Assumptions When Using A Chi-Square Test Essay College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Sample size assumption

Independence assumption

Randomness of the population Assumption



Introduction Any statistical test that uses Pearson’s chi square distribution, frequently shortened to chi-squared distribution, is known as a chi-squared test. This statistical test is used to compute variations in the frequency distribution of certain events observed in a population with those of a specific distribution.

The events under consideration must be mutually exclusive, that is, they cannot happen at the same time, and have a sum probability of 1. However, for this method to work effectively, certain assumptions must be made, although the wording may differ in different textbooks, they generally state that:

The sample has been drawn randomly from the selected population;

The sample size, n, must be sufficiently large;

The observations are independent.

All of these assumptions must be satisfied in the process of collecting data.

Sample size assumption The chi-square test can be used to compute the differences in proportions by use of a contingency table. However, it is worthy to note that the chi-square test only gives an approximate probability value, on which a correlation factor is then applied. This technique only works if the sample size, n, is sufficiently large.

If the sample size is not large, then another statistical test, such as Fisher’s exact test, can be more suitable. A Fisher’s exact test yields more ‘exact’ values of the p-value because the size of the deviation from a null hypothesis can be computed exactly, instead of using estimates.

Moreover, if the chi-squared test is used on a small sample size, we might end up with a Type II error, in which the test fails to reject the null hypothesis even though it is erroneous (Aron et al, 2010).

Independence assumption The second requirement in a chi-squared test is that of independence among the observations, that is, the test cannot be used on correlated data. In case the observations are related, then McNemar’s test will give the most exact p-values.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Randomness of the population Assumption This assumption implies that a chi-squared distribution is drawn from a fixed population. This assumption leads to an interesting conclusion about the source of a chi-squared distribution: the sample from which the sample has been drawn is normally distributed (Aron et al, 2010).

However, this assumption need not be considered when computing the goodness of fit test and the independence test. This assumption is important because the distribution of counts under the null hypothesis is multinomial, and the normal distribution can be used to estimate the multinomial distribution if the sample size, n, is significantly large and the p-values are not too small.

It can be proven through the Central Limit Theorem that the multinomial distribution behaves like a normal distribution for large values of n. Hence, the assumption is tied to independence and sample size assumptions, and gives fairly accurate estimates of population parameters.

Conclusion The chi-squared distribution is important in a number of statistical analyses. First, in testing the goodness of fit, it is used to compute deviations from experimental values and the expected values.

Secondly, it is used in testing the independence of two measures of a population, in such a scenario, we use the Chi square test for independence of two measures. Third, the Chi square test for single variance can be used to test the deviation of the theoretical variance from the observed variance.

Reference Aron, A., Coups, E. J., and Aron, E. N. (2010). Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences: A Brief Course, 4th Edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada


Analysis of Variance Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Variance


Assumptions in Analysis of Variance versus T-test



Introduction Various statistical models can be utilized to analyze variance. These models can be also employed to conduct statistical tests. Moreover, they are also essential in determining whether the methods of various groups are similar. In this regard, analysis of variance generalizes t-test into multiple groupings.

Some of the main reasons why analysis of variance, which is also known as ANOVA, is compared in conducting multiple two-sample t-tests are because the former results in type 1 errors. Most researchers therefore utilize ANOVA to compare two or more methods of statistical models. ANOVA models are classified in three categories. These include Fixed-effects, Random effects and mixed effects models.

Fixed effects usually assume that data comes from normal populations. This may vary in their methods. On the other hand, Random effects types utilize the assumption that data comes from a hierarchy. It also makes the assumption that the differences are controlled. Model three, on the other hand, assumes a situation where both random and fixed effects are entailed. This paper will discuss analysis of variance as well as explore its limitations and assumptions.

Analysis of Variance Analysis of variance, which is also known as ANOVA refers to the techniques employed to analyze effects of categorical factors. It does this by decomposing unevenness of variable among dissimilar categorical factors. When conducting such analysis, it is important to know the factors that may have significant effect on response as well as the degree of variability in response associated with each factor.

There are many procedures that can be utilized in conducting analysis of variance. These include one-way- ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA, Variance components analysis and General linear models. These models are utilized in different situations as shown below. One-way is utilized when the statistics is broken into other dissimilar groups in accordance with one-factor.

Multifactor ANOVA is usually suitable when multiple factors are available and also when crossed. The other model utilized is known as variance-components-analysis, it is employed in determining the level of variability presented in a product.

In addition, there is General linear model which, is usually utilized when all the other methods are inappropriate for analysis of variance. For analyzing an experiment with more than one independent variable, multifactor technique of ANOVA would be appropriate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion When conducting analysis of variance for more than one independent variable, it is essential to utilize the multifactor ANOVA technique. This is because it works for more than one crossed factors. These factors can be significantly different and this suits it best.

It is also important to note that multifactor ANOVA can be used to estimate interactions as well as effects among factors. The technique also outputs more results that include graphical ANOVA as well as ANOVA table, which consist of the most recent edition of statistics for experiments.

Assumptions in Analysis of Variance versus T-test ANOVA assumes several aspects in analysis. These include assumptions in probability distribution which may be nonlinear. ANOVA assumes that the distribution is linear. In addition, it assumes that the distribution is independent of other cases as well as the fact that they are normal.

The other assumption is known as unit-treatment additivity. This allows for the observed response from an experiment to be written as a combination of the unit and effect.

Limitations ANOVA has several limitations. These include assumptions made when performing the analysis which are imaginary. Some of the results arising from these limitations include type 1 errors. In most cases, it is usually important to perform follow-up tests to control type 1 errors, among others.

These sequels can be done before (planned) or after (post hoc) checking data. The former are usually conducted before checking data, while post hoc is conducted after checking the data. Performing T-test, which is a type of post hoc tests usually assist in controlling type 1 errors.

Conclusion Analysis of variance, which is also known as ANOVA refers to the techniques employed to analyze effects of categorical factors. These techniques are many and vary depending on their need. They include one-way- ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA, Variance components analysis and General linear models.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Variance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When analyzing more than one independent variable, it is more convenient to use the multifactor ANOVA as it provides for both independent and crossed factors.


Using Technology to Improve Economies Report (Assessment) essay help online: essay help online

Evaluate the impact of the M-PESA system on a small Kenyan business With the ever changing environment, it is imperative for more research and technologies to be improvised to keep pace with the changes. Mobile technology is one of the areas that have witnessed massive changes with more advancements and innovations coming up.

The most recent technology has been in the money transfer using cell phones commonly referred to as the M-PESA service. The popular mobile telephone technology has played a vital role in stabilizing economies of several countries.

Vodafone is a good example of a mobile service provider that has embraced these technologies. M-PESA service system, which is in use in Kenya, has provided drastic impacts or rather positive rewards to the country’s economic climate more so in improving the environment and status of the many small Kenyan businesses.

Kenya is one of the countries that have a developing economy. Most of its inhabitants are small-scale farmers and mostly depend on agriculture. The M-PESA system has contributed a lot to the success and self sustainability of small-scale business through its faster, affordable money transfer services.

Many of the small business people are now able to access money at a faster rate and at less cost. The small businesspeople have no access to banks. It is only but a few people who work in formal sectors who have accounts in banks. The system has gone beyond this and made these business people with little access to these banking facilities get money for development of their business hence influencing the general Kenyan economy positively.

Kenya’s good share of population depends on the informal sector with most people running their small businesses like canteens, shops and the Jua-kali sector. The accessibility and affordability of mobile phones has thus contributed to the success of this technology, which has actually received a lot of followers, majority from this informal sector based on its efficiency, effectiveness and flexibility when it comes to money transfer.

These businessmen are able to receive money from their families and business partners in different parts with just a press of a button. Therefore, the system has seen them go a milestone in mobile technology more specifically in the areas of money transfer through the M-PESA service.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system is also secure and simple to use and therefore appropriate for business men in their operations. As a result, the small business people in Kenya have gone for it. The process of completing transactions is not complex as the operator is directed through simple-to-understand steps because the process lacks complexity.

It has been well embraced seeing improvements in the status of the businesses of various businesspersons. The system is also secure in terms of safeguarding the money of the clients. For instance, instead of risking carrying around large sums of money, the businessmen have avoided the risk by simply holding the money in the phone, as no body can tell when one has some money in his/her M-PESA account.

This also has seen cases of theft and loss of money reduced. Security is also guaranteed as the operator has to carry out the transaction using a secret code known to him/her alone. This service therefore has provided a good environment or businesspeople in Kenya to carryout their business without fear and worries.

For instance, the service has played a very important role during the recent election conflicts witnessed in the country, as it enabled the business people’s fraternity to continue their operations. It is therefore a very essential technology that has solved many problems that have been witnessed in the former business transactions when such technology was not in place.

For instance, it would have been difficult for some of the business transactions or operations to go on due to lack of money, as the parties could not get or send the money to cater for such cases hence the then evident economy crisis and availability of goods and services to customers.

The system has also facilitated the sending and exchange of money as well as buying or paying for goods or services bought. For instance, it has made the process of doing business easier, as the system comes in handy while paying bills that are associated with business like electricity and water as well as purchasing products amongst other operations.

It has therefore helped to a greater extend small businessmen in Kenya in becoming financially secure. Businessmen and women are able to use the service in running of their business smoothly. Those that reside in villages and countryside where they have little access to other alternatives of financial providers are able to use their mobile phones in accessing their money, which currently have been linked to their M-PESA accounts.

We will write a custom Assessment on Using Technology to Improve Economies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The service has been made available to every region of the country with all people old and young accessing it and using it to manage their small businesses hence the evident improvement of the Kenyan economy. This possibility has become a reality, which has seen many small businesspeople become self sustainable further witnessing massive growth of their small enterprises owing to the availability of the M-PESA system of money transfer in Kenya.

The system has also led to creation of employment opportunities to many people especially those with low income. These employment opportunities have been generated inform of the agents who give the services to the various customers. It has therefore aided the spirit of entrepreneurship evident in the country as small business people have identified it as a business opportunity by providing the services to customers who are increasing on daily basis thereby making large profits from the deal.

The system has also had positive impact to the small business people in Kenya as it has sparked innovation and creativity in this sector of money transfer using mobile phones. These innovations have stimulated competition, which has ensured the provision of better services as each businessperson wishes to attract the largest number of customers.

A working example of these innovations comes in form of the formation of partners with the financial services institutions in providing financial services to businesspeople for instance banks, which have now introduced the M-PESA service. The small business persons with no bank accounts can now feel recognized as they are able to access banking services using the M-PESA service just like those who have bank accounts. This has stimulated the spirit of doing business in Kenya.

The M-PESA system in Kenya has also enabled people to carryout their business from any localities in the country due to ease of money transfer. For instance, a small business person staying in Mombasa, which is far south, is able to manage well his/her business in Wajir, which is far north.

This has also seen the cost of doing business reduced, as various expenses have been cut out hence allowing the business people to realize high profit margins. For instance, with M-PESA, payments of services and products delivered are not delayed encouraging the businessmen to go on with their business smoothly due to readily available capital.

It seems evident based on the milestone the Vodafone Company has done through its services of M-PESA system in Kenya. The service or rather system innovated by Vodafone has impacted positively to the population of Kenya more so the small scale businesspeople.

