Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction People have found themselves strongly arguing about whether or not being rich means better education and more success. From the two divide individuals bring forth valid and strong arguments that are very convincing.
To successfully cover the relevant arguments there is need to provide arguments from both sections. It is worth noting that for the paper to have a clear bearing there is need to first have an explanation of certain major concepts in the questions posed.
For instance what does being rich mean? What are better education and more success? The understanding of majority of human being s with regards to being rich means a variety of things to them.
Money and wealth means a lot to human beings and it is essential for acquisition of such goods and services as rent, clothing, entertainment food and typically a wider range of other things that makes the life of a human being enjoyable (Broom, Jones
The Palestine-Israel War Essay essay help free
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has a long history dating back to the late 19th century. The conflict has been in existence for all these years without an amicable resolution. The rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism in the late 19th was the genesis of this conflict.
The Jewish immigrants in Europe got fed up with the continual persecution of Jews and began thinking about relocating to their original land of Israel (Milton-Edwards, 2009). The intense desire to re-establish the Jewish nation by the Jewish population was sparked by the underlying beliefs of the Jewish religion with of them being repatriation to Zion.
Zionism gave rise to a political movement whose main objective was to establish a Jewish nation in Palestine (Milton-Edwards, 2009). The Jews needed the right to self-determination and this mission was the perfect way of achieving their long-term dream. This paper will extensively discuss the history of the Israeli-Palestinian war and the major players in the conflict.
The task of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine was a tall order and required the right strategies and adequate planning. To show their determination towards attaining their own state, the Jewish population around the world began forming organizations such as the Jewish National Fund and the World Zionist Organization.
These organizations raised funds for purchasing land in the Palestinian region during the British rule (Karsh, 2002). This action by the Jews did not go down well with the Arabs in Palestine and this gave rise to the Palestinian nationalism as reaction to the Jewish Zionism Movement.
The Jewish population around the world began migrating to the Palestine region and in the process brewing a conflict due to the desire for self-determination by both Jews and Palestinians (Karsh, 2002).
The Arab leaders in Palestine became concerned with the increased invasion of Jewish in their area. The Zionist Jews continued to buy more settlements under the Ottoman rule.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tension between the two parties was further fuelled by the eviction of the fellaheen tenants. This eviction drew a lot complaint from the Palestinian population about their continual displacement from their settlements by the Jewish immigrants who were returning from the Diaspora (Kamrava, 2011).
Under intense pressure from the Palestinian population, the Ottoman Empire was forced to introduce land purchase regulations.Since most of the early Jewish immigrants were from Russia, the Ottoman empire being of the Russian origin had been very hospitable to them as it expected complete loyalty in return.
The Arabs in Palestine feared that immigrants form Russia and other parts of Europe would erode the Arabic culture and traditions in the region. The Palestinian population continued to protest against the Jewish invasion prompting the Ottoman authorities to ban land sales to Jewish immigrants in 1914.
The number of Jewish settlers in the Palestine region had significantly increased to 60,000 from 2700 within a span of twenty years (Kamrava, 2011). The major breakthrough for the Jewish population in Palestine came in 1917 when the British Empire was allocated the West Bank and the Jordan regions during the Belfour Declaration.
The declaration was a ray of hope for the Jewish nationalists but a major area of concern for the Arabs in Palestine. The Faisal-Weitzman Agreement was signed in 1919 calling for co-operation in the Middle East. The World Zionist Organization’s leader future president Chaim Weitzman led the Jewish delegation while the Arab delegation was led by King Faisal I who would be the future leader of Iraq (Harms, 2008).
The British Empire took control of the Middle East region officially in 1919 after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire from Turkey. The control of the Eastern region was handed over to the Hashemite Arab Dynasty from 1923 to 1946. The Jewish aspirations were seriously hampered during this period.
The anti-Semitic manifestations in Europe contributed to the increase in migration of Jews to the Palestinian region under the British Mandate in Palestine. Their relationship with Arabs became hostile in 1020s because the Palestinian population felt that their national identity and relationship with other Arabic countries were at risk (Harms, 2008).
We will write a custom Essay on The Palestine-Israel War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The British administration continued to favor the Jewish immigrants in many ways and in the process to the Arabic onslaught on the Jewish settlers in Palestine. The Palestinian Population that was against the perpetuation of Jewish policies in their land resolved to terrorism and violence in attempts of retaliation.
Mohammad Amin Al-Husayni was the leader of the Palestinian Arab Movement and was very instrumental in inciting the Palestinian Population to stage riots against the Jewish immigrants (Gelvin, 2007).
The Palestinian authorities were fighting to take control of the Western Wall in an attempt to reclaim what they termed as the sacred place for them. The Jaffa riots were as a result of the religious tension created by the fight over Kotel.
These tensions led to the killing of many Jewish immigrants around the region with those who managed to survive being expelled from Hebron. In 1937 there were some proposals made by the Pell Commission put in place the British Empire (Gelvin, 2007). Among some of the recommendations that would help end the conflict was the division of the Palestinian state into two states.
One state would be occupied by the Jewish Population whereas the other state would be occupied by the Arabic population. This suggestion was opposed by both sides with the Arab leadership ruling out any possibility of sharing land with the Jewish Immigrants. The British government was forced to restrict the number of immigrants to Palestine with the region remaining one state (Gelvin, 2007).
The tension between Arabs escalated during the Second World War that saw illegal immigration of more Jewish immigrants into the Palestinian region who were fleeing Europe at that time. The Yishuv leadership that was under the British administration was responsible for facilitatiting these illegal immigrations.
In 1939, the Zionism movement under the leadership of Ben-Gurion accepted the 1937 Peel Proposal as one of the steps of completely taking control of the Palestinian region (Cohn-Sherbok, 2003).
According to Ben-Gurion, the Jews would first of all accept the division but later think of expanding to the rest of Palestine of strengthening its forces. The Yishuv concentrated on shipping in more illegal Jewish immigrants during the Second World War.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Palestine-Israel War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The formation of the Jewish Resistance Movement in 1945 as away of opposing the British policies led to the death of many innocent civilians in the course of the Jewish onslaught on the British Military.
The British government had tried all the available diplomatic avenues to resolve the conflict but all in vain (Karsh, 2002). The newly formed United Nations Council was handed the Mandate of Palestine in a written form by the British Government.
The United Nations took over and immediately came up with new recommendations for conflict resolution in Palestine. To begin with, the region was to be split into three states.
The third state would comprise of Arabs and Jews in equal numbers as and the other two would comprise of majority Arabs and Jews respectively. The size of the area to be occupied would be decided by the resolution 181 of the United Nations (Karsh, 2002).
The third state referred to as the international zone would be under the control of the United Nations with Bethlehem and Jerusalem as the major cities in the state.
This suggestion was objected by Arab leaders were against the Jewish independence but this did not stop the UN General Assembly from implementing the plan. The voting for the partition plan took place in 1947 against the wish of all Arabic countries.
The partition plan was to take place immediately after the end of the British rule in 1948. In attempts of retaliation, the Arabs in Palestine declared war on the Jewish Immigrants after their efforts to reverse the decision through the International Court of Justice had failed (Alpher, 2009).
The following days saw fresh fighting and violence emerge with thousand of people being killed and wounded in the process. The state of Israel was officially declared in on May 14, 1947 immediately after the expiry of the British Mandate in the Palestinian region.
This declaration was made by David Ben-Gurion in accordance to Resolution 181 of the United Nations (Harms, 2008). The new state of Israel was supposed to ensure that all the rights of its inhabitants are protected irrespective religion or political affiliation.
The declaration of Israel as an independent state in 1948 sparked fresh violence with major Arabic countries combining their forces to fight the newly formed state of Israel.
Israel emerged victorious and got a perfect opportunity to expand its territory past the initially set boundaries. Almost all the regions were seized by Israel except the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
This led to the expulsion of Jews living in Arabic nations with almost 600,000 Jews returning to Israel by 1967. This war led to almost one million Palestinians being expelled from their settlements making them refugees in the southern part of Lebanon (Harms, 2008).
Those Arabs who remained in Israel were given Israeli citizenship. Attempts by the Palestinian refugees to take control of the West Bank and the Gaza strip led to the deportation of all Palestinians from Israel.
The Palestinian refugees were trained and funded by other Arabic countries in an attempt to reclaim the territory lost to Israel. This was followed by the establishment of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as a new strategy to reclaim their region.
Israel strengthened their onslaught and managed to capture the Gaza Strip and the West Bank from the Palestinian fighters that had the backing of the Egyptian Army.
By 1955, Israel had completely taken control of Jerusalem on the fact that Palestine was yet to be recognized as an independent state (Karsh, 2002). The Palestinians appeared to give up in the following decade but the election of Yasser Arafat as the new PLO leader rejuvenated the Palestinian forces to continue fighting Israel.
The struggle to control the West Bank intensified in 1969 with many Palestinians being killed. King Hussein, who was the then King of Jordan played a crucial role in trying to end the fighting between PLO and Jordan (Kamrava, 2011).
Thousands of Palestinians sought refuge in the Southern part of Lebanon after the Cairo Agreement in 1949. This new development led to a civil war in Lebanon since the Lebanese population was against the idea of the Palestinian refugees becoming autonomous in their country.
Having established a new base in Southern Lebanon, PLO had found a perfect opportunity to continue with its attacks on Israel under the leadership of Yasser Arafat. The Palestinian resistance was further strengthened by the formation of Hamas in 1947 by Ahmed Yassin (Kamrava, 2011).
The decision by Arafat to oppose the US-led coalition attacks on Iraq dealt a serious blow to PLO. The relationship between the self declared state of Palestine and other Arabic states that supported the US invasion of Iraq began to deteriorate.
After the Gulf war in 1991, the US in coordination with Russia started fresh diplomatic initiatives to end the Israel-Palestine conflict by sponsoring the Madrid Peace Conference (Gelvin, 2007).
The negotiations continued in Oslo, Norway and culminated in the declaration of a ceasefire by Yasser Arafat through a letter sent to the Yitzhak Rabin who was the Israeli Prime Minister at that time.
This deal was officially sealed in Washington, D.C with PLO recognizing Israel as and independent state. Many concessions were made by both parties during the Oslo peace process but the control of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank still remained the bone of contention.
The Hamas opposed the recognition of Israel as an independent state vowed to continue with the armed struggle (Harms, 2008). The Hamas intensified its attack on Israel and managed to reclaim some of its lost territory.
Many Jewish radicals were angered by the new development and one of them was prompted to assassinate Prime Minister Rabin in November, 4, 1995. After the death of Rabin, Simon Peres took over and promised to continue with the peace process.
Benjamin Netanyahu emerged victorious in the 1996 elections after promising to have a more rigid stand opposed to the Oslo process. Netanyahu was opposed to making any concession because he thought that would encourage more extremist elements. 1996 and 1997 saw a series of attacks from both sides resulting in the assassination of Yahya Ayyash by the Israeli forces (Harms, 2008).
The activities of Hamas were seriously paralyzed because Yahya was their chief bomb maker. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu saw the signing of the Interim Agreement of 1998 before the election of Ehud Barak as the new Prime Minister in 1999.
Barak promised to continue with the peace initiatives started by Rabin. He was even ready to handover the entire Gaza strip to the Palestinian Authorities but Arafat blatantly refused the offer.
The second Infidata began in 2000 with Israel developing a new strategy of selective assassinations (Alpher, 2009). Ariel Sharon came into power in 2002 and launched the operation defensive shield that reduced the Palestinian attacks on Israel.
The Hamas has been strengthened since 2005 to date especially after the death of Arafat. The fight over Gaza continues with both sides determined to control the region (Alpher, 2009).
In conclusion, the Israel-Palestine conflict is here to stay despite the many attempts made by the UN and the international community to bring the conflict to an end. A lot of damage has been done to the Palestinian people and it is the responsibility of Israel to make the necessary amendment to restore peace in the region.
References Alpher, Y. (2009). Future of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Critical trends affecting Israel. New York, NY: DIANE Publishing.
Cohn-Sherbok, D. (2003). The Palestine –Israeli conflict: The beginner’s guide. New York, NY: Oneworld.
Gelvin, J. L. (2007). The Israel-Palestine conflict: One hundred years of war. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Harms, G. (2008). The Palestine-Israel conflict: A basic introduction. New York, NY: Pluto Press.
Kamrava, M. (2011). The modern Middle East: A political history since the First World War. New York, NY: University of California Press.
Karsh, E. (2002). The Arab-Israeli conflict: The Palestinian war 1948. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing.
Milton-Edwards, B. (2009). The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A people’s war. New York, NY: Taylor
Active Euthanasia Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Euthanasia is a Greek word meaning “good death”. Euthanasia refers to the deliberate action that is taken with the intention of ending life due to a pressing suffering. The suffering may be for instance incurable diseases, injuries, or irreversible coma.
Death is only euthanasia if there is intention of death occurring by whatever was done or not done. As it concerns euthanasia, three different terms are necessary in bringing out the exact meaning of the word.
The first word is action. This is what is done to cause death. The action must be from one’s wish and no force or conditions should be met for taking of life. The other term is suffering. This necessary condition is the key to the action.
This leads to accepting the action of taking life to get relieved from the pain. The last term is intention. The death should be intended and not accidental. The intention should be positive as the good of the victim of the matter is concerned.
The means of the action taken to bring death should be made painless as possible and it should prove it as a merciful killing. In this argumentative essay, different forms of euthanasia shall be discussed in depth for the argument to be brought out.
This has been legalized in some countries. However, it is not morally right to kill. One should be left to die as per our religious ethics and no one should be killed even when it is intentional. With different reasons, the issue shall be examined at to determine if it should be banned or not.
Discussion Euthanasia is classified into three different categories depending on whether the individual facing death had given informed consent or not. These three categories are voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Voluntary euthanasia is death done to a person with his/her consent. The person should be ready to be killed from his/her own wish and there should be no external forces compelling the victim to accept death.
Non-voluntary euthanasia is the one in which the person killed had not made the request of the action taken and he/she had not made any consent. This type of euthanasia is not accepted in all countries around the world.
Involuntary euthanasia is the situation in which an individual is killed and the action taken was contrary to his/her wish. This kind of death exhibits ignorance as the victim’s wishes are given a deaf ear.
These three categories of euthanasia can be further divided into passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Passive euthanasia is done by inhibiting some necessities to the individual, for instance food and antibiotics, which are necessary for continuity of life.
Active euthanasia involves use of lethal substances or use of force to cause death. Active euthanasia has been debated for long on whether it should be banned or not.
Active euthanasia should be banned as all individuals have the rights to live. Each individual should be given a chance to determine his/her own fate. Every individual should enjoy the right to life.
Although sometimes it becomes difficult, to continue living with a person, for instance a person who has used massive wealth of a family in treatment and yet there are no improvements in the individual’s condition.
We will write a custom Essay on Active Euthanasia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More No matter how the situation is, the right to life should remain. No one should have the authority or desire to take another persons life even incase of many expenses on the individual.
Many believe that in conditions like the latter, active euthanasia should be accepted but it should not. An individual should live with his/her pain and suffering and his/her destiny should not be affected by anything but he/she should remain alive until the last gasp of air on earth without any factor coming in.
Many people try to show tenders of mercy to the victim but it would be better if they extend their mercy in giving aid to the victim for instance giving out money to cater for operations and other treatments.
Active euthanasia has recently resulted into many cases that become difficult to solve. For instance, in a situation where an individual was killed without all the parties desiring the action coming to the point of accepting the actions to be taken.
In such a case, individuals who had not yet accepted the actions taken may go to court and accuse those who accepted the action. In other cases, an individual may be forced to die but the individual refuses to give out his/her will.
After the person’s death, the greatest possibilities are that the members alive will have many miss-understandings and quarrels. In some cases like the latter, the individuals inheriting property may even end up killing one another.
To avoid all these situations, an individual should be left to live and die in peace and leave others peaceful. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned to avoid occurrence of the situations that result after the individual is dead.
Legalizing active euthanasia will place the whole society in a slippery slope that will lead to unacceptable actions and consequences. For instance, members of a family who are against one of them may find it worthy to kill the person.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Active Euthanasia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This may lead to the people doing much harm to the person they are against. They may do this secretly without the individual noticing and this will mostly end in active euthanasia where the individuals accept merciful death.
This is a clear example showing the negative impacts of legalizing active euthanasia. To avoid such pathetic actions from happening, active euthanasia should be banned. This will aid in promoting the right to life and all people will have equal chances of living with no threatening factors or action that may determine their destiny.
Illegalizing active euthanasia will therefore give each person assurance of determining their fate. This as seen may also act to promote peace, as individuals will have to negotiate peacefully over a matter since they have no chance bringing harm to any one of them so that active euthanasia may be the last option.
In the world, it is also very clear that not almost all the religions accept active euthanasia. The governments should not go contrary to the rules and regulations of majority of the religions. No individual who is in a religion that does not support active euthanasia should take part in the actions.
The god of every individual should be the only one to bring death to a person and no person should have the authority to accept dying no matter the situation he/she is in. In addition, physicians should not accept taking any action leading to death, as they would be held responsible for their actions.
In addition, a physician may kill a person and other issues against the action arise. Although many people do not accept people in severe suffering and term them as liabilities, no one should have the permission to take any action leading to the death of the individual. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned completely and no physician should be involved in taking any actions that may result to loss of life.
It would be very inhumane and cruel to kill someone because of suffering. No party should advocate for killing of another person and yet his/her own life is not affected.
It becomes unfair to do to others what cannot be done to you. It becomes difficult to ignore the interests of the majority in killing an individual but no matter what they say, an individual’s right to life should not be violated.
Most countries allow active euthanasia in such conditions to promote the interests of the majority but it is not worthwhile since they will have rendered the right to life useless and will have violated it.
It would be senseless to say that promoting the interests of the majority will mean no violation of rights and yet we know that the right to life is enjoyed individually and therefore the person’s right will have been violated. All the governments should therefore ban active euthanasia in whatever conditions.
Active euthanasia is not intended to be painful. However, with modern medicine there are only few cases where pain can be alleviated. The physicians carrying out the medication to bring death will therefore have caused another kind of death and not active euthanasia, which is supposed to be painless.
Instead of giving medication to cause death, the physicians should better their medications to save life and help the individual recover. Also, if a doctor is in a position to give painless medicine to cause death, then the same doctor should also be able to give medicines to stop the pain felt by an individual hence death will not take place.
This kind of assisted death should be banned, as it will also give pharmacists enough time to research on life-saving medicine and not life-ending medicines.
When physicians are in training, the aim of the training is to help people recover life and not to help people lose life. A lengthy period is spent educating them on medications until they become qualified personnel to work in the field. If active euthanasia is legalized then it will render the medical profession a body performing wrong duties.
The duties they were taught to carry out should be the only ones done. Patients are brought to health centers so that they can receive treatment that should help them in recovering from a suffering.
The physicians should therefore play their role effectively. It becomes a great fault to take another person’s life, which was not part of their long training. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned, as it will also make the medical body worthy.
If a person accepts to be killed mercifully, many say it is morally upright. I however do not accept this because life is personal and no one should be involved in taking of another person’s life.
Life is not communal neither is it group-oriented like land, where the owners can decide on what to do. The personality of life should be maintained and this can only happen by banning active euthanasia.
The person wishing to be killed should be morally counseled and be helped to change his/her life perspective from needing death to needing recovery. Active euthanasia should not be used as a means to end life of an individual.
Each individual should do what he/she would like done to him/her. One cannot be ready to kill another person and yet he/she cannot accept the same to be done to him or her. This becomes unfair and so the act should be banned to enhance fairness.
Conclusion The right to life is a right to every one in this world. This right should not be violated in any way and people’s lives should be respected. To promote this, active euthanasia should be banned completely no matter the situation.
Physicians should make their profession realistic by saving people’s lives. They should not be involved in any act of killing patients since their training does not consist or promote losing of life but saving of life.
Life is a gift from God and since we were made in the likeness of God, the when one kills he/she has killed God. Though they say that the interests of the majority should be put into consideration, the government would be contradicting itself in accepting the majority’s desire and yet they are the ones singing on right to life.
Death should not be on mercy grounds but by God’s own plan. Majority accepts the action to be taken on others and yet they themselves cannot accept it. This is unfair and therefore active euthanasia should be banned to promote fairness.
Bibliography Cavan, Seamus and Dolan, Shean. Euthanasia: The debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000.
Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. The animal rights debate. New York: Rowman
Concept and Importance of Social Control Essay a level english language essay help
Louis Rodriguez was a member a gang member in East LA since he was 12 years old. He was slowly lured into the gang because he wanted to gain money and fame in his neighborhood.
In the course of his involvement in the gang, a lot of factors contributed to his involvement. These were the micro factors and macro factors that affect the behavior of an individual.
Micro factors are those factors which grow from within an individual and affect the overall outcome of his behavior (Barling and Cooper 151). Louis had these in him. He wanted to be a famous person within his neighborhood.
This could only be achieved by having money and power. The only way which this can be achieved was by him having an easy access of money. Due to this, he was slowly drawn into the gang.
Macro factors are those factors which come from the surroundings of an individual (Coles 15). For Louis, the gang was the source of macro factors which affected his behavior.
He witnessed people being beaten up, others being killed and robbed from while in the gang. For him to rise up the levels of the gang, he had to commit several crimes and social evil. These factors changed his behavior making him be a danger to the society.
Social Control In the process of socialization of an individual, social control is an essential aspect. This is because it regulates the behavior of the individual to conform to the rules and regulations of a country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are therefore norms or rules which are universal in nature and have to be followed by an individual or the entire society (Fourier 204). If an individual or a group goes against these rules and regulations, they would have committed a criminal offence which is punishable by law.
Social control therefore regulates the behavior of an individual or groups within a society. They aim at maintaining, good relations among members of the society and at the same time they ensure that law and order is maintained.
There are two forms of social control. They are: formal social control and informal social control (Liska 185). Although they have the same intentions of achieving similar objectives, the nature in which they are organized and applied is different.
Informal social control is exercised by the society itself. Its rules and regulations are not stated but operate on the norms and customs which the society follows. Social control is therefore implemented by informal agents through an unofficial capacity of ensuring that law and order is maintained within the society.
As a result therefore, the informal social controls will vary from place to place and region to region within one state or one country. This might be due to the differences in the culture, customs and beliefs of the people in different societies.
Informal social controls use shame, sarcasm and criticism are used to punish those individuals who go against them. Discrimination and exclusion from the society are used at extreme cases.
On the other hand, formal social control is exercised by authorized agents of the state. This includes the police, military officials, employers and judicial officials (Dean 405). This form of social control is carried out as the last result when informal social control fails to instill favorable behavior to the members of the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept and Importance of Social Control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its implementation and severity of the punishments imposed vary between countries. Social control in the formal context is implemented in the forms of statues, rules and regulations against the individuals or groups who were defiant to the law(s).
Laws against murder, theft and other civil torts for example are directed to all the members of the society. Once they are breached, standard procedures will be followed in instilling punishment to the parties that were found guilty.
Corporate laws and fishing and hunting regulations are directed towards specific individuals or groups within the society and not to all members. When they are breached, there are also standard procedures which will be followed to ensure that the guilty parties suffer punishment for the offences that they committed.
Formal control is contained on written documents that are coded and formalized. Authorized institutions that were created by the government are used to implement them. Due to its strictness it finds easily applicable even in larger populations unlike informal social controls.
Despite their effectiveness and efficiency, applicability of these laws sometimes becomes difficult. This is because they fail to limit social behavior. Informal controls for example are only applicable in small settings where the population is not dense.
On a larger scale, informal control fails since individuals tend to ignore them. Formal controls on the other hand are rigid thus difficult to change or amend to suit the changing behavior of individuals. The world is dynamic and people tend to change their behavior with time. It is therefore difficult for formal control to keep up with this pace to maintain normality and sanity in the society.
Works Cited Barling, Julian and Cooper, Cary. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior: Micro approaches. London: SAGE Publications, 2008.
Coles, Roberta. Race
Who was Pedro Calosa? Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Pedro Calosa was a Filipino who organized a revolt against the feudal system formed by foreigners in their land. The system focused on developing their land without improving the worker’s conditions. In addition, the revolt intended to make known their Church, which was called PIC, Philippine Independent Church.
This Church was also referred to as the church of poor Filipinos as well as the oppressed. During this church’s inception, it was meant for the underprivileged, the oppressed as well as the landless along with those disenfranchised (MSC Communications Technologies, Inc. 1). This church was started by Calosa and his followers, who were mainly poor and oppressed.
These were peasants, who labored on feudal farms. According to the then Governor’s secretary, Calosa’s organization was deemed as aimed at looting the Landlords and officials, which was not the case as they only destroyed property as well as records instead (Miller 239).
Calosa started by organizing peasants together for this revolution, aiming to stop the oppression that kept them poor and disenfranchised. This leader was a veteran, and organized this strike in 1924 on Hawaiian plantations.
This led to his banishment from Hawaii back to Philippine territory for organizing a union. The revolt was known as Tayug Colorum and deplored the feudal system for poor land tenure without success.
The tenants who were grieved were tenants across Luzon. This revolt did not succeed as it only lasted a day, leading to Calosa’s capture and his subsequent arrest.
His sentence was between fourteen years to forty to a Pilipino prison. Calosa later died in 1967, his killer is still unknown. The revolt activities included besieging garrison in 1931, led by 1931.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They burned most of the land titles, debts, tax records as well as tenancy contracts. The casualties were two Americans and three other officers, although the group of 70 was prosecuted (Beck 1).
Works Cited Beck, Sanderson. “Philippines to 1949”. EAST ASIA 1800-1949. 08.06.2011.08.06.2011. http://san.beck.org/21-10-Philippinesto1949.html
Boquiren, Rowena-Reyes. “History Of Colonialism And Struggle: Local Streams In Philippine Nationalism”. Prepared for the 1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, Baguio City. 08.06.1999.08.06.2011. Web.
