Table of Contents Problem statement
Probable solutions for the problems
Applicability of the solutions
Impact of the solutions to the company
Possible issues arising from the solutions
Problem statement In this case study, the General Manager of Qualibrand, Mr. Orosa is faced with a prospective joint venture proposition. A quick look at the situation reveals that Qualibrand Company is the right choice to consider in the joint business venture with Autoliv because it has good marketing capabilities in the targeted market in terms of sales of its products.
However the venture involves production and distribution of a new product which Qualibrand lacks knowledge in and thus possesses limited technological expertise to produce.
In addition to this, Mr. Orosa has not factor in the future goals and objectives of Qualibrands as related to possible profits and losses or further market expansions derived from increased demand.
Another problem that is inherent in this assessment structure is that Qualibrand does not cover all aspects required before involving itself in a joint venture.
In addition to this, the potential market (Thailand) is already saturated by other self established suppliers of the same product and this will pose a serious problem when it comes to distribution and marketing.
Problem analysis Qualibrand Company has been dealing with the production of minor car accessories and distribution of differentiated products on a local level. This venture proposes a production capacity higher than what qualibrand can handle.
In addition to this, it is a new product to Qualibrand which means new technology, better labor and new marketing and distribution strategies in order to efficiently ensure success in this joint venture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same note, there are some aspects that have been neglected during the whole process. For example there is no specific timeframe as to how long the alliance will last or how the profits and losses will be divided in the future of the venture.
To add on this, there is no clear information on how the joint venture will affect Qualibrand’s current operations. Also Mr. Orosa would be the general manager if the joint venture went through but it is clear that he and Qualibrand as a whole lacked the expertise to produce and market this new product both in terms of skills and experience.
As Schniederjans (1998) literates, poor management skills leads to poor results and without this knowledge, the venture was bound to fail. Also, Autoliv has not fully addressed the human resource aspect.
This is because SMACA as a partner is given a small portion on the overall management of the venture yet its contribution is of great significance to the whole operation. This would bring some unforeseen conflicts in the future if not addressed.
In addition to this, Qualibrand has not considered how it will handle its human resource during the transition. As suggested by Autoliv, in order to be fully compliant they require new employees who are conversant and experienced with the technology and production of the seat belts.
The other option would be to offer training to the current employees a process which would evidently take time and consume more resources in terms of finances.
This is the most important aspect to consider because the employees are core to the success of any venture. Qualibrand should instead figure out a better option through which they can maintain their worker and equip them with the necessary skills.
We will write a custom Assessment on Autoliv QB: A Proposed Joint Venture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another problem that may arise from this venture is the communication issue. For any joint venture to realize full potential there must be efficient communication channels between the partners (Dianne, 1995). From the provided case it is evident that there is a communication problem.
This is evident from the fact that there has not been any meeting convened between the key players of this venture. This means that Autoliv is trying to manipulate the whole deal without considering the different opinions in strategy that the other partners may have.
Probable solutions for the problems Before signing the final papers, all the partners must ensure that they meet and discuss the whole venture. In so doing, they will be able to settle any differences that they may have and at the same time come up with ideal solutions and decisions.
In addition to this, they all must produce their financial statement and other information accompanied with their set goals as pertaining to the venture to ensure that trust prevails through out the venture. Also, a detailed SWOT analysis should be presented to all partners so that they can further understand the dynamics of the venture.
On the same note, an implementation model should also be designed to ensure that the proceedings are systematic, and all the political, economical, social and technological (PEST) aspects are covered and handled accordingly.
Additionally, a recruitment strategy should be put in place to ensure that all the employees in this venture are more than qualified for the available jobs and the process of recruiting, retraining and hiring is balanced between all the involved partners.
Gutterman acclaims that a good joint venture is one that evaluates all the strengths and weaknesses of the partners and maximizes on them irrespective of the prevailing conditions (2002).
Applicability of the solutions In presenting the SWOT analysis of each partner, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats surrounding each individual company shall be known. The information gathered from the analysis can be used to identify which firm best suits a particular responsibility.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Autoliv QB: A Proposed Joint Venture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example Qualibrand lacks the technology and skilled man power needed for the success of this venture but this is covered by Autoliv which has both. On the other hand, Autoliv’s lack of marketing and distribution channels in the Philippines is compensated by Qualibrand’s efficiency in the same.
The PEST analysis would help this venture in evaluating how other factors may influence the venture. For example, the impact that taxes, fiscal policies, political atmosphere, social and environmental factors have on the prices and demand of the product.
In so doing, production limits and prices can be set in relation to the demand and supply tendencies of the targeted markets.
The recruitment process is core to the survival of any business venture and by carefully selecting the most qualified candidates it ensures that the venture will survive the developing stage which is the hardest stage in a business cycle. Also, the process helps create a unified vision among the partners and employees hence motivating them to work even harder.
Impact of the solutions to the company As a result of the PEST analysis, the company will be able to minimize the overall cost of production because an illustrative study of the market will always be available. Also the information gathered can be used to monitor demand and therefore reduce the rick of over or under production.
The SWOT analysis will help the company fully utilize the available resources from the firms efficiently thereby providing it with a competitive edge against other competitors. The recruitment strategy will have the greatest effect on marketing, production and service provision.
If the most qualified and experienced workers are employed in the various departments, then the company will run with lots of ease due to the high level of professionalism employed by the workers.
Possible issues arising from the solutions Due to the changes in operation, some of the employees currently working in Qualibrand will have to be laid off. This is bound to cause commotions and a demonstration is likely to occur due to the drastic move.
However the managers of Qualibrand should organize a compensation package to all the employees that have dedicated themselves to the company but do not have adequate qualifications for the transition.
Due to the importation of man power from other countries, there should be some training offered to the foreigners so as to bridge the cultural diversity that would arise from the employees. This will help in reducing conflicts that may come up due to the various differences that the employees may have.
Conclusion From the above analysis, a detailed discussion has been offered concerning the alliance of Qualibrand and the partners. The potential problems have been highlighted and solutions given.
Also the social and ethical impacts of this joint venture have been mentioned and recommendations as to how they can be resolved have been put across. If implemented, the joint venture would be as productive as expected.
References Schniederjans, M. J. (1998). Operations Management in a Global Context. NY: Greenwood Publishing Group
Gutterman, A. (2002). A short course in international joint ventures: negotiating, forming, and operating the international joint venture. World Trade Press.
Dianne, J, C. (1995). The human resource challenge of international joint ventures. Greenwood Publishing Group.
“Essentials of Young Adult Literature”, Ch. 5 by Carl M. Tomlinson and Carol Lynch-Brown Essay argumentative essay help
The analysis of the chapter 5 of the book Essentials of Young Adult Literature by Carl M. Tomlinson and Carol Lynch-Brown will be presented in this paper. This part of the book is devoted to one of the most influential genres in literature, historical fiction.
Proper structure, clear and rather simple language, and logical definitions of the terms make this chapter really captivating and helpful to people of different ages and positions. This genre of literature covers significant historical figures and events, which had or will have a certain impact on human development and understanding of this world.
Carl Tomlinson and Carol Lynch-Brown made a wonderful attempt to explain the main idea of historical fiction by means of social studies and clear instructions.
Students have to read different literature in order to learn and comprehend the world from different perspectives, and the authors under consideration provide the reader with a chance to get an idea of how to analyze historical fiction in a proper way.
As it was mentioned before, chapter 5, entitled Historical Fiction, is properly organized. This is why it turns out to be quite easy to comprehend what issues are considered to be the main ones in this part of the book.
The authors present clear definitions of historical fiction and other concepts, which may be applied within this term, describe several rather appropriate topics, which may be used in historical fiction, and divide the development of historical fiction into seven meaningful periods.
In this chapter, information helps to realize that only historical fiction makes students learn and analyze the effects of war on people, the impact of past actions on future life, and the ideas of how to achieve success.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a kindergarten teacher, I realize that each genre of literature plays a significant role in student’s comprehension of the world and own place in this world.
If a student fails to understand properly the essence of chosen literary work and author’s intentions, he/she deprives him/herself of the opportunity to enlarge own level of knowledge and help other people to do the same. The content of the chapter under analysis may be used in the classrooms in different ways.
These ways involve students’ concentration on own actions and their consequences in future, analysis of historical figures’ actions and the use of their ideas nowadays, examination of past mistakes and their impact.
The reading under consideration provides insight into the unbelievable world of literature and history and their cooperation. Literature is one of the most powerful means that can represent history as it is, because many works are written by people, who observed those events and were eager to share their experience with other people.
With the help of class discussion, I realize the importance of historical fiction as a literary genre. Civilizations of the ancient world and the medieval world provided different understanding of the concepts, and historical fiction of those times opens new possibilities and new ideas of how to study on past mistakes and improve our modern life.
This chapter also teaches me how to pick out historical books for students of different age and how to learn the material in a proper and interesting for students way. Dr. Tomlinson and Dr. Lynch-Brown perfectly cover one more genre of literature and present incredibly helpful information for teachers.
Case Study on Ryanair essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Managing Strategic Change
How Ryanair used Strategic Approach in Managing Human Resource
Strategy on cost
British Airways Compete with Ryanair
Executive Summary Ryanair gives us a good overview of strategic management practices that improve the status of an organization and makes a company get more profits. From the statistics of Ryanair collected over time, one is able to see the competitive moves and business approaches that the management has taken.
These systematic steps have led the company to success (Barrett 90). It took the company a lot of time to start growing. It accrued loses within the first five years after its establishment in 1985 amounting to IRE£20m. On changing the management team the company rose to the top of Europe’s airlines in the early 90’s.
O’Higgins (2007) says that in 1997, Ryanair first sold its shares through the Dublin Stock exchange and afterwards with NASDAQ in the year 2002 (O’Higgins 687). It not only rose in Europe but also by the year 2006, it was leading the world’s airlines as the most profitable company.
In the same year, Ryanair announced its profit to be £329m for the first half of the fiscal year 2007. Its profits rose by 1% to 26% in that half year (O’Higgins 687).
This essay focuses on some aspects of strategic management that the leadership of Ryanair used to come to the top in terms of profitability. These are: managing strategic change, strategic management on human resource and cost.
Ryanair Michael O’Leary has done a lot to propel Ryanair to the top in terms of profitability. This is because of how he has been strategic in his leadership, since he took over this role in this company (Barrett 90). After his promotion to be the chief executive of Ryanair, he had a very clear vision; to model the Ireland’s Ryanair after the novel Southwest Airline Business Model.
He had the objective of making it to come to the top rank among all Europeans Airlines in terms of profitability. O’Leary did not take a very long time before he steered the short haul airline to the top. From the early 2000, the airline has topped not only in Europe but also globally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Ryanair took delivery of the largest number of new aircraft in 2009, with 54 B737-800 deliveries – or an average of 4.5 per month” (“Ryanair tops 2009 aircraft deliveries” par 1). This report shows exactly how O’Leary’s is effective and how the company is doing.
In this discussion we focus on four aspects of strategic management; managing strategic change, strategic approach on managing human resource, strategy on cost, and finally, an over view of how Ryanair compares with British Airways. These four aspects fall under the whole domain of strategic management.
The company focuses on the scope and the direction in which it will carryout its activities over a long period of time. This enables the organization to make use of the changes in the environment, principally viewing them as opportunities.
The organization or the company configures its potentials and resources to achieve this goal (Hitt, Duane and Hoskisson 3). Studying the above-mentioned four concepts will validate the fact that Ryanair has benefited from the initiative its management took in those areas of strategic management.
Managing Strategic Change Change is usually a challenge. It comes because of many factors. Managers should always be on the lookout because the change may bring a negative growth to the company if not well managed (Grugulis and Adrian 33). Both positive and negative changes may cause a negative growth if they are not monitored.
The first approach that the company used to manage change was by planning. Planned or regulatory ways looks at organizational change as a procedure that progress from a certain “type of state” to another by a sequence of carefully planed stages (Hill, and Gareth 53).
This is when, amongst all other things, when Michael O’Leary the Chief Executive Officer was went to America to gain knowledge of the business model of the then best performing Airline Company, Southwest Airlines. It was the most profitable airline company in the USA.
We will write a custom Report on Case Study on Ryanair specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This led to the Ryanair’s model that is still fuctional to date. This was a clear application of planned changes. This was at the initial transformation of the company.
The former traditional model had made the company incur loses very fast. Eventually the low-cost airline model has elevated the company to the top, amongst all the airline companies in the world (Barrett 97).
Ryanair’s management also mixed their style of managing strategic change with the emergent approaches. This approach does not depend on exact plans put down. It studies the upcoming issues and devices means to manage such changes (Hill, and Gareth 120).
Some of the issues that arose and the company showed a good manner of managing change were the rising cost of fuel, managing the increasing number of passengers, using ancillary resource, and maintaining fleet commonality (O’Higgins 687).
As other companies surcharge their customers because of the rising prices of fuel, Ryanair maintained their prices low. Contrary to many companies that had increased their prices because of the rising fuel cost in the year 2005, and even higher in the year 2006, Michael O’Leary declared that they would not levy their customers more at any time, not even in the far future.
Customers welcomed this assurance. This is because the statistics show that the company further increased its revenue during this period. Many of the companies of the long – haul routes surcharged their customers (O’Higgins 688).
In addition to that, these levies were not proportional to the overall fare. Ryanair in this case handled this change with care making sure that it would not lose its customers.
Due to its low travel cost, Ryanair had an increase of its customers. To cope with this growth change, the company bought new aircrafts (Barrett 92).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Case Study on Ryanair by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was between September 2006 and April 20007 when they acquired 30 aircrafts. This also ensured that the increasing customer would not come, miss the service, and later tarnish the reputation of the company.
However, the company needed to compensate the rising fuel cost in order to increase its profit margin. Ryanair therefore focused on ancillary revenue. This revenue rose by 36% in 2006, far much more than the passenger revenue (O’Higgins 692).
The company calculated it to be at £7.70 per person (O’Higgins 692). The ancillary revenue comes from the schedules that do not involve flight. These are rail and bus ground services, hotels, charges on excess baggage, car rental services, and flight charge fees, in flight sales, personal loans and commission from Ryanair credit card.
This initiative also started the in-flight mobile phone service and online gambling. This did not receive a positive reaction from a majority of the customers. Michael O’Leary kept the company’s stand on the fact that they would not stop doing the business.
The kind of the business had made some passengers uncomfortable because of the perceived noisy environment (O’Higgins 691). The management refused to adhere to the customer’s complaint because of the relatively low prices. This was an act of balance.
It had to be there in order to maintain the company’s profits as well as provide affordable service to the same customers. They did this to respond to the rising costs of fuel (Warren 146). The company therefore gained much more than many companies.
Ryanair maintained the fleet commonality by using Boeing 737 planes. The company has replaced the old aircrafts with new efficient and environmental friendly planes. The policy is in place to keep the employee training and the maintenance of aircraft very low. This and the above-discussed points have shown how Ryanair has managed change strategically.
Another evident aspect in this company in managing strategic change is the use of learning organizations (Sange, 270). They understand that by continuously learning and seeking knowledge, they will be able to deal with most of the emerging issues. In this Ryanair has a consistent program for training and retaining its workers (O’Higgins 699).
How Ryanair used Strategic Approach in Managing Human Resource Managing resources strategically in general entail studying the resources that are at the company’s or the organization’s disposal. This is with the aim of exploring their role and their contribution in order to comprehend how they can yield high profits (Barrett 87).
In Ryanair’s analysis, they found out that in order to increase the productivity of the human resource, they would increase their number in order to reduce the workload of the then present workers. This would highly increase their profitability. In the year 2006 the company’s employee count increased by 700.
The number rose to 3500 (O’Higgins 689). This gave the workers who have been there relieve. It improved their working conditions. This is majorly by reducing their working hours. This eventually increased their efficiency and so maximizing their profitability.
The management of Ryanair must have performed a resource audit before arriving at the decision of training and retraining their workers. Such an audit aims at assessing the amount of the resources existing, the quality of such resources and the uniqueness as compared to what other organizations would have (Grugulis and Adrian 125).
On this fact, the company focused on the quality of service their workers offered. It is at this point that they decided to establish a culture of training and retraining them. In that view, they embraced the value of learning organizations.
Learning organizations give people educational opportunities while on job (Sange 270). This will always be a fulfillment to the employee because it is a direct form of developing his or her career further.
The educational opportunities will profit the company directly too. This is because the skill gained by the staff or the employee will improve the productivity of the company.
In view of resource base view (RBV), a certain resource should pass five market tests so that the company would embrace it. In their appraisal, Ryanair made sure that its Human Resource meets these standards (Warren 148). In order to pose competitive advantage to their rivals they decided to pay their workers higher than the other airline companies did.
From the claim that they had an average pay of £49, 692 in 2006, insinuates that they are paying higher than any European airline (O’Higgins 690). This still implies that that Ryanair pays its employees well. This is another fact that improves on the working conditions of the staff. Motivation is the principle issue in this.
This strategy had the quality of inimitability within it. High pay is usually one the hardest things companies get involved in when they are remunerating their workers. Their initiative to maintain this proved that it was a durable value on this resource.
On the aspect of quality, Ryanair still went a step ahead to improve the working conditions of workers; the company complied with the regulation, which enforces a ceiling on pilot flying hours to an average of 18 hours per week. This will help the workers to work with renewed strength making them to be more efficient (Warren 194).
This is because of reduced fatigue. At times, it goes to dangerous levels. Keeping the health of workers in an organization is sustaining its productivity.
In focusing on competence, the ability of an organization to perform in certain areas of business, Ryanair also implemented the above strategy in order to improve the knowledge, attitude and potentials of the workers. The aim was to achieve the general competence of the firm.
The company has however been criticized for mishandling workers at some point. The focus has been more on the pilots. The company has not allowed them to join unions in order to express themselves freely (O’Higgins 715).
The company allegedly subjects its workers to stringent working conditions. An example of such an allegation is that the workers are not allowed to charge their mobile phones in the company premises to save on power cost.
The Ryanair had an appeal to the Supreme Irish court over a ruling that its pilots should collectively bargain through Irish Airline Pilot Association. The court ruling was in the favor of Ryanair. The company thereafter launched a claim for it s legal expenses.
Furthermore, in 2006 the Irish High Court found the company to have bullied pilots to accept a harassing contract. The contract was that they should pay £15 000 for retraining. This is on new aircraft if the pilot had left the airline.
The same would also apply if the very situation forced the company to negotiate with unions in the next five years. Some senior officials of the company were judged in court to have given false evidence (O’Higgins 702). This was as concerns the above-mentioned case. The company has had this wrong side while handling its human resource.
From the previous statistics about the remuneration, Ryanair is said to be the one paying higher than all other companies. It means that they pay their workers highly.
The company declared that their pilots are the best paid among all the short-haul pilots in Europe. They should therefore balance these with a more human relationship with its workers. This would cure their image and further sell their brand name.
Strategy on cost The Ryanair Company also analyzed the way they would maintain their prices. In this, they looked at the value of ancillary revenue sources. This answered the question about value. It is the first question managers should be asking themselves when they want to capitalize on a certain resource (Grugulis and Adrian 225).
In the list of the four questions VRIO framework, the company found that the ancillary revenue would be very handy in substituting on imposing an extra levy on the customers. This was a unique way of balancing costs to bring them down to increase the profit margin. Some of the recurrent costs are not always predictable (Warren 255).
The main one that has it prices badly fluctuating is fuel. The company decided that the challenge will not cause them to increase charges on travel costs. To manage this, the company has refocused its energy on the value of ancillary revenue sources as earlier seen.
The second aspect of VRIO, which is the resource rareness, is evident (Hill and Gareth 402). Focus on ancillary revenue is a common thing in most airline companies. It is usually there but it is not the major focus. Focusing on it made Ryanair to look for more aggressive means of capitalizing on this resource (Warren 105).
To some point, some customers said that it caused discomfort on plane. The reason was that the place becomes very noisy. They forgot one thing, that they are paying low fares for their flight.
This is the reason, Michael, the CEO, stuck to the fact that this will go on (O’Higgins 679). Other high fare airlines do not have such aggressive types of ancillary strategy.
On the point of value, they also cited value in flight commonality. This company has dwelled on this policy. This policy adds value to the company by reducing the cost of having diverse types of flights. By using the Boeing 737, the company is able to save on the cost of training staff and the cost of aircraft maintenance.
This was by doing away with the small and less environment friendly planes. These aircrafts were also older which meant a higher maintenance cost than new ones. The cost would reduce by a big margin because the fuel consumption alone would reduce by about 47%.
“Then newer aircraft produced 50 per cent less emissions and 45 per cent less fuel burn… Also, a winglet modification program on the fleet was providing better aircraft performance and a 2 per cent reduction in fleet fuel consumption, a saving which the company believe could be improved over the next year” (O’Higgins 699).
This has benefited the company by efficiently saving on cost, therefore increasing the profitability margin. All focus is still on value.
Employing more workers also improved on the efficiency of the current workers. Increasing their number seems to be increasing on the cost of wedges, but the firm had seen it right that more work would be finished and the result will be more profits.
On this O’Higgins (2007) says, “Also, by tailoring rosters, the carrier maximized productivity and time off for crew members, complying with the EU regulations which impose a ceiling on pilot flying hours to prevent dangerous fatigue.
The airline adhered to the general rule of a maximum of 900 flying time per year, averaging 18 hours per week (O’Higgins 699). This positive aspect increases the value of workers, consequently improving on the quality of the work they offer to the company.
The last aspect (VRIO) comes out clearly on the point they introduced more measures to manage cost. This how an organization takes advantage on the potential of certain resources to increase profitability (Warren, 89).
The measures were luggage handling and passenger check-in techniques that were designed to reduce the cost and enhance productivity. The first was to introduce a web-based passenger check-in that saves time. The company was able to take advantage of these funds generating resource to gain competitive advantage over other companies (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson 154).
This also saved the cost on using airport facility for check-in services. The other cost minimized was of the check-in staff. The second was luggage handling (O’Higgins 688). They introduced charges on the check-in bags.
This encouraged the customer to travel with few or at some cases without the check – in bags. This saved on cost of handling the luggage and increased speed. This had an overall improvement on the efficiency of organizing the travels throughout.
They decided to focus on the airline budget model. They therefore maintained point-to-point routes only. “Ryanair reduced airport charges by avoiding congested main airports, choosing secondary and regional airport destinations, anxious to increase passenger throughput” (O’Higgins, pp 699).
This was in the time the handling and airport charges raised by 21per cent. This was slower relative to the growth of passengers giving a net reduction on costs from transactions at new bases and airports. This defied the increased costs at some bases like Stansted (O’Higgins 700).
Generally airport charges had increased in the year 2006 prompting the company to use alternative routes. Aircraft numbers increased in that year on the existing routes therefore congestion was evident.
Congestion would make the Ryanair waste time and so losing income at any particular time. That is why they decided to use alternative routes. This saved on the operational costs.
British Airways Compete with Ryanair As all the fuel companies were devising ways to maintain or reduce cost during the fuel price rise, British Airways as well increased its fare charges. They did this to hit back on the strategy Ryanair had (O’Higgins 689).
Ryanair did not surcharge the customers for the same reason. Contrary to their thought that Ryanair would have its revenue reduced, it went up higher for the low prices attracted the customers.
British Airways had monopoly over some main airbases. From this, they collect much revenue. Increasing airport charges was a strategy to get off those companies that would not sustain the charges comfortably. Their alternative was to look for alternative routes.
Such routes that would not favor the passengers especially those are far away from the city center. That is why, “Ryan air continued to protest at charges and charges and conditions at some airports, especially the Stansted and Dublin, two of its main Hubs (O’Higgins, pp 699).
In addition, O’Higgins says, “It vehemently opposed the British Airport Authority (BAA) airport monopoly plans to build a £4bn gold plated Taj Mahal at Stansted, which we believe, could be built for £1bn” (O’Higgins, pp 699).
British Airways also has tried to reduce operational cost in several ways. It has withdrawn some refreshments formerly given to the customers. This has so far discouraged some customers showing that it is not that successful in using this measure.
In its struggle to increase, its revenue the firm is also introducing charges for travelers who would book seats beyond 24 hours before the travel dates (Smith, par 3). This will make the customers struggle for seats always as travel dates draw closer. This will also make the customers look for alternatives.
This is contrary to the Ryanair’s strategy of turning on ancillary revenue. The ancillary revenue does not hit on the customer directly. This is because some of the services give the customer the choice not to use or to use the service available. Customers then will continue to prefer such a company to the British Airways.
Conclusion Ryanair’s strategic plans were very successful since Michael O’Leary took over in the early 1990’s. Though he has received sharp criticism from rivals, O’Leary has kept standing strong to keep implementing the ideas he had. That is why he steered the short-haul firm to great success in the last few years.
Ryanair has hitherto kept growing as Michael O’Leary leads it. “Never the less, Ryanair is growing at the expense of its competitors. The airline reported a 17% increase in passenger numbers for September 2009. The airline said it carried 6.12 million passengers in that month, up from 5.12 million the same time last year” (Smith, par 6).
Works Cited Barrett, Sean D. International Journal of Transport Management 2.2 (2004): 89-98. Print.
Grugulis, Irena, and Adrian Wilkinson. “Managing Culture at British Airways: Hype, Hope and Reality.” Long Range Planning 35.2 (2002): 179-234. Print.
Hill, Charles, and Gareth Jones. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Hill, Charles W. L, and Gareth R. Jones. Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.
Hitt, A. Michael, Ireland R. Duane and Hoskisson, E. Robert. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization : Concepts
International marketing strategies Term Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Starbucks background information
Analysis-application of theory to evidence
Introduction International marketing strategy is the act of identifying the needs of customers in foreign countries, and supplying them with the required goods or services. This may also entail consideration of the right place, at an affordable price that is favorable to the customers. International marketing strategy involves communicating and handling customer relationships. This is to ensure the business remain beneficial to customers as well as the stakeholder (Khanh, 2009).
To some extent, some multinational corporations are lucky to use the same strategy in domestic and international marketing. For instance, a company such as pen manufacturing organization has a slogan that can be globally applied “finest writing in the world” (Isobel
The Tracking System in Secondary School Education Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief overview of the Tracking System
Benefits of the tracking system
Disadvantages of the Tracking system
Introduction The educational system of a society is fundamental for the development and ultimate advancement of the entire community. Governments all over the world have acknowledged that educational policies can have a significant impact on economic and social outcomes of their citizens.
It is for this reason that so much emphasis is placed on the educational process by all the relevant stakeholders. Over the past few decades, there has been considerable pressure on policy makers to come up with strategies that ensure that the potential of the students is optimally utilized.
To this end, less effort is put on merely sorting students but rather in helping all students succeed in meeting standards (Stiggins, 2007). The tracking system has been proposed and utilized in schools throughout the world as one of the strategies for ensuring that highest possible performances are attained by students.
Despite the various benefits attributed to the tracking system, there exist conflicting views as to its effectiveness and subsequent desirability in schools. This paper argues that the benefits that are gained by utilization of the tracking system in secondary schools far outweigh the limitations in terms of student development and other perceivable gains.
This being the case, the paper shall set out to give an elaborate discussion as to the benefits and limitations of the tracking system on both the students and the educators. The paper will then analyze the different views advanced and thereby offer a concrete stand as to why the tracking system should be utilized in secondary schools.
Brief overview of the Tracking System In educational systems, tracking involves the separation of students according to some measure of cognitive ability that they exhibit (Andersen
Taxation in Asian market Term Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of taxation in Asian markets
Strategic approaches to reduce tax liability
Introduction Taxation can be described as ways that governments finance their expenses by imposing charges on individuals and business organizations. Most governments across the world use taxation to encourage or discourage certain economic decisions.
It can also be described as the power vested in the government, to impose charges on persons and corporations in order to raise revenue for a public purpose. Governments levy taxes for resident individuals and corporations. They also levy taxes on non residents, which involve foreign individuals and corporations. In this case, we are going to discuss types of taxation imposed on foreign companies in Asia (Pender, 2005).
Types of taxation in Asian markets Foreign enterprises in Asian market are subjected to various types of taxation. Corporate income tax is a form of taxation, which is imposed on organizations. It is charged to companies which derive their income from production, business operations and other sources. In Asian markets, foreign countries are supposed to pay corporate income tax. For instance, in China, foreign investments enterprises incorporated under the People’s Republic of China law and regulations are subjected to corporate tax.
Foreign companies not incorporated in China, but have overall management and controls in China are obliged to pay this tax. In China, the corporate income tax is charged at 25% of taxable income. Foreign companies, which are not incorporated in China, but derive incomes from sources in China are subjected to a withholding tax of 10% on gross income (Pender, 2005). In Australia, foreign enterprises are subjected to corporate income tax with a foreign tax credit.
