Lu Hsu and Roxy 68). Bulletin billboards are painted to fit the weather and are most effective in certain conditions.

One of biggest advantage associated with use of billboards is that they are able to catch attention of the target clients or consumers (Katz 45). Secondly, billboards offer cheap means of advertisement compared to other forms of advertisement and it is therefore cost effective (Katz 55).

Depending on location, public notices can be able to reach many audiences. Billboards placed on highways and streets are very effective since they target and reach many people. Lastly, billboard marketing helps potential clients to get where your business is located (Katz 48).

Conclusion In conclusion, billboards have existed for more than two centuries and are still becoming more popular with each passing day due to their effectiveness in carrying out advertisement. Apart from advertisement, billboards are very useful in highways and streets beautification, lighting, and educating the public about diverse topics.

There are varieties of billboards designed to meet different marketing needs for everyone depending on the type of advertisement. The most common billboards include bulleting, digital, Wallscapes, and posters (Toxel, Inc).

For a billboard to be effective, it has to be big in size and creative enough to catch the attention of target client. Due to globalization, business has become a very competitive industry but with billboards, companies have a solution at hand. This is because billboards are most convenient and offer solution to your advertisement needs.

Works Cited Illegal Tender. Franc Reyes. Perf. John Singloon, Dwingle Williams, Prescol Kololes. Universal Pictures, 2011. DVD.

Katz, Hellen. The Media Handbook: A Complete Guide to Advertising Media Selection. Oxford: Taylor

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World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Roles of WTO and their success

Reasons for success of WTO

Developed vs. developing countries

The Cancun Agreement

Conclusion

References

Introduction World trade organization can be analyzed from two perspectives. First of all, it is considered as a way of negotiating the trade dispute or as a way of opening trade. Governments, the participants of the world trade organization, use this avenue to settle trading disputes between member countries using the rules that were established among them and signed to all of them.

The organization was established after negotiations had been held and agreement had been signed. Thus, all actions taken by an organization are guided by the rules provided in the agreement and negotiations among the major countries.

Its current operations are largely guided by the agreements of the 1986-1984 in Uruguay and the other rules that guided General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) which the WTO replaced. WTO is the product of the new agreements inaugurated in the year 2001 through the “Doha Development Agenda”.

The WTO negotiations helped countries that faced trade barriers to operate in open market environments. At times, the rules also support trade barriers to block out non member countries, as well as protect consumers. This helps control the spread of unethical rules and procedures.

The success of the organization is a result of the agreement signed by over 27 countries trading together. The organization ensures free trade among the operating countries through regulation of the international trade and it has succeeded in meeting its objectives as it will be described in this paper (Haerens 2010).

Before WTO was introduced, GATT had been operating between 1947 and 1986, the period within which it made several achievements. Its last achievement in 1974 was a successful agreement regarding international trade in textiles, it rebranded the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) and it came into operation. It was formed to control the growth of exports in textile and clothing strictly at 6% per year.

Several negotiations took place in 1977 and 1982 with an extension in 1986 and 1991 and lastly in 1992 which led to the sister organization the WTO. In 1986, World Trade Organization was brought into inception during the Uruguay Launch in the city of Punta del Este. The final law which established the WTO was signed by the member countries in April 1994 to round up the outcomes of the Uruguay round.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On January 1st , it entered into full operation, after successfully operating for 4 years a new round was signed in Seattle but failed in the ministerial meeting. As a result, a new round of talks was scheduled for Doha, Qatar branded the Doha Development Agenda.

Each of the results of the meetings resulted into rules and procedures geared to support international trade. It was agreed and signed that there was a minimum which each country could inject into the world trade. Developing countries are set for quotas given their 2/3 share in the quota. The contracts signed bind member countries to adhere and keep the policies agreed upon and follow them to the limits prescribed.

The main objective to be achieved by the rule regulations and contracts is creation of an enabling environment for countries producing both, goods and services, as well as importers and exporters so that they are able to do business successfully. The rules also guide on ethical practices which are geared towards helping the said countries to meet their environmentally, as well as socially acceptable aims and goals (Haerens 2010).

Roles of WTO and their success the WTO has enormously succeeded in bulk of the roles accorded to it. The organization has since developed a framework and structures to support its work through formed treaties. WTO has combining roles and responsibilities one of which is to be an overseer of a signed treaty that is over thirty thousand pages.

The other treaties that it is to look at and safeguard, is that involving agreement with regards to safety of goods and services to both the producer and consumer countries respectively.

The strength and effectiveness of the WTO was seen at the start but has since recorded a decline in strength and how viable it is especially after the failure of the ministerial conference which happened in Seattle. Trade dispute settlement is a key identity of the WTO through it is a well established dispute settlement procedures.

The organization officers have great pride in the manner in which they are always up to the task of settling any dispute that entangles their members, through this the WTO had a very big impact on the world trade systems and alongside the diplomacy between countries resulting into trade propelled.

We will write a custom Report on World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The treaties efficacy is dully supported by international laws hence efficiency. The treaties are also highly supported since they support free trade flow and free trade flow is responsible for massive economic development and growth mostly realized with developing countries (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

Reasons for success of WTO The reasons that have ensured that success is achieved are by ensuring that individuals, firm and organizations and member countries are aware of the trade rules and regulations. The stakeholders must also be assured of the stability and how long lasting the laws is likely to be so that their confidence is worn.

The rules must advocate for transparency and accountability not forgetting that they should be predictable so that they enhance the planning of the member countries (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

The underlying base of the dispute settlement process of the WTO is the normal agreement on the basis of a strong legal framework which ensures that conflicting interests are always laid to rest and the interpretation of agreements, whenever there is some form of misunderstanding among the member countries.

Through its strong dispute settling framework, WTO has been a success in solving trade disputes since its inception; this has acted as its strong pillar. Members have witnessed and agreed that this dispute settling pillar has been beneficial to most of the members if not all, since it has facilitated members in solving their trade wrangles at fast speed in a fair and just manner and at a highly predictable way.

The achievement of the organization in achieving settlements of international disputes due to its automatic nature of action has enhanced world security, peace, stability and certainty of its international trade regulations.

While it is true that there is never success without challenges, it is of no doubt that the ads override the disadvantages in the procedure of conducting and resolving international trade disputes, the appellate body has also contributed significantly to ensuring that members get clarification on vague issues as indicated by the contract documents (Qureshi 2006).

Developed vs. developing countries It is true that policies of the WTO are shaped majorly by the developed countries due to the vast challenges that the developing countries face. The ever growing problem that is that of economic disparity between the developed and developing countries. WTO deals with facilitation for condition of trade and investment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on World Trade Organization: Regulations and Contracts between Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The challenge that is faced by the WTO is how to integrate the developing country given their specific concerns about the organization. The developing countries cannot be neglected given that their quota in the organization is allocated 2/3 of the membership classification.

This is despite the fact that they actively attend the meetings and listen to the speakers, while they do not comment on anything. In this manner, they constitute a part of the decisions arrived, without contributing anything to the resolutions.

This may be favorable or unfavorable. The silence may be because they may not be feeling that the decisions arrived affect them directly, they may as well not understand the content of discussion hence fear being irrelevant.

They may also be afraid of providing opposing decisions since opposing a major developed country may act as a slap on their face, politically or economically. The strategy may also be relevant in the case where a country does not participate thinking that another stronger country will speak for them.

Far from the mentioned above, the slow development of trade of developing countries, as compared to those of developed is a major issue with the WTO. This is because their power is political due to their voting power in the block is of immense importance to economic development.

Trade liberalization that is majorly influenced by the developing nations through their votiong facilitates the development of the promotion of increased trade and investment (Macrory, Appleton, Plummer 2005).

The General Agreement for Trade in Services (GATS) as a binding contract is used to enhance and support business of services which are never well developed in developing countries. This agreement is to enable developing countries to have the capability of exporting services and also form partnerships with the foreign service firms so that they are able to share in their technology.

When it comes to dispute resolution, developed countries are the major participants led by the US and the EU, but recently the developing countries have been witnessed to participate in equal measure. It has been evidenced that developing countries have shown success in dispute resolution systems not only developed country members but to extremely larger trading nations (WTO analytical index 2003).

The Cancun Agreement The agreement was established prominently to help in addressing long term environmental set backs, especially climatic change. The policies are set to help in cutting down the emission of green house gases. Its fundamental objective was to help save developing nations from vast effects of the gases.

The agreements were to help reduce production of green house gases through enhanced participation of all countries. It advocated for transparency and timeliness in the way the actions were taken among many other agreements (Krolll 2007).

Conclusion The agreement have lead to a success in the forms that it has ensured that the world countries are able to come together to agree in a way to reduce green house effect, it has come at a time when the developing countries needed help to deal with climate change, hence the agreement provided it with the relevant package for the same. It has also resulted into the pieces of agreement being done within the required schedule.

The world trade organization has since played a fundamental role in shaping how countries relate depending on whether they are developed, developing or less developed. This body has facilitated the spread of resources in almost an equal measure to create a balance. The formulated ideas are thus very essential for the development of the world orders.

References Haerens, M. (2010). The World Trade Organization. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/gale, Cengage Learning.

Krolll, D. (2007). Toward multilateral competition law?: after Cancun: reevaluating the case for additional international competition rules under special consideration of the WTO agreement. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Macrory, P. F., Appleton, A. E.,

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Global labor migration and host countries Report (Assessment) essay help

According to estimates provided by the united nation, the number of international migrants has increased from about 82 million to over 190 million from 1970 to 2005. During the same period global export’s volumes underwent a major expansion while the foreign direct investment, which is determined using the U.S dollar, received more than 100% growth in the 1970 level to 2000.

Over the last decades, international migration has greatly attracted a lot of attention although there has been slow rate of expansion on how people move internationally (Borjas, 1989).

Various attempts have been made in barricading borders and this has shown that the borders may not be dominant limiting factors in reducing international immigration expansion. Controlling irregular immigration has become a very hard task to handle, both locally and internationally.

Each year many people worldwide leave their home countries with prospects of getting new jobs. Some are not looking for jobs but better working conditions and in some instances, they are propelled by insecurity and poverty to look for any work. Migration in search of labor is a major globalization feature and it creates a very big impact to the world economy (Boyd, 1989).

In 2005, it was estimated that migrant workers every year send to their home countries about US$250 billion or US$160 billion with informal remittance in order to cater for their family’s and community’s needs. Such money also helps in boosting the economic prosperity and growth of the host countries.

Currently a global consensus has been reached on how labor migration contributes to development and growth of both destination and home countries. However, barriers have been put in place to check movement between labor market demands and possible immigrations for foreign labor in the host nations.

The global labor migration policies that fail to meet the needs of human rights can put a lot of pressure on individual immigrants as well as their societies (Ethier, 1986). Studies done have revealed that 10-15% of current migrations involve immigrants at irregular situations who enter or work in other countries without the necessary authorization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such cases, individual who opt to use irregular immigration expose themselves to very high degrees of abuse of their human rights, forced labor and exploitation. Hence, the today’s global challenge lies in formulating mechanisms and policies of managing and regulating labor migration and ensuring that it creates a positive development in the host and home countries as well as the migrant’s wellbeing.

In situations where migrants find themselves in risky conditions, I LO comes in to protect them and improve their working conditions (Friedberg, 1995).

The body has been in operation since 1919.ILO is entrusted with the mandate of controlling the entire workers world as well as structuring rules that cover their competencies. In addition, it plays a central and crucial role in promoting effective use of policies that minimize risks and maximize benefits in work-based migration.

There is need to develop and extend the already undertaken research on migration of skilled international laborers as global international cities keep on attracting big flows of corporate power and capital. The research should be undertaken within the context the globe verses the cities, more particularly on banking and international nance.

Cities such as New York, London and Tokyo have increased their Streng in holding the banking industry and global nance, they have discovered the importance of being global market players by attracting skilled workers (Mahroum, 2000).

The global cities command and control the global economy, which is based up their success. In particular, they control spatial organizations in new international divisions and transnational corporations strategies. Urban hierarchy is becoming central to control and accumulation of capital since corporate power and decision-making have rapidly been increasing in the global cities’ headquarters.

Within the banking industry in particular, the skilled international migration workers have greatly helped the city of London in maintaining its local labor market. The migrants have helped the city in going global by creating parallels to its major functions as a major capital corporate.

We will write a custom Assessment on Global labor migration and host countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The city has also become a social center of nancial service in the corporate global networks with a very big worker’s through flow from different country where issues can be marketed, deals made, syndicates established and deals made.

There has been an increase in skilled international workers as a result of globalization in nancial capital. This effect has been felt within investment banking using three main interlocking mechanisms; exchange expansion, emergence of international nancial system and producer service internationalization.

Skilled international migrations play a very critical role in processes of global labor market in the nancial service industry in which corporate transactions, face-to-face communication, “dealing, and wheeling” perform great roles. In securities industries and investment, banking the labor process requires individuals who are knowledge specific and highly skilled.

In Britain for instance, labor market entry is regulated tightly by banks recruiting from Cambridge and oxford universities (Mahroum, 2000). The banks have also placed specific qualification with are accompanies by trainings in the course of the job. “Deskilling” process is therefore not a feature of the global labor market.

Specific personal skills in managerial and processional work in securities and investment banking cannot be easily replaced by use of subcontracting arrangement, automation or through indigenous labor assimilation.

Therefore, international labor migration of skilled workers is mainly focused between global cities’ nancial communities, which in most instances cut across internal labor markets, securities houses and transnational banks.

In terms of wealth creation and earnings, relatively higher incomes, bonus schemes and performance based pay have greatly encouraged managerial workers and international professionals to look for opportunities within the global cities especially within the corporate headquarters (Jonathan, 1996). Such a case was witnessed in 1980s booming in which big influx of migrants entered the city of London.

This caused salaries over-inflation beyond the average expected earnings. The media has helped in constructing a powerful image of wealthy pickings of London nacial or Manhattan through exposure of the yuppie culture, sexy and fast lifestyles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global labor migration and host countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More London’s magnetism as a living space and and working destination cannot be underestimated in constructing of the uneven skilled individuals distribution within nancial industry’s economy worldwide. Corporate professional want to work in global cities as they consume and accumulate wealth.

One can argue that; migration of skilled international laborers can be termed as a disproportionate process in formation of the global city since its characteristics and magnitude dependent highly upon a person’s functional city and control capabilities in the urban hierarchy.

In addition, in the course of the relationship existing between the global city and migration, headquarters functional control and principal earnings greatly determine global labor movement concentration.

In order for an individual to conceptualize deeply on the relationship that lies between skilled international labor migration and the global cities two studies done in London city on global investment banking were analyzed. The city’s postal questionnaire of security houses foreign banks and a detailed survey interview of foreign and British investment banks was also analyzed.

In this review through the various provided examples on international labor migration, it been stated that migration plays a fundamental role in global city control and functional capability in the world economy.

In addition, other cities such as Singapore, New York, Tokyo and Hong Kong have disproportionately improved the capabilities to control international labor within the nance (Jonathan,1996). Suggestions have been made that; the magnitude, nature and the characteristics of the skilled international migration will only work at different levels in urban hierarchy.

There are number of impacts felt on the receiving countries. The effects on migrants arrival on the host nation’s economy is highly influenced by different circumstances (Friedberg, 1995).Sometime there can be flexibility in salaries and wages like in the U.S and this acts as a form of evidence in justifying that increases in supply could cause decreases in wages even among individuals with quality education (Either, 1986).

Among the European nations where wages vary with flexibility, there are higher degrees of unemployed individuals. In both cases, the problems caused by the underlying issues clearly prove to have relatively small magnitude.

By analyzing migrant’s degree of production and chances of securing employment from a broader perspective, one can note that migrants chances of getting greatly rely on the demands of an employer. Different countries have decided to make us of a adoption point scheme, a tool that is useful in identifying acceptable immigrants who can work in such countries (Durand, 1996).

The tool is currently being used in; Canada and Australia and greatly helps in increasing matching likelihood (Boyd, 1989). However, employers can closely match their demands by requesting migrants for previous working experiences.

Therefore one state that; many migrants’ chances of securing employment are highly dependent on the employer’s personal demands. If such a case occurs, employees are given strict penalties as one of the ways of reducing undocumented immigration.

Migration leads to so many mixed initial challenges upon any given host country, but in most scenarios, the general resultant effects upon the natives incomes seem meager. Over a long period, other factors may start showing their impacts (Borjas, 1989). Host country’s production activities mix in some occasions could start changing in order to accommodate new arrivals’ the framework.

Secondly, there can be disturbances caused by migration on the fiscal balance within the host state. Whether immigrants are part of the effects depends on a number of factors such as tax collection, their employability, their eligibility and need for state support.

If migration is not managed in a sober manner, it very unlikely that it could act as a relieve source. Lastly, immigration can greatly affect the migrants in a negative way through acceleration of technical changes in the society.

There are various approaches, which can be used in improving and expanding the temporary migration schemes without putting into consideration of whether they are broader or bilateral. One of such approaches is by ensuring that there is improved immigrants outcome and reduced return to home countries rate (Massey, 1993).

Reference list Borjas, G.J.,1989. Economic theory and international migration. International Migration Review 23(5),p.457-485.

Boyd, M.Y.,1989. Family and personal networks in international migration: recent developments and new agendas. International migration review, 43(4),p.638 670.

Durand, J.K.,1996. International migration and development in Mexican communities. Demography,33(2),p 249-264.

Ethier, W.J.,1986. Illegal immigration: The host-country problem. The American economic review,76(1),p56-71.

Friedberg, R.M.,1995. The impact of immigrants on host country wages, employment and growth. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2),p.23-44.

Jonathan, V., 1996 International labor migration, investment banking and the city of London, 33(8),1378-1392.

Mahroum, S.K.,2000. Highly skilled globetrotters: mapping the international migration of human capital. R

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Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals Argumentative Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Free enterprise is an economic system that provides individuals the opportunity to make their own economic decisions, free of government constraints, and as private profit potential businesses. It equates to a capitalist system of economy which is completely different from a socialist or communist system.

It is, however, important to note that a free enterprise system is not simply the absence of government. It is therefore wrong for any one to simply assume that a free enterprise system automatically comes into existence when government interference is removed. There is a heavy dependency on the law to determine what should be traded (JTF, 2008).

The system allows for the privilege of individual ownership of property and the means of production. The key ingredient of the free enterprise system is the right of individuals to make their own choices in the purchase of goods, the selling of their products and their labor, and their participation in business structure (Lewis, 2001).

The system is based on a number of principles that include the right to private ownership of property, the rule of law, free prices, and competition among others.

A free enterprise system operates in a democratic environment and allows private citizens to freely go into business, produce whatever they choose to produce, and distribute whatever they produce.

Some government restrictions may, however, exist to make sure that the marketplace is orderly and causes no harm to the public. It is through government controls that smaller companies are protected from any form of exploitation by the giant companies.

This paper looks at how a free enterprise system affects the moral and economic development of individuals in a society. The above principles of a free enterprise system and their effects will be examined.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Features of a Free Enterprise System and Effect on Individuals and Development By and large, free enterprise systems are considered responsible for the moral decay in certain areas. Although this is the case, there are other instances where the morality of individuals in the society is enhanced. However, it all depends on an individual’s judgment regarding what constitutes a good life.

As observed by JTF (2008), a free enterprise system leads to more than simply creating and spread wealth. It also results in better moral character among its participants.

Critics are, however, of the opinion that a free enterprise system is a stumbling block to social and ethical agendas, such as the desire to reduce child labor and poverty in poor countries and the promotion of gender equality and environmental protection globally (JTF, 2008).

Private Property Private property consists of items of value that individuals have the right to own, use, and sell. It is different from public property which is provided by the government for the common use by all. The right to own property gives individuals the freedom to control productive resources such as land, labor, and capital. These productive resources can be used to produces commodities to be sold.

Apart from being allowed to control the productive resources, the producer also owns the goods produced. Locke (2008), however, argued that only God owns property and it is improper for any single individual to claim ownership to any form of property.

The more property rights a person has in a good, the closer his or her private cost is to the social costs of using that good, and the more incentives that person has for seeking the highest-valued use for the asset.

That is, different property rights in goods create their own incentives through the impact they have on the relationship between the private and social costs of using those goods, which, in turn, affect human behavior in specific and predictable ways.

We will write a custom Essay on Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Private ownership also encourages vigorous competition and economic efficiency. Private ownership ensures that entrepreneurs have a right to the profits generated by their own efforts. This gives entrepreneurs an incentive to search for better ways of serving consumer needs.

That may be through introducing new products, by developing more efficient production processes, by pursuing better marketing and after-sale service, or simply through managing their businesses more efficiently than their competitors.

In turn, the constant improvement in product and process that results from such an incentive has been argued to have a major positive impact on economic growth and development. The market alone puts the whole social system in order and provides it with sense and meaning.

Although proponents tend to think that a free enterprise system lets individuals think about others, it is impossible to imagine how people who thinks so much about their own success and how they can outdo opponents, will work for the benefit of others.

There is a general belief among proponents that a free enterprise system creates room for individuals to advance personal interests while thinking about the good of others. Proponents also consider greed and envy that are prevalent in a free enterprise system as necessary vices that can aid the development process.

Rule of Law Law is regarded as the collective organization of an individual’s right to lawful defense and is the greatest threat to liberty (Bastiat, 2004). The law allows every individual to protect what rightfully belongs to him or her. This includes freedom as well as property.

According to Rawls (1999), justice is the first virtue of any social institution and it is guaranteed through the rule of law. Every single individual possesses and inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of a society as a whole cannot override.

As observed by John Templeton Foundation, free enterprise systems always involve moral constraints which are controlled by governments through the rule of law. The property rights on which free enterprise systems rely are also enforced by the government (JTF, 2008).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Free Enterprise System and the Development of Individuals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though freedom is guaranteed to a certain degree, the government regulates certain aspects of the market to ensure that business is undertaken fairly. The state will make use of every means available to coerce people into submission so as to prevent unhealthy practices that may end up inflicting harm to others.

The life and property of each individual is protected by the government through the rule of law. In summary, the government does quite a bit to ensure that effective operation within a free enterprise system.