Miller, Stuart. “Benevolent Assimilation”. Boston Journal. p. 239.
MSC Communications Technologies, Inc. “Central Luzon and NCR: Felipe Salvador”. Centennial Resource Book: Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan. 09.02.2010.08.06.2011. http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/hero/ncr/page10.html
Childhood Obesity’ and Poor Health Indicators’ Connection Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Childhood obesity has become an important health and social problem in the 21st century. Today, there are many children experiencing obesity-related complications, than ever before in the history of mankind (Kopelman, 2005, p. 493).
In America for example, it is estimated that, the prevalence of childhood obesity has tripled over the past two decades, with recent statistics showing the prevalence rate of childhood obesity at 28% (Neighmond, 2000, p. 1). This statistic is very high, as compared to previous years. More so, this trend has been brought by a change in lifestyle.
Due to the adverse health effects of childhood obesity on a child’s health, this study focuses on the topic “childhood obesity” because of its expansiveness and its impact on childhood health. Moreover, there has been a constant increase in prevalence of childhood obesity in the country and experts all over, are registering their concerns over this trend as well.
Refinement and Limits of the Topic of Discussion The topic of childhood obesity is very expansive and is often, marred by a lot of controversy regarding the extent to which it affects childhood growth and development (Ebbeling, 2002, p. 473).
This study focuses on childhood obesity as a unique health factor in childhood development and seeks to exclude other factors associated with the pandemic, such as obesity statistics, causes, health implications and such like factors.
More importantly, this study focuses on childhood obesity as a unique segment in health circles and fails to include other factors relating to obesity in general, or factors associated with adult obesity. To properly refine the research data to be included in this study, I will only focus on determining the extent to which childhood obesity affects childhood wellbeing.
Since this topic is particular to childhood health, this study will only focus on the physiological and psychological factors regarding the wellbeing of a child, which are affected by childhood obesity. This aspect of childhood obesity is the specific claim to be argued in this topic. This fact is further explained below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Topic Argument There are numerous studies and literature excerpts which have asserted that, childhood obesity has a profound effect on a child’s health and psychology. Specifically, emotional impairment and psychological difficulties have been cited as the primary health effects of childhood obesity.
Other studies focus on health-related complications, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiac diseases and the likes, as examples of the various health-related complications brought about by childhood obesity (Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Health Committee, 2004).
More so, many of these studies have focused a lot on the causes of childhood obesity such as genetics, lifestyle factors, diets, home environments, medical illnesses, psychological factors and the likes (Cornette, 2008, p. 136). However many of these studies have failed to expose the degree to which childhood obesity affects the health or general wellbeing of a child. This is the focus of this study.
From this understanding, this study will focus on the extent to which childhood obesity affects the growth and development of children, with a much detailed focus on qualitative factors affecting childhood growth and childhood obesity.
In other words, this study will try to establish the extent to which childhood obesity impact a child’s health. Focus will be directed to the nature of the relationship between childhood obesity and poor health indicators, with a possibility of a strong relationship between childhood obesity or a weak relationship of the same variables. This analysis will constitute the argument of this study.
References Cornette, R. (2008). The emotional impact of obesity on children. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs, 5(3), 136–41.
Ebbeling, C. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331), 473–82.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Childhood Obesity’ and Poor Health Indicators’ Connection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Health Committee (2004). Obesity – Volume 1 – HCP 23-I, Third Report of session 2003-04. Report, together with formal minutes. London, UK: TSO (The Stationery Office).
Kopelman, P. (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: in Adults and Children. London: Blackwell Publishing: p. 493.
Neighmond, P. (2000) U.S. Childhood Obesity Rates Level Off. Web.
Darwin on the Origin of Species Research Paper essay help free
Evolution by natural selection is considered the backbone of biology. It is proposed that modern students should have time to read the literature of naturalists regarding their perception of evolution. This is endorsed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Lussel Wallice.
Darwin commenced his superb creativity in evolution by natural selection with the initiative of divergence. Darwin’s idea was expanded by botanical arithmetic.
In Darwin’s perception he discovered that a direct comparison between the old and new species from different parts of the world will lead to several indifferences between the features.
Geographical botany enabled Darwin to spot differences not only amongst categorized species from different places, but also amongst similar species.
Domestic diversity results from artificial selection. The continuous emergence of domestic diversity, results in the divergence of the natural species.
This made Darwin to attest on the availability of transmutation by means on natural selection. Charles emphasizes on the principled availability and essentiality of selection. This is due to the fact that this is a consequence of the diversity among species as well as the struggles.
Darwin expands on selection. He states that selection is brought about by the heritability and natural variation which further comprises of the endurance plus reproduction. He emphasizes on the continued existence and sufficiency of the species.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Darwin supports his argument concerning the theory of evolution by natural selection with different features, for instance fossil records, embryology as well as morphological characteristics.
The divergence in the features of species can only be spotted after a long period of time. In this theory, living organisms tend to compete for the available resources; organisms with sophisticated features tend to survive while those organisms that don’t fit simply perish. The living organisms reproduce, thus passing their unique features to the next generation.
The Darwinian revelation as a source concerning the origin of species is valid. The source fully emphasizes on Darwin’s perception concerning evolution of species specifically natural selection. Perceptions from various authors and naturalists are also outlined as evidence of Darwin’s perception regarding the origin of life.
This is an academic source. This is evident since the article is a product of the University of California. The source also entails views from researchers as well as academicians.
The source has biases. This is derived from the author’s recommendation as well as the contents of the article. The source majorly focuses on the positive views concerning the Darwinian theory of evolution.
The author also urges educators today to principally focus on Darwin’s ideas regarding evolution. He prefers Darwin’s perception to arguments from other researchers concerning the theory.
The source would be good for a research paper as it encompasses perceptions from various researchers and naturalists.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Darwin on the Origin of Species specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author, James T Costa, is a biology professor at Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, North Carolina. He has written several journal articles, two books, abstracts, correspondences and various articles as well as scientific papers that he has presented.
He has also held several seminars and given special lectures, exhibits and panel discussions over his career. His arguments basically have a bias toward Darwin’s theory.
Darwin was more able to influence avid readers about the authenticity of metamorphosis rather than of his own proposals that drove the process. As stated by Costa “he pointed out that he never argued that it was the sole agent of transmutation, despite claims to the contrary” (Costa 2003, 1030).
Despite converse claims, Darwin pointed out that he did not dispute that the primacy of natural selection as being the single source of transformation and he stuck by his views.
Regardless of several deliberations on the process of evolution, biology has relied on evolution as a main pillar.
Reference Costa, James. Teaching Darwin with Darwin. Massachusetts: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2003.
Human impacts on the hydrology of the Mekong River Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Damage to the River Mekong Basin
Mitigation strategies to address damage to natural systems
Damage to the River Mekong Basin Mekong is a river that runs across Southeast Asia and is considered as the tenth longest river in the world. It is approximately 4,900 km and covers an area of roughly 795,000 square km. the river runs across several countries, including China, Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.
Since the river flows through highly populated areas with intensive agricultural activities and water diversion practices, it has continuously undergone a shift in its hydrology especially when it flows through China.
For instance, China is currently embarking on a project in which it will construct dams out of the river, three of which have been completed, while 12 are on different stages. In Thailand, the Pak Mun dam is already complete, and in Cambodia, a reserve has been constructed on the Tonle Sap River, which flows into the Mekong.
These dam construction activities have had adverse effects on the hydrology of the river. The lower Mekong River has experienced a reduction in water levels over the years, and this reduction has been attributed to dam construction activities upstream.
For instance, the filling of the Manwan reservoir 1n 1992 caused a drastic reduction in the water level in the river (Walling, 2006). An assessment of the river at various stages showed that an interruption of the regular water flow, evidenced by an increase in sediment in Mekong’s bed.
Eve though some of these constructions are not undertaken on the main course of the river, the effect is still significant, for instance, studies show that construction on the Lankang River, the Mekong’s main stream, has caused a considerable reduction of water downstream (Lu and Siew, 2006).
Dam construction has increased the volume of sediments in the Mekong River. This is because a reduction in the flow of water effectively reduces the amount of water to transport the sediments downstream. Therefore, the sediments settle at the bottom of the river and reduces it depth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, studies show that areas along the middle and latter points of the Mekong River have had a reduced amount of sediment flux, mainly attributed to the sedimentation of the Manwan dam. The sediments are also captured in the reservoirs and dams that are constructed on the river or its tributaries.
A reduction in sediment flow has had a huge effect on the hydrology and ecosystem of the Mekong, especially at the downstream sections (Kummu
Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Same Sex Marriage
Critical theories, Same Sex Marriages and Homosexuality
Introduction Modern society is very complex and dynamic in that, perception of body, gender, sexuality, and identity is becoming very subjective depending on various schools of thoughts and theories. Critical theories have emerged to elucidate and explain changing trends of societal perceptions regarding body, gender, sexuality and identity of persons.
Same sex marriage is one of the issues related to the changing trends of societal perceptions on body, gender, sexuality and identity. The issue has come to haunt modern society and compel social theorists to formulate new theories in a bid to explain conclusively the cause of aberrant sexual orientations in the society.
The emergence of same-sex marriages has complicated conventional and religious teachings since both view it as an immoral issue in the society that should never happen at all. Despite the denial and renunciation of the same sex marriage in the society, gays and lesbians continue to exist in the society while their numbers are increasing alarmingly.
According to Glen, high rates of divorce and marriage abuses have left many young people wondering and questioning whether marriage has any significant importance in life with regard to happiness and achievements (2009, p.3). Such and many other fears compel young people to get involved in aberrant sexual behaviours of gay and lesbianism in order to avoid problems associated with heterosexual marriages. Therefore, changing perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identity have led to emergence aberrant sexual orientations resulting into same sex marriages in modern society.
Same Sex Marriage Same sex marriage is an emerging social and religious issue that is gradually finding its way into legal systems as constitutions of many countries recognize heterosexual marriage only. Conventional and religious ethics view marriage as a union of opposite sexes with the prime objective of bearing children and companionship. Same-sex marriage is an outright immoral association of two people against natural and divine morals.
In spite of the fact that the society continues to deny existence of same-sex marriage, gays and lesbians continue to practice their ‘marriages’ behind the scenes as evident in legislations adopted by various countries signifying their recognition in the society. Proponents of the same sex marriage argue that denial of same-sex marriage in the society is discrimination of people based on their sexual orientations and thus unacceptable in the modern world of freedom and democracy.
Gay-rights proponents are advocating for legal recognition of aberrant sexual orientations and same sex marriages so that they can enjoy equal rights as heterosexual marriages (Jost 2003, p.723). Gays and lesbians hold that, it is their inalienable right to enjoy same-sex marriage as their counterparts in heterosexual marriages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emergence of same-sex unions in the society threatens marriage as a divine and social institution that forms basic unit of the society. The opponents of the same sex marriage categorically perceive same-sex marriage as an immoral union intended not only to destroy the foundations of the family, but also the entire society.
Family in the modern society is surviving amidst great challenges such as high divorce rates, unfaithfulness, late marriages, cohabitations and polygamy. Thus, the acceptance of the same-sex marriage in the society is a deadly blow to an already fragile marriage and family institutions. Somerville (2003) argues that, marriage is a critical social and divine institution of procreation that has stood the test of time in upholding cultural and societal values of morality (p.3).
The uniqueness of the heterosexual marriage institution is that it functions in the procreation and perpetuation of human life in the world. In contrast, same-sex marriage demands equals rights as heterosexual marriage yet it has no function of procreation. If union of same-sex is a marriage, what makes it qualify as a marriage with equal legal and social rights as heterosexual marriage? Terming same-sex union as a marriage begs many questions concerning posterity of marriage.
Modern marriage and family values contradicts with the values of the same-sex marriage because conventional and religious morals maintain that, same-sex marriages pose a great threat to the heterosexual marriage in the society. Proponents of same sex marriage argue that basic importance of marriage is societal and social recognition of intimate relationship between any two people and thus it is discriminative to exclude same sex unions (Murphy 2001, p.4).
Gays and lesbians perceive intimacy as the primary role of marriage while procreation is a secondary role that has no significant importance to them. From the perspective of same-sex marriage, the society has no need of procreation anymore since the world is already overpopulated and therefore, intimacy takes precedence over procreation. The proponents further assert that the society should recognize and accept diversity of sexual orientations as natural occurrence that is morally right.
In contrast, the opponents of the same-sex marriage perceive the primary role of marriage as procreation and intimacy. They argue that marriage and family are social and divine institutions that have stood the test of time and need no amendment whatsoever to gather for emerging immoral behaviours in the society.
Esplen and Jolly assert that, definition of marriage in the context of heterosexual unions emanate from perception of marriage as procreative union and family as source of morals, but not an attempt to exclude or discriminate against homosexuals in the society (2006, p.11).
We will write a custom Essay on Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gays and lesbians see the struggles of the heterosexual marriage to fulfil its role of procreation as efforts of discrimination directed against their inability to raise children. Therefore, due to the inability of the same-sex marriage to procreate, gays and lesbians resort to other means of getting children contrary to the societal and religious conventional morals.
The proponents of the same-sex marriage are using legal, political, and social forces to ensure that the conservative society and religious doctrines recognize their rights. They passionately believe that heterosexual marriages are undermining their efforts of advocating their rights and they can only champion for their rights using legal, social and political means.
In a case of gay marriage presented in the court, an American lawyer, Evan Wolfson argues that, marriage needs legal support and recognition for couples to enjoy immense benefits of marriage such as social recognition, intimacy, love and protection, which enhances assurance of life and happiness to couples (Jost 2003, p.724).
The lawyer cited same-sex marriage as a union that does not access such benefits due to discrimination by the mainstream society. The legal gateway is the only way that can offer equal opportunities to both same-sex and heterosexual marriages in the society. On the other hand, opponents of the same sex marriage assert their position that legalization of the issue will not change ethical perception of such marriage.
Critical theories, Same Sex Marriages and Homosexuality Changing trends in perception of body, gender, sexuality, and identity in modern society have led to the acceptance of homosexuality and same sex marriages as inherent components of the society. Various critical theories elucidate and explain perceptions of body, gender, sexuality, and identity relative to the emergence of homosexuality and same sex marriages in the contemporary society.
Over the course of history, many people practiced same-sex marriages but they did it behind the scenes because the social fabric that holds values and morals in the society was very strong. Currently, the increased democratic space and adoption of more laws such as affirmative action have empowered gays and lesbians to speak openly while championing for their rights.
In the society, there are varied sexual orientations such as bisexuals, gays, and lesbians that make it difficult to define marriage as heterosexual union only. Blackwell and Bynner argue that, aberrant sexual orientations are inherent attributes of modern society that can never change and thus require acceptance (2002, p.22). The inherent nature of the sexual orientation in the society compels people to satisfy their respective sexual drives. Thus, sexual orientation is the prime cause of homosexuality and same-sex marriage in the society.
Since sexual orientation is the prime cause of homosexuality and same sex marriage in the society, critical theories such as essentialism, social constructionism, modernism, and queer theory give different perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identities in modern society. According to the essentialism theory, sex and gender are biological attributes that differentiate men and women in the society (Ruberg 2005, p. 5).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Opponents of homosexuality and same sex marriages view identities of human bodies from the perspective of biology. Since bodies of men and women have different physical and physiological structures, it follows that they have different gender, sex and identities. In this perspective, heterosexual marriage is the union of distinct bodies while homosexual marriage is the union of similar bodies.
From essentialism perspective, same sex marriage is abnormal since couples have similar physical and physiological structures. According to the opponents of same sex marriage, the cause of homosexuality is the aberrant sexual orientations coupled with troubles in heterosexual marriage, which has made many to opt for alternative means of sexual satisfaction.
Many youths have experienced great ordeal in their families forcing them to question the importance of marriage in the modern world. Although conventional view of marriage depicts it as a union of happiness, procreation, and companionship, the reality portrays otherwise. Due to the increasing rates of divorce, unfaithfulness, violence and lack of sexual interests, many youths are devising alternative means of achieving happiness and satisfaction in life.
Given an instance that there is no meaning in marriage, existence of varied sexual orientation provides an opportunity for gays and lesbians to explore their sexual interests (Hernandez 2002, p.26). If one has aberrant sexual orientation and individuation attitude, heterosexual marriage loses importance because its primary role is procreation, which is contrary to the selfish interests of individual.
Social constructionism theory elucidates how societal perception of body, gender, sexuality and identity changes owing social constructs. According to this theory, gender is a dynamic social identity, which undergoes constitution and construction through ages by the acts and performances, hence, gender depiction is arbitrary and biased depending on cultural, political, and theatrical perceptions.
Butler views sex and gender as quite different entities of self that have been constructed to relate with one another in a subversive way, as one is not born as a woman or a man but through cultural, political and social acts and performances, one attains the status of a woman or a man respectively (1988, p.522). This implies that aberrant sexual orientation, homosexuality and same sex marriages are the product of social, political, and cultural constructs that have shaped the societal perceptions.
Since change in societal perception of body, gender, sexuality and identity is due to dynamic social constructions, same sex marriages are constructs of homosexuals and proponents of same sex marriages who are changing conventional perception of marriage. Change in conventional perception of marriage and family is to blame for the increasing cases of same-sex marriage. Modern society has neglected ancient values and norms that guarded social institutions of marriage and have adopted new norms.
The new norms in the society are not stringent as the old ones, thus increasing freedom of exercising individual rights relative to morals in the society. Aberrant sexual orientation, fragile heterosexual marriage, and liberal social norms are factors that contribute to positive social construction of homosexuality and same-sex marriage in the society. Marshall and Sawhill explain that, modern social norms are precarious social constructs that are subject to volatile conventions and thus cannot absolutely define ethical values in the society (2002, p. 27).
In this case, media and internet has contributed greatly in the adoption of varied social values that promote same-sex marriage because its proponents use them in stating their sexual orientations explicitly. The media and internet also provides networks of socialization and pornography that encourage and enhance positive construction of same-sex marriages in the society.
Social constructionists further argue that body, gender, sexuality and identities are not natural or inherent attributes of an individual but they are social constructs. According to the perspective of constructionists, homosexuality is a social construct, thus comprehensive understanding of homosexuals and same sex marriages lies in historical social context.
For instance, during the course of history, perception of abnormal sexual behaviours has changed from sodomy to homosexuals and eventual sexual orientation. Modern society hardly perceives aberrant sexual orientations as abnormal or sinful but it has transformed and stylised them as normal sexual orientations. The transformation is due to overwhelming influence of social constructs that has shaped societal perceptions of body, gender, sexuality, and identities.
Since youths are very inquisitive in exploring their sexual orientations and socialization, technology has enabled them to satisfy their curiosity at the click of the button. Internet has provided immense knowledge regarding sexuality and immoral behaviours such as pornography.
Smith argues that sexual orientation in children is very flexible and exposure to pornographic material at their tender ages can significantly alter their sexual orientations making them become gays and lesbians (2006, p. 33). This argument suggests that families play a great role in bringing up children well by protecting them from unnecessary influence of pornographic materials and even bad company in order to enable them identify their sexual orientation.
Queer theory postulates that body, gender, sexuality and identity are not inherent attributes of an individual but dynamic attributes of society that result from social constructs. Proponents of this theory argue that it is inappropriate to classify individuals based on their actions and not their own identities. Hence, classifying people into different categories due to different sexual orientations does not give the identity of an individual.
Sexual orientations such as lesbianism, gay, transsexual, and heterosexual are not individual attributes but class attributes. Halperin (2007) argues that gender and sexuality are neither fixed nor natural identities of the people but they are social constructs that depend on social, cultural, religious, and political factors within a given society (p.341).
Thus, emergence of homosexuality and same sex marriages is due to the influence of social constructs that are changing perceptions of sexual orientation. Modern society has embraced and accepted the presence of aberrant sexual orientations that have clouded the definition of marriage.
Conclusion Changing trends of marriage in modern society is due to the transforming perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identities of people. Although marriage and family are basic institutions of the society, they have experienced overwhelming problems such as polygamy, divorce, early marriage, late marriage, unfaithfulness and cohabitation, same sex marriage threatens the existence of heterosexual marriage because the society is undergoing tremendous social changes.
Critical theories predict that the society is undergoing great social construction of new identities and deconstruction of old identities in terms of body, gender and sexuality. Currently, homosexuals are increasing exponentially in the society because heterosexual marriage is experiencing problems, presence of aberrant sexual orientations, conventional change of marriage as institution, and legalization of same-sex marriage, all of which are forces of social constructs that are reshaping social perception of marriage.
Critical theories of essentialism, social constructionism and queer theory explicitly elucidate how aberrant sexual orientations are emerging, and becoming integral part of marriage in the modern society. Hence, critical theories of body, gender, sexuality and identity are critical in the understanding of homosexuals and same sex marriages in the current society. From the insights in this paper, I have now changed my perception of aberrant sexual orientations; I now understand that it depends on the school of thought that one belongs and I should not be quick to judge or condemn same sex unions.
Reference List Blackwell, L.,
UAE and Bahrain in the revolution Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Background Information
Relationship between Bahrain and UAE
Background Information The recent uprisings in the Middle East and the Maghreb have taken different dimensions. All these uprisings which were inspired by the Tunisian revolution have spread over to Egypt, Libya, Syria and Bahrain.
And just what began as simple uprising in quest for political rights and freedoms has led to the massive loss of lives in Syria, Bahrain and both the loss of lives destruction of property in countries like Libya. The Libya situation has taken a different dimension which threatens to put the stable country into anarchic situation.
States in the Middle East and the Maghreb occupy a geostrategic position in the global politics. Increased industrial revolution in Europe and the discovery of oil in the Middle East are the two main phenomenons that have increased the influence of these countries on the world politics.
The wealth and resources of the region have made it a safe haven and breeding ground for dictators who are interested in looting as opposed to social welfare of the people.
Bahrain is considered more strategic by the foreign powers. This has been evidenced by the availability of the USA’s fifth fleet and the United States naval support which places it in an important position. Bahrain has enjoyed long period of stability and this has made it a favorable financial hub.
Relationship between Bahrain and UAE The strong ties between the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain is majorly because of the presence Sunni community of Muslim who are present in both countries though they are a majority in united Arab emirates and a minority in Bahrain.
The relationship between Bahrain and the United Arab emirates during this moment of Arab protests and crisis has been driven by two fundamental principles which guide the foreign policy of UAE.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First is that UAE is a member in good standing of the gulf cooperation council (GCC) and which Bahrain is also a member as evidenced the words of Anwar Mohammed Gergash, the foreign affairs minister of UAE who said “UAE’s decision represents a lively embodiment of its commitment to brothers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC),”(Ministry of National Defense 1); and two, it believes in the peaceful settlement of issues.
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) charter includes cooperation in all spheres from political, economy to military (GCC 1). The UAE’s foreign policy which provides for peaceful settlement of disputes and the principle of non interference (Government-Political System 1) also drives the conduct of UAE in the Bahrain crisis.
It is worth mentioning that the above two principles especially Bahrain’s membership to the GCC is considered critical and exceptional in the sense that as opposed to the other crises in the middle east, Bahrain is the only member of GCC.
This factor influenced not only the approach of UAE but also for other member states like Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait towards Bahrain. This is different as compared to the reaction of the same states towards other countries facing similar problems as Bahrain. An example is Qatar’s approach to Libyan crisis where it advocated for military intervention.
Notwithstanding the above argument, the overriding factor that governed the relationship between Bahrain and UAE and which has guided the approach of UAE towards the Bahrain revolution is the Sunni Muslim factor.
The uprising in Bahrain which began in February was aimed at achieving political freedom, civil liberties and democratic governance. It was considered a wake up call to the minority Sunni who had trampled upon the rights of majority Shia population.
The Shias were angered by the actions of the monarchy to import more Sunnis in efforts to increase their population. Since the Sunni are the majority in UAE, their interest in the crisis was more centered on the protection of their minority brothers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on UAE and Bahrain in the revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first response of the UAE was to send troops to Bahrain to maintain order and security (Eurasia Review 1). These forces together with the Bahrain forces have managed to suppress and crack down the opposition.
Besides the Sunni factor which unites both countries, the relationship between the two countries is also guided by the principle of complementarities. This is to say that both UAE and the Bahrain share a lot of geographic and demographic problems.
These include; they both have sheikhdoms, they lack adequate defense mechanisms and their vulnerability to the attack by Iraq and Iran makes them united in times of adversities (Cordesman 1).
Conclusion In international relations, foreign policy and national interest are considered important instruments in global politics. The extremely different and radical approach taken by UAE in the Bahrain revolution as juxtaposed to the latent approach to the similar revolution in other Arab countries is a clear demonstration that relations among different states are merely driven by national interest.
This is also exemplified by the response of America, Britain and France to the Arab crisis. Whereas they have adopted military approach to Libyan crisis and economic sanctions in Syria, they have displayed reluctance to act in Bahrain and Egypt. US president Barrack Obama and secretary of state Hillary Clinton just issued plain warnings (BBC 1).
Works Cited BBC. Bahrain crackdown on protests in Manama’s Pearl Square. BBC, 2011. Web.
Cordesman, Alan. Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE: challenges of security. New York: West view Press, 1997. Print.
Eurasia Review. UAE Sends Troops to Bahrain, Joining GCC Forces. Eurasia, 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on UAE and Bahrain in the revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GCC. Article 4-Gulf cooperation council. GCC, 1981. Web.
Government-Political Systems. Government Political foreign policy. UAE Interact, 2011. Web.
Ministry of National Defense. Defense news: ministry of defense, People’s Republic of china. International Military, 2011. Web.