Corporate income tax in Australia is currently at 30% of the taxable income. In Hong Kong, there is no difference between residents and non residents except in rare cases such as shipping and air transport companies. Foreign companies in Hong Kong are supposed to pay 16.5% of taxable income as corporate tax. Only profits derived from Hong Kong is taxed. Incomes derived from the sale of capital assets are not taxable in Hong Kong.
In India, foreign companies with a total income exceeding Rs.1, 00, 00,000 are charged 41.20% of total income. In Indonesia, foreign enterprises are subjected to reduced tax rate of 12.5% on gross revenue. In Japan, foreign companies are charged a corporate tax of 30% for companies with a capital of more than JPY 100m.
Corporate income tax is charged on the net income of each accounting period. A non resident company is deemed to have tax presence in Korea if it has a fixed business in Korea, where the company is wholly or partly operated in Korea. Foreign companies without domestic place of business in Korea are charged tax at flat rates on gross income. Foreign construction companies with a permanent place of business in Korea but not registered in tax authorities are subjected to withholding tax.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Korea, corporation tax rate is 11% on income up to 100,000,000 and 22% on income over 200,000,000. In Malaysia, foreign enterprises are subjected to corporate income tax at the rate of 25% of taxable income. Corporate tax in New Zealand is charged at 30% of taxable income to the foreign enterprises.
Foreign companies in Pakistan are charged corporate income tax at the rate of 35% of the taxable income. The rate is applicable to all companies other than those in presumptive tax regime. Presumptive tax rule is applicable to foreign companies involved in exports and companies involved in commercial imports.
The tax deducted at source is deemed to be the final tax liability. Foreign companies engaged in business operations, in Philippines, are subjected to 30% corporation tax. The 2% minimum corporation tax is charged on foreign companies same as Domestic Corporation. Some foreign companies such as offshore banking units are taxed at preferential rates. Foreign companies with investment in Singapore are charged corporation tax at a flat rate of 15% of taxable income.
In the Republic of China, especially in Taiwan all foreign companies are taxed only on income generated from the republic. A representative office is not required to pay tax on stock transfers from foreign headquarters. If a company outside the republic provides service to a company in the republic, the income received by the foreign corporation is subjected to income tax. Foreign companies in Thailand are obliged to a corporate income tax of 30% of taxable income.
In Asian market, foreign based countries are subjected to tax on capital gains. Income tax on capital gains is charged when there is a disposal of assets. In Australia, capital gains tax is levied on gains from disposal of assets, which are deemed to have been acquired after September 1985. A foreign company in Australia is liable to capital gain tax, if the capital gain tax events happen to an asset, which taxable Australian property.
In Australia, there is a relief of double taxation if the gain on proceed is taxed in the country of origin. In Hong Kong, capital gains are not taxed; however, tax is imposed on speculative profits, which may arise, from an adventure in the nature of trade. In India, long term capital gains are subjected to tax at the rate of 22.66 % (Williams, 2011). Listed securities in the stock market transaction tax are not charged.
Capital gains arising from transfer of equity shares in a recognized stock exchange, in India, are exempted from tax. Gains from the transfer of depreciable assets are taxed on a short term capital gain. Short term gains from transfer of shares in a recognized stock exchange, in India, are taxed at 16.995%, provided that such shares are chargeable to securities transaction tax.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Taxation in Asian market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Indonesia, gains from transfer of shares listed in Indonesian stock exchange are not subjected to tax. Capital gains are considered to be an ordinary income, and are included in the taxable income. In Japan, capital gains from the sale of lands and buildings are treated differently from those arising from the sale of securities. Capital gains from the sale of shares and real estates are classified as short term capital gains.
Those from the sale of assets are classified as long term capital gains. Capital gains acquired from the sale of securities are subject to capital gain tax at the rate of 15%. Capital gains from transfer of a real estate are charged tax at the rate of 30%.
In Malaysia, capitals gains are not taxed except the real property gain tax on gains derived from the disposal of areal property. The real property gain tax on the gains derived from disposal of real property depends on the period of ownership. In Pakistan, capital gains from the sale of shares are exempted from tax up to 2010 (Hadnum, 2010).
Capital gains from other sources are subject to capital gain tax. If the disposed asset was held for more than one year, then 75% of the sale proceeds will be used in computation of capital gain.
In Philippine, the net capital gains derived by a non resident company from the sale of shares not traded through a local tax exchange are subject to tax. Capital gains of less than Php100, 000 are taxed at the rate of 5%. Any amount in excess of Php100, 000 is taxed at the rate of 10%. Capital gain tax of 0.5% is levied on the disposition of shares listed in a local stock exchange (Campbell, 2008).
The comptroller of income tax in Singapore treats gains from disposal of shares and properties as revenue gains. These gains are subject to income tax. Foreign countries in Asia are also subject to taxation on dividends. For instance in china, dividends paid by a foreign company is charged 10% withholding tax.
The withholding tax may be reduced through double taxation agreement. Dividends paid from 2008 onwards are subject to withholding tax. Dividends from profits before 2008 are exempted from tax. In Japan, if a foreign company owns less than 25% of shares, then 50% of the dividends have to be included in taxable income.
Dividends paid to non residents are subjected to withholding tax of 20 % (Dhameja, 2008). Foreign companies in New Zealand are subject to 30% tax on dividends paid to shareholders. Tax credits received from dividends can be offset against the receipt income tax liability. A non resident may claim a portion of tax credit depending on double tax agreement. Foreign companies are subject to pay custom duties.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Taxation in Asian market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Custom duties are imposed by common wealth countries on imported goods in order to protect domestic industries (Hadnum, 2011). In Asian market, foreign countries importing goods from their country of origin are subject to paying tax. For instance, in Australia the amount of custom duty is determined as par the general agreement on tariffs and trade.
Where goods have no Australian comparison, they attract a reduced rate of custom duty. In People’s Republic of china, goods imported from outside countries are subject to custom duty. Only those goods which qualify for, tax preferential treatments are not subject to custom duty.
Custom duty is imposed on the cost of insurance freight value. This includes packing charges, freight and insurance premiums approved by customs (Musgrave, 2007). The rate of custom duty depends on the imported goods. In Hong Kong, foreign companies are subject to pay custom duty only on wine, liquor, hydrocarbon oil and tobacco. Imported motor vehicles are subjected to first registration tax which is equivalent to custom duty.
In India, custom duty is charged at different on goods imported in the country. The custom duty in India is about 10% of the value of imported commodity. The custom duty on capital goods usually ranges from 12.5% to 20%. Most of the imported goods are also charged an additional duty of 4%.
Customs duties in India are charged depending on the value of imported good (Campbell, 2008). The government of India imposes anti-dumping duty, if foreign companies export goods in India at low prices compared with prices in the local market.
Value added tax is taxation subject to foreign countries in the Asian market. The amount of VAT to be paid is calculated as the difference between output VAT and input VAT. It is mostly charged on companies involved in sales of goods, processing and importation of goods in the Asian market.
In China, the rate of value added tax on companies engaged in production of commodities is 17% of the sales price of the product, and 13% on products which are necessary on a daily basis. In India, value added tax is known as the central value added tax (CENVAT). It is imposed on large manufactured goods at specified rates. It is charged at a rate of 8% on most commodities (Nobes, 2010). Value added credit is allowed against central value added tax on certain inputs and capital goods purchased.
In Indonesia, foreign countries are subject to paying value added tax. It is charged to all VAT-able transactions, and the general rate is usually at a rate of 10% (Bayley, 2006). In Korea value added tax, is imposed at a rate of 10% on the transfer of most goods and services. Some countries in Asian market such as Malaysia do not have value added tax, but they have sales tax. Sales tax in Malaysia is charged on goods manufactured or imported in Malaysia.
In Philippine value added tax, is charged on any person who sells, exchanges or leases goods or render services. The value added tax in this country is levied at a standard rate of 12% since 2006. In Taiwan; companies are subjected to paying value added tax. It is levied on the value added at each level of a process involving the sale of goods or services. In this country, the rate of value added tax is not supposed to be less than 5% or more than 10%.
Property tax is also imposed in most of Asian markets. This is tax levied on property income. Property income earned by foreign companies in China is subjected to tax. The companies are supposed to pay a withholding tax of 10% of the property income. They are also charged an extra 5% business tax (Lymer, 2010). In Indonesia, property tax is levied at a standard rate of 15% on the value of the property income. In New Zealand, property tax is based on the rates established by local and regional councils (Bayley, 2006).
Goods and services tax is also imposed in Asian markets. It is levied on goods sold and services rendered. For example, in Australia goods and services sold are taxed at a rate of 10% of the value. It is collected by registered businesses at each level in the supply chain. It is charged on capital items, trading stock, intangible and tangible goods. Goods and services tax is also imposed on all supplies of goods and services in New Zealand.
The rate of goods and services act is currently at a rate of 12.5% of the value of goods or services. Stamp duty is also levied on companies in Asian markets (Melville, 2009). It is charged by the government on documents such as promissory notes, bills of exchange and documents involved in transfer of shares and real properties.
In China, all companies and people who execute certain documents are subject to stamp duty. The rate applied to stamp duty depends on the subject matter of the contract. For instance, a rate of 0.1% is charged on property leasing contracts. Stamp duty is also imposed in Hong Kong at 0.1% in respect of sale of shares and other securities (Melville, 2010).
Fringe benefit tax is also charged on fringe benefits provided to employees by the employer (Dhameja, 2008). For instance, in India fringe benefit tax is charged at 33.99% of the value of fringe benefit offered by the employer. In New Zealand, companies are supposed to pay fringe benefit tax on fringe benefits provided to employees. Fringe benefit tax in this country is charged at a rate of 49% and 61% on the taxable benefits.
Personal income tax is also charged on foreign individuals in the Asian market. Non resident professionals in foreign companies are subjected to 15% withholding tax in Singapore. Other forms of taxation in Asian markets include royalties. Royalties are charged on payments for the use of trademark, copyright, patent etc. For example, non residents in Singapore are subjected to withholding tax at a rate of 10%. Interest tax is also imposed in Asian markets.
In Singapore, interest tax is charged at 15% on interest income. Excise taxes are also charged to foreign companies in Asia (Bayley, 2011). This form of tax is charged on locally manufactured goods. In Philippine, it is charged on goods manufactured in Philippine for domestic sale or consumption (Hadnum, 2010).
Strategic approaches to reduce tax liability Foreign companies in Asian market pay a lot of money in the form of taxation. These companies may deploy several strategic approaches to reduce the tax burden. Companies can avoid paying capital gain tax. This tax is charged on the benefit from the disposal of assets. A company can avoid this taxation, by maintaining its assets. Companies may also sell investment losers to reduce capital gain tax, this helps in offsetting the profit.
Proper tax planning may also help organization in reducing the tax burden. This helps in reducing tax on sale of company shares. A company may consider distributing shares to other members, which reduces personal income tax. Foreign companies in Asian market may adopt approaches of utilize the tax incentives offered in this markets (Cullen, 2011).
For instance, in China tax incentives are provided to new high technology enterprises, and companies specializing in research and development. Companies that qualify to be in these categories enjoy a reduced rate of 15% compared to regular corporate tax of 25%.
Singapore and Malaysia also provide incentives directed towards research and development (Musgrave, 2007). This includes tax credit for expenditures in research and development. Companies in these countries may concentrate on these expenditures, to reduce the tax burden. Some countries in Asian markets provide an exemption on import duties on capital goods. In this case, foreign companies may import capital goods to reduce the tax burden.
Companies may also establish their businesses in particular economic zones to avoid paying custom duty and value added tax (Melville, 2009). In Asian market, some goods are exempted from value added tax. Foreign companies in Asian market may specialize in manufacturing these goods to avoid paying tax.
Hiring independent contractors may also help a company in reducing the burden of taxation. Companies may outsource some of their operations to independent contractors. This will help in reducing taxes as there is no need to withhold income taxes from their earnings. The company will also not pay the employer’s share of social securities. Companies use a strategy of maximizing deductions to reduce the burden of taxation (Williams, 2011). This involves keeping excellent records and receipts relying on a tax professional for guidance.
Companies may also reduce tax liability by giving donations to charitable organizations. This will reduce the burden of taxation as donations are tax deductible. Hiring family members is another strategy of reducing the tax burden. This will help companies to shift from high tax rates to low tax rates. Deferring income is an approach that can be adopted by a company, to reduce taxation (Fisher, 2010). For example, postponing receiving money to January instead of receiving it in December may help in reducing taxation.
Most companies maximize their expenditure on machineries and equipments. This involves buying equipments in advance and use the capital deductions allowed in the current year. Paying bills before the end of a financial year is another way to avoid paying tax. Designing a retirement plan and making payments before the end of the year helps in reducing tax.
This will help in income for the year and subsequently reducing tax. Finally, foreign companies in Asian markets use transfer pricing provisions and double taxation approaches to reduce taxes. For instance, foreign information technology companies in India make use of these strategies to reduce taxation burden (James, 2009).
Conclusion Taxation involves ways used by governments, to finance public expenditures through imposing charges for individuals and corporations. Each country adopts a different taxation policy. Tax is imposed on resident individuals and companies. Many countries also impose taxes on non resident individuals and corporations. In Asian market, different countries adopt different tax policies and principles to levy a tax.
There are different types of tax imposed on individuals and companies in Asia. Corporate and individual tax rates differ from country to country across Asia (James, 2009). Corporate income tax and personal income taxes are main types of taxation in various countries in Asia. There are several foreign based companies across Asia.
These foreign companies are obliged to different types of taxation in this market. Taxation takes a large proportion of profit earned by these companies. In most cases, corporate income tax ranges between 30% and 40% of companies profit. Finally, most of the foreign companies adopt various strategic approaches such as double taxation agreements to reduce the burden of taxation (Fisher, 2010).
References Bayley, C., 2006. How to avoid property tax. New York: Free Press.
Bayley, C., 2011. Using a property tax to save tax. London: Taxcafe Limited.
Campbel, D., 2008. International tax planning. Chicago: Chicago university press.
Cullen, R., 2011. Green taxation in East Asia. New York: Edward Elgar Pub.
Dhameja, A., 2008. Tax planning issues. Chicago: Chicago university ptress.
Fisher, A., 2010. Financial times guide to taxation. London: Prentice Hall.
Hadnum, L., 2010. Tax savings tactics. London: Taxcafe Limited.
Hadnum, L., 2011. The world’s best tax havens. London: Taxcafe Limited.
James, S., 2009. The economics of taxation. London: Prentice Hall.
Lymer, A., 2010. Taxation:policy and practice. London: Fiscal Publications.
Melville, A., 2009. Taxation. London: Prentice Hall.
Melville, A., 2010. Taxation:finance act 2010. London: Prentice Hall.
Musgrave, R., 2007. Taxation and economic development in asia. London: Westview press.
Nobes, C., 2010. Economics of taxation 2010. Chicago: Fiscal Publications.
Pender, H., 2005. Business taxation in Australia and Asia. Chicago: Chicago university press.
Williams, S., 2011. Guide to personal taxation. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Statistical process control Report (Assessment) best essay help
Statistical process control is the use of statistics to supervise and manage a certain process in order to be sure that it operates to its maximum capability thereby producing results that conform to the required standards.
In addition, control limits are horizontal lines that are drawn to scale, a distance of ±3 standard deviation of the statistics collected from the standard mean on statistical process control charts.
Once they are drawn, the charts are used in the detection of signs that show that a given process is not in control as it ought to be. By detecting such errors, one maybe able to know which projects are not behaving as predicted (Hogg, 2005).
The signals used in the process control are known points which are outside the control limits. In projects that have statistics that are distributed normally, the area that is bracketed by the control limits will contain 99.72% of all the plotted points on a given chart if the process is in statistical control and does not change from that position.
On the other hand, a false-detection rate will normally be at a 0.28% rate. The data used in the statistics is usually collected from random data sources from different groups of a given product; this is known as stratified sampling.
The random data is collected at the different stages in production process by use of inspection techniques. Once the data has been collected, the information is transferred to a control chart where it is used in plotting the data points (Stamatis, 2002).
In addition, one has to make a distribution chart which will be used to group the collected data together. The variable data is the taken into sample sizes of 2 to 5 thereby enabling the data to have a specific range, known as R-Bar, and a mean known as, X-Bar.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The range assists is determining by how much the process has shifted from the normal course. The X-Bar is got from a summation of the total measurements and dividing it by the number of the total sub-groups. When collecting the data sample, one has to be sure that the data represents the population size hence making the statistics more credible.
Therefore, if we were to take a sample size of 60, it would be divided into two sub groups of 30 observations and 6 sub groups of 10 observations. The observations are important since they provide a reference for use in the creation of the factor table used in determining the control limits.
After determining the control limits we add 1 sample size of the number of the sample sizes observations we have at hand.
When making the control charts one should use the X-Bar and Range charts to determine the upper and lower control limits which normally range between ±3 from the double X-bar. These control limits can be got from the chart as follows (Oakland, 2008).
Seasonal factors usually affect the results from the analysis of any data collected. Since the data is seasonal, it is not permanent and thus prone to changes. The change in factors could be due to seasonal adjustments in the environment for example, price changes due to holidays.
Thus, once the changes have taken place, the data sample changes resulting in a different result and a shift in the control limits. In addition there is an effect known as, trend shift. This is change in data sample resulting in having inaccurate adjustments of the control limits since the data collected is distorted.
Trend shifts normally occur when a frequent occurring event suddenly starts to occur sporadically at irregular occurrences thereby changing the pattern of data samples (Doty, 1996).
We will write a custom Assessment on Statistical process control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Confidence intervals are the given analysis used to determine the reliability of given statistics. The confidence interval is got from the values found between the upper control limit and the lower control limit.
This range represents the mean of the sampled population which is normally ascertained initially. After that the degree of the expected confidence interval is specified and is normally, 1- alpha. 1 – Alpha represents the accepted risk of data being wrong or inaccurate. The population standard deviation, sigma is known as the rarety.
In determining the confidence levels, if the variance of a given population sample is not known, the confidence level can be determined by use of t-distribution as follows, where t= t value with n-1 degrees, where the sample is 1-sample or n1 n2 – 2 degrees of freedom in a 2-sample test.
The advantage of using t- distribution instead of other distributions formulae for example, z- distribution is that the data used is assumed to have come from a population which is distributed normally unlike in the z-distribution, where the data used is not (Black, 2009).
Process improvement is the reduction of variations of the mean thus making the data reliable in the statistics. Process improvement can be done by statistical process control whereby, the user of the data can supervise, make analysis and control the process freely thereby ensuring that the data collected is very accurate and not interrupted by other factors in the course of the process.
However not all data will respond in the desired way thus one has to take into account data that is inconsistent with the rest. These type of data is referred as tolerances and is used in judging if a product is acceptable or not thus, by so doing the process incorporates the flexible manufacturing system.
Reference list Black, K. (2009). Business Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Doty, L. (1996). Statistical process control. New York, NY: Industrial Press Inc.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Statistical process control by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hogg, R. (2005). Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. Upper Saddle Rvr, NJ: Pearson Education.
Oakland, J. (2008). Statistical Process Control. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Stamatis, D. (2002). Six Sigma and Beyond, Statistical process control. Cambridge, MA: CRC Press.
Religious Extremism and Islam Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Religious extremism cropped up from diverse Islam’s Jihad teachings. The research focuses on the reasons for the religious extremism. The research centers on the different interpretations of the Koran’s Jihad verses. Religious extremism precipitated from some Muslim religion devotees’ diverse interpretation of Koran’s Jihad verses.
Initially, Paul Heck1 stated Islamic extremism centers on two aspects of the issue. The first aspect is extremism. One group of non-Muslim people may classify the Islamic attacks on innocent civilians as extremism. On the other hand, the Islamic perpetrators of the suicide bombings do not classify themselves as extremists.
Paul Heck2 mentioned the second aspect is on the Islam religion. Some Islamic fundamentalism groups do not accept violence as a last resort. However, all Islam devotees affirm that Jihad is part of their duties. Some groups of Islam devotees prefer to use extreme means to perpetuate their goals for spread Islam. Islam accepts assassinations and bombings, specifically suicide bombings, as the duty of every serious Islam devotee.
Likewise, Shireen Burki3 emphasized Islamic terrorism or Jihad is part of the duties of Muslims to achieve their political and religious goals. Islamic terrorism cropped up in many strategic locations around the world. The Islamic extremist attacks occurred in Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, and the United States starting in the early 1970s. The most recently devastating Islamic extremist attack occurred in New York on September 11, 2001.
Al-Qaeda’s leader, Osama Bin Laden authorized the Islamic extremist attacks. The plane attacks focused on stopping the United States’ political and military presence in the Middle East as well as in the Arabian states. The extremist attacks also focused on the removing the corrupt and inefficient leaders of the Arab states. Another very loud reason for the extremist religious attacks is to put a stop to the United States’ military, financial, and other aids to Israel.
In addition, the extremist attacks focus on returning East Timor and Kashmir under Muslim authority. The extremist members are very active convincing people to join their religious extremist acts. The terrorist attacks include kidnappings for ransom, hijackings, and suicide attacks.
Shireen Burki4 opined religious extremism is an offshoot of Islamic teachings. Alia Brahimi reiterated the Islam religion teaches violence as part of the necessary acts of their religion. Religious extremism is the ideology or political act that violates the norms of society. Society norms consider killing a crime. Consequently, an extremist is any person who uses religion as a basis for killing another person.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Demetrios Caraley5 shows a vivid example is the unforgettable horrors of the September 11, 2001tragedy that hit New York and the Whitehouse. The incident is a direct act on the United States’ democratic ideology. The incident shows that Muslim religion devotees’ religious beliefs may translate to the loss of innocent lives.
Osama Bin Laden was instrumental in the attack of United States soil. The secularization of the September 11, 2011 issue equates to the harmful effects of the Islamic religion’s attack on New York City that fateful day. The horrors of the September 11 event awaken the people around the world on the power of religion to kill and maim innocent civilians.
The people around the world will not forget the mass suicide of the four groups of Muslim religion devotees who hijacked the four planes. The four Islamic martyr groups did not think twice before using the planes to commit suicide. The Islamic martyrs consider themselves rightful heirs to the king of their God, Allah.
Andrew Langley6 stated 19 religious extremists hijacked four planes. Two hijacked planes jets crashed on two skyscrapers in New York. Another group rammed the Pentagon complex in Arlington, Virginia. A fourth plane, destined for Washington D.C. crashed before reaching its destination.
The airplane passengers were able to fight against the fourth plane’s hijackers. Everyone in all four hijacked planes died. In addition, a majority of the people trapped in the twin towers of New York were murdered. The September 11, 2001 casualty reached 2,974 dead and thousands more injured.
In other parts of the world, David Cook7 stated women and men sometimes join suicide bombings are normal activities of religious activities.
Cook mentioned many radical Muslims are using the Jihad process to widen their appeal to idealistic Muslim men and women to join in the battlefield’s martyrdom operations. The religious extremist straps bombs inside one’s clothes. When they reach their targets, the religious extremists blow themselves up. As a result, the bombing activities kill both the suicide bomber and a majority of the intended targets.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Religious Extremism and Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the suicide bombings often cause massive property damages. Normally, the suicide bombers use huge explosive charges to ensure the infliction of a huge toll on major property damage and huge human lives.
Malik Mufti8 theorized the Islam religion explains that suicide bombers will receive rewards for killing non-Muslims. For the religious extremists, it is a duty to kill nonbelievers. It is the duty of the religious extremists to persuade the nonbelievers to convert to the Islam religion.
The non-Muslim’s refusal to convert to the Islam religion would precipitate to the Muslim’s consideration of the Muslims as enemies. The religious extremists’ killing of non-Muslims for the sake of religious obedience is part of religious activities. Thus, the religious extremists do not have second thoughts on killing innocent civilians.
Killing itself may be legal or illegal. Normally, the law allows the killing another person in a self-defense capacity. It is one’s fundamental right to protect oneself against dangers to one’s person, one’s family, and one’s property, especially the home. In addition, the state courts hand down death penalties to some convicted felons.
The convicted felons are meted the death penalty for heinous crimes. The killing is classified legal. However, societal norms dictate that the killing innocent civilian, in the pursuit of one’s political or religious ideologies, is illegal. This is true for every suicide bombing activity.
Historically, many empires have suffered under so-called extremist religious organizations. The implementation of widespread Islamic terrorism complies with the Islamic religion’s duties. The extremist attacks are religiously approved attacks on the apostates. The Koran states Apostates are non-Muslims. Non-Muslims are infidels or enemies under the Koran.
However many Muslim scholars and leaders opined the Koran verse on Jihad or attacks on the apostates has been taken out of context. Some Muslim leaders emphasize that the Muslims warriors should implement the Jihad or holy wars only to protect the Muslim people from outside attacks.
The Muslim warriors should start a Jihad or holy war to defend their religious beliefs, in case of attacks. Osama Bin Laden emphasized that the United States is an aggressive enemy of the Islam religion. Osama Bin Laden theorized the September 11, 2001 attack on New York City was a defensive Jihad attack. The Muslim leaders are more acceptable to the defensive Jihad attack when compared to the aggressive Jihad attacks.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Extremism and Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of major causes persuading Muslims to join the Jihad or holy war is a strong bond. The family bond encourages one member of the family to successful implement a suicide bombing attack. The strong community bond encourages members to be a martyr for the group. A martyr is one who sacrifices one’s life in a suicide bombing attack.
Other factors are not as influential in convincing a Muslim devotee to murder innocent Christian civilians. Poverty is not a strong factor. Trauma is a major factor in convincing the Muslim convert to engage in the Jihad or holy war. Being in a mad state is not as influential in convincing the Muslim individual to kidnap a Christian Pastor. Ignorance will not be an equally effective factor in terms of persuading the Muslim adolescent to engage in the Holy war to kill one’s innocent neighbors.
The environment is a strong factor in terms of convincing the Muslim devotees to engage in Jihad activities. Muhammad Akbar9 stated the Koran’s Surah 9 verse 111 states “Allah hath purchased of the Believers their person and their goods; for theirs is the Garden of Paradise. They fight in his cause and slay and are slain.” The quote clearly shows that all Muslim religion devotees must comply with all the religious instructions of the Koran, without exception.
Research conducted showed that more Algerians living in France join extremist groups. Likewise, the more Moroccans taking up residence in Spain favor the Jihad activities. Lastly, more The Yemeni persons taking up residence in Saudi Arabia are eager to join the suicide bombing activities.
Many Muslims offer terroristic attachments to the Jihad concept. The Jihad is a struggle to succeed. The Jihad is a Muslim struggle. The Koran imposes the Jihad on the persons, communities, or groups for having harmed a Muslim person, group, or community.
John Esposito10 explained the confusion regarding in interpretation of Jihad is understandable. Muslim devotees have to comply with the five pillars of the Islam faith. The Muslim religion devotees consider the Jihad or holy war as the sixth compulsory pillar. The Koran commands Jihad actions in the Muslim devotees’ struggles.
Jihad is the Arabian word for struggle. The Prophet Muhammad used the Jihad or holy war to capture reach territories previously controlled by other religions. The Koranic verses serve as the law of the Muslim religion devotees. The Koran verses teach the Muslim religion devotees self-understanding, piety, mobilization, expansion, and defense (Jihad).
Depending on the Muslim religion devotees’ situation, one’s daily life focuses on fighting injustice, oppression, and spreading the Islam faith. Other Muslim religion devotees’ daily activities include establishing a society that implements just policies on all its residents. The Muslim religion devotees’ daily duties include joining the Jihad or holy war to defend one’s faith against infidels (non-Muslims).
In terms of overall impact, the communities have to protect themselves from the extremists. The United States has stepped its homeland defense to counter the Islamic extremist11. The camaraderie of Muslim religion devotees creates a strong bond among the Muslim religion devotees around the world. The Islamic brotherhood includes Muslims from North Africa, Southeast Asia, Sudan, Algeria, the Gulf regions, and the United States.
Leaders of the brotherhood include Hasan al-Banna (1906 -1949) and Sayyid Qutb (1906- 1949). Some of the leaders distributed Islamic books and other Islamic reading materials. The materials focus on the fundamentalist principles of the Muslim faith. The Islamic religious leaders do their best to use the Koran’s verses to legitimize their extremist killing activities. The increasing distance between the Muslim religion devotees and the Christians continues to widen.
Similarly, Abdul Gafoor12 theorizes the literal meaning of Jihad is “to exert”. I t is the exertion of the intellect as recognized by the Islamic Law, Sharia. Jihad can be accomplished by using one’s heart, tongue, hands, or sword. Jihad is the battle against sin and Satan in the Muslim devotees’ life. Koran’s Verse 110 states “Ye are the best of peoples evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.” The Koran verse does not literally state devotees are required to kill innocent civilians.
The above verse clearly shows that the devout Muslim religion devotees must comply with all the Koran’s instructions. The Koran states that each Muslim religion devotees must forbid what is wrong. What is wrong includes not helping in the spread of the Islamic faith. All Muslim religion devotees should go out of their way to punish all infidels for maligning or attacking the beliefs of the Muslim faith. In turn, their god, Allah, will reward them for defending their faith against the infidels.