It has contributed a lot to economic growth through this cost effective, simple and secure mode of transferring money. The environment of doing business in Kenya has improved largely. The system has enabled a larger percentage of people to access and transfer money from one place to another.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Using Technology to Improve Economies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has therefore assisted in cutting the costs of personal traveling or wasting a lot of time seeking money transfers avenues from traditional financial institutions like banks and Sacco’s.

It is actually a milestone and innovation that is worth celebration, which requires a pat on the back. This technology has brought tangible improvements and benefits in the business fraternity in Kenya.


International Relation Theories Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction International relations are largely concerned with power balance and socio-political engagements among various states (Anon., 2011). In order to fully appreciate how different nations relate across the world, three theories namely constructivism, liberalism and realism have been developed by political scientists.

Relevant application of these theories can indeed assist in predicting socio-political and economic policies that have been adopted and embraced by different countries (York University, 2009). Needless to say, policy makers have always been concerned about some of these scholarly perspectives on world affairs.

Nonetheless, such academic theories have for a long time been dismissed by advocates of foreign policies (Reitan, 2004). In spite of divergent views on the application of these international relation theories, it is definite that we still require the same theories in generating ideas on how world policies are being manipulated (Washington, 2011).

Indeed, the applications of these theories have been notable since the end of Cold War as different countries within or near the superpower bloc continued to seek supremacy (Anon, 2011). Certainly, diverse schools of thought have proliferated competition toward world affairs and hence have their own strengths and weaknesses as discussed in this paper.

What is realism? Realism is a traditionally dominant theory that portrays international affairs as a struggle for might among selfish individuals. Realists have an assumption that world powers are anarchic in nature with independent states acting as focal points (Anon, 2011). Therefore, realists believe that individual states may have offensive power which makes them dangerous to each other or can grossly jeopardize peaceful co-existence (Cristol, 2011).

This school of thought is often pessimistic about strategies of eliminating war and conflicts. Additionally, this theory is dominated by elements of Cold War in the sense that governments in various countries view each other with great deal of suspicion. The theory also provides brief explanation on war alliances and other issues of global interests.

Realism should not be taken as a single theory since realists have evolved it since the times of the Cold War era. For instance, classical realists emphasize that states are like human beings and hence have desire to dominate others (Lynch, 2005). Proponents this theory argue that the desire for dominance was realistically as a result of Cold War. On the contrary, neo-realists dismiss the human nature analogy and concentrate on international affairs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the proponents of realism, Kenneth Waltz, claims that international systems are anarchic in nature. Consequently, each state struggle to survive on it own since there is no central authority to assert power balance. Moreover, defensive realists comprehend that great powers sought defense and subsequently developed into anarchism (Sicha, 2010). Divided opinions from staunch realists have transformed realism from focusing on human nature into more pragmatic aspects of international relations.

Strengths of realism Realism theory has been the centre of focus whenever deliberating on international affairs largely due to its less complicated and appealing nature to policy makers. The theory has provided adequate proofs in its applicability and variability to world affairs. Realists often argue that the anarchic nature of states may possibly limit conflicts (Anon., 2011).

However, this is factual since every nation will regard utilizing its resources for it own benefits (Moravcsik, 2001). Furthermore, it disregards ethical principle of “might is right” since the strong might not always be right. Moreover, it’s conventional and contemporary applicability is appealing especially to mighty nations who are keen in protecting their interests.

It is evident that although realism lacks sufficient evidence on why there are mighty and violent powers in the world, the theory is still significant and applicable in modern Post War governments.

Weaknesses Realism theory has several gaps that are yet to be filled. To begin with, it fails to explain why some countries may adversely in terms of economic performance index in spite of the presence of international organizations like United Nations who have been mandated to safeguard the interests of member state (York University, 2009).

On the same note, it does not regard international attention on how different states use their differential policies to coerce others. Additionally, when making decisions pertaining international policies, it is not possible to decide for each single nation. The latter weakness is a common cause of worry since such decisions may be self centered and equally lack broad perspective (International Relations Resource Center, 2010).

Moreover, the theory opposes the evil nature of man and claims that conflicts among states arise from their anarchic nature. Currently, some states have ventured into war against terrorism asserting that realists’ ideologies have been rendered obsolete.

We will write a custom Research Paper on International Relation Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is liberalism? This theory upholds individual or political liberty and defense from arbitrary treatment (Reitan, 2004). However, the theory contrasts realism since it focuses on economic interdependence. Liberalists assert that when states are economically interdependent, they evade warfare to safe guard mutual prosperity.

However, Woodrow Wilson, one of the proponents of liberalism, has a different school of thought on liberalism (Moravcsik, 2001).He emphasizes that democratic nations are more peaceful than authoritarian ones (Reitan, 2004). Recent liberal theories focus on international institutions as means of enhancing cooperation hence overcome selfish interests.

Case corporate examples include International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Energy Agency (IEA) (Reitan, 2004). Hence, liberalism mainly focuses on bilateral and multilateral cooperation, with states being the central actors in international affairs (Lynch, 2005).

Strengths Liberal ideologies prefer a model society that is free from coercion and where minority rights are protected (Reitan, 2004). Liberalists advocate for free exchange of opinions and transparency in governing institutions. Additionally, it is committed in protecting the less privileged in society (Reitan, 2004).

In other words, liberals advocate for recognition of individual dignity. They assert that everyone is entitled to rational treatment regardless of race, gender or social class. Therefore, they are perceived as advocates of good governance.

Weaknesses Apparently, standard solutions from the liberals were found inadequate in helping citizens to indentify their political and social identities. This led to suffering of several states in terms of political empathy as they were competing for civic and political rights of their subjects.

Furthermore, critics argue that liberals regard nothing more than mere comforts that are consumer oriented (Moravcsik, 2001). It is certain that the theory over-emphasizes on government as the sole solution to challenges facing various states. While liberalists believe that society is always in upward growth momentum, it may not be the case since it is a flat or plain assumption that does not take into account local and international factors that may affect the very growth.

What is constructivism? This theory puts more emphasis on impacts of ideas unlike the latter that focus on material aspects such as power and wealth. Constructivists value interests and identities of nations as vital product of peculiar historical events. Additionally, proponents of this theory regard aspects in society that shape belief systems and interests of people and how behavior norms are established.

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Relation Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consequently, the end of the Cold War legitimized the theory for its ability to anticipate and explain events prior, during and after the war (Lynch, 2005). Through the theory, it is possible to understand how norms changes and why people conceive different tastes and behaviors.

Moreover, constructivism has made it easy to understand and solve issues associated with identities and interests. As an emphasis, this theory is very diverse in explaining events, role of norms and how their affect political spheres.

Strengths Unlike other theories, incumbent has focused on basic aspect in human relations. Constructivists assert that human behavior influences political system and state interests. They are able to criticize realists who assert that state behavior is influenced by an international system. Additionally, they make some insightful recount on issues that are often ignored by realists and liberals (Lynch, 2005).

Weaknesses Certainly, the theory is prone to criticism for its inability to explain how individual opinions differ in preference to social constructions (York University, 2009). Moreover, they attempt to expound on moral and ethical misconceptions on how norms alter interest and identity of states. However, they are only able to give vague information that does not satisfy their critics. Additionally, this theory poses a common misconception since individuals construct their own reality that can lead to intellectual anarchy. For instance, many scholars have emerged with different inferences hence posing challenges to the initial constructivists (Washington, 2010).

Appealing theory in the 21st Century Evidently, there has always been a huge debate over which theory remains most effective and relevant in the contemporary society. It is worth to note that their relevance lies on their ability to expound occurring phenomena in world affairs.

Apparently, the three theories have both weaknesses and strength as earlier discussed in this paper. Nevertheless, liberalism has won awards in enhancing peace and cooperation among world states (Reitan, 2004). For this reason, the incumbent is suitable for the complex and diffuse 21st century.

In my own view, I feel that liberalism is the best ideology to use in scaling power of different states owing to the fact that its concepts enhance political, social and economic freedom thereby reducing disparity gap between mighty nations and less or under-privileged states.

Furthermore, through liberalism, human life is perfected by enhancing equal level of integrity and confidence (Sicha, 2010). As an international relation theory, it is the only one that has been idealistic in considering human capacity. Moreover, states that amass power are discouraged from doing so and therefore rendered less destructive by their subjects.

Certainly, there are myriad of challenges being faced in the 21st century that requires well defined principles to address them (Reitan, 2004). Liberalism has a major principle that is very prudent for the modern society. Enhancing good governance and rule of law will solve issues of anarchy and terrorism. However, liberalists insist that governments should be strong to safeguard their citizens from internal and external aggressions (Reitan, 2004).

To recap it all, it is imperative to reiterate that several schools of thoughts have relentlessly attempted to assert influence on international affairs (Waltz, 2011) This has created divided attitude, perceptions and mixed feelings among scholars over which theory is more relevant, supreme and pragmatic (Weber, 2011).

Nonetheless, the relevance of each theory is largely dependant on historical times when they were being applied since each one of them has uniquely impacted international relations in some way.

References Anon. (2011). The IR Theory Knowledge Base. Web.

Cristol, J. (2011). International Relations Theory. Web.

International Relations Resource Center (2010). Theories of international relations. Web.

Lynch, M. (2005). Realism and constructivism. Web.

Moravcsik, A. (2001). Liberal International Relations Theory: A social scientific assessment. Web.

Reitan, A. (2004). Liberalism: Time-Tested Principles for the Twenty-First Century. Lincoln: iUniverse, Inc.

Sicha, F. (2010). International Relations: Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism. Web.

Waltz, K. (2011). Progress in International Relations Theory. Web.

Washington, G. (2010). An overview of the field of international relation. Web.

Weber, W. (2011) International Relations Theory: A Critical Introduction. Web.

York University (2009). Critical Realism Theory. Web.


The Process of Corporate Decision Making Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Identifying one’s strengths

Developing a second career

My decision making process



Introduction Decision making has been defined as “the process of identifying and selecting a solution from among possible solutions to a problem according to the demands of the situation” (Texas State, n.d., p. 2). The most fundamental aspect of a leader in every institution or an organizational setting is not only his/her ability to make decisions but the quality of his decisions; this, however, does not make it unavoidable for us to make wrong decisions because we tend to apply the least productive approach.

The most conspicuous of this least productive approach is advocacy; advocacy implies the desire of some leaders to view their positions with a lot of passions and hence might lead to them ignoring any opposing or conflicting views. Leaders often downplay the weakness of their positions as a tactic of boosting their probability of winning. This may always be disastrous since it hinders innovation of ideas and it cans also suppress any diverse and valuable viewpoints.

Advocacy can be compared with another approach called inquiry, which is far much more productive approach of decision making. What distinguishes inquiry from advocacy is that inquiry involves weighing several options and it encourages cooperation with others in order to identify the best solutions; this is considered important since it can stimulate innovative thinking unlike advocacy which suppresses our ability to think soberly.

As such, inquiry leads to an enhanced decision which advances the goals of the company and will also facilitate faster realization of decisions in a timely manner and its effective implementation. Inquiry, however, is not easy in application because it requires disagreeing and also allowing ambiguity.

It involves the balancing between divergence at the initiation of decisions and unity during the time of implementation of the decisions (Garvin


Gap Company Strategic Issues Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Long term and immediate problems in the case

Strategic alternatives


Updated solutions for the Gap in 2010


Reference List

Introduction Gap is a leading retailer of cloths and other body care accessories in North America. Gap has been operating under four brand names, banana, Gap, Fourth and Towne and Old navy. This case study is an illustration of strategic issues faced by this company, and consequently which led to a lot of managerial and financial problems in the company.