Sixth Meditation, Rene Descares Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Descartes in his first meditation is skeptical about perceptual knowledge, his concern being the inability to cite the difference between the way one thinks and reasons while asleep and when awake. His argument basically is that dreams are fallacious and that they disguise to be real but in reality, he argues, they are not.
His second argument rests upon the idea of dreams being false experiences, those that seem to be real, but are not (Descartes 16). His aim therefore is to discredit dreaming claiming that it is far from reality and that senses should be doubted. Descartes seeks to justify the argument that some sensory experiences are false, and that whatever that happens in dreams are always false. But why is this so because sensory experiences occur in both dreams and while awake.
Logically it is evident that by the time of waking up, Descartes was able to distinguish between reality and a dream because he realizes that he was asleep and that whatever happened was in his sleep which means that he was able to draw a line between dreams and reality.
In his first meditation, he claims that the realities in both dreaming and waking up are so similar, because most of the things and happenings in dreams were usually similar to those that happen when one is awake. The problematic issue in this argument is that at times those things that one dreams of do not exist in reality. Where then will one place and describe those things that are nonexistent in reality but existent in dreams? How can one explain an imaginary object that exists in dreams?
In both waking up and dreaming, the senses are involved because were it not for them, nothing would have happened in both. He argues that whatever we dream is based on real life experiences and so, stipulates that dreams are not independent but rather borrows a lot from the real world.
But it is evident that be it in dreams or when one is awake, senses are involved. A question arises here as to how one knows whether he is dreaming or he is awake because in both senses are involved. Which of the two can be assumed to be the reality (Descartes 46)? The idea of not trusting the senses therefore comes in and doubt takes center stage.
As shown by Descartes, dreams and real life activities relate to each other. That is why when one is asleep; he may dream and upon waking up get into the realities of life and fail to put a clear cut distinction between the two. But the difference between the two can be that one happens in the mind and the other happens outside the mind.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In as much as they may appear to be the same and real, those that are in existence in the mind could be false and as a result be doubted and those that are outside the mind be seen as real and truthful. Therefore the senses are applicable to both can be subject to doubt (Descartes 63).
Descartes argues that dreaming experience and waking experience are both difficult to distinguish from each other because the visions that come in sleep could be things that are in existence in reality. By putting forth the argument that objects that deal with imaginary things are valid, then one can assume that dreams are valid because to a larger extent they are considered nonexistent in the real world.
Throughout the meditations the concepts that are put forward are issues that are envisioned in the imaginary world which can as well be held in relation with objects and things of the real world.
Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations on first philosophy: Issue 29 of Library of Liberal Arts. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1960. Length85
Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies Report writing essay help
It is assumed that one of the causes of inflation is too much money in an economic system. However, as some economists have discovered, there are other forces that determine inflation and recession in economies especially production oriented economies such as the USA.
This can be best described by the relationship that is exhibited between demand for consumer goods at the household, national and regional level as well as the supply of funding by financial institutions. This relationship is expected to stabilize aggregate demand.
These forces do affect the country’s GDP. Insufficient demand for commodities is created by a number of factors. They include the tendencies of fallacies to adjust their spending in anticipation of tough economic times ahead. In this case the demand of commodities is likely to go down.
Furthermore governments might also fail to issue incentives such at tax cuts to manufacturers to mitigate the reduced demand. Under such circumstances companies are most likely to result to external sources to fund their own operations. In such circumstances it means that most of the companies are operating under loses and will negatively affect the GDP.
In such a case companies are most likely to have an increase of consumer prices as companies try to cushion themselves from the influences of the increased cost of doing business (increase of operational costs results as a result of borrowed funds to meet demand).
Such a scenario is also characterized by the rise of interest rates as a result of increased borrowing for manufacturers. It further leads to an increase in the prices of consumer goods.
This leads the consumers to pressurize manufactures to source for funds from external sources to meet demand. This creates a need for additional funding but does not necessarily mean that supply of funding has gone up.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This might result to a rise in demand but not all demand will be recovered due to the increasing interest rate and consumer prices. As such aggregate demand will continue to fall. With aggregate demand lowered below the GDP, then manufacturers will need to have additional finances to cater for their increased demand.
Such a need for additional funds continues to drive interest rates high, and keeps the aggregate demand of commodities even lower. What does it mean then for such companies? To begin with, employment is affected as there may be lay offs especially for redundant employees (employment is kept down).
Furthermore, the output level is also kept down due to the reductions of the number of employees. This is accompanied by the increase of prices as companies pass on the increased cost of doing business to the consumers.
However companies in this case are likely to borrow more to support production in the hope that this will keep the prices of commodities down. This does increase the demand for goods. This sees an improved GDP which in turn creates a need for additional funding.
To maintain such levels of increase in GDP level financiers need to loosen their lending laws and increase capital especially to producers. When this happen producers will be enabled to go back to their pre-recession production levels.
However, demands must be able to accommodate all commodities produced with the new empowered environment. Otherwise, manufacturers are likely to develop cold feet towards supporting production. This may drive the aggregate demand down.
The most important lesson is that for any economy to sustain growth during troubled economic times it must be able to adjust its monetary policies to support production. Money must be used to bankroll the production function of that economy.
We will write a custom Report on Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To do this money must been kept liquid and not just limited to fixed assets and as such can allow manufacturers to responded effectively to fluctuation in interest rates.
Classical macroeconomics Creating such a monetary policy where is a deviation from the microeconomics that existed in the 20th and the turn of 21st century. During this time money was only quantified as physical assets and expressed in such commodities as gold and silver.
Such a monetary policy would not work in the current financial state as it does not guarantee that money is not responsive to inflation in interest rates. Classical manufacturers thought that they would respond to tough economic times by adjusting prices of commodities.
Furthermore such rigidity of supply of funding means that it becomes difficult to finance aggregate demand. The figure below shows the relationship between funding supply, fluctuation in interest rates and aggregate demands.
From the figure above it can be seen that at economic equilibrium, GDP, supply of funding as well as aggregate demand are equalized. But if the demand increases beyond the supply of funding it means that there would not be enough money to meet that demand and as such interest rates will go up.
Classical economics stipulates the need for funding supply would not increase due to the fact that it does not react to any change in interest rate. However, such rises in the rates of interest aggregate demands only affects interest rates due to the fact that manufacturers will be competing for little funding. As such under will offer high interests rates. Prices are not affected in this sense.
However, if the aggregate demand falls then it is automatic that the supply of funding will effectively fall. The reduced supply of funding increases the amount of money available for borrowing and as such interests rates fall.
The rate of interest will lower to such an extent that the aggregate demand will start to rise until it is equalized with the addition supply of funding. Classical economist explained that when such a situation happens, then manufacturers are likely it hike the prices of commodities because manufacture would be interested in attracting as much profit s possible.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus any increase in supply of funding only affect the increase in consumer prices but not interest rates. Actually the rate of interest may decrease for time but eventually returns to their original rate. As such employment and levels of output are kept at a constant.
The opposite is true: a fall in supply of funding leads to a fall in consumer prices. Thus the rate level of supply of funding is directly proportional to the level of consumer prices.
Such classical economic theories would only serve during small types of economic turbulence but would be insufficient with large scale economic turbulences such as the great depression of the 1930s America. Such an occurrence as the great depression could not just be dealt with by just adjusting the prices of commodities without affecting employment and output.
This is because lowered prices would also mean a reducing employment as well as production to meet the new level of demand. Such economic processes distribute efforts of harmonizing the economy at various economic functions such as households, government’s economic interventions, market schedules and manufacturers.
All these functionalities only deal with the harmonization of economic inefficiencies for their own benefits and at the levels within which they can. Such processes create an uncoordinated economic harmonization.
Policy interventions Decentralized economic harmonization efforts do mean that government interventions are key to trying to control economic inefficiencies. As such a number of policy interventions have been generated.
The federal reserve has develop a three step monetary policy that is aimed at creating the desire control the output level, interest rates, jobs and productions levels. Unlike the decentralized economic policies the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy stipulates closer goals regarding job security the rates of interest as well as commodity prices.
Search efforts however do create business cycles that are provoked by monetary based policies. Creating this type of cycles has a number of problematic issues. There has been a noted, unfortunately that such efforts lead to an unstable employment pricing as well as output, which is the opposite of the expectation.
Thus is so because in some cases when household adjust their spending in anticipations of an economic occurrence. This definitely has an effect of demand and as such affects pricing output.
As such it creates a see saw scenario ( tightening and loosening) of monetary control policies that are intended to influence employment, pricing and commodity output in hope that such controls will have an positive effect in controlling interest rates.
The Federal Reserve can however opt for alternative and effective policies such as inducing an artificial supply of funding by lowering the discount rates. This would effectively have an effect in the employee level as well as output levels which would be stopped from falling.
This is achieved by ensuring that there is an assured amount of necessary financial capital for sales activities needed to boast profits that would enable companies to keep employment levels high. Thus enhanced supply of money lead to enhanced supply of funding that is essential for assured growth in output. This is described in the figure below.
This shows that if the supply of money (note: not supply of funding) can artificially induce several economic shocks such as demand as well as money and credit oriented recessions by ensuring that there is enough capital to support such activities as improved output that do have a positive effect on the GDP. This can only occur if interest rates are lowered to such an extent that it generates desired responses from demand.
The situation is however different in mega economic crises such as the great depression as money is not liquid enough as it is trapped in loans. Increased monetary supply can however create and actually have created mammoth inflations such as the German Hyper Inflation that did occur o in the 1923.
This is due to the fact that monetary polices that induces demand supported policies cannot keep employment high and prices low at the same time. As witnessed in the US, government need to employee different tactics to curb prices and unemployment, other than increased-money-supply tactic.
Such polices include taxing wages in such a way that wage targets are set from tax as well as setting price limits beyond which tax penalties would be awarded. When that idea is implemented not only will employment be kept high but also prices controlled.
International issues Despite the numerous bottlenecks, monetary authorities have strengthened the monetary policy which has in turn given them humble time to concentrate on domestic policy aspirations for a number of reasons: the balance of payments record comprising the current and the financial accounts.
The current account monitors cross-boarder exchange of goods and services and even gifts while the financial account keeps track of all foreign acquisition of America’s real and financial assets.
The pegged rates domestic policy on the other hand refers to international agreements obligating governments undertaking multilateral transactions to maintain a constant supply of their currency at the foreign exchange market so as to stabilize it at an agreed-upon standard.
At the moment, however, the relative values of the dollar and the euro are allowed to vary. Under the pegged rate system, sustained by the demand and supply a currency, other factors, say a growth in the GPD may come to play and affect the demand-supply equilibrium at the international markets consequently impacting on the exchange rates of the dollar.
To curb this, a domestic policy to increase the interest rates in the US will stabilize the dollar, discourage investment in Europe and attract more foreign investors. That is, a policy manipulating the interest rates in the US keeps the dollar at the official pegged value against the euro, encourages domestic investment, hence its value is kept constant.
As such, there is a variety of GPD and interest rates for the market-manipulated value of the dollar. This establishes a balance of payments (BP) on which the value of the dollar is kept constant despite the foreign exchange market dynamics which bring about huge demand and supply changes for the dollar.
Pegged interest rates does mean that there is negligible bots to foreign trade due to the nature if its rigidity. As such the US government should consider moving from such rigid policies to more liberal polices that guarantee enough space for maneuver in any economic situation.
The move towards flexible monetary policies is encouraged as it will see powerful domestic monetary based policies. Such polices will also see an improved supply of funding that in effect positively lead to an improved GDP.
However, flexibility in decision the prevailing interest rates do have a negative effect on the country’s fiscal policies. This means that if the US government has to realize the assured economic control it has to carefully balance the employment of both fiscal and domestic monetary policies.
This means that the Federal Reserve with which domestic monetary based policy falls under and the congress which handles matters of implementing the fiscal policies must closely work together.
However due to the fact the legislation process within which the congress takes to have fiscal polices take a very long time, then congress might need to consider ceding some of the fiscal possibilities to professionals (Federal Reserve) who are more oriented with economic matters.
The effect is that economic polices will be implemented faster from the same central locations, the federal reserve a opposed to the long tedious procedure that would involve endless and sometimes fruitless communications between congress and federal reserve.
Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
External Environment facing Coglin Clothing
Factors that would impact Coglin in Vietnam and Thailand
Control measures to challenge in Vietnam and Thailand
Introduction Internationalization and outsourcing refers to the elements of interest in global aspects with contextual respect to business. With the spread of globalization theory, institutions have sought to obtain their resources as well as sell their products in a global perspective.
International trade and outsourcing of an organization’s resources have therefore become fundamental of large as well as medium companies. This paper seeks to discuss challenges facing Coglin clothing company in relation to internationalization and outsourcing. The paper will explore external environmental conditions of Coglin clothing.
Case study Coglin is a clothing design and manufacturing company in Australia. The firm has been in existence for twelve years and under one chief executive officer. The company has experienced a considerable level of growth though it is currently faced with a number of threats.
Its recent growth has led to changes such as increased level of recruited staff and expenditure on management. The company is also facing increased competition from the global market following the government’s move to liberalize the local market to international trade.
The company is thus faced with the task of copping with the external environment in order to handle its current and future contracts (Case Study, n.d., p. 1).
External Environment facing Coglin Clothing External environment facing an organization refers to forces that emanates from outside the organization which has the capacity to affect the operations of the particular organization. Factors such as competition facing an organization as well as issues that pertains to regulations and natural factors therefore constitute an organizational environment.
The environment with respect to Coglin Company can be viewed from two perspectives: “task environment and general environment” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83). Task environment refers to the organization’s immediate factors such as its “suppliers, distributers, customers and competitors” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These factors are immediate in the sense that they face the organization in every aspect of its operations. The other category of environment, general environment, consists of widely extensive factors that include “economic, technological, sociacultural, demographic, political and legal, and global forces that affects the organization” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).
Suppliers to an organization are the parties that make the organizations provisions for resources. Such parties are occasionally subject to variations with respect to elements such as “nature, number and type” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).
The organization’s suppliers can for example change their structures and terms or relation with their contracting partners such as coglin or their number could change due to closures or entry of more firms in the supplier market.
Any change with respect to the organization’s suppliers will call for adjustments by Coglin’s managers in order to maintain the company’s desired and planned operations. This is because any of such changes will either have an advantage or a disadvantage to the organization calling for a move to either capitalize on cases of opportunities or to counter any form of threat.
A reduction in number of suppliers is, for example, associated with a stronger bargaining power by the remaining parties over the company. Coglin might therefore be forced to endure dictated terms from suppliers if the number reduces to levels that can have monopolistic or oligopolistic influences.
An increase in the number of suppliers on the other hand gives more power to the company through its increased options in seeking supplies. Competition among the suppliers will also lead to moderated terms which will be advantageous to Coglin.
Similarly, distributers have a significant level of impact in a producer company such as Coglin. As a link between the company and its customers, the effectiveness of the relationship between the company and distributers will be reflected in its level of sales.
We will write a custom Assessment on Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A reduced number of distributers will have a negative impact on the company in terms of more bargaining power by the remaining distributers together with a threat of reduces consumer servicers in cases where the number of distributers cannot reach all customers.
The company may therefore suffer from reduced sales. An increased number of distributers will on the other hand give more advantage to the company with respect to relatively increased power by the company over the distributers and subsequent customer coverage (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 87). Customers refer to the parties that purchase products from an organization.
Being a clothing design and manufacturing industry, Coglin’s customers include “individuals, small companies, large companies, government agencies and educational institutions” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83) that might be interested in the company’s textile products for final use in houses and office premises.
The products from the company can be used by these parties for clothes or furnishings. Changes with respect to consumers also affect the decisions made by management of the company. Unlike suppliers and distributers, customers exhibit a wide variety of changes that can include fashion, taste, and income, complimentary and supplementary products among others.
The changes in consumers will also be realized in either an advantageous or a disadvantageous perspective. Competitors also shape the direction of the organization’s decision making in terms of moves to gain or maintain market control (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 88).
The general environment surrounding Coglin Company is on the other hand diverse in nature and is mostly out of control of the company’s management. Coglin is therefore in response forced to adopt decisions that will align the company to its best advantage following the environmental conditions.
Being a profit oriented organization; the company is highly affected by economic factors in its surrounding. Elements such as “interest rates, inflation, changes in disposable income, share market fluctuation and the general business cycle” are some of the economic factors that affect the company (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86).
The economy with respect to individual customers is for example directly associated with the level of demand for products in any market. Economic factors such as reduced incomes or increased unemployment rates therefore cause negative effects on the company’s capacity to generate revenues.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because such changes causes customers to either reduce or suspend expenditures on non basic commodities in which category, clothing may fall. This effect is also felt with respect to institutions that will be forced to control their expenditures and concentrate on necessities.
Inflation which affects elements of the company such as the prices of its resources also has direct impacts on its management. When the economy realizes inflation prices of resources shoots up raising production costs of the company’s commodities.
Consequently, the management is forced into the dilemma of whether or not the increased costs should be transferred to customers in the form of increased product cost. More complications are realized in cases where production costs in external markets are not affected by inflation and cheaper products are availed through importation (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86).
Political and legal requirements in a business set up also drives the operations of organizations in their territories. Political stability, for instance, has both direct and indirect impacts on the operations of organizations.
Political instability induces negative impacts on environmental factors such as security, economy and even investor confidence. Instances of politically instigated violence can, for example, disrupt production processes and even distribution of finished products due to curtailed movements of employees, distributors and even customers to Coglin.
Compromised investor confidence due to political instability can also lead to reduced levels of productions in order to avoid loses due to economic instability. Legal issues also significantly affect the organization.
Laws that cover elements such as: “practices regulations, environmental protection laws, anti discrimination policies and industrial relation legislations” (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86), play a direct role in shaping management decisions making.
Every decision by the management that relates to sourcing of raw materials, recruitment and management of human resource, production processes and relations with other parties are conducted in line with constitutional requirements and bi-laws.
Regulations such as antidiscrimination laws and rights of employees significantly affect decisions with respect to actions against employees who might not be performing or behaving to the expectation of the organization.
Managements may be forced to compromise on the company’s principles and objectives just to avoid legal actions that can be instituted by certain disciplinary actions are taken against employees. Social and cultural factors such as “crime, violence, religion and spiritual activities and lifestyles” (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86) also affect the organization.
The products of the firm are directly related to religious and traditional believes that are evident on people’s clothing. Lifestyles and fashion in dressing codes and premises’ furniture and decorations are also directly related to the organizations products.
Coglin’s management is therefore obliged to yield to pressure as caused by these factors and align the company accordingly (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 87).
International aspects The company’s operations especially with respect to international trade are also dependent on forces in foreign countries that affect business transactions. One of the forces in international trade is the fluctuation of currencies of the countries which the trading parties come from.
When the Australian currency rises against currency of an importing country, Coglin experiences a disadvantage with respect to global competitiveness.
This will negatively affect and even limit the company from exploring foreign markets. A fall in value of the domestic currency relative to foreign currencies on the other hand favors the company with respect to international trade.
The economic stability of Australia which categorizes it under developed countries also influences its impact in the international market following the recognized flow of goods from developed countries to developing countries (Bartol et al., 2009, pp. 65, 519).
International business refers to the trade activities that are conducted between countries. With the emergence of globalization, international trade has been realizing a growing trend in terms of the amount of commodities that are moved across boarders in terms of trade.
Data revealing the trend in volume of international trade from the year 1995 to 2004 indicates a general increase in the volume of trade especially after the year 2001. The percentage increment in volume of international trade has also been significantly increasing (IFCBA, n.d., p. 2).
Administrative measures of exploring international markets, identifying and capitalizing on factors such as “mergers and acquisition” are some of the steps to internationalization of business (IFCBA, n.d., p. 7).
A company’s involvement in international trade however enlists more responsibility with respect to managing “delivery of goods and money, bureaucratic hick ups and distance and travel time” (Sercu P., n.d., p. 8).
Factors that would impact Coglin in Vietnam and Thailand External environmental factors in Vietnam such as cheaper labor and cost of locating a business enterprise, “intellectual property threat” and poor infrastructure contributes to task environmental factors.
Consideration of factors such threat to intellectual property and poor infrastructure in Vietnam can overweigh factors such cheap labor to influence investors away from the country (Nieuwoudt, 2010, p. 1).
The market in Thailand which has a wide advantage with respect to general environment such as government policies is on the contrary not favorable with respect to task environmental factors. The Thailand textile market is also already saturated with both export and import activities that might not make it very attractive for new investments (Report, 2010, p. 1).
Control measures to challenge in Vietnam and Thailand The challenges in Vietnam and Thailand include both general and task environmental forces that include factors driven by government policies and market forces for resources and finished products.
A firm in these locations will therefore enact decisions to capitalize on the advantages that are offered by market forces such as cheap labor and market liberalization effects as well as adopting policies that are in line with the country’s legislations (Nieuwoudt, 2010, 1).
References Bartol et al., (2009). Management. Sydney: McGraw Hill.
IFCBA. New trends in international trade, emerging business models, and the needs of small and medium-sized businesses in preparing the Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. Web.
Nieuwoudt, T., (2010). Vietnam’s textile industry: Opportunities and challenges. Web.
Report., (2010). Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Thailand. Web.
Robbins et al., (2009). Management. Sydney: Prentice Hall.
Sercu, P., Managing credit risk in international trade. Web.
Wadolell et al., (2007). Contemporary management. Sydney: McGraw Hill.
English as a dominant language Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Declaration of English as official language
Introduction It has been argued on more than one occasion that the dominant position taken by the English language is more than just a matter of language. Some people feel that it also has a lot to do with political and economic domination, a claim that has been refuted by yet another cross-section of people (Barber 2000). This discussion seeks to establish which of the two arguments is correct and why it is so.
Background Information Since the establishment of America as a state, there was one unique aspect that this nation has always had which is allowing people from diverse cultures to come into their land and become part of the nation.
America did not only welcome people from other cultures with open arms but they also allowed them to continue practicing their different cultures without forcing them to adopt their own culture. Some people seem to forget that at one point all the citizens of America were all immigrants whose cultures and languages differed (Ronowicz
Concept of a small world Essay a level english language essay help
A small world can be viewed from different perspectives. This can be from the mathematical, physical or sociological perspectives. Small-world network is a mathematical graph. In this graph most nodes don’t neighbor one another.
Apart from this, these nodes can be approached from different directions. Small-world networks are characterized by cliques and near-cliques. From the sociological perspective, these small-world networking has advantages. One of the advantages is their resistance to change.
This is due to the presence of the filtering apparatus that makes use of highly connected nodes. Also, the other advantage is the efficiency in transferring information. It has the capability to transfer information and at the same time has the capability to maintain the number of links needed to keep the network running (Murray, 2010).
The models related to this are mostly applicable to empathy group theory. The theory has been represented in sociological argument. Affinity groups can be described as social movement groups. They are characterized by their small size. Also, they are semi-independent pledged being directed towards a bigger goal.
The model has been used to prove the protest directorial strategies against police action. The model urges that the higher the populations in the network that result from merging of small networks, the more valuable are the nodes. The same can be put across when defining the affinity group model. (Cohen, 2003).
In this phenomenon social connections are formed. The social connections link individuals from different regions of the world. The concept brought about the well known phrase of six degrees of separation. This was after the small world experiment.
During the experiment, people were requested to reach a certain person by sending a message through a chain of links. In that experiment most of the chains failed. The relationship between individuals can be shown by the use of collaboration graphs. An affirmative relationship is indicated by a positive edge between two nodes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, a negative one is illustrated by a negative edge. Prediction can be done on the probable outcomes of the graph. Signed social network graphs are used to illustrate this. To illustrate the behavior of those who can change their opinions, balanced graphs are used. Vice versa takes place for those who can change their opinions (Cohen, 2002).
According to study, it has been observed that joy has a relation with social networks. In case one individual has joy, a certain fraction of those surrounding him or her have joy too. Individuals at the central part of a certain network enjoy life in future than those in the outer region.
Genetical values can also be seen in the social networks. This is according to research carried out within the recent years. Also, taking an example that the chances that a two individuals being friends to another are high. In addition, the numbers of routes that can be used to move to another person in a network are heritable (Bartheleny, 1999).
Reference List Bartheleny, M. (1999). Small-world networks:Evidence for a crossover picture. Phys.Rev. Lett. 82(15), 3180.
Cohen, R.,(2002). Structural properties of scale free networks: A handbook of graphs and networks. London. Lilly printing press.
Cohen, R.(2003). ‘‘Scale-free networks are ultrasmall’’: phys.rev.lett. 98(23),4321.
Murray, R.(2010). ‘‘Networks with the smallest average distance and the average clustering’. Web. Retrieved
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of a small world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Korea as a link between the continent and Japan Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Korean relations to China
Korean relations to Japan
Korea As link between Continents
Discussion and Conclusion
Introduction Northeast Asia is the most influential region in the Asian continent and affairs in this part of the continent have an impact on the whole of Asia. China and Japan are the two super powers in the region and their geographical proximity and economic interdependence means that the two countries are deeply connected.
Even so, the history of these giants is turbulent and there continues to be a mutual hostility between them. At the present, there exist a number of significant issues facing Northeast Asia. These issues include: China’s rapid economic growth and her increasing role in international affairs and Japan’s possible remilitarization which is cause for concern for her neighboring countries.
Korea stands between these two powers and her geographical positioning together with her history with both nations gives her particular relevance in the region. Korea has a shared history with both China and Japan and both countries consider her an important player in their international strategies. This paper shall discuss the role of Korea as a link between the continent and Japan. In particular, the paper shall analyze the Korean relationship to both Japan and China so as to highlight Korea’s role as a link.
Korean relations to China The Korean Peninsula has historically enjoyed close relations with China. This relationships have in part been as a result of China’s security concerns. Historically, some of China’s invaders have made use of the Korean peninsula to perpetrate their attacks against China. The border has also served as the arena for conflicts between China and her traditional rivals; Japan and Russia.