For example, Geneive Abdo13 mentioned Essam al Eryan actively complies with all policies and instructions of the Muslim Brothers organization. The Brotherhood is the Middle East’s most powerful Muslim religion devotees ‘ group. Eryan is a doctor and a radio commentator.
He often attacks the government’s policies. In return, the government has been irritated by Eryan’s anti-government radio commentaries. As a deputy secretary general of Egypt’s medical doctors’ syndicate, he is a very influential person among the citizens. Essam al Eryan was monitored by the state police for his possible contribution to a future Jihad or holy war attack on the top government officials and bombings in public places.
Further, the Brotherhood of Muslims covers many countries around the world during the 1990s. The Muslim religion devotees’ extreme efforts to spread the Islamic teachings of their Prophet Mohammad. In Egypt, the Muslim religion devotees live in an environment having a dynamic as well as different relationship among the Muslim religion devotees.
The Egyptian experience includes the radical, as well as violent revolutionary Islamic activities and institutionalization of the Muslim religion devotees’ lives as politically and socially comfortable. The police were trying to find the link between Essam al Eryan’s radio commentaries and killings of policemen and tourists in Upper Egypt. The police are finding evidences to prove that Essam al Eryan is instrumental in the firing of shots on visiting Egyptian cabinet members walking along Cairo’s busy streets.
The suspecting of Essam al Eryan is grounded on his caustic criticism of the Egyptian government’s running of the state’s affairs. Essam al Eryan was a radio commentator on British Broadcasting Corporation. The government did its part to try to control the media, including Essam al Eryan’s radio commentaries.
However, the Muslim Brotherhood’s primary policies include renouncing the use of violence to pursue their religious goals and objectives. A majority of the Egyptian population were critical and against the government’s secular policies.
Based on the above discussion, religious extremism is a different interpretation of Islam’s Jihad teachings. ‘Some groups interpret Jihad to include attacks on innocent civilians. Other Muslim religion leaders and scholars Jihad is allowed only to defend one’s religion, family or community against the infidel attackers. Indeed, religious extremism precipitated from some Muslim religion devotees’ detoured interpretation of Koran’s Jihad verses.
Works Cited Abdo, Geneive. No God but God: Egypt and the Triumph of Islam. New York: Oxford Press, 2000:71.
Akbar, Muhammad. The Shade of Swords Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. NewYork: Routledge Press, 2002:12.
Burki, Shireen. “Haram or Halal? Islamists’ Use of Suicide Attacs as “Jihad”.” Terrorism and Political Violence 23.4 (2011): 582-601.
Caraley, Demetrios. September 11, Terrorist Attacks, and U. S. Foreign Policy. New York: Political Science Academy Press, 2003;39.
Cook, David. “Women Fighting in Jihad?” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28.5 (2005): 375-384.
Esposito, John. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002;117.
Gafoor, Abdul. Islam
Air Canada Case Study writing essay help
Analysis of alternatives Partnership with WestJet
Partnership with the Canadian government
Partner with major security agencies
Partnership with WestJet
Air Canada faces serious competition both locally and internationally, and therefore the company has to adopt strategies which will enable it maintain its market leadership in Canada and market share internationally. Its major rival in the domestic market, Canada, is WestJet although there are other small players in the market. Air Canada would better achieve its local growth ambitions by partnering with WestJet.
Partnership between Air Canada and WestJet would create several benefits for both companies:
It would help eliminate unhealthy competition which could further hurt the industry as a whole and Air Canada in particular. Air Canada survives in the market by offering lower priced Tonga fares; however, this pricing strategy could also be exploited by WestJet to offer relatively lower prices, making the industry less profitable as other airline companies also adopt the strategy as they try to remain competitive. Thus, by partnering with WestJet, the two companies will be able to use their different preferential rates to attract more customers; and given Air Canada’s market leadership, it will make significant gains from this partnership.
Strong partnership between these two companies which are the major players in the Canadian airline market would help prevent new entrants.
Air Canada will lower its marketing and advertising costs as it will be able to use WestJet’s marketing and advertisement channels, thereby reducing its cost of operations.
The new agreement between the Canadian government and the European Union offers an excellent opportunity for Air Canada to establish more direct routes to European countries within the EU. This would certainly help the company lower the cost of its operations. Thus, it can use this opportunity to extend its differentiated pricing strategy to international flights.
Extending the differentiated pricing strategy to its international flights by making some of its products (fares) to be relatively cheaper will enable it attract more customers.
This strategy will be viable since the lower cost operations in direct flights will compensate for the lower priced tickets.
Differentiated pricing will help it build its reputation and enable it to compete favourably in the low-frill as well as budget travel segment in the international market.
Partnership with the Canadian government
Government regulations especially on taxes and charges imposed on airliners in Canada remain a major threat to Air Canada’s profitability. Therefore, partnering with the government by allowing it to own shares in the company’s stake should be explored.
Bringing the government on board as shareholders though not necessarily major shareholders would help the government better understand the impacts of the charges and taxes it imposes on the industry.
It would now be easier to lobby the government to review these charges and taxes so as to lower them or provide subsidies which will enable the company reduce the costs of its operations within the country and improve its profitability.
Partner with major security agencies
New security challenges especially the terrorism threats remain major challenge facing the airline industry and calls for advanced and more efficient strategies for dealing with the threat. Therefore partnering with major security agencies both locally and internationally with other security agencies like the FBI, CIA, and other major security agencies would help deal with security threats.
Partnering with security agencies will help Air Canada implement and improve its capacity to use advanced explosive detection equipment like backscatter X-ray machines as well as explosive trace-detection portal equipment to screen its passengers and their luggage.
Advanced security equipment will enable Air Canada’s security personnel detect any weapon hidden anywhere on the passenger whether underneath the clothes or even in shoes and luggage.
Partnering with major security agencies experienced in terrorist attacks prevention would enable the company improve detection of weapons and explosives before there are used on its assets, planes included.
Air Canada will be able to better to ensure the safety of its passengers and assets, and as a result, build its reputation in the industry.
Recommendations The best and less costly strategy that Air Canada should implement is differentiated pricing strategy in international travels.
This strategy will enable the company provide lower priced tickets in some international routes thereby building its reputation as it attracts more customers.
It will be cheap to implement given the opportunities for expanding its direct routes which have been made possible by the Canadian government and the European Union agreement. Direct routes are generally less costly as compared to connecting flights or routes.
Air Canada’s partnership with Lufthansa, Continental and United airlines allows it use its partners established routes, which makes the costs of its operations even cheaper, and therefore making it possible to provide lower priced fares in particular routes.
Air Canada will adopt this strategy in its international flights to Europe.
Air Canada will implement this strategy after introducing more direct roots to European Union cities/countries.
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Implementing this strategy will require that the company studies the costs of its operations in the newly created direct flights against those of its major competitors in the international market so as to find routes which lower priced fares can be best implemented to achieve competitive advantage.
Finally, Air Canada will adopt the best marketing strategies and advertisement channels to advertise its lower priced fares to reach the target demographics.
Egypt Unfinished Business Essay custom essay help
Following a successive revolution in Tunisia where protesters forced the then president Ben Ali out of position, it seemed as what people called an Arab revolution. However, in perhaps the most unexpected development in the modern Egypt history, the Egyptians also decided to follow the road used by Tunisia to end the 29 years dictatorship of President Hosni Mubarak.
On 25th January 2011, young protestors came to the streets in the wake to push Mubarak to announce his intention not to participate in the coming election and these protestors used the social media to organize a great number of people that culminated to the ever-larger nationwide protests (Sharp 2).
On 28 January, thousands of protestors throughout the country were on the streets in what they called peaceful demonstrations where approximatly100, 000 protestors turned up in Cairo alone (Sharp 2). After a few days, the government learnt the role of the media and internet during the protests and the magnitude of the protestors’ growth; they put limits all media including internet (Sharp 2).
The government arrested Gael Ghonim, a young Google executive who created a Face book group Khaled, the main protestors’ social networking site (Sharp 10). The protests further continued until the resignation of Mubarak on February 11. However, the status in Egypt even after the resignation of Mubarak is not at rest.
In the past few weeks there has been instability in Egypt as the citizens are not contempt with the army’s rule and the preparations for 28th November elections. In this paper, the focus is on the view and the role of the tactical media and the media activists in these protests.
What do you think about tactical media and media activism in relation to Egypt protests? Rita Raley (1) describes tactical media as “interventional media art practices that engage and critique the dominant political and economic order.” The practitioners of this media engage in well crafted politics of disruption, intervention, and education.
The tactical media practitioners use media away from the mainstream media. They spread information that is not in the mainstream news commonly referred as media activism (Rita 5). In addition, media activism involves the use of media and communication technology for social movement as well as the attempt to change media and communication policies (Rita 6).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tactical media and media activism featured highly during the Egypt protests. During the protest, it is evident through the attempts of the government to stem the media coverage of the protest. The recent protest is characterised by use of media activisms, which comes out through the issues that caused the protests.
As mentioned earlier the practitioners use political disruption. In this case, the protests are on the proposed principles of constitution, and the worry that the military would be shaped as a state within a state. In the January’s protests, the government blocked the internet access, traffic as well as SMS but this did very little. The protestors used mobile phones, social networks such as Face book, twitter and You tube to pas information, videos, images, and stories.
They also used other web, third party apps, proxy websites, software, and VPN where this tactical media passed information that had little truth in Egypt and to rest of the world. Dotson A, 2011 in strategic social media J412 at the University of Oregon asserts that even long before the newscast reported of the protest in Egypt, people in New York new about it through social media and therefore social media played a great role during this protests.
What Are The Roles Played By Tactical Media And Media Activism In Egypt During Protests? The tactical media and media activism played a great role during the Egypt’s protests. First, the initial start of the protests started through the social media. People sent incitement information through the social media against the Mubarak’s rule and his failure to declare his stand not to participate in the next elections.
Further, after the eruption of the protests the number grew larger due to communications through the social media. The protestors used mobile phones, Face book; You tube and twitter to pass information and this aggravated the situation in Cairo as well as in Egypt. This media was used to pass information from the ground that was more exaggerated in order to catch the attention of the World and therefore played a role in seeking sympathizers from other parts of the world.
The media passed pictures and video of the inhuman acts by the riot police to the protestors, which called for the nations like USA to intervene.
The intervention of other nations to the situation in Egypt even made things worse as this media encouraged the protestors of the worldwide support. In addition, the use of social media gave the protestors the confidence to continue as it made them aware that they were not alone in this fight. They therefore, believed even if they suffer, they would not suffer alone. Thus, the media acted as a tool of encouragement.
We will write a custom Essay on Egypt Unfinished Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Media and communication technology is of great importance to the world because it keeps the world in touch of the happenings as well as enlightening the people. Further, it used to unite the people for a common goal such as the fight against drug abuse, environmental conservation and HIV/AIDs control. However, it is dangerous if used for the long purpose as it causes a stable country to be ruined as for the case of Egypt.
Works Cited Rita , Raley. Tactical Media. New York. University of Minnesota. 2009. Print.
Sharp, Jeremy. Egpyt: The January 25 Revolution and Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy, Washington DC, USA. Congressional Research Service. 2011. Print
Taxation in the United States Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Payments of taxes in the US are made up of four levels, which can make the whole system a complex matter. The tax code of the US is possibly the most composite compared with other countries, and each day the Congress includes additional pages for tax regulation. These four levels normally include federal government, state government, regional government and local government (Economicwatch.com).
The forms of tax levied at every government level vary partly as a result of constitutional restrictions; income tax, for instance, is levied at state and federal government levels.
Property taxes are normally levied only at local government level, though there might be numerous local jurisdictions which levy similar properties. Various state governments as well as federal government impose excise taxes while the local and state governments impose sales taxes, it is only the federal government that imposes the tariffs or custom duties (Economicwatch.com).
Other various taxes like the licence fees are also imposed (Economicwatch.com). Taxes are normally levied on the natural persons (individuals), estates, business entities, trusts or any other types of organization. US taxes are based on income, property, business activity, importation of products, transactions, or other things and are normally levied on the relevant taxpayer for whom these factors are relevant.
For instance, property owners are levied property taxes, individuals and business activities are levied income taxes; with some exceptions, one government level cannot impose taxes on the other government level. The subsequent section of this paper will focus on the US’s Federal taxation.
Historical overview of taxation in US Ever since 1862 disbursing income tax to the federal government was made compulsory in the US. This was important in order to fund Civil War during that time, all the income level above $600 was taxed at a 3% income tax rate and a 5% tax rate was taxed in case the income was more than $10,000 (Economicwatch.com).
But these rates were amended in 1864, and in the fiscal year 1895 the Supreme Court changed property taxes and affirmed that any income from the property would be taxed. Currently, a range of Federal government activities are financed by income earned from personal and corporate income taxes. In the past, these activities were funded by tariffs, but presently tariffs play an irrelevant role in offering financial support for the Federal government activities (Economicwatch.com).
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There is a tax code in the US’s taxation that is commonly called Internal Revenue Code of 1986; the main objective of this code is to collect revenues. In addition, the code is used to fulfil the social, economic and political objectives of the Federal government (Economicwatch.com).
The taxation system in the US is progressive, this means that as income increases the tax also increases meaning the taxpayer with superior income pays huge amount of taxes as well as superior tax rates. For instance, an individual earning $120,000 per year may pay 25% of his/her income as tax ($30,000 as total tax per year), while another individual earning $50,000 per annum may only pay at rate of 10% ($5,000 as tax per year) (Roach 11).
The system of tax may also be proportional or regressive; a regressive system of tax is one when the tax paid decreases and an individual income increases at the same time; a proportional system of tax means that all taxpayers pay equal tax rate in spite of their income level (Roach 11).
There are a number of reasons why the government uses progressive system of tax. First, this system represents an idea that those having high incomes must pay more taxes as a result of their superior capability to pay taxes without any crucial sacrifices. Second, the system addresses some economic inequalities existing in the society. The inequality is lessened through the use of high tax rate for those individuals with high income levels and a lower rate for those with low income levels (Roach 12).
Finally, the system of progressive tax may yield a certain public income level with the smallest amount of economic impact. For instance, if there is a tax cut of $100, the individuals with low income may spend the whole amount in purchasing services and goods while the high income earners may spend a proportion of the $100 on services and goods and invest or save the rest.
The saved or invested amount does not include additional demand level for services or goods in the economy. Thus, collecting more taxes from high earners maintains a superior and effective demand as well as more activity in the economy (Roach 12).
Residency status In order to file tax return in the US an individual must determine whether he/she is a non-resident or resident for tax purposes. Thus, if an individual is a non-resident and resident in one year, he/she is an alien with dual status, which means special rules are applied.
We will write a custom Report on Taxation in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The description of a resident for the purpose of taxes is completely different from the immigration status; this is because one may qualify to be a resident for the purpose of taxes, but still remain to be an alien for immigration purposes (Carter 1). A non-resident files a particular tax form and pays the tax only on the income earned in the US and he/she is subjected to particular rates where one may qualify for the treaty exemptions.
On the other hand, US residents for the purpose of taxes are subjected to similar rules and thus file similar forms as US citizens. This means that the worldwide income is reported instead of just incomes from the US sources (Carter 1).
The US has treaties on the income tax with various foreign nations. In these treaties, foreign nations’ citizens resident in the US are levied at a lower rate or may be exempted from the income taxes of the US on specific items of the income they earn from sources. These decreased rates as well as exemptions differ amongst the nations and particular items of the income.
In case a specific type of income is not covered by the treaty, or there exists no treaty between one nation and the US, the individual should pay tax on his/her income in similar manner and similar rate as shown in Form 1040NR’s instructions. Treaties on taxes decrease the tax paid by the foreign nations’ citizens resident in US; with specific exceptions, these treaties do not decrease taxes levied on the residents or US citizens (Unclefed.com).
Advantages and disadvantages The benefits of levying tax on income are several;
Individuals are levied depending on their total earnings, therefore individuals who earn less in theory pay a smaller amount of tax on their earnings.
Individuals do not consume at equal rate, thus tax on incomes is an equitable manner of evaluating tax compared with the consumption tax.
Individuals with lower levels of earnings would be mainly affected by direct tax on the consumption, because even essential things such as motor vehicles would considerably be more expensive.
Earnings are a simple way to impose taxes as well as decide deductions.
Whilst individuals may contend with a small number of pay stumps they ought to save, in the consumption tax, individuals may save the receipts for each acquisition they made throughout the year so as to qualify for tax breaks (Wisegeek.com).
On the other hand, taxation disadvantages include; first, the tax collection on the income is mainly thought to be harder than consumption tax that would be taxed at particular sale’s point. Second, taxation on income puts the lower class and middle class individuals on financial hardship, in spite of the total amount of income.
Third, some individuals deem that the tax on the income is an infringement of the individual freedom of citizens. Particularly Libertarians contend that income tax infringes the right of the individual to make a decision on how to utilize the money that one receives. Finally, individuals reimbursed “under the table” might be capable of evading payment of the income taxes (Wisegeek.com).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Taxation in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Income tax is the main federal tax followed by the taxes on social insurance. The equality of federal tax is a significant issue in the system of the US taxation. The income tax is one of the major progressive constituents of the US system of tax and other types of taxes such as social insurance and sales taxes are normally regressive.
Works Cited Economicwatch.com. US Taxation, Taxation in United States, 2010. Web.
Roach, Benard. “Progressive and Regressive Taxation in the United States: Who’s really paying (and not paying) their fair share?” 2003. Global Development Environment Institute, Working Paper No. 03-10.
Unclefed.com. US Tax Treaties, 2006. Web.
Wisegeek.com. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a tax on earnings? 2011. Web.
Empire Home Delivery Services in the US Market Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
This paper is a business plan to evaluate the dynamics associated with setting up Empire Home Delivery services in the US market. The success of this business plan is based on certain key factors. On the technical front, this paper notes that, Empire should use new technology to minimize the severity of projected operational risks.
Secondly, this paper observes that, though the medical supply market is excessively regulated, there are immense opportunities to exploit in the distribution of legal and easily accessible medications. Sensitive prescriptions will therefore not be included in the product and service strategy. This paper also identifies that, the US home delivery market is not a very competitive market and Empire Home delivery services stands a good chance of succeeding in it because there are more incentives for investments in this regard.
However, considering the minimal competition that exists in the market, there is a strong need for Empire Home delivery services to differentiate its products and services. By personalizing its product packaging strategy using a sensitive “customer care” framework, Empire Home delivery services will be able to differentiate its products in the market.
This business plan also acknowledges that, an online marketing strategy will be most appropriate for Empire because it poses several advantages to the company. First, the company will be able to reach more people at a minimal cost. Secondly, Empire will be able to gain access to markets that it would otherwise not have accessed using conventional marketing techniques.
Furthermore, through the financial projections table, this business plan identifies that; Empire Home delivery services will be able to break-even during its second year of operation. Moreover, from the paper’s financial projections, this business plan identifies that; Empire will be able to achieve high levels of market success if it maintains an active in-store and online presence where it can be able to communicate with its customers and amicably deliver medication to them.
Introduction This paper is a business plan for setting up Empire Home Delivery services in the US market. Empire Home Delivery Service will be a private company that deals in the delivery of medication throughout the United States (US). Its main business specialty will be the distribution of drugs.
Empire home delivery service will be a partnership between two individuals. The two individuals constitute the management team of the company because they have worked in the pharmaceutical industry for five years and have invaluable experience regarding the business. Considering the partners are trained pharmaceuticals in the sale and distribution of drugs, Empire home delivery services is expected to be registered as a drug distribution company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management team is expected to facilitate this registration process because the US government recognizes their medical qualifications (Fulco 19). Though the product and market analysis of the business plan will be further analyzed in subsequent sections of this study, Empire Home delivery services will be engaged in the sale and distribution of a wide array of products, which can be obtained over the counter.
Complex drugs, which require the doctor’s prescription (and complex legal approvals), will therefore be excluded from the company’s product strategy. For instance, illegal drugs or antidepressants require complex legal requirements before they are sold to the public Such a complexity has also affected the virtual sale of alcohol because there is fear that unauthorized customers may use the online sales platform to bypass legal requirements for purchasing such items
With increased IT adoption in medicine, the market for home delivery of medicine expects to pick in the coming years (Fulco 1). The ordering and sale of new drugs through an online platform is therefore set to take over the sale and distribution of over the counter drugs in the coming years.
Since the virtual sale of drugs is growing, there are several competitors in the market. To evaluate the pros and cons of Empire home delivery services viz-a-viz its competitors, a separate competitor analysis segment will be included in this paper. The virtual sale of medication targets weak patients who cannot buy drugs from physical drug stores.
Empire home delivery services will be financed from a capital pool to be sourced from two partners. Though the detailed financial breakdown for the entire capital outlay will be explained in the financial segment of this study, Empire Home delivery services expects to start operations with an initial capital of two million dollars.
Each partner is expected to contribute half of the capital. The expected sales and income will be explained in subsequent sections of this business plan. Nonetheless, the above dynamics of the business plan will be outlined in the company’s vision and mission statement. Empire’s company vision is to be a global leader in the virtual sale of pharmaceutical products.
The company’s mission is to enrich customer purchase experience by providing quality pharmaceutical products at an affordable price. The company’s mission also outlines the company’s core values, which is to provide great customer service and quality products. The strategies and key success factors for Empire Home delivery services will be explained in the market analysis, product analysis, industry analysis and management team analysis segments of this business plan.
We will write a custom Assessment on Empire Home Delivery Services in the US Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industry Analysis The market for medications has always existed since the birth of human science. The pharmaceutical industry is perceived to be a lucrative industry of the 21st century because of the surge in terminal illnesses and increased consumer purchasing power (Fulco 19). For instance, the pharmaceutical industry is known to have low overheads of operation and a high return on investments. The high return on investments has been a common feature of the pharmaceutical industry, for a long time.
For instance, among the fortune 500 companies, the pharmaceutical industry was estimated to rake more returns than the combined median of all existing companies within its category (Fulco 5).
For example, during the late 80s period, statistics showed that, new drugs introduced during the period (80s) raked in close to $36 million in revenue after tax deductions. This profit margin was estimated to be two to three percent more than what other industries projected, even after considering the risks of researching and developing the new drugs (Fulco 17).
For a long time, many businesses have not ventured into the virtual delivery of medications because of the sensitive nature of the drug market and the numerous legislations that surround it (Smith 61). Conversely, drug users have experienced tedious hassles of having to frequent hospitals and drug stores to buy drugs.
This situation has created an environment where there is a lot of time wastage and manpower loss because people could use their time to do other productive things (instead of making frantic trips to hospitals and drug stores to buy basic medications).
Though this situation prevails, the drug market is unique to conventional markets because its end-users are normally not in a perfect physical condition to visit drug stores or hospitals to purchase drugs. Often, most consumers at the tail-end of the drug supply chain are patients who may be ailing from a certain condition, or who are not in the right physical state to drive or walk to drug stores to get their medication.
However, considering the dynamics of the current market, most of such patients have been forced to travel long distances to buy drugs (though their physical conditions may not allow them to do so). Sometimes, some patients are forced to miss their dosages because they were not in a good position to purchase drugs (Madura 26).
In addition, considering the fragile nature of sick patients; emergencies (which require a prompt administration of drugs) may turn out to be fatal experiences if patients fail to obtain drugs when they need them most. A scenario where a patient stays alone and does not have a helper may further worsen this situation. Certain drug stores also have strict operating hours that are not flexible to patients’ needs. These dynamics form the basis for the venture of Empire home delivery services into the medications supply market.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Empire Home Delivery Services in the US Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The medications supply market in the US has often experienced several operational problems (Madura 26). These problems are multifaceted, but the end-user (who is often the patient) is the one who suffers most. However, the drug supply market is not immune to market changes that happen in today’s business world. The general business environment has mainly changed because of shifts in consumer tastes, preferences and technological advancements (Madura 20).
From this understanding, the home delivery business has grown in many business segments such as food delivery, grocery delivery (and the likes). Major retail companies in the world, such as Wal-Mart and Tesco, have adopted the virtual delivery business model in the supply of goods and services.
Tesco has especially specialized in the delivery of groceries through an online platform where orders are placed virtually. However, the drug market is not similar to the food market, though they share the same business model (home delivery of goods).
The above businesses are not direct competitors of Empire home delivery services.
As a result, the market for home delivery medication is not crowded. The most established companies that engage in the trade (delivery of medications) include RX America, and Direct RX (Critser 27).
Other companies that engage in the home delivery of goods do not specialize in the exclusive delivery of medications. They include the delivery of other goods such as groceries, meals and the likes. This last group of competitors is not going to be a threat to Empire Home Delivery services either because they do not specialize in the delivery of medications.
Marketing Strategy Empire’s marketing strategy will be guided by the company’s mission to enrich the customer’s purchase experience by providing quality pharmaceutical products at an affordable price. The marketing strategy will be mainly based on online techniques, where virtual marketing tools such as, e-mail listings; promotional advertisements (and the likes) will be used to improve customer loyalty and seek the participation of potential customers (Gay 7).
Since Empire home delivery service is a new company, it is crucial to acknowledge that, it will not have the capacity to develop an internal expertise pool that is able to develop a sophisticated technological infrastructure to handle payments, orders, feedbacks, marketing services and similar services.
Consequently, this paper proposes that, such services be outsourced to an internal market place provider who can design such a technological platform. Though this process will be outsourced, it is crucial to understand that, the technology already exists, and since it has been tested in other home delivery companies. Therefore, the risks associated with its implementation will be significantly reduced (Gay 2).
Regardless of the sophistication of its marketing tools, Empire home delivery services still needs to differentiate itself in the market. To do so, Empire will personalize its products and services through the development of new product packaging (Meyerson 23). Currently, many medical supply companies operating the home delivery business do not personalize their packaging. Empire aims to capitalize on this opportunity.
Empire will also adopt an e mailing list to support its online marketing strategy because it will use this platform to send product promotions, sales advertisements and similar marketing tools that complement the company’s marketing strategy. This sale strategy will not be designed to sell medications but rather, to market the company to customers (Meyerson 23).
Price will also be an integral factor to be considered in the formulation and implementation of Empire’s marketing strategies. Since most of the company’s marketing strategies are electronic, minimal costs are likely to be incurred. As a result, the company is expected to sell its products at an affordable price. The only (relatively) expensive marketing strategy will be the direct mailing strategy.
Concerning the ‘place’ concept of the marketing plan, Empire home delivery services aims to have a strong regional presence in the US because it will have distribution outlets in every region.
Its regional presence will be facilitated by its online market presence. Nonetheless, in spite of these marketing costs, Empire expects to realize high returns from the same marketing campaigns. However, if an effective marketing strategy is to be realized, the working staff needs to be properly trained. The training costs will be considered as part of the company’s start-up costs.
Product Strategy The supply of medication through the home delivery model is expected to be done through an online platform. Medications that require a doctor’s prescription will not be sold through this business model.
The online sales strategy will be able to transcend the geographical boundaries that conventional drug stores are limited to. This business model will capitalize on the opportunities that technology provides the healthcare sector because Empire Home delivery services will market its products to new market bases, which do not fall within the limitations of conventional drug supply systems (Gay 7).
Through this online business model, Empire will be able to realize a positive growth projection because drug users will be able to gain access to drugs from the convenience of their homes. There will not be any significant changes to Empire’s product offing because its array of products is strongly limited by existing legislations. Therefore, any product modifications will have to be excluded from the context of this business.
Adopting a simpler and convenient platform for ordering and delivery of services is going to be relied on as the main strategy for outperforming the competition. This strategy will be backed by an online marketing strategy that is expected to increase the customer pool. Empire will ensure its products are distributed to different customer locations from the nearest store location, thereby guaranteeing timely shipping by avoiding the bureaucracies and inconveniencies of operating one store.
The operation of several drug stores will be a costly affair (in terms of maintenance and initial setup costs) but considering the huge potential of the business, the establishment of several outlets is still going to be a viable strategy. Success is expected to be realized by stocking adequate inventories and ensuring customer satisfaction is attained because Empire anticipates that repeated purchases and word-of-mouth marketing will sustain the company’s sales.
The pricing formula for Empire’s products will be 30% above the product mark-up costs. Depending on the market environment and the business cycle, this percentage is expected to be revised. The main suppliers will be drug-manufacturing companies. During the initial start-up phase, Empire home delivery services intends to source its drugs from GlaxoSmithKline because it has a strong distribution network in the US.
Management Team Considering Empire Home delivery service has an ambitious plan of being a leader in the virtual sale and distribution of medication, it needs to have adequate staff to oversee its operations. A staff of 150 people will be appropriate in the early stages of the company’s lifecycle. As mentioned in earlier sections of this business plan, the company’s two partners will be sitting at the top managerial level. The main position below the two partners will be the online sales manager’s position.