These issues were a threat to the company’s market share since they led to a compromise in quality and uniqueness. Pressler became the company’s chief executive officer in 2002 and before then, the companies operating under Gap were considered the best in the region in terms of style (Wee, 2002).

Despite the fact that his strategies led to the reduction of a lot of costs, it also placed the companies at stake of losing its customers and reputation. One of the cost-cutting strategies used by Pressler was closing many stores and cutting down on the inventory in the stores.

This led to the creation of lower quality products which were simply copied by other retailers hence competition stepped up. He also separated the three brands such that each operated independently.

These strategies worked at first, but in the long run, they started to backfire and the company started losing a great deal in terms of sales, productivity and profitability. The results of this included an increase in the rate of employee turnover, production of low quality out fits and a reduction in the market share to rival retailers such as J. crew and urban outfitters (Lee, 2004).

Long term and immediate problems in the case The immediate problems in this case are a drop in profits as experienced between the fiscal years 2005 and 2006. During this period, “the revenue went down by 1.5%, operating profits decreased by 4.2% while the net profit decreased by 3.2%.

This company lost its status as indicated by its decline in rank from position 40 in 2005 to position 52 in 2006” (Wee, 2004). This is an indication that twelve more companies performed better than Gaps between 2005 and 2006. The attempt to solve this problem by introducing discounts on the goods meant compromised quality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gap, for example, was targeting the high-income earners by stocking high quality attires at high prices, and the nature of its market design required nothing less of unique owing to the prices.

This is the store that was affected most since after showing signs of deterioration it was not easy for them to assure their customers that they were coming up again. They were dealing with a very sensitive group in the market and retailers such as Wal-Mart came up and replaced Gap.

The other stores were not performing well, but they were still not performing at their optimum level. Old navy, for example, resorted to stocking ordinary clothes found in other stores hence their customers discredited them.

Earlier on this store stocked fashionable attires at affordable prices that were an attracting to the middle-class community. They had a milestone from the other retailers owing to their sense of style which was eroded with the quest to cut on costs.

Banana, on the other hand, which earlier on dealt with smart office wear, resorted to casual as they perceived that they would make more profit on this (Wheelen


Roots Canada Case Study college admission essay help

Table of Contents Leadership styles of Budman and Green

The effectiveness of their leadership

How they can improve their leadership

Future challenges


Leadership styles of Budman and Green The style of leadership adopted by Budman and Green is a democratic leadership style; however, they ensured they are the final decision-makers.

Democratic leadership style allows a leader to take the input of his subordinates and stakeholders when making business decisions, but is aware that he or she has the final decision. When Budman and Green are making strategic decisions, they involve their staffs, family members, and the society in general however they are held responsible for the decisions they make.

For example, when making a designing decision, the company allows uses a broad-based participation of design teams, people who give their contribution and views on certain design, however even after considering the input, the leaders use their skills and participation in different areas to make the final decision.

The effectiveness of their leadership Budman and Green are risk takers, they are willing to venture in businesses that are highly competitive and believed they will be succeed; their style of leadership has been successful where they have emerged as one of the most preferred seller of apparels with over 200 outlets; this is a huge success considering the age of the company.

In 2002, the company recorded a high return of over $300 million; this shows a business that is performing well amidst high competition.

Despite the success that the company has attained, its management effectiveness has been challenged by the ignorance of its human resources rights and violation of labor laws. The leaders seem to forget that the most precious resource of an organization is its human capital; they need to be treated in the best way possible.

The failure that the company got when it ventured the airline industry can show risk takers who never undertake effective market research; they are likely to be attracted by the general believe of an industry which may not be the case.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The leaders then show a very good character when they withdraw from none picking business; however, they were so impatient to give the industry a trial of six weeks. On a gauging scale, I would give them 60%, however I feel they can improve their skills (Hornsby


Why Did I Get Married Too Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction “Why did I get married too” was released on 2nd April, 2010 in the United States of America. It is a drama comedy acted by four married couples going through marital challenges. They were proffessionals but their lives in marriage were quite challenging; the four wereTerry and Dianne, Gavin and Patricia, Angela and Marcus and, Sheila and Troy.

The movie started with the four couples going for a retreat to Bahamas. At first, Patricia and Gavin were perceived to have been in the best marriage but at the end they broke up and Gavin died in an accident (IMDb 1).

This movie is very appropriate for the married people and even young teens. The movie brings out the theme of marriage and finances clearly. It is interesting and full of suspense as the director is able to bring out many conflicts in marriages within a short time.Dialogue between the characters is intensively used.

However, this movie only targets the adults and only includes black Americans. Critics have claimed that the director did not take into account the economic recession and that the movie did not use the seting of exotic Bahamas appropriately (Tsai 1). An analysis of this movie revealed that it effectively showed effects of infidelity and importance of communication between a husband and a wife.

Plot The movie started when four couples who had been friends for a long time went for a vacation in Bahamas. The movie started with Terry dribbling a ball in their living room when their young daughter started to describe what divorce was to her brother.

Dianne and Terry looked at each other with amazement. At the Airport Dianne and Angela were chatting when Angela noticed that her husband Marcus was flirting with a clerk. She went straight ahead and confronted him.

Sheila and Troy were the first to arrive at Bahamas and they were excited to find out how beautiful Bahamas was. Patricia and Gavin were second to arrive in Bahamas. Third were Terry and Dianne. The arrival of Angela and Marcus at Bahamas drew attention from other people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Angela was too loud and all along seemed to have quarrels with her husband Marcus. She scolded Marcus and asked other people who were passing by if they knew her husband and she would give them two hundred dollars as a reward if they knew him. She wanted to prove to her husband that he was not famous at all.

The gentlemen went to their own place at the beach while ladies also got to their place. Both groups talked about their marriages. Later on, Mike, the man who divorced Sheila some time back arrived at the scene (Perry 1).

The second half of the movie was when the couples went back to their homes. Their marriages fault lines were seen in this scene. Each couple was going through a challenge and Gavin lost his life at the end while driving after a quarrel with Patricia (Hale 1). The movie shows the struggles wives and husbands go through.

The movie is said to have a soap opera style especially with Sheila who is very emotional (Tsai 1). She had worked so hard for her second marriage with Troy to succeed. Troy on the other hand was offended because she exposed his financial struggles. He felt like others were undermining him and turned his anger to his wife Sheila (Perry 1).

There was suspense throughout the movie, for example, when Terry moved out from his home and went to live in a new house. Dianne was desperate to get her husband only to find him with another girl. Terry mentioned her name and stated that she was pregnant.

Suspense was created because we do not know what would be the reaction of Dianne if Terry was the father of the unborn child. Dianne relaxed when she heard that that girl had a boyfriend. There was also suspense when Patricia turned to be so wild and broke the furniture with a club.

She broke glasses and smoked which was unbelievable because she had always been a role model. When Gavin was involved in an accident we did not know what would be Patricia’s reaction to this event and what she would do now that Gavin had died (Perry 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Why Did I Get Married Too specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Character Analysis Patricia was the protagonist in this movie. She was a commander in their marriage with Gavin. She was a psychiatrist and more theoretical than practical. It was ironical that she advised other couples and even wrote a book about marriage whereas her marriage was going through hell.

She was wise and asked Angela and Dianne to find all the good things in their husbands and write them down. Patricia was hard working because she wrote a book and was successful in her career. She was abusive because she abused her husband by calling him a bitch. Patricia (Janet Jackson) has also acted in the movie, For Colored Girls where she plays a wife’s role which is similar to this movie (Farley 1).

Gavin was very patient with Patricia and got silent on Patricia’s insults until he could not handle them any longer. This was when he became brutal by forcing Patricia to take beer. He was kind and supportive as he supported his wife financially and emotionally as she wrote the book but unfortunately she was not thankful.

She wanted to take all the money during their divorce without recognizing all the efforts he had put into that project. He later became a victim of circumstances because their marital problems made him to be hit by a truck as he was driving after a serious conflict with Patricia. Gavin was also faithful because throughout their marriage, Patricia did not suspect him for being unfaithful (Perry 1).

Angela was always yelling at her husband Marcus. She was very honest and confronted Marcus every time there was a problem. For example, she literary confronted Marcus when she saw him from afar trying to take another woman’s cell phone number. She was humorous; she tried to imitate Patricia’s tone as she read her book.

She was also humorous when Marcus asked her to stop drinking beer. She filled a glass and told Marcus to allow her to take her last time beer. Marcus was also humorous because as Angela had said in the first movie every time he said, “You know what I am saying?” (Perry 1) it always meant that he was telling a lie. He also had a funny facial expression.

Critics say that the movie lacks dramatic arc, “at times the script seems the result of free association of automatic writing. Behaviors are often incongruous with the characters, and plots are in free fall” (Tsai 1). Perry also concentrates so much in unfaithfulness in marriages failing to strike a balance between other factors which affect marriages such as finances, in laws and responsibilities of husbands and wives while also including children (Tsai 1).

All the characters acted in the earlier movie, Why Did I Get Married where they played the same roles as in this movie. However at that time Troy was a Sherriff. This family movie has the same theme of marriage with Not Easily Broken which was directed by Bill Duke.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Did I Get Married Too by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The movie theme is on causes of conflict and I would call it, Marriage Conflicts. Camera and Background Music

The camera is used to effectively in this movie by use of camera techniques. There are numerous close up shots which are used to create interest and suspense. They give details of the characters. There are also several nature shots which help to give details of the environment in Bahamas.

The director used medium long shots with a balance at the beach where men were resting and chatting. This gave the viewer a clear background of the place. The director also used many medium shots especially in dialogues between two people. The characters dressing matches with the occasions in which they are in. At the beach they are in bright color clothes such as yellow, light green, white and pink which created an atmosphere of calmness (Literacy 1).

The movie also had a short background music which went, “I am a married man, cant you understand?” which is repeated several times. It was composed specifically for this movie. It is important because it enhances the theme of marriage.

Conclusion Why did I get Married too movie was set in Bahamas during four couples’ vacation and at Atlantic in their homes. Marriage conflicts, importance of communication and friendship are the main themes of this movie. The movie concentrates on infidelity failing to consider other factors that affect marriages such as children, in laws and finances. It is mostly enjoyed by adults and older teens. The movie is appropriate and effective because infidelity is one of the largest causes of divorce.

Works Cited Farley, C. Why did I get Married Too. Janet Jackson Tackles Poetry in “For Colored Girls”, 2010. Web.

Hale, M. At Couples Reunion, Laughs, Then Griefs. New York, 2010. Web.

IMDb. Why I Did I get Married Too. IMDb, 2010. Web.

Literacy. Visual Literacy. Portals. Web.

Perry, T. Why Did I get Married too. Hollywood Screen, 2010. Hollywood.

Tsai, M. Tyler Perry’s Why Did I Get Married Too. NT, 2010. Web.


Applied Management Team Report (Assessment) college essay help online

Executive Summary This project will analyse findings of an investigation on how PGL, a freight company, employs deferent aspects of motivational aspects to maintain its efficacy in maintaining optimum organizational performance.

Organizational performance depends on the efficacy and competency of each employee of the organization who collectively form the organization. Employees depend on a right combination of stimuli to be effective.