This security concerns are part of the reason why China is concerned about the affairs of Korea since she would not want Korea allying herself with nations that China perceives to be enemies. The renowned scholar Quansheng Zhao best articulates the relationship between China and Korea by stating that “Chinese interest in the Korean peninsula has been based on the combined factors of national interest and the historical connections between China and Korea” (102).
China-Korean relations date as far back to the year 6 AD when Korean emerged as a unified state. In this period, Korean rulers sought to establish relations with China which was an influential actor in the region. From its relationship with China, Korea obtained numerous cultural influences including language, philosophy and even religion. China on the other hand had a market for her products as well as a sphere of influence.
The relationship was mutually beneficial for both nations although it was the Koreans who gained more from the more civilized China. Korea also paid tribute to the Chinese court since China regarded herself as the superior party in this relationship. Even so, Korea saw the relationship as mutually beneficial and regarded themselves as equals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Selig asserts that Koreans regarded the relationship as suzerainty where the paying of tribute was of little consequence and real independence (309). Korean kings constantly sought and received protection by China from both internal unrest as well as external aggression which was mostly from Japan. As such, the history of China and Korea was based on development as well as security concerns.
This historical relationship continued amicably until the fall of the powerful Ming dynasty. This fall was precipitated by the rise of the Manchus in the early 17th century. This dynasty was regarded by the Koreans as weak and barbaric in comparison to the Ming dynasty.
This weakness led to the creation of factions within China and many historians blame this lack of a centralized command for the defeat of China in the Sino-Japanese war. Following this defeat, the Shimonoseki Peace Treaty was reached upon. The first article of the peace treaty which was signed after the Sino-Japanese called for China to accept Korea as a completely independent country. This loss of Korea to Japan hence severed the historical tie between China and Korea.
China had a chance to assert her influence in Korea following the defeat of Japan in the Second World War. As an aftermath of the war, Japan was required to relinquish control of the Korean colony (Oberdorfer 230). This led to the emergence of a vacuum which China was quick to fill. China therefore became the closest ally and supporter of North Korea. To demonstrate her commitment to this, China sent in her troops to defend North Korea from imminent US invasion in the Korean War (Wang 480). China has continued to be a key actor in Korean affairs up to date.
Korean relations to Japan The relationship between Korea and Japan was historically one of violence with Japan constantly making attempts to invade Korea. Zachmann reveals that in the 1590s, Japan engaged in disastrous campaigns against Korea that further alienated it from both Korea and China (8). These campaigns also resulted in the upsetting of the balance of power in Northeast Asia thus contributing to the downfall of the powerful Ming dynasty and the rise of the Qing dynasty.
Even so, Japan did attempt to establish good relations with Korea for reasons of domestic authority as well as economic considerations. As of 1607, Japan welcomed the first embassy from Korea and sought to establish international relations that would guarantee Japan’s authority. China was able to deter Japanese aggression in Korea effectively up until the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.
Japan was keen to expand her influence on Korea and in 1876, Japan pressured Korean into a Treaty of Amity. This was a western-style imperialist treaty by Japan and it purposed to remove Korea from the “hermit nation” stance that it had taken. In 1888, Japan openly supported a planned coup d’état in Korea where pro-Japanese factions purposed to take over the leadership. In this case, Chinese troops intervened and quickly extinguished the coup at the request of the Korean government.
We will write a custom Essay on Korea as a link between the continent and Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This Chinese action enraged Japan since it once again symbolized China’s dominance in Korean affairs. However, Japan let the matter to pass and proceeded to sign a treaty with China where both sides agreed to withdraw their troops from Korea (Zachmann 17). In addition to this, both parties agreed that in case of future disturbance in Korea, troops from both sides could only the sent upon notification of the other party. Following this incident, Japan pulled out of Korea and did not object to increasing Chinese influence in Korea.
As a matter of fact, Japan and China at times worked closely to keep Russian influence in Korea at bay. Despite the temporal withdrawal, Japan was still keen on establishing her dominance in Korea and in the 1880s, Japanese leadership began an intensive military build-up of Japan’s forces.
Even as the military preparations took place, the hypothetical enemy was not Korea but rather China. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 which is regarded by historians as a watershed for both Japanese and Chinese modern history was a major turning point in Korea-Japan relations since it resulted in the abject defeat of China. The war was as a result of the Tonghak riots which took place in June 1894 in Korea.
Following this riots, the Korean government requested for Chinese military assistance to help quell the uprising. China sent in her troops to assist but Japan also responded by sending her own troops allegedly to protect Japanese citizens and diplomats living in Korea. Japanese troops were excessive and this provocative action resulted in the situation escalating.
Eventually, Japan declared war on Chine on August 1894. Japanese forces were immensely successful with the Japanese navy defeating China in the Yellow Sea while the Japanese army gained victory in the battle of Pyongyang. This resulted in the negotiation of a peace treaty which was largely on Japan’s terms
During the course of the war, Japan viewed herself as a liberator who was saving weak Korea from the cunning interference and exploitation by China (Zachmann 34). In fact, the Sino-Japanese War was popularly considered by the Japanese population as a “just war” for the sake of Korea (Zachmann 25). However, following the decisive victory obtained in the Sino-Japanese war, Japan took the opportunity to advance her interest in Korea.
This resulted in Japan expanding her influence to Korea and subsequently colonizing the country for half a century. At the onset, Japan’s policy with Korea was hoped to be one of non-interference insofar as possible with the goal being for Korea to stand up by herself (Tsuzuki 132). This policy was not implemented for long since other powers wished to exert their influence on the weaker Korea. In particular, Russia aimed to extend her influence in Korea and thus challenged the role of Japan as Korea’s protector.
Korea As link between Continents Korea has historically had a huge bearing on China and Japan and Ilpyong reveals that under the influence of China, Korea was seen as a “dagger pointed at the heart of Japan” (28). Similarly, China viewed a Korea under Japanese rule as a dagger pointed at it. These fears are not unfounded as if evident from Japan’s expansion into Manchuria and its subsequent occupation of China’s northern territory following the colonization of Korea at the onset of the 20th century.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Korea as a link between the continent and Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Zachmann proposes the Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea was as much a matter of prestige and the need to perpetuate dominance as it was a security issue (16). Security wise, Korea plays the role of buffer state between China and Japan. The possibility of a common border with Japan has been a historical fear by China.
Following the annexation of Taiwan by Japan, there was fear that if china remained inactive, Japan would attack Korea and the loss of Korea would result in a common border between China and Japan (Waltz 143). This was seen as unacceptable and China prepared for war with Japan from 1879 onwards in anticipation of Japan take over of Korea. Following the Korean colonization by Japan as a result of Japanese victory in the Sino-Japan war, China felt threatened by this occupation of Korea by a hostile power.
The relationship between Japan and china continue to be strained despite the huge economic progress that both nations have made through the decades. During the cold war era, Japan and China were on opposite side with Japanese favoring the Unite States while China favored communism and the Soviet Union. Even after the end of the cold war, the two countries still continue to regard each other with suspicion.
The United States-Japan Defense Cooperation Guidelines which was come up with in 1995 is one of the grounds on which China and Japanese differ. To China, This pact is regarded as a sign of Japanese militarization and a means through which Japan can expand its influence in the region. China also perceives the US-Japan defense agreement as a move to undermine its influence in the region and isolate it from other countries in the region.
Presently, there is growing rivalry between China and Japan and as China’s power grows, there is the dangerous possibility for the peace and stability of the region. Both China and Japan are keen to maintain stability and peace in the Korean peninsula. For China, the stability of the reason is good both for its economic interests and security interests. Japan also considers a stable Korea as being good for the security of the region.
Korea therefore acts as a key link between these two countries that have a bitter history and view each other with suspicion and mistrust. Korea (South) is uniquely positioned to play an important role to encourage better relations in Northeast Asia (Denny 23). Heo, Roehrig and Seo state that part of the power that Korea has is that it has never attacked any one of its neighbors nor given any indication that it intended to do that (107). Korea is seen as a legitimate mediator between China and Japan without being perceived as a competitor or a threat. This strengthens the effectiveness of Korean mediation.
Discussion and Conclusion While Korea is the significantly small power when compared to the big and powerful China and Japan, it is not a powerless party and indeed has the ability to shape the future of her powerful neighbors. This is because both China and Japan regard Korea as an important actor in their foreign policies. While China and Japan have an entrenched enmity due to their tragic confrontations of the past, Korea is of interest to both countries and therefore forces them to interact. Korea acts as a link between these two traditional enemies and if there will ever be the formation of an Asian power bloc, the role of Korea will be monumental.
This paper set out to discuss the role of Korea as a link between China and Japan. A brief history highlighting the relationship between Korea and the two countries has been given so as to underscore the importance of Korea in China-Japan relations. This paper has highlighted that there exists an intense and deep-rooted suspicion and competition between China and Japan.
Even so, a level of cooperation between these two powers is necessary for the peace and stability of the Northeast Asian region. The paper has then analyzed how Korea acts as a link between Japan and the continent. From the discussions advanced in this paper, it can be stated that while Korea lacks the economic and military might of China and Japan, she plays a significant role in the affairs of Northeast Asia by serving as a link between these two giants.
Works Cited Denny, Roy. “China and the Korean Peninsula: Beijing’s Pyongyang Problem and Seoul Hope”. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Volume 3 – Number 1, January 2004 Heo, Uk, Roehrig Terence, and Jungmin, Seo. Korean security in a changing East Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. Print. Ilpyong, Kim. Korea’s Relations with China and Japan in the Post-Cold War Era. International Journal of Korean Studies. Fall/Winter, 1998. Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. London: Warner Books, 1999. Print. Selig S. Harrison. Korean Endgame: A Strategy for Reunification and U.S. Disengagement. N.J: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print. Tsuzuki, Chushichi. The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 1825-1995.
Oxford University Press. Print. Waltz, Kenneth N. Anarchic Orders and Balance of Power. New York: Columbia UP, 1986. Print. Wang, Hongying. “Multilateralism in Chinese Foreign Policy: The Limits of Socialization.” Asian Survey 40, no. 3 (May – Jun. 2000): 475-491.
Zhao, Quansheng. “China and the Korean Peace Process.” In the Korean Peace Process and the Four Powers. Burlington: Ashgate, 2003.
Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Problem Statement and Research Question
Significance of Research Question
Report of Research Findings
Connection to Personal and Professional Goals
Discussion, Recommendations, and Conclusions
Introduction Placebo and pharmacological effects are factors that have complicated the study of behaviors in response to various stimuli in the environment. The study of placebo and pharmacological effects is very important in distinguishing between drug-induced response and classical conditioning due to the environment.
Pharmacologists and psychologists have been grappling with great challenge of varying doses of drugs at different environments. Numerous studies have revealed that effective doses of different drugs vary according to environmental conditions, which have placebo effect or cause classical conditioning.
Revelation of these studies has compelled pharmacologists and psychologists to establish the relationship between placebo effects and pharmacological effects. Ader, Mercurio, Walton, James, Davis, and Ojha (2010) argue that, unraveling the relationship between pharmacological effects and classical conditioning is very critical in establishment of tolerance and addition of drugs (p.195).
This means that classical conditioning has overwhelming influence on development of tolerance and addiction. Thus, effective doses of drugs do not only depend on physiological mechanism of the body, but also psychological and environmental conditions. Since effective dose of drugs depends on placebo effects and classical conditioning, how do they lead to tolerance and addiction?
Problem Statement and Research Question Placebo effects and classical conditioning are two environmental factors that have greatly influenced effective dose of drugs. Researchers have established that, there is variability of drug dosage given to patients according to patient expectations and environmental conditions making them to consider presence of other mediating and confounding variables as well.
The variability of drug dosage is due to placebo and classical conditioning that influence pharmacological effects of drugs in an individual. The variability of drug dosage used in treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis has led to the development of tolerance and addiction.
In some patients, when administered with standard dose, the drug does not reach the effective dose, hence leads to tolerance, while others experience overdose leading to addiction. Due to the confounding and mediating variables of pharmacological effects, pharmacologists and psychologists have been struggling with the issue of addiction and tolerance. According to Ader et al. (2010), placebo effects and classical conditioning have significance influence in determining effective dose of drugs and thus establish tolerance and addition levels of drugs in patients (p.196). Thus, pharmacologists must factor in placebo and classical conditions when calculating the effective dose of drugs that are specific to certain patients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that effective dose of the drugs is not only subject to pharmacological effects, psychologists and pharmacologists need to establish the critical relationship between effective doses of drugs and classical conditioning due to the environment. The relationship is imperative in the optimization of doses together with classical conditions in bringing about optimum pharmacological effects of drugs while minimizing addition and tolerance levels of drugs.
Stockhorst, Enck, and Klosterhalfen (2007) assert that, proper understanding of the placebo effects and classical conditioning of certain drugs is very important in calculating appropriate dose of drugs to minimize development of tolerance and addiction to drugs (p.3433).
Usually, patients with chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis that require long-term use of drugs are prone to tolerance and addition to drugs. Therefore, how can optimization of pharmacological effects of drugs occur through modification of placebo effects and classical conditions, while limiting development of addiction and tolerance?
Significance of Research Question The research question on how to optimize pharmacological effects of drugs while minimizing development of addition and tolerance is very important in determining effective dose of drugs. Given that effective dose of drugs varies depending on placebo effects and classical conditioning of the environment, understanding of the mediating and confounding variables is critical in determining effective dose of drugs.
Thus, calculation of the effective dose of drugs should consider mediating and confounding variables such as placebo effects and classical conditioning. Numerous studies have confirmed that there is variability in the effective dose of drugs based on the placebo effects and classical conditions that patients have during chemotherapy.
At similar dosage of drugs under same environmental condition, patients experience differing pharmacological effects implying that placebo effects mediate the effectiveness of drugs. Mendez, Williams, Bhavsar, Lu, Bizon, and Setlow (2009) argue that, classical conditioning is very important in enhancing pharmacological effects of drugs since rats fed on amphetamine chronically had increased frequency of feeding as compared to those that did not receive amphetamine (p.75).
This means that classical conditioning is an integral part of placebo effects that have overwhelming influence during chemotherapy. Thus, the research question is of essence in determination of effective dose and minimization of unnecessary adverse effects of drugs such as tolerance and addiction.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Report of Research Findings Research findings have revealed that there is significant variability in effective dose of drugs that results into development of tolerance and addiction as adverse effects of drugs. Pharmacologists and psychologists have agreed that, there are mediating and confounding variables that have overwhelming influence on the effective dose of drugs leading to tolerance and addition. It is very hard to calculate the effective dose of drugs because placebo effects and classical conditions of the environment determine the effectiveness of a dose.
Ader et al. argue that, since there are placebo effects and classical conditioning due to the environment, general application of standard dosages of drugs to all patients under different environmental conditions and varied psychological perceptions have contributed significantly to increasing cases of addiction and tolerance (p.194).
Patients at different environments and varied psychological expectations of chemotherapy experience differing effective dosages of drugs. Therefore, calculation of effective dosage of drugs requires consideration of placebo effects and classical conditions of the environment.
Although placebo effects and classical conditioning have significance influence in determination pharmacological effects of drugs, modification of these conditions can be of great benefit in optimization of drugs.
Usually, standard dosages of drugs have negative effect on health because they result into addiction and tolerance due to placebo effects and classical conditioning. According to Stockhorst, Enck, and Klosterhalfen (2007), proper modification of classical conditions and placebo effects can improve effectiveness of drugs without inducing tolerance or addiction in patients (p.3435).
Modification of classical conditions and placebo effects is appropriate in the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis while preventing the development of addiction and tolerance due to long-term use of drugs. Various research findings have confirmed that reduction of dose and optimal modification of classical conditions and placebo effects can increase effectiveness of drugs and reduce development of addiction and tolerance.
Connection to Personal and Professional Goals The research is very important in psychology because modification of classical conditions and placebo effects is integral in understanding human mind and behavior relative to chemotherapy. Given that psychotherapy and chemotherapy link intricately, optimization of therapy requires optimal interface between the two fields. Optimal interface of psychotherapy and chemotherapy will result into appropriate calculation of the effect of dose of drugs at various environmental and psychological conditions.
This research will also enable me to determine ways in which I can apply the knowledge learned in the classroom in daily life and understand factors behind certain actions and how to handle them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the research will provide a clear understanding of the role drugs can play in classical conditioning and the application of the findings in management of various conditions that afflict people on a daily basis such as chronic diseases and addiction. Since tolerance and addiction are adverse effects of drugs that emanate from ineffective doses due to placebo effects or classical conditioning, the research will help me to establish effective dose of drugs by considering confounding variables.
Discussion, Recommendations, and Conclusions Effective dose of drugs vary depending on the placebo effects and classical conditioning of the environment. Variability in effective dose of drugs has resulted into development of tolerance and addiction as adverse effects of drugs, particularly in treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis, which require long-term use of drugs.
Studies have shown that the environment of administering drugs plays a significant role in development of tolerance to the drug such that a change in location of administration of the drug may result in overdose even though the dosage remains constant.
Bryant, Roberts, Culbertson, Le, Evans, and Fanselow (2009) contend that, classical conditioning and placebo effects are the major factors in an environment that determine effectiveness of the drug, irrespective of the dose (p.77). The argument implies that environment is a significant factor that determines effectiveness of a dose during chemotherapy. A standard dose can be an overdose in one patient leading to addiction or under dose in another leading to tolerance.
Since there is variability in effective dose irrespective of drug dosage due to classical conditioning and placebo effects, it is critical to establish optimal conditions that increase effectiveness of drugs. Pharmacologists and psychologists should develop integrative determination of effective drug dosage to prevent unnecessary development of addiction and tolerance to drugs when treating chronic conditions such as cancer and psoriasis.
Carmack, Wood, and Anagnostaras (2010) posit that, adverse effects associated with long-term use of drugs can significantly reduce if there is appropriate modification of classical conditions and placebo effects (p.21). Thus, appropriate formulation of effective dosage and reduction of adverse effects of drugs depends on chemotherapy and psychotherapy factors.
In conclusion, placebo effects and classical conditioning have significant influence in determining effective dose of drugs. Favourable placebo effects and classical conditions increase effectiveness of drugs and minimize adverse effects, while unfavorable placebo effects and classical conditions reduce effectiveness of drugs and increase adverse effects of drugs.
Hence, pharmacologists and psychologists are grappling with the challenge of minimizing dosage of drugs and creation of optimum conditions that have placebo effect to maximize effective dose of drugs.
Proper optimization of placebo effects and classical conditioning is very important in the formulation of effective dose of drugs that have minimal side effects of addiction and tolerance. Therefore, integration of chemotherapy and psychotherapy factors in the design and formulation of drugs dosages is imperative in enhancing safety and efficacy of drugs.
References Ader, R., Mercurio, M., Walton, J., James, D., Davis, M., Ojha, V. (2010). Conditioned Pharmacotherapeutic Effects: A preliminary study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(2), 192-197.
Bryant, C., Roberts, K., Culbertson, C., Le, A., Evans, C.,
Non-Conventional Energy Resources Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction In the world, there exist different forms of energy that are categorized into two groups that include the fossil fuels and non-fossil fuels. Technological advancement has played a key role in determining the form of energy a particular country depends on. Developed countries such as the U.S., Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and China among others prefer forms of energies that are less harmful to the environment.
For instance, United Nation prefers fossil fuels to non-fossil fuels because they are cheaper, readily available and reliable sources of energy. On other hand, developing countries such as those of Africa use non-fossil fuels as their major source of energy.
Several scholars have defined energy as the capacity of any system to perform a duty or work which actually it is true. The purpose of this study is explain how people can convert energy from one form to another by giving specific examples, to define fossil fuels and finally to discuss two different alternatives to fossils fuels (Ollhoff, 2010).
Discussion How energy can be converted from one form to another
Energy as mentioned in the study is a vital component in people lives because all the human activities involve the use of energy. The change of energy from one form to another is what known as energy conversion and it involves the change of energy from potential to kinetic energy forms. A good example is in fuels whereby chemical energy is changed into heat energy.
Another example is the food that people eat in order to sustain their lives. Such foods contain chemical energy that when people eat food, the energy is converted into mechanical energy that brings about muscles movement. This process is known as respiration process and it only happens when people eat food. In addition to ease digestion, the food need to be broken down into tiny particles a process that result to generation of heat energy (thermal) that keeps our body warm.
Another good example is light bulb that involves the conversion of electric energy to light energy and heat energy as a resultant of heating the filament wire. The light emitted during the process led to generation of heat energy in the surrounding.
Finally, we witness conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy when a system is lifted to a higher level and while at this elevated level, this energy is momentarily transformed into a unique transitory form of energy called mechanical energy. Conversely, when this weight is allowed to fall freely, this energy is again converted into kinetic energy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Definition of fossil fuels and why they are an attractive source of energy
Fossil fuels refer to hydrocarbons that are gotten from remains of plants, ancient things and animals. Examples of fossil fuels include the natural gas, oil and coal that are considered as non-renewable sources of power (energy). Many nations in the world depend on fossil fuels as their source of power. Fossil fuels are considered as an attractive source of power because they are made from materials that are readily available.
For instance, many countries prefer using fossil fuels as opposed to other forms of fuels because coal and natural gas are in plenty meaning that the power plants will be in a position of supplying more power in the country. Another reason as why fossil fuels are an attractive source of energy because they are easily distributed and are cost effective (inexpensive) compared to non-fossil fuels.
Example of two different energy alternatives to fossil fuels and their comparison with fossils based on their advantages and disadvantages
Non-fossil fuels are considered as alternatives to fossil fuels and they include solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy and tidal energy among others. All these sources of power are considered as being renewable energies because they are gotten from sources that will remain for ever as long as people are living.
The most widely used non-fossil fuels are the solar energy and wind energy because they are harnessed from sun and wind that are available in large quantities compared to natural gas and coal which are fossil fuels (Neville, 1995). They are considered the best option because environmentally-friendly because the process involves utilization of clean natural sources. In the United States, the amount of wind prevailing in the country each year can produce 17 billion GJ of electricity which is more than half times the amount of electricity consumed in the country.
On the other hand coal can produce 7billion GJ of electricity meaning that non-fossil fuels produce more energy than fossil fuels. The only disadvantage of non-fossil fuels is that they are expensive for instance take the amount of resource needed make solar panels and turbines. They are capital intensive and therefore expensive for most people. Fossil fuels on other hand are disadvantageous in that they pollute our environment.
They are considered as the major contributors of the global worming that affects people lives in the world. Finally, another shortcoming of fossil fuel is that they are exhaustible. It has been predicted that they will be exhausted in the near future and that is why scientists have been forced to look for alternatives.
A good alternative for fossil fuel is hydroelectric power that entails harvesting the kinetic energy of running water to rotate turbines in order to generate electricity. Wind power involves taking advantage of speeding wind to rotate fan-like turbines to generate energy (Khan, 2009).
We will write a custom Essay on Non-Conventional Energy Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The study is interesting in that it explores the concept of fossil fuels therefore enabling the reader to understand the different forms of energy contained in the fossil fuels. Through the study the reader is able to understand the reason why many nations depend on fossil fuels more than non-fossil fuels.
The study has highlighted solar energy and wind energy as important alternatives to fossil fuels because they are readily available in the world though they are expensive compared to both coal and natural gas that are non-renewable.
References Khan, B.H. (2009). Non-conventional energy resources. London: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Neville, R. (1995). Solar energy conversion: The solar cell. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Ollhoff, J. (2010). Solar power: Future energy. New York, NY: Abdo Pub Co.
Madonna of the Meadows and Madonna of the Long Neck Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
There have been many paintings of Madonna done by different artists. Among all these images, Madonna is illustrated using different artistic expressions and despite the difference in time, the paintings still hold some similarities; the differences also notwithstanding.
The great artistic works illustrate the possibility of having shared themes but expressing them differently. By analyzing the Madonna of the Meadow done by Raphael and Parmigiano’s Madonna of the Long Neck, it will be easier to develop a comprehensive comparison that will serve as a guide to understanding the paintings.
Raphael’s Madonna Raphael’s Madonna is one of the most unique pieces of art. This is because the background is developed beyond the viewers’ expectations. The background is brought out under vast scenes and this even affects the intimacy of the foreground scene. As seen from the photo, the artists intended to pass a theme of protection.
The background, which was developed to contain several things, illustrates the impression of a city. There are many dangers and risks associated with the city. While the city is considered as the hub of developments, it is still a place understood for all the vices present.
Cities are associated with violence, unethical and immoral practices. The painting therefore develops a protection theme in which the mother is perceived to be protecting the children from the dangers of the city. The background is painted as an appealing and captivating scene, but the whitish cover illustrates the hidden issues behind the seemingly beautiful background.
Raphael was therefore in a position to capture the viewer’s attention by moving away from the limits of the studio and developing and involving real scenery. From the painting, Raphael is able to develop future predictions by drawing the baby John Kneeling before baby Jesus and holding out a cross.
It seems like a reflection of the things and experiences that were to follow and the cross was the sign to these things. It was therefore evident that the painting not only spoke about the present, but also the future and its activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parmigianino’s Madonna This painting dubbed Madonna earned its name from the elongated neck of the figure developed in the painting. This artistic work illustrates the Virgin Mary seated with baby Jesus and angels coming down to admire the baby.
In addition, the painting has the image of St. Jerome, a renowned worshiper of Virgin Mary. The painting has a relaxed and carefree posture, illustrating that the women are more at ease due to the presence of the angels. She is developed as an affluence woman who wore expensive and elegant clothing.
The woman developed by Parmigianino was exaggerated in most of her features. The neck is not the only elongated feature; she also has long fingers and shoulders. The painting therefore exaggerates on some important features bringing out the painting as elegant and carefree.