The main role of an online sales manager will be to give directions regarding existing and upcoming sales opportunities. The second (main) position to be filled will be the online marketing manager’s position. This office is expected to undertake periodic comprehensive market researches that include the identification of target markets and the identification of workable strategies to satisfy the needs of such target markets.
Next to these two positions will be the procurement manager’s position and the distribution manager’s position. These departments will have a share of the company’s 150 employees, depending on the roles and responsibilities of the departments. The above team structure will be in existence during the early stages of the company’s operations, but it is will be reviewed in subsequent stages of the company’s life cycle. Appendix one shows the management Team Structure
Financial Projections The financial projection for Empire home delivery services is based on conservative financial forecasts for the next 12 months (and the preceding months that follow this period). The cost projection forecast constitutes a start-up capital of two million dollars. In the first month of operation, the company expects to make a loss of $49,000.
The sales forecast for the first month of operation is $350,000 but the expected costs of operation spread over several overheads, including staff training costs; cost of purchasing transport, machinery and equipment; cost of designing, building and establishing the online store; cost of website maintenance, cost of projected materials; shipping costs, insurance costs and staffing costs. Staffing costs are expected to be recurrent.
The projected material cost, shipping costs, insurance costs, website maintenance costs, and the cost of purchasing transport, machinery and equipment are also expected to be recurrent. The financial breakdown of these costs is explained in appendix two (under “Monthly income Statement”). The company is also expected to break-even during its first year of operation because the expected cash flow is expected to surpass two million dollars by the end of the first year.
The projected sales for the first three years is dependent on a sales increase forecast of $100,000 every month. In the first year of operation, the company expects to make about five million dollars in sales. With an increment of $100,000 for every month of operation, Empire home delivery services intends to increase its sales revenue by $1.2 million every year. Consequently, the company will realize sales revenue of 6.2million in the second year of operation and 7.4 million in the third year.
This financial breakdown is explained in appendix two (monthly income statement). However, the monthly income statement is subject to several assumptions including a constant store sales projection, and a completion of operating expenses within one year (there should be no balances carried forwards or instances of backdating). The pro forma balance sheet is also explained in appendix three and the monthly cash flow statement is explained in appendix four.
Works Cited Critser, Gerald. Generation Rx: How Prescription Drugs Are Altering American Lives, Minds, and Bodies. Michigan: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007. Print
Fulco, Charles. Development of Medications for the Treatment of Opiate And Cocaine Addictions: Issues for the Government and Private Sector. New York: National Academies Press, 1995. Print.
Gay, Richard. Online Marketing: A Customer-Led Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Madura, James. Introduction to Business. London: Cengage Learning, 2006. Print.
Meyerson, Mary. Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2005. Print.
Smith, Michael. Pharmaceutical Marketing: Strategy and Cases. London: Routledge, 1991. Print.
Showdown between the U.S and the U.S.S.R Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The Second World War was by far considered to be the most widespread war in the history of mankind. It was fought from 1939 to 1945 and involved most of the world’s nations (Sherman and Salisbury 758). The war resulted into the formation of two opposing military alliances. The aim of this paper is to identify the most important consequences of the Second World War and how the war specifically set up the showdown between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
Important consequences of World War II There are several notable consequences of the Second World War that will be around for a long time. The first consequence of the Second World War was the disintegration of the alliance between the Soviet Union and the western allies (Sherman and Salisbury 760). This set the stage for the cold war and the division of much of the world into spheres of influence (Sherman and Salisbury 767). The cold war later resulted into a nuclear arms race and many other forms of arms race including a space race.
The second major consequence of the Second World War was the creation of a conflict in the Middle East. After the Holocaust the state of Israel was created in the Middle East. As a result of the direct consequences of the war, the British imperialism in the Middle East collapsed creating divided Arab States. These events that followed the Second World War were the major cause of the unending unrest in the Middle East region.
As I direct consequence of the war, the European powers were significantly weakened. France and the UK ended up loosing most of their overseas empires and colonies.
The world war also resulted into the US and the U.S.S.R attaining the superpower status and china embracing communism.
How the World War specifically set up the showdown between the U.S and the U.S.S.R. Long before the end of the world war, the signs were clear that the alliance between the U.S.S.R and the western powers was bound to collapse. It had bee suggested that the dropping of the Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was as much a beginning as the end: While the bombs were dropped to finish off Japan, they also sent warning signals to the U.S.S.R. in regard to the power possessed by the United States.
A confrontation was likely to occur between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R due to the deep seated problems that included the ones that follow (Sherman and Salisbury 768).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It can be remembered that the alliance between the U.S.S.R and the western powers to defeat Germany was not harmonious. The U.S.S.R suffered by far the greatest number of casualties and damage during the Second World War.
As early as 1941, Stalin had requested the western Allies to set up a second command in the West so as to relieve much of the pressure that the Soviet Union was going through. To him the response by the West was very slow causing his country to take in more and more pressure that it almost went to its knees (Sherman and Salisbury 766).
The western powers were advancing democratic principles while the Soviet Union was advocating for communism. The Western powers did not want communism to expand beyond the Soviet Union and especially Stalin’s communism that was characterized by a theoretical commitment to world domination.
The Soviet Union on the other hand did not like the idea of capitalism. It feared the spread of capitalism especially in regard to Europe’s post war weakness and the power of the U.S.A, with its strong economy and the atomic bomb (Sherman and Salisbury 767).
A discussion regarding the shape of post war Europe was undertaken by allies at Yalta in 1944 (Sherman and Salisbury 766). Churchill and Stalin agreed on different areas in regard to influence in the post war Europe. Roosevelt, the American president of that time, opposed any formal arrangement.
Churchill agreed to idea that the Soviet Union should maintain influence in Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. Prior to the agreement the USA, USSR and Britain had signed the Declaration for the Liberation of Europe (Sherman and Salisbury 767). The declaration promised support for democratically elected governments. The western powers were upset rapid advance of USSR forces in 1945 and the imposition of communist governments in Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Poland and Czechoslovakia.
In the following year, Churchill made the famous iron curtain speech that condemned the Soviet Union expansion into central Europe. A response from Stalin stated how German forces had advanced into the Soviet Union through these countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Poland and Czechoslovakia) because their governments were hostile to the Soviet Union.
We will write a custom Essay on Showdown between the U.S and the U.S.S.R specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After these instances, the mistrust between the Soviet Union and the western powers continued. With Stalin insisting that whoever occupies any territory is free to impose the social system he favors (Sherman and Salisbury 769).
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshal aid of 1947 helped the cold war to escalate to new levels.
Work Cited Sherman, Dennis and Joyce Salisbury. The West In the World. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2008. Print.
SAP/R3 ERP Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Merits of Data warehousing
SAP R/3 Overview
Companies using SAP R/3 solutions
Introduction This report gives a brief definition of data warehousing and further explains the benefits that organization gain by using this technology towards strengthening and shaping their businesses’ competitive edge.
Additionally, the report gives a detailed overview of SAP/R3 ERP solution and points out some of the companies which are using this solution.
Data warehousing Data warehousing is a term which is refer to a massive database acting as a centralized depository of data emanating or originating from different departments in an organization (Ponniah, 2001, p.19).
Merits of Data warehousing Many organizations have used colossal sums of money in implementing data warehouse solutions. These huge sums of money are not spent in vein; there are many benefits that accrue from adopting data warehousing solutions.
The first fundamental benefit that this solution offers to an organization is that it facilitates business executives to formulate incisive decisions (Ponniah, 2001, p.4).
Data warehousing comes with the creation of a central depository data base. Easy access to centralized organizational information is important because it allows decision makers to view an organization as a whole rather than from the angle of departments.
The second benefit of data warehousing is that data in the warehouse can be modeled in the form that speeds up the generation of reports (Ponniah, 2001, p. 91). Data warehousing creates an environment where companies can exercise the use of data models.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data modeling is important as the models can be used towards easy analysis of situations even when the task to be done is demanding and difficult for processing.
Thirdly, data warehousing helps simplify data management operations in an organization. Data warehousing offers an opportunity for the organization to store and retrieve data in a relatively simple manner instead of employing complex and challenging methods.
Data can be accessed simply by typing simple commands on a panel then the system communicates back with the desired information (Ponniah 2001, p.49). Users can therefore comfortably use queries to look for kind of information they want at any time.
SAP R/3 Overview SAP is an example of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). SAP R/3 is a business solution which has transformed the manner in which modern organization carry out their businesses.
SAP R/3 is a solution which facilitates the integration of an organization’s departmental functions to a single computer unit which can in turn serve all available computers in different departments within an organization (Leon 2007, p. 90).
SAP solutions can help integrate operations in the Human resources, Finance, Manufacturing, warehousing and all the other departments in an organization (Leon 2007, p. 91). The SAP solution involves the use of a packaged program or software which has been tailored for an organization and its modules facilitate interfacing with the organizations own program with less complexity.
Depending on an organization’s needs, SAP program modules can be altered by the use of vendors programming language or correct proprietary tools.
We will write a custom Essay on SAP/R3 ERP specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Because of its integration ability with other programs, The SAP provides a centralized database to cover all the organizations departments facilitating easier sharing of information and communication within the departments in an organization.
The benefits of using an ERP solution in a corporate entity are numerous. An ERP solution like SAP helps in facilitating faster processing of information thereby reducing paperwork operations; SAP functions in a simple way (DWAA, 2006). It has some internal embedded controls in its operations.
With internal checks and controls, SAP solution makes the preparation of accounts and other financial documents easier and fast. It is very simple to generate account statements at the end of every accounting period. A SAP solution has features that enable it to support various languages and currencies (Williams 2008, p. 3).
Further, SAP systems or solutions are tailored in a way that it supports international accounting and reporting standards e.g. flexibility to accommodate currency conversions, broad accounting standards and languages (Williams, 2008, p. 23).
Financial SAP has various features and functions that enable organization achieve its financial management goals (Sap: Australia and New Zealand, 2010).
Conclusively, SAP helps organizations to have an upper hand over their competitors by enabling fast adaptation to changes in the market and business environment. In the human resource department, SAP ensures that there is a continuous flow of Information related to an organization’s personnel.
When such information is received by the HR department, it facilitates employee evaluations and manpower planning (Portougal, 2006, p. 132). Human resource related evaluations help organizations in establishing skill and knowledge needs as well as attitude related gaps or issues that have to be addressed.
The collection of such information is important for employees as it is instrumentally applied to encourage improvement of working conditions within the organization (Portougal, 2006, p. 167). However the disadvantage of the SAP R/3 solution is that it requires large volumes and high investments in terms of money and time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SAP/R3 ERP by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Companies using SAP R/3 solutions TransAlta is a wholesale marketing and power generating company. It has 49 facilities based in Australia, Canada, USA and Mexico (Transalta, 2010). Prior to introduction of SAP solution, the TransAlta Company was using Reliability Centered Maintenance this solution was localized at different locations by the use of point solution.
TransAlta wanted an Enterprise-wide system which would offer strategy development and provide understanding of vital assets, monitor overall risk in the organization and give optimized operations concerning maintenance costs.
The implementation of the SAP solution involved integrating the existing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to facilitate wide accessibility (Transalta, 2010). The RCM enabled creation of a central database for all RCM that can be standardized across a uniformed platform hence providing optimized maintenance.
The implementation of the solution has enhanced success in fleet management because information is dispersed a centralized depository allowing easier communication and accessibility. The RCM solution has motivated staff to work everyday in SAP and thus the company can push the RCM methodology and cultivate it deeper within the organization.
Cole Meyers is a private sector company which is located In Australia. It has over 160,000 employees in its distributed branches (Turner, 2002). Cole Myer has invested heavily in IT services and has been known to purchase large IT services and Software solutions in order to remain relevant in current competitive business world.
Coles Myers worked closely with PricewaterhouseCoopers to deploy SAP solution in its Business operations. Cole Myer business was already automated with industry based bar-coding technology for inventory management and stock control. Cole Meyer needed a solution which would help them handle and manage their financial flow.
The Company felt confident in fully integrating SAP solution into their financial management. The implementation of SAP took two years and it was broken down into manageable phases to facilitate concise performance (Turner, 2002).
The Supply Chain Visibility was followed and this enabled members to monitor what other members did in a real time. The Supply Chain Visibility also provided a mechanism in real time notifying a problem elsewhere within supply chain that would have effect on them.
Although the management and the board were apprehensive about the solution, they later came to analyze its effectiveness noticing how it lowered down costs and time thus enabling timely production of reports in real time.
The Australian post is a postal company located in Australia. Through their products, people and services they provide, the Australian post has remarkably facilitated life and business growth across Australia and the world.
The Implementation of the SAP solution in the company involved a number of things. It involved ERP system upgrades to meet the standard required for the new technology, there was hardware upgrade to have a new operational environment; IBM P- series hardware’s were purchased (The Australian, 2010).
SAP Financial management application was implemented and supported 35,000 employees and additional 860 personnel in the IT department. The company felt confident in relying on the software giant because of the reputation and efficiency.
Conclusion Integration of business processes is the central aim or goal that guides towards adoption of data warehousing. Organizations benefit a lot from adopting data warehousing. By keeping or storing information in a central data base, information access and retrieval about any aspect of the organization is made easy.
The access to one central pool of information leads towards informed decision making. Therefore, Data warehousing facilitates towards better decision making in organizations.
The SAP solution, which is an ERP solution, has been applied in many organizations around the world and the results have been rewarding. This solution simplifies an organization’s data warehousing efforts.
References DWAA, 2006, Improving Data Quality for Enhanced Business Performance. Web.
Leon, A., 2007, Enterprise Resource Planning, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ponniah, P., 2001, Data Warehousing Fundamentals: a Comprehensive Guide for IT Professionals, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Portougal, V., Sundaram, D., 2006, Business Processes: Operational Solutions for SAP Implementation, Idea Group Inc (IGI), Pennsylvania.
Sap: Australia and New Zealand, 2010. Web.
The Australian, 2010, Australian IT. Web.
Transalta, 2010, TransAlta Case Study. Web.
Turner, A., 2002, Coles Myer- the Sharing, Caring Approach. Web.
Williams, G., C., 2008, Implementing SAP ERP Sales
Crazy Egg: The Value of CLV college essay help online
Based on the attached article, please answer the following questions:
1. How often would you recommend calculating CLV scores? Monthly, yearly, etc.? Please explain your decision; it could vary by type of industry such as package goods or hospitality.
2. In addition to the variables listed in the article in the “Formula” section, suggest three additional variables for each of the following industries you might consider for CLV calculations; please explain your choices.
c. Restaurant chain
3. The article lists “9 Ways to Increase Your Customer Lifetime Value”. Which of the recommendations would CLV have the biggest impact on? Please explain your selection.
Project time horizon and budget Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
As stated earlier, the project will require approximately $50 million for completion. The following is a breakdown of the requirements; Legal requirements will cost 2.5 million. The project will involve a number of insurers, hospitals, physicians, government representatives and IT professionals; therefore, the project budget should meet all their legal interests. Additionally, instatement of the project will require legal checks and confirmations. Payments to staff will cost $12.5 million.
The remaining $35 million will finance EHR implementation. Software licences will account for $1.05 million of the budget. The system build will depend on the vendors, but it may costs approximately $13.3 million. The implementation process will require interfaces for converting previous systems to new systems.
The interfaces will cost $2.1 million. Data conversion, which involves abstracting and inputting the EHR to include patient visits and other details, will cost $2.45 million. The EHR project will require a series of equipment such as furniture, printers, workstations, network and communications equipment, server hardware, and PC equipment.
All these materials will cost approximately $ 2.1 million. For the system to work physicians will require support through income support (as they will not be earning money when implementing the EHR) as well through technical support such as additional staff; this will account for $ 1.05 million. Once the system goes live, project managers ought to prepare physicians through end user training.
Trainers, facilities and materials for this aspect will cost $ 3.85 million. After the system has gone live, participating hospitals will record dwindling income in the first few months. They will need compensation through a revenue protection provision in the budget that will amount to $ 6.3 million. Lastly, the system should be protected from possible disasters or unexpected delays through a contingency amount of 2.8 Million (Tonnesen et al., 1999).
Shown is a summary of this budget in tabular form
Expenditure Amount in dollars Legal fees 2.5 million Staff and overhead 12.5 million System build 13.3 million Interfaces 2.1 million Data conversion 2.45 million Workstation, PCs, printers, furniture, network infrastructure 2.1 million Physician advisory resources 1.05 million Revenue protection 6.23 million End user training and support in the go-live phase 3.85 million Contingency 2.8 million Software licences 1.05 million Total 50 Million Time horizon
This project will last for a period of 4 years. The needs analysis phase will last for 8 months. Choosing the right project goals and participants should take up ample time (Newell
British Colonialism in Malaysia and its Effects on Modern Malaysia Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The History of the British Rule in Malaysia
How the British Rule has affected Malaysia
Introduction Malaysia is among the countries that were under the colonial rule for long period of time and the effects of this are still felt to this day. Before the Second World War came to an end and the coming up of nationalism, the superpower countries engaged in liberating the African and Asian nations, “imposing their law, transporting immigrants and suppressing local demand for control of the economy” (“What colonialism has done to us, Malaysia” para1).
Therefore, for a large number of years’ doings, the adverse effects of the colonial rule are still being felt. In the Malaysian situation, what is now a clear effect of the British colonial rule is the existence of a racial population. In this paper, a brief history of the colonial rule Malaysia is going to be given and the effects of this rule on the modern Malaysia are also going to be discussed.
The History of the British Rule in Malaysia Towards the end of the 18th century, the British India Company traded with India and also partly controlled it. During that period, they started searching for a base in Malaya. The British occupied Penang in the year 1786 and at the same time founded Georgetown. The British were under Francis Light.
A short time thereafter, in the year 1800, the British took the Province Wellesley. Later in the year 1819, a British trading post was founded at Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles. The British and the Dutch divided between themselves this region and this was on the basis of the “treaty of London, 1824”. The Dutch gave up Melaka to the British and they were offered control of Sumatra in return together with the entire area that was below the “Malaya Peninsula” (Lambert, para 19).
The Straits Settlements, “Penang, Province Wellesley, Melaka, and Singapore” (Lambert, para 21), expanded quickly and this was partly because of the influx of the Indian as well as Chinese laborers. By the year 1860, the number of people in Singapore had increased to more than eighty thousand.
But even if the “British East India Company” took control of the islands and some parts of the coast, they did not have control over the “interior of the Malaya peninsula” (Lambert, para 21). Moreover, up until the year 1867, the British East India Company” was in charge of controlling the Straits Settlements but did not control the British government. However, in the year 1867, “they were made a crown colony”( Lambert, para 21).
Sarawak came under British control in 1841. Earlier on, in the year 1840, James Brooke assisted the ‘Sultan of Brunel’ in the crushing of a rebellion. In return, he was offered a territory to control and was also given the title of “Raja of Sarawak” (Lambert, para 23). In the year 1853, the territory of James Brooke was made bigger. In the meantime, there was invasion of Kedah by Siam, currently referred to as Thailand, in 1841.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Sultan was deposed. Rebellions against the Siamese rule came up during the period between the years 1830 and 1831 and also in 1838 and 184. There was restoring of the Sultan in 1841 but nothing happened on Kedah and it remained to be a “vassal state of Siam” (Lambert, para 24).
A new move was taken by the British government in the year 1863 in which they put a stop on imposing duty on tin imports. Consequently, the tin exports that came from Malaya to Britain increased tremendously. The Chinese people came in large numbers to find jobs in the plantations and in the tin mines of Malaya.
In the year 1871, however, the death of the Sultan of Perak occurred and a quarrel came up over the issue of which person to succeed him. In addition, the secret societies of China engaged in a fight over who should take control of the tin mines. The chaos interfered with the tin exports to Britain. Therefore, “one man who claimed he was the rightful heir to the Sultan, Raja Abdulla, made an agreement with the British”( Lambert, para 27).
The agreement was referred to as the “Pangkor Agreement” (Lambert, para 27). Raja Abdulla was recognized by the British people as being the Sultan of Perak. As a reward he accepted to have a British advisor at his court “who would advice him on all matters except those concerning Malayan religion and customs” (Lambert, para 28).
The British restricted themselves to trade and did not got involved in the politics of Malaya up to the year 1874. “The treaty of Pangkor marked the beginning of British political control of Malaya” (Lambert, para 29). The British influence over Malaya grew gradually. More states which included “Selangor, Pahang, Ujong, Rembau, Negr Sembilan and Jeleb were forced to accept British protection”(Lambert, para 29). These states were urged to make a federation in the year 1895.
In the meantime, in 1888, “Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo became the British protectorates” (Lambert, para 30). In the course of the initial years of the 20th century, there was extending of the British influence over the Malaya states in the north. These states included Trengganu, Kedah and Kalantan. These states were officially included in the British Malaya. Later in 1914, Johor also was absorbed in the British rule.
At the beginning of the 20th century, a new industry emerged in Malaya-rubber. This industry really boomed. The tin industry also went on booming. At that time, the oil industry emerged in Singapore. In the course of the 1920s, the economy of Malaya was successful but this trend changed in the course of the 1930s following the economic depression leading to the falling of the exports.
We will write a custom Essay on British Colonialism in Malaysia and its Effects on Modern Malaysia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the initial years of the 20th century while there was economic growth in Malaya, the Chinese flocked in Malaya to look for jobs and also to live there. However, there was restricting of immigration after 1930 and this restriction was aimed at trying and helping unemployment.
On the eighth day of December in the year 1941, there was invasion of Malay Peninsula by the Japanese who swiftly overran it. “The last British troops withdrew across the straits in to Singapore Island on 31 January 1942”( Lambert, para 32). There was invasion of Singapore by the Japanese on the eighth day of February in the year 1942. The last “British troops surrendered on 15 February 1942” (Lambert, para 32).
This was actually a “military calamity” for the British. In the meantime, there was also invasion of Borneo by the Japanese troops. These troops were able to capture Kuching on December 25th, 1941 and they also captured Jesselton on January 8th in 1942. In the course of the Japanese occupation, “the Chinese were treated the most harshly and the Indians were treated less harshly” (Lambert, para 33).
In the year 1944, the Japanese encountered defeat and the British government made a decision to bring all the Malayan states together apart from Singapore to form one unified state referred to as the Malayan Union. Following this move, there was intense opposition and the plan was eventually scrapped. In its place, there was formation of the “federation of Malaya” on the 1st day of February 1948.
In the meantime, there was emerging of Malayan nationalism. The first Malayan organization to be formed was the “Kesatuan Melayu Singapuru, or Singapore Malayan Union, which was formed in 1926” (Lambert, para 34). Thereafter, there was formation of more organizations at a faster rate. In the year 1946, the Malayan organizations came together to make up the “Pertuuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu, the United Malays National organization” (Lambert, para 34).
There was formation of the “Malayan Communist Party” in 1930. The attacks on the European estate managers started in 1948. Consequently, there was introducing of the state of emergency by the government. However, communist activity declined after 1949 when the British parliament promised independence”( Lambert, para 35). The insurgence went on for several years but it was not more of a threat. The “communist activity” rose once more in the course of the mid-1970s but went down again.
There was formation of the “Reid Commission” in 1955 with an intention of making a constitution for Malaya. Independence was attained by Malaya on the 31st day of August, 1957. Tunku Abdul Rahan became the first prime minister of Malaya and he was in office from 1957 up to the year 1970. In the year 1963, “Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah joined to form the Federation of Malaysia” (Lambert, para 35) but two year later, in 1965, Singapore turned out to be a separate state.
In the course of the 1960s, tension arose between the Malays and those who were not Malays and this resulted in to violence and election being held in 1969. However, calm was slowly restored and there was reconvening of parliament in the year 1971. The government of Malaysia came up with a new economic policy which turned out to be considerably successful. In the course of the 1970s, 80s and 90s, Malaysia transformed from being an agricultural nation that is poor to an industrial rich nation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on British Colonialism in Malaysia and its Effects on Modern Malaysia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More was dramatic rising of the living standards of the people of Malaysia. In 1991, “the new economic policy was replaced by a new development policy” (Lambert, para 37). The 2009 recession had an effect on the economy of Malaysia but it did not take long before this nation recovered from this. In the current day, Malaysia is a very successful nation and has a population of about 28 million people.
How the British Rule has affected Malaysia According to Jamil, “ethnic composition is the key to understanding the whole picture of Malaysian economic, political and social patterns” (Jamil 1). It is also pointed out that in fact everything economic, social and political in Malaysia is “dominated by the considerations of ethnic arithmetic” (Milne, 19). This concept gives a designation of the economic, social and political arrangements and has assisted in shaping the constitution and has also had an influence on the democratic process as well as the party system (Ratnam, 1).
The current different ethnic identities in the society of Malaysia have as well had an effect on the state formation and policy agendas and particularly, the education system. This condition has “drawn the state in to the role of mediating and managing enter-ethnic issues arising from contestation among major ethnic groups for sharing economic, political power and cultural space” (Jamil 1).
Before the start of the 20th century, Malaysia was homogeneous. This society was a singular one formed by the Malays who are the indigenous people. In the year 1880, the Malays formed about 90 percent of the total population in Peninsular Malaysia (Gullick 197). In the course of the British rule, there was substantial change of the population of Malaysia.
“The British through their policy of encouraging migration, especially from China to India, changed the nature of this relatively ethnical homogenous society to a more pluralistic society” (Jamil 2). Therefore, this changed the society of Malaysia from being a greatly “mono-ethnic” society to a “multi-ethnic” society.
Basing on the 2000 Census, the total number of people in Malaysia was about 23 million and out of this population, the Malaysian citizens form 95 percent. Among these citizens, the indigenous people formed by the Malays and other indigenous groups form more than 66 percent of the total population, the Chinese form about 27 percent and the Indian form over 7 percent (Malaysia 1).
Ratnam points out that “there is no cultural homogeneity in Malaysian society with each ethnic group having their own religion, language, culture and customs” (Ratnam 2). For instance, the language of the Malays is the Malay language which is another strong factor in holding the Malays together. There is no doubt that language is a significant rallying point for the Malays, and “it has been one of the most sensitive issues in Malaysian politics” (Jamil 3).
The second largest group is the Chinese people who are held together by a common heritage and culture. This community makes use of several dialects and they include Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese and Hakka. Although these Chinese groups belong to separate linguistic groups, for the purpose of writing and education, they use Mandarin.
The third largest group is the Indians. This people are “largely South Indian Tamils, constituting 85 percent of the total Indian population in Malaysia” (Santhiram, 77). Indian community in Malaysia speak the Tamil language. These varied ethnic identities have constituted a multi-ethnic or pluralistic nature in Malaysian society” (Jamil 3).
The British colonialists as well produced an “artificial occupational segregation” basing on the ethnic lines. The Malays were put in Agriculture, the Indians worked on plantations and the Chinese were put in commerce. This move reinforced “a sense of enter-ethnic divisions, economic imbalance, and therefore prohibited any kind of solidarity between these major ethnic groups” (Stockwell 60).
According to Boon, the actual reason for the “racist ideology” was “of course a British strategy to divide and rule”. There was tolerating of the Chinese merchants by the British and they were used as middlemen. But “British capital wanted to keep them away from direct political power” (Boon para 19).
For the reason that the Malay Sultans seemed to engage in spending well beyond their incomes, it did not take long before they were in debt to Chinese bankers and following this, they turned out to be dependent.
In order to counteract “Chinese capitalist political aspirations, the British leaned on the Malay feudal lords and allowed them virtual monopoly of positions in the police and local military units, as well as majority of those administrative position open to non-Europeans” (Boon para 20). Even if these positions did not just have minimum power, they as well offered them the vital prestige.
The educational policies that were put in place by the British colonialists also segregated the various ethnic groups, offering very minimal public education to the Malays. As on one hand the Chinese people set up their own schools and imported the teachers from their country, on the other hand, the colonial government engaged in fostering education for the Malays.
The Malay peasants lived in misery. “The agricultural rights of the indigenous Malays were protected by law to soothe them against colonial dominion” (Boon para 22). However, in the actual sense, Malay peasants were given encouragement to plant rice for the local consumption, as they had been doing before, but they were not allowed to grow rubber which was a most profitable crop set aside for the Chinese commercial famers.
Under the British colonial rule, with the influx of big immigrant communities, a description is given by Furnival of the existing society as ‘a unit of disparate parts that mix but do not combine which each group holds its own religion, its own culture and language, its own ideas and ways” (Furnival 313). Following this, there is relative lack of “consensus values” with relative “autonomy for the separate parts of the social system, resulting in tension and ethnic conflict” (Chan 20).
Because the Malaysian social-economic structure before independence and also after independence is divided basing on the ethnic lines, it is not a big surprise to realize that “politics, responding to this realty, is also organized on this basis” (Jamil 3). In this regard, the practice of the “ethnic-based political parties” serves to reinforce the difference of the many ethnic communities of Malaysia.