Price Determination Generally, changes in price send various signals to entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs understand quite well that if prices are too high, customers refuse to buy their products. On the other hand, if prices are too low, the products will sell out very quickly. In most cases, the price of commodities is determined by the laws of supply and demand.

Demand refers to the number of products that will be bought at a given time for a given price. It is not the same as want. When a person wants a luxury car without the ability to pay for it, no demand is generated. The demand for an item is represented by people who want an item, have the money needed to purchase the item, and are willing to spend the money on the item.

As the price of commodities goes up, the quantity demanded by consumers subsequently goes down. A tight relationship exists between price and demand. Prices usually rise with increased demand, and as demand decreases, prices will usually come down. Supply refers to the number of products that will be offered for sale at a particular time and at a particular price.

In case there a shortage in the supply of a commodity, prices will generally rise. As the price for a given product goes up, producers are more willing to make the product available in the market. There is also the market clearing price which is that price at which the quantity of the product the consumer is willing to buy equals the number of products the producer is willing to supply.

Competition In any business, the goal of sellers is to make a profit while consumers want to be supplied with quality goods at a reasonable price. Usually, this conflict is settled through competition. Competition is the rivalry among product sellers for the consumers’ money. Benefits of competition to society include improved quality of products as sellers strive to attract customers, development of new products, efficient operation to keep prices down and conserve scarce productive resources.

Healthy competition ensures that customers get new and quality products at very fair prices. A number of ways exist through which companies compete. One such approach is price competition where a company takes a competitor’s business by lowering its own prices.

The other approach is non price competition where a company aims to produce better quality products or adding a feature that the competition doesn’t have or can not provide. Businesses may use unique shapes and colors among others to compete.

To critics, however, a free enterprise system creates room for moral decay. In the presence of fierce competition, and when survival is at stake, people tend to think less about issues morality. The system forces individuals to do whatever it takes, without thinking about the repercussions, to exist.

Conclusion Despite the seemingly cruel nature of a free enterprise system, it can improve the well being of the society in two major ways. To begin with, an individual who considers morality as being valuable will tend to advocate for it. Companies may find it necessary to give part of their profits towards charity work with an intention of enhancing the level of competitiveness.

A good reputation in the face of the public that results from giving back to the society can be of great benefit to a company. Secondly, when the economy grows to such an extent that there is a surplus of resources, it is possible that individuals will want to protect their moral standing.

There is increased concern for the welfare of others. As individuals continue to benefit from others, they will be inclined to act morally. In the same way, companies that succeed because of reliable employees or customer loyalty will be forced to carry out their operations with honesty and a high level of integrity.

References Bastiat, F. (2004).The Law. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Foundation for Economic Education.

John Templeton Foundation (JTF). (2008). Does the Free Market Corrode Moral Character? West Conshohocken, PA: John Templeton Foundation.

Lewis, C. S. (2001). The Abolition of Man, Or, Reflections on Education with Special Reference to the Teaching of English in the Upper Forms of Schools. New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco.

Locke, J. (2008).Two Treatises of Government. United Kingdom: Jonathan Bennett.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice, Revised Edition. USA: Harvard University Press.

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Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents A brief overview of citizenship in Australia

Patriotism versus preceduralism

Permanent residence versus citizenship

Conclusions

References

Citizenship in Australia has been considered as a new concept in spite of the prevailing politics that has existed for many years. The political factors often raise questions on the relationship between the state and its citizens. In addition, the validity of Australian citizenship has also been argued out on the perspective of whether it acts to safeguard an individual’s legal status or that of the state.

Short and Mutch (2001, p. 114) point out in their publication that while citizenship in Australia is an important component that draws individuals and institutions together in order to share aspirations and values as well as to exercise social responsibilities, issues of individuals’ legal status, ability to perform duties and enjoy certain rights in Australia have been of concern for some duration of time now.

Citizenship has been described as a legal entity which should create a balance between individuals and state while allowing equal access to rights and protection by existing laws.

In addition, citizenship in Australia has in the past decade been affected by conflicts both in terms of its practical meaning and in relationship to an individual’s legal status. It is against this background that this paper critically examines the citizenship in Australia and its legal role among Australians in general.

A brief overview of citizenship in Australia The history of the creation of the current Australian citizenship can be traced way back in 1949 when it took effect after it was formed through the Nationality and Citizenship Act (1948). Studies reveal that earlier on, before its formation, Australians did not have any form of well recognized legal status in their own country which could be granted to them as proof of citizenship.

As a result, they mainly relied on the one which was being offered to the British nationals. However, with an increase in immigration practices that became common after the federation, migration programs were developed which saw the rise of citizenship laws that were addressing immigration policies.

The trend of migration in Australia has over the years risen significantly with 153, 648 in 1949. The latter was the number that was granted citizenship at that time. This figure rose to 22 million individuals in 2009 (Dutton 2000, p. 333).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Chauchat and Cogliati-Bantz (2008, p. 193), citizenship in Australia may be obtained in several ways. Some of the key ways include grant, adoption, descent as well as birth. It is important to mention that many permanent citizens in Australia today have attained their status through grants.

However, obtaining citizenship by grant saw the introduction of new rules that made acquisition of citizenship in Australia harder than it was some 30 years ago. Today, over thirty amendments have been made on the Australian citizenship legislation.

This has led to less regard of the Australian citizenship status since it is being regarded as an important component of identifying oneself with the country. In other words, it is a way of showing commitment and loyalty to the country.

Boreham, Stokes and Hall (2004, p. 100) argue that even with the rise in provision of citizenship to individuals in Australia, its practical impact on legal rights and material situation has very little effect on individuals.

This is attributed to the manner in which it impacts negatively on the legal status of individuals and poses the threat of its ability to grant individuals their rights and protection. This has been worsened by myriad of amendments that have been done in the past.

Patriotism versus preceduralism The amendments carried out in the Australian citizenship legislation have been subject of great debate in legal and academic circles bearing in mind that its symbolic and legal changes have impacted on individuals’ legal status. The amendments have also made the cost of acquiring citizenship to be a lot easier.

This has made its expected impact on provision of support and legal protection to be less felt and robbed Australians the sign and status of feeling like distinct people with a unique culture, evolved memories, history and a common future.

We will write a custom Essay on Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The citizenship has ceased being associated with loyalty and patriotism, rather it demands adherence to procedures and laws. Dutton (2000, p. 333) argues that proceduralism has replaced the aspect of an individual’s legal status.

Its call for obedience to laws and tolerance seems to be the only value which it demands from citizens. While proceduralism has received much credit from many analysts who feel it fits well with multiculturalism, others feel that citizenship ought to be light and prescriptive and not complex and oppressive.

As Cook, Walsh and Harwood (2009, p. 45) indicate, Australia has a highly diverse population similar to other countries.

Unlike other countries that highly restrict their growth and development only to their people, Australia is open to all who have basic history of the country and English understanding, good moral characteristics, no criminal record and readiness to swear allegiance to the country’s constitution.

Among individual Australians, their belonging in Australia is based on legal status and patriotism and not tolerance in living as a community or side by side as this does not just rob them of some of their rights, it also allows newcomers to interfere with their cultures.

Permanent residence versus citizenship McGregor (1997, p. 64) argues that the introduction of permanent residents in Australian citizenship impacts on the legal rights that an Australian individual reserves on its provisions. Being largely symbolic, the Australian citizenship and its material benefit like education, welfare gains and access to Medicare which were legally enjoyed by Australian citizens have now been opened to permanent citizens.

Another area of change is full access to employment and old age pension. These have made citizenship and its legal rights not to be fully enjoyed by Australian citizens. Jaensch (1997, p. 90) argues that there are a few legal barriers that prevent full participation of migrants with or without citizenship in the Australian society.

The problem of citizenship on an individual’s legal status as put forward by Dutton (2002, p. 86) is that it has not been thoroughly debated in terms of how Australians are supposed to benefit. Rather, it is about commitment and levels of loyalty to the nation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is citizenship in Australia an individual’s legal status? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Citizens in Australia confer the right to a passport, service on juries and right to vote and work. Besides, citizens and non-citizens alike may work in public offices and have immunity from deportation. The problem posed by these provisions on the legal status of Australian citizens is the slightness in their practical difference with permanent residents.

The element fostered by the Australian citizenship legislation is one that strongly supports proceduralism over individuals’ legal status. This has drawn sharp arguments from different supporters and opponents with the former seeing citizenship as more inclusive and a component that grants everyone full community and political membership.

While critically evaluating the problem of citizenship and individuals’ legal status, Sifa, (2000, p. 154) argues that addressing it should largely be considered from an economic outset. The very reference of minority groups invokes a sense of poor social economic overtone that restricts their ability to move up the social economic hierarchy towards the top.

Therefore, the manifestation and outlay of citizenship and its effects is a paradox in the sense that demanding people at the top to reflect their own cultures and those of the minority groups is indeed cumbersome. Donoghue and Tranter (2010, p. 493) posit that through economic empowerment, the minority groups and their representative cultures become easily represented in important developments and societal demands.

The numerous amendments in the Australian citizenship laws largely sought to protect possible bias towards people of a given group or culture in Australia in terms of enjoyment of basic rights and protection by the law. Such amendments are critical because they reduce possible sense of inferiority for the minority groups and their cultures.

Though some analysts indicate that such laws may present possible crashes between the dominant and the minority groups, the same consideration is not always true.

Chesterman and Galligan (1999, p. 64) indicate that the Australian local administration creates effective checks and balances that require strict adherence and sets up major penalties if faulted. Though it often takes place involuntarily, the resulting orientation depicts key tolerance and eventual acceptance based on mutual respect.

Conclusions To sum up, the arguments above were based on the thesis statement that citizenship in Australia has been considered as a new concept for many years in spite of its political theories that have been advanced by the political class. This factor has elicited more questions especially in regards to the relationship between the state and its people.

In addition, an individual’s legal status has also been inquired on whether it is an integral component that affects the acquisition of Australian citizenship. From the discussion, it is clear that citizenship may be obtained in several ways such as grant, adoption, by descent and birth.

It is also evident that the Australian citizenship law has gone through many amendments, a consideration that has seen citizens in Australia and other residents, permanent and non-citizens, receive equal treatment.

As noted in the essay, while this has received a considerable support from multiculturalists, it is without doubt that it has impacted on individual legal rights of Australians raising questions on whether Australians should continue existing as a community besides immigrants or as individuals who have full legal status.

References Boreham, P., Stokes, G.,

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Marketing: McDonalds and KFC Essay essay help site:edu

Executive Summary The manufacturing sector has been involved in the production of consumer products for a long time. The goods have been produced and selected to suits specific segments in the market. Different positioning strategies of the products’ development were examined before the goods have been supplied to the market. While doing the market segmentation for the products, the target market has been well studied and investigated.

However, from study on the two companies discussed below, it is evident that some major points have been overlooked. The failure to meet the target market needs concerns the people with special needs in the society. This group of population includes the sick like the diabetics, those who experience high blood pressure, and others.

Does this mean that the needs of these individuals can never be met because they are not included in the target market or simply because they are a minority within the society? Such individuals should be paid the equal attention to and treated just as the rest of the people who are considered normal

. They also have certain wishes, and these manufacturing companies should carry out a research to establish the special needs of these individuals, and come up with some of the products to cater for that market segment (Thomas, 2006).

The analysis of the two companies shows how the theory of marketing has been implemented in our society in terms of the market segmentation, target markets, and strategic marketing.

Industry background A manufacturing industry involves processing of raw materials to finished products. These industries are classified based on the source of the raw materials, for example agro based industries are agriculturally oriented whereas mineral based are classified in form of the mineral elements collected raw and refined to their products.

These industries could also be classified according to the major role played whether the products are supplied raw or as finished products to consumers. They could also be classified on the basis of capital invested, small versus large-scale industries; also on the basis of ownership whether public, privately owned, a joint sector industry, or a co-operative sector industry

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Companies’ background McDonald’s Corporation is one of the leading fast food chains of restaurants in the world dealing with the production and supply of hamburgers. The company whose headquarters are in the United States of America began long ago in 1940 and has managed to spread all over the world, with branches in close to 119 countries (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 108).

McDonald’s Corporation initially began as a barbecue restaurant before specializing in hamburgers production. This was under the leadership and management of Maurice and Richard McDonald.

However, in 1955, Ray Kroc became a member of the company through agency franchising but later the company from the McDonalds (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 109). Ray Kroc is therefore behind the success of the McDonald’s Corporation with regard to its worldwide growth.

Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) was founded in 1997 after splitting off from PepsiCo in the name of Tricon Global Restaurants. Harland Sanders of Kentucky was the man behind the creation of this company. The common products that KFC deals with are sandwiches, chicken pieces, salads, and wraps. However, the primary product that is produced by KFC is fried chicken.

KFC has managed to spread in Kentucky, the United States of America and in Louisville among other places. As such, the company boasts of over 3,700 units internationally. Most of these units are franchisers who assist in the distribution of the products.

Product overview As mentioned earlier in the paper, McDonalds specializes in the production of hamburgers. Hamburger can be described as a snack that is made from minced beef which is then sandwiched in bread amongst other ingredients such as tomatoes, sauce, lettuce and mayonnaise just to mention a few.

Hamburgers from McDonalds have been ranked the best all over the world for a long time now. McDonalds offer a wide range of different types of hamburgers ranging from the Big Mac, Angus Deluxe, McDouble, and Cheeseburger among others.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing: McDonalds and KFC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Below is a picture of one of the different types of burgers produced by McDonalds.

Fig. (Derdak and Pederson, 2004, p. 109)

On the other hand, KFC produces various products some of which include sandwiches, chicken pieces, salads, and wraps. However, the main product of KFC is their fried chicken, which is loved by many. Their fried chicken is normally cooked by grilling in oven.

Despite the fact that KFC’s fried chicken is a preference to many the company uses oils that are partially hydrogenated in preparation of the chicken. As such, the oil normally has high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, which increase the risk of people suffering from fat related illnesses such as heart diseases.

Below is a picture of Kentucky’s fried chicken

Fig. (Queste et al. 2004, p. 76)

Strategic marketing This is the business of selling and promoting products of different companies either through research or through marketing. This entails detailed structured approaches, which define what a company is trying to achieve thus an integrated campaign, or a team of skilled and dedicated individuals is required to help achieve the defined objectives of the campaign.

Strategic marketing determines where the organization is going to be in the coming years in terms of development and other factors. There are a number of issues involved for instance a SWOT analysis, a plan, goals, objectives and an appropriate model.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing: McDonalds and KFC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More SWOT analysis should be carried out both internally and externally to enhance strategic decision-making. At internal level, the analysis helps in future planning as it articulates present operations. It can divulge trends, indiscretions, limitations, as well as opportunities.

There should be a mission, which the organization is aligning with. There should also be well set goals and objectives to be achieves because of strategy planning. An action plan or activities are the implementation of the strategic plan where duties are allocated and resources mobilized.

Evaluation should be carried out to establish whether the strategy plan has worked. Strategic consulting can also be used in strategic planning as well as using personality and style match. Rewards and incentives can also be used for both the employees and the customers.

A comparison of the strategic marketing techniques used by both companies (McDonalds and KFC) it is by no doubt that, both have managed to market their products and services effectively. However, McDonalds seem to have invested more in their marketing strategy given the wide scope of market it has all over the globe.

For instance, a look at McDonald’s and KFC’s homepages, that of McDonald is of high degree of content and advertising material that gives the visitors to the home page who make the consumers, sufficient information regarding the company’s products.

Secondly, McDonalds has more outlets all over the world compared to those of KFC. It is therefore, recommended that the management of KFC invest more in their strategy marketing techniques in order to reach the standards of McDonalds and other companies in the food service industry.

Macro environmental forces Macro environmental forces are the ones that are not directly related to an organization. They are sociocultural, political, technological, International and economic variables (Pride

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Human Trafficking Synthesis Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Human trafficking involves recruiting and forcefully transporting individuals to foreign countries with the aim of exposing them to do forced labor. Human trafficking is different from traditional smuggling of people in that the relationship between the victims and he traffickers continues after their transportation. In most cases, they are passed from one trafficker to the other.

It takes place because of the demand for cheap labor and the presence of individuals willing to move from their homes in search of better economic opportunities. It is further enhanced by the financial gains that the traffickers get.

Many governments have started dealing with the problem through programs and policies designed to prevent and protect the victims, and take legal actions against the traffickers and smugglers. Although the phenomenon has been highlighted in every part of the world, knowledge about its consequences is still limited.

Owing to its secretive nature, details on the characteristics of its victims and what they go through as well the trafficker’s and smuggler’s characteristics are hard to get and often difficult to generalize.

The available data is obtained from different nongovernmental, governmental and few academic sources. Due to its negative impacts, there is need to look for ways of preventing it. This essay will look at some of the ways that can be used to prevent and stop human trafficking.

Preventing Human Trafficking Despite the fact that preventing human trafficking is the most effective long-term method of reducing or eliminating the practice, many governments have not been using the method. Part of the failure to use prevention methods emanates from the fact that there are no mechanisms for measuring the impact and success of prevention programs in attaining the anticipated goals.

Nonetheless, partly due to the increase in advocates of anti-trafficking and service providers, both NGOs and governments have embarked on the development of stronger practices and policies for prevention strategies. These prevention policies are classified into supply-based, demand-based and reduction of financial gains (Prevention of Human Trafficking 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supply-based Policies These prevention policies are interested in the supply of persons who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Their focus is on the vulnerable populations and channels of recruitment and transportation of trafficked victims. The programs are subdivided into four main areas.

Awareness-Raising Raising awareness is one of the most common activities in human trafficking prevention (Prevention 10). It assumes various forms and does not only target the public at large and critical policy makers, but also individuals who are likely to fall victims in the future.

Non-governmental organizations are used to carry out awareness raising campaigns among the homeless and other groups of individuals deemed susceptible to human trafficking. Such groups include prostitutes, youths and migrant farm employees. During the campaigns, they are familiarized with possible scams and the strategies applied by human traffickers.

The awareness raising programs comprise of the establishment and promotion of hotlines which provide information on national trafficking, local television, poster campaigns, radio and education materials that tackle human trafficking (Rosenberg 14).

Legal Alternatives Migrant advocates have raised the issue of availing legal means of moving into other countries as a means through which the various forms of exploitation that affect transnational migration could be prevented. With reference to this argument, there is a stable number of individuals who think that it is necessary for them to look for job opportunities abroad, regardless of whether they migrate legally or not.

Making it hard for individuals to migrate in accordance with the law, therefore, compels potential migrants to engage themselves in risky activities in order to look for work abroad, potentially leading them into the hands of traffickers and smugglers.

By doing away with the requirement for migrants to take such risks of crossing borders illegally, the provision of legal alternative avenues for migration or temporary work abroad is considered one method through which the role of, and opportunities for, trafficking could be diminished.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Trafficking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the meantime, safe programs of migration are comprised of one method of providing vulnerable groups with the right information to enable them make informed decisions regarding the jobs they concede to, and of empowering them to safely migrate to other countries and look for help in case of troubles. However, it is assumed that there is adequate information available to make judgment regarding the safety of the jobs offered.

Reducing “Push” Factor Conditions Long-term efforts of dealing with human trafficking are geared towards reducing the push factor conditions such as gender, poverty, inequality and lack of economic or educational opportunities. It is estimated that these factors compel people to engage in risks that eventually lead to human trafficking.

Some countries have been sponsoring programs that are involved in reduction of poverty, domestic violence, assistance programs and shelters, job training, integration programs and initiatives that prevent prostitutes against HIV/AIDS infection.

USAID has also been involved in sponsoring programs aimed at fighting corruption in governments on the basis that reduction of corruption among governments improves state resource distribution making it possible for larger groups of people to access opportunities.

In Europe, prevention of human trafficking is interpreted to mean both awareness raising and active prevention activities that ideally look into the primary causes of human trafficking.

Most countries continue with efforts of preventing human trafficking by concentrating on prostitution, migration and organized crime. Despite debates about the importance of having comprehensive prevention approaches, awareness-raising is the common prevention instrument in many countries.

Demand-based Prevention Policies Despite the unending debate concerning the causal and enabling factors of human trafficking, research has shown that exploitable workers are highly demanded in many countries. Many industries require such workers with the need being fulfilled through trafficking (Belser 35).

Demand-based programs operate on the assumption that instituting legal actions against consumers, making services of trafficked people socially unacceptable, educating consumers about trafficking and its victims, or providing information to potential traffickers and beneficiaries about human rights, gender violence and prostitution reduces the demand of trafficked individuals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Trafficking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reducing the Financial-Gains from Trafficking Advocates have started coming up with policies that limit the financial gains traffickers, smugglers, and corrupt individuals enjoy, which in turn enable criminal operations to survive. Governments have been working towards imposing costs at the individual and national levels. Sanctions are imposed against countries that are ranked among the most notorious in human trafficking.

The sanctions may withhold non-humanitarian, non-trade-related help or, if a country is denied such assistance, the funding for taking part in cultural and educational exchange programs is withheld. The countries might also be barred from applying for assistance from international financial institutions. At the individual level, traffickers may be forced to compensate the victims (Women, War and Peace 5).

The aim of these initiatives is to make human trafficking unattractive by increasing its cost relative to its would-be gains. It is envisaged that with the increasing arrests followed by prosecutions, traffickers will be compelled to conduct an evaluation of the benefits they earn from trafficking.

Countries have also been considering the possibility of giving the victims an opportunity to demand compensation from their traffickers. They do this by requesting a compensation order after being convicted and starting litigation against the traffickers in civil courts.

Capacity Building Capacity building is an important method of preventing human trafficking. Education and outreach efforts in law enforcement, justice and tourism help in fighting human trafficking. Different officers, who hold positions in governments have been targeted for further training in order to equip them with skills on how to identify, rescue and provide the right referrals for human trafficking victims.

In countries like the US, experts have been involved in training local judges, law enforcement agencies, lawyers and community watch groups on how to enhance witness protection programs (Rosenberg 20).

Other European countries have adopted the same initiatives in order to improve their capacity to detect and prevent human trafficking from taking place. They also assist the countries of origin to prevent the practice. The above outlined capacity building methods are important in preventing human trafficking.