The woman appears to be relaxed and less concerned about her motherly responsibilities since there are possibilities of support from the angels besieging her. The angels are also characterized with lots of controversy. This is because the angels have been developed in such a way that some parts are suggestive.
While the angels are supposed to have the uttermost decency, the artist develops some erotic themes from the painting and this helps make the painting among the most controversial of the Madonna’s.
The background is also less emphasized and this brings out some aspects of imbalance. Rather than having a detailed and balanced background, the artist develops some aspects of imbalance and lack of proportion when utilizing the space to the background of the characters in the paining.
This helps to bring the viewers into understanding the ironical setting and the controversies in the painting. Rather than developing a balanced piece of art, Parmigianino generates a debatable and controversial painting.
We will write a custom Essay on Madonna of the Meadows and Madonna of the Long Neck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison When Parmigianino’s Madonna is compared with Raphael’s Painting, several similarities and differences can be realized. Firstly, the characters are developed holding a baby. This illustration of a mother is well developed in all paintings and despite the differences in scenes, both of the paintings emphasize on developing a continuation of life.
In addition, these paintings have religious connections. Both of the women are illustrations of Mary, the mother of Jesus, who is a key figure in the Christianity belief. There is an emphasis on the holy nature of the women in the paintings.
The paintings are however differing in many instances. While the first painting has a well developed background, the painting by Parmigianino is less emphatic on the background features. Raphael helps to develop a background that has a key role in developing the theme of the painting while Parmigianino embarks on developing the painting to illustrate the preferred theme.
The emphasis on the background is therefore different in the Madonna developed by Raphael and that developed by Parmigianino. While that done by Parmigianino is dim and unclear, that of Raphael is more clear, bright and easy to analyze.
The characters of the women also differ in both paintings. While Raphael’s painting develops a caring and down-to-earth persona, the painting by Parmigianino brings out a carefree and elegant woman. The noble nature of the woman painted by Raphael contrasts with the elegance and affluence illustrated in the woman developed by Parmigianino.
In addition, the decency of Raphael’s painting contrasts with the erotic emphasis developed by Parmigianino in his painting of Madonna with the long neck. There are also other contrasting features detectable in both paintings; while the painting by Raphael looks balanced and proportional, that by Parmigianino looks exaggerated in terms of some features like the neck, fingers and the shoulders. Raphael emphasizes on balance more that Parmigianino does and for this reason, both paintings differ a lot and generate different interpretations of the same character, Mary.
In conclusion, both paintings by Raphael and Parmigianino are illustrations of the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. Irrespective of the differences in presentation, there is an aspect of motherly care developed from the manner in which the mothers hold their baby. In addition, the differences between them help in elaborating the different approaches to understanding artistic skills and religious beliefs.
Solar Energy Business Report best essay help
The scope of issues that modern day businesses deal with stretch further than purely the exchange of goods and services. Tecck Industries recognizes that operating in today’s business climate requires a wider understanding of societal issues way beyond the basics of prudent business management.
There are values and ethical considerations to make. There are also legal issues to ponder. In addition, there is an increasingly globalized experience by clients and staff alike. This leads to inevitable clashes between clients, company employees, and other stakeholders in an effort to find a middle place where all the different values can coexist.
The moral issues in the current business climate emanate from the values that the different sections of the society hold. In the current moral climate, the key moral issues include; fairness of wages, employee benefits, environmental concerns, sexuality, rights of workers, child labor, and use of sweatshops. Other key issues in the current business climate come from health, safety, and environment.
Tecck Industries recognizes that there are laws that govern certain aspects of the ethical, moral, and social issues present in its business environment. While the industry does its best to adhere to these legal requirements, it aims at going further.
It achieves this through a stricter ethical code. The goal is to keep ahead of the law in these matters in order to create greater trust within its clientele. This ensures that the industry does not spend valuable time and money on litigation against it from the society and other associates.
Tecck Industries considers it unethical to use any processes, systems, or methods that do not respect human rights, or those that harm the environment. The industry is against child labor and does not trade with suppliers who use sweatshops to produce their products.
The company also has put in place mechanisms to ensure that none of its production lines develops the characteristics of sweatshops. In particular, the company has ensured that it has a standardized wage structure, that its facilities are free from health and safety threats, that the enforcement of discipline among employees is not arbitrary, and that the employees are free to participate in a workers union. These measures, coupled with an attractive pay structure, makes the company a place that many people would like to work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of options for positive social involvement for Tecck Industries. The industry, as a renewable energy company, has the opportunity to promote the use of solar energy in the entire country by providing subsidized products to needy sections of the Hawaiian community.
Some of the profits from business provide the funds required to undertake corporate social responsibility activities, which include the provision of solar lighting and solar water heating equipment. The industry issues them free of charge or at highly subsidized rates for needy institutions such as schools for the blind, children’s homes, and homes for the aged.
These places need the hot water and emergency power that solar energy products provide. Since these institutions mainly rely on charity, they are unable to meet the initial costs. The Industry notes that a strong corporate social responsibility policy not only improves the company’s bottom line, but it improves the life of the society in general. This is our value statement.
Reference List Choi, C. J., Eldomiaty, T. I.,
Twentieth-Century Composers: Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky and Alban Berg Essay essay help: essay help
Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918) Claude Debussy has earned the “impressionist” composer idiom for his exemplary mood evoking compositions based on tentative integration of harmonization and color tones in his styles. As opposed to romanticism with emotional ting and programmatic composition, Debussy embraced symbolist poets’ and impressionist painters’ composition styles in drawing his works. Such symbolism and impressions in his productions were aimed at creating exciting ambience and did expose him to new approaches of fine-tuning timbres and scales.
Debussy’s pioneering works in his treatment of the orchestra and use of harmony laid the foundation for the then upcoming composers like Alban Berg. Some of the major pieces of representative works done by Claude Debussy include Cinq poemes de Baudelaire, Fantaisie, La demoiselle elue, Prelude a Lapres-midi dun faune among others. Debussy’s other significant orchestral productions include Nocturnes, Revue blanche, and La mer.
Igor Stravinsky (1882 – 1971) Igor Stravinsky’s composition excels most of his contemporary composers to the extent that his flavor and style has revolutionized the universal manner in which the world listens to music. Stravinsky’s master piece compositions range from the then conventional classicism through neo-classicism to atonalism, forming a stage for the integration of his harmonics and rhythmic innovations in the universal music system. Stravinsky’s exemplary performance in revolutionizing the music industry of his day can be attributed to his consistency in maintaining a strong profile through his exposition of the underlying beauty of real classical music.
Stravinsky’s music composition style contravened the standard structure of melody, harmony and canons in that his on-set presentations were extremely dissonant that the audience would be revolted by the sound yet at the same time they were drawn by the inherent genius of his production. Although such an innovation shattered the imagination of many, it did reveal the originality and authenticity of music composition. Claude Debussy most greatly thrilled by Stravinsky’s ingenuity and gave him the right hand of partnership in creating an open platform of being heard.
Stravinsky’s music was so devastating original that it astounded the audience and awed his colleague composers. His trio of ballet is the highest praised piece of aesthetic work of any group today, characterizing the uniqueness of his unforgettable music. Although harsh dissonance is evident in most of his compositions, a colorful classic harmony bids the whole production creating a serene and beautiful mood.
Alban Berg (1885 – 1935) Alban Berg compositions were mostly romantic, with some of his representative works being the atonal and 12- tone, orchestral music, chamber music, songs, and operas. Fastidious and perfectionist outlook characterized Berg’s compositions the better part of which was triggered by momentous inspiration, and thus Berg’s works were limited to his intrinsic drives.
Although Berg’s powerful and complex compositions harness a broad spectrum of musical resources, the success thereof is primarily depended on a few universal strategies; the integration of powerful chromatic expressionism, which partially contravenes, yet fulfils the conventional boundaries of tonality, the amendment to classical musical presentation to the inclusion of the atonal component, and a skillful structuring of the atonal compositions using the 12-tone strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One such an integral part of Berg’s theatrical works in the atonal idiom is the Wozzeck, which created a platform of addressing social challenges through an opera, characterized by extensive use of symbolic and metaphorical literary devices.
Marketing for Maximize Product Sales Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Marketing is one of the most important activities in an organization. This is more so in the contemporary world where the market has been characterized by a very high level of competition. The main goal of any organization is to maximize its sales. This is because the level of sales is the major criteria that determine the profitability of an organization. Therefore, marketing is of great importance to an organization.
Promotion mix refers to the various methods and choices which an organization has to make in its attempt to bring its product or service to the market (Mind Tools 2011). This process can clearly be expressed through the concept of 4p’s which stands for product, place, price and promotion. This framework provides guidance on how an organization can market its product effectively.
Product in this case is the services or tangible products that are produced in an organization. An organization has to make several decisions on the product. These include the safety of their product to consumers, brand name, quality, packaging among others.
Place is all about the distribution of the product. It ensures that the product is available to the customer on the right place in the right time. Some of distribution decisions include market coverage, transportation, ordering, and distribution centers among others. Price is also an important part in marketing.
Some of the price decisions that can be used in marketing include the volume discounts, price discrimination, retail prices as well as seasonal pricing. Promotion involves the process of communicating to the consumers about the product. It is aimed at building positive attitudes towards the product. These may involve advertisement, sales promotion, personal selling or marketing communication.
Apple Inc is one of the most successful organizations in the world. This success can be attributed to its effective marketing strategy. Ipad2 is the second generation computer which has been designed and marketed by the company.
Product In order for the product to perform well in the market, it should be beneficial to the consumers. For any organization to maximize its sales, its product must be stronger when compared with the products or services provided by its competitors.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several ways through which an organization can modify its product in order to improve its competitiveness. One of the most common methods is through differentiation. Through differentiation, an organization manages to make its product unique from other similar products provided by their competitors in the market.
Ipod2 has several features that make it unique from others especially those provided by its competitors. It is very thin and therefore it is more portable than the other products. This attracts a significant number of customers because most people do not like carrying gorgeous electronic devices.
This product also has batteries which can last for more than ten hours (GJ56 2011). This attribute attracts a large number of customers because it can be used for instance when one is traveling places where they can’t access the power. These unique characteristics win a significantly large number of customers in the market. It also helps in differentiating the product from the similar products provided by its competitors.
Place In order for an organization to maintain a high level of sales, it must ensure that the product and services are always available and always accessible to both existing and potential customers. For an organization to ensure that its product is available to its customers in the right place and in the right time, it needs to have a clear distribution strategy.
An organization must include the strategies which ensure that the company’s goods and services are available to their customers in the right place and in the right time. Inefficiencies like shortages are likely to discourage the customers and an organization may lose some of them in the process.
Apple Inc is very much determined to ensure that its products are available at the right time and in the right place to its customers in order to avoid unnecessary shortages. For instance, ipad2 is available in all places where other Apple Inc products are sold.
There are significant numbers of retail outlets that sell a wide variety of Apple products. Therefore, it is very easy for the customers to access ipad2 from anywhere. For instance, there are very many Apple stores in the United States. There are also more than 300 Apple stores all over the world from which one can get this product (Apple Inc 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Marketing for Maximize Product Sales specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Price The price of product is also of great significance. It is important for an organization to decide on whether the product or service will either cover the costs of production only or give some allowance for profits. According to the law of demand, when the prices are high, the level of the quantity demanded is relatively lower.
On the other hand, when prices are low, the level of the quantity demanded is higher. It is also important to note that both the level of prices and sales are major determinant of the level of profits an organization makes. This clearly indicates that prices have an important role in marketing. If an organizations sets price levels which are beyond the level in the market, then it will more likely lose its customers to its competitors.
Prices can make an organization fail or perform well in its marketing (The Times 100. 2011). On the other hand, too low prices can dip an organization into losses. Therefore, an organization must be very keen in setting its prices. Prices play a significant role in the marketing process. According to Becatti (2007), pricing is one of the key factors in marketing.
Process plays a pivotal role in determining the realization of the organization’s objectives. However, the pricing is largely determined by the life cycle of the product in question as well as the objectives for the sales turnover. In addition, the pricing will also largely depend on the market share.
Apple Inc has an effective marketing strategy for its products. This has contributed in expanding its market share. The company has been providing consumer friendly prices which has helped in developing good relationship with its customers.
For instance, since the release of Ipad2 in March, the product has recorded a good performance in the market. Soon after the release of ipad2 in March, its price was cut by 5% in United Kingdom to $399 (Anonymous 2011). The company also promised even cheaper prices after increases in the value added tax. In other words, the company has applied all the necessary effort to ensure that it cuts the prices for the ipad2 as much as possible. This increases the attractiveness of the product hence maximizing the level of sales.
Promotion Promotion is another important component in the marketing mix. It is through promotion that an organization is able to expose its service or product to the members of the public. Through promotion, an organization manages to increase the visibility of its product or service. This practice plays a pivotal role in marketing because customers cannot buy things they are not aware of. They should be informed in order to make appropriate decisions.
One of the main ways through which an organization can do this is through advertisement. Through promotion, an organization pushes its product into the market. An organization can do this through various ways like offering discounts for its product. This is one way of marketing its products in the market. By offering discounts, an organization may attract new customers and also retain the existing customers at the same time (Tuto2 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing for Maximize Product Sales by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over the past, Apple recorded a good track of heavy and effective advertisement and promotion of its products across the world. This has helped the company to maintain a high level of sales for its products.
This product has been successfully marketed through internet advertisement (WebProNews 2011). This is one of the most effective marketing methods in terms of costs and the number of people it can reach. Ipad2 has also been advertised through TV which has also helped in selling the product.
Target market In any marketing operations, it is important to identify the target market for a particular product or service. A target market can be viewed as a group of customers having similar wants and needs (Moehlman 2010). Identification of the target market plays an important role in organization’s marketing operations because it helps an organization in developing an offering for the parts of the market which they can best serve. This identification is also very important because it helps in reducing operational expenses in an organization.
Market segmentation is an important stage because it forms the basis for the target marketing. Market segmentation involves the characteristics of a certain consumer group which affects their purchasing behavior for a certain product. One form of market segmentation is the geographic segmentation.
This is the form of market segmentation which involves the aspects related to the geography. Some of the geographic variables which are useful in market segmentation are the market density, topography, population density in a region and climate.
Demographic segmentation on the other hand is based on the social characteristics of a certain population for instance in a certain market. Some of the most important variables necessary in the marketing process involve the income, occupation, ethnicity, Education, age and the social class. These variables play a pivotal role in the marketing process.
Psychographic segmentation is a method of market segmentation which involves aspects like the motives, lifestyles or personality attributes. This form of segmentation seeks to segment the market based on how people live their life. These may be determined by such things like the most preferred forms of entertainment.
Apple products are used by a wide variety of people from different backgrounds and various demographic characteristics. The target market of the Apple iPads is mostly the prospective Amazon kindle owners (Cellfanatic not dated). One can access many things without necessarily firing up the laptop or desktop.
Reference List Anonymous. 2011. Apple cuts UK iPad 2 prices by 5% to £399 and up – yet will make more profit. Web.
Apple Inc. 2011. Apple Retail Store. Web.
Becatti, F. 2007. Marketing Mix: Strategic Marketing Insight. Vol 25 Issue No. 7/8 I 2007 I R25. Web.
Cellfanatic n.d. Understanding the Target Audience for the Apple iPad. Web.
GJ56 2011. Review of the Apple ipad2. Web.
Mind Tools. 2011. The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps. Understanding how to position your market offering. Web.
Moehlman, M. 2010. Target Market. Canada: BeWrite Books LLC.
The Times 100. 2011. Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product). Web.
Tuto2. 2011. Promotion – introduction to the promotional mix. Web.
WebProNews.2011. Internet Marketing and Online Business. Web.
Social Analysis in Canada Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
In Getting Started on Social Analysis in Canada Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift explain that the Third World conditions experienced in the southern countries (Third World countries) are as a result of unfair economic constitutions adopted by the rich nations, which are the US and the Western European countries (110). They argue that although international exchanges of ideas of arguably everything have increased, leading to faster flow of money, goods, people and information (Cairns and Sears 243), rich nations have taken advantage of their superiority to trample on the developing countries.
This, they explain, is as a result of unequal financial, as well as, trade relations. I completely agree with this assertion, based on the economic policies adopted by the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund and the World Bank where the rich nations are the major shareholders and signatories (UN Development Programme 2).
In my view, the rich nations in Western Europe and North America are responsible for the economic problems experienced in Third World countries. The global trade and commerce has not been able to generate the economic growth essential for the development of the Third World countries, while the rich nations continue to achieve significant economic growth and development (Shah 2).
Third World countries have been turned to beggars and highly depend on the rich nations for financial assistance. The enormous debts that they owe to rich nations have become the main obstacle to achieving human development and economic stability. According to Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift, poor countries pay more in debt services as compared to what they receive from loans (110).
Rich nations siphoned-off massive resources from Third World countries during the colonial period, and to further cement their economic power and growth, adopted economic policies that allow them to scoop more wealth from these countries. The rich nations have sometimes imposed loans on Third World countries so that they can achieve their interests, thereby increasing the debt burden on poor countries (Shah 8).
These unfair debts which result from illegitimate loans destabilize the economic growth of poor countries considering the high interest rates that they repay the loans with. Rich nations therefore get richer while poor nations only achieve minimal economic growth. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift advocate for development based democracy and fair dealing (110).
While it is important to create economic institutions for the growth of a country or the world as a whole, the provisions of international economic constitutions should not favor the rich nations at the expense of the poor nations. The international economic and financial institutions such as IMF and World Bank have been instituted in such a way that the rich nations from North America and Western Europe control and scoop wealth from the poor countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third World countries are forced to play along the rules created by rich nations or else they risk economic alienation or sanction even though these economic policies have more disadvantage to them than advantages. I take the example of Ethiopia where the IMF suspended financial aid due to its rejection of the one-size-fits-all development model adopted by the organization, at a time when the country lagging at the 170th position on the UN list (Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift 111-112).
Liberalization of markets and privatization policies further worsens the ability of poor countries to achieve significant economic stability. Rich nations have not allowed poor countries to stabilize their economies before they adopt the liberalization and privatization policies. In my view, this is the major reason as to why rich nations continue to unfairly drain off resources from poor countries to develop their own economies.
It is now several decades ranging from 6 to 3 since most of these poor countries attained independence from colonial control, and yet they are still not ready to compete favorably in global trade and commerce with the rich nations. This means that they were ambushed to adopt these policies. The former chief economist of the World Bank, Joseph Stiglitz, argues that IMF and the World Bank have adopted economic policies which push governments of poor countries away from controlling their internal markets claiming that free-market capitalism would help these countries solve their economic problems (Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift 110).
Today, the markets are controlled by demand and supply, as well as competition and not governments. Rich nations therefore take advantage of the poor countries by expanding their already established companies to developing economies. They quickly control the markets in such countries ahead of the domestic industries, yet the revenue collected in the process is repatriated. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift are also share my view that the financial liberalization advocated for by the rich nations and international institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank unfairly benefit the economies of rich nations (111).
It limits ability of the poor countries to establish protectionist measures for their not yet stable financial markets and therefore opening them up to free-market economics. Poor countries no longer have the capacity to control the financial markets, meaning that they can not influence productivity, jobs, as well as, the prices of imports and exports.
I strongly believe that the economic policies applied by the rich nations and the international agreements which they make with the rich nations, have got nothing to do with achieving global economic growth. These policies and agreements are meant to achieve protectionism to their domestic products and companies, and to expand the market for their commodities and services.
The mutual benefits in these relationships are skewed and highly favour them. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift (119-120) explain that some rich nations have occasionally applied technical barriers to limit trade abilities of other nations. Such governments have always quoted worker, consumer or environmental protection as their reasons for banning the importation of some products.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Social Analysis in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my view, these are protectionist measures adopted to protect their economic interests. Canada has been forced to sign many international economic agreements to satisfy the economic interests of the US, and the World Trade Organization to benefit from the trade and economic relations with the US and Western European countries (Naiman 126). Rich nations normally sign agreements which have more trade benefits to them and which result to trade creation on their side more than it does to developing countries.
The market economics programs of liberalization, as well as, privatization which have controlled the new era of globalization are questionable. They have unfairly given rise to development for the US and the Western European countries.
I therefore conclude that development as a result of globalization should not just consider economic growth, but should be made sustainable, and participatory. There should also be checks on the free market particularly by Third World countries. Besides, there should be liberty to participate effectively and equally in trade and commerce.
Works Cited Cairns, James and Sears, Alan. A Good Book. In Theory Making Sense Through Inquiry, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.
Czerny, Michael, ]ackline, Clarke, Davies, Robert, and Swift, Jamie. Globalization and development. In getting started on social analysis in Canada, 4th ed. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines, 2003. Print.
Naiman, Joan. How Societies Work: Class, Power, And Change In A Class, Power, And Change In A Canadian Context, 4th Ed. Fernwood Publishing Company Ltd, 2008. Print.
Shah, Anup. Causes of Poverty. Global Issues, 05 June, 2011. 08 July, 2011. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/2/causes-of-poverty
UN Development Programme. Human Development Report 1999. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Analysis in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Cross-cultural Psychology Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
People from diverse backgrounds apparently portray differences in belief systems and behavioral patterns largely due to disparity in cultural settings (Lonner, 2000). On the other hand, similarities are also inevitable in human culture. These similarities and differences in cultural backgrounds have led to emergence of cross-cultural psychology, a study on the interaction between diverse human culture, belief systems and behavioral patterns.
Cultural psychology attempts to create correlation between human mind and culture (Smith, Bond
Classic Tale About Janie Crawford Essay custom essay help
This novel is about an interesting classic tale about Janie Crawford. The identity of this woman takes her through several life processes whereby she gets a good opportunity to learn more about love, to differentiate lives’ joys and sorrows, and then settle in peace with much knowledge and skills concerning life.
The life expectations of Janie especially how she was treated were very high than what she received. Her life started becoming real when she met young man called Tea Cake, who offered her an opportunity to enjoy life full of love. Although Janie’s story does not have a good ending, there is a conclusion that leaves readers with satisfaction.
It is a fact that Janie is a one black woman who tirelessly stood out from the bondage of sorrow, foolishness, and fear. She confesses that she had done the two most important things that any human being ought to do; one is to go to God, and the second one is to reveal the secret of how to live for her.
Motifs are structures that happen again and again in a piece of literature, and they help a reader or the audience to understand the theme of that piece of literature. For instance in this novel community is one of the motifs used by the author to assist the readers understand his themes.
When Janie returns to Eatonville, the author centers his attention to the porch-sitters who gossip openly about Janie’s situation (Hurston 86). There are two major places in the novel that the author puts significance, the Eatonville and the Everglades, the environment that Janie made interactions.
In several cases, we are shown Janie’s desire to be part of this vibrant social life, which she feels safe and well connected with other people. For instance in chapter 18, whereby Janie was in the company of Tea Cake, and Motor Boat when they were looking for a safe place to shelter from the rainstorm.
The author makes us aware that the group of these three characters sheltered themselves in shanties with others. The author did not literally mean that they shared the same room with them, but he wanted to show us how they united against that natural disaster which was devastating (Hurston 103).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the author indicates several occasions whereby Janie ridicules the gossip and rumors that exist in these communities. Most of these gossips found within these communities were to criticize Janie especially due to her independence nature and possession of a strong will power.
Most of people in these communities were trying to demonstrate a negative picture of practicing unity, because they preferred the total sacrifice of individuality. On the other hand, Janie was against this type of sacrifice, a she was a strong woman who could not allow any person to control her life against her desires.
Janie cared much about the outcome of her deeds, and that is why she used to take her time before making such decisions. She did not mind how people in the surrounding community would say and think of her, but she always stood on her grounds.
Towards the end of the book, it is clearly indicated that Janie did not behave in such a manner because of fearing death, but she disliked misunderstanding of people (Hurston 186). In the efforts to understand herself better, Janie was very keen to understand what people in the community thought and said about her.
The major reason as to why Hurston used dialect in the novel is to put his story and his characters especially the main characters into the real life. The presence of dialect in a story makes the characters to appear real in the eyes of the reader. Whatever the character is saying or demonstrating becomes believable to the reader.
The efforts of the readers to familiarize themselves with the new used language make them end up feeling as part of the action or the story. This novel has made much use of the spoken version of the language, for instance, in early parts of the story Hurston acknowledges the readers that there would be use of dialect as the language of his characters. Readers are made aware that at a certain point Janie would narrate her story to Pheoby in “soft, easy phrases” (Hurston 102).
The use of play in the dialect used by Hurston in the novel is to bring out the imagination aspect in the story. When every character is made to act her or his parts, it becomes easier for the reader to understand the concept of the author and get the theme correctly.
We will write a custom Essay on Classic Tale About Janie Crawford specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the use of play also makes the readers to master new and hidden concepts of the story, as it is easy to point out these concepts as the characters are role playing. Another important reason of Hurston to make use of the play is to improve the imagination aspect of the reader, which would in turn improve the understanding ability.
In addition to the use of dialect, Hurston as well made use of standard language as the main language to make the story flow, and to keep the reader in the right path. The story may lack its original taste incase the author decides to use dialect throughout the story. The mixture of the two languages is interesting and helps in drawing the attention of the reader.
The title of the novel has a greater significance in the story as it is assisting the author in bringing out several thoughts and ideas from the story to the real world of the reader. For instance, during a big party, the severe hurricane starts disturbing people and both the Tea Cake and the Motor Boat are much disturbed to a point of not concentrating with the party happenings (Hurston 98).
Janie tries to make them calm down assuring them that it’s God doing his work, and should not worry. They thought that the noise that they were making in the party was loud, but that one of thunder was very strong compared to theirs.
The implication of this strong sound of the thunder was that it was a natural occurrence from God, signifying itself as stronger than any sound from human beings. In the early stages of the story, we read about the power of nature of Janie’s gentle bee, which is the same power of nature shown by the storm.