In essence, a larger number of the political parties in the Malaysian society were just pressure groups looking for privileges as well as advantages for thie members who are ethnically oriented (Saad 59). Most of the time, they serve as a mediator of the ethnic interests as well as ethnic symbols. To this day, the ethnic differences “have been given a political dimension; thus education issues are also being structured and debated around ethnicity dimensions” (Jamil 4).
Conclusion The effects of British colonialism are still felt in Malaysia up to this day. Originally, the Malaysian society was a homogenous one, consisting mostly of the Malays. However, with the coming of the British; the Chinese and Indians came in to look for work. The Chinese, Indians and Malays were divided and were not allowed to come together. They worked in different section basing on the race to which they belonged. This ethnical divide is still there to this day. Politics and other issues in this country are also organized on the ethnic lines.
Works Cited Boon, Bruce. Malaysia: 50 years of independence – colonialism at the root of national question. International Marxist tendency, 31 august 2007. Web. .
Chan, Chai. Planning education for plural society. Paris: Unesco, IIEP, 1971.
Furnival, John Sydenham. Colonial policy and practice: A comparative study of Burma and Netherlands India. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1948.
Gullick, John. Malaysia. London: Ernest Benn Ltd, 1969.
Lambert, Tim. A short history of Malaysia. Localhistories.org, 2011. Web. .
“Malaysia”. Press statement, population distribution and basic demographic characteristic report. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Statistics.
Milne, Robert. Government and politics in Malaysia. Boston: Oughton Mifflin Co., 1967.
Ratnam, Kanagaratnam Jeya. Communalism and political process in Malaya. Singapore: The University of Malaya Press, 1965.
Saad, Ibrahim. The impact of national language medium schools on attitudes related to national integration in Peninsula Malaysia. PhD Thesis (Unpublished). University of Wisconsin-Madison, U.S.A, 1979.
Santhiram, Robert. Education of minorities: The case of Indians in Malaysia. New York: Child information and Development Center, 1999.
Stockwell, Jacob. “The White man’s burden and brown humanity: Colonialism and ethnicity in British Malays”. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 10.1 (1982): 59 -62.
“What colonialism has done to us, Malaysia”. WordPress.com. wordpress, 13 October 2008. Web.
assignment one does not have to be long Think of a job that you have done in your life that you really enjoyed. Now also think of a job that you did that you hated going to work. Now with both the job best college essay help
Now also think of a job that you did that you hated going to work. Now with both the job you loved and the one you hated, what were the levels of competence, self-determination, impact, and meaningfulness that you felt in each job?
1. Compare the two lists. What do you see?
2. Do certain types of jobs automatically lead to lower motivation over time? Why, or why not?
(the job i really enjoyed was being a direct support staff and the job i hated was Mcdonalds )
2- Discuss way in which team cohesion cab contribute to the overall team effectiveness. What questions would you as to determine whether a team was suffering from too much cohesion?
Arthur Anderson LLP Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Business Model
The Pros and Cons of the Entire Debacle
Business Model Many conscientious and assiduous business professionals presuppose that success is determined principally by their capacity to offer products and services, meet customer demands and requirements, and run their operations using effective and efficient techniques.
However, in today’s dynamic, networked, and ever changing business environment, the business model has become a central tool of trade since it is inseparable from the product, process and operational approaches of a business enterprise in shaping how success is realized (Chesbrough, 2006, p. 18).
More often than not, the difference between success and failure is thinly veiled in the type of business model adopted by an organization.
Before its uneventful entry into questionable deals and fraud charges, Arthur Anderson LLP’s business model revolved around the concept of ‘thinking straight and talking straight,’ as proposed by its founder, Arthur Andersen (Smith
Neolithic pottery and art Culture Term Paper college essay help
Introduction The Neolithic period is one of the most fascinating periods in the Chinese history; a period believed to have started in 10,000 B.C. and came to an end eight thousand years later. This period was characterized by a population, which solely depended on crop and domestic animal farming as opposed to gathering and hunting as considered as common ancient economic activities.
Like in other parts of the world, Chinese Neolithic inhabitants preferred occupying regions along rivers and lakes for easy access of water, which was a major family need. Of great significance is the Chinese artistic tradition that has its core traces in the middle of the Neolithic group (The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1).
There are groups of artifacts which prove the existence of the tradition. This paper analyses, pottery culture during the Neolithic culture with special emphasis on some of the social reasons which prompted the development of the culture. Additionally, several images have been compared with a thorough discussion of the social importance of certain artifacts within the historical environment.
Categories of artifacts As mentioned above, Chinese artistic tradition was divided into two categories. The first group was the painted pottery which was common along the Yellow River Basin that stretched to the northwestern part of China from Gansu province. Yangshao emerged in the central region while Machang, Banshan and Majiayao were witnessed in the northwest region (The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1).
Yangshao pottery was done using coils of clay, which were stuck together and smoothened into customized shapes and sizes. Pottery containers from graves were principally painted with red and black color to signify pain and mourning. It is believed that this practice depicts ancient use of brushes for several linear compositions among others.
The second category of Neolithic artifacts encompassed jade carvings and pottery originating from the eastern seaboard and the lower side of the Yangzi River towards the southern direction (Jiang and Liu 356). This representation included Hemedu, Liangzh, Dawenkou and Longshan. It is important to mention that Eastern China pottery was distinctively known for its unique shapes as compared to those from the central region, which mainly included the tripod that later remained significant during the Bronze Age.
Even though some paintings from the eastern region were painted as part of decorations, those from the coast mainly utilized burnings and technical incising. Notably, the craftsmen of the Neolithic period in China have been recognized throughout history for their invention of the Wheel (The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another important aspect of Chinese culture during this period was the use of jade among potters. This made lifetime contributions into what was later known as Chinese civilization (Pryor 1). Stone was also commonly used in making designs among the Neolithic settlements. The best stones were always chosen depending on their strength and quality before being fashioned into desired items of value.
Nephrite, also known as “true jade”, was considered tough and strong by most craftsmen and was therefore frequently used than other stones in the region at that time. This was a common phenomenon in Zhejiang and Jiangsu especially towards the end of the Neolithic period (Pryor 1). An important feature of jade was its hardness, and proved tough during carving as it required a strong knife and always turned out to be laborious.
Incised decorations and glossy polished surfaces required high skills and extraordinary patience from craftsmen in order to realize outstanding good results. Archeological findings have always revealed the presence of jade in and commonly placed alongside privileged dead bodies before burial could take place.
Like other artifacts during the period, jade axes1 were symbolic and carried unique message for the public. Besides being used during burial, they also symbolized harsh punishment especially in cases where one was found guilty of a serious criminal offense. After carving of the axe, it was always fixed into a stick which served as the handle. It also denoted gaining of power by one person to lead others (Thorp and Vinograd 35). The significance of Jade axes tremendously evolved, making them to become symbols of social importance.
Regional pottery and art
As mentioned above, the Neolithic period saw the emergence of artifacts and designs which later became the foundation of the Bronze Age. These carvings and other forms of art were unique depending on the geographical location since different people valued art uniquely.
As a result, provinces and even villages identified themselves with certain designs with a few similarities being noted. Additionally, artifacts carried meaning that was easily communicated within the area of origin as different groups of people had customized interpretation and understanding of art as described below.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Neolithic pottery and art Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Image 2
Yangshao Village2 had a wide range of potteries during the Neolithic period with special focus on 4500 B.C. Most of its artifacts carried complicated designs even though one could easily consider them to be simple, with three distinctive categories being recognized. These included owl3, animal and lady figures (Thorp and Vinograd 47). Based on these groups, it suffices to mention that each artifact within a given class symbolized a certain aspect of people’s life.
Therefore, their presence always had unique interpretation by the people of that time. Although its meaning was not quite clear to many, owl images were common in the village and they took different shapes and designs as chosen by the artist. The design and most features of most owl images indicated the strength of the animal. Other people also believed that owl represented the messenger of some supernatural being that was beyond their knowledge and understanding.
On other occasions, they were used to imply the need for people to stay awake during the night for their own safety (Thorp and Vinograd 48). On the other hand, fish figures depicted the lifestyle of people at the moment as fishing was one of the economic activities of the time and a major source of food. The first owl image above denotes the strength of the animal from its strong wings and legs.
Being a core aspect of any community, fertility was also represented through art. Frog images were commonly used to denote this as they were designed with a human shape and artistic decorations. Common features included legs and the use of three to four colors as part of the final touches to make the figure more attractive. They were generally made by hand although they always had asymmetric shape (Thorp and Vinograd 50).
Another village which valued artistic images and figures was Dahe in Henan Province. People from this village expressed their ideas through figures also witnessed in other regions during this period. Axe, bird and fish figures were quite common and signified their daily lives in terms of economical aspect of living. Farming was a common practice together with fishing. The figures emphasized how their daily lives were shaped.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Neolithic pottery and art Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, Xia Dynasty4 and Shang Dynasty valued pottery and their cultures. There were three subjects that were common and significant in these dynasties (Thorp and Vinograd 256). These were sky, earth and people. People from these dynasties believed that the earth produced rulers of the earth and the universe.
Their tombs were however characterized by several layers which implied the existence of numerous layers of the universe. Several figures were also recognized including the axe and Vassal among others, with each pottery denoting a specific meaning or aspect of their lives. Some of the images like gold seals were a symbol of wealth and material ability for the community and were common in tombs.
Conclusion From the above analysis of pottery and art culture during the Neolithic period, it is evident that most people of this age highly valued their culture pricelessly. Through expert skills and knowledge, they expressed their feelings, lifestyle and other aspects of life through artistic figures and decorations.
Of significance is the image of animals among their potteries (Kuijt 297). Common animals included owls and fish whose symbolic meaning revolved around the nature of their daily life and the existence of a supernatural being respectively. Social status was also represented by several artistic images like tombs with solid gold which always symbolized a sense of wealth and high social status.
Other elements of high standards of living included but not limited to golden horse, mirror, cosmetic containers and elegant dining ware. In general, Neolithic period significantly prepared people for the Bronze Age that was experienced later on. There were several artifacts which found way in this age, implying the importance of Neolithic period in Chinese history and Cultural Revolution.
Works Cited Jiang, Leping, and Liu Li. “New evidence for the origins of sedentism and rice domestication in the Lower Yangzi River, China.” Sedentism and rice domestication in South China 80 (2006): 355-361.
Kuijt, Ian. Life in Neolithic farming communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. London: Springer, 2000. Print.
Pryor, Francis. “Overview: From Neolithic to Bronze Age, 8000 – 800 BC.” BBC News 2011. .
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Neolithic Period in China, 2011. Web. .
Thorp, Robert, and Vinograd Richard. Chinese art
Effect of Global financial crisis on the Gulf Countries Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Like the saying goes “when the US catches a cold, the rest of the world coughs.” The financial crisis which hit the US in the late months of the year 2007 have over time spread to almost all other countries in the world. The crisis started in the US housing markets which had over the years unsustainably overvalued.
When the high values could not be sustained, the bubble burst resulting in drastic reductions in the prices a factor which led to a surge in default rates resulting to massive losses to investors as well as loan applicants.
The effects spread into the real economy causing a shrink in the level of GDP for the year 2008 a phenomenon which had not been experienced in the US for decades.
After initially being reported in the US, the financial crisis first spread to the rest of the western countries such as the UK and other European countries with very close trade and nontrade ties with the US.
It later spread to other Eastern nations including the Gulf region. This paper looks at the spread of the financial crisis to the Gulf countries with greater emphasis to Dubai and Bahrain.
The spread of the financial crisis to the gulf region occurred due to several reasons. The first and most visible channel was through trade in oil. The Gulf region is known to rely heavily on oil exports to support their economies. The region is heavily endowed with oil reserves which are a significant source of oil for the western countries such as the US and the UK.
As the financial crisis hit the real economy in the west, demand for oil drastically fell. This was due to the fact that demand for oil is significantly determined by the amount of economic activity taking place. Oil is a source of energy which drives production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the US experienced a shrink in economic growth, the amount of oil demanded drastically fell. Economic laws of demand and supply dictate that in cases where demand is lower than supply levels, prices have to be significantly reduced.
A fall in the prices of oil spelt a huge blow the revenues received by the gulf countries. Bearing in mind the importance of oil revenues to the region, the economic prospects were suddenly changed (Khelifi, 2009, par4-6).
Secondly, Bahrain and Dubai have over the past few decades been determined to stop overreliance on oil. Finance and tourism have been identified as feasible alternative sources of revenues which are more stable and able to outlive the relevance of oil in the international market as well as possibilities of depletion of oil reserves in the future.
Focus on finance meant that the government had prior to the financial crisis put in place favorable policies to encourage both local and international investors and financial services providers to consider the region as a suitable financial hub. Te response had been impressive as financial services sector had been growing at high rates.
Again and more importantly, a significant proportion of investors and service providers either originated or had very close ties with the west.
This being the case, as the crisis took toll in the western nations ravaging the financial service sector and causing huge losses to investors, the inflows of capital to places such as Dubai which had been phenomenon was drastically curtailed.
This in effect slowed down the expansion of the sector as well as other closely related sectors. In the year 2009, it was evident that banks and other financial institutions in Dubai significantly cut their lending a situation occasioned by speculation over the future of property markets
We will write a custom Essay on Effect of Global financial crisis on the Gulf Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tourism sector got a beating from the reduction in tourist arrivals from the west who accounted for the largest percentage of tourists in the region.
As incomes for westerners fell due to the spread of the financial crisis into the real economy, less people were willing to travel for fun. The implication of this was a drop in the revenues earned from the sector and a blow to the region’s economic prospects.
During the start of the crisis in the west, most analysts predicted that the Gulf region would be immune due to the strong fundamental advantages created by the sale of oil. Despite the fact that current statistics show that these assertions were largely flawed, it is clear that the effect of the crisis to the Gulf region were much less severe as compared to the west.
The lower oil prices, reduced liquidity in the financial markets and subsequent reduction in share prices to a vast majority of companies in Bahrain and Dubai as a result of the crisis cannot be compared to the collapse or near collapse of numerous financial institutions as well as other major industries such as the automotive industry witnessed in the west.
There were significant disruptions in the property markets especially in Dubai where the properties reduced in the wake of reduced demand. Indeed, construction of new properties had stalled late in the year 2009 and early 2010 and a significant number of people rendered jobless.
In the early months of 2010 a large number of foreign employees had to leave for their home countries after being laid off especially from the construction industry. Nevertheless, this is not comparable to the mass layoffs witnessed across a wide range of industries driving up the unemployment rate to levels above 10% in the US.
In Dubai, the crisis is more entrenched than Bahrain. Out of the 410 licensed financial institutions comprised of banks as well as non banking financial institutions in Bahrain, not one failed.
A few of them made some losses mainly due to their heightened exposure to toxic assets requiring the authorities to inject just over 150 million dollars as a way of stabilizing the sector.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effect of Global financial crisis on the Gulf Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Notably, the regulatory framework in place in Bahrain which ensures that the Central bank is always vigil in supervising the financial institutions proactively enabled the financial sector refrain from the extensive effects experienced elsewhere in the region.
The fact that only a maximum of 30% of the banking portfolio can be directed to the real estate developments means that there was significant limitation to the exposure of the financial institutions to the property market instabilities.
In Dubai, the economy was already highly in debts obtained with the intention of building infrastructure in the country. These debts put the country in a much worse situation than Bahrain (Ali, 2010, par3).
In addition, the growing application of Islamic model of banking which is unanimously agreed to be less risky than the conventional banking models made the financial sector in Bahrain and Dubai more resilient to the financial crisis (Hamzan, 2008, par5).
As can be seen, the financial sector in both Dubai and Bahrain was affected marginally. This coupled with the surpluses accumulated from the sale o oil in the boom years preceding the crisis ensured that there was adequate funding for projects even in the face of the turmoil. The two countries managed to stay afloat and still record economic growth rates of above 3%.
Due to the great advantages presented by the accumulation of oil and gas revenues over the past decades, the gulf countries are less worried of the downturn per se but rather the ensuring that the downturn is orderly.
This is in consideration of the fact that prior to the recession; the economies were experiencing what economists call ‘overheating’ due to the boom. Inflation rates were high as people engaged in extreme and often flawed speculations which drove prices up especially in the property markets.
As such there was a growing need to slowdown the economy and build more on the fundamentals before stimulating the economies again.
The recession thus presented a great opportunity to reverse some of the effects of overheating. This is because it is evident that indices such as inflation and interest rates have largely stabilized throughout the region.
Notably, the global recession leaves the economies of Bahrain and Dubai stronger as it has offered a great opportunity for the countries to develop strong economic fundamentals.
This has been achieved with he slowed but not stalled economic growth in the region (Ravichandran, 2009, par4). Again as the world economy returns to the growth path, Dubai and Bahrain are now better placed to handle future crisis
Reference List Ali, M., 2010. Bahrain ’safe from global jobs crisis’. Web.
Hamzan, M., 2008. Islamic Banks Unaffected by Global Financial Crisis. Web.
Khelifi, S., 2009. The Contagious Effect Of The US Subprime Crisis On Gulf Countries. Web.
Ravichandran, K., 2009. Effect of Financial Crisis over Mergers and Acquisitions in GCC Countries. Web.
Is wind power “green”? Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents What is “green” power?
The benefits of wind power
The effects of wind power
What is “green” power? “Green’ power refers to the power that is formed from renewable, pollutant free, and harmless sources like breeze, biomass, spoilt materials, lunar, and geothermal (the high temperature of the earth)(Gipe 6). As the growth in manufacturing and utilization continues to go up, the dilapidation of the natural surroundings of the earth persists, since the challenge to extend maintainable employment of the natural resources has not so far been met.
Due to this reason, technological modification of extensive degree is essential to reduce the reliance on substance resources, in order to maintain the surroundings, and protect the earth’s flora and fauna (Wilson 103). Wind power is one of the options that have been considered to be endorsed, to make sure a strong planet earth for age groups to come is established. The aim of this paper is to determine whether wind turbine is a feasible power source option in terms of “green”, economic friendliness, and its aptitude to produce considerable quantity of power.
“Green” power, as any other power, has its advantages and disadvantages. The debate over whether to go “green” has been there for a long time, as others argue that it is more harmful than considered. The question then arises; will constructing the huge turbines generate a cleaner and safer energy base as contrasted to normal gases, petroleum, and energy plants?
The benefits of wind power The advantage of using “green” energy is that natural possessions that are renewable are employed to generate more power without contaminating or harming the earth. This reduces the capacity of global warming as the rate of carbon dioxide release to the atmosphere, as well as the monetary impact that comes with energy utilization is reduced (Wilson 103). In wind energy, in contrast to nuclear and relic energy power plants, water is not required for cooling or producing electrical energy.
The effects of wind power Wind power is considered as one way the environment will be harmed if it opts to “green”. One, it is considered as a way that will end many animals’ lives hence affecting the food chain for instance, rotating wind turbines kill drifting birds, bats, and human beings as well. Studies show that, every megawatt of fitted wind-power leads to the murdering of one to six birds, annually (Slattery 97).
In addition, since many wind turbines are constructed in the coastlines, old turbines may leak oils in the water systems hence polluting the water, and killing the fish in them. More over, thick groups of wind turbines could influence close temperatures and moisture intensity, and generally, perhaps, affect climate in local circumstances (Gipe 7).
Wind turbines are also considered expensive, undependable, and incompetent because they do not reduce the discharge of carbon dioxide in the air. The reason behind this is wind energy blows only inconsistently, and hence support conservative generators are required at packed capital expenditures, for irregular use.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Wind energy is considered incompetent since it cannot cope with demands during peak-power, which makes electricity storage investment to be considered (Slattery 121). This is through flywheels, batteries, among others. Furthermore, it is very noisy hence causing noise pollution, a factor that makes it to be built away from residential areas.
In the above research, it is clear that wind energy is not as “green” as it is thought to be. Despite it being cost effective, pollutant free and of benefit especially to those people from remote areas, it comes with its own disadvantages.
Among the disadvantages are, it is expensive during installation, it affects the ecosystems, it is noisy, it accumulates a large space during construction, and it is insufficient during peak-power. The research shows that, the advantages and the disadvantages should be compared so that a solution that will benefit the planet at large can be found.
Works Cited Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy Basics: A Guide to Small and Micro Wind Systems. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co, 1999. Print.
Slattery, Michael C. Contemporary Environmental Issues. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub, 2008. Print.
Wilson, Alex. Your Green Home: A Guide to Planning a Healthy, Environmentally Friendly New Home. Gabriola, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2006. Print.
Is wind power considered green? Research Paper writing essay help
Apparently, power has always been considered to be benign to environment irrespective of few reservations (Kammen 85). In this regard, there is a huge and growing controversy over how certain power generation modes have resulted to global warming, green house effects and other forms of environmental pollution.
Currently, there emerged green technologies that are perceived to feasible in terms of environmental sustainability (Kammen 85). In this case, Wind power energy has emerged as one of the best options in which clean energy can be derived. It is imperative that most of the developed countries such as USA and European countries have adopted and established wind energy with the perception that it is clean and cost effective.
Therefore, wind energy has increasingly being adopted by large communities to cater for their varying interests. However, there is a huge controversy over whether wind power is green or not (Kammen 86). This paper aims to analyze whether wind energy is green and the impacts of contemporary issues of environment to the sustainable world.
There is a predictable expansion of demand on wind energy both at the marketing and consumer level (Elliott 46). For several decades now, wind energy has been used to run machines and mills in rural areas in places such as United States of America and Denmark (Elliott 47).
Currently, wind technology has been advanced making it more effective to reinforce electric power. Additionally, problems associated with wind energy have been minimized thus increasing the efficiency of wind machines that have been made larger and stronger (Elliott 52). Earlier on, wind energy was perceived to be environmentally unfriendly.
However, there are some limitations that have intensified complaints that wind energy is not green at all. According to research study conducted by environmentalists and energy regulators on wind energy, it has been asserted that wind turbines are likely to threaten birds and other animals (Elliott 52).
A recent case study conducted on wind revealed that wind turbines have increased mortality rate of birds and as well as individuals who inhabit such sites. Consequently, the whirling of wind turbines and tower blades often kills birds that fly around them. Notably, larger percentage of avian deaths is usually associated with increased installation of wind turbines. Such include bats and other migratory birds as it was discovered in some parts of California in 1994 (Foley 53).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Collisions of migratory birds with turbines have direct impact on their breeding success rate. Moreover, visual and noise disturbance interferes with the breeding of foraging and staging birds. However, several measures have been established to decimate cases of avian deaths. Additionally, great concern has been shown on the impact of wind energy on wildlife that inhabits near wind firms. In this case, the rotor blades on wind turbines produce a lot of noise that disturbs the animal species around wind power sites.
Another challenge associated with wind power is that it occupies large space for the infrastructure than the energy produced. Study reveals that one turbine can occupies about 1.8 hectares of land in order to generate maximum energy (Elliott 42). From this figure, one can deduce that wind firms use about 235 hectares of land to produce maximum energy required (Elliott 43).
In this case, agricultural lands have been reclaimed for power generation and this can lead to food shortage. According to further investigation on the impacts of wind energy on environment other hazards have been identified. It is apparent that insects’ species that strike turbine blades are likely to develop adverse effects. In this case, insect population inhabiting near wind mills become endangered and to some extent they become extinct.
In recent studies conducted on wind power generating sites, noise generated from turbines reduces the anesthetic nature of the environment around the firms (Elliott 45). Moreover, wind power generation poses danger to fragile ecosystem since noise and vibrations generated form the turbines has adverse effect on health.
Empirical evidence obtained from surveys indicates that people residing near wind firms have symptoms of sleep disturbances, dizziness, and head aches (Elliott 46). Such a case is also experienced by both terrestrial and aquatic animals. It is evident that vibrations that occur from turbines causes soil erosion on near ground.
Preferably, bare grounds are exposed to higher risks that those that are forested. Beside this, excavations done during installation of the mills and turbines normally trigger disturbances on the ground.
Moreover, according to majority view it is evident that wind power has negative economic impacts on investors who construct rental houses in sites near the wind firms (Elliott 48). An empirical research conducted along such sites revealed that people who rent houses tend to avoid those that are near the wind mills and turbines. This is triggered by the notion that they will be disturbed by noise.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is wind power considered green? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the identified reasons, wind energy can not be considered to be green. Furthermore, the energy is unreliable and thus it can not fulfill the needs of users in a harmonious manner (Kammen 89). According to environmentalist view, green sources of energy should be reliable even in future and should cater fully for the need of users.
Evidently in the past decades, wind energy has been reinforced by other sources of power that are harmful to the environment. At some times, wind has limited strength to turn the turbines thus requires use of alternative sources of power such as fossil fuel, bioethanol and geothermal energy (Kammen 89).
Nevertheless, a large number of people have consistently shown interest in using wind energy in homes. Considerably, this form of energy growth has increased by 30% in the previous decade. Rapid expansion and use of wind power have been noted in developed countries such as Texas and USA (Elliott 45). Substantial growth and expansion of wind power energy have been fostered by several environmental factors.
Such factors include the need to decimate carbon emissions and reduce global warming. In this case, wind energy can be considered to be green as compared to other sources of energy such as fossil fuels. According to opinion surveys, a large population supports the establishment of wind power plant in their immediate neighborhood.
Approximately, 70-8-% of residents in Denmark and UK highly regards use of wind power energy (Elliott 46). Recent surveys have shown that there is an increased large scale acceptance in using the energy in India and china.
The fact that wind power energy is green lies on the basis that its environmental merits are experienced both at the national and global level. A typical example can be drawn from the use of photovoltaic cells in the form of solar energy. Although the latter is increasingly being used, it is import ant to bearing in mind that the development of photovoltaic is still under revolution and that there are some societal resources which have been redistributed.
This technology, however, requires intense labor. In some cases, the use of automatic machines to construct this device has resulted into higher production costs to the manufacturers as well as expensive purchase and installation of the component to consumers.
Another impediment in the development of photovoltaic is the high demand for basic raw substances used in the manufacturing process. This has inevitably led to escalation o prices of some items which are commonly used in its manufacture. Besides, specific quantities of materials required are not constant. They keep on changing with time making the process of production even more hectic. For example, photovoltaic cells may consume up to one hundred thousand tones of steel in a given production year.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is wind power considered green? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another likely constraint in the development of this technology is the significant quantity of energy required. Studies reveal that the production of photovoltaic cells requires an extra energy input compared to other traditional forms o f energy. This implies that photovoltaic technology is rather expensive. Nevertheless, the payback energy is presumably higher than input energy.
It is apparent that wind is a renewable source of energy and thus can be conventionally be generated without depleting the environment in any way (Elliott 43). Wind energy is a clean source of power thus it does not result to air pollution. Governments from developed states have high preference on wind power due to the increased cost of fossil fuels. Wind power is naturally available and can be regenerated without being influenced by market forces in the international market.
According to international surveys conducted on countries using wind power, it is apparent that the energy incurs low external costs as opposed to other means such as electricity and fossil fuel (Elliott 53). As a natural resource, wind is abundant and largely distributed in local areas though there exist challenges resulting from the forces of nature.
In line with this, there is no perceived evidence that wind energy results to global warming thus offering it an added advantage over other sources such as fossil fuels. Despite the fact that the demerits are experienced at the local level, overall impacts of wind power are worth of apprehension. Therefore, we can not deny the fact that wind energy is green (Kammen 90).
On the same note, environmental issues have affected the sustainability of the world in various ways. Examples of contemporary issues in the environment include global warming, green house emissions, climate change and demographic issues (www.bp.com). To begin with, climate disasters have emerged as a heavy toll on human beings when it comes to management (Kammen 92).
Unprecedentedly, large number of people has suffered from damages afflicted by climate change such as flooding, storms and drought. There is lot of tenfold in terms of cost used to rescue people from disasters. Predictably, unless effective measures are taken to decimate climate change, there is expected that irreversible damage might occur on the earth surface thus reducing sustainability of life in the world.
In line with this, global warming has increasingly impacted negatively on environment and world sustainability (www.bp.com). As a global catastrophe, it has posed danger to the fragile ecosystem. For instance, global warming has highly contributed to the extinction certain bio-species.
Irrespective of the conservation measures conducted, successes has not been fully registered at the global level. Currently, there exist scientific evidences that indicate that global temperatures have risen by 0.8% in the beginning of 20th century (Elliott 63).
For this reason, the effects are very adverse particularly in agriculture industry. Rise of global temperatures has resulted to El Nino, severe bushfires and drought. In some places, native forests, rangelands and wetlands have shrunk posing danger to the marine and alpine ecosystems. In addition to this, sea levels have risen posing danger to the coastal inhabitants (Elliott 62).