Conclusion Anti-trafficking campaigns have been on the increase in the recent past although the global progress against human trafficking has been inconsistent and hard to measure. To date, most of the work that has been done on human trafficking portrays the emphasis on prosecuting the traffickers.

However, prevention might be the most effective way of combating the practice in the long-run. It is important for governments to devote more energy and resources in preventing the practice rather than dealing with it after it takes place.

Works Cited Belser, Patrick. Forced Labour and Human Trafficking:Estimating the Profits, New York: ILO, 2005. Print.

Prevention of Human Trafficking 2011. Web.

Prevention 2012. Web.

Rosenberg, Ruth. Best Practices for Programming to Prevent Trafficking in Human Beings in Europe and Eurasia, New York: Development Alternatives Incorporate, 2004. Print.

Women, War and Peace. n.d. Web.

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Information communication technology Report argumentative essay help

Introduction The term ICT, or Information communication technology, refers to communication devices and communication applications. These encompass mobile phones, satellite systems, radio, computers and network hardware, television, etc. ICT is currently among the most important drivers of retail logistics.

It has also become an indispensable part of contemporary homes and retail businesses (Kuppusamy and Santhapparaj, 2005). Many economists and other professionals have likened the contemporary use of ICT in development to the use of machine power and steam power during the industrial revolution (Hoek, 2001).

ICT is expected to have a profound impact on the retail logistics business. It is evident that optimum overall organizational performance is positively dependent on, and correlated with the use of ICT (Pokharel, 2005).

A number of researchers have indicated the importance of adopting technology in retail enterprises because ICT helps these enterprises to acquire and maintain a competitive edge. Retail businesses therefore depend on the use of ICT in order to survive in the contemporary age that has knowledge-based economies.

ICT’s role in Retail Logistics The fact that ICT has a vital role in logistics is indisputable. Researchers have conducted a number of studies in a bid to establish the importance of ICT in organizations that carry out logistics operations.

The use of ICT by firms that are involved in logistics operations is necessitated by the need of these firms to integrate a number of logistical activities, the need to manage information effectively, as well as the need to come up with a holistic logistical plan.

The latter includes details like warehousing, transportation, and fleet management, and it is geared towards streamlining the product flow of clients’ products (Lai et al., 2005). Currently, there has been an occurrence of innovations in ICT, which have changed the economy, and which have affected the day-to-day activities of retail businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect of ICT is that it makes organizations to strive to find innovative ways of expanding their markets, innovative ways of getting a larger customer base through service and product customization, and opportunities for business restructuring, which gives the business a competitive edge (Gratzner and Winiwarter, 2003).

The application of ICT is vital in business organizations because it helps them to achieve their objectives. This is due to the information intensity, which is potentially high in the value chain of the firm (Hinton and Tao, 2006).

Since the activities carried out by the ICT department in an organization essentially include information processing, information creation and information communication, the use of ICT influences the value chain pervasively.

At present, the ICT employed for gaining a competitive edge by firms can be grouped into three categories. These include data acquisition technologies, identification technologies and data communication technologies.

Identification technologies used by firms are Barcoding, Radio, and Frequency Identification (RFID). The aforementioned technologies are vital in the collection and exchange of logistics information.

In order to communicate data, firms may need to use the internet, fax machines, the VAN (Value added Network), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Power and Sohal, 2002). In addition to these, firms may also use POS – point of sales (Ellram et al.1999), the EOS – Electronic Ordering System (Closs and Xu, 2000).

Firms may also use enterprise information portals, logistics information systems, and computer telephone integration (Lin, 2006). The component of data acquisition is necessitated by the fact that firms deal with large volumes of goods, transactions, and data.

We will write a custom Report on Information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that organizations deal with large volumes of data necessitates data collection and exchange during the control and management of logistics information. If a firm can acquire data of high quality for exchange, then the firm will be able to serve customers with their goods in a more efficient and accurate manner.

In order to meet this objective, it is vital that firms use reliable data acquisition technologies. These include optical scanners, voice recognition, logistics, electronic pen notepads, and robotics (Lin, 2006).

Types of ICT in retail logistics Retail businesses use a number of technologies in their operations. These technologies help the retail businesses to reduce the volume of paperwork, and be more organized. The following are some of the most common technologies in retailing businesses.

Integrated POS System

The main ICT that is used in retail businesses is Point-of-Sale (POS). The POS refers to a computer system that contains all the information required to complete a transaction. Customers normally pay for goods at the POS where the transaction is posted.

Thus, the POS must have a number of modules in order to function as desired. These include a module with goods’ codes, an electronic payments system, and a receipt producing method like a printer (usually a dot matrix printer). In addition to this, the POS is mostly linked to a system for controlling stocks that tells the business management when to take stock-related actions (Copley, 1994).

Additionally, a number of retailers use the RFID technology that is critical in reducing theft, cost, and inventory. Some of the costs that the RFID technology reduces include POS labor costs, warehouse costs and distribution costs.

A Bar Code Scanner scans one item at a time, but the RFID can account many items in a second. Some of the advantages of using a POS system include less waiting time for customers and less error in price application and sales data-time.

Inventory Management System/Software

Management systems are a vital part of retail businesses because they help in cutting carrying costs. This software is quite instrumental in operations because it tracks the transportation of products from a supplier to the warehouse of the business, it tracks the movement of products within the business and also tracks the delivery of products to a retail location.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In case the business decides to deliver the products directly to the customer, the management system also tracks this delivery. Therefore, the use of a management system gives a business the following advantages under

A business can easily balance stock levels to avoid instances of deficits or surplus

A business is able to track the transportation of products between locations.

A business is able to receive goods expeditiously in a specified location like a warehouse.

A management system makes activities like picking, packing, and shipping of products from a store easy.

A business is able to know the levels of inventory and the amounts and details of goods sold.

The management system helps the business to reduce obsolescence and spoilage of items in the store.

Warehousing Management System

Businesses use ICT-based systems in their stores with the aim of providing a collection of computer-based procedures that dictate how goods are received into a warehouse.

The use of such a system is also aimed at managing how goods are physically stored within the warehouse, how products are managed in the store with regard to receipts and issues, and enabling smooth processing of customer orders in terms of the logistics of issues and delivery.

Cloud Computing in retail

Retail Express has employed the use of cloud computing in its stores. This implies that its stores are operated by a centrally placed database that contains the information about every individual store. This system is internet-based, and thus it requires uninterruptible internet connection.

This arrangement has a number of advantages, including the fact that running costs are reduced, there is no need to purchase software, and its data is of high integrity. Additionally, delays are reduced and the system is redundant and thus it is more secure (Retail Express, 2012).

Expected technological innovations in the next 5 years The advent of globalization has had a profound impact on the use of ICT in businesses. The advancement of ICT use in businesses is perhaps the most important factor in determining how the retail industry will be in the future.

The industry has therefore realized profits and growth thanks to ICT. Forms of technology that have helped to realize this growth include mobile telephony, tablets, automation machines, virtual services, POS, credit cards, and use of radio frequency identification.

An upcoming innovation in the retail sector is the use of Mobile Point-of-sale (POS) system. Retailers will replace their checkouts, which are normally centralized, with portable computers that will be used by their clerks in completing transactions. Apple stores, have particularly eliminated the use of conventional POS, which is normally fixed at the POS terminal.

The stores have employed the use of handheld devices to carry out their functions, which include stock checks, answering the questions of customers, and finalizing sales. Despite widespread concerns that wireless technology is not adequately secure, merchants and consumers will benefit from the availability and use of mobile POS.

Companies in the retail industry that use this technology are likely to reduce their labor-related costs by making their personnel more productive. In addition to this, the technology reduces instances of errors because of the elimination of written orders. The use of the technology will also ensure that services are offered more promptly, and that receipts are more detailed (Kelly, 2010).

Another prominent innovation is the use of NFC (Near-field communication) technology in smart phones. By synchronizing the cellular device equipped with NFC technology and POS, payments can be made instantly.

The result of this is that POS queues will be reduced, and customers will have an easier time because they will be able to find customer care personnel with much ease. This will definitely help retailers in serving customers more efficiently, and thus customer retention will increase. The two, better customer service and customer retention will result in more profits (Green, 2011).

Conclusion Customers value convenience and the state of being informed about their favorite products. Technology enables this and more. Major retailers have accepted and embraced ICT, and thus they are seeking new and exciting technology to have competitive advantage. The use of technology in retail businesses can potentially revolutionize the industry.

This is because the use of technology improves customer experience, improves the operations of the retailer, and gives the management the required information to make decisions geared towards improving the business. The retailer therefore gets invaluable benefits from the use of technology in his/her retail business.

Reference List Closs, D. and Xu, K. (2000). Logistics Information Technology Practice in Manufacturing and Merchandising Firms – An International Benchmarking Study Versus World Class Logistics Firms, International Journal of Physical Distribution

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Managing Change in an Organization Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Change is relative to a thread. It is intertwined into both professional and personal components of lives. It has the ability to steadily occur within the environment mankind dwells in and even beyond.

This ranges from occurrences in local and global events, different ways through which structured organizations do business in socio-economic and political governments and eventually at a communal level. In the advent of modernity, more complexity and relationships cause changes that affect us in one way or another.

Developmental efforts in an organization, whether facilitated by an outsider or an insider expert and achieved through performance, bring about planned organizational change. There in only one type of change that can occur in an organization (Bass 1990). Changes in an organization can be either planned, unplanned, or both. Nevertheless, changes in an organization may occur in universal dimensions.

For example, planned change within chief justice, support to employees, and appropriations will dramatically change the traits of judicial organizational education. Besides, it will cause alignments in the institutions, the state bar, small law colleges, and other higher learning institutions. In addition, professionalism in the judicial system is all expected to bring about similar effects.

Planning for a change in an organization normally requires a conscious and attentive effort either from the managers or educators. Kotter (1995) initiated the master of change concept. In his description, he refers to the organization or an individual adept of expecting change needs to adopt change in productivity to reinforce change process in management role.

Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to analyze the use of ‘change’ reference to managers who have an interest of bringing some organization transformation in the environment and the work force they manage. Reflectively, unless there is a need for change from the management, such a change cannot take place in any organization. This is because individuals and organizations tend to develop resistance to any possible change.

Unless they take a positive attitude to embrace change and create an environment that motivated change, quantifiable change may just be a dream. Hannan and Freeman (1984) explain that it is through pain that change occurs. The moment one encounters an opportunity, it means that we have to make utilization of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Failure to utilize the opportunity may result in incurrence of higher cost. Thus, the moment an individual embraces change, an automatic relief from pain occurs.

From this perspective, it is important to note that change does not just occur because it seems to be a good idea, but it occurs the moment responsible people are satisfied to justify the difficulties of incorporating change.

As a result, professionals are obligated to ensure change in an organization should be able to come up with strategies that will ensure that there in a need for such a change to take place instead of simplifying on the benefits expected from such changes.

Change agents who have an understanding of this, should take up the role of ensuring that they offer assistance to others in order to embrace inclusive change in their organization. An organization cannot continue to hold on its status quo, but embrace positive change. In order to create a clear picture of the above description, the study reflects on a college movement of Ohio Judiciary which received funding emerging from catharsis.

While in other regions, forced training in the work force helped save the office of justice. This led into an emergent of an independent professionalism out of a difficult situation. Illustrating such an example gives an insight to organizations managers to help to create a need towards change and offer assistance in fostering change.

In view of change to occur in any organization, all change agents must make an analysis of the system that they will effectively operate and function in. It is, therefore, critical to note that whenever a change occurs in any one of the organization system, it is expected that other systems will be affected as well.

This will be either in a direct or in an indirect way. However, variability in organizations calls for various distinct approaches to bring about such changes. These variations in organizations, as I will briefly mention in the next paragraph, occur because of structural differentiation, cultural differentiation, organizational sizes, scope of operations, area of specialization, and country in which the organization is located.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Managing Change in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A company such as Apple, which deals in technological production of electronic products, may carry out changes in its organizational structure different from Starbuck Company that deals in production of coffee and beverage products.

Weick and Quinn (1999) assert that despite existence in variability and operations of organization, there are some changes that may be common in most of the organizations. However changes in organizations normally come in different forms, that is, intrinsic and non-intrinsic.

Planned changes in an organization are normally adopted and implemented by professionals who have complete knowledge on possible impacts of them to the organization. This is because such professionals are able to consider where such changes shall be conducted and its history. Planned changes in an organization aim at improving situations and desirability in goals before its commencement.

Examples of planned changes include salary increase to employees, changes in productions capacity, product and service change, reduction on the production, and operation costs. However, management may adopt and implement changes that may not be driven by people’s will. Failure to act on human will result in such organizations moving towards undesirable directions.

The speed at which such changes can take place in an organization can also be described as either continuous or episodic. As the name suggests, continuous change in an organization is one that is ongoing and performed periodically such as offering training skills to employees.

To improve on the organizational performance, the management of the organization should adopt strategies that ensure continuous acquisition of knowledge by employees. One way through which I can effectively implement on these while working in an organization is through seminars and workshops. Episodic change occurs in a piece mill manner.

It is discontinuous with an intentional motive. An example of such a discontinuous change is addition of another machine in a company. Due to increased aggregate for the company’s product, the management decides to increase on the supply through adding of an extra machine to boost on the capacity.

Bass (1990) asserts that while this may be implemented in a short time period, continuous change occurs in smaller adjustments and making improvements in daily actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importantly, it is through people that changes in an organization can be adopted and implemented. It becomes critical to note that nothing can really move in the right direction without motivation, coordination, and linking stakeholders.

Typically, they form up the workforce for the organization since whenever changes occur; they develop either a negative or a positive interest, including also agencies that organization has entered into contract with.

An effective implementation of project changes by an organization requires full involvement of the stakeholders at different levels. This makes them understand reasons behind their involvement and benefit from such projects. Additionally, it gives them opportunities during forums to give their opinions and make possible recommendations on what and how it should be conducted.

But, sometimes, such changes may fail to create an opportunity that may allow for negotiations, collaborations or cooperation. However, they have to be informed whenever changes happen in an organization. For instance, in the Starbuck Company, there is a corporation with the community and market through environmental conservation projects.

Furthermore, it offers grants to youths and organizes seminars to pass on skills to the community. Such an experience depicts an approach towards change in a more open manner and through consultations. This makes them feel the recognition and develop attachment to the organization (Prosci, 2007).

Change can be presently considered to be a constant axiom. Hence, increased advent in technology, globalization and emphasis by cost managers on how to make reductions on costs, competition, and variations in aggregate demand and aggregate supply have created a need for organizational change. However, few approaches or models exist to offer assistance to organization.

The objectives of such models are to ensure that upon their adoption and implementation, such organization will achieve an understanding of dynamisms involved in change processes. Through most of the research that I have conducted concerning organizational change models, most of them seem to be too demanding or academically oriented. This ends up making them have a limiting character.

Most of the models propose a linear format to make judgment that change within an organization and can be described in reference to future expectations. In reality, modernism cannot accommodate the approaches proposed.

This is because the rate at which changes occur is rapid making many firms to miss on exact predictions of their desirable future positions. Instead, they end up giving descriptions in more aspiration forms. This means that businesses will be striving to achieve their future desires while present pressure will give their management problems.

In order to present an alternative but flexible, I propose that the process should be able to allow firms to plan for future desirability and be able to achieve them while responding to the rising circumstances. This process encompasses five dimensions to organization change.

An adoption and its flexibility may allow for its use in a number of organizations. Being cyclic in nature, it operates on the perception that management of change in an organization is an interactive process.

Direct as the first dimension deals with making an alignment. It ensures that all the objectives are thought in a right way and then articulated appropriately to create a platform on which the other four dimensions will rely and operate.

Thus, it is considered to be the most critical and essential of all the other dimensions. In entirely, the dimensional core strategy is to ensure that business values, mission, and vision statements are articulated as required. The three are always an aspiration statement that forms the blueprint on which the business will make reference to both at its present state and future expected position.

For instance, in a service organization, the management may come up with a strategy to ensure that the company excels in service provision to its customers. Consequently, the task by management should be in a way that it is evidenced both to the internal and external customers in the supply chain.

As an exemplary behavior, it needs to be incorporated into the management system in order to be in a continuous evaluation. Achievement of these factors will only occur if behaviors of the business are clearly defined and described appropriately. Management of an organizational change requires consistency in the approach together with purpose constancy.

Translation of both direction and vision strategies towards operations require description is the second dimension. Operational strategies are plans that ensure functions are well articulated as required by every section of business. This means that deployment of professionals in these divisions becomes of an essence. As an enabling strategy, it assists management to deal with various groups of people.

Researches relating to major companies like North West Waters and Rolls Royce and Bentley car motors reveal that four key enabling strategies are strategy towards resourcing, strategy for management performance, rewarding strategy and, finally, strategy that ensures proper communication in an organization.

Define forms the third model the management has to adopt to ensure organizational change. This approach, though mostly ignored by most of the organization managers, is crucial in the ongoing processes within the organization. Failure to implement on the strategy by professional limits them from full potential of the operational strategies.

As an operational model, it presents a practical platform on which the first mentioned strategies will operate. It encompasses various aspects such as procedures, policies, and processes that ensure implementations in the businesses are fulfilled. As illustrated by Hannan et al. (1984), failure by the organization employees to follow on the processes formulated will reflect in the unstable cost, safety, quality, and health of the business.

Delivery of the strategies is the fourth strategy that the management should strive to embrace. It ensures that consistency in implementing overall values and visions of the organization is quantifiable and within reach. Reflectively, depending on organization management, decision making process may not guarantee commitments to their implementation.

Thus, this strategy calls for communications to appropriate models demonstrated through behaviors as displayed by managers and other stakeholders. This is a case for any organization undergoing changes.

In the fifth position is the dimension that ensures development and is placed above all requirements to ensure that there is appropriate monitoring of the processes. Its application is only dependent on two aspects. The first one is when there has been an achievement in both strategies and objectives.

Secondly, it is also applied when the most critical circumstances in an organization happen to undergo some changes to a degree that the initial stated strategies may require reviewing.

In conclusion, from the whole aspect of organizational management change, the five outlined dimensions are normally cyclical in nature. They create a link to all factors that contribute to change in an organization.

It become of essence to make an alignment of the business in relation to its visions and values. Additionally, strategies and related activities should be coordinated in a consistency and constant manner if an organization is to make use of changes in the system.

References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass

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Information communication technology Report college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The term ICT, or Information communication technology, refers to communication devices and communication applications. These encompass mobile phones, satellite systems, radio, computers and network hardware, television, etc. ICT is currently among the most important drivers of retail logistics.

It has also become an indispensable part of contemporary homes and retail businesses (Kuppusamy and Santhapparaj, 2005). Many economists and other professionals have likened the contemporary use of ICT in development to the use of machine power and steam power during the industrial revolution (Hoek, 2001).

ICT is expected to have a profound impact on the retail logistics business. It is evident that optimum overall organizational performance is positively dependent on, and correlated with the use of ICT (Pokharel, 2005).

A number of researchers have indicated the importance of adopting technology in retail enterprises because ICT helps these enterprises to acquire and maintain a competitive edge. Retail businesses therefore depend on the use of ICT in order to survive in the contemporary age that has knowledge-based economies.

ICT’s role in Retail Logistics The fact that ICT has a vital role in logistics is indisputable. Researchers have conducted a number of studies in a bid to establish the importance of ICT in organizations that carry out logistics operations.

The use of ICT by firms that are involved in logistics operations is necessitated by the need of these firms to integrate a number of logistical activities, the need to manage information effectively, as well as the need to come up with a holistic logistical plan.

The latter includes details like warehousing, transportation, and fleet management, and it is geared towards streamlining the product flow of clients’ products (Lai et al., 2005). Currently, there has been an occurrence of innovations in ICT, which have changed the economy, and which have affected the day-to-day activities of retail businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect of ICT is that it makes organizations to strive to find innovative ways of expanding their markets, innovative ways of getting a larger customer base through service and product customization, and opportunities for business restructuring, which gives the business a competitive edge (Gratzner and Winiwarter, 2003).

The application of ICT is vital in business organizations because it helps them to achieve their objectives. This is due to the information intensity, which is potentially high in the value chain of the firm (Hinton and Tao, 2006).

Since the activities carried out by the ICT department in an organization essentially include information processing, information creation and information communication, the use of ICT influences the value chain pervasively.

At present, the ICT employed for gaining a competitive edge by firms can be grouped into three categories. These include data acquisition technologies, identification technologies and data communication technologies.

Identification technologies used by firms are Barcoding, Radio, and Frequency Identification (RFID). The aforementioned technologies are vital in the collection and exchange of logistics information.

In order to communicate data, firms may need to use the internet, fax machines, the VAN (Value added Network), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Power and Sohal, 2002). In addition to these, firms may also use POS – point of sales (Ellram et al.1999), the EOS – Electronic Ordering System (Closs and Xu, 2000).

Firms may also use enterprise information portals, logistics information systems, and computer telephone integration (Lin, 2006). The component of data acquisition is necessitated by the fact that firms deal with large volumes of goods, transactions, and data.

We will write a custom Report on Information communication technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that organizations deal with large volumes of data necessitates data collection and exchange during the control and management of logistics information. If a firm can acquire data of high quality for exchange, then the firm will be able to serve customers with their goods in a more efficient and accurate manner.

In order to meet this objective, it is vital that firms use reliable data acquisition technologies. These include optical scanners, voice recognition, logistics, electronic pen notepads, and robotics (Lin, 2006).

Types of ICT in retail logistics Retail businesses use a number of technologies in their operations. These technologies help the retail businesses to reduce the volume of paperwork, and be more organized. The following are some of the most common technologies in retailing businesses.

Integrated POS System

The main ICT that is used in retail businesses is Point-of-Sale (POS). The POS refers to a computer system that contains all the information required to complete a transaction. Customers normally pay for goods at the POS where the transaction is posted.

Thus, the POS must have a number of modules in order to function as desired. These include a module with goods’ codes, an electronic payments system, and a receipt producing method like a printer (usually a dot matrix printer). In addition to this, the POS is mostly linked to a system for controlling stocks that tells the business management when to take stock-related actions (Copley, 1994).

Additionally, a number of retailers use the RFID technology that is critical in reducing theft, cost, and inventory. Some of the costs that the RFID technology reduces include POS labor costs, warehouse costs and distribution costs.