Management is mandated with the task of motivating employees and this depends on the knowledge and execution method of the management practice. The main tasks of management include reducing employee turnover in the company to retain the organizational knowledge that is important for its competitiveness.

With this retrospection, managers seek to deploy the best stimuli strategy that will keep their employees motivated and committed to the organization for a long-term. The project will use the Decision Making Process as a methodology.

This approach has eight distinctive stages namely problem identification, identification of decision criteria, allocation of weights and criteria, development of alternatives, analysis of the alternatives, selection of alternatives, implementation of alternatives and evaluation of the decision process.

The project will have primary and secondary data categories. Primary data will comprise interview records. The interviews shall be in depth and will be complemented by questionnaires and personal observations.

Secondary data shall be obtained from a literature review study, company records, and theories on motivation available offline and online on the internet. This project will offer a definition and a discussion to aid the reader in understanding the motivational problem that is present in the PGL workspace.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, it shall offer a Specific, Measurable, Achievable and Timeliness (SMART) breakdown of PGL management objectives that relate to motivation and retention of staff.

Introduction This project deliberates the effectiveness of the stimuli used by Pacific Gate Logistics Ltd (PGL) management in motivating its employees. Pacific Gate Logistics Ltd is an international freight forwarding company located in Airport Oaks, Auckland.

It is a small company but has other offices in Australia, French Polynesia, and New Caledonia. This project focuses on the New Zealand office. The project is a research that will incorporate theories of Maslow and Herzberg among others to present the theoretical background of motivation and employee performance in organization.

The project aims to present a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats (SWOT) analysis of the motivational strategy that is used by management at PGL. In addition, the project will provide a discussion on the SMART approach aspects that are incorporated into the motivational strategy of PGL.

Specifics involve actual training and development initiatives that PGL management uses as the stimuli for staff motivation. Measurability will highlight the instance of review of the management strategies and the parameters measured to evaluate the effect of the motivational strategy.

Achievability looks at the viability of the timeframe given for the implementation of motivational strategies. The aspect will also evaluate PGL managers understanding of limitation of their objectives. Realistic examines the pragmatisms of the objectives PGL motivational strategy in relation to the company’s resources.

Time-bound will look at the urgency of the instances of progress measurement as outlined in the PGL motivational strategy (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, Coulter, 2006).

We will write a custom Assessment on Applied Management Team specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A theoretical background of the organizational motivation theory and its relation with employee effectiveness and commitment will be provided to link the findings of the study with the present literature on the subject. The review will also identify research gaps that will be focused on in this study.

This study is informed by the need to provide empirical evidence of the motivational theory as outline by Maslow and Herzberg, in addition the study findings of this project will confirm the hypothesis that there is a motivational strategy implemented by the management of PGL. The project will uncover factors that validate the hypothesis in the positive or negative.

Reference Robbins, S. P., Bergman R., Stagg I. and Coulter M. (2009).Foundations of Management (3rd.ed.). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education.


Geology of California Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents California’s Fossil, Rock, And Mineral Composition

California’s Industrial Energy Sources

Fresh Water in California

California’s Volcanoes

California’s Energy Potential


California’s Fossil, Rock, And Mineral Composition California is known to have a rich history of fossils, rocks and minerals. However, the state is known to mainly posses oceanic fossils such as the rich accumulation early mammal fossil such as the turtle fossils which are found in many of the state’s national parks.

Most of the fossils are oceanic because a large part of California was covered by oceanic water, one time in the State’s history. This is the reason advanced to explain why there are very few dinosaur fossils found in California.

The type of rocks found in California are diverse because it is said that, the state experiences some of the most diverse geological forces; which have in turn created some of the most diverse mineral and rock components in the state (Demand Media, 2011, p. 1).

California is also known to have some of the rarest rocks and minerals in America. However, the rocks and minerals found in California can easily be assumed to be one thing; though they are completely different. Some of the common types of rocks found in California are sandstones and carbornatite.

Also, the most common types of minerals found in California are aquamarine, and tourmaline (Demand Media, 2011, p. 4).

The sandstones are normally formed from geological activities involving the deposit of sand and mud in California’s water bodies. The rocks are formed from increased pressure coming from the running waters in the rivers and streams.

The carbonatite rock is however formed from a mixture of carbonate and small amounts of suplhate and quartz; both of which are normally found in the mountain passines of California (Demand Media, 2011, p. 4). The aquamarine mineral is formed from the vast mineral mines found in California.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mostly, gem mining has exposed the aquamarine mineral in California. The tourmalines mineral on the other hand, is formed “in crystalline shchists, in granites, granite pegmatites, marbles and other metamorphic rocks” found in California (Demand Media, 2011, p. 4).

California’s Industrial Energy Sources California’s energy sources are diverse; ranging from natural energy sources to fossil fuel. Though California is increasingly being dependent on green energy sources; its primary energy source is fossil fuel. In fact, fossil fuel uses in industrial activities are estimated to be 51% (Thorngren, 2011, p. 1).

Closely following fossil fuel is natural gas which is estimated to power about a third of California’s industrial activities. The state also uses other alternative energy sources in different proportions, but the most common alternative energy sources are “nuclear, hydroelectricity, geothermal and coal at 6%, 5%, 3% and 1% respectively” (Thorngren, 2011, p. 1).

Most of the energy used in California is produced locally (in California) because collectively, California produces about 45% of its total energy, and a half of the total fossil fuel energy used for industrial activities.

The rest of the energy is obtained from other states in America, but a paltry 10% is obtained from other regions of the world (Thorngren, 2011, p. 1).

A great portion of the energy consumption in California is directed at transportation activities; followed by manufacturing, mining and agriculture. Transportation accounts for about half of California’s total energy consumption.

California’s oil producing points are located in regions around Los Angeles but more specifically, the Kern County has been known to be the largest producer of oil in the state.

We will write a custom Essay on Geology of California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Hansford site is also known as the most common nuclear energy production site in California while hydroelectricity generation occurs in more than 400 hydropower stations across the state (located majorly on the eastern mountain ranges) (Thorngren, 2011).

There are inadequate coal deposits in California and therefore most of the coal used in the state is imported from other states. However, geothermal is in abundant supply and the biggest geothermal plants are located north of San Francisco because the area is located in the “pacific’s ring of fire” (California Energy Commission, 2011, p. 1).

Fresh Water in California California’s supply of fresh water comes from underneath the ground. This fresh water supply is estimated to be between 25% and 40% of California’s total water supply (Garone, 2011).

These percentages are estimated to increase significantly in the coming years. California is deemed to be the only state in the US with the highest consumption of fresh water supply from underneath the ground.

This is because a large part of the state is normally dry. The second-ranked state with a high volume extraction of underground water is Texas, but California’s total underground water extraction is estimated to be twice that of Texas.

The major non-domestic use of freshwater supply in California is agriculture, industrial use and commercial business water use. Agriculture is majorly practiced in the central valley of California which stretches from the Northwest to the Southeast inland part of the state (which also lies parallel to the Pacific Ocean) (Garone, 2011).

California’s industries and commercial activities are also majorly located in regions around California and San Francisco. So far, the Colorado River has been affirmed to be a reliable source of fresh water in California since it is estimated that, it produces about 14% of California’s freshwater supply (Garone, 2011).

From this analysis we see that, California also relies on surface water to supplement its freshwater supply but most of the water comes from underground water supply.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Geology of California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More California’s Volcanoes California has had a long history of geological forces which include earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciers and the likes. These forces make California the home to some of the most active volcanoes in America, but in the same regard, the state is also home to some dormant volcanoes.

It is estimated that California is home to three active volcanoes (Baker, 2011, p. 1). Most of these active volcanoes are located in Northern California.

The Northern part of California is said to have the most active volcanoes because the region is located in the western part of America which is characterized by a destructive tectonic plate boundary which in turn causes the volcanoes found in the region to be active.

This is in sharp contrast to volcanic mountains found in the southern part of the state, which are dormant because the southern part of the state is characterized by a transpressive plate boundary – which is the reason for the dormancy of the volcanic mountains found in the region.

The most active volcanoes in California are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Long Valley Caldera (Baker, 2011, p. 3). Lassen Peak is said to be the most dominant active mountain in California and it is located in Lassen national park. Mount Shasta is located in the cascade range of California (in California’s natural forestland).

Long Valley Caldera is located in the Eastern edge of Sierra Nevada which has led many geologists to the conclusion that, natural landscapes evidenced in California formed as a result of explosive volcanic activities which occurred in the region, hundreds of years ago (Baker, 2011, p. 3).

Medicine lake volcano is known to be the biggest dormant volcanic mountain in California, hence its infamous attribute as ‘California’s sleeping giant’ (Baker, 2011, p. 1).

With regards to California’s intrusion of seawater, the last intrusion of seawater occurred in 1907 when the Colorado River burst its banks (Salton Sea State, 2011). This seawater intrusion led to the creation of the Salton Sea.

California’s Energy Potential California’s energy production is expected to increase in the coming years because of the optimism held by several geologists on the state’s energy potential.

Much focus has been directed to geothermal power which is estimated to increase by several megawatts in the coming years, if certain fault lines existing in California’s central valley, are fully exploited. It is further estimated that, California is bound to increase its energy production by 2,300 megawatts if an energy production plant is set up in the central valley (Hoffman, 2010, p. 5).

California’s central valley is advanced to be the most feasible locality for geothermal energy production because it is estimated that, the region lies on a fault line which has trapped a lot of heat energy underneath the earth’s surface.

This is the major source of energy for the geothermal production (Hoffman, 2010, p. 5). Wind energy has also been voiced as a possible alternative source of energy which has not been fully exploited yet.

A lot of potential exists in offshore wind harvesting on the shores of San Francisco, but it is estimated that, installing wind turbines in the area may be expensive because it would require more materials to set up the turbines at the water table (Cannon, 2008, p. 12).

The same wind energy potential is also said to exist in Northern California, off Cape Mendocino, where it is estimated that, if a wind energy plant is set up, the total output may possibly supplement 5% of California’s total energy production in the coming years (Cannon, 2008, p. 12). Collectively, it is correct to note that, California does not completely utilize its wind energy potential.

References Baker, A. (2011). Information on Volcanoes in California. Web.

Cannon, J. (2008). California Wind Energy Potential Presented. Web.

California Energy Commission. (2011). Geothermal Energy in California. Web.

Demand Media. (2011). Rare Rocks


Employment needs for National Gallery of Victoria Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Executive Summary The National Gallery of Victoria is a fascinating gallery located in Melbourne, Australia. The Gallery has an assortment of world-class fine artifacts that has attracted domestic and international travelers in droves.

The Gallery aims to promote its status as the global hub of the richest treasury of fine art in the Southern region of Australia where visitors can explore, value and take pleasure in the visual artifacts in the entire media, right from ancient times to the current era.

This report has used interviews and secondary data to assess employment needs of NGV and give recommendations of how the Gallery can address them. Some of the employment requirements highlighted in this report are: demographics and gender issues at workplace; employee issues; skills and training issues; and occupational health and safety hazards.

The report has also suggested a number of recommendations to address these issues. For example, NGV needs to recruit more staff with language skills to address communication barriers between the staff and visitors at the Gallery; training programs also need to be introduced to help the staff improve their skills at workplace.

The Occupation Health and Safety committee need to convene on regular basis to evaluate the safety and health concerns of employees. Finally, NGV must introduce Anti-discrimination policies to alleviate incidences of discrimination against workers by age, gender or culture.