The author uses the storm as a metaphor. Throughout the story, the power of God is signified through various natural phenomenons like the strong wind, thunder, storms, and the strength of the moving water in the lake (Hurston 152). All these natural aspects are used to illustrate the presence of God in the midst of these people, it was an indication that the strong power of God was watching over them in their doings.
Work Cited Hurston, Neale. Their eyes were watching God. New York: Paradigm Publication, 2004.
Drinking culture in US and UK Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Alcohol consumption in the United States
Alcohol Consumption in the United Kingdom
Introduction Cultural values and practices are identified to vary from one location to another. Whether defined by laws or by societies, it is common to realize that what is practiced or is considered to be normal in one society may be differently perceived in another society. Such is the difference as realized between the United States and the United Kingdom. This paper seeks to discuss the difference in drinking habits in the two societies. The paper will research on identified behavior and trends as exhibited by individuals who drink as well as regulatory measures over drinking.
Alcohol consumption in the United States Consumption of alcohol in the United States is considered to be a relative normalcy due to the percentage of the American population which is reported to be drinking. With a significant population of almost twenty million citizens being associated with the drinking problem, the habit can be identified to be common with different types of complications for varying individuals.
Alcoholism in the United States has been identified with a variety of categories that also determines the level of consumption of the drug by individuals. There is the category of individual who are associated with a strong force of attraction that pulls them into alcohol consumption but poses a sense of control to their level and rate of consumption.
There is yet another group of individual who are identified to have lost their sense of control with respect to the consumption and are rather driven by the desire while some individuals are so much into drug consumption to an extent that failure to drink induces physical body problems such as shaking among others (NIH, 2011).
A research activity as conducted in the year 2010 revealed that the United States has adopted an increasing level of alcohol consumption as compared to the level that was realized two decades ago. The increasing trend in drinking is associated with a number of factors that include socioeconomic considerations. The trend is also associated with population changes that have been realized in the states in the past years.
Consideration of demographic records in the United States has for example explained the association of the rates of drinking with the aging population and high level of immigration. Based on this opinion, the drinking habit in the United States can be defined in terms of occupations as well as social factors around an individual.
The aging population for instance associates the drinking habit with the economically inactive population that has been rested. This approach alienates economic impacts of adverse alcoholism with respect to the overall economy of the nation as it does not significantly affect economic activities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It would be a different case if the middle age population were the major consumer as this would take them out of work especially if they are identified by loss of control with respect to alcohol consumption or to have physical complications due to overconsumption of alcohol.
Another association of alcoholism with immigrants in the nation also exhibits a positive perception over the physically active Americans who are identified by the research as non significant consumers of alcohol. Though the native youths and active adults may be consumers, the research identifies them to portray a low level of such consumption (Science, 2010).
Social consideration of alcohol consumption in the United States also identified the middle aged category of people associated with heavy alcohol consumption to be individuals with social issues. Factors such as poor education that was identified by lack of a university degree for instance reflected a higher level of alcohol consumption.
Individuals who lack social commitments in families such as unmarried people for instance also reported alcohol consumption. Whether based on the economically inactive elderly population, the immigrants or natives with less social commitments, the research reports that the general level of alcohol consumption in the United States has been on the increase (Science, 2010).
Even though the trend in the United States is identified to have changed with an increasing number of people consuming alcohol, a contrary trend on the level of individuals’ expenditure on alcohol is registered to have been on the decline. According to Hanson David with reference to a separate report that was released by national reports, a consideration of consumption of alcohol among individuals aged above fourteen years recorded a decline in the average quantity of alcohol that is currently consumed by individuals.
The research that was also conducted with respect to the same two decade duration reveals more features about the drinking habit in the United States. The increasing number of people who drinks together with its association with the aging property as well as immigration and the revelation of reduction in people’s per capita consumption of alcohol explain a cancelation of the two to a conclusion that the overall consumption of alcohol in the country has most likely been constant over the last two decades.
The trend can also be seen to have shifted to the elderly and immigrants indicating a relief from the active population that was initially involved in the habit. It is also reported that even though young people consume more alcohol as compared to the elder category on an individual basis, the rate of alcohol consumption in young people has been reducing with time. This finding is also consistent with the concept that the elderly consume more on an overall consideration due to their larger numbers (Hanson, 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Drinking culture in US and UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legislations that have been established in the United States over drinking age are also an important factor with respect to alcohol consumption. While a majority of nations across the globe have fixed drinking age to the majority age, the United States has its minimum drinking age fixed at twenty one.
This means that by federal laws, individuals below this age are prohibited from consumption of alcohol. Its consideration as an offence under federal regulations thus provides a benchmark over the level of alcohol consumption by individuals.
Though the law might not be effective in arresting drinking among individuals below the stated age, it has been effective in reducing the rate of alcohol consumption among the youth in their earlier years in which they are susceptible to peer influence. This is also a time at which the individuals are not mature enough to make concrete psychological decisions. This can be associated with the reduction in the number of individuals that consume alcohol in the middle age.
The freedom that the youth are offered only after reaching twenty one years, an age at which they are considered by the government to be able to make reasonable choices, may be a significant base for the choice of individuals not to consume alcohol in their middle age because the legality of consumption comes at a time when the youth have developed focus to other important things such as career that keeps them away from alcohol consumption.
Even though exemptions are provided for consumption of alcohol by individuals bellow the age limit, the law is a step to reducing influence into consumption and even addiction to alcohol at an earlier age (Potsdam, 2011).
The United States also has a number of regulations on consumption of alcohol that are seen to play a direct role in reducing the level of alcohol consumption in the nation. There have for example been different rules and regulation over sale or even consumption of alcohol across the nation.
Apart from the limitation in the minimum drinking age, there is a regulation on the level of alcohol consumption that is expected of individuals. The percentage of alcohol that can be in an individual’s body is for instance stipulated under the nation’s constitution to regulate individual’s cumulative consumption of alcohol. Regulations of alcohol consumptions when an individual is on specific tasks such as driving are also realized in the United States (Alcohollaws, 2008).
Alcohol Consumption in the United Kingdom Alcoholism as realized in the United Kingdom is on the other a major problem that is even associated with health hazards including death. According to statistics on alcohol consumption in the country, the number of reported death cases that are associated with alcohol has been rising. This is realized at the same time that alcohol consumption in the country is reported to be on decrease.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drinking culture in US and UK by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to reports that focused on data as realized in the year 2009, there were increased usage of medicine in treatment of alcoholism and alcohol related complication. Much of the treatments were realized with respect to individuals who were trying to pull out of alcohol consumption.
This indicated a high level of the consumption that had gone to affect people on physical capacities. Though some regions of the United Kingdom such as London was associated with reduced level of consumption, other regions like southern parts of the country were still experiencing high rates of consumption (Guardian, 2011).
Though a decline in consumption of alcohol in the country is reported to have been slightly on the decline especially with respect to the youth bellow twenty five years old, the overall trend of alcohol consumption in the country is reported to have been on its increase over the past one decade. A consideration of parts such as Ireland for instance has continued to experience an increase in the level of consumption of alcohol.
This drinking habit is at the same time reported to be defying stipulated regulations. A limitation over the quantity of alcohol that an individual should consume in one week is for example in existence in the country but is not effectively enforced leading to people consuming more than the recommended rates.
One of the factors that have been realized to increase the trend of drinking in the United Kingdom has been the increasing culture of women adopting the drinking habit. Though women generally consume less alcohol as compared to men, their increasing involvement leads to higher cumulative values. Increased levels of consumptions are at the same time being realized among the young people, especially among teenagers (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009).
The level of consumption of alcohol in the United Kingdom is particularly realized to be high as compared with that realized in America. The trend of consumption also reveals higher consumption levels in the current time periods as compared to earlier decades.
With alcohol consumption being realized at about seven liters per person in the 1960s and just above ten liters per person towards the year 1980 as the minimum and maximum consumption levels, the current consumption of about ten liters per person can not be considered to be a low level. The country can actually be reported to be at its high consumption levels since fluctuations are also just realized about mean values.
While consumption of beer has been falling in the country, the rate at which people have been using wines and spirits have been on drastic increase. A consideration of trends on the average amount of money that people spend on alcoholic drinks has similarly been on the rise (Selvanathan
Writing a Learning Objective Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Learning Objective
Learning Objective The objective of the lesson is to learn how mathematics is related to art through understanding of the linear perspective and relation between proportions that enable the viewer to recognize the real size of objects and objects depicted in pictures. In this respect, we should focus on the three simple components such as proportions in relation to division and multiplication, linear perspective that depends on proportions directly, and renaissance with regard to development of art techniques.
Grade Level Students in the Grade Three are introduced to multiplication and division. Moreover, they should know how these simple actions are used everywhere in everyday lives and art using the example of linear perspective in Leonardo Da Vinci’s works.
Script Teacher: Good morning class. Today we’re going to learn about multiplication and division as obligatory actions in mathematics when applied to everyday life and arts. Do you know how math is related to arts?
Students: The students raise hands and answer questions as directed. If they have some ideas, they are free to voice those.
Teacher: Art has its history and it can be logically divided into definite periods. Renaissance is one of the periods in the history of art and science when most of great inventions occurred including identification and application of linear perspective. Who knows what the liner perspective is?
Students: Probably, no one would know answer to this question though I am ready to listen to possible interpretations.
Teacher: Does anyone know prominent personalities of the Renaissance period?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Students: As with the previous question, there would be no apparent answers. However, if some students name Copernicus or Da Vinci, I can encourage them to tell a bit more about those people and their contribution to the development of art and science in the period of Renaissance.
Teacher: Here is where I think it is necessary to listen to a piece of Renaissance music (instrumental) that can help you to understand the spirit of the era and conservatism of ideas in contemporary society.
Students: All students listen to the audio tape with Renaissance music (instrumental) previously recorded from YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SvEttR6HTY).
Teacher: Now let us think about possible areas where multiplication and division operations can be used.
Students: The students give examples; the teacher approves them if appropriate and corrects if examples are not relevant. Besides, a teacher can make hints (think about your average grade; how about counting calories when the amount is given for 100 grams of the product, etc.).
Teacher: Now, let us discuss how multiplication and division operations are related to understanding of the linear perspective.
Students: Here where all students watch the video about linear perspective previously recorded to the laser disc from the digital channel (https://www.howstuffworks.com/). Besides, it is possible to record this video from the discovery Channel directly.
We will write a custom Essay on Writing a Learning Objective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teacher: As you can see, multiplication and division operations are an integral part of the linear perspective and every artist should be able to apply those operations while creating a picture. Now, let us look at these objects (here is when a teacher introduces tangible artifacts) – these are models of geometrical figures such as a cube, parallelepiped, and trapezium.
Students: The objects can be made from the cardboard or purchased in a toy shop where different meccanos are available. Students should look at those objects from different angles and see how the length of lines differs if watching at them from different angles and perspectives.
Teacher: Now work in groups and try to find out the length of the farthest line using the blackboard as the horizon line.
Students: The students work in groups and make their assumptions when teacher addresses each group and discuss the objects with the teacher.
Teacher: Now, let us look at the following picture (the teacher introduces a picture Annunciation by Leonardo Da Vinci) and see how lines tend to one point in the horizon line. Here, the teacher addresses students and asks them to show the lines they see and possible point where they tend to join up. This assignment can be also designed by dividing students in groups and giving every group a different picture.
Students: The students are supposed to show the lines in the picture that outline the scheme of the linear perspective approach. The picture can be taken from the private collection of postcards with well-know paintings or borrowed from the library where books on arts are available.
Teacher: To summarize, let us look at the following book and at the page 62 particularly (here the teacher shows the book Eyewitness Art: Perspective by Alison Cole that can be either borrowed from the library or purchased through Amazon.com digital resource in advance).
Students: Students are supposed to indicate that they see linear perspective applied in practice and recognize the horizon line and how the entire scheme of lines changes regarding the position of the viewer toward this horizon line.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Writing a Learning Objective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Teacher: To conclude, let us write a short description of what we learnt and what we now know about the relation between Maths and painting. Write 150 to 200 words about proportion, linear perspective, and fine arts.
References Cole, A. (1992). Eyewitness art: Perspective. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, in association with National Gallery Publications, London. Borrowed from library.
Da Vinci, L. (1475–1480) Annunciation. Postcard from private collection.
Discovery Channel. (2011). Assignment Discovery: Blueprint Proportions. Video recording – DVD. Private collection.
Geometrical figures. (2011). Cube, parallelepiped, and trapezium made of cardboard. Private collection.
Theatrum Instrumentorum. (2011). Renaissance music (instrumental). Audio recording – CD. Private collection.
British Policy and the Indian Mutiny Cause and Effect Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Economical setting of India before 1875
Political causes of the revolt
Social implications of the British presence
Introduction This is India in AD 1875. The British had just conquered a new territory and expanded to what we to today as the common wealth. However, the conquest was not received kindly by the people of India; the noblemen were angered since they had lost their control and influence. They were then being led, not the leaders but as people under a colonial ruler whose homeland was territories away from this sub-continent.
As a result, the rulers organized a resistance due to the annexation of their territories. The land revenue collection system used by the British was viewed as exploitative in the eyes of indigenous communities arising their gross hatred of the British presence around them.
In the examination of the causes that led to that revolt, we look at the possible aspects such as the revolt’s effects on the then economic activities, religion social setting (social movements) in the Indian context of political setting.
Besides, the revolt may have been justified due to the interpretation of an Indian man, yet the effects were not localized to the areas that felt the bitter pinch of the revolt.
Consequently, from the aftermath of the revolt, could we possibly make some conclusions that this may have had a strain on a local and provincial subject in India then?
Furthermore, the revolt which led to a mutiny may have as well stretched relationship internationally between India and Britain leading other anti-British nations away and around India to review their ties with the British.
Economical setting of India before 1875 India had thrived because of its textile industry which was known internationally. Although, the industry was not highly mechanized, the value attached to the products was significant due to the level of skill that was employed to produce them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The majority of peasants and common men worked for the landlords for rich noblemen for a living1. Also, another industry which was highly developed was craftsmanship. There was also royal patronage given to some religious group leaders.
The causes to revolt for economic reasons were due to British economic policy2. The policy meant that the royal patronage formally enjoyed by the religious leaders’ was withdrawn, the revenue policy was strenuous to peasants due to its high demands-the policy was also strict.
Furthermore, the British policy in trade favored negatively the Indian craftsmen since the coming of the British led to an influx of cheap substitutes for these craftsmen, making their hand produced goods expensive to the buyers and uneconomical to produce.
The people had a discontent that they revolted hopping that they could lessen these economic strains and regain their former livelihoods that they enjoyed before the coming of the British annexing their territory.
Political causes of the revolt The revolt leading to the mutiny had political implications to the rulers India. This was due to the British policy of annexation. This policy led to a mass displacement of many rulers at that time.
The major parts felt the impacts were felt in Awadhi. The British enforced strictly The Doctrine of Lapse and Subsidiary Alliance. Awadhi was seen as a loyal territory to the British rule. Its annexation made the rulers angry and drew criticisms of betrayal.
This led to a revolt in this part. The Indian peasant did not however see any difference due to the presence of the British since levies in tax increased from what they were formerly charged.
We will write a custom Essay on British Policy and the Indian Mutiny specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, there was a collective discontent with the political policies of the British. Besides, the collapse of the Nawab’s rule led to loss of jobs by the subjects in that territory. The coming of the British, which was the major course of the collapse, did not provide alternative employment to the people.
Religious reasons In the perspective of religion, the Indian people did not like Christianity which was brought by the British. There was a mass fear among the Indian people due the activities of the Christian missionaries of converting local people to Christianity.
The fear was that all the people could be forced to convert due to the oppressive British rule3. What made their fears to grow more was the imposition of taxes on land under the temples and mosques.
The policy of taxation of the land under mosques and temples aroused a fear that the religion was under threat making the conservative section of the Indian society be united against the British who was viewed as a common enemy to all of them.
The revolt followed and a mutiny resulted; in the name of religion under threat and the policy of taxing “religious land”4.
Social implications of the British presence Racial discrimination was the gist of social unrest. The British practiced superiority and class segregation5. Orthodox Indians looked at the British presence with a keen suspicion that they were interfering with their social custom. Some of this customs concerned widows. India of that time did not support remarriage of widows.
At the time the British amended laws leading to the legalization of widow remarriage. This caused a high resentment among conservative Indians leading to a general hatred from conservative groups, who thought that the British were interfering with their social customs.
Another part of social aspect that the Indians showed resentment was the extension of woman education. India was a male dominated society which did not support total education of a girl child. The British extended the education of women and this was not received happily by conservative and orthodox Indians.
Not sure if you can write a paper on British Policy and the Indian Mutiny by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, the coming of the British gave the Indians an opportunity to access formal education. By early 17th century, Britain was already undergoing a rapid industrial revolution.
This revolution was also being transferred to territories in foreign lands which were annexed by Britain. The revolution in industries brought with it mechanization of processes of production.
The technology was embraced in India but the educated Indians were not granted promotions to higher positions. It was even alleged that due to British dominance, a less highly educated British was more likely to be given promotion over a highly educated Indian. This also caused a total resentment to the Indian society.
International relations The events leading t the mutiny, took the relationship between India and Britain to a bitter end. The mutiny happened only in some portions of India but the impact was felt nationally in India as a nation.
The Indian view of Britain was that of an enemy, an oppressor, racist and disturber. Some political analyzed commented that the mutiny may have been the first step to independence for India.
Since Britain was also annexing lands in the neighborhood of India, the resentment of British rule also spread to other nations hence accelerating independence campaigns around the region.
Conclusion Indian mutiny in 1875, shaped cultural, political and social relationships between India and Britain. The act was seen by many as barbaric and betrayal. Although it was an imperative way of quelling an uprising, it only led the relationship to a bitter end; lack trust between the two nations.
Bibliography Chakravatry, Gautam. The Indian mutiny and the British imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2005.
Hukam, Chaud. History of Modern India. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 2005.
Imam, Hassan. Indian national Movement. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 1999.
Social Science History. Social science history, 10(1): 1-4. New Delhi: Retna Sgar, 1986 Thomas, Ronald. Dreams of authority: Freud and the fictions of the unconscious. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Footnotes 1 Thomas, Ronald. Dreams of authority: Freud and the fictions of the unconscious. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.
2 Hukam, Chaud. History of Modern India. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 2005. P. 90-92.
3 Imam, Hassan. Indian national Movement. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 1999.
4 Social Science History. Social science history, 10(1): 1-4. New Delhi: Retna Sgar, 1986. P.1-3.
5 Chakravatry, Gautam. The Indian mutiny and the British imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2005. P. 130.
The Development Psychology: Parents’ Probability of Having Another Children Essay (Article) essay help free: essay help free
Introduction According to Jokela (2010), the characteristics of the first child are critical because they help parents to predict their probably of getting another child. The purpose of this study is to summarize the development psychology article by provision of answers to the questions related to the entire content of the article (Jokela, 2010).
Discussion What is the general topic that this paper is addressing? What is the purpose of the research described in this paper?
The Characteristics of the first child predict the parents’ probability of having another child is the topic that is addressed within the context of this study. It is quite difficulty for many people to believe in this the findings of this study although numerous studies have provided numerous evidences that the characteristics possessed by first born children contributes to the determination of the parents’ probability of having another children.
In conjunction to this argument, the purpose of the study topic is to create awareness to the people in the society that the characteristics of the first born child affects siblings birth in the family thus enabling the parents to predict their probability of giving birth to another child (Jokela, 2010).
Methods of data collection, participants, the intention of the research and the measures that were collected
According to the article, the researcher embarked on the use of survey as the only appropriate method through which enough and useful data could be collected for the study. The data was collected using a questionnaire whereby questions were administered to the target population.
The article described how the researcher collected data by door-to door home visits. According to Jokela (2010), the research targeted parents with first-born children aged 9 months, 3 years and five years. The major participants of the study came from the MCS, which is described as a national body of British prospective concerned with the study of infants that are born in Wales, England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. The MCS were aimed at investigating the impacts of the characteristics of first-born children on sibling birth (Jokela, 2010).
Results of the study
The study findings indicated that some of the characteristics of first born child such as high cognitive ability, behavioral characteristics, infant temperature and socio-emotional characteristics among others contribute greatly to parents’ probability of having second child.
It was evident that the probability increased during 2.5 years of growth of the child then began decreasing. Good general health, high education, low psychological stress and good financial status have been identified as some of factors increasing the childbirth probability in the family (Jokela, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Major conclusion of the study and its implications
The major conclusion of the study is that the results have suggested that the characteristics of first-born child affect the parents’ timing and the probability of getting a second child. High novelty adaptability, high cognitive ability and high socio-emotional and behavioral traits of the first-born child predicted parents’ likelihood of having another in the first five years.
The implication of the study is that apart from the characteristics of the firstborn child, the future psychological research will use factors such as good general health, high education, low psychological stress and good financial status to determine human behavior in general (Jokela, 2010).
What are the strengths of the study?
According to the article, the study is resourceful because it has used the survival analysis technique that offers readers with the opportunity to understand time dependent nature associated with child effects. The study also used validated instruments to assess the characteristics of the firstborn child. The other strength is that the study was based on MCS accompanied by prospective follow-up among others (Jokela, 2010).
What are the Limitations of the study?
According to the article, the study presents enormous limitations that include dependence on observational data as opposed to experimental data. Another limitation is that the study failed to address the parents’ effects on the firstborn child but it focused on the effects of characteristics of the firstborn child on sibling birth (Jokela, 2010).
What you think about the study?
The study is valuable in that it played a key role in highlighting the impacts of the characteristics of firstborn child on parents’ likelihood of having a second child. It also analyses others important factors that increases parents’ probability of having a second child in the family (Jokela, 2010).
Reference Jokela, M. (2010). Characteristics of the first Child Predict the Parents probability of having Another Child. American Journal on developmental psychology, 46, 915-926.
A Total Rewards Program Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
How total rewards differs from other more traditional approaches
A total rewards program is different from conventional methods of compensation and benefits because it acknowledges the importance of other motivators, other than pay, in the work environment. In this school of thought, it is assumed that monetary rewards are important but that non monetary or intangible rewards are also a crucial part of the compensation plan.
Consequently, this method addresses challenges in recruitment and retention by offering an all rounded approach. Additionally, most compensation programs in the past would focus on divergent and uncoordinated benefits and pay packages but these were not integrated into one uniform program.
Total rewards allow organisations to cover all aspects of workplace motivation in reward systems such that ample returns on employees can be realised by organisations. Previous methods of compensation were often standardised; most made it difficult for companies to stand out from the crowd.
Total rewards changes all this by giving employers great flexibility in deciding which incentives, motivators and pay packages to choose for their employees (HR Focus, 2006). The unique combination of these rewards makes every organisation that uses total rewards exceptional and that contributes towards their competitive advantage. Also, traditional methods of compensation were too focused on pay to the detriment of the employer.
In those environments, employers would end up with very high costs. However, in total rewards compensation programs, employers can exercise control over their business expenses because these are spread over a vast portfolio.
Advantages and disadvantages from the employer’s perspective
The total rewards program’s main advantage is that it allows employers the ability to attract the right pool of employees and retain them. Certain drivers in the total rewards program have the ability to bring in the right kind of employees needed to meet company objectives in the future.
Also because there is a dynamic combination of rewards that accommodates employees’ careers, chances are that most will be motivated to remain in their positions and this will increase retention. The method is also quite good for employers because it is linked to business strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since performance improvement and assessment form an important part of the total rewards system then companies have a chance of aligning their business goals with their human resource practices (Dixon
Globalization of the US Media Research Paper essay help
Introduction Globalization can be defined as a force or a process that connects more and more people across heretofore-impermeable economic and social boundaries. This means that people become connected across large distances with the assistance of information technology and human transport.
This process can also be seen as the advancement of human co-operation across national boundaries, therefore making the world ”a global village”. ”Globalization” is a term that is often used to explain today’s world. Its terminology has gradually been accepted by the greater public and various scholarly personalities have integrated it as a vocabulary it into their field of research.
Globalization has also increased the inclusiveness and the unification of economic systematization, global relations, and has led to a trend of doing business in different organizations (Appadurai, 1996, p. 41-55). Proponents of big businesses look at globalization as a blueprint of a straightforward policy agenda that promotes economic growth, increased trade, and integration into the global economy.
Therefore, from this perspective, globalization is viewed as unequivocally benevolent and corporations are seen to be leading the way towards spreading the benefits of globalization around the world. Since the advent of information revolution in the 1950s, the media is one of those industries that has undergone through a radical change so as to meet the current global demands as a result of globalization that increasingly manifests itself through media and its forms of communication.
Globalization has now penetrated and influenced the hegemonies of the media industry towards a massive following of both young and old. Cultural practices have emerged from the globalized media industry to depict social movements and communication in America and the world at large which currently has a youthful population who are spearing this sector.
The relatively youthful American population has greatly affected the supply and demand of media-related products and services with items such as music, videos, and latest films having a strong demand among the young populace. The film industry in the U.S. has a well thought-out release schedules and plots centered on young audiences as they intensely rely young viewers for the high ticket sales.
Through the praxis processes in the globalized media, an audience is able to grasp the daily inklings of a concealed system of solidarity which responds to dominant circulation of convalescent memories, rumors, crafts, humor, dance, song, and recipes that defines and mobilizes popularity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The globalized media is also a major source of instruction for most Americans who uses the vast wealth of multiple cultures to contest or embrace social experiences in a wider context, since it also redefines the ethical norms in national, international, and regional way of doing business (Lyons, 2005, p. na) Although most governments around the world treats and views the music, film, and broadcasting emanating from the media industry as national heritage and culture, some ‘protectionist’ measures that limits foreign cultural materials have emerged though various promotional measures that are meant to promote ‘home-grown’ products.