A Bar Code Scanner scans one item at a time, but the RFID can account many items in a second. Some of the advantages of using a POS system include less waiting time for customers and less error in price application and sales data-time.

Inventory Management System/Software

Management systems are a vital part of retail businesses because they help in cutting carrying costs. This software is quite instrumental in operations because it tracks the transportation of products from a supplier to the warehouse of the business, it tracks the movement of products within the business and also tracks the delivery of products to a retail location.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information communication technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In case the business decides to deliver the products directly to the customer, the management system also tracks this delivery. Therefore, the use of a management system gives a business the following advantages under

A business can easily balance stock levels to avoid instances of deficits or surplus

A business is able to track the transportation of products between locations.

A business is able to receive goods expeditiously in a specified location like a warehouse.

A management system makes activities like picking, packing, and shipping of products from a store easy.

A business is able to know the levels of inventory and the amounts and details of goods sold.

The management system helps the business to reduce obsolescence and spoilage of items in the store.

Warehousing Management System

Businesses use ICT-based systems in their stores with the aim of providing a collection of computer-based procedures that dictate how goods are received into a warehouse.

The use of such a system is also aimed at managing how goods are physically stored within the warehouse, how products are managed in the store with regard to receipts and issues, and enabling smooth processing of customer orders in terms of the logistics of issues and delivery.

Cloud Computing in retail

Retail Express has employed the use of cloud computing in its stores. This implies that its stores are operated by a centrally placed database that contains the information about every individual store. This system is internet-based, and thus it requires uninterruptible internet connection.

This arrangement has a number of advantages, including the fact that running costs are reduced, there is no need to purchase software, and its data is of high integrity. Additionally, delays are reduced and the system is redundant and thus it is more secure (Retail Express, 2012).

Expected technological innovations in the next 5 years The advent of globalization has had a profound impact on the use of ICT in businesses. The advancement of ICT use in businesses is perhaps the most important factor in determining how the retail industry will be in the future.

The industry has therefore realized profits and growth thanks to ICT. Forms of technology that have helped to realize this growth include mobile telephony, tablets, automation machines, virtual services, POS, credit cards, and use of radio frequency identification.

An upcoming innovation in the retail sector is the use of Mobile Point-of-sale (POS) system. Retailers will replace their checkouts, which are normally centralized, with portable computers that will be used by their clerks in completing transactions. Apple stores, have particularly eliminated the use of conventional POS, which is normally fixed at the POS terminal.

The stores have employed the use of handheld devices to carry out their functions, which include stock checks, answering the questions of customers, and finalizing sales. Despite widespread concerns that wireless technology is not adequately secure, merchants and consumers will benefit from the availability and use of mobile POS.

Companies in the retail industry that use this technology are likely to reduce their labor-related costs by making their personnel more productive. In addition to this, the technology reduces instances of errors because of the elimination of written orders. The use of the technology will also ensure that services are offered more promptly, and that receipts are more detailed (Kelly, 2010).

Another prominent innovation is the use of NFC (Near-field communication) technology in smart phones. By synchronizing the cellular device equipped with NFC technology and POS, payments can be made instantly.

The result of this is that POS queues will be reduced, and customers will have an easier time because they will be able to find customer care personnel with much ease. This will definitely help retailers in serving customers more efficiently, and thus customer retention will increase. The two, better customer service and customer retention will result in more profits (Green, 2011).

Conclusion Customers value convenience and the state of being informed about their favorite products. Technology enables this and more. Major retailers have accepted and embraced ICT, and thus they are seeking new and exciting technology to have competitive advantage. The use of technology in retail businesses can potentially revolutionize the industry.

This is because the use of technology improves customer experience, improves the operations of the retailer, and gives the management the required information to make decisions geared towards improving the business. The retailer therefore gets invaluable benefits from the use of technology in his/her retail business.

Reference List Closs, D. and Xu, K. (2000). Logistics Information Technology Practice in Manufacturing and Merchandising Firms – An International Benchmarking Study Versus World Class Logistics Firms, International Journal of Physical Distribution

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Managing Change in an Organization Research Paper online essay help

Introduction Change is relative to a thread. It is intertwined into both professional and personal components of lives. It has the ability to steadily occur within the environment mankind dwells in and even beyond.

This ranges from occurrences in local and global events, different ways through which structured organizations do business in socio-economic and political governments and eventually at a communal level. In the advent of modernity, more complexity and relationships cause changes that affect us in one way or another.

Developmental efforts in an organization, whether facilitated by an outsider or an insider expert and achieved through performance, bring about planned organizational change. There in only one type of change that can occur in an organization (Bass 1990). Changes in an organization can be either planned, unplanned, or both. Nevertheless, changes in an organization may occur in universal dimensions.

For example, planned change within chief justice, support to employees, and appropriations will dramatically change the traits of judicial organizational education. Besides, it will cause alignments in the institutions, the state bar, small law colleges, and other higher learning institutions. In addition, professionalism in the judicial system is all expected to bring about similar effects.

Planning for a change in an organization normally requires a conscious and attentive effort either from the managers or educators. Kotter (1995) initiated the master of change concept. In his description, he refers to the organization or an individual adept of expecting change needs to adopt change in productivity to reinforce change process in management role.

Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to analyze the use of ‘change’ reference to managers who have an interest of bringing some organization transformation in the environment and the work force they manage. Reflectively, unless there is a need for change from the management, such a change cannot take place in any organization. This is because individuals and organizations tend to develop resistance to any possible change.

Unless they take a positive attitude to embrace change and create an environment that motivated change, quantifiable change may just be a dream. Hannan and Freeman (1984) explain that it is through pain that change occurs. The moment one encounters an opportunity, it means that we have to make utilization of it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Failure to utilize the opportunity may result in incurrence of higher cost. Thus, the moment an individual embraces change, an automatic relief from pain occurs.

From this perspective, it is important to note that change does not just occur because it seems to be a good idea, but it occurs the moment responsible people are satisfied to justify the difficulties of incorporating change.

As a result, professionals are obligated to ensure change in an organization should be able to come up with strategies that will ensure that there in a need for such a change to take place instead of simplifying on the benefits expected from such changes.

Change agents who have an understanding of this, should take up the role of ensuring that they offer assistance to others in order to embrace inclusive change in their organization. An organization cannot continue to hold on its status quo, but embrace positive change. In order to create a clear picture of the above description, the study reflects on a college movement of Ohio Judiciary which received funding emerging from catharsis.

While in other regions, forced training in the work force helped save the office of justice. This led into an emergent of an independent professionalism out of a difficult situation. Illustrating such an example gives an insight to organizations managers to help to create a need towards change and offer assistance in fostering change.

In view of change to occur in any organization, all change agents must make an analysis of the system that they will effectively operate and function in. It is, therefore, critical to note that whenever a change occurs in any one of the organization system, it is expected that other systems will be affected as well.

This will be either in a direct or in an indirect way. However, variability in organizations calls for various distinct approaches to bring about such changes. These variations in organizations, as I will briefly mention in the next paragraph, occur because of structural differentiation, cultural differentiation, organizational sizes, scope of operations, area of specialization, and country in which the organization is located.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Managing Change in an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A company such as Apple, which deals in technological production of electronic products, may carry out changes in its organizational structure different from Starbuck Company that deals in production of coffee and beverage products.

Weick and Quinn (1999) assert that despite existence in variability and operations of organization, there are some changes that may be common in most of the organizations. However changes in organizations normally come in different forms, that is, intrinsic and non-intrinsic.

Planned changes in an organization are normally adopted and implemented by professionals who have complete knowledge on possible impacts of them to the organization. This is because such professionals are able to consider where such changes shall be conducted and its history. Planned changes in an organization aim at improving situations and desirability in goals before its commencement.

Examples of planned changes include salary increase to employees, changes in productions capacity, product and service change, reduction on the production, and operation costs. However, management may adopt and implement changes that may not be driven by people’s will. Failure to act on human will result in such organizations moving towards undesirable directions.

The speed at which such changes can take place in an organization can also be described as either continuous or episodic. As the name suggests, continuous change in an organization is one that is ongoing and performed periodically such as offering training skills to employees.

To improve on the organizational performance, the management of the organization should adopt strategies that ensure continuous acquisition of knowledge by employees. One way through which I can effectively implement on these while working in an organization is through seminars and workshops. Episodic change occurs in a piece mill manner.

It is discontinuous with an intentional motive. An example of such a discontinuous change is addition of another machine in a company. Due to increased aggregate for the company’s product, the management decides to increase on the supply through adding of an extra machine to boost on the capacity.

Bass (1990) asserts that while this may be implemented in a short time period, continuous change occurs in smaller adjustments and making improvements in daily actions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change in an Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Importantly, it is through people that changes in an organization can be adopted and implemented. It becomes critical to note that nothing can really move in the right direction without motivation, coordination, and linking stakeholders.

Typically, they form up the workforce for the organization since whenever changes occur; they develop either a negative or a positive interest, including also agencies that organization has entered into contract with.

An effective implementation of project changes by an organization requires full involvement of the stakeholders at different levels. This makes them understand reasons behind their involvement and benefit from such projects. Additionally, it gives them opportunities during forums to give their opinions and make possible recommendations on what and how it should be conducted.

But, sometimes, such changes may fail to create an opportunity that may allow for negotiations, collaborations or cooperation. However, they have to be informed whenever changes happen in an organization. For instance, in the Starbuck Company, there is a corporation with the community and market through environmental conservation projects.

Furthermore, it offers grants to youths and organizes seminars to pass on skills to the community. Such an experience depicts an approach towards change in a more open manner and through consultations. This makes them feel the recognition and develop attachment to the organization (Prosci, 2007).

Change can be presently considered to be a constant axiom. Hence, increased advent in technology, globalization and emphasis by cost managers on how to make reductions on costs, competition, and variations in aggregate demand and aggregate supply have created a need for organizational change. However, few approaches or models exist to offer assistance to organization.

The objectives of such models are to ensure that upon their adoption and implementation, such organization will achieve an understanding of dynamisms involved in change processes. Through most of the research that I have conducted concerning organizational change models, most of them seem to be too demanding or academically oriented. This ends up making them have a limiting character.

Most of the models propose a linear format to make judgment that change within an organization and can be described in reference to future expectations. In reality, modernism cannot accommodate the approaches proposed.

This is because the rate at which changes occur is rapid making many firms to miss on exact predictions of their desirable future positions. Instead, they end up giving descriptions in more aspiration forms. This means that businesses will be striving to achieve their future desires while present pressure will give their management problems.

In order to present an alternative but flexible, I propose that the process should be able to allow firms to plan for future desirability and be able to achieve them while responding to the rising circumstances. This process encompasses five dimensions to organization change.

An adoption and its flexibility may allow for its use in a number of organizations. Being cyclic in nature, it operates on the perception that management of change in an organization is an interactive process.

Direct as the first dimension deals with making an alignment. It ensures that all the objectives are thought in a right way and then articulated appropriately to create a platform on which the other four dimensions will rely and operate.

Thus, it is considered to be the most critical and essential of all the other dimensions. In entirely, the dimensional core strategy is to ensure that business values, mission, and vision statements are articulated as required. The three are always an aspiration statement that forms the blueprint on which the business will make reference to both at its present state and future expected position.

For instance, in a service organization, the management may come up with a strategy to ensure that the company excels in service provision to its customers. Consequently, the task by management should be in a way that it is evidenced both to the internal and external customers in the supply chain.

As an exemplary behavior, it needs to be incorporated into the management system in order to be in a continuous evaluation. Achievement of these factors will only occur if behaviors of the business are clearly defined and described appropriately. Management of an organizational change requires consistency in the approach together with purpose constancy.

Translation of both direction and vision strategies towards operations require description is the second dimension. Operational strategies are plans that ensure functions are well articulated as required by every section of business. This means that deployment of professionals in these divisions becomes of an essence. As an enabling strategy, it assists management to deal with various groups of people.

Researches relating to major companies like North West Waters and Rolls Royce and Bentley car motors reveal that four key enabling strategies are strategy towards resourcing, strategy for management performance, rewarding strategy and, finally, strategy that ensures proper communication in an organization.

Define forms the third model the management has to adopt to ensure organizational change. This approach, though mostly ignored by most of the organization managers, is crucial in the ongoing processes within the organization. Failure to implement on the strategy by professional limits them from full potential of the operational strategies.

As an operational model, it presents a practical platform on which the first mentioned strategies will operate. It encompasses various aspects such as procedures, policies, and processes that ensure implementations in the businesses are fulfilled. As illustrated by Hannan et al. (1984), failure by the organization employees to follow on the processes formulated will reflect in the unstable cost, safety, quality, and health of the business.

Delivery of the strategies is the fourth strategy that the management should strive to embrace. It ensures that consistency in implementing overall values and visions of the organization is quantifiable and within reach. Reflectively, depending on organization management, decision making process may not guarantee commitments to their implementation.

Thus, this strategy calls for communications to appropriate models demonstrated through behaviors as displayed by managers and other stakeholders. This is a case for any organization undergoing changes.

In the fifth position is the dimension that ensures development and is placed above all requirements to ensure that there is appropriate monitoring of the processes. Its application is only dependent on two aspects. The first one is when there has been an achievement in both strategies and objectives.

Secondly, it is also applied when the most critical circumstances in an organization happen to undergo some changes to a degree that the initial stated strategies may require reviewing.

In conclusion, from the whole aspect of organizational management change, the five outlined dimensions are normally cyclical in nature. They create a link to all factors that contribute to change in an organization.

It become of essence to make an alignment of the business in relation to its visions and values. Additionally, strategies and related activities should be coordinated in a consistency and constant manner if an organization is to make use of changes in the system.

References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass

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Global labour migration and global cities’ labour markets Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Major relationships

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Labour (human capital) is a significant provision in countries, which endeavour to progress economically. Evidently, there is a massive migration of labourers from one country to the next in search of appropriate job opportunities and reasonable pay. Global labour migration is a considerable concern in numerous contexts.

The situation has bountiful impacts on the native countries and host cities in terms of increasing population and augmentation of human expertise for the growth of the concerned cities. There is a critical relationship amid the two factions despite the condition. It is agreeable that when people leave their native countries to other cities for job opportunities, the trend leads to some impacts (Berg

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Importance of Public Relations and Relationship Marketing Qualitative Research Essay college application essay help

Marketing as a management role, has undergone a serious shift, from what used to be an operational function of management, to its current strategic role. The marketplace has grown more competitive, with market rivalry that requires a proper strategy in order to emerge the winner. Globalization has increased this competition as much as it has opened new markets for firms around the world.

With marketing having moved from an inward-out approach to an outward-in, there has been need to develop a lasting relationship with customers in the market. As part of what has been referred to as social marketing, public relations and relationship marketing has been seen as key instrument for success in managing markets, especially in international events.

Marketing in the international forum is much more demanding than doing the same within the country. If a firm wishes to market its products within Switzerland, it would be easier to do so using the national mass communication channels to reach out for the intended customers. However, international trade is much more demanding.

According to Woodruff (1997, p. 78), international markets requires more effort because the area of coverage is large. For a firm to manage international markets, they would require a proper marketing strategy that would see to it that they reach out to the target group with the right information, and they manage to convince this group about the products they have for them.

Cancer awareness creation is an international event that would require proper marketing in the target area if success is to be realized. It has come to the realization of many nonprofit making organizations that marketing is an inevitable event. Marketing, as Ward (1999, p. 78) says, is the only way an organization, both for profit and not for profit organizations, can realize success in their activities.

World Health Organization gets funds from donors. These donors have their expectations of the firm. They expect the firm to achieve a given level of success within a given period of time. For this reason, World Health Organization has a role to ensure that it meets this target within the specified time. It may not avoid marketing as a tool of ensuring success.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in our current society. Many individuals, including such renowned innovators like Steve Job who was the founder of Apple Inc, perished out of this disease. According to the report by Ulaga and Chacour (2001, p. 80), cancer is not lethal is it can be detected at an early stage and measures taken to eliminate it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, if this is not taken care of early enough, the patient may have very limited chances of surviving this disease. It has been the concern of World Health Organization to create awareness of this disease among various countries around the world. Cancer treatment is very costly, and the process is daunting both to the patient and the family, and the medics concerned in the process.

To the patient, the process of cancer treatment is painful, cumbered with a lot of procedures and instructions that has a serious torture to the mind and body. To the patient’s family, the cost of treating cancer is huge. It would require huge amounts of money to get good hospitals to offer the patients good treatment (Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman, and Hansen 2009, p. 56).

Even with this, it is not an assurance that the patient would survive the disease. To the medics, cancer treatment is one of the complicated procedures that take several hours of keen monitoring of the patient.

To ensure success in this process, there must be appropriate machines and equipments that would facilitate the whole procedure. To the entire country, budgeting for cancer treatment is a costly venture. It would demand that the government foregoes other developmental projects to increase its budget on recurring expenditures.

For this reason, there has been pressure on World Health Organization to help curb the spread of this disease. Donors want to see the prevalence of cancer drop in countries all over the world.

This organization must therefore reach out to the intended information with an aim to convincing them to act in a manner that would help avert the disease all together, or to seek measures that would ensure that they intervene at early stages of the disease before it gets to advanced levels.

There are some conventional ways through which cancers can be avoided. Such ways include the type of food one takes, exposures to harmful radiations, including direct sunlight during some hours of the day, among other reasons (Andreson, Narus,

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Flare Fragrances Company Inc Case Study essay help online free

Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss marketing challenges, current situation, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and marketing mix of Flare Fragrances Company Inc. In addition, this report focuses on the alternative solutions to recommend the company to sustain in the market in the recessionary economy.

Statement of the Marketing Challenge Flare Fragrances Company is a women’s perfume manufacturer in the US market, which encounters with primary marketing challenge to prove its sustainability for achieving declined growth due to global financial crisis in 2008.

There are varieties of challenges for the marketing of FFCI1, but the foremost challenge is how the marketing strategy would enable to work under the difficult economic environment and keep its revenue growth rate stable.

Following the global financial crisis and its consequential recessionary economy, the marketers would find difficult situation and the marketing successes and failures would depend on the patterns of consumers’ shifting behavior under the recession and the marketing strategies of the company to respond to the downturn.

In the economic downturn, the companies necessitate to identify with the changing consumption patterns of the customers and restructure the marketing strategies accordingly while consumers limit their spending based on priorities.

Due to job cut and increasing unemployment, the customers drop their spending for consumption of luxurious goods, but emphasis on necessary items. At the same time, the companies strive with dropping sales, forced to cut costs, trim down prices, and reschedule their new investments while marketing expenditures are also under pressure to reduce unsystematic cost.

In the given case study, under a recessionary economic condition, the CEO of FFCI Ms. Patterson has thrown the challenge to the marketing team of the company to increase revenue by target at least US$ 7.5 million in 2009 to turn around declining sales trend in 2008 and to do so she has presented two points of strategic implication.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Patterson pointed out that it is the discretion of the marketing team how they would take the challenge of gaining growth target under the recessionary market, but the two suggested point is either to emphasis on drugstore channel or to introduce a new perfume brand.

Thus, the marketing team of FFCI would evaluate the overall situation to identify their exact marketing strategy that can mitigate the primary marketing challenge of gaining target growth either by implication of drugstore distribution channel with brand extension strategy or by any other means.

At this context, the marketing team of FFCI has to take into account of a wide variety of factors including the company’s brand management, customer’s demography, pricing, and product-positioning map, and brand extension for new product launch along with the SWOT analysis of the company.

At the same time, this analysis would provide the marketing team more insights to explore multiple factors that could contribute to stronger growth with an entrenched consumer base in the US women’s fragrances market and to develop systematic evaluation of multiple growth opportunities for Flare Fragrances Company Inc.

Analysis of the Current Situation of FFCI Strengths

Long Experience: FFCI started its journey in 1955 as a small perfume producer, but it has placed itself at the fourth position in the U.S. women’s fragrances market (Quelch and Lisa 1);

Brand awareness: Strong brand image of the company in the US market is one of the most strong point for FFCI;

Popular Brands: FFCI owned at least six most popular brands in the US market like Loveliest, Awash, Summit, Essential, Swept Away, and Natural;

Market Trends: The company has succeeded to becoming the trusted one to both matured women and younger demographics of the US market concerned with health and green trends;

Customer Base: Around 74% of the matured women and 75% of teenage girls are loyal customer of FFCI (Quelch and Lisa 2);

In addition, FFCI evidenced its most powerful presence in sales of fragrances all the way through mass channels, predominantly the US market of “prestige” brands;

Distribution Channel: For the long-time, the company has strong distribution channel at the US premium and mid-tier department stores along with discount department stores and chain pharmacies;

To meet the needs of all classes of customers, the company classified its brands as premium brands ranging from US$ 70 per ounce spray bottle, mid-tier brands ranging from US$ 30 per ounce spray bottle and mass brands at very affordable price and available at mass merchandisers and discount stores;

Sales Projection: The sales projection of the company evidenced its strength of marketing;

Other: Other strong points are corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, supply chain management system, leadership style, human resource management, financial capabilities of the company, and so on.

Weaknesses

High Costs of Production: FFCI has limited its operation the United States, and it is avoiding to enter the international markets due to its very high costs of production;

Decreasing profits: The company evidenced a 3% overall annual decline because of global financial crisis;

Less Popular Products: Rather than the Fragrances, FFCI has a variety of product line like bath soap, body lotion and shower gels which are sold only through department store channels, but the brands of such products are not enough familiar in the market;

Budget: Lack of additional investment for marketing research;

Budget for advertising: The budget for advertising is not homogeneous, 70–80% of advertising budget allocated for umbrella brand Loveliest, but the other five brands sanctioned 20% to 30% (Quelch and Lisa 5);

The company evidenced high price of product line and it has also decided to further increase and waiting to settle the financial crisis;

Other: Price of raw materials and high operating costs are also key problems for this company.