National Gallery of Victoria Overview

The National Gallery of Victoria is an artifact gallery and museum located in Melbourne, Australia. The gallery was established in 1861 and it is the oldest and biggest public art and museum center in Australia. The central gallery is situated in St Kilda Road, Southbank Victoria, which is the hub of the Melbourne Arts Precinct of Southbank.

The NGV has also a branch gallery at Federal Square. NGV has a modest, but striking assortment of artifacts that attract tourists from all parts of the world. Given its global appeal, there are a number of challenges that the Gallery face as it dispenses its services to customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the purpose of this report is to assess employment needs for NGV. The Gallery offers different types of employments. For example, full time contract is offered to administration positions. The part-time contract is the most common type of employment offered to majority of NGV employees.

Casual employment is offered to support staff such as hospitality floor staff, cleaners and security personnel. Volunteering is also a form of employment that NGV use to create awareness of the value of the Gallery to the community. The Gallery also offers work experience opportunities for secondary and college students.

Finally NGV runs a Youth Access program that enables youth to interact as art producers, art audience and art emissaries via a variety of programs developed to improve their skills, confidence and networks (Driml et al, 2010, p.23).

Employment Needs for National Gallery of Victoria Demographics


Project Management: the Managerial Process Essay a level english language essay help

Project management is an important part of strategic management and a crucial part of nation building, business processes as well as non-profit work that requires utmost care from planning to delivery date. Project management is essential in getting things done.

Without the systematic approach of project management the accomplishment of goals may deemed too costly and impossible to complete. Project management does not only deal with setting objectives but also the clarification of what is the expected outcome and if how can it be delivered on time.

Project management may evolve through time, the techniques may change but there is one thing that would remain and it is the presence of the project manager. The following outlines the key roles and responsibilities of the project manager as well as the key tasks and functions that are required within the life-cycle of a project.

The Project Manager Before going any further it is important to clarify the meaning of a project. This can be achieved by defining what a project is not and understand that it is not a typical workload or job that has to be performed or accomplished (Gray


Analysis of the GAP Inc. Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Company

Gap Inc. is a leading American specialty clothing retailer based in San Francisco in the state of California. It sells casual attires, accessories and other personal care products for both men and women and also children. Their products include T-shirts, khakis, denim, casual wear, boxers and others. “Its shares are traded in the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol GPS.”1 Gap operates above 4,100 stores in the United States, the Canada, United Kingdom, France, Japan and Germany. It employs nearly 165,000 employees worldwide. Gap Inc. maintains a big number of brands, namely: Gap, Piperlime, Banana Republic, Forth


Coca-cola Company Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Product life cycle of Coca-Cola

Aims and objectives of small, medium and large scale businesses

Product oriented routes vs. Market-oriented routes


Product life cycle of Coca-Cola The product life cycle is a key aspect in successful products. Strategic managers often use the events that occur in the products life cycle to form the basis of strategic choices that a commercial entity or business decides to make in order to make sustainable sales and market share.

Coca-cola Company has been there for a century and has undergone the stages of introduction and growth and now has its presence in almost every county of the world but the brand managers responsible for Coca-Cola have been able to rejuvenate the awareness and value of the band over time making it quite popular among various consumers worldwide. The product has matured and stabilized its sales in various countries of the world and is now in the maturity stage.

During the initial stages, the Coca-Cola Company spent a lot of resources developing it brands and has thus created a brand image that has enabled it reach the peak of its sales volumes and it has even reached a saturation point whereby it is hard for its sales to go any higher.

The costs that are used in the prices of production have gone significantly down over time due to increase in economies of scale, this has also contributed to the drop of prices of their product assisting in market penetration of their product. Due to reduced growth in sales the company has often been forced to promote its products vigorously around the world, diversify and introduce other differentiated forms of Coca-cola such as diet coke in order to increase and stabilize sales.

Aims and objectives of small, medium and large scale businesses The aim of every business is to survive and make profits in today’s economic environment. Small businesses often understand upon inception that it will take time before they start enjoying profits; the main aim of businessmen and entrepreneurs is often to survive at the first years of inception, but as time goes by.

The owners usually wish to stabilize their businesses and gain a niche of loyal clientele before they start hungering for more, but once they establish a footing they step up efforts of ensuring that their brands get more brand recognition and sustained profitability within their niche markets.

Medium-scale businesses are most of the time businesses that were once small businesses that have now expanded and grown their capacity and their objectives are often to increase their sales and revenues so that they can continue growing and expanding.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, large scale businesses and corporations often aim to dominate the market, create reputation and build superior brand images and compete successfully among other industry participants by selling more and gaining more market share which in turn increases their revenues and funds which can be put into research of enhancing their numerous product lines.

Product oriented routes vs. Market-oriented routes The Ansoff matrix usually assists product and brand managers to decide whether to pursue a market growth or product growth strategy in order to boost the sales and market position of their brands. Product-oriented routes often aim to concentrate on issues such as the re-arranging the elements of the marketing mix through product diversification and product development.

Product-oriented routes usually require investing more on the product by either expanding existing product lines or even introducing new product lines by launching more product lines companies usually expect that consumers will end up choosing from the wide range of their products and that this will increase the revenues for the company.

Conversely, market-oriented routes usual aim to increase the penetration of brands and products into the market by either entering into new territories or increasing market penetration in the current market. Marketing oriented routes aim to increase brand awareness with the aim of motivating consumers to purchase the product or brand.

Diversification Kellogs option for product development was highly advantageous because Nutri-Grain had a well-established reputation and image in the market and thus, the company avoided the option of diversifying its products because it would have ended up being highly costly.

In the short run, diversification may seem as expensive in the short run but in the long run if Kellogs decided to diversify its product line by introducing other versions of Nutri-Grain which were made up of different ingredient and nutrient combinations targeting specific niches of the market this would increase their chances of profitability and even increase their competitive advantage.

Introducing new product lines that targeted different age groups, income brackets, occupations would thus appeal more specific to the needs and desires of the market and ensure continued sales. The advantage of product differentiation over product development is that diversification will allow Kellogs create more specified products that will appeal to a particular segment of consumers making it easy to cater to the varying needs of various consumers rather that use a mass-market approach.

We will write a custom Assessment on Coca-cola Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Google: Business Administration Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Problem Statement


Alternative Courses of Action




Executive Summary Stiff completion is the major problem being faced by Google in the search engine industry. The already established and emerging companies have new features that attract users to them (Pichette, 2011). A careful analysis of the competition in the search engine industry brings out some interesting findings.

To begin with, the main objective of competing is to retain users and attract new ones. The emergence of new technologies has introduced a lot of competition in all facets of online business. Vertical search engines give the users an opportunity access e-commerce websites without the use of Google (Pichette, 2011).

Bing and Yahoo are the major competitors of Google because they of can be used for general purposes. Social networks have become popular in recent times with many users preferring their use in referring products and services.

Google has some alternative courses of action to solve this problem. The company can use he relevant modern technologies to come up with new products and services that will attract new customers. Investment in innovation is another long term strategy of dealing with competition (Levene, 2010).

Investment in innovation is the most recommended course of action because it is the basis of generating new products and services and improving the existing ones. This strategy is implemented by hiring of the best talents in the industry and retaining the existing ones. Google has enough resources to invest in innovation and research for growth and sustainability.

Problem Statement The search engine industry is intensely competitive and Google being of the major players faces this risk. The emergence of new companies that offer a variety of services like social networking sites, vertical search engines and general purpose search engines has increased completion in the industry.

This is a major problem for Google because the stiff competition can make it lose its revenues especially from advertisements (Pichette, 2011). Both emerging and established companies are a threat to Google’s market dominance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also faces stiff completion from offline forms of advertisement like billboards, magazines, television and radio (Pichette, 2011). There are a lot of companies offering online services and products with unique features that attract a lot of users. The Google Company faces a great challenge in maintaining their dominance in online business.

Analysis The main objective of competing is to retain users and attract new ones. The emergence of new technologies has introduced a lot of competition in all facets of online business. Vertical search engines give the users an opportunity access e-commerce websites without the use of Google (Pichette, 2011).

Bing and Yahoo are the major competitors of Google because they of can be used for general purposes. Social networks have become popular in recent times with many users preferring their use in referring products and services.

Alternative Courses of Action The stiff completion has forced Google to come up with alternative courses of action to achieve competitive advantage over its competitors (Pichette, 2011). To begin with, the company can apply modern technology in creating new products and services that are user- friendly and easy to access.

Google can also decide to invest heavily in innovation by hiring and training the best talents in the industry. Innovation is a very essential tool in the generation of user traffic.

Recommendation For the Google Company to continue having a competitive advantage over its competitors, it should invest heavily in innovation. Innovation helps a great deal in coming up with new services and products that will in turn give the company a competitive advantage over its competitors (Saieh, 2008).

A company with innovative minds will enhance a corporate culture that focuses on continuous improvement of products and services.

We will write a custom Assessment on Google: Business Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implementation Investment in innovation as a strategy for gaining competitive advantage requires a lot of financial resources for its implementation. Google is a financially stable company and this is not a cause for worry at all.

Implementation of this strategy involves retaining, recruitment and training of the best talents in the industry (Levene, 2010). The promotion of teamwork and creativity in order to attract advertisers and other users is essential.

Innovation entails the creation of new products and services and improvement of the existing ones. Innovation is also supported by an effective research and development department.

References Levene, M. (2010). An introduction to search engines and web navigation. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Pichette, P. (2011). 2010-google annual report. Web.

Saieh, A. (2008). The secrete of getting listed at the top of search engines. New York, NY: Alexandra Saieh.


Popular or Mass Culture Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Mimetic analyses



Reference List

Introduction This paper is devoted to the evaluation of culture on the global level, referring to the ‘local’ level of analyses of one of the culture forms. Popular or mass culture was not the first to deserve the attention of the researchers.

However, with the development of sociological and cultural studies, it has been admitted, that massive culture is one the most important components to investigate for exactly the latter shapes the conscience of society, indicates the society’s preconceptions and needs, reflects the mode of living and the perspectives of development.

Hence, this work aims at conducting the analyses into the ‘item’ of modern massive music art – the video under the name ‘Sex Room’ by Ludacris featuring Trey Songz. This work of pop culture will be considered in terms of textual analyses in order to reveal the hidden messages, contextual information, and to draw the basic picture of the cultural processes through the prism popular music development.

The surface consideration of ‘Sex Room’ induces to trace the remarkable resemblance with Eagles’ ‘Hotel California’, which is either the successful advertisement of the hotel accommodation, but rather modernized. Indeed, this video, having the implication of advertising the Las Vegas luxury hotel ‘Palms’ through verbal and non-verbal messages seduces the viewer to come and experience all the services offered. Indeed, the latter are being successively depicted in the video, seasoned with the strong metonymy of luxury life and the stereotyped images of the sexual appeal.

Mimetic analyses “Spoken words are the symbols of mental experience“, as the Greek philosopher states, and it is well established that every word indicates a particular meaning and has a unique connotation. Hence, it is relevant to analyze the lyrics of the pop music video. [Marx, 2008]

First, one has to admit, that the lyrics of the song is the perfect accompaniment to the video visualization and completely corresponds to the idea of it on the technical view. On analyzing the mode of expression, it is rather simplified for the reason of the musical style, which can be defined as a combination of R


Theoretical Examination of Social Stratification Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparison of functionalism and social conflict theory



Introduction The essay is a critical examination of an article written by Mark Thomas, titled “Economic Security for Middle Class Families”. Through the reading, two theories are compared; social conflict and functionalism.