However, the globalized American media industry embraces a multicultural society through an open system of information which has eventually led to a surge of entertainment from various cultures and ideologies since globalization basically does not exist with the absence of media and communication. Also since the trends of globalization does not choose on who should be on its receiving end, the U.S media industry and way of doing business has co-opted globalization into commercial Americanization of and by non-American media products.
The effects of globalization has also re-brandished both geographical and cultural variations through language which is a significant aspect that affects consumer love and demand for a media product, as it draws out and relates a global social experience through music videos, dance, and film, to name a few. Although the world has a diverse set of languages, globalization of the media industry continues to perpetuate and draw upon cultural and ideological values in the U.S as people warm up to the idea of other cultures through popular media consumption.
Since I have an ardent love for different genres of music and films, they have played a major role to my cultural and ideological values in the presently globalized world (Appadurai, 1996, p. 41-55). Therefore, we are going to look at the effects of music and film which are just some of my popular media sources of music. The two media consumptions do not only have an upshot in my cultural and ideological significances, but also have had a tremendous effect to the lives of Americans over the years.
Globalization of Music towards U.S. Cultural and Ideological values Globalization of music through different mediums such as television, computers, radio, and mobile phones, just to name a few, has dramatically changed the education environment in the twenty-first century and with this change, new doors have opened for both students and teachers around the world.
It has created an environment where different cultures have converged at various centers of education for the main purpose of learning, and despite the cultural mix in learning techniques and environment, music has acted as a vehicle for communication, therefore bringing more cross-cultural understanding. It is also an ideal instance of how globalization has used technology to frequently morph the format and delivery of the media throughout America despite the ideological or cultural preferences associated with it.
Through the media-hyped television music videos and various festivals held by various communities in America, they have proceeded to be a source of interest and attraction to people who are not related to the particular community or kind of music, therefore enhancing socialization among different cultures. These kinds of interactions have made the American society become a microcosm of the entire world, and music is the only means to create a fundamental understanding of other people’s humanness (Colwell, 1991, p. 175-180). We are always defined by the kind of music we listen to and so through these cultural differences, music acts as a ground for appreciating and understanding ones identity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization of the US Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the cultural mix in the United States is portrayed through the tribal music that defines the heart and soul of a particular tribe or community. A country can therefore be patently identified through the piece of music that originates from it.
Through Online social and music sites, and television channels such as MTV, Americans have managed to get an array of foreign music predilection from users and musicians around the world which has also helped the U.S society to appreciate and be considerate to other cultures by having a convivial ideological belief towards marginalized groups. In addition, minority groups in America and around the world have managed to turn dominant ideologies through music globalization by being causative to the dynamic hegemonic concessions (Benshoff
The Lowell Observatory Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction The space contains various wonders objects with significant effects on the study of astronomy. A wide range of research is commonly conducted in space to establish and prove various theories that are aimed at explaining the origin and significance of these heavenly bodies. The space was largely unknown to many in the ancient times.
In fact, people thought that the sun goes around the earth, which they believed was stationary. These facts were trashed as more researchers made progress in observing space with the aid of a telescope, among others. The solar system has increasingly received much attention as to its origin and significance to a community that is continuously exploiting the airspace.
These researches cannot be achieved without the aid of advanced astronomical facilities. Among these is the Lowell Observatory, located in Arizona, in the United States. This facility has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It has also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescopes.
Other services that people enjoy in Lowell include widescreen multimedia shows, tour in the universe through space theatres, and beautiful sceneries, among others. This paper will explore the Lowell observatory, its establishment, functions, and significance to research in astronomy and the society at large (Ribokas 1).
The Lowell Observatory The Lowell Observatory was founded in 1894 as an institution that serves researchers and also for public outreach. It is usually known as the people’s observatory, given its significance in the development of astrophysics and research. The Observatory is also credited with telescope viewing, tours of the universe as well as widescreen multimedia shows, among other services to the public.
The institution is a non-profit making organization and was founded by Percival Lowell. In addition, the institution is committed to providing excellence in research as well as outreach to the public. This is of great significance to the community and the development of astrophysical research (Ribokas 1).
The Lowell Observatory was instituted in 1894, in flagstaff, Arizona. The institution, which is based in United States, has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It has also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescopes. The space was largely unknown to many in the ancient times.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, people thought that the sun goes around the earth, which they believed was stationary. These facts were trashed as more researchers made progress in observing space with the aid of telescopes, among other devices (Lowell 34).
Fig. 1: shows Percival Lowell’s mausoleum
Source: Lowell Observatory
Lowell Observatory was founded in 1894 as an institution that serves researchers and for public outreach. This was done by Percival Lowell, who founded the institution. The institution has a rich account of observations that have been conducted.
For instance, it contributed to discovery of many heavenly bodies, such as the planet, Pluto. It also predicted the discovery of the same planet. The observatory has undergone several improvements and technological developments to advance its functions. Its initial function was to aid in measuring solar irradiance variability.
However, this changed when Harold Johnson assumed the Observatory in 1952. Instead it focused on studying light reflecting off Neptune and Uranus, from the sun. This led to the installation of its present 21-inch telescope. Furthermore, it was this period that led to more research on Neptune and Uranus.
Functions of the Lowell Observatory
Lowell Observatory has been influential in providing a renewing experience to the society. These include telescope viewing, tours of the universe as well as widescreen multimedia shows, among other services to the public, among others. The institution is therefore very instrumental in the society and works to provide resourceful services to the neighborhood as well as national and international researchers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Lowell Observatory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover the center acts as a good facility for astronomical research and other relevant space research. In addition, it has been utilized to promote human understanding of the solar system. This is important as ancient understanding of solar system has changed over the years.
Myths that arose in the ancient times have been diffused to pave way for a better understanding based on provable and observable ideas and objects respectively in research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices such as the astrograph, LONEOS Schmidt and Clark telescopes, among others. The following figures illustrate the Lowell Observatory and some of its telescopes.
Fig. 1 LONEOS Schmidt telescope
Source: Lowell Observatory
Fig. 2 Pluto Telescope
Source: Lowell Observatory
Fig. 3 Observatory Dome of Clark telescope
Source: Lowell Observatory
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Lowell Observatory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The facility currently posses over 11 telescopes, five of which are used Mars Hill. In addition, two of the five are available for use by the public. Six telescopes are also used mainly for scientific observation in the institution’s dark-sky site, which is located in the southeast. The major functions of this institution may be categorized as stated below (Ribokas 1).
Research center Lowell observatory offers a wide range of astronomical research facilities to the astronomers. Through its vast and advanced facilities, which include telescopes (that are space based), among others, astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars.
Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1). In addition, the studies Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune.
The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is very important in facilitation investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in telescopes. This sets the institution aside as a research center.
Educational center The institution acts as an educational center as it brings knowledge through research and observation of some of the mysteries in space. In addition, it has been utilized to promote human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years.
yths that arose in the ancient times have been dismissed through better research to provide for a better understanding based on observable research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices that have been instrumental in promoting knowledge on space and astronomy (Lowell Observatory 1).
These researches cannot be achieved without the aid advanced astronomical facilities, such as those in Lowell Observatory. These facilities have enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It as also been utilized to observe space through its high resolution telescope.
This has also aided astronomers to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system and thus promote it as an educational center. These have included studies on planets, their formation, forming of planets around stars and young stars, asteroids, among others (Ribokas 1).
In addition, the studies that Lowell institution supports include those focused on investigating Kuiper Belt, which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is therefore very important in facilitating investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in the telescopes.
Tourist site The institution also acts as a tourist attraction center, given the services it offers and its unique location in the country. The dark skies provide good sceneries for tourist and this helps them to discover wonders of the solar system.
Furthermore, some of the tourists who visit Lowell center usually come to learn about skies and its inclusions. The location of this institution also makes it unique as it lies on the high mountains that provide fresh air, which is renewing to observers. Objects usually viewed near-earth asteroids, meteorites and other heavenly bodies that make up the solar system (Strauss 23).
Recreational center Over 700000 people visit the center yearly, some of which come for recreation purposes. This is because, as much as space is a mystery, it is also exiting to watch. Other recreational activities include tours of the space through 3D theatres and views of multimedia shows that are broadcasted in widescreen high definition devices.
All these provide exciting site for both children and adults in their quest to understand their world (Ribokas 1). In essence, the facility provides an exclusive site for recreational activities and explorers who are increasingly visiting the institution.
Significance of the Lowell Observatory The Lowell Observatory has been important since it aids scientific discoveries and research in the United States and other parts of the world, with regards to astronomy and space. Through its vast and advanced facilities, which include telescopes (that are space based), among others. Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system.
Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. In addition, it has been utilized to promote the human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years (Bowell 1).
Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1).
In addition, the studies the Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is very important in facilitation investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in the telescopes.
The institution acts as a tourist site as has been mentioned above. Several people visit the center for recreation purposes over the years. This is because, as much as space is a mystery, it is very exiting to watch. Other recreational activities include tours of the space through 3D theatres and views of multimedia shows that are broadcasted in widescreen high definition devices.
All these inclusions are important in establishing the institution as a center for excellence in research and outreach to the public. It is also important to note that the institution acts as a tourist attraction center, since it offers great sceneries and observations through the telescope. In addition, its unique location serves it best in attracting more visitors. For instance, the dark skies provide good sceneries for tourist and this helps them to discover the mysteries of the solar system.
Conclusion The Lowell Observatory has been influential in aiding scientific discoveries and research in the United States and other parts of the world, with regards to astronomy and space. In addition, it has been utilized to promote the human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years.
Myths that arose in the ancient times have been diffused to pave way for a better understanding based on observable research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices that have been instrumental in promoting knowledge on space and astronomy (Lowell Observatory 1).
These researches cannot be achieved without the aid advanced astronomical facilities. Among these is the Lowell Observatory, located in Arizona, in the United States. This facility has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It as also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescope.
Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1).
In addition, the studies the Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is therefore very essential in facilitating investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are used for telescopes.
Works Cited Bowell, Edward. “The Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS): Ten years of asteroid and comet discovery”. What’s Happening Magazine, Space. Web.
Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: Daily events”. Lowell.edu. Web.
Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: The Discovery Channel telescope”. Lowell.edu. Web.
Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: The people’s Observatory”. Lowell.edu. Web.
Lowell, William. “The Explorers of Mars Hill: A Centennial History of Lowell Observatory, 1894-1994”. New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1994.
Ribokas, Bob. “Lowell Observatory – Flagstaff, Arizona”. Grand Canyon Explorer. Web.
Strauss, David. “Percival Lowell: The Culture and Science of a Boston Brahmin”. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Simple Illustrations Yield Powerful Messages Essay college essay help near me
The advertisement, “SAVE WATER, SAVE LIFE”, is comprised of a dripping water tap connected to a quarter-filled, oval-shaped fish bowl. Within the fish bowl, an orange fish nervously stares at the dripping water tap. The color scheme of the ad is a combination of light and dark greys, yet the orange fish disrupts the color scheme which makes the fish the focal point of the ad.
The fish bowl with the dripping tap only covers about one-third of the ad, and the remaining portion of the ad is filled with grey which makes the advertisement very simple, but the simplicity of the illustration bears a powerful message. The advertisement, “SAVE WATER, SAVE LIFE”, makes an attempt to persuade a diverse audience to conserve water.
In my opinion, the ad successfully persuades a broad audience because the subject matter and techniques used in the ad allow the audience identify with the message. Specifically, the contrast of color, the usage of the fish, and the shape of the tank are the tools that effectively persuade audience into identifying with the message of the ad. The following will illustrate how the tools in the advertisement are effective in conveying the message of the ad.
One of the aspects of the advertisement that accentuates the message is the contrast of color. The ad consists of varying shades of gray in the background and the orange color of the fish in the foreground. In my opinion, the author chose shades of gray in the background in order to draw attention to the fish which is the subject matter of the ad.
Personally, when I saw the ad my eyes went straight to the orange fish because of the gray background. If there were more colors used in the ad, they would draw attention away from the fish, thus, distracting the audience from the message. Using simple color schemes in the background of the advertisement also accentuates the severity of the topic (Bedan 7).
The grays in the background create a somber feeling in the audience because gray is a color that represents serious subject matter. The somber feeling of the audience allows them to realize the severity of the topic being discussed in the ad. Although the color scheme of the advertisement was simple, the simple colors enhanced the message of water conservation for the audience.
The advertisement appeals to a varied audience because of the indirect human appeal (Langford 42) created by the manner of the orange fish. The orange fish is humanized by the panic expressed by the stare of the fish at the dripping water tap because all humans have felt panic which allows for a varied audience to identify with the plight of the orange fish.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The orange fish also appeals to a varied audience because the fish does not represent a particular type of person. No race, gender, age, or career is specified in the ad because of the orange fish being the subject matter. Since no particular division of people is targeted, the ad can reach out to a variety of people. A farmer or a lawyer will be compelled to conserve water due to the ad not singling out a particular group of people.
Overall, the author’s usage of the clever usage of the orange fish draws a diverse audience because the manner of the fish humanizes the fish and the subject matter of the fish allows different groups of people to identify with the fish which helps to effectively convey the message of the ad.
Another way the author conveys the message of water conservation to a diverse audience is through the usage of a round fish bowl as the habitat of the orange fish. A broad audience can identify with the habitat of the orange fish because the fish bowl is round like earthly habitat of the audience. The constant dripping of water out of the fish bowl that is already a quarter-full can be compared to the wastage of water on earth as a whole which amplifies the message of water conservation in the ad.
No matter what walk of life a member from the audience may come from, all of the audience share earth as their home, and in some way identify with water being an important natural resource. The tank only being a quarter-full also amplifies the message of the ad because the little water in the tank illustrates how severe the water situation is on earth.
If the tank were to be almost full, the audience would not feel the urgency and severity of the message. The previous information illustrates how the shape of the tank allows the audience to identify with the message of the ad.
Ultimately, the techniques mentioned above come together to bring an important issue to a diverse group of people by using what the audience has in common with one another. The gray color scheme in the background allow for the focus (Bedan 4) to be on the orange fish in the bowl.
The panic in the fish illustrated by the stare at the dripping tap humanizes the fish and allows a diverse group to identify with the manner of the fish because all humans can identify with the feeling of panic, and the fish does not target a particular race or gender.
We will write a custom Essay on Simple Illustrations Yield Powerful Messages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The shape of the fish bowl allows for a diverse audience to identify because the bowl is very similar to earth. The author uses the techniques mentioned to make the audience identify with the ad which makes conveying the message of water conservation more effective because the audience can apply the aspects to the ad to their individual lives.
Works Cited Berdan, Robert. (2004). Composition and the elements of visual design. Photo Composition Articles, 20 January, 2004. Web.
Langford, Michael. The Master Guide to Photography. New York: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1982. Print.
Advanced Literary Theory Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
“Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” by Barbara Johnson
“Disney: A Degenerate Utopia” By Louis Marin’s
Introduction Literary works including novels, short stories, narratives and poems provides us with lenses through which we can see and understand deeply various cultural, social and political aspects of our society which are critical to our societal well-being. They are a mirror through which a society can attain self realization more so in relation to its desired destiny in terms of development.
Academically, they are usually a creative and constructive way of criticizing evils such as corruption, impunity, gender violence, and discrimination among others which are understandably a stumbling block to realization of societal dreams in the eyes of the wise people and intellectuals, as well as, political leaders of good will. Due to their critical contribution towards progress of a society authors should strive to be clear in their writings so that readers of different intellectual and educational calibre can understand what they are trying to put across through their works.
They are however professionally expected to maintain high levels of creativity and linguistic masterly. This expectation together with other factors leads to difficulties of communication between an author or a poet and his or her target audience.
These reading difficulties have been categorized as tactical, contingent, modal and ontological difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss ontological difficulty in Barbara Johnson’s reader response essay titled “Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” and Louis Marin’s structuralist essay titled “Disney: A Degenerate Utopia.”
“Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” by Barbara Johnson A difficulty in literary criticism in negative terms refers to an element of writing that points to or indicative of a rift between a poet or an author and the reader (Shetley 1932).However, it is important to note that just like conflict is a way of sociation, so difficulty which in literary studies connotes lack or breakdown of communication is itself a form of communication (Shetley 1932). In other words, difficulty itself communicates if nothing else in a poem or another piece of literary work.
Difficulty also serves as a deliberate instrument used by writers and poets in choosing readers with whom the poet have something in common out of a vague reading public. It also functioned to educate and instruct the public in the kinds of demands that the work of a poet is made of (Shetley 1932).Ontological difficulty of content refers to a cultural gap between author and reader.
A poet or an author may be from or might represent a culture that is absolutely strange to the audience. Consequently, the reader must strive to make all types of imaginative hurdles and learn many things in order to be at home with and in the literary piece be it a narrative or a poem or even an essay.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barbara uses her reader response essay to explain effects of rhetoric in literary works by analyzing different poems written by different poets at different times. Unlike other literary theories reader response school of thought empowers and allows the reader or the audience to be the source of meaning of a literary work.
Reader response theory acknowledges the reader as an active agent who passes on actual existence to a literary work and finishes its meaning through interpretation. Reader response school of thought sets the reader free from the uninteresting undertaking of attempting to discover what the author had in mind (Lorimer
Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Space travel health and safety issues
Introduction Space hazards refer to the events that take place beyond the surface of the earth and that may affect the health of an individual. The study of space is best understood under the subject of astronomy which explains what space is composed of as well as what can be done and what cannot be done in space. Astronauts are best positioned to operate in space since they have studied the universe and understand the risks and the benefits of the operations in space.
There are various hazards that are associated with space which are mainly as a result of the events that are carried out in space. Aircrafts are the most common manmade objects in space as well as other objects that astronauts use in the space operations. Space hazards are mainly as a result of the effects of weather, radiation.
Astronomy Astronomy refers to the “science that investigates the distribution, composition, physical state, movement and evolution of material in the universe beyond the earth’s surface” (Becker 1). The distribution of matter or energy includes its position, arrangement and frequency over a certain area in the universe or in the whole space. The composition of matter includes its chemical composition qualitatively and quantitatively.
For instance, the qualitative composition of the sun includes hydrogen and helium while its quantitative composition includes the numerical or actual percentages of the substances that make it up i.e. the volume of the sun is made up of 95% hydrogen and 5% helium while its mass is made up of 78% hydrogen, 20% helium and 2% heavy metals (Becker 1).
The physical state of the matter in the universe can either be in the form of “solid, liquid, gas or plasma” (Becker 1). On the other hand, the movement of material in space involves their positional change which mainly involves rotation and revolution. Finally, the evolution of matter in space refers to the theories that have been put across by scholars to explain the origin and the future of matter in the universe. Some of these theories include the steady state, the big bang and the oscillating universe (Becker 1).
Space hazards Many space hazards occur in the universe every day and not only affect the objects operating directly in space but also technological processes on the surface of the earth such as communication, power grids and others (NASA 1).
The effects of space hazards are so extreme since space is one of the most extreme environments imaginable with experiences of extreme temperature, extremely hot and extremely cold as well as threatening levels of radiation. These are the conditions that aircrafts are subjected to when they are operating above the insulating layer of the earth (Cain 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Launching is one of the extreme situations. The space craft is maintained in the space from the pull of gravity by the rocket which enables it to have enough mass and speed thus avoiding the pull of gravity from the much heavier objects near them (Jessa 3). While launching, this very “rocket shakes the air craft violently and batters it with extremely loud sound waves” (Cain 3). These phenomena are capable of shattering the delicate parts of the space craft thus causing space hazards (Cain 3).
The extreme temperatures in space are again prone to causing space hazards on the objects operating in space like the aircrafts. Weather conditions vary extremely “temperatures in space go hundreds of degrees below the freezing point and hundreds of degrees up especially when the spacecrafts are near the sun” (Cain 6).
Though there is no air in space, energy from the sun is transferred through radiation which when absorbed by the spacecrafts, it causes a lot of heating in objects that have such machines as computers that ought to operate under moderate temperatures. Though engineers have put effort to make spacecrafts models in such a manner that they have features that can withhold these conditions, this is not always the case as explained below (Cain 6).
As we have seen earlier, energy in space is transferred through radiation either through “trapped and the transient types” (Cain 8). The trapped radiation is composed of sub atomic particles mainly the protons and the neutrons which are usually trapped by the earth magnetic field thus creating Van Allen radiation fields around the planet (Angelo 124).
It has been noted that, “the transient radiation is mainly composed of protons and cosmic rays which constantly streams in space especially during magnetic storms on the sun” (Cain 8). The transient radiation can be so harmful in that when they collide with electronic circuit, they are capable of interfering with the content of memory, they can cause spurious flow of currents around the object or even burn out computer chips (Cain 8).
Space hazards can also be caused by meteor showers. These refer to the little dust particles that make shooting stars visible to us while traveling through space. They are capable of sand blasting some useful large rays of the solar panels thus affecting their importance (Cain 15).
A NASA-funded study carried out in January 2009 describes the consequences of solar eruptions on communication, power grids and other technology on the surface of the earth, the risks of extreme conditions in space as a result of magnetic activity on the sun and effects of extreme space weather (NASA 1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the study, the sun is the most vital star on the surface of the earth but its contribution towards space hazards is adverse. Apart from “emitting a consistent stream of plasma, it often releases quite a large volume of tons of matter known as the coronal mass ejections” (NASA 5).
The study further confirmed that space weather produces solar storm electromagnetic field which induces extreme currents on wire resulting to various adverse effects. Some of the most common effects of this induction on wires include power line disruptions which results to widespread blackouts and also disrupts communication cables that supports the internet. Extreme space weather produces solar energetic particles and causes dislocation of earth’s radiation belts. (NASA 5)
These phenomena are capable of damaging satellites used for “commercial communications, global positioning and weather forecasting” (NASA 5). The modern advancement in technology did not mark the beginning of its problems with space weather since these problems were recorded since the nineteenth century when the telegraph was invented (NASA 5).
The professor and director of the laboratory for atmospheric and space physics at the University of Colorado really appreciated NASA efforts for beginning the extremely challenging task of investigating on space hazards in a quantitative way. This is because their impacts are equally as much as those of natural hazards on the earth’s surface and need not be ignored.
Space travel health and safety issues For a long time, space travel has been associated with a lot of accidents and hazards thus leaving the activity to just a small number of highly trained and highly motivated individuals.
The Apollo, an American space program, recorded three major hazards of space travel “1 Mission Fire of January 27, 1986, the Challenger accident of January 28, 1986 and the Colombia accident of February 1, 2003” (Angelo 123). These hazards have made space travel to be approached with a lot of consciousness such that it will remain a highly hazardous undertaking in now and in the near future, unless, something is done about it (Angelo 123).
There are various health and safety issues concerning space travel some of which include:
Launch abort, spaceflight and space based assembly and construction accidents, life support system failure, collisions of space vehicles and habitats with space debris and meteoroids, ionized radiation hazards, psychological stress due to strenuous living conditions and many others. (Angelo 124)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The three major challenges that people living in space face are “the substantial acceleration and deceleration forces when leaving and returning to earth, living and working in weightless conditions for long periods of time and chronic exposure to space radiations” (Angelo 124).
Astronauts and cosmonauts usually experience up to a maximum of six times acceleration as compared to that of the earth’s surface. These conditions result to some physical difficulties such as space adaptation syndrome, feelings of isolation and stress as well as post flight recovery problems.
Microgravity or weightlessness results to bone calcium loss and though most of its other effects recover a few weeks after return to earth, this may take longer especially after a long duration space mission. Space travelers throughout circular and interplanetary are bombarded by galactic cosmic rays, which are very energetic atomic particles that contain protons, helium nuclei and heavy nuclei. These rays expose individuals to excess ionizing radiation doses as compared to the standards set for various space missions and occupations (Angelo 124).
Mars expedition personnel and lunar surface base workers’ are prone to experiencing various psychological disorders, some of which include solipsism syndrome and shimanaghasi syndrome. Solipsism syndrome is a state of mind where a person feels like every occurrence is not real but a dream and is usually as a result of small space base or confined expedition vehicle.
The shimanaghasi syndrome is a feeling of isolation where an individual feels left out even when life is comfortable; a situation which requires proper communication with the earth and careful design of living quarters (Angelo 125).
Conclusion Livings, traveling through space, working and other space missions have been quite challenging and are yet to be since the ever present dangers and hazards have not yet found a solution. However, there is a group of highly motivated and trained individuals who may continue enjoying the extraterrestrial lifestyle which outweighs any personal risks.
Though space hazards have been a challenge to most astronauts, a few things can be put together to curb the challenge. First, most of the psychological and health issues related to the space hazards can be attended to medically.
Works Cited Angelo, Joseph. Encyclopedia of space and astronomy. New York. InfoBase Publishing, 2006. Print.
Becker, Gary. Astronomy Survival Website. Astronomy, 1990. Web.
Cain, Fraser. “Some of the Hazards in Space”, 2004. Web.
Jessa, Tega. Orbit Universe Today, 2009. Web.
NASA. New study reveals hazards of severe space weather. Astronomy, 2009. Web.
The Case of Martha Stewart: On Improper Actions Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Struggle Begins: the Sufferings of the Celebrity
Into the Details: The Charges
That Is Unfair, or On Personal Opinions
Introduction One of the most intriguing cases, the one of the famous Martha Stewart, offers quite a lot of food for thoughts. With help of the mystery that has been created about the case, the popularity of the celebrity has increased immensely. However, it cannot be denied that Martha suffered greatly, trying to prove her innocence – unfortunately, in vain.
Although the guilt of the celebrity has already been proven, it must be admitted that the case, quite complicated and entangled, requires certain clarifications. It seems that there are certain issues that might bring the entire case into conflict and prove that the fault of the convicted was far not that great as the court has emphasized.