Opportunities

Expansion: The retail perfume market of US has evidenced the overall customers spending of US$ 5.7 billion, where FFCI serves 9.5% at the women’s segment and the company has opportunity to expand its business at men’s segment;

Target new customer: Although the company has strong customer base at the matured women segment, it has opportunities to address new customer segment at 18 – 24 year females;

The consulting group of Arlmont Associates demonstrated that the prestige image fragrances would be the best performers for the company;

The company has the opportunity to introduce new brands with its innovation and originality;

Strengthening the relationships with department store channels, it has scope to focus on drugstore expansion;

The company has huge scope to increase its profit by strengthening its media plan;

Threats

Economic Downturn: The impact of global financial crisis in the US economy is a dangerous threat for FFCI as the purchasing power of the customer has decreased dramatically;

Long-term Crisis: The bailout and recessionary package could not settle the recessionary economy if the crisis prolongs for the long-term that would be another hazard for the company;

Reducing sales at the high-end department stores carried enough threat for the company;

Postponement of launching new brands is another threat for the company;

Existing Competitors: Strong competitors like Depuis, Suzanne Weber, and Aromatique, those hold market shares ranging from 11.5% to 15.6% is another threat for FFCI;

Advertising Budget: The competitors have more advertising budget and suitable strategies than the FFCI;

New Entrant: There are also threats of new entrant in the market because Chinese and Japanese companies have enough opportunities to enter the US market and capture large market share.

Analysis of the Marketing Mix Product

The product mix of Flare Fragrance Company is the combination of product lines that the company individual offerings to its target market, as an experienced player of the US women’s perfume market, the company organized its product mix to address the actual needs of its customers. FFCI is the fourth largest manufacturer of women’s perfume with a huge variety of product lines that consist of six familiar brands along with bath soap, body lotion and shower gels, the products mix of FFCI is as follows-

Loveliest: – Loveliest is the umbrella brand of FFCI introduced in the market in 1975, with a thirty-five years life cycle it has gained strong demand among the US women over 35 years as their classic perfume linked with prestige, stylishness, elegance, and personality.

Awash: – The brand Awash had introduced 1996 as a real endeavor of FFCI to enter in the US fragrances market segment of younger demography paying keen attention to the health and green trends; in addition, the packaging of this brand has leveled the umbrella brand name ‘Loveliest’.

Summit, Essential and Swept Away: – The Summit came into the market in 1998 as a new product of FFCI while ‘Essential’ and ‘Swept Away’ were introduced in 2000 and 2003 respectively to meet the needs of beauty and health conscious women, this three brands also carries the sign of leveled the umbrella brand name ‘Loveliest’.

Natural: – this brand came in the market in 2006 to meet the needs the demand of environmentally conscious people; in addition, natural is the latest innovation of FFCI has special appeal to the younger demographic with remarkable success.

Other individual fragrances: – The Company has some other individual fragrances like soaps and shower gels those are packaged as gift box and this product persists with a stable customer base and contributes 7% of the annual revenue.

Price

Although FFCI classified its products into three classes based on price, but it has evidenced that the overall price of FFCI is enough high, nevertheless the research of Arlmont Associates confirmed that the prestige image fragrances would be the best performers for the company.

The premium brands are sold at US$ 70 per ounce bottle spray, the mid tire brands are priced at US$ 30 to 70 and the mass brands are sold at affordable price while the umbrella brand Loveliest is priced at US$ 32. It has evidenced that 93% of FFCI’s aggregate sales come from six premium brands and rest 7% revenue generates from other individual fragrances.

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Rather than overseas expansion FFCI emphasis, its operation in the home country United States and the company uses distribution channel like department stores, food, drug, and mass merchandisers and discount shops along with factory sales.

Premium Brands are available at majority of prestige department stores, gift stores, and the mid tire brands are distributed through mass, and discount department stores while the mass brands are sold through food, drug, and mass merchandisers.

The department stores like Saks, Macy’s, J.C. Penney and, later, Target, Wal-Mart, and Kohl’s are the remarkable points of sales where most of the fragrances of FFCI are available for retailing, at the same time the company has notable factory sales for different product lines.

For new product’s introduction, the company makes them available at the prestige department stores and following market respond, it supplies in the other channels; in this context, Arlmont report has suggested to make available its product line at drug stores.

Promotion

The company invests its promotional budget 70% to 80% for the Loveliest and 20% to 30% for other brands while the media focus is on television, print media, web, and other promotional activities.

Most of its advertising materials communicate with the different age segment of females touching their prestige, personality, and emotion, which is very effective to reach at the target segments of the society- women from 18 to 64 years old generate their greater willingness to purchase FFCI products.

The promotional budget of FFCI pointed to 19% of its aggregate sales revenue, while the competitors remarkably spends 23% of their sales revenue for promotion and the company has emergence to increase its spending in this regards.

Alternative Solutions Explanation of Scale: Each criterion was evaluated and given a score between one and five, with one being very unfavorable and five being highly favorable

Not sure if you can write a paper on Flare Fragrances Company Inc by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Alternative Solutions: Restructuring Pricing Strategy and reducing operating costs

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness It would help Flare Fragrances Company creating the brand image in outside the US market 5 Aligns with vision In 2007, sales of the company have been increased by 12% while in 2008, this rate was only 2%; in this context, the sales revenue can be increased by changing this pricing strategy 4 Exploits core competency Flare Fragrances would need a longer period of time to regain its glorious position if it not implement this strategy 4 Competition Local competitors like Aromatique would launch new products with comparatively lower price to capture the market; 5 Creating loyal customer base Due to ongoing recession over 2008, the purchasing power of the customer had decreased. Therefore, the key purpose of this strategy is to create loyal customer base by maintaining both price-competitiveness and a prestige image 5 Financial risk Adopting this strategy has minimal financial risk, for instance, sales revenue can increase but net profit can decrease for several reasons. In addition, different agencies could impose fine for breaking competition law like the EU countries; 4 Short and long-term Growth rate It can meet both short and long-term growth in the US market 4 Think customer first This alternative solution meet the criteria of think customer first in the recessionary period 5 Total / 40 36 Alternative Solutions: Multimedia Marketing Campaign

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness Flare Fragrances Company has six leadership brands in the US markets; however, this company faced intense competition, as a result, the decision-marker should focus on IMC campaign to develop brand awareness; 5 Aligns with vision Since, Flare Fragrances intended to offer the best quality products, Multimedia Marketing Campaign would help the company to aware target customer regarding the product features with minimal costs 4 Exploits core competency Flare has already developed the product quality to avoid any controversy and Multimedia marketing campaign could give this message to the target customers 4 Competition This alternative solution will play vital role to gain competitive advantages over competitors, 4 Creating loyal customer base As competitors of the industry offer similar products with competitive price, it is difficult to say that IMC help creating large loyal customer base though it must increase sales revenue in global financial crisis 4 Financial risk Considering previous experience and total budge for the campaign Flare Fragrances, it can say that IMC campaign has no financial risks 4 Short and long-term Growth rate It would only meet short-term growth rate 3 Think customer first This alternative solution has focus on the customer’s need and aware them accordingly but this criteria do not concentrate on the concept of think customer first 4 Total / 40 32 Alternative Solution: Develop new product line

Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness Flare Fragrances Company has already captured 10% share in the US market in terms of sales, but Depuis, Suzanne Weber lead the market with holding 11.5% to 15.6% share; so, alternative solution three need to implement to build new brand to increase sales 4 Aligns with vision This solution complied with the vision of the Flare 4 Exploits core competency It has addressed areas that can add value for GM automobile and further develop the world class experience 3 Competition As the industry is too competitive, this solution would help target all range of customers 3 Creating loyal customer base As Depuis and Suzanne Weber offer similar products at lower price, then it would be hard to create loyal customer base if it can attract customers 3 Financial risk Implementation of this strategy may create financial challenges in this recessionary period. In addition, Flare Fragrances may need to face lose from new segment 3 Short and long-term Growth rate It would be possible to expand market and sustain for long-time in some business zone 3.5 Think customer first As the prime intention of the company is to maximize profits, It is not meet the criteria of think customer first 3.5 Total / 40 27 Recommendation This report suggested that alternative solution one is the best solution considering the evaluation criteria, advantages and disadvantages to choosing this strategy; however, this solution would help Flare Fragrances Company to increase profit margin in global financial crisis.

Alternative solution two would help create short-term growth and alternative solution three would cause financial challenge, but first solution would be the most prominent strategy to increase sales revenue and become market leader in the US market within very short period.

Works Cited Quelch, John and Lisa Donovan. 2010, Flare Fragrances Company Inc.: Analyzing Growth Opportunities. PDF file. 23 April 2012. .

Footnotes 1 Flare Fragrances Company Inc.

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Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions Report essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction to the organization

Background

Information technology policy, innovative use, IT as an enabler

Information systems Architecture

Findings, analysis and discussion

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction to the organization For any institution to work properly, it needs an information system set up. This is so because the company has to coordinate all the activities at a central point or on a distributed system that can be audited. Management information systems (MIS) are methods of using technology to help organizations manage people and make decisions efficiently.

Management information systems are used by managers to assemble and evaluate information about various aspects of the business such as employees, sales, accounts, production or other pertinent factors.

Every company needs to enumerate its employees. In this regard, it prompts it have a management information system in place. Previously, these companies used to have things like ledger books and books for logging into work. These traditional methods were so much flawed such that, it was difficult to recognize duplicates in the records. Sometimes the company would pay what is commonly known as ‘ghost workers’.

Ghost workers are nonexistent workers in the employees’ payroll but they do not exist physically. This means that the company remits wages or salaries to people who do not actually work in these institutions. The situation was very pathetic because a blacklisting mechanism was difficult to implement.

Another area where there was massive error was in the books of accounts. In most cases, large companies had problems of balancing books of accounts because the work was too much and it was done manually. Sometimes, there was demand for work to be shared among a group of accountants who may not accept responsibility of a mistake for example, in the balance sheet.

With the invention of personal computers and other information technology tools, the companies had to develop a proper information technology system that would handle the work of the organization and reduce the errors that were experienced previously. This paper takes a sample institution and tries to explore the management information system used in the company.

Background The Microsoft Corporation is a giant Software company that has major market share in the software industry especially in Operating systems and Office applications. The lines below explain the inception Microsoft Corporation in a nutshell. Thirty four years ago, a nineteen year old kid and his twenty-two year old business partner sold their first program to a little computer company in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The program was called BASIC, and it was the start of this company, Microsoft (“The History…”2012). The company and its Chief Executive officer saw a bright future in the software industry.

The management concentrated in the improvement of their products. With that in mind, they also thought of the idea of stealing knowledge and ideas. They raised the issue of piracy and patented the name Microsoft in order to safeguard identity.

Information technology policy, innovative use, IT as an enabler Having laid down the necessary ground for the growth of the company, Bill gates and his friend hired the first fulltime employee and concentrated on software development. Programming is the study of using defined sets of instructions known as programming software to create other software. Examples of programming languages used by Microsoft are COBOL, FORTRAN and Visual C .

The business of Microsoft became stronger as they ventured into the operating system software. In fact, “1981 means an entrance into the Operating Systems Business” (Sullivan 77). Microsoft developed its operating system which it called the Microsoft Windows OS.

This is a graphical user interface based operating system designed to enable computer users to use computers with ease. It also concentrated in the gaming and animation activities by collaborating with companies like Dream Works and Apple computers.

Information systems Architecture Microsoft is also popular in the offices because of three main things. These tools are the Microsoft Windows server, the cloud system and the office automation applications. The office automation packages include Excel, Word, Publisher, PowerPoint and others. Indeed, it is a giant organization because it sells its products to the whole world. It markets its products and services to more than seven billion inhabitants of the world.

Microsoft’s new ventures are the development of smart phones and operating systems of the smart phones. With this in mind, it is clear that Microsoft had to work on a robust management system that enables proper operation of the organization including hiring of staff.

We will write a custom Report on Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is clear that Microsoft was started by Bill Gates and his friend as the sole proprietors of the company. They hired casual employees and in 1978, they hired the first fulltime employee to the company. At this point in time, the company did not have departments. As the company grew bigger, there was need to separate the functions to each department.

For example, there was need to hire more talented employees to handle the enormous activities of the company thus, the need for the human resource department. There was a widened area of its market hence, the sales and marketing department was created. The fact that the company had to tussle with people who pirated its product, it led to the inception of the legal wing of Microsoft.

Obviously, all the departments had to report to the company owners who comprise of the top management and the board of directors. The company deals with Information and Technology Tools which in itself had to be used to make its operations automated, validated and licensed to reduce duplication of sold copies.

Findings, analysis and discussion The company is governed by a board of directors ready to work for the company and take it to greater heights. This is illustrated by the statement on their Microsoft’s site stating that anything they undertake to uphold their success and create value for their stakeholders and customers should be guided by long term thoughts.

“Good corporate governance encourages accountability and transparency, and promotes good decision making to support our business over decades” (IBM Agricultural Symposium 8).In the management of the company, the board of directors is the top decision maker.

The board of directors is elected by the shareholders. However, the decisions of the board of directors are independent of the management and are usually made to the best interest of the company.

The founder of the corporation Bill gates had a vision for all offices in the world and used his best skills in the development of software to automate the business and business transactions. Microsoft indeed has embraced technology in its management. From its model, it has been able to develop software to enable management in companies easier.

They use Office 360, Microsoft accounting essentials and project management tools to accomplish major operations in the company. Office 360 enables the interconnection of the corporation’s offices intertwined with the networking tools (both Local area and wide area networks).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management Information Systems in Corporate Institutions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The accounting essentials enable the company process its books of accounts and prepare reports for such transactions, while Microsoft project enables the company to make time tables for its software development activities.

By use of system analysis and design tools such as the Gantt and pert charts, Microsoft’s software development activities are accomplished within a specified time. Other technology tools employed by Microsoft are the use of databases, data encryption and decryption tools. These tools enable Microsoft to protect their work by hiding from potential violators of piracy laws.

Due to the use of the technology and Microsoft’s desire to protect its work, it is fair to look at the management system it uses to minimise piracy. One may ask how Microsoft implements this information management system in this department. The process is simple but first things first. Microsoft thought of a situation whereby, it would protect its customers from software counterfeit.

This idea was great however, implementation was a challenge. After great thinking and pondering about the idea, they came up with the genuine advantage system. Microelectronics in Agriculture – Facts and Trends (17) explains that, “Genuine Windows is published by Microsoft, properly licensed, and supported. With genuine Windows, you get access to support, updates, and downloads to help you get the most from your PC”.

They dubbed it genuine advantage because they need the customers to insist on buying genuine software so that they can be able to enjoy value added services from Microsoft such as free antivirus software.

The system is organised in a series of stages that help the customer to get the best out of Microsoft operating system. The first step is to teach the customers the importance of having genuine software from Microsoft Corporation through authorised dealers. Once the customer installs the software, it pops up an initial message asking him/her to validate the windows to ensure that it is genuine through the internet.

The customer then can be able to access the central database of Microsoft’s genuine copies of the software. The customer will decide to register his/her product so that he/she may get the value added services through the genuine advantage from Microsoft. This information management system is a robust system that can be able to handle data throughout the world without being hacked into and consequently inconveniencing the customer.

This enabled Microsoft to reduce counterfeiting and piracy. In a single line, the architecture could be to learn about Microsoft’s genuine software and its advantages, select the software wanted from an authorised dealer, install the software, and make the software genuine online. The advantage centre validates your software and start enjoying genuine software value added services from Microsoft.

The system employed is good; however, it has various shortcomings like not being able to use the software fully if you don’t have internet connection. There is also malicious corruption of data and the way data transmitted through internet browsers is possible to be classified as counterfeit because of the information browser send to the central database that may not march.

Conclusion In conclusion, the decision system is not well designed because there are communication barriers between the user and the corporation while the advantage of the system gets out of date so easily, reinstallation of software in the same system after crashing may be considered counterfeit, and customers incurring extra costs in internet connection.

To mitigate this, Microsoft should come up with a better information management system that is properly structured to avoid the hitches caused in the genuine advantage system.

Works Cited IBM Agricultural Symposium. Management Information Systems. Web.

Microelectronics in Agriculture. Facts and Trends Papers from International DLG – Congress for Computer Technology held in Hanover Germany. Web.

Sullivan, Laurie. Heavyweight Retailer Looks Inward to Stay Innovative in Business Technology. Washington, DC: DIANE Publishing, 1998. Print.

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Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors Research Paper college application essay help

The goal of this paper is to provide a pest analysis of the contribution of technological factors toward the success of Ryan air. This analysis presents various external factors likely to hinder this airline company from normal operations. Expansion in technological factors has led into the adoption of online booking services in Ryan air.

Expansion of technology is performed with regard to the Porter’s five forces of competition because of the increased competition in the airline industry. To attain a competitive advantage, Ryan air operates a low cost approach. To attain the implicated competitive advantage and at the same time maintain low costs of operations, aircrafts in this company and designed and build by Boeing.

Technological factors Technology refers to the process implicated in changing the inputs of a company into outputs:

Technological factors for this company revolve around the fleet.

Ryan air’s fleet comprises of a collection of 735 aircrafts (Sheth 590).

These aircrafts are owned by the company contrary to other airlines that prefer to lease aircrafts.

Owning aircrafts as opposed to leasing ensures the capitalization of maintenance costs on the company’s balance sheet.

The company sources spare parts and various maintenance services with regard to economies of scale.

The importance of technological factors in enhancing the operations of Ryan air Expanding technology enables this company to attain new markets through the use of online booking.

These factors enable the company to earn a competitive advantage.

Identify mechanisms of reducing costs.

Aircraft maintenance services To enhance its commitment toward safety:

The company uses very qualified aircraft maintenance personnel.

Provides adequate training to aircraft maintenance personnel.

Adheres to European Union Industry standards.

Despite that the company wishes to enhance a cost-effective approach in the maintenance of its fleet, the top management of this company does not explore the low cost strategy with regard to aircraft maintenance.

The company acknowledges the use of very qualified personnel and a very effective quality assurance team for the supervision of aircraft maintenance services.

The company strictly adheres to the regulations of the European standards of aircraft maintenance alongside standards formulated in the European Aviation Safety Agency (Data monitor 1-3).

Besides forming part of the EASA with regard to 145/JAR, this airline is an approved contractor of aircraft maintenance services.

Most of the routine aircraft maintenance services are performed by the company itself.

In addition, the company conducts constant checks on its fleet.

The checks are performed before take-off and during transit at some of its major bases.

Most of the repair and aircraft maintenance services required when its aircrafts are within any of airports served by the company are offered with regard to the provisions of the Part 145/JAR 145.

These provisions cater for aircraft maintenance provision contracts.

Most of the company’s fleet return to its bases every evening for examination by qualified engineers.

In 2002 the company indicated plans to expand its aircraft in-house maintenance potential by developing two-bay hangar services in one of its bases in Glasgow (Davey 1-2). This facility was meant to enhance light C checks on its fleet. In 2003, the facility launched its operations. At the moment, this facility has been developed further to cater for A checks on the company’s 737-800 aircraft.

In addition, the facility can perform two light C-checks in a week (Alle and Schmitz 145). This enables the company to enhance in-house flight checks. However, the company does not have the full potential to conduct most of the heavy maintenance checks. This explains why it is considering the possibility of engaging service providers from Poland, Venezuela, and Turkey.

Current service providers on aircraft maintenance services contracted by Ryan Air To enhance the provision of adequate aircraft engine maintenance, Ryan air entered into a 10-year engine maintenance agreement with General Electric (GE).

The agreement was an inclusive aircraft maintenance contract involving engine overhaul and repair.

This contract was to cover repair and maintenance of CFM56-7 engines used in most of its Boeing aircrafts, especially the 737-800 fleets.

This agreement was geared at enhancing partnership between GE and Ryan air for the purpose of promoting a wide access to quality aircraft engine maintenance at relatively reduced costs.

Aircraft maintenance services in Venezuela The aviation industry in Venezuela has undergone rapid expansion with numerous aircraft maintenance providers. Among the major service providers are Elite Air Services. This company offers;

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cargo and commercial passenger aircraft maintenance services.

Other services offered by this service provider include

Provision of Marshall Procedures.

Corrective procedures for maintaining aircraft parts.

Aircraft quality assurance inspection

Routine servicing of aircraft

Trains and offers skilled personnel to help the flight crew.

Additional services include

Inspecting fuel appliances.

Fuelling and defueling of planes.

Aircraft manual revisions.

Aircraft maintenance services in Turkey

There are two major aircraft maintenance facilities at Ankara Guvercinlik airport.

The first hangar facility is located between Sefakoy and Yesilkoy (Jiang 431).

Unlike, Poland, and Venezuela, Turkey has a long history of aircraft maintenance.

The maintenance services offered in Turkey are diversified and can accommodate different types of aircrafts.

The maintenance services in Turkey have been approved by the Joint Aviation Association.

This association established the compliance of the aircraft maintenance services in Turkey to stipulated regulations.

The Turkish airline received a certificate of compliance to the Joint aviation regulations in 1996 and is authorized to provide international aircraft maintenance services.

Aircraft Maintenance Services in Poland

Most of the airline maintenance services in Poland are provided by both state and private service providers.

Among major service providers are ARP, a state owned corporation that has acquired most shares in nearly all aircraft maintenance service companies.

Aircraft maintenance service provision in this region is not very developed and offers limited international services.

Conclusion Aircraft maintenance is an essential determinant of flight safety, which adds on to determine the competitive advantage of an airline company. This possibly explains why Ryan air is willing to invest heavily in aircraft maintenance despite operating a low cost approach in its major service provision. The choice of this company to invest in Boeing aircrafts is an added advantage with regard to enhancing the competitive advantage.

To foster the safety of passengers and the durability of its aircrafts, the company uses its highly qualified aircraft maintenance personnel to perform in-house checks. In addition, the company has also outsourced services of other companies, such as GE to perform major engine checks.

The choice of an appropriate service provider will enhance safety and quality service provision. Considering, Venezuela, Poland, and Turkey, the later has a better range of aircraft maintenance services to offer.

Works Cited Alle, Michael, and William Schmitz. “Ryanair plc.” Séminaire d’elaboration d’un Business Plan 2004: 1-45. Print.

Data Monitor. Ryan air holdings plc. Data Monitor Europe: London, 2008. Print.

Davey, Jenny. “Ryanair has earned its wings – investors should set autopilot.” The Times, 6 January 2006:1. Print.