This is done by comparing the characteristics of their approaches and how they will analyze the problems brought forth in the article. Lastly, one of the two theories is chosen based on how best in my view interprets the issues. It is then used to come up with possible resolutions to the issues raised.

The article provides some worrying statistics with regards to well being of middle-class American families. Most families 2 out of 3 experience unstable financial grounds. Others are in borderline or at risk of falling back to lower class. It is worth noting that the findings were backed by participants of a press conference that launched the report (Thomas, 2007).

Comparison of functionalism and social conflict theory Functionalism theory is coined to the findings and arguments of Durkheim. This theory holds that a society is made up of interdependent sections which work in harmony to meet the needs of a given society. It mainly focuses on how people come together, join forces and a form a society.

The fundamental of the theory rests on how good or bad actions being taken are to the equilibrium. Additionally, it sees individuals as occupying fixed roles in the society, consensus is build on common values, there is need to disorganize and adjust in order to attain equilibrium and society is viewed as an entity that is bigger than the sum of its parts.

With regards to functionalism, the problem facing middle class American rests on the failure of the government and the relevant authorities to develop plans that meet the needs of a given society. When individuals are not given equal opportunity to access education, health and political positions then there is bound to be a serious problem (Thomas, 2007).

On the other hand, social conflict theory developed by Marx centers mainly on power, equality and exploitation. According to the theory groups or persons are subjected the conditions they are faced with by those in power since distribution of material as well as non-material resources are skewed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rich in the society oppress the poor due to the power the former holds. According to Thio, 2008 political culture and economics play a major role in explaining the imbalance in distribution of resources.

For this reason, conflict social theory if used to explain the problems being experienced by middle class families holds that those individuals in upper classes subject middle class families to work hard making huge profits that are channeled back to the rich.

This leaves the middle class at risk since policies are put in place to ensure that their lives remain the same or even become worse. Having in mind that majority of middle class families cannot afford to acquire material and non material resources, and then they are at risk of losing a grip on them due to the exploitations they are subjected to.

It is worth noting that although the two theories are distinct from one another, they share a common thing; that of seeing the society at a macro-level analysis. Structures such as education, wages, education, politics, culture among others and how they impact on the well being of individuals are tackled in both theories (Thio, 2008).

In my opinion, the social conflict theory seems to best explain the problem being faced by the middle class families. It is worth noting that the majority of individuals in this class are African American (Macionis, 2009).

This thus rests on the injustices the groups were subjected to in the past which seem to haunt them upto date. Although efforts have been made to provide them with equal opportunities in education, employment and health, they still suffer from exploitation in terms of salaries and wages.

Based on the selected theory, it is necessary to bridge the imbalance or inequality of distribution of resources. It is not only important to strengthen and make education, health services and debt reduction a priority but ensure that employment opportunities are equal and wages discrepancies are minimal.

We will write a custom Essay on Theoretical Examination of Social Stratification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will provide the affected individual with an opportunity to thrive in such a class and even struggle to climb the ladder of social stratification (Thio, 2008).

In my opinion, I believe that the statistics presented here are objective, valid and factual. From the information presented by the author it is evident that middle class American families are experiencing economic, political and cultural instability.

My view rests on the fact that the presented information come from a primary research and was backed by reputable individuals who were present during the launch of the report.

Conclusion From the review of the article by Mark Thomas, the problems being faced by middle class American families have been differently interpreted by functionalism and conflict social theory.

Both are distinct but share a common characteristic; that of being capable of analyzing society in a macro-level. Social conflict theory seems to be one theory that best interprets the problems. Based on this, there is need to come up with policies that will uplift individuals in middle class.

References Macionis, J. (2009). Society: The Basics. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.

Thomas, M. (2007). “Economic Security for Middle Class Families” Web.

Thio, A. (2008). Sociology: A Brief Introduction. New York: Pearson.

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The Battle against Chaos and Challenging Inequities Essay best essay help

Alan Sears and James Cairns in their book A Good Book, in Theory: Making Sense through Inquiry present the most influential theories of the social development and changes.

The battle against chaos as the main function of the societal regulation as it is outlined in the social order model and challenging inequities as the driving force for the social transformation as it is outlined in the conflict theory explain the main underlying processes of the societal development from different theoretical perspectives.

According to the social order perspective, the main function of the society rules is preventing the treat of chaos and savagery in the community. The battle against chaos can be defined as the society control over its members intended to protect them from their inherently brutal selves through socializing them.

It is assumed that were it not for the society regulations, every individual would act according to his/her narrow self-interests disregarding the interests of the others (Sears and Cairns 17).

An interesting example of the community degradation due to the lack of social order can be found in the book Lord of Flies by Golding in which a group of children left on a desert island do not manage to preserve their civilization and finally go wild.

Thus, the plot of this book illustrates the idea that the social order can be regarded as the product of the societal control which is significant for preventing the chaos and bloodshed characteristic of the primitive tribes lacking these regulations.

Another assumption which can be driven from the central idea of the battle against the chaos as the primary function of the social order is that a strong set of common values is required for preserving the society order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As compared to the external policies, the self-control and the established habit of regulating oneself are more effective for preventing the degradation to the level of the self-serving brutality. In that regard, the social stratification can threaten the appropriate societal order because the individuals who have less power will consider the order as unjust and would not share the common values.

Then, the pluralism of the political processes and the negotiations between the competing interest groups when solving certain significant problems is significant for maintaining the social order.

For this reason Sears and Cairns develop the idea that a long-term modernization and constant social changes are important for eliminating unjust social practices, preserving social order and ensuring the country’s progress and prosperity.

In contrast to the social order perspective viewing the preservation of the social order as the necessary battle against the possible chaos, the conflict model emphasizes the role of modern society in creating the inequalities which are put into its basis.

The challenging inequities are viewed as the struggle between the disadvantages groups and those who occupy the power positions which results in the conflict of interests and is followed by social changes (Sears and Cairns 20).

The examples of labor unions intended to protect the rights of the employees and feminist movement struggling for the equal pay and rights of women can illustrate the conflict perspective upon the role of society control in the social processes and changes.

The central assumption of the conflict model is that the modern society is based upon challenging inequalities which can be regarded as the driving forces of the social changes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Battle against Chaos and Challenging Inequities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, it can be concluded that the concept of the battle against the chaos was used by Sears and Cairns for explaining the role of societal regulations from the social order perspective, whereas the concept of challenging inequities was intended to illustrate the main driving force of the social change according to the conflict model of society development.

Works Cited Sears, Alan and James Cairns. A Good Book, in Theory: Making Sense through Inquiry. North York: University of Toronto Press Incorporated, 2010. Print.


Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia Report essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia

Types and methods of foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia

Trend in foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia

Drivers to foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia

Impacts of foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia


Works Cited

Introduction Foreign direct investment refers to the net flow of investment to a foreign country with the aim of acquiring a long term interest in the management and operation of a business entity in that country. It therefore by definition involves the transfer of investments by an individual from his or her native country into a foreign country.

This paper seeks to discuss foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia. The paper will look at elements of foreign direct investment in the country with respect to its history, types, methods, trend and impacts. The paper will also look into factors that affect foreign direct investment in the country together with projections of such future investments.

Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia The level of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia is reported to be high. The country has over the past years undergone transformations that have been seemingly aimed at increasing its capacity to accept foreign direct investment.

These transformations seem to have born fruit as foreign direct investment continues to grow in the country and is being identified as one of the highest in the world. The history of development of foreign investment in the country is traced to the form of liberalization of the kingdom’s market that seemingly attracted foreign investors.

This is because the market was made free from restrictions and even regulations that were previously permitted but at the same time discouraged foreign investments into the country.

The history of development of level of foreign direct investments therefore started with development of policies such as “open market, private enterprise policies, and absence of both foreign exchange controls and restrictions on the repatriation of capital and profits” (Shoult 50).

The level of foreign direct investment was again boosted in the year 2000 when the country enacted specific laws that were aimed at fostering the level of such investments in Saudi Arabia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such legislation further liberalized Saudi Arabia in terms of investments with foreign investors being allowed to own up to one hundred percent a given enterprises in the country. Foreign direct investment was again boosted in the year 2002 when the country moved in to privatize many of the then government controlled sectors in its economy.

At the same time, the government further reduced limitations over foreign direct investment that was still realized over protection of particular sectors that were excluded from foreign investors. Most of these investment opportunities that the government had reserved from foreign investors were then opened allowing room for foreigners who could be interested in the investments (Shoult 50).

The establishment of Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority in the year 2000 has also played a critical role in the country’s foreign investments. As a regulatory body in terms of licensing foreign direct investment initiatives, the body has successfully registered a tremendous number of projects under foreign direct investment.

In only a span of five years from its establishment, the body managed to register more than two thousand projects that were valued at over fifteen billion U.S. dollars. The distribution of foreign direct investments in the country is also realized to be relatively even in relation to the industries in the country.

Foreign investments are also diversified in terms of sectors in both industrial and service providers. In spite of the increased level of foreign direct investment in the country by the year 2004, there were still increasingly high numbers of interested parties in the country’s foreign direct investment.

A number of applications had by then been made and approved and were just awaiting establishment of their investment projects.

Most of the foreign direct investment proposals for the country were realized from investors from countries such as “the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Finland, India and Italy” (Shoult 50). Saudi Arabia has also attracted investors from its Arab neighborhood in the Arab region (Shoult 50).

We will write a custom Report on Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The history and development of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia significantly evolved from the enactment of “foreign direct investment law, FIL” (Shoult 50) that was undertaken in the year 2000. Under this legislation, the difference and gap between local investments and foreign direct investments was greatly narrowed.

Foreign direct investments became privileged and enjoyed a lot of benefits that were previously limited to local investments only. One of the immediate benefits that foreign investments reaped was the allowance to fully own an enterprise in the country that was previously limited to local investors only.

Foreign investors were then also recognized for loans and funding by the country’s government and were permitted to have more that one enterprise in the country’s economy. The government also regulated the tax system in relation to foreign investment thus inducing more incentives to potential investors to the country (Shoult 50).

The direct foreign investment into the country has however continued to grow over time with the net direct investment inflow reaching about thirty six billion U.S. dollars as compared to the fifteen billion dollars that was realized in by the year 2004.

The country foreign investments had therefore increased by more than one hundred percent in a span of just five years. By the year 2009, Saudi Arabia was among the top countries with heavy foreign direct investments in the whole world.

It was actually ranked at the eighth position globally and the best in the Arab world. This puts Saudi Arabia in line with the world’s economic strongholds such as the United States and China that also enjoys such levels of foreign direct investments.

Following its goal to ensure that Saudi Arabia was among the ten leading countries in the whole world in terms of direct foreign investments by the year 2009 and to make the country the global leader by the year 2010, the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority can therefore be credited for its success in first place by ensuring increased level of direct foreign investment in the country and then for driving the country to be one of the world’s most attractive investment place.

Currently, Saudi Arabia has captured the interest of investors from countries such as “United States, Kuwait, United Arabs emirates, France and Japan” among others who lead the list of the country’s current foreign investment in that respective order (Moulana 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign Direct Investment in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though the country has consistently grown in terms of its direct foreign investments that has led to its foreign direct investment stock reaching close to one hundred and fifty billion dollars, the Saudi Arabian general investment authority is still not yet satisfied and is promising that it will drive the country to further foreign investments (Moulana 1).