The rate of emission of green house gasses is above the potential threshold of the earth (www.bp.com). Potentially, this has caused significance imbalances and changes in the world climate. According to scientific studies conducted, it is evident that excessive emission of carbon from fossils has sharply risen since the year 2000. In fact, there was registered a 3.5% increase of carbon emissions in the same year (Kammen 85).
Considerably the world is at risk as such gases are likely to adversely model climate in future. Besides this, it is vivid that the global population rate is growing at an alarming rate posing danger to the available resources. Natural resources such as forests, rangelands and wet lands are at risk of extinction since human beings have reclaimed them for settlement purposes (www.bp.com). Nevertheless, effective measures have been taken to control the rate of population expansion in both developed and developing nations.
Globally, efforts are being put in place to decimate the impacts of such issues in the environment (www.bp.com). Recently an earth summit was established to focus on achieving sustainable world prospect. Nations have worked in partnership in order to facilitate sustainable use of natural resources and preferably the non-renewable one. On the same note, nations have made significant use of renewable resources such as wind, hydro and geothermal power.
Such sources of power are emission free and naturally available (Kammen 86). The fact that they does not get exhausted is an added advantage of eliminating factors that trigger the emergence of contemporary issues in the environment. Emergence of scientific disciplines such as environmental sciences have facilitated in creating awareness over issues surfacing on the global environment (www.bp.com). By so doing, appropriate measures have been taken to decimate environmental degradation thus creating a sustainable world.
In a broader perspective, almost every state has established regulations that will sustainably address environmental issues through agencies, corporations and use of policies (www.bp.com). To ensure a sustainable world in present and future, there are numerous sources of regulations.
Such include use of common laws, international treaties and legislations in industries to ensure that they meet the expected code of ethics. An example of international treaties includes the Kyoto Protocol that covers a wider global movement on protecting the environment (Kammen 92). It is imperative to note that the treaty targets the developed countries in order to pressure them to decimate the rate in which they emit green house gases.
To recap it all, irrespective of the demerits associated with wind power, it can be considered to be one of the benign sources of energy for use. In an attempt to minimize damages caused on both human and animal life, such states like USA and Canada have adopted rules and regulations in order to protect the remaining natural resources by use of sustainable sources of power.
In the process, this has made it possible to monitor the routine emission of gases into the atmosphere. Besides, significant efforts put in place have ensured that energy sustainability is not affected by the emerging issues of the environment.
Works Cited BP. Statistical review of world energy, 12 May 2011. Web.
Elliott, David. “Public Reactions to Wind farms: the Dynamics of Opinion Formation”. Energy
Capital Asset Pricing Model Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free
Role of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) in modern portfolio management In modern industrial economies, business owners aim to maximize on their returns while the managers want to minimize risk on their hands. This provides a typically very different opinion between the management and ownership about risk and returns.
With this issue, most of the large companies in the world especially in the United States have established their capital budgeting process in the Capital Asset Pricing Model. This theoretical model was formulated thirty years ago by Sharpe (1994) and Linter (1965).
CAPM assist businesses managers by providing a practical method to learn about how investors value the risk of potential investment opportunities, that is, value of decisions to be taken (Mehrling, 2005).
CAPM helps to show how to ascertain the risk of the cash flow from an investment venture, ascertain the venture’s cost of capital and the expected rate of return which an investor expects if they invest in a certain project. In addition, it shows the opportunity cost of not investing in a certain project.
One of the most outstanding characteristics of Capital Asset Pricing Model is that it does not assume any particular form of the trader’s utility functions apart from some extent of risk aversion which, nevertheless can be defined without resorting to a utility function.
Despite the drawbacks, the capital asset pricing model still offers a more comprehensive view of long-term swap in return and risk in the pricing of financial securities and assets. The CAPM can provide an adequate steer for the average long-term security owner.
It has certain principles that prove useful: CAPM assumes diversity of assets since there is no tradeoff in unsystematic risk portfolio. Also, an investor should hold onto his or her securities for a long term regardless of the time factor in order gain the expected returns.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, an investor should take on more systematic risk so as to achieve a higher return on investment, the larger the portfolio an investor has that are receptive to the changes in market environment, the more average return the portfolio will achieve.
CAPM suggests that in the short term, or more complex investing, other models have been established. However, unless the model is established on market inefficiencies, no flow of information, or other assumptions of CAPM, the model is assumed to hold the principles of CAPM.
CAPM as a theoretical perspective has been put to test in several occasions. Earlier CAPM empirical tests done by Fama and French in 1992, show that the model was empirically applicable except that the Security Market Line intercept was approximated to be about 4 to 5 percent more than the risk-free rate, although such an event is concurrent with the CAPM model in cases where money cannot actually be borrowed at the risk-free rate.
More current tests of the CAPM display that there are many noticeable drawbacks of the stern analysis of the model. For example cyclical fluctuations, such as unexpected high returns for some companies during the month of February and varying returns on Mondays and Fridays from that of Tuesdays to Thursdays.
However, critics have said that security returns are highly closely correlated to the realizable value and the total inconsistency of the security, rather than a beta coefficient found by using a market index (Fama
Co-teaching Expository Essay essay help online free
One of the most novel ideas in education instruction is collaborative teaching. Learners with special needs learn alongside ordinary students in an ordinary class setting. A special needs teacher is supposed to assist the regular teacher in preparing materials for special learners, delivering assisted learning during and after the regular classes.
The purpose of collaborative learning is to give learners with special needs an opportunity to acquire education and an environment that does not have any restrictions, thus maximizing their chances to learn. Collaborative learning employs multiple teaching and learning skills.
It should not be confused with other teaching practices such as one teacher preparing material and another delivering instruction.
It is an opportunity to distribute teaching activities amongst a group of individuals with different teaching skills. This paper endeavors to give a an assessment of collaborative teaching
Where collaborative learning is used efficiently, students with learning difficulties reap maximums benefits, while ordinary learners acquire the skills to socialize and live harmoniously with special need students. It is therefore an idea worth implementing (Logsdon, 2011).
Cushman (n.d.) also argues that this type of teaching model propagates a sense of productive interdependence amongst teacher. It is more effective when co-teachers realize that each of them is not sufficiently equipped to respond to the diversely unique needs of a class.
It is also an effective way of ensuring each individual teachers account for individual responsibilities. However, collaborative teaching is not without hitches. It is time consuming and creates too much interference in terms of unnecessary movements and uncontrolled noise in a class.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It may also be disorderly when collaborative teachers have extremely diverse teaching skills (Deluca, Borman, Jump, Ratzlaff and Nystrom, 2010). Many people have suggested an alternative where there is one teacher in a class assisted by several assistants.
While this may be good in having many professional with diverse skills in the same class, its implementation may be cumbersome. It is therefore more preferable to have two teachers who take their time to plan for the class. This will reduce the amount of confusion and interference in the teaching process (Haynes, 2010).
Evaluation of student’s progress is usually a challenging task in a mixed abilities class. Various issues complicate the type of grading system to use. Co-teachers usually have a problem grading, given that students have different abilities and learning styles.
It is also difficult to determine how to evaluate daily assignments, who evaluates them and how they reflect on the final grade (University of Kansas, 2005). There should also be mutual respect for each other personal space and opinion between the co-teachers.
For ordinary education teachers who are doing it for the first time, one of the major learning points is sharing teaching space with a fellow professional (Creighton Education, n.d.). Several qualities identify an ideal co teacher.
To begin with, a co-teacher must be able to share professional knowledge as well as be open to communication and criticism. They must also be inclined towards learner centred teaching. Most importantly, they must be willing team players. Absence of these basic characteristic in a co-teacher make hinder the whole process (EFL classrooms, 2010).
Co-teaching is an idea that is yet to gain much support. However, the benefits of co-teaching are worthwhile.
We will write a custom Essay on Co-teaching specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Learners with learning difficulties are motivated by learning in a less restricted ordinary class and get to enjoy the benefits that the ordinary learner gets. Despite the complexity in its implementation, the many professions and learning institutions should try it.
Reference List Creighton Education. Co-teaching in today’s classrooms. Web.
Cushman, S. What is co-teaching? Word Press. Web.
Deluca D., Borman J., jump T., Ratzlaff R. and Nystrom C. (2010). Co teaching. Class Chatter. Web.
EFL classrooms, (2010). Co-teaching: general guidelines and procedures. Edublogs. Web.
Haynes, J. (2010). Collaborative teaching for ells: Are two teachers better than one? EverythingESL. Web.
Logsdon, A. (2011). Collaborative teaching – Special education in collaborative classrooms. About.com Guide. Web.
University of Kansas, (2005). Grading considerations. Special Connections. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Co-teaching by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Identity and Diaspora Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Identity and Diaspora
Connection between language, identity and cultural difference
Introduction Identity is marked out by differences in the surrounding or context within which an individual or thing is found. Differences are what make an individual or a group of people identifiable or definable. The identity of a person and what he uses, his culture and language are closely connected.
Language and culture act as symbols which mark or delineate an individual’s identity characteristics. Difference in identity makes an individual or a group of people see themselves as belonging.
The differences outline the demarcations of in-groups to which individuals belong. The basic differences between in-groups are enshrined in the language and symbolic systems that they use.
Identity definitions make individuals or a group of people to see themselves as being better than others. Hall (1997, p. 8) provides a case of a Serb militia man who claims that Serbs are totally different from Croats even in the cigarettes they smoke. Due to the kind of identity definition they hold, the Croats think themselves to be better than Serbs (Hall, 1997, 8).
The language one speaks is a powerful symbol of identity and through it, others can tell one’s nationality or culture. A person can encourage positive identity practice when he accepts and learns the identity of a particular community.
Inversely, if one rejects or vilifies the cultural identity of others, he or she encourages negative identity practices, which if unchecked are likely to result in full blown conflicts. Through language we are able to present to people who we really are and it’s also a way for others to make their own assumptions of who we are.
We have different languages and this is what marks an individual’s or a group of people’s identity. For example, the common English language the Australians speak is different from the ones Americans speak.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The differences in the English spoken in America and the English spoken in Australia results or is a consequence of difference in accents. Therefore, the difference in accents distinguishes these two groups although they speak the same language; English.
Cultural characteristics are also important symbols, which distinguish an individual or a group of people as belonging to a particular group or culture. Through the differences in cultures we are able to mark one’s identity and know or make assumptions of who they are and from which background they hail.
Identity is relational in the sense that it is distinguished by something it is not or does not have. If a particular culture does not have or do something which another culture has or does, then that is what distinguishes that particular culture, and thus gives it an identity.
Language, identity and cultural differences all have this character. An individual or a group of people may not have something in their language or culture which another individual or group of people have. What one culture lacks that another culture has gives the respective cultures a sense of identity; it distinguishes them from the others.
Language, identity and cultural differences are all marked through symbols. Things an individual or a group of people use are closely related to their identity, these are symbols which identify or define them.
They may be using something which another one doesn’t use or which they think is better than theirs, like in the case of Serbs and Croats it’s the cigarettes which define them. The cigarettes act as the symbols and differentiated or distinguish identities (Hall, 1969, p.10).
Language, identity and culture are connected because it is the differences inherent in language that map a given identity. Language and culture are connected because language often carries symbolic meanings that can only be understood in the context of the given culture.
We will write a custom Essay on Identity and Diaspora specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both languages and cultures have symbols which also act as identifiers or distinction between individuals or groups of people. Language and Culture like identity are also relational in that they are all distinguished by something they are not.
Different languages, identities and cultures have different things which the other does not have and this is what distinguishes and makes them different.
The differences in culture and language gives respective cultures and languages a sense of identity and this is important because it defines an individual or a group of people. Our identities reflect the common historical experiences and shared cultural values which make us to be a united people with stable reference of meaning.
Identity is important in that it defines who we really are and in the post colonial struggles it played a big role in reshaping our world.
The rediscovery of identity in post colonial societies has been the object of hope which has been helping former colonial subjects and colonizers rehabilitate themselves with regard to self definition and appropriation of how others define themselves (Hall, 1997).
Identity has also played an important role in the development of many important social movements. These include feminist, anti-colonial and anti-racist, environmental activists, lobby groups, human rights activists, among others movements. What brings this people together is a common identity.
They identify themselves because of the different causes they hold dear in society. The difference in cause or concern gives them an identity. Further, these social movements are identifiable with distinctive language use or jargon and their developing of symbols that frame a kind of subculture.
Identity and Diaspora Language being a powerful symbol of identity is a major difference between different cultural groups in Australia. Even among people who speak English, differences in accent and use of cliché words creates further distinctions, subcultures and thus identities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Identity and Diaspora by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I have some experience of having lived in a multicultural setting. The setting composed of people of African origin, African Americans and indigenous locals. From observations, I noticed many differences that distinguished each set of individuals or groups.
The Chinese believe that in order to achieve unity they must take pride in their history and culture; they believe that intellectual unity and consolidated power is what brings them social harmony. This is different from Australians who still deconstruct their culture, consolidate power and through government work to implement their agendas.
People of Chinese origin focus more on self development and personal growth than transforming or challenging traditional structures and set ups. This is unlike the attitude of black Americans or English Australians.
Considering countries, china is very distinctive or different from Australia. Australia is identified from Chinese because they don’t take pride in their history and cultures like the Chinese do.
Another way of distinguishing between Australians and Chinese is by language. The Chinese have their languages and even those who have immigrated to Australia still speak and teach their children to speak Chinese.
National identity in Australia was brought about by earlier Australians identifying selves with being able to withstand hardship. This kind of identity has produced a sporting spirit that has continued to grow.
Other historical factors like the gold rush days, Federation, World Wars and others have been significant symbols which have greatly influenced the development of Australia’s national identity.
The Gold Rush had a great impact on the economy of Australia and development of the nation. Diggers in the goldfields developed a strong relationship which has been important to them on how they and others perceive being Australian.
Since then, the diggers’ rebelliousness and disregard for the authority at that time has remained an important topic of discussion in Australia history and identity.
Diverse cultures, people and images in Australia have been a strong symbol of identity. Many important events and people who were involved in these events have helped the Australians shape the view they have of their nations and how others view them as a nation.
Indigenous communities have kept their cultural heritage strong and alive by passing it to every generation. These include their knowledge, art and performances.
By speaking and teaching their language to their children, protecting their culture, sacred and important places and objects, the Australians have been able to maintain and be proud of their identity.
The Aboriginal people in Australia value their land so much. They believe their land is what sustains people. Reciprocally, people and culture in turn are supposed to sustain the land. National parks are of great significance for the Aboriginal people because of the stories associated to them; stories that have been told from one generation to the other.
The diverse cultures and people unite the Australians and this has made them committed to their country. They have a right to express their diverse cultures and beliefs and to participate freely in Australia’s national development.
Everyone in Australia is expected to respect an individual’s worth, dignity and freedom. Every individual has freedom of speech, religion, association and is expected to support and maintain peace. The pride each individual group takes in its cultural heritage has helped keep Australian cultures live.
The cultural identification helps distinguish people and offers them an identity. National initiatives and mechanisms have been put in place to help Australians towards becoming more tolerant towards difference.
Art in Australia has contributed to the shaping and reflecting of the nation’s image. Art scenes have reflected the diverse indigenous cultural traditions and this as a symbol of identity has helped to define the nation. Modern art in Australia is totally different to that of Chinese.
Because of government funding, Australia’s art is more political compared to that of Chinese. This has caused a great divide between the private and the government funded art’s market. This is a mark of identity because identity is relational as it is distinguished by something it is not.
Art in China is distinguished from that of Australia because it’s less political. The difference in art scenes of these two countries also marks identity because identity is marked by differences, and through these differences Australia is able to define itself.
Education in Australia is different from that of China in that in Australia they are more focused on students while in China they are more focused on teachers.
A teacher in Australia will help students find answers to a question by themselves by providing them with the basic knowledge while in China a teacher will easily give answers to students without letting them do something on their own first.
In Australia students interact a lot and more easily than in China. Students in Australia learn by doing things on their own and interacting with their fellow students and they plan their own learning. These differences in education between China and Australia mark identity because identity is all about differences.
Identity is marked through symbols. As a matter of fact, symbols are very important for marking cultural identity and regeneration.
For example, national flag, food recipe and uniform are such symbols that identify individuals or groups. Australia has a national flag in which they take pride and which has become an expression of identity. It is the nation’s chief symbol and Australians respect it and use it with dignity.
Through symbols, individuals define their culture and are able to feel connected with their past. Moreover, symbols also connect the present with the future as they help to store or safeguard a people’s heritage. This is because the symbols have been there from the past and have been passed from one generation to the other.
For example in Australia, the ruling authority wanted to make the Union Jack as the uniting symbol. Many Australians were against this and they tried to create their own symbols in order to challenge the authorities and express their culture.
Many of these were rejected by the government which has in turn has made Australia remain seeking for symbols. Up to now, symbols still define much of political life in Australia and Australians are still trying to find new symbols. This shows how symbols are important in marking an identity of an individual or a nation.
Chinese boast when it comes to hospitality and this is clearly expressed by their way of life. In China they can easily invite a stranger in their homes and share with him their food and make sure he/she is full before leaving. It’s different in Australia because they are kind of wary of strangers than the Chinese people.
Identity is marked through social and material conditions. When it comes to drinking, alcohol is important for both Australians and Chinese. What makes the difference is the way of consumption. The Chinese get drunk very fast and it is acceptable for them to act in an uncontrolled manner while drunk.
For the Chinese drinking is a way of showing respect. On the other hand Australians drink more slowly while having a conversation and they don’t seem to like it when one starts to act in an uncontrolled manner due to drunkenness.
Sex is considered a taboo topic for discussion in China and in order for a woman to be respected and valued in marriage; she has to be a virgin. In Australia sex topics are not considered taboo and they are openly discussed and for a man to marry he doesn’t have to get a virgin woman.
This has caused many women and men to be sexually experienced before getting married. This for most of older Chinese is very immoral. It doesn’t mean that the Chinese are upright in behavior; they also have a number of practices that Australians find immoral.
Men in China find themselves in sexual unfulfilling marriages, this makes it acceptable for them to visit prostitutes or have mistresses. In Australia this is totally unacceptable. Chinese maintain their morality before getting married but after marriage it gets different while Australians maintain their morality in marriage.
Australia is a multicultural nation in which they have many different races, ethnic groups and cultures. In Australia there are the indigenous and non-indigenous people. The indigenous people are claimed to have been marginalized through colonization.
One of the major debates on the significance of belonging and culture is identity. Multiculturalism in Australia is about cultural diversity and has influenced greatly the identity of the nation. It values its racial and ethnic diversity by giving its people freedom to express their cultural values.
Multiculturalism in Australia has worked well because different cultures have been accepted by the people and the peaceful relationship between diverse cultures and individuals has been maintained.
Diversity in Australia has acted as a positive force in bringing the people of together by accepting each others different culture and this has been a very significant identity which the people of Australia take pride in.
Sports, music and art have provided Australia with an identity. It has been recognized worldwide through its achievements in sports.
They have been able to achieve this through a successful multicultural society and their sporting heroes are recognized and valued worldwide giving Australia an identity.
Connection between language, identity and cultural difference Hall’s explanation of the connection between language, identity and cultural difference has helped in explaining how these three connect. As Hall put it, identity is marked out by differences.
Different people speak different languages and this difference is what makes an individual identify with a particular group of people. There are different cultures and identity which exists between people and they are all marked by differences.
Identity representation has signifying symbols and processes which produce meanings through which we can know who we are and understand our experiences. This symbolic system makes us understand who we are and what we might be in future.
Representations of identity helps an individual see and know themselves. Culture shapes identity by giving meaning to our experiences in that we are able to define ourselves by relating to our cultural experiences.
Diaspora identities are those which are continuing to develop themselves a new through transformation and difference. Thus cultural identities go through constant transformation as it is about what you become and what you are. Cultural identities are the points of identification which are made throughout history of a culture.
In Australia multiculturalism has made it difficult for the government to approve a national cultural symbol because all cultures are equal and the people enjoy freedom of being individuals.
Social and symbolic markings are both important for the defining and maintaining of identities. Symbolic marking is how we look at and understand our social relations and practices while social differentiation is the way people live with these types of differences in their everyday relations.
Identities are formed and maintained because they mater so much and this is why people would always claim their positions and identify with them. Different people, cultures, ethnic groups and even religious groups claim a common culture as their foundation. Identity depends on difference and in social relations symbolic and social differences develop.
Foods people eat tell a lot about who they are and what culture we are in. Foods indicate religious as well as ethnic background and culture of a people, there are foods which are considered as unclean by other cultures or religious groups but are eaten by others.
Through such foods we are able to make an assumption or know which culture or religion one comes from, for example Muslims are identified for their avoidance of pork and this defines their religion.
This marks the identity of such groups who avoid certain foods and the identities of those who are part of a particular belief system and those who are not. The types of food people eat are materialistic because people eat what they are able to afford and what is available in their society.
Identities are made in relation to other identities, what they are not is what defines them and this brings the difference. Chinese art scenes are not as political as those of Australia and this is what marks the difference.
Cultural identities are histories which people share and thus make them one people or one culture. A Diaspora must discover this identity in order for them to express their cultural experiences.
Conclusion Around the world people define their cultural identity by stereotyping themselves. The stereotypes model the behavior that people want to copy and make people feel that they are part of a community and that they belong to a particular culture.
In Australia, individuals have appreciated the importance of identity and in order to confirm their identity, they have created stereotypes. The Australians take pride in their national unity and people from different cultures are all one and care for one another.
In conclusion, Hall’s argument that Identity is marked by differences is a valid one. Further, the interconnection he relates about language, culture and identity as illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs is a valid one.
Some differences are taken to be more important than others by different ethnic groups or cultures. One group might see themselves superior to the other and what they use as more important and great than the others.
Identity is also marked through social and material conditions. A group may be separated socially and disadvantaged materially if it is it is symbolically marked as an enemy or taboo.
Symbols mark distinctions which are present in social relations. In social relations people use different things and because an individual or group of people may think of theirs as better than others, it brings the distinction.
If a group is socially separated because it is marked as an enemy they will be materially disadvantaged because no one would want to associate with such group which is claimed to be a taboo or enemy.
Social relations may be organized and divided into opposing groups; one group may see themselves as better than the other and consider the other as nothing because of the different social backgrounds and cultures.
Reference List Hall, S. (1997). Cultural Identity and Diaspora. London: SAGE Publication
Hall, S. (1969). Commonwealth of Australia. London: Sage Publications
The Effect of Famine in North Korea Cause and Effect Essay online essay help: online essay help
The Asian continent is the world’s largest and most populous located mainly in the eastern and northern hemispheres. The population in Asia is estimated at about 4 billion people representing a whooping 60% of the world’s total human population as it currently stands (Lee 500).
The Pacific Ocean borders Asian to the east while India is to the south of Asia. Asia is also bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean. There are several independent states in Asia with China as the single largest country. It is these many countries that define Asia’s varying distribution of wealth.
It is also characterized by its immeasurable size and magnificent range of different cultures, historical backgrounds, environmental orientation, natural resources and different government systems.
The paper seeks to primarily focus on the effects of famine in North Korea. It will highlight its background information, the cause of famine in detail as well as the role of its government system in influencing economic development.
North Korea is a one of the countries in the larger Asia. It is also referred to as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) (Lee 513). Pyongyang is the largest and capital city of North Korea. It is divided from South Korea by The Korean Demilitarized Zone.
North Korea borders China to its western region and Russian to the North-east. In 1948, North Korea declined to participate in an election that was held in the south which was supervised by the United Nations. This refusal led to the creation of the current independent governments of North and South Korean states (Lee 517).
Continued tag of war for the sovereignty over the whole of Peninsula resulted in the Korean War in the year 1950. The war ended three years later with armistice but no peace treaty was ever signed which implies that the two states are still at war on book. The two states joined the UN in 1991 with North Korea withdrawing unilaterally from the armistice in May 2009.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As far as politics is concerned, North Korea has been a single-party state. Its united front is steered by the Korean Workers’ Party and is governed by the ideology of self-reliance known as Juche which was advocated by North Korea’s late “Eternal President” Kim Il-sung.
The ideology was made official in 1972 when the state adopted a new constitution. Juche had been used all along by Kim Il-sung to develop policies since mid 1950s. North Korea is officially a socialist republic but its operations have made other outside countries to regard it as a totalitarian Stalinistic characterized by dictatorship.
Kim Jong-il, Kim Il-sung’s son, is the current leader of the armed forces and secretary of the KWP Central Committee Secretariat. Kim Il-sung is the only president since he was never replaced when he died in 1994, but instead he was the given the name, “Eternal President”.
The ceasefire of 1953 marked the end of the Korean War but since then the relationship between the government of North Korea and America, Canada, Japan, Europe, the European Union, as well as South Korea has been tense (Eberstadt, Marc,
Presence Human Purpose and the Field of the Future Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Comparisons
The Book “Presence Human Purpose and the Field of the Future” by Senge et al (2007) is based on three main steps of leadership: Sensing, presencing and realizing. The book states that leadership presents a challenge for every one to become better, wholesome and reflective.
The book gets its name from the presencing step, whereby leaders are advised to retreat, observe and reflect in order to get a deeper understanding of why things happen the way they do.
This book suggests that fresh ideas and knowledge cannot be attained in a frenzy atmosphere and as such, leaders need to detach themselves from all the frenzy that goes on around them, take time to relax and meditate and as a result, come up with “non-decision decisions”.
Senge et al (2008) suggests that a good leader needs to understand his organization well in order to formulate leadership strategies that will be most effective. To this end, the book suggests that leaders need to attain both primary and analytical knowledge, since such is required in the leadership strategy formulation.
Accordingly, the book suggests that primary knowledge allows a leader develops compassion about specific things in an organization and hence he/she act spontaneously, without having to engage in decision-making when faced with items that falls within the primary knowledge.
Senge et al (2008) on the other hand argues that analytical knowledge is more deliberate and involves calculating the consequences of each action or decision that the leader makes.
Overall, this book views leadership as a role that requires a sound clear mind, that is able to tap through different capacities and opportunities through developing a vision, and integrating it into the organization culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book however states that leader should wake up from the notion that they are superior human beings and hence can be on a “doing” mode endlessly. “Leaders need substantial discipline to halt their anxieties and emotions, in order to refocus on what matters to them and the organization they are leading.”
Comparisons There is a striking difference between the book by Senge at al (2008) and “Getting to yes; negotiating agreement without giving in” by Fisher et al (1991). While the latter focuses mostly on the inner qualities that make good leaders, the other focuses on the interpersonal qualities that makes successful leadership.
Such are identified as: separating the problems from the people, focusing on interests rather than in positions, inventing options that would enhance mutual gains and insisting on objectivity as a criterion in decision making.
As their book title suggest, Fisher et al (1991) lays more emphasis on negotiating and winning, which is an aspect of good leadership.
Factors considered while choosing the right staff Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction In any given company, there are some techniques that are usually employed by the employers during the selection of the right personnel. Several factors are usually put into consideration during the selection of the employees.
Given the difference in needs in each organization, the factors considered while selecting the workers vary widely in each. Procedures are in essence followed during the evaluation of a member of the organization and questions are usually asked at this stage.
Questions are asked basing on the type of the job. The validity of the questions is usually low if there is not any connection between the questions and the job.
This manuscript will argue out that cancelling an interview and replacing it with paper-and-pencil measures is not the best elucidation to the jeopardy of interview validity and go further to discuss the factors that management should consider while choosing the staff.
Unstructured interviewing Whenever the validity of questions asked in choosing of the staff of a certain organization is low, the concerned individuals who are the employers need to find a substitute to the appraisal center. Since the right personell need to be found to help in boosting the profits in the companies, bias should not be entertained.
According to (Lowry 1994: 34) “unstructured interview has a lower validity and reliability and therefore when assessment is done, the alternative will be a structured interview.
The alternative is valid and less costly”. “Personnel selection for managerial and supervisory positions is important for efficient and effective conduct of business in both the private and public sectors” (Bernreuter 1933: 45).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to (Lowry 1994), an interview is a modus operandi that is premeditated to acquire information from a group of people basing on their verbal answers to verbal questions.
However, (Allport 1937 p.4) states that a “job selection interview aims at predicting future job performance based on applicant’s oral responses to oral inquiries”. (Seegal 2003: 32) states that,”it will be very unusual for an employer to hire someone without conducting an interview. Even though it has a low validity it should still remain an indispensiblbe tool”.
Interviewing is as a method of selection of staff is used worldwide. Research proves that seventy percent of companies in the Northern Ireland employ the unstrructured method of interview in order to aid in promotion of verdicts (Butcher 1995).
Impact of Knowledge Management on Nokia Corporation Coursework cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction This paper reviews literature relating to knowledge workers and its application to Nokia Corporation. It proposes a model to understand the way KM affects the organization, especially human resource management (Hannabuss, 2001). KM is a term used to refer to the management of the skilled and knowledgeable employees in an organization (Caddy, 2007).