Jiang, Hudson. “Competitive strategy for low-cost airlines.” Asia Pacific Management Conference 13.1 (2007): 431-436. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ryan Air Pest Analysis: Technological Factors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sheth, John. “The future of relationship marketing.” Journal of Services Marketing 16.7 (2002): 590-592. Print.

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Normal Communication Culture and Deaf Communication Culture Compare and Contrast Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Culture is how human beings relate with each other, how they express themselves in the context of relating with others. Through culture, individuals form a group, and identify themselves as unique and in unity with each other. One distinct value that makes up the deaf culture is the ‘deaf pride’.

Deaf people do not consider themselves disabled, instead they demand for fairness, equality and they are proud of their language. Deaf culture therefore is the tradition, social belief, behavior, history and institution of communities that use sign language as a major mode of communication because of their inability to communicate verbally. Deaf culture has mainly been obtained from schools which deal with deaf students only.

The main barrier that divides hearing people from the deaf is communication, which hinders interaction between people. For the deaf, they do not accept that they are handicapped, and for this reason they make sure that they remain independent, and that they work towards making it in the world. They encourage each other, build confidence among themselves, and ensure that they do not get discouraged.

The deaf are very straightforward in the way they communicate with each other, unlike those who hear, they appear rude because of this directness. Hearing people try to cover the truth by not highlighting the real meaning, this brings confusion in communication.

Since the deaf use the sign language, they tend to read the body language first, and get the true meaning of communication even if the words do not rhyme with the body language.

Deaf communication language is basically visual, that is, gesture based which involves; body movements, gestures, facial expression and hand shapes. The hearing people on the other hand depend on; tone variation, sound, information, volume and sometimes on expressions and body language.

Deaf music is different from the one that hearing people listen to. It is beat-based and it consists of timing, coordination and flow. The hearing music consists of melody, harmony and rhythm. The deaf organize themselves in cliques and they find it hard to allow anybody in their clique. The hearing individuals accept each other so long as they do not violate the rights of the group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deaf are slightly slower in learning compared to the hearing people; this is because of the concepts used in teaching them, especially when the concept is abstract. In terms of thinking, they do it differently from the normal communication people; they have to involve visual concepts. It is really hard to handle deaf students as compared to the hearing students.

Most trained students fall out of colleges because they find it hard to study the sign language. A trained person should be a link between the two worlds, which means that he should be able to understand English and be able to interpret it to the sign language.

Dealing with deaf people requires one to be knowledgeable about the deaf culture. The major area is that of communicating with them. When talking to a deaf person, one is not supposed to bend so low to the deaf person, because they get irritated and it also makes communication difficult.

When talking to a deaf person, one should be at a good position, visible and should also have good lighting so as to allow the deaf person to view every move they make clearly. In a forum where a group is involved in a communication, one person should talk at a time. If it is a board, it is important to distribute the agenda to every member of the group.

In a situation where you want their attention, you should touch the hand or tap their shoulders. If they are closer to you or in a gathering, you should use flash lights. Also, when talking to a deaf person, one needs to be patient with them, this is because they take time to conceptualize a certain sign in a given time period.

We should also minimize the wrongs that we do to them so as to reduce their anger. This may lower their esteem, which may affect their struggle in making it in the world, and also in their progress towards being self reliant.

It is very important for the normal people to study deaf culture so as to boost the interaction between the two groups. For instance, in a case of emergency, one should be able to alert all the people including the deaf effectively by learning the various signs that fit particular situations.

We will write a custom Essay on Normal Communication Culture and Deaf Communication Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important for the hearing parents to know about deaf culture, so that incase they give birth to deaf children or their children become deaf after some time in life, then, they are aware of what they ought to do. Sometimes deaf children fail to get access to appropriate education for the deaf because their parents have no idea of what most educational institutions have to offer.

In most countries, education is freely given to the deaf children. It is also important to be aware of the deaf culture so as to promote communication between the deaf and the hearing people, hence ensuring that the deaf are able to participate in similar activities with those that hear. Since the deaf do not admit that they have a disability, it means they have the capability of performing like the rest.

Thus, we need to consider them as normal human beings and distribute opportunities to them without looking at them as unable to produce desirable results. They are capable people who need support and encouragement for them to stand for themselves.

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Impact of philosopher to the educational process and purpose Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Progressivism

Constructivism

References

Introduction Pragmatism education philosophy marks a point of demarcation. This point is from the authorities based on realism and idealism. Also, they are in relation to educational philosophies, which include perennialism, essentialism, and scholasticism. The early child-centered curricula had an approach on the needs, interests, and prior learning of the child.

This great movement in education was made successful by the progressive movement in society. Progressivism is the one that expresses pragmatism in a nice educational manner. The progressive movement in education has a main goal on how to improve the society. Constructivism is a theory that states that through reflecting people’s experiences, there is the construction of the world in which they live.

Both the Progressivism and constructivism are theories that have differences. However, they both accept the idea that the world is changing. Darwinian Theory is the one that had a strong influence on this idea. (Hickman, 2009). Hence, improving the world’s society.

Progressivism This educational theory consisted of educators and education reformers. They changed the foundation of education by using its procedures. Kilpatrick was devoted to teaching. He held many positions in educational institutions like he was a professor of philosophy of education at the Columbia Teachers College. He advocated a curriculum that did not separate teachers and students.

However, he did not prove that teachers and student were equal in understanding. Instead, he meant that students needed to understand that teachers were their advocates. The idea that schools in democratic societies and school institutions were democratic did not come from him.

He did the encouraging of problem solving activities, flexibility in curriculum design, cooperative learning and learning based on experience. He stressed on the idea of the teachers understanding a child. This helped a child feel appreciated and is able to express what they know to the rest of the children in the school compound. The child then improves.

Constructivism This educational theory is based on internal structures of learners. This is a method of learning that is very strong. This is because they help learners or students understand the world and put new experiences into practice in their prior learning. In connection to education, almost all constructivists’ procedures in learning originate from Dewey.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, for constructivism to be acceptable, the belief on the general skills occur independently and naturally in the minds of human beings ought to be rejected. Constructivism theory states that individuals construct their own understanding through interaction with what they already know together with the new ideas and experiences they encounter.

By the end of the day, learners are able to make decisions instead of depending on their teachers (Wadsworth, 2004).Over the years, Jean Piaget developed the theory on how minds develop by a number of stages. Piaget, who was a philosopher of education, stated there are four stages of development.

They include the sensorimotor-based on physical development of a child, preoperational stage- language learning development, concrete operational stage; this is where a child learns to satisfy objects according to their differences and similarities, and the formal operational stage which is characterized by logical thinking.

Piaget insists on the point that a child does not skip any of the stages. These stages are supported by education in their schools.

References Hickman, L. A.,

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Country report: Brazil vs. China Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Political and legal systems

Economic systems

Society and business culture

Managing practices in Brazil

Implications made

Reference List

Political and legal systems Brazil operates a political system which is headed by an elected president who is the head of the chief executive branch of the government and the state (Brasil.gov.br, 2010). The Brazilian federal government is divided in 3 major powers which are coordinated harmoniously and independently. They are the executive, the legislature, and the Judiciary powers. All these bodies have different power within the government.

Politically, Brazil is a multiparty state implying that several parties are constitutionally and legally accepted. The country has been considered as a Presidentialist Federative Republic which is composed of the states, federal government and municipalities (Brasil.gov.br, 2010).

Different independent and distinct bodies are assigned with the power and a control system which ensures that constitution and laws are enforced (Brasil.gov.br, 2010).

The People Republic of China uses a socialists system which is an alliance of farmers and workers but led by the working class (China Internet Information Center n.d). In addition, the PRC operates under the Communist Party of China which leads the people’s way of life.

According to the Chinese constitution, all the power of the country belongs to the people and is exercised through the local people congress and the national People’s Congress (China Internet Information Center n.d).

In other words, the people have the power to manage the economy, state, and culture among other social affairs. The Nation is governed through the rule of the law and all people are equal to the law. Democratic centralism acts the organizational principle which harmonies and controls the state organs (China Internet Information Center n.d).

Economic systems Although china is ranked as a developing nation, it has emerged to be one of the nations with an increasing and stable GDP growth rate. China GDP has been increasing over the years and just like Brazil, the nation was not adversely affected by the 2008 financial market crisis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 2011, China had a GDP of 9.2% which has been seen as a major economic growth given that most economies in 2011 were still recovering from the 2008 economic shock (CIA 2012a). Unlike other markets in the world, the exchange rate of china is determined by fiat instead of the market forces.

Through economic stimulus, China has been able to experience an economic growth which has surpassed other developing nations in the region. In Asia, China is the largest economy outdoing economies of developed countries like Japan.

Brazil is the 8th largest economy in the world and the economic hub of South America. Its economy has undergone great changes over the years thus providing a good environment for conducting business. Just like China, Brazil is categorized as a developing nation despite its growth in economy. In 2011, Brazil experienced a GDP growth rate of 2.7% (CIA 2012).

The nation depends heavily on agricultural exports while the service sector has been able to develop the country’s economy. With a population of over 200 million people and unemployment rate of 4.7%, the economy has been described as stable one for business investments (CIA 2012).

Accordingly, Brazil has the highest interest rates which make it more attractive to business investors. In addition, the country was not hit hard by the global financial market crisis in September 2008.

Society and business culture Brazil has a strong and diversified culture which results from the fusion of the many ethnic groups such as the indigenous, African and South Americans (Veras

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Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

As a result of the 2008/2009 economic crisis, different countries are increasingly using monetary policies in an effort to stimulate their economic growth. One of the monetary policy tools being used is the cash rate which is the rate of interest that financial institutions charge to lend funds (Marthinsen, 2012, p. 202).

The Reserve Bank of Australia is one of the central banks which have adjusted the cash rate severally. In November 2011, RBA’s board lowered the official interest rate by 25 basis points to 4.25% (Reserve Bank of Australia, 2012, para.1). By adjusting the cash rate downwards, the central/reserve banks expect commercial banks to respond by adjusting their lending rate similarly and with the same margin.

This paper is aimed at evaluating situations of similar changes with specific reference to lending cuts undertaken by central/federal in other countries over the last year.

The paper has considered three countries which include Turkey, India and China. The report specifically focuses on cuts undertaken on the lending rate. Other roles performed by the central/reserve banks in an effort to promote economic stability are not considered.

China, India and Turkey are amongst the countries which have cut their lending rate over the last one year. For example, the Reserve Bank of India lowered the short term lending rate with a margin of 0.5% to 8% (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 1).

The decision by the RBI was motivated by the need to stimulate the country’s economic growth by lowering the rate of inflation. Findings of a study conducted by the RBI revealed that the country’s economic growth had slowed considerably in 2011 compared to the previous year.

In 2011, India experienced an increment in the rate of inflation which was fueled by increment in the price of commodities such as food and fuel (Ro, 2011, para.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, from December 2011, India has experienced a significant decline in the rate of inflation as a result of the cut in the lending rate (Daily News, 2012, para. 3). This has arisen from the fact that cutting the lending rate is reviving investment and hence promoting employment (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 2).

Despite the measure taken by the RBI, some of the public and private-owned banks such as the State Bank of India are not willing to cut the lending rate sooner. These banks argue that they are experiencing narrow profit margins, threat of increased bad debts and high-cost of long term deposits (The Economic Times, 2012, para. 2).

As a result, they are not willing to follow RBI’s direction. Additionally, these banks argue that the tight cash conditions are making the deposits remain high thus preventing them from lowering their interest rate.

Similarly, from October 2011, Turkey reduced its overnight loans lending rate from 12.5% to 11.5%. Additionally, Turkey’s central bank also lowered its repo rate to 12%. The decision to lower the interest rate arose from an increment in the rate of inflation and currency deterioration.

Over the past year, the Turkish central bank has been reducing its lending rate. For example, from January 2012, the lending rate has been 7.5%. This has significantly enhanced the country’s economic growth despite the economic slowdown being experienced in Europe. Additionally, the cut in the lending rate is expected to enable country attain its 4% rate of economic growth during 2012 (Perker, 2012, para.1-3).

As a result of the previous economic meltdown both in the United States and the Euro zone, the People’s Bank of China resolved that it would reduce its interest rate with a margin of 25 basis points in order to revive the country’s economic growth. The Central Bank of China intended to achieve this by lowering the cash reserve ratio with a margin of 50 basis points.

The central bank intends to reduce the rate of interest from 6.56% to 6.06% during 2012. The downward adjustment in the rate of interest is expected to result into a decline in the rate of inflation during the 1st half of the country’s fiscal year (Financial Times, 2012, para. 1-4).

We will write a custom Essay on Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In summary, it is evident that a number of governments have incorporated monetary policies in their effort to stimulate their country’s economic growth. One of the monetary policy tools that they have incorporated entails open market operations which entail adjusting the lending rate. Turkey, China and India are some of the countries which have implemented this monetary policy.

As a result, they have successfully reduced their country’s rate of inflation. However, the effectiveness of this monetary policy in promoting economic efforts is limited by resistance by the commercial banks to cut the lending rate. Therefore, it is paramount of central banks to make it compulsory for commercial banks to cut their lending rate with the same margin that they reduce the interbank lending rate.

Reference List Daily News, 2012, Indian central bank cuts key interest rates. Web.

Financial Times, 2012, People’s Bank of China may cut interest rates this year to boost growth. Web.

Marthinsen, J, 2011, Managing in a global economy: Demystifying international macroeconomics, Cengage, New York.

Perker, E, 2012, Turkish central bank unexpectedly cuts upper lending rates: Yields slide. Web.

Ro, S, 2011, Indian central bank raises interest rates and cuts GDP growth forecast. Web.

Reserve Bank of Australia, 2012, About financial stability. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Money and Capital Markets: Turkey, India and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Economic Times, 2012, RBI cuts lending rate to prop economy: Home, auto, and corporate loans to become cheaper. Web.

The Times of India, 2012, State bank of India may not cut lending rates soon: Chairman. Web.

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People Management: Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India LTD Proposal college essay help near me

Table of Contents Summary of the Case Study

Analysis of the Case Study of HMSI

Lessons from the Case Study

Reference List

Summary of the Case Study This is a comprehensive case study which clearly explains historical, human resource management issues in the company – HMSI. HMSI carried out its management functions by basing on the two key beliefs. These beliefs are the respect for differences of individual labourers and what the company termed as the “three joys”. The company aimed at using these tools for promoting all its members.

Just like many other firms that are managed through the modern human resource management principles, HMSI also carried out performance appraisals on its employees. Workers were graded basing on a certain grade after which they were rewarded according to the respective grade scored. The study also explains the development of unionization activities in the company.

These activities emerged because of the differences between the employees and management as regarding the human resource policies and implementation. The union activities took a long course. They resulted in attempts to use dispute resolution methods like reconciliation to resolve the problems. However, some of these problems escalated to violent confrontation.

This forced the intervention of the government to stop the violence and provide a strong foundation on which a mutual agreement was built.

The study explained how the unions and management of the company adapted and coped after the agreement of stopping hostility between employees and management of HSMI was reached. Finally, the study discusses the lessons that were learnt by the company and how it can utilize these lessons as it focuses on the future management.

Analysis of the Case Study of HMSI Company data, history and records; are distinguished when it comes to betterment of the existing human resource management policies (Malonis, 2000). This study gives a deep insight of the management activities in HIMSI since its inception. When a firm faces challenges, the management should make decisions which will help in sorting out the constraint facing the firm.

The decisions that are made need to be well thought and widely consultative; otherwise, they are likely to cause more friction in the organization. Any change in an organization must be followed by restructuring decisions to aid in enforcing it. A clear example is the decisions that were made by the president of HMSI in the year 2005 when the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The president wanted to see the company embarking on an expansion program that was a bit aggressive which could see the company regains its operation as was before the constraints (Saini, Management Development Institute (Gurgaon), and University of Hong Kong, 2006).

Confrontation in organizations can be as a result of the failure to attend to the seemingly small grievances which later escalate to crises. One of the major functions of the management of companies is the identification of issues from either within or without the company which can result to divisive conflict in the organization.

Crisis results in the loss of productivity (Moffitt, Bordone and Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, 2005). The 2005 conflicts in HMSI resulted in the loss of sales of up to 1.3 million Rupees (Saini, Management Development Institute (Gurgaon), and University of Hong Kong, 2006).

More often than not, restructuring is used to regain the image and the grounds of the organization more so in the aftermath of a crisis. Restructuring aims at having a total overhaul of the organization by changing a number of operations and organizational identities for instance changing the name, logo, packaging and branding of products among many other strategies.

As mentioned earlier, the restructuring strategies must be systemic and deliberated on by the entire organization. Failure of doing so by the management is likely to escalate the problem already at hand (Armstrong, 2006).

The management of firms increasingly understand the need to expand the operational capacity of their firms by expanding into new operational areas by way of opening subsidiary firms. HMSI began its operations in the year 1999 as a subsidiary firm of the Honda Motor Company Limited which is headquartered in Japan. The subsidiary firms often operate basing on the operational principles of their mother companies.

As part of its expansion programme, HMCL has opened more than 130 firms across the world HMSI being one of these firms. Performance appraisal has become an integral part of managing employees in organizations.

We will write a custom Proposal on People Management: Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India LTD specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is one way of making employees feel appreciated by the company for their efforts. HMSI recognized the need for this and put in place such a system. However, this system had its own flaws which mostly resulted from the way it was implemented (Armstrong, 2006).

Lessons from the Case Study Most management of companies come up with different initiatives, which aim at improving the performance of their organizations. With the realization that workers are often the most significant assets for firms, the initiatives of management mostly centre on workers. When workers are satisfied with the organization, they raise their input, which automatically spills over to the general output of the firm.

However, all human resource initiatives in organizations must be employee centred. The employees must be actively engaged and or involved in formulating these policies or initiatives as these initiatives directly affect them (Robert, 2011).

Failure to engage employees in the plans of the organization is likely to have grave consequences in the organization just as was the case with HMSI management and its employees. Before a performance appraisal programme is run by the organization, employees must be notified and trained on the assessment procedures and the importance of such a programme.

Most modern labour laws allow employees to join labour unions. These unions act as tools of negotiation with the management of organizations. Organizations must recognize these unions and formulate proper channels of negotiating with these unions in order to avoid bitter confrontations (Robert, 2011).

Dispute resolution has thus become a vital part of the function of management. Organizations, with the aim of surviving in the competitive industry must be aware of this. They must craft exhaustive channels of resolving disputes with their employees.

Communication is a vital entity for the management of firms especially so the subsidiaries. Cultural noise can negatively hinder the performance of a firm in the country where it is located because of cultural disparities that come in between communication.

Thus, it is important for the company staff to receive mentorship on the culture of the business destination. The company will have to consider this as it expands into new destinations globally (Marieke

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Product Innovation in Business Organizations Report best essay help

Product innovation in a business organization requires team work. Product innovation is a project, which requires different team members to play different roles. The organization of the team and communication among team members during innovation is crucial to the success of the team. Effective organization requires that team members with the most suitable skills to work on the innovation project be selected.

The teams should also be multi-disciplinary in nature incorporating members from operation department, technical marketing and sales. Members from these various disciplines are required to cooperate when working as a team in order to eliminate communication barrier that may be brought by conflict of interest.

The innovation team is supposed to work on the project from its initiation to the end and remain accountable. The project should also have a leader who will be responsible for the implementation of the ideas behind the project, and project teams should accountable for the outcome of the project.

However, for the project to succeed, the project team should have an effective communication system. An effective communication system can be realized through a centralized information sharing system. This helps multiple teams work simultaneously on the same idea even if they are at different locations.

To ensure that the product teams are communicating well, a business organization should make sure that the information received by product teams are relevant to the current project they are working on and in harmony with the decisions of the organization. Effective communication among product teams also requires that the information passed to the product team to be accurate especially with regard to the potential cost of the project.

Product development teams should, therefore, not be supplied with information outside their area of interest because this has the potential distorting the decision process. Effective communication among product teams also requires that these teams should be provided with exhaustive information, especially during the initial stages of product development.

Good communication in product development teams also requires that the business organization to ensure communication and collaboration between the firm and its customers. This is because new products in a company are normally developed on behalf of the customers. Prototyping is another method that can be used to ensure the product teams communicate well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prototyping refers to the process of representing the product being developed. Prototypes enable communication between product designers in an organization and consumers. This ensures that the product design team accurately captures the needs of customers in their design to avoid rejection of the product after it is complete.

Another important characteristic of shared information system is that this system needs to be cost effective in order to enable easy communication among product development teams. The communication system used by product development team should also be efficient when it comes to gathering information.

Shared information systems enable product development teams to make accurate decisions by providing analysis tools and information models. A good information sharing system also reduces risks by enable efficient risks assessment based on the information gathered.

Teamwork in product development that is integrated with effective communication has the potential of encouraging constant innovation in a company through product development. Basically, a shared information system should be in a position to supply relevant information, minimize risks, and ensure the objective of the product development teams is met.

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Business and economics: The organic food sector Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Trends in the sector The organic food sector has grown tremendously in the last two decades. This is attributable to various factors such as the changing dietary habits among the masses. The change has resulted in an increased demand for organic food. Studies have linked several cancerous ailments to the consumption of genetically modified food (GMF).

Fear among the masses has resulted in a significant proportion of the people reverting to organic food. This has driven the demand for organic food upwards over the last two decades. Companies that deal with such products have experienced relentless growth in demand for their merchandise. This trend is expected to persist as the public becomes aware of the nutrition value of organic food stuffs.

Entities in this sector will raise customers’ awareness on the nature of their commodities. Raising awareness that their commodities are organic will resonate well with their potential clientele. Overall, entities in this sector will market their commodities on the basis that they are organic. Thus, they possess more nutritive value than inorganic products (Dunn-Georgiou 34).

Porter’s model The increase in demand has resulted in a robust organic food industry. Growth of the organic food industry has various implications on the firms or entities that operate in it (Dimitri and Greene 7). Michael Porter’s model seeks to analyse how various factors impact on an organization’s future.

These environmental factors include rivalry among firms in the sector, entry of new firms, the bargaining ability of the clientele, the bargaining capability of the suppliers and the threat posed by substitute commodities. The lucrative nature of this industry has attracted new investors (new entrants). New entrants are a threat to entities in the organic food industry.