Types and methods of foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia Foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia have developed over time to attract investors from different corners of the world. With this diversity, the nature of the investments is also expected to be diverse following the different nature of countries that are investing in the country.

Countries such as the United States that have different economic systems from those exhibited by more communist countries induce the variety in economic transactions in an environment. The nature and extent of diversity in the country therefore realizes the global category of investments types that are then exported to Saudi Arabia.

There are a variety of types of direct foreign investments. Moosa Imad classified foreign direct investments in terms of the perspectives realized from either the investor or the recipient country. With consideration of an investor’s point of view, foreign direct investments can be classified in terms of being “horizontal FDI, vertical FDI and conglomerate FDI” (Moosa 4).

Horizontal foreign direct investment involves the expansion of an investment into a foreign country yet maintaining the type of product being offered by the investor.

Its main aim is to expand an investment in terms of market control especially in cases where such expansions are not favored by regulations in the investor’s country such as when a further expansion of an enterprise in its original country would pose a threat of monopolizing the country’s market contrary to regulations.

The direct investments would therefore be characterized by the products in the exporting country. Vertical foreign direct investment on the other hand focuses on gaining power and access to either production resources or market for finished products. Investors therefore acquire enterprises that are close to these assets.

Conglomerate type of foreign direct investment is rather an integration of both vertical and horizontal expansion of an investment in a foreign market. Classification of foreign direct investments with respect to the recipient country such as Saudi Arabia can take forms such as “import substituting FDI, export increasing FDI and government initiated FDI” (Moosa 5).

The import substitution effect of foreign direct investment is realized with respect to the establishment of investments for production of commodities that were previously imported by the country.

When the foreign investors inject their capital into the country’s industries, factories are developed and more varieties of commodities are produced locally. As a result importations and cash flow out of the country is reduced.

Exports that increase foreign direct investment comprise those investments that produce commodities for exports. The investment could also export raw materials and bi products to the investing country. An overall impact will all the same be an increased level of exportation by the country.

A foreign investment that is initiated by the government is however characterized and majorly based on moves by the government to attract foreign investors into the country (Moosa 5).

The foreign direct investments into the country after the year 2000 can be significantly be attributed to government initiatives that included legislations and policy makings that focused in attracting investors to Saudi Arabia.

Apart from the drive or nature of foreign direct investments, they can also be classified based on the motives for which they are being sought or established. Under this classification, the direct investments can be categorized as either “expansionary or defensive” (Moosa 5).

Under expansionary foreign investment, the main focus is the advantage gained by the investor in terms of increased productivity, sales and revenues. A defensive foreign investment on the other hand establishes a base for reduced input into the investor’s business.

It is therefore driven with the availability of cheaper resources such as labor and raw materials for investments (Moosa 5). Another approach to the types of foreign direct investments is the nature and extent of acquisition of an enterprise that a foreign investor obtains from his or her investment.

A foreign investor can acquire an enterprise in whole or in part through purchase. Under this approach, the investor can obtain part of the enterprise to have a merger with a local investor or can purchase the entire enterprise to gain a complete control of the enterprise through acquisition.

Foreign investors can also establish an entirely new enterprise in the recipient country through the “green field investments” (OECD 87) approach (OECD 87). It can also take the form “extension of new capital” in which an investor adds to the already existing investment or a “financial restructuring” approach (OECD 87).

The availability of the variety of approaches to foreign direct investment reflects the level of diversity and growth of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia (OECD 87).

Trend in foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia Existence of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia has been significant for over three decades. By early 1970, the country was struggling with balancing flow of capital across its boarders. With a net inflow of investment that was almost negligible in the early 1970s, the country realized a negative net inflow of investment capital after the year 1974.

This means that the level of investments that was leaving Saudi Arabia into other countries was more that the investment that it was receiving from outside. The country’s net foreign direct investment then fluctuated within a mean value of zero with significant deviations being realized in the negative direction.

The country only realized short durations of positive net investment flow which was about two billion U.S. dollars at its maximum in the duration between 1979 and 1981. The level of the country’s foreign direct investment was again negative in the year 1981 before it started rising.

It was during this period that the country realized its significant rise in foreign direct investments which reached ten dollars before starting to decline again. The trend of fluctuating about the mean average of zero resumed in the year 1987 and continued into the twenty first century.

In the year 2002 for instance, Saudi Arabia realized a net investment flow of zero. The foreign investment trend then lowered to negative values before assuming an increasing trend in around the year 2003. It is after this time that Saudi Arabia picked its development in the level of foreign direct investment.

The trend sharply rose to over ten billion U.S. dollars in a span of less that a year. Though the rate of increase in the country’s foreign direct investment slowed down, it continued to increased and almost reached twenty five billion dollars in the year 2008.

The trend however experienced a decrease up to about twenty billion dollars in the year 2009 (Trading 1). The level of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia is reported to continue with an increasing trend in its foreign investments.

One of its mains sources of foreign direct investments, the United States, continues to register increasing level of such investments in the country. In the year 2009, for example, the United States’ investment into the country increased by more that half of its investments in Saudi Arabia in the previous year (US 1).

Drivers to foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia Foreign direct investments as realized in Saudi Arabia after the year 2000 have adopted an increasing trend. A lot of factors can be attributed to this trend as measures that have been adopted to influence foreign investors into the country. The major factor that has been credited with the improvement of the country’s foreign direct investment is the legislation that the country enacted in the year 2000.

The law for instance allowed foreign investors to have total ownership of investment interests in the country. Before the enactment of the legislation, foreigners were restricted with respect to the percentage of a given enterprise that could be owned.

In other words, a foreign investor was not allowed to solely establish an enterprise or even acquire more that a given percentage of an individual enterprise. The legislation however allowed for complete ownership of businesses by any investor in the country.

Foreign investors were also given all privileges that relates to business operation in the country such as provision of loans. The law also ensured faster processing of licenses by agencies. All these had active roles in attracting investors.

Limitation of ownership and control of a business enterprise had the impact of forcing foreign investors to offer their resources to an environment where they had no total control. This induces insecurity that can discourage an individual from investing.

This can explain the low net investment flow that the country realized before the year 2000. The limited control that investors were allowed must have played the role of scaring investors away (Shoult 50- 54).

The trend however changed after the regulation reflecting the level of confidence that investors gained following the provision that they could own business and control their investments.

Facilitated registrations of foreign investments, liberalization of tax on foreign investments among other changes also acted as incentives to investors who then started moving to make investments in the country.

The legislation therefore played a significant role in determining the direction and level of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia by positively influencing direct foreign investment.

Privatization of a number of sectors in the country that was approved by the Saudi Arabian government in the year 2002 can also be identified as a factor that influenced foreign direct investment into the country. This is because it is actually this year in which the foreign direct investments in the country realized a change.

The privatization move therefore played a role as an indicator of the government’s commitment to economic reforms that was to open up the country to international investors. The privatization also provided a chance for investment by giving up enterprises and sectors that were previously owned by the government (Shoult 53).

Another factor that affected the trend of foreign direct investment in Saudi Arabia was the incentives that the government offered to investors. The Saudi Arabian general investment authority for example offered assistance to foreigners who wanted to invest in the country.

Specific centers were instituted by the government where potential investors could seek possible help from relevant government bodies. The investment authority also ensured its efforts to making sure that necessary recommendations were made for appropriate measures of attracting foreign investments.

The move adopted by the Saudi government to offer contractual preference for commodities that were made in the country also played a role in attracting foreign investments. Those who for example imported commodities into the country would be influenced into producing them in the country in order to access the tenders from the government.

The government also offered incentives with respect to resources such as land which was availed to investors at subsidized prices. Investors were also at the same time offered ownership of property that was connected to their investments.

Incentives were also allowed with respect to corporate tax on foreign investments as well as mobility of foreign capital in the country. These incentives offered attraction to investors contrary to the prior period when the country had restrictions instead of incentives.

The move by the government through its agencies to attract foreign investors is therefore another factor that changed the trend of the Saudi Arabian foreign direct investments (Shoult 55).

Another significant factor towards the increased level of foreign direct investment was the wave of globalization that swept across developing countries. Under globalization, markets were opened for economic activities across the globe.

Territorial restrictions were reduced and a level of freedom with respect to trade was realized. The relaxation of trade restrictions by Saudi Arabia under globalization also played a role in allowing for foreign investments in the country (Brunel 1).

Other factors that affect foreign direct investments in a country include “political stability, technology, and availability of resources, transportation, material and labor cost, economic policy and size and growth of the foreign market” (Wickramasinghe 63).

Saudi Arabia is recorded to have had a number of these factors which have contributed to its increasing foreign direct investments (Wickramasinghe 64). The political system in Saudi Arabia is for example reported to fairly stable.

Though the country has not developed democratic pillars for election of its leaders, there has not been a significant opposition to the government system in the country. The lack of resistance or conflict over the system of governance thus illustrates a stable governing system which promises safety of investments (Estandard, 1).

The country is also rich in resources as realized in “Hydrocarbons, gold, uranium, bauxite, coal, iron, phosphate, tungsten, zinc, silver and copper” among others (State, 1). The country can therefore be concluded to have favorable factors towards attracting foreign direct investment.

The former poorly realized foreign direct investments in the country could therefore be attributed to restrictions that were removed by the country’s legislative measures that were undertaken in the year 2000 (State 1). The country also has a high level of supply of cheap energy which plays an important role in any industrial process.

The availability of cheap resources in the country gives it an advantage over other countries with respect to investor interest as cheap resources associates with higher profitability under same market conditions for finished products. These therefore add to the factors influencing foreign investors into the country (Rahman 4).

Impacts of foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia Foreign direct investment has a lot of benefits to the recipient countries, especially in cases where the recipient countries are developing countries. The investments are normally associated with developments in “technologies, management techniques, finance and market access for the production of goods and services” (Rahman 4).

The investments have also been linked with advancements in “quality of domestic production, increased competitiveness domestically and internationally, to increases in exports and improvements in the Balance of Payments (BP) of the host country” (Rahman 4).

The foreign direct investment therefore has a direct impact on the country’s economy which is then transferred to the lives of people in the country in terms of living standards. Saudi Arabia as a country together with its citizens has therefore been beneficiaries of the increasing level of foreign direct investments into the country (Rahman 4).

Conclusion Foreign direct investment reflects the net inflow of investments into a country. Saudi Arabia was characterized by a poor trend in foreign direct investment with the country experiencing negative foreign direct investments in most periods prior to the year 2002.

The country’s trend in foreign investments however changed in 2002 and improved to become one of the best in the world by the year 2009. The improvement in the country’s foreign direct investment was driven by factors such as government initiatives that were aimed at attracting foreign investors into the country.

The types of direct investments as realized in the country are varied depending on the approach or the motive of the investment. With the increased level of foreign direct investments in Saudi Arabia, the country as well as its individual citizens have benefited from significant economic improvement.

Works Cited Brunel. Location motivations for foreign direct investment in the petrochemicals industry, the case of Saudi Arabia.Brunel UK. Web.

Estandard. Saudi Arabia. Arabia Business, 2010. Web.

Moosa, Imad. Foreign direct investment: theory, evidence, and practice. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Moulana Said. “Saudi Arabia breaks into top 10 for FDI”. Asian Tribune, 2010. Web.