Skilled and knowledgeable employees are important because they help the organization to utilize its competitive advantage in innovation (Henard
Concepts of HP Laptops Coursework college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Market Structure for HP laptops
Possible Strategies of HP Laptop Competitors
Introduction Today’s business and leisure activities run smoothly due to the emergency of new and supportive technologies. For example, since the emergency of personal laptop computers, people are able monitor their personal finances from time to time.
Moreover, networking, documentation and online chats keep on asserting new opportunities to lives of many. Numerous companies ranging from Dell to HP are manufacturing laptops for their clients. In order to make sure its laptop industry undergoes a revolution, Hewlett Packard Company has enacted modalities to create a viable market for their laptops.
Market Structure for HP laptops Over the recent years, HP laptops are the most sold in the market. The dominance in the market is because of their resilience in price control and upgraded technologies. Information technologists argue that, HP is able to regulate market economy through its peculiar products.
The quality of HP laptops is not a selfish guarantee of aggressiveness in the market, but rather market protectionism and increased sales.
In 2008, the number of HP laptops sold was greater by two million as compared to the second placed Dell laptops. The switch from personal computer desktops to laptops is responsible for HP laptop markets structure.
The market structure of HP laptops created because of increased shares, continue to outburst the laptop industry. HP laptops furnish both small and large enterprises through dyed-in-the-wool product contours.
Moreover, HP laptops dominate markets due to aggressive selling and excellent channel strategies that spout the ever-growing market segmentations. In fact, this explains why the market structure of HP laptops is bursting. (Kerridge, 2009, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, competition is high in the market. For other laptop manufacturing companies to increase their sales, they must overshadow HP products must first something that needs a lot of effort and finances. The increased sales from HP products are because of proper branding strategies that helped in achieving market recognition.
Increased HP shares are due to higher revenue generated from potential sales. Competitor companies like Dell, Acer and Toshiba are struggling to create brawny and superior illustrations, which will attract customer to buy their products (Display Search 2010, p.1).
Possible Strategies of HP Laptop Competitors HP has theme in their business outsourcing strategies and this is being a market leader of computer laptops. If other competitor companies are not up to the task of creating market strength of their laptops, then there is no way out they can create pressure on HP products unless they come up with innovations in the laptop technology.
Competitor companies presently also manufacture same commodities ranging from monitors to laptops something that HP has already done; hence, the need to come up with innovations to meet the ever increasing market competition they face from HP.
Other possible strategies from HP laptop competitors include cutting the price of their products between 14 and 20 percent to induce a war price market. Some companies like dell have now embarked on server growth mechanisms, which will act like an entry point into the HP monopolistic market.
It is true that HP does not dominate all markets in the world. As a way to bring competition, competitor laptop manufacturers should embark on opening new market places all over the world especially in places where HP products do not dominate the market.
On the other hand, it is important to note that, these HP competitors are now engaged in laptop up gradation to give them an upper hand over HP laptops. This has really helped these companies in attracting more customers toward their products.
We will write a custom Coursework on Concepts of HP Laptops specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In order to increase their sales through competition, I would like to see HP competitors launch new and featured laptop computers. For example, they can manufacture laptops with inbuilt TV tuner cards and modify the keyboard to a lighting one.
Another modality to counter HP laptops is to manufacture laptops that sell at a cheaper price. In addition to that, these companies ought to make numerous advertisements so that their commodities become conversant to customers. This will boost customer loyalty hence sales and greater revenue generation.
Reference List Display Search, 2010. HP Maintains 20% Worldwide Notebook PC Market Share in Q1’08; Gains Share on Rivals in 5 of 6 Regions; Mini-Note PC Market Forecast to Grow to More Than 13M Units in 2008. Display Search. Web.
Kerridge, M., 2009. The HP Laptop Industry. Linkvana. Web.
Nintendo Wii Report (Assessment) college application essay help: college application essay help
Abstract Nintendo is a games manufacturing in Japan. It was started a long time ago in the late 1800s (1880) by a man named Yamauch as small company producing playing cards for the Japanese market (Iwata, 2006).It was until 1970 through to 1985 that Nintendo started producing electronic toys and video games.
Nintendo was the dominant player in the video gaming industry for decades soaring in the success of both consoles and hand held games. This lasted until the entry of other players who saw an opportunity in the gaming business.
Sony launched its PS in the mid nineties while Microsoft came in with Xbox in 2001.This completely changed the face of the gaming industry because there was increased competition in terms of quality and innovativeness.
Introduction Nintendo had been in the gaming industry for many decades without any reasonable competition; they had almost total control of the market and therefore had conventional marketing strategies that perhaps were not as sophisticated as present day marketing strategies with so much competition in the market.
This analysis therefore seeks to critically look at the strategies employed by Nintendo before, upon the entry of competitors and any foreseen strategies that maybe employed. Microsoft and Sony’s strategies and mistakes will also be looked into and the some insight put on the way these strategies have changed the industry.
Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis is a means or strategy used to identify and closely look at the importance and influence of certain groups and/or individuals that could affect or get affected in some way by a particular project (Nager, 2009).
In Marketing, many groups are considered but the most important can be summarized in four C’s; Customers, Competitors, Company, Community (Nager, 2009). As Nager puts it” This 4C’s Analysis is based in part on the 3C’s Model of Dr.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kenichi Ohmae, a senior partner at McKinsey
Violent Non-State Actors Essay essay help
Admittedly, the major reason for the development of violent non-state agents (VNSA) is weakening of state power (Singer 2001-2002). These agents can operate on territories which are not controlled by a state. Therefore, the term “non-state” can become inappropriate since VNSA operate on areas where state is not represented by any force.
However, nowadays many states (and the United States is among them) have to face the necessity to resist VNSAs. The development of technology and globalization contributed greatly to the spread of VNSAs. There are many types of such agents, and some of them have gained considerable power nowadays.
Williams points out several major types of VNSAs which can be dangerous for the state power. Thus, the first type of VNSAs to be considered is warlords, charismatic leaders who usually have military background, and who oppose some policies of a state (Williams 2008, 9-15). Another type of VNSA is militia, a military formation which operates in a state where state power is weak.
Another type of VNSA singled out by Williams is paramilitary force. These forces usually originate from state military formations or even established by the government.
In this way, some states try to acquire cheaper military force. It is necessary to note that the existence of this type of VNSA also raises a question about the appropriateness of the term “non-state” since the state forms the violent agent, apart from (or even instead) of conventional state military force. Another type of VNSA is insurgencies, military formations which try to overthrow the government.
Terrorist organizations are now the VNSAs which attract much attention at present. These agents are usually a threat for countries where state power is properly established, e.g. the USA.
Finally, one more type of VNSAs, which are dangerous for a weaken state, are criminal organizations and youth gangs. Of course, these VNSAs jeopardized order in any country (on every level), but if the state power is well established such agents are usually neutralized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As has been mentioned earlier globalization, technology development and media are playing crucial role in VNSAs empowering. Thus, Kramer et al. claim that the development of electronics and information systems has put the problem of VNSAs on global scale (Kramer et al. 2009, 4).
At present such agents can easily interact with other agents: buy and sell armament, join military groups in different countries, provide technological, financial and other help to each other in order to reach certain aims (Singer 2001-2002). Basically, VNSAs have entered global market place which enables them to compete more successfully with state power.
As far as empowerment of VNSAs, especially when it deals with terroristic groups, it is necessary to emphasize that media “play an integral part” in the process (Zanini and Edwards 2001, 42). For instance, terroristic acts are aimed at attracting attention and news media help them to achieve their goals in quite an easy way.
In fact, the power of media is already acknowledged by VNSAs and many such groups have their own radio stations and television.
Thus, nowadays the struggle between states and VNSAs has shifted on another level. First, governments invest into the development of technology and information system to defeat VNSAs. This enables states to prevent violent acts, rather than try to overcome their aftermaths.
Admittedly, preventive tactics is very successful, though not all acts can be prevented nowadays (Jenkins 2010, 13). However, the development of technology and enactment of new more effective legislation can become a good background for successful struggle against VNSAs.
Reference List Jenkins, Brian Michael. 2010. Would-Be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist Radicalization in the United States since September 11, 2001. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
We will write a custom Essay on Violent Non-State Actors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kramer, Franklin D., Stuart H. Starr, and Larry K. Wentz, Eds. 2009. Cyberpower and National Security. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.
Singer, Peter W. 2001-2002. “Corporate Warriors: The Rise and Ramifications of the Privatized Military Industry”. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/corporate-warriors-the-rise-and-ramifications-of-the-privatized-military-industry/ .
Williams, Phil. 2008. Violent Non-State Actors and National and International Security. International Relations and Security Network (ISN). Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
Zanini, Michelle, and Sean J.A. Edwards. 2001. “The Networking of Terror in the Information Age.” In Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy, ed. Jon Arquilla and David Ronfeldt, 29-60. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
Human Rights System Essay essay help
The human right system as defined by the United Nation Human Rights System is a system whereby, the fundamental rights of humans are observed as well as character and worth of all the persons. Included in this system is the application of equal rights and system to all persons.
The United Nations have set a preamble on the rights that should be assigned to humans. The preamble preaches of application of human rights to all people with maximum fairness and campaigns against discrimination, whether on the age of the person or sexual orientation.
Many rights are discussed in the universal declaration of human rights proposal in regard to the rights of individuals in a given country. The thirty articles contained in this declaration all aim at ensuring that the people rights are observed at all means.
The rights speak of a general importance of the people having the equal rights to others and living together in the spirit of brotherhood. The purpose of human rights is to be able to protect human agency and to protect humans against abuse and oppression.
Negative freedom is fought against through the underlined rights. According to Ignatieff, the rights subsistence is also important as the right of agency, since both of them fight against torture (Gutman, 2001). Though the subsistence right is not, negative freedom is equally as bad because it causes cruelty and punishment to the people.
The importance of human right is to protect human agency, which is not always inclusive of the negative freedom only. However, just because human rights are enforced does not mean that the people will live a wonderful life. The sole purpose of these rights is to ensure that individuals do not face any kind of abuse and torture.
Proliferation of right is however discouraged, as setting out rights that are not necessarily needed to protect agency may weaken even the power of the enforcers. Achievement of the international human rights may be a problem due to proliferation of rights since it is hard to achieve an intercultural assent to rights. Human right also faces a problem of nationalism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By nationalism it means the right of self- determining. The problem with nationalism is that if it has to be practiced, the majority have their way while minority have just their say. Some people will benefit while others lose.
Ultimately, nationalism means that some rights will be observed and others violated; this is however not what human rights stands for since it seeks to make sure that the right of all individuals are observed and equality is the main driving force (Gutman, 2001).
The United Nation has a dream of creating a global community, which observes human rights. Anthropology plays a great role in this by carrying out a research on the different culture, and also monitoring the observance of rights and when need arises in fighting against incidences of violation of rights. Anthropology is a big advocator of the human rights through collectively fighting of human rights and for individuals.
Anthropologists have also shown great commitment in the political area, involving themselves in activities that fight away oppression in the society. Anthropology seeks to put back human back to their rights. Anthropologist can be of great help on the understanding of human rights through showing conceptions of rights, and how they function in different cultures.
For example, in Latin America traditionally citizenship excluded the locals and were subject to rights violations. Through the years anthropologists have studied the international law and tried to reform it to such a way that they revive legal pluralism. It is through this time that legal anthropology rose up that aimed at ensuring the right of individuals internationally.
A culture of transnational culture has been created where some countries like Hawaii have followed the international human rights law. Anthropology therefore embraces the need to have law in the society that guides the people (Wilson 2006).
Having the law will ensure that equality among the individuals is observed and the people in the society will have knowledge of the same. Incidences of violation of the rights are therefore minimal.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Rights System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Adams book on the suffering of winds of Lhasa, universal rights people are well advocated as compared to individualist rights of people. Vincanne is keen to note that the Tibetan refugees would endure lesser pain if the rights of all the individuals were considered. The data collected in this book reveal that the international rights were not followed.
The way they were fighting against the denial of the rights took them so long to get the independence, and it is only when they sort the rights universally that their views were heard (Adams, 2002). Culture is brought out as barrier to the rights of individually in the society, the fact that their culture embraced torture made them take long in fighting for their rights.
Sometimes, incidences of violence and suffering are important in adding the dimension of experience to the language of rights. Suffering brings understanding to the people of the accepted human suffering right to the people. The same is expressed in the anthropology theory where we are deemed to imagine ourselves living the lives of other people and enjoy the treatment they enjoy.
Instances of having political violence and atrocity are some of the ways the human rights of people can be denied. According to Humphrey (2002), violence does not only to cause injury, but also destroy the human life. In such a setting where the political violence is in existence, the rights of people are usually not practiced and oppression is high.
After the end of the violence, the only way to ensure that such violation does not occur again is ensuring that there is closure among the affected parties. Achieving closure means that the victims’ rights are observed and those in the violation of the rights are subjected to the justice of the later or international justice (Humphrey, 2002). S
ometimes the rights of the victim are seen as an obstacle to political change. Such a notion should not exist since for justice to be there, it is necessary to have people’s rights being observed.
Observance of the rights laid down is not usually followed especially in scenarios involving politics. Internationally, there have been various incidences of violence and this time through violation and lack of awareness to the general public. Application of rights right down by the United Nation is not always followed.
The right against oppression, which is highlighted in their declaration of human rights is not followed in some countries; Argentina is one of the countries that has faced this problem. Military dictatorship around the1970s denied the people their rights by subjecting them to oppression, torture, and imprisonment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Rights System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this time, the constitution was not followed and rights against the people were denied. Pressure amounted from the international community that led to formation of human right groups that fought impunity. It is through the meetings between these groups that pushed the authority to stop oppression and embrace transition.
Truth and justice commission emerged at this point, and were campaigned for democracy (Bosco, 2004). Creation of democracy led the government to engage in attempts to set up ways of ensuring that the justice in the country is observed, as well as a frame work of ensuring human rights are followed.
To the local people, some individuals have gone to the extent of putting up memorial landscapes that are historical to the people, reminding them of the time their rights were being violated. Madres de Plaza de Mayo is one of the symbols used in Argentina, that acts as a reminder to the general public of having the rights of the public (Bosco, 2004).
The symbols are reminders of the visitors as well as the public of the past and how oppressive it was to them. Rituals have also been used as a symbol of fighting incidences of lack of issuing of rights. The fact that they are collective can offer a commemoration to all the people of importance of the past as well as the need to observe human rights.
Education to the local public of their rights has been promoted through various methods. Among them has been setting up Truth and Reconciliation bodies. In these bodies, the cause of the violence is determined as well as the reasons that led to the occurrence of the violence.
According to Humphrey (2002), it is not always that these bodies offer justice to the public, as in some instances, for example the incident is South Africa: So that the truth can be determined, the violators of these rights were given amnesty to unreveal the truth that would set closure to the general public. Humphrey highlights that the testimony has more importance than meeting the individuals’ physiological needs.
Giving these testimonies also involved transformation and creation of a culture of having human rights being observed. Humphreys is also keen to note that the international court can be used to offer justice to the individuals who have been involved in massive denial of rights (Humphrey, 2002).
Through this system, the public rights can be fought against as well as ensure that justice is practiced. Having trial is one of the steps that can be taken to ensure that the general population has recovered from the violence times. Morality is also instilled by this move. However, this is not always enough, working with the memory of the past is important in ensuring that the political reality is created in the country.
Human rights are important among individuals in any society. They enhance the spirit of living in harmony among the individuals in the society. There are many theories that explain the need to have practice of right. Among them is the anthropology theory that stresses on the need of collective fight for peoples’ rights (Wilson, 2006).
There is no need to just highlight the rights that people have without ever ensuring that the rights are given to the people. Justice is also an important element in offering the rights of the people; individuals involved in violence against other people, whether political or not, should be accountable for their actions.
There is also the need to have a truth and justice commission to bring healing to a country that has suffered great violence, and also trials to individuals involved. To a country involved in violence, there is need to set a reminder to the future generation where the country has come from, to ensure that it does not happen again. Setting out symbols can be one of the solutions that remind the locals of where they have come from.
List of References Adams, V. (2002) Suffering the Winds of Lhasa: Politicized Bodies, Human Rights, Cultural difference, and Humanism in Tibet, in The Anthropology of Globalization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Bosco, F. J. (2004) Human rights Politics and scaled performances of memory: conflicts among the Madres De Plaza De Mayo in Argentina. Social
Nanophase Technologies Marketing Mix Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Nanophase Business strategy
Nanophase is a company dealing in some of the latest technologies available today. Nanotechnology is being seen as the greatest inventions of the modern day. This being the case, Nanophase is a pioneer commercial enterprise dealing in the new technology.
The most notable character of the company’s business organization is that it is market oriented. The company is focused on developing technologies which are commercially viable based on nanotechnology. The most important sector offering the largest customer base for the company is the manufacturing sector.
It is clear that all business entities are aimed at optimizing the resources available to them. This being the case, Nanophase was established to offer the new technology which has the potential to revolutionize the way manufacturing processes are conducted.
Due to the above described characteristics, the company operates a customer orientation model of business. The most important principle of this business model is that the customer is king. The company has to constantly develop customized technologies to suite the unique requirements of the entire spectrum of customer base.
Due to the expansiveness of application of the technology, product development becomes a major component of the company’s business model. New products are continually being developed as a way of expanding the customer base for the company as the new technology is yet to be fully entrenched in the market.
However despite the wide application of nanotechnology, the company mainly focuses on products and market opportunities in material science which can be developed within a time frame of 12 to 18 months (Brady,
Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Essay essay help online free
Introduction This paper aims to discuss the application of the two-factor theory in project management. This model was introduced by Frederick Herzberg in late fifties, and since that time it has become very popular among business administrators.
Our key task is to show how project management can use it to motivate the employees who participate in the design and construction process such as architects, contractors, interior designers, and other professionals.
Project managers perform a great variety of functions such as planning, staffing or organizing (Demkin, 693); however, ability to provide a stimuli to employees is an important part of their competencies and skills. At this point, Herzberg’s two-factor theory has already proved to be successful areas of business administrators, and it is vital to show how project managers can benefit from it.
The key premises of Herzberg’s two-factor theory Yet, at first it is necessary to discuss some underlying premises of this theory. It stems from the idea that there are two kinds of factors that affect a person’s attitude toward his/her job. The group called motivators includes opportunities for professional growth, career advancement, recognition, or responsibility (Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 133).
In other words, motivators are those forces which prompt an employee to fulfill his/her potential. In turn, one has to speak about the so-called hygiene factors. This group comprises such factors as job security, compensational policies of a company, working conditions, relations with the management etc (Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 133).
According to Herzberg, they do not contribute to the creation of dissatisfaction, but their absence inevitably leads to the discontent among employees (Herzberg as cited in Schermerhorn 299). The main reason for it is that hygiene factors are not directly related to professional skills or personal qualities of an employee.
The key argument advanced by the supporters of the two-factor theory is that one cannot motivate employees only by offering them higher wages or fringe benefits. In their opinion, one has to change the nature of work: it must be made more creative or challenging.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Again, it must force the employee to demonstrate his or her best quality. This idea lies at the core of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and on its basis, business administrators enhance the performance of the employees. It has to be admitted that Herzberg’s theory of motivation is not the only one, to some degree is very Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Maslow also argued that every person strives to fulfill his/her creative potential (Maslow as cited in Tosi, Mero, Rizzo, 132); however, Herzberg’s two-factor theory is more adapted toward the needs of management. This is why it seems to be most beneficial for the needs of project managers and other business administrators.
The use of two-factor theory in project management Challenges faced by project managers
Project managers who specialize in construction and design can find this approach very useful. They cooperate with different professionals in the course of their work, namely architects, engineers, consultants, exterior and interior designers, builders, and so forth. Each of these groups sets different expectations for the work, and they must be taken into account.
Another challenge, faced by project managers is that they need to motivate employees who do not work directly for them; moreover, project managers are often perceived as organizers and facilitators rather than motivators (Flame, 257).
As it has been pointed out by David Haviland, project managers, working in construction sphere, deal with high-skilled professionals and traditional method of “carrots and sticks” is not applicable for them (Haviland, 8). These are the issues that should be taken into consideration. In part, David Haviland’s argument confirms the two-factor theory.
At this point, we need to explain how this model can be applied by project managers. For instance, one can take architects; these professional have to possess a great of skills, including technical competence, in-depth understanding of the construction process, profound knowledge of modern technologies, etc.
However, the key component is creativity, and this component seems to be the most rewarding part of being an architect. This is why a project management must provide this person with opportunities for demonstrating his creative talent. It can be done in several ways: on the one hand, the project manager should relax supervision of these employees: they must understand that the project manager puts trust in them.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the project should not restrict their creative capacity. Certainly, an architect has to adhere to a certain style and also take into consideration the needs of people who will occupy the building but no one should be telling architects how exactly they must design a building.
In this way, one would greatly diminish their job satisfaction. Similar strategies can be applied to exterior and interior designers. Overall, these people attach the highest importance to creativity, and project managers must make sure that they have such an opportunity.
Furthermore, project managers work directly with many contractors and consultants. If we are speaking about motivators, we need to single out such factors as empowerment and recognition. These professionals need to receive a certain degree of autonomy and especially ability to make independent decisions. Moreover, one should not overlook the role of recognition.
For instance, while assessing the performance of the workers, the project manager should record every contribution made by consultants, engineers, contractors. If one of them has made recommendations that can facilitate the process of construction, the project manager should definitely recognize this contribution. Those employees, who continuously contribute to the success of the project, should be promoted.
Without recognition and advancement, they people may think that the manager does not value them, and they will gradually become dissatisfied with their work. As we have demonstrated, those people, who take part in construction and design projects, tend to set different expectations for their jobs.
For some of them, creativity is of the highest priority, while others may pay more attention to recognition and advancement. In some cases, this difference can be explained by the peculiarities of the job, itself; yet, very often expectations depend on the personnel traits of an employee.
It is a duty of a project manager to understand what exactly people expect from their job; otherwise, he or she will find it very difficult to motivate them.
Nonetheless, one should not disregard the importance of hygiene factors such as salary, job security, work condition, managerial policies of the company, etc. The project manager has to make sure that every person receives adequate compensation for his/her work.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, the project manager should make sure that each member of the personnel does not feel insecure about his or her position in the company since this is one of those factors which lead to discontent and even force employees to search for a different job.
Finally, the project manager must ensure that each consultant, engineer, contractor is occupied with a task that directly matches his/her skills since this is an essential part of work conditions. As a rule, hygiene factors do not provide a powerful stimulus to the employees but they are essential for avoiding employee dissatisfaction.
Conclusion This discussion shows that two-factor theory advanced by Frederick Herzberg can be of great use to project managers who are working on construction and design projects. Their major task is to improve the first group of factors which are usually called motivators.
The thing is that a project manager must know exactly which factor provides the most powerful stimulus to the employees. In some cases, it can be the opportunity to demonstrate one’s creative skills without restrictions, while some employees can value recognition and advancement. Hygiene factors seem to have a similar effect on the workers satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Works Cited Demkin. J. The architect’s handbook of professional practice. NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2008. Print.
Flame. J. The new project management: tools for an age of rapid change, complexity, and other business realities. London: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Print.
Haviland. David. Managing Archtectural Projects: The Effective Project Manager. American Institute of Architects. 1985.
Levi. Sidney. Project Management in Construction. Cambridge: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. Print.
Schermerhorn John. Exploring Management. New Jersey. John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.
Tosi. Henry. Mero Neal, and Rizzo Mero. Managing organizational behavior. NY Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. Print
Waldrep. Lee. Becoming an Architect: A Guide to Careers in Design. Lomdon John Wiley and Sons, 2009. Print.
Work Values Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Influence of Work Values on Employee Commitment
Introduction The purpose of this essay will be to determine the influence of individual work values on the commitment of an employee to an organization. This essay will seek to define the meaning of work values and also employee commitment and how work values influence the commitment of an employee to an organization.
The type of organization that will be evaluated will be a multinational telecommunications corporation (Vodafone) that has a high number of employees and handles a large customer base.
The essay will seek to determine the kind of organizational factors that exist within the multinational company that affect the work values and organizational commitment of the employees as well as the available structures of work values that are used in many multinational organizations around the world.
The discussion will mostly involve the use of American literature and research work that is available for the last ten years which has offered extensive feedback on the topic.
The focus on Vodafone will be suitable for this study given the diverse number of employees that work for the multinational company around its global offices. The company employs over 80,000 employees around the world who are from diverse ethnic backgrounds and possess individual work values that are necessary when it comes to their job performance.
The study will therefore discuss the concepts of work values and employee commitment by focusing on the global telecommunications company so as to gain a more practical interaction of how work values influence or affect employee commitment to an organization.
Work Values The concept of work values has continued to receive increasing interest amongst various scholars and researchers around the world, especially with regards to its influence on the individual commitment of an employee to their organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To better understand the concept, work values are referred to as the set of traits or qualities that are considered to be important by an employee in the performance of their work duties and responsibilities. They are also defined as those qualities that employees within an organization desire to have when performing their work.
Work values are viewed as measures of employee performance since they determine the efficiency and effectiveness of a worker when it comes to completing certain tasks within the organization.
They also provide a measure of the work preferences, ethics, culture and beliefs of the employee, which prove to be beneficial when it comes to performing organizational tasks. Work values also provide a measure of personal need and satisfaction as they allow an employee to reflect upon their individual goals and objectives in the workplace and what they have to do to satisfy their needs (Levy 2003).
Dose (Cited by Matic 2008) defined work values as the standards of evaluation related to work, which employees used to measure the importance and significance of work preferences.
Dose further categorises work values to fall under two dimensions with the first dealing with work values that are based on moral dimensions and the second dealing with the degree of consensus that exists on the importance and desirability of particular work values.
According to Matic (2008), the very first studies of work values were conducted to explain the differences of employee performance and worker motivation when it came to job performance.
Researchers such as Hoppe and Hofstede, who were some of the theorists that conducted early studies on the effect of work values, had their research work incorporated into the development of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and also Herzberg’s explanation of intrinsic and extrinsic needs.
We will write a custom Essay on Work Values specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Matic (2008) noted that Hofstede and Hoppe’s work played an important part in providing a theoretical explanation of how work values motivated employees to perform their work duties.
Based on both current and recent research, work values present a strong implication for many managers as they determine the level of motivation an employee will have towards their job and also the kind of job satisfaction employees will derive from performing their work duties.
Before assigning any duties and tasks, managers usually observe the work values of their employees so that they can be able to determine what work ethic and motivation they possess when carrying out their work duties.
Vodafone, as a multinational corporation, is constantly facing changing and evolving management practices, which has forced its management to continually re-evaluate the work duties and responsibilities of their employees.
In doing so, the company also has to consider the individual work values of its employees to ensure that the management practices and work duties do not conflict with the individual behaviours of an employee. Therefore identifying the work values of an employee plays an important role in redefining work duties and responsibilities within an organization.
According to Hofstede (2001), the work values possessed by an individual worker are usually significant for two reasons; the first of which being that they provide an excellent measure of an employee’s work ethic since they are determined by sociological and cultural factors.
The second reason is that work values have a direct impact on the various faucets and activities that occur within an organization such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, conflict resolution and employee commitment to the organization.
As a result of this, many organizations around the world have restructured their activities to encompass work values, which will be important in achieving value congruence in business operations (Hofstede 2001).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Work Values by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Because the image of an organization is closely linked to the work ethics the organization wants to convey to its various stakeholders, the individual work values of an employee in all the levels of management become increasingly important, especially for a corporation such as Vodafone that has a large employee base.
Work values become important since they provide managers with a perspective of what is right and wrong within an organization
According to Matic (2008), work values encompass emotions, cognitive processes and behaviour that are related to the performance of work duties and responsibilities where employees demonstrate work value characteristics such as individuality, punctuality, attentiveness, subjectiveness and cooperation towards their organizational tasks and duties.
The personality of an individual is also an important factor when it comes to determining the work values of an employee and this, therefore, contributes to the overall performance of an employee in their work duties. The implication of work values on multinational corporations becomes important, especially when it comes to organizational performance and leadership.
Given the large numbers of employees who work for Vodafone, job performance becomes a top priority due to the large volume of customer queries that are handled by the global telecommunications company in a day or an hour.
Leadership also becomes important to such an organization, especially when managers have to delegate certain roles to their junior staff, such as monitoring the floor operations of the call centre or monitoring the number of calls that have been made in an hour.
Apart from organizational performance and leadership, other implications of work values to an organization are that they assist managers to prepare employees during periods of change, they assist human resource managers to develop suitable and effective reward/compensation systems, they affect changes in management practices and leadership styles and they facilitate open communication within an organization (Li, 2008).
Employee Commitment Employee commitment, which is at times referred to as organizational commitment is the psychological attachment that an employee has to their place of work.
The most common measures that are used to determine the commitment of an employee to an organization include job satisfaction which deals with the feelings an employee has towards their job and organizational identification which is the degree of belonging and oneness that an employee derives from working for an organization.