Firms can bar new entrants by raising the cost of entry into the sector. Nevertheless, there are no such costs that may prevent entry of new firms. Subsequently, new organizations have become a real threat to companies in the organic food sector. The entry of new firms has increased the number of players involved in the sector. This has bred rivalry.

Rival companies spend funds as they pursue dominance in a sector or guard their market segment. The rivalry may translate to slashing of prices to unsustainable levels. Such a strategy will result in the powerfulentity driving weaker firms out of business. Though such a strategy is unethical, it is utilised by entities seeking a monopolistic status.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once an entity attains a monopolistic status, it is always a threat to other smaller firms. Another threat to firms in this sector is their clients. If customers have a bargaining capability over the companies, entities in this sector will have to lower prices.

This will result in lower revenues for firms in this sector. Lower revenues lead to reduced profitability for firms and investors. If such a trend persists, many firms or investors may pull out of the sector.

Suppliers are a vital component in any industry. They provide inputs that entities in this sector process for sale to clients. They pose a certain threat to organizations in this sector. If the suppliers’ bargaining capacityrises, they will charge more for their inputs. This will have several implications on the firms that operate in this sector. These firms will encounter higher costs of operations.

Hence, diminishing the profitability margin. Reduction in the profitability margin will trigger closure of entities that cannot break even. The final threat to firms in this sector is substitute goods. These are commodities that will deliver the same nutritional value as the food produced by the organic firms.

Commodities produced by entities in this sector are unique. Hence, substitute goods pose no real threat to entities that operate in this sector (Willerand Sorensen 65).

Creating a competitive advantage SWOT

The key strength of this sector is that it has created a unique niche, which non-organic food companies cannot take over. The market segment created by the organic food sector has been expanding rapidly. The expansion implies that the purchaser is informed of the kind of commodities sold by firms in this sector. This market segment has a massive potential as indicated by the statistics.

However, it will require the industry players to create awareness among the potential clientele. The masses are more willing to try out organic products owing to the effects of GMF. This presents a key opportunity for the industry. The firms in this sector should exploit this opportunity through advertising that creates awareness on the nutritional value of their products and absence of side effects.

We will write a custom Assessment on Business and economics: The organic food sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This industry also has weaknesses. The products sold in this sector require a lengthy time to grow while some are seasonal. This hinders all-year production, which is common in inorganic products. Finally, advertisements to dismiss the nutritional value of organic products may pose a serious threat to the success of firms in this sector (Milbrodt 132).

Based on the SWOT analysis, this industry’s competitive advantage lies in creating customer awareness on the nutritional value of organic products. Creating awareness will require elaborate promotions, which targetthe clients that are likely to shift their preferences based on timely promotions.

Works Cited Dimitri, Carolyn and Catherine Greene. Recent Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organic Foods Market. Washington D.C: Economic Research Service, 2002. Print.

Dunn-Georgiou, Elisha. Everything You Need to Know About Organic Foods. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing, 2002. Print.

Milbrodt, Carola. Organic Food Industry in China – Current State and Future Prospects. Muchen: Verlag Grin, 2005. Print.

Porter, Stanley and Jason Robinson. Hermeneutics: An Introduction to Interpretive Theory. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans, 2011. Print.

Willer, Helga and Neil Sorensen.The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2008. New York, NY: Earth Scan Publishing, 2008. Print.

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Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death Compare and Contrast Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay”

Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death”

Theme and Treatment

Symbolism and Paradox

References

Robert Frost’s poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” and Emily Dickinson’s poem “Because I could not stop for Death,” abound in symbolism that depicts temporality of life. The time bound existence of all things is expressed through metaphoric symbolism in both the poems.

Dickinson presents this idea of temporality by personifying Death as a guard of worldly life and Frost presents nature in his distinctive style of a synecdochist to demonstrate how time changes everything.

Frost on one hand believes in mortality while Dickinson reestablishes her belief on death and immortality. The poems are similar in their belief that everything in life ends with time, however, Frost does not confirm to Dickinson’s idea of immortality.

This essay compares and contrasts the two poems to demonstrate the similarity in its theme of temporality but difference in stylistic and poetic content. In other words, the aim of the paper is to trace the similarities and differences of symbolism and temporality found in the two poems.

Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay” First published in 1923, “Nothing Can Stay Gold” is a unique example of a short poem. This poem is just eight lines long and the diction is extremely simple. It is written in trimester lines that add to the poem’s extreme brevity and stylistic lyricism. The poem is usually categorized as a nature poem, and is full of paradoxical symbolisms.

The central theme of the poem is temporality and change. Frost recurrently emphasizes on the fact that things initially may seem vibrant but with time fades into oblivion. Therefore, the question of temporality or transience is central to the theme of this eight-lined poem. A line-by-line explication of the poem reveals that Frost has filled it with paradoxes that symbolize the central theme of the poem.

The very first line of the poem, “Nature’s first green is gold” shows that the paradox of life and death in nature. Green is the first color of spring that assures us of life; however, one may have observed that the very first color that nature bears is not green but a haze of golden yellow. Here Frost does not mean wealth by use of the word “gold,” rather uses it as a color.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Here the reface is again to the very first inception of life in spring when the color of green is not rich viridian but a light golden shade, which appears to be yellow. However, the first golden leaves of spring are awfully short-lived and changes to other shades. In the second couplet, Frost reinforces on another paradoxical observation of nature to demonstrate that the fading away of its initial beauty.

The second couplet describes the “early leafs a flower,” which describes when the leaves bloom out of the stem, curled against each other, shaped like a flower. This demonstrates the leaf’s early life is as beautiful as that of a flower.

However, they grow, as Frost says in, “only so an hour” and are transformed into their flattened shapes. The symbolism of the core idea of the poem is demonstrated with “gold”, “early leaf”, “flower”, “Eden”, and “dawn” . The poem, through its paradoxical imageries, presents the paradox of death in life.

The poem recounts the truth of life i.e. all things eventually ends; it narrates the development and failure, and birth and death in life. The emergence of the eventuality of Fall in the poem is explicitly symbolized with words like “sank” and “goes down”. The transience in life is emphasized and reemphasized in the poem.

The temporality of all things beautiful takes a bigger character when Frost writes about Adam and Eve in paradise and their eventual fall. Thus, he writes, “So Eden sank to grief” . This too symbolizes a transition as was done in case of a golden leaf transforming into a green leaf. Therefore, the paradoxes are juxtaposed against contrasting ideas to demonstrate a different anthology of life.

This emphasizes on the cycle of life, which moves and never stops. The poem ricochets in a sense of the demise, a fall that is abundantly found in nature. The eventual fall is the norm, the rule, the inherent order of nature that is metaphorically expressed in the poem .

Dickinson’s “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” One of the most famous anthologies by Emily Dickinson, “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” expresses the same theme of change as observed in Frost’s poem. A summary of the poem recounts that Death dressed as a gentleman suitor takes the narrator for a ride in his horse drawn carriage.

We will write a custom Essay on Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narrator appears relaxed with the presence of Death as they pass towns, schools, and other signs of humanity at an extremely relaxed pace. However, the poet intentionally juxtaposes such beautiful sites with the chilly dusk that evolves in the next stanza.

The narrator finds herself completely underdressed for the chill of the evening their journey ends at the burial stand where she was to be buried and in the final stanza, the anti-climax of the poem emerges when we come to know that the narrator has been dead for centuries and this rendezvous with death took place a long time back.

The final line of the poem demonstrates Dickinson’s belief in afterlife and reemphasizes that the horse’s head was a pointer towards an eternal life after death.

The central theme of the poem is change, which is found at its very core, and is symbolically demonstrated through a journey that ends abruptly with the cyclical nature of the movement of time: “We passed the setting sun … He passed us” . The change in the setting of the poem explicitly demonstrates in the alteration of the description from a pleasant ride through the afternoon to the “quivering and chill” symbolizing death.

The finiteness of life is expressed repeatedly in Dickinson’s poem demonstrating the transience and temporality of life. The cyclical nature of life demonstrated through the rising and setting of the sun and journey from a happy afternoon to the chill of the evening transforms the poem from a traditional journey-through- life poem, to a more complicated poem demonstrating the temporality and eventuality of life:

“Since then –‘tis centuries – and yet

Feels shorted than the day

I first surmised the horses heads

Not sure if you can write a paper on Nothing Gold Can Stay vs. Because I could not stop for Death by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Were toward eternity”

The paradox in the poem is the belief that Dickinson asserts, which is inevitability of death, but it is only through death, one can achieve immortality. The poem is more astounding as it gives a mere glimpse into the experience of death rather than providing an exploration of an idea of death.

The poem is rich with symbolism, as one of the main characters of the poem is Death (a personification of death) and Immortality (as another passenger in the carriage). The main theme of the poem is that life is a steady journey towards the eternal eventuality brought by death. This temporality and transience of life is reverberated through the poem.

Theme and Treatment The summary of the two poems presented at the beginning of the essay shows that the main theme of the two poems are similar i.e. temporality of life. Both Frost and Dickinson strive to present similar ideas of the eventuality of life. The temporal nature of all things beautiful is explicitly presented through both the poems.

In Frost’s poem, every line reflects the sentiment expressed in the final line “Nothing gold can stay”. Frost presents the idea of entropy in his poem, which dictates that all things deteriorate over time and thus moves from order to chaos. Therefore, all living things are destined to fatality and nothing remains eternally.

On the other hand, he presents the idea of cyclical movement of life as we see in nature. Life comes to full blossom in spring and then through the course of the year sheds its colors in autumn. Nevertheless, life returns to full glory in the next spring, repeating the cycle. Therefore, Frost uses the imagery of the natural process, as he describes in his poem, to reveal the real theme of transience and temporality.

Frost’s style in the poem is that of a photographer. He captures every image of nature to its precision – the golden leafs and the leaf flowers at birth. However, he recreates his photographs in paints of eventuality. The poem is a juxtaposition of the idea of life and death presented with the artistic ability of a painter to paint an image.

On the other hand, Dickinson’s poem speaks of immortality discoursed through the same course of transience. Life, as portrayed by Dickinson in “Because I could not wait for death,” presents the same temporality as portrayed by Frost. Human life is mutable and eventually embraces death.

But in the end, Frost looks at life that reoccurs through a perennial cycle of birth and death, while Dickinson moves towards a more permanent end by embracing immortality through death. Both the poets believe in deterioration of everything beautiful and lively, to death, but in the end, they differ in their perspective as one embraces immortality while the other encumbers into the continuous cycle of birth and death.

Symbolism and Paradox Both the poems abound in rich imagery and symbolism. Frost, however, believes that he is not a symbolist and rather prefers the title of a “Synecdochist” . A synecdoche is a figure of speech that represents a part for a whole and this idea is reverberated in Frost’s poem. He believes that nature represents “the entire system of things that gets represented in every particle” .

Therefore, the symbolism in Frost’s poetry is presented from style to the structure of the poems . The condensed metaphor used in poem “Nothing Gold Can Stay” present a brilliant description of the Nature’s true character at inception. Another important line of the poem that presents its theme, other than the last line is “Hardest hue to hold”.

Frost then compares the autumnal fall of the leaves with the fall of humankind in Eden. The episode of Adam and Eve plunged the human race from the life of immortality to one eventually perishes. Frost thus presents the idea of suffering and decay that eventually ends everything that is beautiful.

The poem is a synecdoche. The first five lines of the poem present the birth and fall of the minutest parts of nature. Frost describes the leaves at birth as golden and then compares them to flowers in order to establish the concrete, the symbols of something much bigger which is then entered with a significant “So” in the sixth line that presents the turn of the poem towards a bigger misery and fall – that of the humankind in Eden.

Therefore, Frost employs the imagery of the golden leaf and the flower shaped leaf and their change to symbolize the transient nature of life and the rise and fall of man, which is further exemplified with the episode of Adam and Even in Eden.

Emily Dickinson uses personification as a tool to symbolize the advent of death and immortality. The two themes of the poem, Death and then eventual Immortality achieved through death, are personified. Death is embodied as a courting gentleman while Immortality is personified as a passenger in Death’s carriage: “The carriage held just ourselves … And Immortality” .

The imagery in the poem presents the past to “clarify the infinite conceptions through the establishment of a dialectical relationship between reality and imagination” . Through the symbolism of death and immortality, Dickinson tried to present her philosophy of the interconnectedness and the “mutually determined” system of the finite (human life) and the infinite (immortality achieved through death) .

The presence of immortality after death is symbolized through the narrator who had died a long time ago but lives eternally to tell the story of her meeting with Death and Immortality. The paradox of the poem is apparent when the narrator tries to determine the extent of the immortality after death through temporal concepts such as “century” and “day”.

She states that “centuries” in the immortal life is “shorter than the day”, which is an earthly notion. Further Dickinson’s personification of Death as a gentleman becomes more striking as she described him in the most agreeable manner. However, in the fourth stanza Dickinson amalgamates the finite earthly life with the infinite death:

“The Dews drew quivering and chill –

For only gossamer, my gown –

My tippet – only tulle”

These lines represent the temporal existence of the narrator where her mortal qualities are affected by the “chill” of the “Dew”. In a way, the narrator tells the story of her temporal life from a higher position of immortality and literarily a higher awareness of everything.

Symbolically the poem talks of three stages of life – the school that represents childhood, “School, where children strove”; adulthood is represented through “Fields of gazing grain; and old age and eventually death is represented through “setting sun” .

Dickinson visualizes life as a play of childhood, adulthood, old age and death, and eventually immortality. Immortality freezes time. Therefore, the narrator symbolically uses the “horses head” as life, which is a walk towards eternity.

This is the point where Frost and Dickinson differ in their philosophies. Frost sees life as a never-ending cycle of being and fatality while Dickinson romanticizes death as the bearer of immortality that freezes time. The styles of the two poets are different in their treatment of temporality and change.

Frost shows change as a symbol for the transformation in the greater sorrows and miseries of life while Dickinson shows change as an alteration in the life of man towards his ultimate goal of embracing death. Even though, the themes of temporality and change are common in the two poems, Frost and Dickinson have disparate attitude towards life and death.

References Bagby, G. F. (1986). Frost’s synecdochism. American Literature, 58(3), 379-392.

Dickinson, E. (2010). Because I Could Not Wait for Death. In E. Dickinson, Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries (pp. 62-63). New York: Harvard University Press.

Frost, R. (2005). Nothing Gold Can Stay. In J. Parini, The Wadsworth Anthology Of Poetry (p. 636). Toronto, Canada: Cengage Learning.

Quinn, M. B. (1966). Symbolic Landscape in Frost’s “Nothing Gold Can Stay”. The English Journal, 55(5), 621-624.

Shawa, M. N. (1991). Dickinson’s Because I could not Stop for Death. The Explicator, 50(1), 20-21.

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Abraham and God Reflective Essay essay help: essay help

Abraham was faithful and obedient to God. God told him that He would be “the ancestor of a multitude of nations” (The New Revised Standard Version, Gen 17.4). God told him that He would become fruitful and, from His off-springs, kings would rise. The Lord made a covenant with Abraham and his future generations. Circumcision of the males would symbolize the covenant.

Moreover, the slaves and those people bought from other lands who belonged to his household were to be circumcised too. Male children would be circumcised on the eighth day after their birth. Through circumcision, even the slaves and foreigners would also be enjoined in the covenant. On the contrary, any male who refuses to get circumcised “shall be cut off from his people: he has broken my covenant” (Gen. 17.14).

We must obey God and keep His word so that He can continue to be with us, and our future generations. He has promised to increase us and make us fruitful, but there is a condition, we must cut off everything that might make the Lord unhappy with us. We are His children, and His covenant with us is everlasting.

The Lord promised to give Abraham a son through Sarah, His wife at her advanced age. God would bless her, and through her son, the Lord would raise nations. Abraham was tickled by that news, and he laughed asking himself if his wife would give birth at her old age. Sometimes, we may laugh at the promises of God and wonder how they will come to pass because so much time has passed.

However, we should keep our trust in God because everything He has promised, he will bring to pass. Our day of liberation might seem to have delayed for long, but it will come to pass and we will rejoice. We should not get tired of trusting in God and praying. Moreover, we ought to remember that our way is not a God’s way. Abraham thought God would bless him through his son Ishmael.

However, that was not the plan of God, “No, but your wife Sarah shall bear you a son, and you will call him Isaac” (Gen. 17. 19). Therefore, we should be open to any way that the Lord chooses for our liberation. Moreover, we should take action and act upon the word of God like Abraham did and he had all the males in his household circumcised. The cutting of the foreskin would be a visible reminder of God’s covenant.

Just as God had promised, Sarah bore a son named him Isaac. She was old, but she nursed a child. God revealed His power in enabling an old woman to conceive and become a mother. He shall give us our freedom and we will be filled with joy. Those who feel sad and hopeless that our situation will not change should look at Sarah giving birth at an old age and be encouraged that nothing is impossible with God.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Sarah gave birth to Isaac, she started to feel disturbed by the presence of Hagar and Ishmael. She requested her husband to chase them away. She did not want to see Ishmael playing with her son Isaac. She also did not want him to inherit anything from his father. She wanted to be the only heir with her son. Abraham had to send her away even though he was distressed about it.

Sarah might have despised Ishmael because she had her own son, but God did not despise him and because he was a child of Abraham. “As for the son of the slave woman, I will make a nation of him also because he is your offspring” (Gen. 21. 13). Thus, even if you are despised and seen as unfit, God does not look at you that way. God loves you and He will honour His covenant to you.

God will overturn your misfortunes into blessings. After Hagar was sent away, she went to the wilderness of Beer-Sheba and her water ran out. She cried to God because she was afraid her son would die of thirst. God answers our cries and prayers as he asked, “What troubles you, Hagar? Do not be afraid for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is” (Gen. 21: 17). The Lord gave them water.

God was with the boy and made him a nation. We ought to depend on the Lord always and pray at our time of need because he will hearken to our prayers and send help to us. He did not abandon the chid of Hagar because she was a slave, but took care of him and he prospered.

Furthermore, God will protect you from your enemies or any person that rises against you. For instance, He protected Abraham’s well that Abimelech’s servants had seized. Remain hopeful in God and do not forget to pray; He will deliver you from your troubles, and keep His promises to you. Moreover, He will protect your property because He is an everlasting God and He will never changes.

Work Cited New Revised Standard Version. 1989. Web. Apr. 22. 2013. .

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The TiVo Company Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The TiVo Company is a company that offers an avalanche of television solutions through a variety of solutions that make it possible for the viewer to enjoy an independent form of viewing. The pioneers of TiVo were Jim Barton and Mike Ramsay. The invention of the company-redefined entertainment in numerous ways as it delivered the promise of much hyped technologies.

TiVo is the pioneer of home entertainment and a creator of the first Digital Video Recorder (DVR). The largest part of the company’s business is in partnerships with leaders in technology and entertainment industry. Some of the company’s partners include Virgin, DirecTV, Hewlett-Packard (HP), among others.

The company partners with the aforementioned companies to provide its customers with branded boxes that incorporate the DVR technology synonymous with TiVo (Barton 28-35).

History, Development, and Growth of TiVo over Time The TiVo idea began to shape up in the late 1990’s with Ramsay and Barton working together to provide a project network in Orlando. This was necessitated by a joint venture between SGI and Time Warner that culminated in the creation of an interactive television system.

It took a short time for the pioneers to come into a realization that they could develop a similar system, which exhibited greater intelligence at a consumer friendly price. The system on their mind would be easier to use. Moreover, viewers would be capable of controlling television programming and timing. The aforementioned idea was the core part of TiVo genesis.

To transfer this idea to reality, Jim Ramsay and Mike Barton quickly assembled of a top-notch team that would facilitate delivery of the TiVo promise. Subsequently, TiVo blended Silicon Valley, Madison Avenue, and Hollywood together to create a television service that was personal and to enable the masses to access.

In 1999, this company unveiled the television service at consumers at an electronics show for national consumers. From this time, the company continues to work diligently to ensure that viewers enjoy better television. This feat has been achieved through teaming with industry leaders to foster changes in the manner that consumers can interact with and enjoy the television (Barton 29-36).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the launch of the first working TiVo prototype, at the 1999 show, and limited time for the completion of an authentic working product, Mike Ramsy dared the TiVo Company to ship the DVR by April 1999. This was to the thrill of everyone with many dubbing the effort ‘the Blue Moon’.

To deliver this promise, the team working on the idea had to dedicate time and effort with most of the members spending the entire March at the company’s premises. In March, TiVo rolled out the first box from the assembly point.

Following the launch of TiVo, the company has been made available in Mexico, Taiwan, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and Puerto Rico. The Cable CARD standard is incorporated in the new models of the company albeit limited in the United States (Chorianopoulos and Spinellis 50).

Internal Strengths and Weaknesses for TiVo TiVo uses patents to guard its products from imitation. These patents enable the company to operate effectively without the fear of imitations. Moreover, this strength has enabled the company to amass profits and ward off competition. Since its launch, the company has been conducting successful campaigns, which have enabled it to have a bigger market share relative to its competitors.

The company has internal strength in licensing technologies. Some of the companies that have such licenses are Toshiba, DirecTV, Pioneer, and Sony.

Furthermore, because TiVo integrates its technologies with the products of the aforementioned companies, TiVo is capable of necessitating the adoption of the future products for these industries. In return, this will facilitate the adoption of TiVo services. The company’s strength enables them to target the consumers effectively (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 28).

With regard to the company’s internal weaknesses, TiVo tends to rely on its partners. The company over reliance on its numerous partners is a weakness as this implies that the company trends are determined by the business trends of the partners. A slump in the sale of products by its partners implies that TiVo will experience a similar slump.

We will write a custom Report on The TiVo Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has a weakness because of the separation from its customers by its partners. Most of TiVo customers go through the company’s partners in case they want to seek clarification or launch complaints. This feat prevents TiVo from giving direct assistance to its customers as these customers go to the partners first.

In the light of this, there exists the need for the company to appoint directors who will influence the future direction of DVR. In addition, the TiVo gets core product components from a supplier. This is a weakness because the supplier can decide to charge higher prices to the detriment of TiVo’s productivity (Ferrell and Hartline 295).