One of the women known for her TV shows with her recipes for a comfortable life in a cozy house, the superstar of our times is now considered guilty of selling the Erbitux medicine, which resulted in ImClone Systems company suffering certain losses in their trade. Quite a precedent to be discussed in the court, this story could have led to rather sad consequences for the film star.
However, as it has turned out, it was not the very issue of selling the medicine in the improper way that turned Martha into the accused – but the improper behavior! This is quite a reason to feel concerned, it seems. On the one hand, there is no doubt that the high standards for the behavior of the world celebrities must be somewhat coordinated, and some standards must be set, yet the accusations themselves seem ridiculous.
The Struggle Begins: the Sufferings of the Celebrity Despite all the emotions concerning the social status of the accused and her attempts to plead not guilty, there is no doubt that the woman is to be charged for the negligence of laws. No matter how hard this might result in her career, the case was supposed to be carried on until it had resulted in either conviction or the exoneration.
Such are the postulates of the law – it must be kept in mind that all people are equal when it comes to facing the justice, and the social status does not matter in this case. Thus, it is absolutely clear that Martha Stewart, “charged only with lying after the fact about the stock sale” (Turrow 64), should have received the penalty, which she actually did. Therefore, the sentence passed by the jury can be considered well-grounded and completely just.
However, certain details must be kept in mind. On the one hand, Martha’s guilt has been proved, which leaves no place for doubts. Yet the way in which the woman was treated makes one doubt if the basis for the conviction was just enough. Logically, Stewart should have been penalized for the unjust behavior and for selling the medicine that she had no right to. Yet at present all the details of the case point at the fact that the attitude towards the accused was shaped because of the way she treated Douglas Faneuil.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Into the Details: The Charges According to the official charge, the woman was accused of selling the shares of the ImClone Systems company, which led to its considerable drop of rates. Therefore, the celebrity was accused of the unfair manipulations and charged. However, that was the official version of what had happened.
According to the comments that the public made after the judgment was passed, the decisions of the jury were based on the celebrity’s behavior – the woman treated Douglas Faneuil in rather rude way and behaved in the manner that was considered as an “inappropriate” for a woman. Therefore, it can be considered that the sentence passed was based mainly on the personal impressions of the jury.
That Is Unfair, or On Personal Opinions Based on the testimonies of Larry Stewart, the court decision seems rather unfair. Although the official sentence was based completely on the facts and the actual pieces of evidence, the following question can be raised: once the celebrity behaved in a “proper”, “female” way, would the decision of the jury the same? “Are we punishing Martha Stewart for refusing to fulfill expectations?”, Lisa Nuss (4) asks.
It is quite doubtful that, once Martha displayed the emotions that one is “supposed” to in the given situation, and behaved in the most composed and modest way, the sentence passed by the court would have been the same. It is necessary to emphasize that the decision of the court seems to be based on personal opinion rather than on the evidence that was displayed.
Conclusion Therefore, it must be considered that the case of Martha Stewart is much more complicated than it used to seem. Unless the case had been so emotionally rich and filled with personal likes and antipathies, it would have been able to find out whether Martha had been convicted justly or not. Yet with the controversy of the present situation, it is impossible to claim for sure whether the sentence passed to Martha was well-grounded.
Thus, it seems that the appellation could be used in this case. Only reconsidering the details of the case, one can pass the right verdict, with impartial judge and the jury that would not base their convictions on the gossips and the prejudices concerning women’s behavior.
Latest Japanese Earthquake Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The latest Japanese earth quake is the Tōhuku earthquake which occurred in March 2011. It is also referred to as the Great East Japanese Earthquake. The earthquake had a magnitude of 9.0 on Ritcher scale occurring at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) on Eleventh of March, 2011.
The earthquakes epicenter was approximately seventy two Kilometers on the Eastern part of Oshika Peninsula and a Hypocenter of approximately thirty two kilometers beneath the waters. The government of Japan confirmed this as one of the catastrophes of its kind (Ito).
The earthquake took place at a zone of subduction between the pacific plate and the plate that lies below the Northern Honshu. The rate at which the pacific plate undergoes displacement is at eight to nine centimeter per annum, hence the plate subduction of the plate led to a discharge of large amounts of energy leading to a geological event. This interaction between the two plates resulted to stress initiating seismological events.
One of the effects of the seismological event led to a rise in the sea level (Chang 5). Since the region of subduction of the two plates does not lie on a straight line, the faulting resulted to a large earthquake with a magnitude of more than 8.5.The JMA (Japanese Meteorological Agency) indicated that the catastrophe broke the fault region extending from Iwate to Ibaraki having covered 500km by 200km.
The Tōhuku earthquake was purported to have comprised of three sequences of events leading to extensive destruction to infrastructure. The catastrophe initiated extremely destructives waves of the tsunami of up to thirty seven point nine meters/ one hundred and twenty four feet that attacked Japan in just minutes following the earthquake.
In some of the places the waves travelled as far as 6mi (ten kilometers) inland with short waves being felt in most of the adjacent countries after a few hours of the earthquake. The Japanese government issued warnings prior to the catastrophe ordering relocations along Pacific Coast. Prior to the earthquake, warnings were issued out to 20 nations close to Japan as well as countries close to United States Pacific Coast (Wire Staff).
The effects of this catastrophe was very pronounced such that the Japanese NPA (National Police Agency) thereafter confirmed 12,228 missing persons, the death toll was at 14,238 persons whereas the injured cases were 5,314 in all the Japanese prefectures. There were 125,000 buildings which were also destroyed during the earthquake.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The disaster affected most of the infrastructure such as railway network as well as the roads cutting off communication within the affected region. Great destruction was also felt in the Northeastern Japan where approximately 4.4 million dwellings were cut off from electricity supply including 1.5 million households which were completely cut off from safe water.
Countless electrical power plants were destroyed and more than 3 nuclear reactors were destroyed as a result of hydrogen gas build up inside the nuclear reactors covering due to the failure of the cooling system. Most of the people living within a radius of twenty kilometers within t nuclear plants were ordered to relocate to safer regions. Furthermore, the United States recommended that all of the U.S citizens be relocated up to eighty kilometers of the nuclear plants.
The magnitude of the Tōhuku earth quake makes it the greatest and most powerful geologic catastrophe to have affected Japan. It is one of the top five most harmful catastrophes ever since the current documentation of catastrophes started in 1900. The prime Minister to Japan stated this as the most destructive and harmful geological event to have hit Japan since the second world war causing a heartfelt crisis to this country.
As a result of the earthquake, Honsu was moved 7.9ft(2.4m) east and the earth was shifted from its axis by approximately 3.9in(10cm) (Chang 6). Economically the quake cost Japan a big loss. Japan was forced to compensate the banking sector a total of 15 trillion Japanese Yen with the aim of returning the market systems in normal working condition.
According to the estimates by the World Bank, the total damage caused by the earthquake is estimated at 122 to 235 billion U.S dollars. The government of Japan on the other hand estimates the cost of the Catastrophe that caused a lot of strive in Northeast at 309 billion dollars and this makes this the world’s most costly catastrophe.
After the Tōhuku earthquake, Japan continued experiencing several after shocks. More than nine hundred aftershocks have been experienced in Japan with nearly sixty of them having a magnitude of 6.0M and up to three aftershocks having more than 7.0M quake occurring in March and the third aftershock occurring on April 7,2011 even though its magnitude was under contention.
The epicenter of this aftershock was submarine, sixty six kilometers off Sendai coast. Never the less, the JMA estimated the magnitude of this aftershock as 7.4, whilst United States geological survey brought it down to 7.1 (Wire Staff). During the aftershock, there were four lives lost, and power was disconnected across most of the Northern part of Japan as a result of destruction of the electrical cables and other infrastructure including the external power disconnection to Rokkasho Reprocessing station and Higashidori Nuclear station.
We will write a custom Essay on Latest Japanese Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the earthquake resulted to a large Tsunami which led to the destruction of Japans islands which lie along the pacific coastline resulting to thousands of deaths and strive in the whole town. Most of the countries bordering Japan were affected by this tsunami. For instance, Chile was affected by a wave length of 2m high in spite of its being the furthest country, 17,000 kilometers away from Japan.
In conclusion, Tōhuku earthquake is one of the five major catastrophes and the latest earthquake to have occurred in the world since the beginning of catastrophe documentation. The data collected from this earthquake is important to both the geologists and seismologist since it provides valuable information across several disciplines for instance on how structures should be constructed to withstand extensive periods of shaking in the event of any seismological event.
Works Cited Chang, Kenneth. “Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S and Alters Earth’s Spin.” New York Times, 14 Mar. 2011. Print.
Ito, Masami. “Kan Names Quake at Pep Talk.” 02 04 2011. The Japan Times Online. Web.
Wire Staff. “Tsunami Warnings Issued for atleast 20 Countries after Quake.” CNN, 11 Mar. 2011.
Fat Ethics – Obesity and Society Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In recent years, there have been raging debates in the public arena regarding the effects of obesity in the developed world. These protracted debates can offer certainty and authority in this area of research. However, these debates may also rule out the possibility of such certainties. Debates on obesity have given rise to various forms of discrimination and oppression. The discriminated individuals have had ill-health because they may resort to unhealthy eating habits and exercises.
The paper will also critically look at the causes of obesity and why it is increasingly becoming a major medical dilemma to the developed world. The paper also seeks to establish the role that sociology plays in obesity debate other than the traditional lifestyle and body-society relationship talk. The obesity debate has always been dominated by psychology and genetics. This essay seeks to summarize two works that have been done in regard to obesity and fat ethics.
It is true that the number of people suffering from obesity have remarkably within the last two decades. This has made some spectators to refer to the situation as a crisis. This has made relevant government department to develop interest. The topic on obesity has since attracted the attention of sociologists whose input cannot be downplayed.
These sociologists also stand to gain a lot. The media has given a lot of attention to issues obesity. Much of their reporting has been on relationship between the body and the society. Prominence has however been given to disciplines like psychology and genetics ignoring the fact that fat is basically a sociological issue.
The obesity debate has created an environment where people with certain body feature are look down upon while certain body sizes are cherished and idolized. There has to be interactive relationship between biological and social processes as envisaged in increase or decrease in the rates of obesity and the consequences of such fluctuations. It should be noted that the influx of the number of people suffering from obesity is purely a preserve of changes in lifestyle in the dynamic society (Crossley, 222).
It is very important that sociological perspective be introduced when lifestyle factors associated with obesity are ventilated. It is prudent that the input of these sociological factors into rising rates of obesity be critically looked at. Obesity is indeed a crisis at an individual point of view and in the societal perspective. Social agents have had their input in determining how they look.
To them slimness, fitness, and efficiency are the central social values. These have been christened by academics as body projects and technology of the self. Social agents have also used terminologies like mastery and awareness to spur debates concerning obesity. Social agents have at times been forced to rebel against sexual natures which were previously being imposed on them citing sexual liberation. Many women have done considerable damage to their own bodies by trying to ape some dominant ideals of thinness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many women have ended up suffering from anorexia nervosa. In the thriving economies of developed world, many people have taken to registering with health clubs leading to a 18% increase in private health clubs between 1998 and 2002. It is interesting to note that membership to health clubs has surpassed that of trade unions in the developed world between 1998 and 2002 in a survey conducted citizen audit.
These health clubs have turned out to be schemes for slimming and keeping fit. Apart from health clubs, dieting has become an in-thing in slimming. Diet books are really treasured. A third of developed world’s adult population had in 2002 tried to slim with the female population taking the bulk of this statistics.
All these show that many people have become conscious with their bodies hence preoccupation with body maintenance. In 1980 England 8% and 6% of women and men respectively suffered from obesity a figured that multiplied threefold in 1998. This was commensurate with the figures in North America and Europe. Age plays a pivotal role in determining rate of obesity with obesity being an issue for an older generation.
Other than age, gender and class also plays greater role in determining the rate of obesity in a population of people. Obesity runs in opposite direction with bodily ideals in our today’s modern society. Regarding the issue pertaining to whether obesity should be treated as a social construct, it should be understood that obesity is a scientific concept. It should be noted that the rates of obesity are seen to be in the increase of the monitoring by relevant public health departments.
By merely approving that obesity is a construct does not disqualify it from being researched on and learnt about. The issue on obesity and resistance has been raised quite often. When agents are coaxed into slimming and staying fit they developed some form of resistance by becoming fat instead. This has however been faulted. Some people have mooted the issue of passive resistance by saying that obesity is passively motivated.
Some media reports have made the society to be speaking only on weight issues. Some of their deliberations have relegated the debates to gender issues hence the moral panic witnessed in the modern society. Much of attention has been given to body mass index and how it can be used to show whether one is underweight, overweight, or obese.
Such debates have left the public preoccupied with what ideal weight figures should be. Scientists who have taken center stage in writing all sorts of literature on obesity have on many occasions failed to factor in issuing regarding how fat has been stereotyped, the brunt of guilt and shame that has been borne by those suffering from obesity and the cropping up of culture of individualism and healthism (Rich and Evans, 352).
We will write a custom Report on Fat Ethics – Obesity and Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These issues are central if one needs to develop proper scientific evidence. However, they have been considered secondary issues. The media personalities and public health experts have held that obesity is an epidemic that is largely influence by people’s lifestyle, emergence of fast food joints, and changes ion diets.
This may be treated as credible scientific fact but are however laced with ideologies and cultural beliefs of people’s perception of fatness. Because of raging public debates, many people have been made to believe that being overweight obviously imply ill health and that when one undertakes to shed some weight will cure certain diseases that are associated with being overweight.
The papers are interesting because they state that it is prudent people get to know that not only medical experts and psychologists who can be quoted as authorizes in issues related to obesity. Even sociologists have a role to play as fat is indeed a social issue.
Should the issue of obesity be a preserve of the medical practioners?
What is the role of sociologists in the fight against obesity?
Is obesity really an epidemic or that is the creation of the media?
Is obesity really a lifestyle disease?
Works Cited Crossley, Nick. Fat is a sociological issue: Obesity rates in late modern, Body conscious societies Social Theory
Definition and Importance of Employee Compensation in Organizations Essay essay help online
Table of Contents General Overview
In every economy, workers play a pivotal role in promoting its wellbeing. The more productive the workers, the better will be the economy. However, employees need motivation in order to maintain a high level of performance. One way through which this can be done is through compensation.
General Overview Compensation is the reward to employees for the amount of work they have done in a specific time period. In the modern world, people’s view on employee compensation has significantly changed. In the olden days, people were more concerned about the wages with less attention given to the working conditions.
This is despite of the significant impact the working environment can have on the overall performance of employees. No much attention was paid in an effort to motivate employees. In fact, employees were viewed like any other instrument in the organization, which can easily be replaced. In other words, employees were not valued.
With time, the situation has completely changed. Employees are more concerned about the working environment which has forced the employers as well as the government to act accordingly. These changes were triggered by increased cases of strikes, violence, labor disputes and work slow down. Consequently, this has forced employers and other concerned parties to put more emphasis on the issue of employee compensation.
Discussion There have been various attempts to ensure fair compensation for employees. The government has implemented several acts all of which are aimed at preventing exploitation of employees by their employers.
One of these acts is the Fair Labor and Standards Act of 1938. This act seeks to address the issues relating to compensation, unfair or long working hours and unfavorable working conditions (Whittaker, 2003). The United States department of labor is obliged with the duties of enforcing this act. The act is also related with the minimum wage. The minimum wage applies for all those who are covered and nonexempt workers (Anonymous. 2008).
The main aim of the minimum wage is to ensure that employees get just compensation. On the other hand, overtime regulation ensures that employers do not distribute the overtime discriminatively. Moreover, employers are supposed to give a relatively higher compensation when employees work overtime. However, there are some cases where there is exemption from Fair Labor and Standards Act wage and hour overtime criteria.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These include professional exemptions, administrative exemption, executive exemption and the highly paid employees. When employees receive a fair compensation, they will be motivated to work hard. This will improve on their productive levels. This will also reduce wastage of time through strikes and negotiations.
Later, the Equal Pay Act was formed. The main reason for its formation was to promote gender equality in compensation (Solotoff
Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
According to Victor Hugo ‘Romanticism’ is ‘liberalism in literature.’ Romanticism is that idea which can be understood as an expression of life having imagination (Goodman, 2007, p.22).
Background Individualism was brought by Romantic poets. These poets showed their respect not only in natural world but also in idealism, physical and emotional passion. Their interest in mystic and supernatural elements was also keen. Romantic poets opposed order and rationality of neoclassical poets.
They did this to get freedom in art and politics. English Romantic Movement was started by some famous poets like William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, George Gordon Lord Byron, and John Keats (John Keats, Romanticism, n.d., p. 10).
Similarities between Wordsworth and Keats Wordsworth and Keats took nature as an infinite source and for them it was like lovely imaginings. In his poetry Wordsworth portrayed mountains as the symbol of loneliness and Keats’ portrayal of darkness reflecting glooms and windy mossy ways made both the poets different from other poets who wrote about nature (Goodman, 2007, p.22).
For example from Keats’s poem, ‘I Stood Tip-Toe Upon a Little Hill’:
“The breezes were etheral, and pure, And crept through half closed lattices to cure The languid sick; it cool’d their fever’d sleep, And soothed them into slumbers full and deep. Soon they awoke cleared eyed: nor burnt with thirsting, Nor with hot fingers, nor with temples bursting”: (L. 221 – 226).
In above lines Keats is showing compassion how air affects physical health (Ngiewih, 2008). The most important feature of the English Romantic Movement, which is very popular, is ‘Return to Nature’ that will be analyzed in relation to Wordsworth (Goodman, 2007, p.22).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main feature of Romantic poets was to use time and memory in their poetry. Wordsworth and Keats also used these two themes in their poetry. In his ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn,’ Keats description of pastoral imagery which is painted on an urn shows his thoughts about nature of time.
Similarly, Wordsworth is also recalling his previous visit to the banks of the River Wye in ‘Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey’. In both the poems the similarity of thoughts about nature between both the poets can be seen clearly. In both poems both the poets enjoy the time spent with nature. In ‘Tintern Abbey’ Wordsworth becomes sentimental and the opening lines of the poem establish the tone of the whole poem (Terrall, 2008):
“Five years have past; five summers with the length of five long winters! and again I hear These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs With a soft inland murmur.” (1-4)
In the whole poem Wordsworth has used the combination of time, memory and nature. He is very definite about using the length of time. He is connected with past in ‘Tintern Abbey’ and makes all the time frames important in this poem like: seasons, years, days, hours and minutes.
But here we can find some difference in Wordsworth and Keats of using time in their poetry. As Wordsworth is connected with past, Keats is more related with future. The following lines from Keats’ ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’ depict his thoughts on time (Terrall, 2008):
“Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, Though winning near the goal-yet, do not grieve; She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!” (15-20)
Difference between Wordsworth and Keats All six great Romantic poets are divided in to two groups. Wordsworth, Coleridge and Scott belong to the elder group, while Byron, Shelly and Keats are of the younger group. The first group poets were all similar in many ways but the younger group had differences due to belonging to different generation and age. The ideas and aspirations which Wordsworth first embraced had kindled humanitarian passions even in the artist Keats (Goodman, 2007, p.52).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wordsworth
Wordsworth is the leader of Romanticism and true son of Romantic Revival. Wordsworth’s historical background and his poetry are the best introduction of 19th century Romanticism. “Both Wordsworth and Coleridge formulated that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful human feeling” (Goodman, 2007, p.50). They believe that the subjects of the poetry should be only nature and human nature and its objects should be the reflection of emotions stimulated by the World and humanity. Wordsworth’s lyrics odes and sonnets make him a great romantic poet (Goodman, 2007, p.50).
Wordsworth’s Romanticism gives an extraordinary contrast because he categories the sublime and the ridiculous. He has a kind of middle style; at its best it has grace and dignity, a heart searching simplicity, and a certain magical enlightenment of phrase that is all his own.
His position and influence are due partly to the fact that he greatly enlarged the boundaries of poetry giving it, as subject matter; themes varying from the joys and sorrows of the simple, homely lives to the transcendental interests of soul in communion with nature and God, partly to his development of a poetic style befitting such material.
The instinct to perceive nature and human life in transcendental terms was early manifested in Wordsworth. This habit of mind sobered and strengthened by reflection, pervades all his poetry and gives to it a peculiarly stimulating character (Goodman, 2007, p.51).
His Romanticism is deeply rooted in realism. His great poems are saturated with the very breath and spirit of life. In a lonely highland meadow Wordsworth saw the solitary girl, making hay and heard her singing at her work. Normally, there was nothing unusual in those rustic notes of the peasant girl to quicken thought or inspire expression.
But to Wordsworth imagination, the doleful strains of the forlorn reaper seemed to derive a pensive sorrow from memories of old, unhappy, for off things and battles long ago. He has the gift of imagination in the highest and strictest sense of the word (Goodman, 2007, p.51). Wordsworth always saw beauty in nature rather than any man-made objects (Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, 2011, p.2).
John Keats was essentially a Romantic poet. His poetry is the meeting ground of old Hellenism and medieval romanticism and even his Hellenism is romantic. His romance is largely derived from English and Italian romancers of the Middle ages (Goodman, 2007, p.134).
Keats always admired Spenser and Boccaccio and his imagination was always influenced after reading both the poets’ poetry. Keats poetry showed the romance of three worlds: the antique; the medieval and the modern where his poetry had rich and pictorial expressions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romantic element in Keats appears less in his choice of subjects than in his manner of treating them. ‘Hyperion’, ‘Endymion’, ‘Lamia’ are old classical in story but at the same time they have romantic element too. On the other hand, ‘The Eve of St. Agnes’, ‘Isabelle’, ‘La Belle Dams Sans Merci’ are drawn from the Middle of ages in which romance breathes more freely (Goodman, 2007, p.138).
Keats had no interest in men. In the passion and struggle of ordinary human life he discussed his feelings for poetry. To him poetry was the world of the imagination only, realm of enchantment where only those might dwell who saw visions and dreamed dreams- a land of voluptuous languor, where magic filled the air and life passed like a dream, measured only by the exquisiteness of its sensations and the intensity of its delights (Goodman, 2007, p.139).
Keats’ principle was “Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty” (Goodman, 2007, p.140). He was passionate about beautiful things in an intellectual manner not in a sentimental way. Keats had intense romantic fervor. His Romanticism had an outlook different from that of his colleagues Byron looked around and criticized; Shelly looked forward and aspired; and Keats looked backward into the romantic past and sighed (Goodman, 2007, p.146).
Keats wanted to become a pure, simple and natural poet (Sen, 2009, p. 23-24). He was simply a poet. Neither was he a teacher nor a preacher.
Wordsworth put emphasis on spontaneity and imagination. He focused on the element of thought that should be used in poetry. He gave a particular shape and direction to English Romanticism (Tilak, 2002, p. 14, 15, 24).
In the Romanticism of Wordsworth there is the consciousness and will of a return to natural sources. The disease that is preying upon poetry is the artificiality of the language in which the external and explicit means of conveying intensity have been worn out by the deadening effect of custom. The romantic idea had crystalized round these themes and these rhythms, which are still pregnant with the old time vigor of the English genius (Legouis
Risks in an Organization and Ability to Manage Them Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In every organisation, there are some key management decisions about management, which play a pivotal role in determining the performance of an organization. Managers have the ability to control these variables in their attempt to optimize on various things which affects an organization. One of these practices is the risk management. In every business, the managers often find themselves faced with a wide range of risks. The success of an organization is determined by its ability to manage these risks.
Discussion Poor risk management can lead to a complete death of an organization (Ferreira, not dated). The long term performance of an organization is significantly determined by the company’s ability to detect and act upon any threatening risk. Risks can come from different angles. They can come from within an organization (internal risks) as well as outside an organization (external risks) (Sekhar, 2005).
In the current business world, risk management has become more important than ever. The market has become highly competitive and, therefore, it requires every organization to have the ability to detect the exposure to risks as well as the best methods to solve particular problems. Ability to manage risks has a significant impact on the competitive advantage.
In many cases, an organization may be forced to take a risk as a way of advancing its efforts to realize its goals or visions. In other words, leaders in an organization may take steps of which they are not sure of their possible consequences. In such cases, an organization takes a risk. The action taken may help an organization in realizing profits and it may also dip it into losses (Ferreira, not dated). It, therefore, needs risk management skills to anticipate and prepare for such risks.
In business, there are different types of risks. One of the main types of risk in business is venturing into a new market. In order to expand its market network, an organization needs to invest extra amount of money. However, this poses a risk because the new market may fail.
The managers are not sure that their product will succeed in the new market. Another type of risk is financial risk. In some cases, an organization may be forced to take a loan in order to invest in a certain field. Such sources of capital carry risks because the organization must pay with interests. The risk rises from the fact that an organization is not always sure whether the new venture will end up to profits or losses. However, the risk managers should make the necessary assessment in the new market in order to minimize the impacts of risks.
The process of risk management plays a pivotal role in overall performance of an organization. One of the most important steps in risk management is identification of the problem. This directs the risk managers on how to handle a certain problem. According to Bunyan (2006), it is necessary to consider whether a certain solution will solve the problem partially or completely. In order to have a successful risk management process, it is necessary to allocate adequate funding to the risk management program.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that risk management is an important practice in every organization. Risk management prepares an organization in early risk detection which reduces the impact of such risks to an organization. Risks can be very dangerous to the overall performance of an organization if not properly handled.
It is, therefore, advisable for every organization to take the necessary measures in order to improve their risk management processes. The risk managers are obliged with the responsibilities of detecting risks early enough and then acting accordingly to compress these risks.
Reference List Bunyan, N. (2006). Managing Risk and Business Security. Retrieved from https://www.ca.com/us.html
Ferreira, G. (n.d.). Best practices for Risk Management. Web.
Sekhar, (2005). Management Control Systems: Text and Cases. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.