To further explain employee commitment, Meyer and Allen developed a three-component model of commitment that would be used to identify the various types of commitment that existed within an organization (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).
The affective commitment level, which is the first part of the model refers to the positive emotional attachment that an employee demonstrates towards their workplace. According to Meyer and Allen, employee’s who were affectively committed to an organization were able to identify with the goals and objectives of an organization which in turn enabled them to have sense of belonging.
Employees who demonstrated affective commitment usually did so because they personally wanted to display attachment and loyalty to the organization. The second part of the model was referred to as continuance commitment which refers to an individual’s commitment to the organization based on their perceived cost of losing organizational membership.
This perceived loss is in terms of economic benefits which the employee gains from committing to an organization, social costs such as friendship ties with co-workers and also financial costs such as rewards and compensations that arise from belonging to an organization (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).
The third part of Meyer and Allen’s commitment model was normative commitment which refers the feelings of obligation that an employee has towards an organization. These feelings are usually derived from a variety of sources such as when an organization has invested in the training and development of the employee.
An employee in such a case feels obligated to the organization to work extra hard in their work duties so that they can be able to repay the organization for the training exercise. This three-component model of employee commitment therefore explains the various levels/types of commitment that an employee has towards an organization.
According to Mutheveloo and Rose (2005), the concept of employee commitment forms the basis for most human resource management activities within an organization as most human resource policies are directed towards increasing the level of employee commitment with an organization.
Various researchers such as Meyer et al. have set out to identify the various types of employee commitment by viewing them as constructs that can be used to explain the attitudes and behaviours of employees when performing their work duties.
Meyer et al. developed three groups that would be used to explain employee commitment to an organization with the first group being commitment to their work or job where employees demonstrated feelings of attachment towards their job and work responsibilities. Employees with this kind of commitment derived a sense of job satisfaction because of their commitment to work (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).
Work/job commitment according to the researchers did not however refer to the level of commitment that an employee had to the organization or their jobs. It instead focused on the level of their commitment towards the employment itself where an employee’s sense of duty towards their work was seen as a strong measure of employee commitment.
The second group according to Meyer et al. was career/professional commitment where employees demonstrated a sense of commitment or attachment to jobs that guaranteed them career progression. This category also explained employee attachment to be in the form of any professional training offered to an employee that was meant to improve their professional qualifications (Mutheveloo and Rose 2005).
The third category that would be used to explain employee commitment according to Meyer et al. was organizational commitment which refers to the willingness of employees to accept organizational goals, objectives, beliefs and values as their own by working to achieve them.
The researchers noted organizational commitment was a subset of employee commitment as it required the full involvement and participation of employees in work-related activities Other researchers who developed models that could be used to explain employee commitment within an organization include Angle and Perry with their 1981 model of value commitment, O’Reilly and Chatman with their multidimensional model of compliance, identification and internalization and Jaros et al. with their multidimensional model of affective, continuance and moral levels of employee commitment (Muthuveloo and Rose 2005).
These categorizations and models of employee commitment demonstrate the importance of employee commitment when it comes to motivation to perform work duties within the workplace.
Vodafone has conducted various employee satisfaction surveys to determine the level of commitment that its employees have to the company. These surveys usually take place once every year and they are usually conducted with the sole purpose of determining employee commitment to the global telecommunications company.
The survey also assesses job security, career progression within the company, management practices of senior executives within the organization as well as the overall satisfaction of employees within the organization. The two most important indicators that are used in the survey include employee commitment and employee satisfaction as they form the benchmark of Vodafone in all the international and local divisional offices.
Influence of Work Values on Employee Commitment According to researchers such as Mottaz, Bruning and Snyder, work values play a significant role in the commitment of an employee to an organization, especially when the work values manifest themselves in the behaviour of the employee.
These researchers highlight the fact that employee commitment usually arises from a set of values displayed by an employee towards their work for an extended period of time. Researchers such as Huang, Kidron and Charanyanada have viewed work values to be a major influence of employee commitment because work values strengthen the attachment an employee has towards their organization.
Charanyanada in his 1980 study highlighted the fact that an employee’s investment of time and energy demonstrated the reciprocal relationship that existed between commitment and work values (Ho 2006).
Since work values encompass the behaviour and personality of an individual, the interaction that exists between the individual’s personal characteristics and their work environment is termed to be dynamic as it determines the level of commitment that the employee will have towards the organization.
If the interaction is weakened over time, the individual might lose their sense of commitment forcing them to leave the organization and if the interaction is reinforced the individual might decide to increase their level commitment to the organization by engaging in more work duties.
The various characteristics that make up an employee’s work values, therefore, have a direct influence on the commitment of the employee to the organization (Ho 2006).
Work values according Wollack (cited by Ho 2006) are an important construct of employee commitment to an organization as they play an integral role when it comes to influencing the affective responses of an employee in their place of work. Wollack argues that the work values an employee possesses are usually gained from past work experience within the organization and they, therefore, play an important in determining how an employee will perform their work duties within the organization.
Wollack continues further with his argument on the influence work values have on the commitment of an employee by stating that the personal characteristics of an individual employee usually interact with the stimuli and environmental conditions that exist in the workplace to form the work values that an employee possesses (Ho 2006).
According to other researchers such as Brown who conducted his studies in 1996, Mathieu and Zajac who conducted their studies in 1990 and Rabinowitz and Hall who conducted their studies on work values in 1977, work values have an effect on the overall commitment of an employee to the organization as they represent the three work attitudes that are required from all employees which include job involvement, career salience and organizational commitment.
Because work values represent the psychological investment an employee has placed on their work, they play a great role in determining whether an employee will remain loyal and attached to the organization.
Rokeach concedes that work values are usually gained during the socialisation process that an employee goes through once they become oriented to the organization. Rokeach also concedes that the most valuable socialisation for a human being usually occurs in the home during their formative years and at work when they begin to shape their careers (Ho 2006).
Other researchers who have conducted investigations into the relationship between work values and organizational commitment include Putti et al. in 1989 (cited by Ho 2006) where they noted that the intrinsic work values of an employee had a more direct impact on employee commitment when compared to the extrinsic work values.
Intrinsic values refer to those factors that determine whether the employee’s work is interesting or challenging while the extrinsic values refer to the job benefits an employee gains from tasks that are unrelated to the work job. An example of an extrinsic value is good pension plans, holiday allowances and good medical cover (Ho 2006).
Employees working for multinational telecommunication companies such as Vodafone have demonstrated both extrinsic and intrinsic work values as they both determine the rates of employee turnover in the company, employee motivation and job satisfaction.
According to Tayyab and Tariq (2001 cited by Ho 2006), intrinsic work values were related to normative or norm-based employee commitment to an organization while the extrinsic work values had a relation to the reward-based commitment employee demonstrated towards an organization.
The two authors also identified the existence of a positive correlation between intrinsic work values and the commitment of employees by particularly focusing on executives who worked for the private sector. Based on this relationship, they were able to ascertain that these executives were more committed to an organization when their personal work values were in congruence with those of their direct line managers (Ho 2006).
Huang noted that work values such as employee responsibility and personal achievement were perfect indicators of the level of employee commitment as well as job satisfaction and involvement. Huang also believed that the more work values an employee possessed, the higher their level of commitment to the organization.
Other researchers Lee and Chung (2001, cited by Ho 2006) identified the instrumental work values that exist within most multinational corporations such as Vodafone that have an impact on employee commitment within an organization.
These work values include the stability and freedom of anxious considerations which according to the two researchers was the strongest influencing factor of employee commitment to an organization.
The consideration of economic security was the second most important factor that influenced employee commitment followed by social interaction considerations which involved the social interactions that employees had with their colleagues in the workplace.
The consideration of stability and freedom had a direct influence on the retention commitment of an employee, which meant that low job stability was more than likely to contribute to high employee turnover rates (Ho 2006).
The consideration of security and economic costs directly influenced the effort commitment of an employee where the amount of economic compensation, pension benefits, medical allowance and other employee benefits determined the level of input they placed in their work duties.
The social interaction consideration had the greatest influence on the value commitment of an employee where the social relationships an employee is able to have in an organization determine the level of their commitment to the organization.
Properly identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors/work values that are possessed by each individual employee will contribute further to the proper understanding of how work values can be used to improve organizational performance.
Conclusion This discussion has dealt with the concepts of work values and employee commitment within an organization and also how work values influence employee commitment to an organization. Various research work and studies have been conducted on whether work values affect employee commitment and this study has been able to refer to these works so as to build the discussion.
As noted in the study, most of the findings have demonstrated that work values have an effect or influence on employee commitment as they determine the level of motivation and job satisfaction and employee has towards their job.
Work values play an important role in determining the intrinsic and extrinsic work values possessed by an employee when performing their work duties. The study has therefore been able to ascertain that work values play a significant role in the commitment of an employee to an organization.
References Hofstede, G., (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications
Ho, C. C., (2006) A study of the relationships between work values, job involvement and organizational commitment among Taiwanese nurses. Published Thesis. Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology
Levy, P. E., (2003) Industrial/organizational psychology: understanding the workplace. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin
Li, W., (2008) Demographic effects of work values and their management implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, pp 875-885
Matic, J. L., (2008) Cultural differences in employee work values and their implications for management. Management, Vol.13, No.2, pp 93-104
Muthuveloo, R., and Rose, R., (2005) Typology of organizational commitment. American Journal of Applied Science, Vol.2, No. 6, pp 1078-1081
Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Aims and objectives of the book under review
Introduction Mary Shelley’s story of Frankenstein and the monster remains one of our contemporary myths. This study reviews this myth by analyzing its history in literature in the pre-film times, beginning with an examination of the strings of meaning arising out of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in respect of the political “monstrosity” images occasioned by the French Revolution.
Baldrick goes on to trace the erratic makeovers of the myth in the imaginary tales of Lawrence, Hoffmann, Melville, Hawthorne, Conrad, and Dickens, as well as in writings of Carlyle and Marx (12).
Discussion Monstrosity, according to Baldrick, is to be construed as that was regularly applied as a figure of a specific vice or transgression (13). And when the monster is the king, the quintessence of regal/imperial power whose sanctions or privileges drew expressly from a celestial source, the moral lesson offers even much more fascinating consequences, since a monster-king almost entirely appears as a symbol of God’s trial for the sins and mistakes of a nation or country (14-15).
Baldrick further establishes that “the representation of fearful transgression, in the figure of physical deformity, arises as a variant of that venerable cliché of political discourse, the body politic” (14). He also goes on to contend that in such cases where political turmoil and revolt appear, the ‘body’ is said to be sickly, unproductive, and distorted/ deformed monstrous (15).
In addition, Baldrick concedes that as the state is put in jeopardy to such an extent that it can no longer be reasonably associated with a central and hallowed totality (that is ‘the king’s body’), then the “humanity recognizable form of the body politic is lost, dispersed into a chaos of dismembered and contending organs” (14).
Further Research What Was Victor Frankenstein’s Laboratory Like? 5 541 Describe the Island Where Frankenstein Created a She-Monster 5 22 How Does Elizabeth Die in Frankenstein? 5 89 In Frankenstein, Who Cares for Victor When He Is Stricken with a Fever? 5 95 Lack of appreciation is a monster that relates to another element of monstrosity, and Baldrick stresses that it is the “vices of ingratitude, rebellion, and disobedience, particularly towards parents, that most commonly attract the appellation ‘monstrous’: to be a monster is to break the natural bonds of obligation towards blood-relation” (13).
In Frankenstein, therefore, the most notable attribute of the association between the creator and the creature is insurgency, resistance, or disobedience, regardless of how much it can be reasonable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Baldrick’s ‘In Frankenstein’s Shadow’ is an indispensable input to what is promptly gaining primacy as decisive and learned compromise regarding the integral nature of Mary Shelly’s narrative to the comprehension of the two concepts of the Romantic ‘spirit of the age’ and of mythical modernism (15).
Baldrick convincingly explores and analyzes the extent to which the ‘myth of modernism’ and Shelly’s discourse permeated the 1800s, particularly in England, France, and Germany.
It is to be appreciated here. Thus, that of significance is affectionate, motherly, and fostering presence in the rearing of a child. Mastery of language and a myriad of emotions, and isolation and lack of motherly or relational love and care alter personality into a real monstrous self (24).
The damage and waste occasioned by the constant fights between the creator and the creature have been construed as a warning of the imminent dangers of contemporary science.
Aims and objectives of the book under review In his new and fascinating book, Chris Baldrick (1987) reviews the importance of monstrosity in respect of the 1800s writings with a concentration on the significance of monstrosity in the context of the nineteen-century writing, focusing on the classification of Frankenstein as a myth.
In fact, Baldrick succeeds in impressing upon us the contention or assertion that “in modern usage, ‘monster’ means something frighteningly unnatural or of enormous dimensions” (10).
Conversely, prior usages which persist to the 1800s, the term ‘monster’ was associated with such implications/undertones which were both physical and obviously moral and as Baldrick contends, the ultimate goal is: “to reveal the results of vice, folly, and unreason visibly, as a warning to erring humanity” (10).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this, he succeeds by comparing colonialism and imperialism to the monster, which was created by humans but which has finally turned against them.
He goes on to propose that, in general, sense, it is worth appreciating that the monster is “one who has far transgressed the bounds of nature as to become a moral advertisement” (12). Therefore, one who disobeys authority is a monster.
Critique In spite of the wits and lots of significance that Baldrick’s review project, it is pretty obvious that he fails to invoke other writers’ ideas in expounding on the subject. Notable here is his failure to refer to Richard III, yet this is an excellent resource worth being consulted.
Therefore, my belief is that the story/drama maintains reasonable associations with the skeptic’s contentions, in which Richard III appears to provide a connection in the main chain of the handling of monstrosity resulting in the theoretical framework which appears in Frankenstein.
More on the Topic Which of the Conflicts in Frankenstein Drives the Story Forward? 5 102 How Has Victor Changed by the End of Frankenstein? 5 237 Which Quote from Frankenstein Brings Out the Theme of Revenge in the Novel? 5 175 What Is Frankenstein’s Monster’s Name? 5 59 From a conflict perspective, therefore, the monster here stands for the industrial working class, the fodder of the owners of the means, the obliteration of the body politic by the masses during the French Revolution, and a dystopia born of excessively massive growth in population (16).
Baldrick’s view of both the monster and the intended companion as subalterns and less human is central to the process and practice of colonization and the whole concept of imperialism, in which the colonial master is powerful and superior compared to the powerless and inferior servant/slave. The novel further generates, unexpectedly, patriarchal anxiety arising from the fact that the author, Shelly, is a woman (45).
Though the completion of this novel might have gained the impetus from the desires of both Mary and her husband, such other factors as debates between the vitalism and materialism school of thoughts might also have motivated the completion.
Conclusion The central thesis of the book is an actual nightmare of being held up in a monster that is disturbed by its own image on top of being frowned at, shunned and avoided by the society, qualify as a social repugnant.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Frankenstein’s Historical Context: Review of “In Frankenstein’s Shadow” by Chris Baldrick by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This novel essentially proposes to the contemporary reader to rethink the position and propositions of science, especially in view of such controversial subjects as genetic engineering and other areas where modern technology is highly appropriated. The book also succeeds in impressing upon us the need to reconsider the association we have with our own body and its association with the universe.
This Baldrick proposes to be done by questioning the preconceived viewpoints of aesthetics, especially the manner in which the creature is shunned by the society by virtue of its physical appearance. Finally, Baldrick reveals that the myth’s most influential associations have “centered on human relationships, the family, work, and politics” (33).
Culture in Organization Essay college essay help online
Introduction Successful organizations are always highly focused and have profound understanding of their customers’ needs, the competitive environment, and economic realities. This can be attained through implementation of high performance work practices and effective management of the workforce (Pfeffer, 1998).
According to Schein, one important aspect of successful organization is organizational culture, which is defined as a set of unique values or beliefs shared by members in an organization (Schein, 2004, p.12).
Alternatively, organizational culture is also defined as a system of shared meaning in an organization (Dwevedi, 1995, p.9). Organizational culture has some key components including shared values, norms, expectations and assumptions (Fong
Critical Close Reading of Benedict Anderson’s ‘Introduction’ in his “Imagined Communities” Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
In his Imagined Societies, Benedict Anderson proposes that nations are imagined political communities, which are limited in scope and are self-governing. He argues that a nation is an imagined community because members of nation who may not know each other but still have same national identity (Anderson 1991, p.7).
Anderson insists that the “end of the era of nationalism” is prevalent with the current globalization. He emphasizes imagination plays an important part in creating a national identity.
He rejects the Marxist theories on nationalism based on the war between Cambodia, China, and Vietnam; countries that uphold the Marxist ideologies. He further argues that revolutions have negative implications on nations and nationalism. He supports this argument by giving a historical account of the Soviet Union’s disintegration into smaller nations, which has rendered nation-states irrelevant (Anderson 1991, p.5).
By this, he suggests that Marxism only works when there is recognition of nationalism. Anderson argues that nationalism comes into being based on economical equity of the people and once established, it is difficult to take it away.
Anderson further argues that nationalism is the basic component of modernity and that loyalty to race or specific class is only secondary to nationalism. Anderson portrays nationalism as still relevant even in the face of globalization and requires self-sacrifice especially in cases where inequality and exploitation are prevalent.
Although Anderson is correct in his proposition that nations are imagined and that nationalism requires sacrifice, he fails to give clear definition of a ‘community’ and how it is different from nationalism; therefore, I do not agree with this argument.
The communities that make up a nation are imaginary just like nationalism. He further claims to justify Marxism and liberalism as ‘universalistic ideologies, ill-at-ease with nationalism’ thus suggesting that the ideologies support nationalism but states that both these ideologies do not involve cultural aspects of nationalism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Anderson “nationality… nation-ness, as well as nationalism, are cultural artifacts of a particular kind” (1991, p.6). This argument is correct because communities always identify themselves with culture and thus the nationalism must appreciate culture.
Anderson’s claim that a nation is imagined, does not mean that a nation is unreal or that nations exist somewhere in dreamland. He instead proposes that nationalism is a process brought about by common culture and interests among people that in the end pulls them together as they strive for a common goal.
This means that political and cultural factors contribute to nationalism as people ‘imagine’ that their cultural beliefs and attitudes are common. Therefore, the people remain aware that their personal opinions are national. Anderson further argues that nations represent political entities with physical boundaries rather than entities that are limitless.
Anderson proposes that the concept of the nation is recent and it came into being the late-eighteenth century to take over the regimes that were dependent on monarchies or religious governance. By this, he suggests that within the precepts of nationalism, sovereignty is important. A nation therefore must conceptualize sovereignty and rule over its national citizens.
However, the national rule should be over limited population demographics and within limited territorial boundaries. He further argues that patriotism is a national duty of all the citizens of a nation and that the sacrifice for the sake of nationalism is important. In times of war, citizens forget their class boundaries or ethnicity in their united struggle for national victory and survival.
Reference Anderson, B., 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Concepts of Factor Analysis Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Descriptive statistics and correlations
Introduction Factor analysis is a useful exploratory tool which is helpful in determining the number of factors that should be extracted. The factors that are extracted are those that have a meaningful share of variance and the rest of the variables and their interrelationships are discarded.
Variables which exhibit maximal correlation are clustered together while variables with equivalent minimal correlations are also grouped together. In the end, it becomes possible to establish a relationship(s) or factors which display the data candidly leaving out the less significant factors out.
An interpretation of the factor loadings is essential in correlating extracted factors with meaningful variables (Newcastle University, 2007). For this project, the aim is to find out commonalities that are likely to exist between four variables i.e. rath (Rathus assertiveness Scale), crwone-marlowe (Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale), axin (“Anger in” scale) and axout (“Anger out” scale).
Complete_mooney_bp.sav dataset based on the four variables was used to conduct Factor analysis. It is speculated that up to three factors are measured by the four instruments (scales).
Descriptive statistics and correlations All the factors have the same sample size, N = 63. The mean for crowne-marlowe is.6829 and a standard deviation of.0762. Axin had a mean of 2.2560 with a standard deviation of.4543 while axout had a mean of 2.1071 with a standard deviation of.4277. Finally, the mean for rath was 3.3860 with a standard deviation of.4370.
From the means, it is evident that rath i.e. assertiveness is the most important factor in determining anger in, anger out or even social desirability as it has the highest mean of 3.3860, followed by axin, axout and crowne-marlowe social desirability is the least influential variable.
In summary, the Rathus assertiveness scale has the highest likelihood of being among the factors that should be retained. The “Anger Out” scale, the “Anger Out” scale and the Crowne-marlowe desirability scales then follow in that order.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Pearson correlation coefficients and their single-tailed significance values are presented in Table 2. There is a weak negative Pearson correlation between axin and crowne-marlowe and this is statistically significant, r = -.247, p =.026. A negative and weak Pearson correlation also exists between axout and crowne-marlowe but this is not statistically significant, r = -.197, p =.060.
Rath and crowne-marlowe have a very weak positive correlation which is not statistically significant, r =.048, p =.353.
There is a weak negative correlation between axout and axin which is not statistically significant, r = -.005, p =.486 whereas the correlation between rath and axin is negative but statistically significant, r = -.383, p=.001. There exists a weak positive correlation between rath and axout and the correlation is statistically significant, r =.286, p =.012. All correlations between variables and themselves are 1.
Communalities Table 3 indicates the communalities prior to and after extraction. The extraction method utilized in this case is the principal component analysis whose assumption is that there is commonness in all variance. That is the reason why the communalities for all factors are 1 prior to extraction. The ‘’extraction” column provides the common variance exhibited in the data structure.
It is therefore correct to say that 65.6 percent of variance associated with crowne-marlowe is common/shared variance or.656 of variance is explained by crowne-marlowe. A communality of.697 for axin after extraction indicates that 69.7 percent of variance associated with axin is shared variance, which can also be stated that.697 is the amount of variance in axin that is explained by the two retained factors (factor 1 and factor 2).
A communality of.703 for axout after extraction implies that 70.3 percent of variance associated with axout is shared variance or.703 is the amount of variance in axout that is explained by factor 1 and factor 2 as the retained factors. Finally, a communality of.733 for rath is an indication that 73.3 percent of variance associated with rath is common variance or.733 is the amount of variance in rath that is explained factor 1 and factor 2.
Consideration for whether to use the Kaiser criterion (where factors with eigenvalues above 1 are retained) or the Scree Plot in determining the factors that should be retained is made depending on the sample size, number of variables and average communality.
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Factor Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Field (2005) explains that the Kaiser’s criterion is used if average communality is at least 0.7 and the variables are not more than 30. In addition, the same criterion is considered if the sample size is more than 250 with an average communality of at least 0.6.
Failure to meet any of the above conditions calls for the use of the Scree Plot bur the sample size has to be large enough i.e. at least a sample size of 300. In this project, the average communality was 2.789/4 =.69725, there were 4 variables and the sample size was less than 250.
As such, the Kaiser’s criterion was applied since the communality is approximately 0.7 and the variables are less than 30 and hence the first condition was met. This led to the retention of all factors with an Eigen value above 1 (Factor 1 and Factor 2.
Even going with the Scree Plot (Figure 1) which is suitable for sample sizes that are larger than 300, the first point of inflexion is after the second factor and it is clear that the Eigenvalue is greater than 1. It is therefore justifiable to retain two factors only i.e. the first and the second factor, since they lie above eigenvalue 1 and appear before the graph starts to flatten.
Variance explained The Eigenvalues associated with every factor (linear component) prior to extraction and after extraction are provided in Table 4. Prior to extraction, it is evident that there were 4 linear components in the complete_mooney_bp.sav dataset. The variance explained by every factor is given by correspondent Eigenvalues and these are displayed in percentage form.
In that case, factor 1 explains 37.636 percent variance whereas factor 2 explains 32.102 percent variance. Only two factors have Eigen values greater than 1 in this dataset and therefore only the two factors are extracted (factor 1 and factor 2) and the other two factors can be considered as non-significant.
The Eigenvalues and percentage variance for the two extracted factors are again displayed under the ‘Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings’ column.
It is evident that the cumulative variance that is explained by both factor 1 and factor 2 (extracted factors) is 69.738 percent variance. From the ‘total variance explained’ output, it becomes clear that the largest variance is given by factor 1 and factor 2 and discarding the rest of the factors is justifiable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Factor Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Component matrix Table 5 is a component matrix table prior to rotation and the loading of each variable onto the two extracted factors is provided. In this case, all loadings were produced where the loading of crwone-marlowe onto extracted factor 1 is.327 and -.741 onto factor 2.
Axin has a loading of -.782 on factor 1 and a loading of.290 onto factor 2. The loading of axout onto factor 1 was.343 whereas the loading of axout for factor 2 is.766. Finally, the loading of rath onto factor 1 is.818 with the loading of rath onto factor 2 being.253.
It is also possible to view Table 5 as correlations between variables and the various unrotated factors. In that case, the correlation between crowne-marlowe and factor 1 is.327 whereas the correlation between crowne-marlowe and factor 2 is -.741.
The correlation between axin and factor 1 is -.782 while the correlation between the same variable and factor 2 is.290. The correlation between axout and factor 1 and factor 2 is.343 and.766 respectively. Finally, the correlation between rath and factor 1 is.818 and the correlation between rath and factor 2 is.253.
It is evident that rath has and axin has the highest loading/strongest correlation with factor 1 while crowne-marlowe and axout have the highest loading on factor 2. Since the highest load on factor 1 is rath, it is arguable to label factor 1 as assertiveness (based on Rathus Assertiveness Scale).
On the other hand, axout seems to have the highest loading on factor 2 and thus it is arguable that factor 2 can be labeled as tendency to let anger out. From the interpretations of the component matrix it appears that the researcher was mainly/or should concentrate on finding out the relationship between assertiveness and tendency to express anger out.
In other words, it is evident that at least two factors are measured by both the Rathus Assertiveness Scale and the “Anger Out” scale. Indeed, it can be said that the more an individual is assertive, the less likely the individual is to hold anger “in.” In other words, assertive individuals tend to express anger more openly. Increased assertiveness leads to decreased tendency to hold anger in.
Summary Factor analysis is helpful in determining which variables should be retained by looking for variables with maximal relationships. From the above factor analysis, it has been demonstrated that among the four variables i.e. Rathus Assertiveness Scale, Crowne-Marlowe Desirability Scale, “Anger Out” scale and “Anger In” scale, there exists stronger correlations between factor 1 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale and factor 2 with “Anger Out” scale.
This is demonstrated by high means for these variables and the fact that they are the only factors that are extracted, or meeting criteria for extraction in the analysis. The variances explained by the two factors have a lion share in the total variance with a cumulative variance of 69.738 percent being registered for factor 1 and factor 2.
The variance that is explained by factor 1 alone is large enough (37.636%) to qualify the factor for retention. This is the same with factor 2 which explains 32.102% of the variance.
Moreover, both factor 1 and factor 2 have eigenvalues above 1. Finally, the loadings of the two factors on the variables are of significance with factor 1 having a loading of.818 onto rath (Rathus Assertivness Scale) while factor 2 had a loading of.766 onto factor 2.
It is from these observations that it is concluded that factor 1 can be labeled as the Rathus Assertiveness Scale while factor 2 is labeled as “Anger Out” scale. These two variables are therefore essentially important in the study and for sure, assertiveness and tendency to express “anger out” can be measured by these two instruments (scales).
Appendix Table 1: Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation Analysis N crowne-marlowe .6829 .07621 63 axin 2.2560 .45427 63 axout 2.1071 .42766 63 rath 3.3860 .43697 63 Table 2: Correlations of all Factors
Correlation Matrix crowne-marlowe axin axout rath Correlation crowne-marlowe 1.000 -.247 -.197 .048 axin -.247 1.000 -.005 -.383 axout -.197 -.005 1.000 .286 rath .048 -.383 .286 1.000 Sig. (1-tailed) crowne-marlowe .026 .060 .353 axin .026 .486 .001 axout .060 .486 .012 rath .353 .001 .012 Table 3: Communalities-Before and after Extraction
Communalities Initial Extraction crowne-marlowe 1.000 .656 axin 1.000 .697 axout 1.000 .703 rath 1.000 .733 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 4: Total Variances (Variance and Cumulative Variance)
Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 1.505 37.636 37.636 1.505 37.636 37.636 2 1.284 32.102 69.738 1.284 32.102 69.738 3 .688 17.204 86.941 4 .522 13.059 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 5: Component Matrix
Component Matrixa Component 1 2 crowne-marlowe .327 -.741 axin -.782 .290 axout .343 .766 rath .818 .253 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 2 components extracted. Figure 1: Scree plot of Eigen Value against Component Number
Reference Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd edition). Sage: London.
Newcastle University. (2007). How to perform and interpret Factor Analysis using SPSS. Retrieved from https://www.ncl.ac.uk/