The External Environment Surrounding the Company Constant changes are prevalent in the TiVo’s external environment and the industry in which the company operates. TiVo can formulate its strategies after accessing if the external environment favors its operations. There are general environmental factors that explain the nature of TiVo’s environment. These are global, social-cultural, demographic, political/legal, economic, and technological factors.

The youth in the United States are relatively more technologically knowledgeable than the older population. Consumer demographics of the TiVo Company are individuals aged 25-45 years. The company focuses on market of the individuals in their 30’s prior to designing services and products.

Since the company’s inception in 1999, the aforementioned age group has evolved into sophisticated user of technologies formulated by the likes of TiVo. Subsequently, this has compelled TiVo to increase breadth and depth of the available technology in the services and products (Ferrell and Hartline 295).

In the technological domain, understanding and use of DVR is rampant in the United States. Moreover, other countries embracing the DVR are at their introductory phases. Through technology, even the average homes have been rendered capable of imitating the basic functionality of DVR. Moreover, the cycle of television purchase has shortened because of technology updates, faster decline of prices.

TiVo technology of stand-alone televisions replicates a computer’s functionality. In the economic environment, the recent recession that rocked financial markets affected the company’s sales and was a blow to companies that sold luxury items. TiVo was among these companies because its DVR concept is not a necessity when watching or using a television (Chorianopoulos and Spinellis 49).

The economic turmoil translated to less income at the disposal of the consumers, which in turn was responsible for lack of purchase of luxury goods such as TiVo sets. Currently, the company is grappling with the effects of the recession with the customers being cautious buying luxury products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The TiVo Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite predictions that the economy of the United States will continue exhibiting an upward trend, TiVo sales range from slow to moderate (Barton 30).

The political/legal environment affects the way the company conducts its operations. Currently, there exist numerous unsettled laws concerning intellectual property. The foci of these laws have been the ability of technology to alter shows. Legal issues with Internet use have also characterized the legal climate. Particularly, YouTube has been airing copyrighted material devoid of the owner’s permission.

Lawsuits on patents are currently going on in the technology front over the need to enforce patents. Furthermore, several bodies are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that current regulations and laws are enforced appropriately and involved companies are in compliance.

Generally, the political/legal environment surrounding TiVo’s operations is dynamic because of constant scanning and monitoring (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 294).

TiVo company’s global environment is characterized by two aspects, which are emerging markets and intellectual property rights. Enforcement of intellectual property legislation and copyright laws is marred with inconsistency in the entire global market.

Currently, the most vital aspect in this realm is the enforcement of such laws because technology is always reverse-engineered in countries like China and resold at lower costs in gray markets.

Moreover, new markets such as Brazil, China, and India are advancing and the DVR market is likely to expand with the middle and upper classes in these markets increasing in size and wealth. TiVo should be wary of these developments because they are globalization benefits that come with piracy risks and intellectual property infringement (Barton 29).

SWOT Analysis Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006; 297) reveal that TiVo has numerous strengths with the demand of the DVR rising since the public understood and accessed the company’s technology.

With the television being pivotal in the American life, the strengths of this company are obvious. The company has strength in increased subscriptions particularly in the United States because no other country has surpassed large television viewing than the United States.

Factor conditions in the United States are sources of strength for this company. The company has access to capital from well-established corporate banks and private individuals. The entrepreneurial culture in the United States guarantees the company knowledgeable workforce, which cannot be replicated in other countries.

Communications infrastructure in the United States is an advanced factor and a source of strength for the company. Most of the homes in country have telephone lines and televisions, which are sources of demand for the company (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

The company is supported by various industries. Because the company makes products complementary to the televisions, in case the aforementioned broadcasting companies offer poor programming quality, TiVo’s uses will decline.

The company has a market characterized by intense rivalry; Comcast and EchoStar are some of the competitors as they offer generic DVR. Replay TV has also been a major competitor in the stand-alone concept. This competition compels the company to evolve and cut costs while making innovations to its products (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

Opportunities and Threats Currently, TiVo has an avalanche of opportunities. The DVR industry is rising and analysts expect an increase in the number of consumers. Promotion and advertising is a good opportunity for TiVo. The marketing aspect of sponsoring products is an opportunity that will enable TiVo Company to enjoy a larger market share. TiVo has a tempting opportunity in the global market.

The United States is among many countries that enjoy viewing the television. These countries can also provide a larger consumer base for the products of this company. When the company becomes more stable and gains wider acceptance in the United States, control over the foreign markets will be the next move for this company (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 233).

Despite the numerous opportunities for TiVo Company, the DVR industry has a fair share of threats. Satellite and cable providers are threatening the success of this company by producing generic units. An example is DISH networks that have introduced a generic unit that has been subscribed to by many consumers.

Imitations from other companies are exhibiting highly advanced technology than that of the TiVo products. Comcast cable is a company that conducts campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness of the technology used by Comcast but TiVo enjoys the dominance in DVR industry (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 297-298).

The stand-alone concept in television boxes will soon be rendered obsolete. The integration of DVR into set-top boxes will soon phase out the stand-alone concept. The latter has about a quarter of TiVo’s subscriptions. Barriers to entry are low in the market that TiVo is involved.

Nevertheless, the entry of big competitors should be a source of concern, as these competitors will offer more innovative products, cheaper products, and products that can be used with ease.

TiVo may struggle to hold on to its market if it fails to differentiate itself through low prices for its products (Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth 338). According to Albarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006; 298) the DVR industry has been consolidated. Consumer who gets cheap DVR units from rivals will seldom decide to buy from TiVo, notwithstanding the add-on’s and features provided by the company.

Corporate-Level Strategy by TiVo The corporate level determines the way resources are allocated in the company. The TiVo Company defines its markets based on the age, income, and preferences of the consumers. This strategy has been of great importance to the company because the targeted market segment consists of individuals with high income and technologically knowledgeable.

Through corporate strategy, the company has decided recently to diversify their market through entry into other countries. The company continues to improve the technological features of its products to maintain and expand their market. The numerous partnerships made by the TiVo Company are core part of the company’s corporate level strategy.

These strategic alliances are necessary, as the company cannot manage to venture into the technology and communications industry on its own. Directors at the company set high standards for its officers and employees. These standards are implicit in the philosophy of good corporate governance. The directors have the responsibility of ensuring that the targets of the shareholders are met (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 117).

Business-Level Strategy The business-level strategy used by the TiVo Company can be accessed upon a closer look at the company’s demographics, consumption patterns, lifestyle choices, and industrial characteristics among other factors. As mentioned earlier, TiVo focuses on customers aged between 25-45 years. These customers are technologically knowledgeable and have the capacity to buy TiVo products despite its high prices.

The lifestyles choices of the individuals in this age bracket are more on luxury and entertainment goods. On the other hand, the industry in which TiVo operates is highly dynamic because of technological preferences.

The TiVo Company adopts a business strategy of ensuring that the customers are equipped with the latest television strategy. Through partnership with major players in the broadcasting industry, the company can cater for the preferences of its consumers (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 29).

The Business level strategy used by this company limits consumer base through the high prices that are charged for its products. Although the company enjoys a better market relative to its competitors, charging lower prices can guarantee a wider market. The five forces model by porter can also explain the business strategy adopted by this company. The company’s strategy has been largely influenced by the influx of major competitors.

Manager must continue to formulate newer strategies to ward off the competitors. Rivalry is rife in the entertainment industry. Price wars have exacerbated rivalry and determine the strategies to be adopted by the company and its competitors. With regard to substitute products, the company operates in a market with few substitutes (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt 29).

Structure and Control Systems The structure of the TiVo Company comprises of board of directors that determine the direction of the company. Other teams involved in the company’s operations are the Research and Development (R

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View of Boston Bombing Descriptive Essay essay help online

The world got astonished by the attack during the Boston marathons last week. A huge number of people had turned up looking forward to a great day in the world of sports, fans had dressed in various colors and gamblers had already put bets on who was to win. No one was prepared for a terrorist attack except for the police, who were there to keep peace but who were not expecting a thing to go wrong.

Sniffer dogs were everywhere but the terrorist or the group of terrorists managed to trick all the enforcers of peace. The first round was okay, and fans were busy humming, cheering Capella in jubilation.

The atmosphere was filled with an aura of happiness just before the unexpected happened. The first blast spread panic among people around, while the second signified hysteria; people started to run helter-skelter, and it was upon the emergency workers to save the day.

The police tried to push the crowd away from the sight, while the doctors in all hospitals dropped their appointments to cater for the many affected by these terrible blasts. The firefighters took their trucks with a mission to rescue those affected. Sirens could be heard as the ambulances were driving fast towards the sight ready to ferry the injured to the awaiting doctors.

The military also joined in trying to usher the crowd away from the sight and give way to the firefighters. However, people got confused and critical time was wasted during the operation. When one of the soldiers was interviewed, he stressed on public education in regards to ‘how to act when faced with an emergency.’ The soldiers resorted to tearing down the fence to give way for the estranged crowd.

Bodies and body parts were scattered all over the place, the injured could be heard moaning in pain. Mothers didn’t know where their children were and vice versa.

Some emergency workers who had quickly arrived for the rescue operation were also affected, since their families included those who had attended the celebrated event. “As much as these emergency workers are professionally trained, it does not stop them from being human” (Kalman 122). They are just men and women who have dedicated their lives to save others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resources were a major challenge; as much as the paramedics were prepared to give first aid to the injured, there weren’t enough ambulances on the site. It was also reported that in one of the hospitals a doctor was handling more patients than it was allowed. Thus, the government should think about increasing the number of medics.

The bomb squad didn’t have enough equipment to find the cause of the blast or to prevent another. Most people at the scene were expecting the third attack; it was only out of sheer luck that it didn’t occur. If only these men and women had all the equipment they needed, maybe the three who died would have lived to tell their story.

“It is only when disaster strikes that we realize how unprepared we are; thus every disaster should be treated as a warning of what may happen caught up again in a maze of unpreparedness” (Kalman 158).

We may not prevent a bomb from detonating, but are we prepared well enough to save the lives of those affected? If the emergency rescue workers had enough resources, maybe the number of casualties in either natural or fabricated disasters would be less. At the same time, if only the public was taught how to react in case of an emergency situation, maybe rescue workers would have an easier time.

Works Cited Kalman, Bobbie. Hospital Workers in the Emergency Room. USA: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2005

Kalman, Bobbie. Emergency Workers Are on Their Way! USA: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2005

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Management Consultancy Project Annotated Bibliography essay help: essay help

Annotated List of Books and Articles Gothberg, H. (1991). Time Management in Public Libraries: A Study of Public Libraries. Public Libraries, 30(6), 350–377

The author of this article discusses various procedures, established in public libraries. This study shows how public administrators can make the work of public libraries more time-efficient.

Kinnell, M.,

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Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights Analytical Essay college essay help online

Introduction The very legacy of war of any kind is its disregard for human rights. The September 11 attacks on the United States’ commercial hubs in New York and Washington provoked America and allies to launch an international offensive to counter the growing threat by terror groups. However, the decision to launch a global war on terror has had its fair share of both negative and positive ramifications on international human rights (Ishay 2004, p. 364).

Combating political or religious extremist networks of any magnitude has had a series of restrictions, infringements, and violations of human rights in unprecedented scale. In the wake of war on terror, numerous countries have had to contend with arbitrary restriction on civil liberties in a nefarious effort to rid the world of extremist groups.

Human rights watch document these scenarios across all nations primarily considering the US Patriotic Act, Intelligence Cycle, and the rights of detainees as being complicit in the quest for human rights (Human Rights Watch 2015). War on terror brings forth a new global context that emboldens forces of repression to take drastic tall on international human rights. The language of war on terror evokes a strong passion to justify violation of human rights of even ordinary populations with no or concerted intent to cause mayhem.

Tracing the roots of terrorism: Jihad in Islam and other perspectives Jihad is a widespread text authored by one of the most influential and highly celebrated Islamic scholars of the twentieth Century, Sayyid Maudoodi. Maudoodi was a man of various facets, doubling as a philosopher, journalist, theologian, and political activist. In 1941, for example, he claims credit for the establishment of the Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan and India an ideology that re-energised the spread of Islam.

This political movement was dedicated to advocating for the establishment of untainted Islamic states in the regions governed by Sharia law (Huzen 2008, p. 33). Rather than view Jihad from a personalised, parochial view of Islam, Maudoodi view of Jihad according to Sharia law entails at the top of its priority: Family relations, socio-economic and political administration, judicial systems of the Muslim world that guarantee the laws of peace and war in diplomatic relations as well as duties and rights of citizens.

Succinctly, Jihad under the Sharia law seeks to embrace all the confluences of life. Accordingly, Sharia law aims to achieve a comprehensive scheme of life by striving to embrace and restore social order defined by the abundance of life and richness of the people (Kelsay 2007, p. 57). To the rest of the population, Jihad evokes conflict and war and it is the defining factor for making Islam to have the least reception in the minds of such opponents.

The interpretations about Jihad in several traditional Islamic jurisdictions may have been correct for their own precise classical context, nevertheless today as the entire structure crumbles, the international relations continue to wallow, and global world have undergone great alterations, it seem difficult to understand the usefulness of Jihad in today’s context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Islamic extremists view Jihad as an Islamic holy war whose meaning is attributable to struggle as the foundation of its creed. Jihad as a popular Islamic practice emanates from the word Juhd meaning struggling in the way of Allah. Jihad therefore denotes striving to make the kingdom of Allah profound by bringing up Allah’s word of which all Muslims have an entitlement to protect Islam as a holly religion.

The confusion in the conceptualisation of Jihad is partly responsible for the continue rise of extremist groups that are currently terrorising the world. According to Kelsay (2007, p 36), Jihad, therefore, is reminiscent of a revolutionary act, a struggle to the utmost exertion, which the radicalised Islamic opinion brought into play in achieving their objectives.

With the already radicalised mind-set of the Muslim world, the Islamic extremists sought to destroy all governments and destabilise all states that were less receptive to or opposed to Islamic ideology and programmes.

The resolve of Islam was therefore, to set up states based on the ideology and programming of the Islamic opinion, regardless of which states become receptive of the Islamic ideologies (Huzen 2008, p. 42). The most indoctrinated feature of the Jihadist as a movement was to roll out a programme that ensures no state undermined Islam.

Tracing the roots of war on terror: Iraq’s inversion of Kuwait The Iraq’s disastrous inversion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 sent shockwaves to all corners of the world with America feeling the pinch technically. For America, this was not only an insult to regional tranquillity, but also pronounced domestically as bearing disastrous future to the region and the world. President George H. W. Bush particularly saw Iraq’s aggression as a proven determination to destabilise the international system and to cause a humanitarian crisis in unprecedented scale.

Bush in his official capacity as president condemned the inversion and spoke of it in bitter tones, often comparing Saddam Hussain, the Iraqi leader, to Adolf Hitler of Germany (Hinnebusch 2007, p. 10). The Bush’s administration saw a need to find a solution to this unnecessary aggression and in time became certain that the best answer to Iraq was a military action. War, according to President Bush, was the only language that Saddam would understand best.

As a result, the Bush Administration went ahead to build international coalition for a popular Iraq subduction. Not only was international inversion necessary in totality. The Bush administration saw the character of Bagdad as an opportunity to reinforce the international community. As the events unfolded, the international community knew Iraq’s intention; Bush in countenance to Iraq’s defiance mobbed a popular vendetta to quash Iraq at a most opportune moment.

We will write a custom Essay on Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coming shortly after the United States’ opposition to Iraq’s interference in Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council stated their condemnation in the assault for its proclivity to human rights violations (Hinnebusch 2007, p. 22). However, in just a span of a week, the UN, and the international community slapped Iraq with a widespread sanction. The unanimous actions directed to Iraq by the international community passed out as the strongest show of unity against repression.

The Just-War Concept Whether it was by design or default, the Gulf war was, and still perceived as a moral victory for the American people and the world in general. In this war, supremacy loomed large and the forces of deceit led by Saddam Hussein were just about to subdue world peace. The Gulf conflict as Hinnebusch (2007, p. 24) notes was a war, designed, orchestrated, and executed by the very forces who have never wanted the good for humanity, forces that are itched by peace and commonality of purpose.

The United States’-led coalition against Iraq’s forces not only proved Saddam’s actions as inhumane, but also as a mark of contempt and imprudent disregard for truce as has always been fronted by the United Nations. Perhaps Saddam’s rejection to commit to popular practices that mitigate the chances of war is what majority of the people cling to as a defence for their submission of justness in the subjugation of Iraq in the Gulf conflict.

For some time now, the just-war concept has been instrumental in dictating the efficacy of going to war or not, and once consented, the demeanour of the combatants are unquestionable hence the collapse of human rights in wars against terror. It is conceivable that after the defeat of Saddam Hussein, the undercurrents of the Gulf war regrouped to form a formidable terror group for yet another onslaught (Ludvig 2014, p. 384).

In the context of the 21st century, war on terror has had some positive human rights consequences though. For example, Afghanistan has been able to shrug off from the Taliban regime. Apart from that, the on-going conflict resolution processes in Sri Lanka continues to strengthen humanitarian perspectives in the region. War on terror has greatly constrained Pakistani’s support for Kashmiri terrorists groups. Most often, though, considered on a balanced scale, the global war on terror has had negative impacts on human rights.

Patriot Act and Federal Powers The USA Patriot Act, came into force in 2001 as the most sweeping enactment following the 9/11 attack. At the behest, the presumption of the act rested on its uniting and strengthening ability to provide among other things, appropriate tools necessary to intercept and thwart terrorism. As an effective homeland security commitment to ensure the safety of the American people, the Patriot Act aimed to restore order through surveillance and rapid tracking response including seizures and detention of suspected terrorist agents.

In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, President Bush together with the Attorney General John Ashcroft effectively rallied the Congress to increase the federal powers of search, seizures, surveillance, as well as detention of suspects (Etzioni 2004, p. 175). In the meantime, the concerns of domestic liberties were put away deliberately as the act unanimously got support from both the Democratic and Republican divide.

Among the key features of the Patriot Act included the Roving Wiretaps, which allowed the federal agency to wiretap any telephone conversations that terror suspects and agents might use to penetrate the security systems. In the course of all these developments, the federal agency became more consistent in the use of internet tracking as a means of fast tracking internet communication.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impacts of the ‘War on Terror’ on Human Rights by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The law enforcement authorities therefore had the capacity to interfere directly in the personal accounts of individuals using the internet without necessarily having to obtain warrants for such impersonations.

The Patriot Act also guaranteed the federal authorities the right to order for business records for private and public companies for litigation scrutiny and auditing by the federal authorities. In so doing, federal investigators were able to access information and communications from consumer purchases, bank records, credit cards, libraries as well as schools, and colleges.

Moreover, the Act instituted a special Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court with the capacity to issue search certifications at the request of an investigator to launch terrorist investigation on foreign visitation to America (Panetta 2014, par. 3). In addition, the Aliens Reporting and Detention Act authorises the Federal authorities to require reportage by foreign persons vising America and those found to be in America illegally risked detention and arrest without warrant.

Within the tenets of keeping with the traditions of the Patriotic Act, the federal authorities could seize the property or obstruct such logistics of suspected terrorists. Individuals whose property fall victim of the rule bear the duty of proof that the property in question was not for the purpose of terrorism and the provision also guaranteed no claim.

The detention laws allowed the federal authorities to detain suspected terrorists and agents for lengthy periods during which interrogation and effective investigation for such persons will take place. The federal authorities became effective in fast tracking the indigenous American citizens from terrorist connections.

Patriot Act instituted prohibition against harbouring terrorists as a duty to thwart the emergent terrorist networks in America and other parts of the world. Harbouring individuals who have committed a felony amounting to terror and or are about to commit such acts of terrorism therefore became highly constrainable by the federal authorities.

In retrospect, the Patriot Act unleashed a tall order for the various institutions charged with the security of the American populations. In achieving the objectives of the Patriot Act, the American citizens became more involved in ensuring the smooth passage of the Act by showing a commitment to thwart terrorism (Panetta 2014, par. 5). Terror suspects and agents by contrast carry the greatest responsibility for their crimes as provided for by the Patriot Act.

Intelligence Cycle Intelligence cycle denotes all the activities that are within the intelligent cycle niche. Usually, these include processes that guarantee useful decision-making for a given information. As the name suggests, Intelligence Cycle is a set of processes that includes planning, data analysis and evaluation, as well as integration and information dissemination.

The war against terrorism, therefore, passes out as a moral victory not only for the American people but also for all the populations of the world. It is a proof of America’s decency to the use of power proportionately. It is a demonstration that with America as the world’s military power and intelligence might, all nations get protection against aggressors and transgressors such as Osama Bin Laden whose extremism ideologies were increasingly making the world more insecure.

Ethics entailed in war on terror Ethical and moral intelligence seeks to nurture principles of just intelligence by creating theories capable of answering many ethical concerns while emphasising on the classical metaphysical laws developed over the years. No clear theory seem to conjoin community intelligence studies to the just war theory as provided for in the military ethics.

The main forms of ethics within the study of wars on terror consist of fundamental freedoms, rights, and utilitarianism. Utilitarianism, as Moyn, Andrew, and Elizabeth (2010, p. 37) note, defines the priorities of principles and explore whether such principles conflict with those of others in practice or not.

Utilitarianism, rights, and freedoms ideologies are applicable as a single comprehensive concept of justice that assents to fairness and equal treatment for all without seeking to put individual interest above all others in any way (Cohen 1997, p. 5). These ethical principles are applicable in a broad spectrum and significance in ensuring that the least the law does not apply by default to certain individuals.

These ethics, therefore, presents the image of justice and equity concept that aims to political liberalism among individuals and within their societies without necessarily infringing on others’ freedoms or liberties. As Arneson (2000) notes, intelligence’s concept of justice as fairness envisages a society of free citizens with equal rights whose main desire is to work in harmony within a democratic and free economic systems.

Intelligence account of fair and equal treatment for all is a version of political liberalism that concerns the legitimate application of political power in an egalitarian (Arneson 2000). As noted herein, intelligence’s pedagogy of fair and equal treatment for all is a demonstration of how enduring unity is achievable even under the multifaceted worldviews that democratic institutions are capable of offering (Blake

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