OECD. OECD benchmark definition of foreign direct investment. France: OECD Publishing, 2009. Print.

Rahman, Abdel. The determinants of foreign direct investment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Google Docuements, 2009. Web.

Shoult, Anthony. Doing business with Saudi Arabia. London, UK: GMB Publishing Ltd, 2006. Print.

State. Background note: Saudi Arabia. State, 2011. Web.

Trading. Foreign direct investment; Net (BoP; US dollar) in Saudi Arabia. Trading Economics, 2011. Web.

US. Saudi Arabia. USTR. Web.

Wickramasinghe, Don. Determinant of the factors affecting foreign direct investment. Library, 2010. Web.


Relationship, Task and Process Conflicts at Workplace Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Relationship conflicts

Task conflict

Process conflict


In life conflicts is not evitable; conflict can be defined as a disagreement between two or more parties having different views, opinions, and interests; solving a conflict can be a challenging or simile issue depending with the parties involved as the nature of their conflict, conflict resolution contains substantive, procedural, and psychological dimensions of human mind.

There are different types of conflict each calls for its special resolution approach (Jeong, 2009). This paper discusses three main conflicts types and the way they can be solved.

Relationship conflicts Relationship conflicts occurs when people working, living, staying or in close proximity have some differences; the differences leads to disagreement and either party feels oppressed by the other. A certain level of conflict is healthy as it assists a parties involved to deal with challenging issues and let them solve and air out their differences in life.

In intimate relationships , healthy conflicts are known to lead to more intimacy between the parties; in whichever the relationship, conflicts are not evictable so the best method to live with them is to handle them effectively:

Solving relationship conflicts

To solve effectively relationship conflict, the following is the best style:

Every party get in touch with its feelings

Listen to the other person and let them say what they feel without interacting

Give your views and practice Assertive Communication

Jointly develop a common ground

Seek the solution and stick to it (Fenn


Water Shortage’ Major Causes and Implication Cause and Effect Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction It’s no doubt that the world is facing a topic of water crisis which has gone out of control and therefore raising a lot of concerns from the leaders and international organization who are trying to come up with ideas of solving this problem (, 2011).

However, the root cause of this problem is upon the human race that is entirely to blame for the ever increasing water crisis due poor and undeveloped policies governing protection of such water one of the most precious natural resource. In this regard the following discussion will elaborate on the major causes and implication of water shortage in the planet today.

First, both industrial and domestic water pollution is one of the major causes of water shortage because as more water is polluted the more water is wasted (, 2011).

Due to lack of proper technology available for recycling and purifying such polluted water in many countries across the world, issues of water pollution have become so prevalent and therefore contributing to high percentage of water wastage.

Secondly, water shortage has also been attributed to the high population growth causing a serious competition for this resource (Jones, 2010). The world population is increasing at an alarming rate and consequently straining the supply of this natural resource and hence resulting to severe scarcity of such water due to it’s over use.

Additionally, poor management of the water catchment areas is also another cause of water shortage (, 2011).

Majorly, when water catchment areas are destroyed through deforestation among many other ways, water is also likely to decrease due to destruction rocks and water table hence resulting to low water generation from the surface of earth (, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, due to the fact that water has become a scarce resource, consequently this has possible implications to the humanity and animal kingdom as well.

To the humanity, one of the major implications is that, water scarcity may possibly cause a disagreement of ideas in the planet due to conflict of interest among different countries who would want to have the natural resource for them selves.

Additionally, issues of water shortage may also probably cause division of classes when people will want to own water privately and this will create a class of water have and have-nots (Jones, 2010).

Discussion Summary of the article

This article is a discussion regarding one major problem that is an issue of concern in the 21st century which according to the author, the world is currently facing a major crisis- the scarcity of water one of the most useful natural resource.

The argument is that, in the 20th century the world was having a crisis in dealing with issues such as political ideologies among others, but now the current crisis is much worse and it might be one the major causes of conflict in the planet today (Jones, 2010).

The author describes the intensity to how much water as natural resource has become so scarce especially the fresh water which is essential for domestic consumption, in fact, the most shocking news is that, according to author’s report, fresh water currently contributes only about “2.5 percent of the planet’s entire water supply” and therefore, such supply of water can not meet the actual demand for water worldwide since the world’s population is also increasing at an alarming rate and consequently causing an increasing in water demand at least by double the original water necessity (Jones, 2010).

For this reason, then it is reasonably clear that the current trends of this particular natural resource can not sustain the world population; meaning that those sectors that fully depend on water such as agriculture and manufacturing industries may also not be able to function fully (Jones, 2010).

We will write a custom Essay on Water Shortage’ Major Causes and Implication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result of all these issues, then the ever rising water shortage crisis might be a cause of conflict in the world due to the competition for the natural resource that will also rise.

For this particular concern, there is a clear warning to the humanity that, this is a “real danger” because people will clash to own any drop of fresh water and then there will be “water have and water have not” categories of people (Jones, 2010).

Additionally, the article describes water shortage as a “genuine problem” that the world leaders need to address in order to establish a long lasting solution to safeguard the future (Jones, 2010).

The opinion is that, the leaders should put laws which are necessary in governing proper and at the same time, people should try to reduce cases of water pollution in order to facilitate recycling process.

Clear examples and factors arising due to fear of water scarcity

Water crisis is a global issue although it is more pronounced in some countries than others. For instance, a good example is river Nile which is one of the biggest rivers and a major source of water for various uses in North Africa region.

However, river Nile is also a source of worry to the current international relations due to the rising water competition amongst three African countries namely; Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia (Egypt. com, 2007).

There is a crisis in this part of the world where there is a lot of politics on which country should rightfully tap out water (Egypt. com, 2007).

Egypt being a country with powerful military power is more likely to initiate military action in order to ensure she has control over the use of this water for its domestic use and for agricultural production as well, besides, Sudan and Ethiopia also claims that, they have the exclusive rights to use this water which Egypt argues that, the use of water by these other two countries might starve them (Egypt. com, 2007).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Water Shortage’ Major Causes and Implication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, Lake Victoria in East Africa is also another geographical region where conflict over water is an issue already raising concern.

Due to the fact that, the lake lies along the boarder lines of three countries, namely; Kenya, Ugunda and Tanzania, this is enough reason to have a water crisis in this region (Kamugisha, 2007).

For instance, the many activities takes place at this lake including economical activities such as fishing among others is the major cause of catastrophe over the volume of water which is reportedly decreasing with each day.

There is a conflict over ownership of the lake due to the economical benefits which the three countries are generating from this lake causing some of the countries to extend their boundaries in order to have a bigger share of the lake which has already triggered a major conflict (Kamugisha, 2007).

It is no doubt that, these two cases reflect a rising conflict in Africa which happens to be one of the most affected regions in the world. The conflicts are on the rise as a result of competition for the natural resource which is becoming a scarce every day.

Conclusion The world is currently facing much worse crisis in the 21st century than previously when the world leaders were only having crisis over political ideologies and so on (Jones, 2010).

Currently, this is an issue that should be addressed with a lot of concern putting into consideration that, this particular issue of water scarcity might be the next cause of major conflict in the planet especially also considering that this particular natural resource is diminishing at a frightening rate.

In this regard, the humanity has a duty to safeguard their future in order to ensure it’s survival which can not be achieved without a drop of fresh water.

World leader, scientific researchers , international organization among many others, all have a major rule in enlightening the society about the need to protect and take care of this precious commodity in order to ensure sustainability for many years to come because water is an essential component that the whole animal kingdom rely on for life sustenance (Sipes, 2010).

Therefore appropriate and necessary actions should be implemented to curb the issue of water scarcity. Such measures would include; proper management of water catchment areas, reduce cases of water pollution, plant more tree around the globe, and establish policies such as water act which has already been implemented in US to reduce water wastage (Sipes, 2010).

Among many other measures, the solution to water scarcity is achievable if we fully get committed to the set polices in order to provide a long lasting solution one for all.

Reference Egypt (2007). Egypt News – Water crisis hits Egypt “Country of Nile River”. Web.

Jones, D. (2010). Water: The cause of the next global conflict? Web.

Kamugisha, D. (2007). Lake Victoria Extinction and Human Vulnerability in Uganda. Web.

Oxfam (2011). Water for all. Web.

Sipes, J. (2010). Sustainable Solutions for Water Resources. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Press.


Australia and humanitarian rights of refugees Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Australia has been swift in responding to humanitarian needs of the people in times of crisis. This is evident when cyclone wrecked havoc in Samoa and Niue in 2004. There were indeed rapid and coordinated responses.

This was made possible with the urgency with which AusAID and relevant NGOs relayed the information on community needs. In a matter of time medical supplies and other necessities were made available. EMA and AusAID undertook to work together with other relevant national authorities.

Under this partnership, water containers and tablets used for purifying water were sent to the affected people. Other development partners like France and Newzealand also joined this campaign. Australia has also contributed to peace building efforts in Sri Lanka that has had civil wars for almost a quarter of a century.

Australia oversees the post conflict rehabilitation processes to refugees through International Organization for Migration. However, Australia for quite sometime has been thought to be a violator of refugees basic human rights, observes Dharmanan (1).

The country has been in the limelight for hindering multiculturalism and for its hard line stance on individuals seeking asylum. UNICEF’s assertion that the living condition of immigrant children in Europe is slightly deplorable compared to that in Australia has helped spark the latest controversy into this issue.

Statistics show that almost 2 million children aged below 17 years living in immigrant families comprise 33% of Australian population. These children’s living standards were similar to those children brought up in Australia.

This is also the same for the kind of education they receive. Despite the fact that the Australian government has scored relatively well in other spheres, their immigration policy has remained the most wanting (Ziffer, para. 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A proper ventilation of Australian humanitarian record reveals that she is not an international leader as she is purported to be in immigration perspective. This is evidenced at times of wars when the numbers of refugees swell, their response has not been so promising.

In the year 2007-08 a rickety 7.3 % of refugees were included in the humanitarian program (Australian Bureau of Statistics, pp. 1). Further research indicates that in the last quarter of the 20th century, Australian humanitarian intake was so negligible in comparison to the country’s overall allowance.

Australian government has only softened its immigration policies on skilled immigrant hence the surge in number of those falling under the category of skilled migration program.

The statistics on living standards of immigrant children was prompted by the fact that the parents of these children were skilled migrant workers who had good education with beautiful pay packages hence ease in settling. It is notable that a reasonable percentage of these migrant workers were British citizens.

Some major challenges that refugees in Australia face are racial and cultural discrimination. Alternatively they argue that these refugees can return to their home countries when normalcy returns or as well be integrated in third world countries (ACIL consulting, pp. 1).

This essay seeks to interrogate the kind of political response is needed given Australia’s poor record for dealing with humanitarian rights of refugees. Issues related to this allegation will be highlighted and their relevance to political institutions and democracy identified. A lot of credence will be given to coherence and soundness of argument based on evidence of wide research.

In order to curtail the escalating humanitarian crisis, the Australian government came up with Humanitarian action policy of 1995 (AusAID, pp. 1). The policy basically touches on protection of human life, his or her health, and the physical well being. It recognizes the relationship between the humanitarian activities and the aid policies.

We will write a custom Essay on Australia and humanitarian rights of refugees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The policy underscores the importance of development programs integrating risks created by disasters and conflict with a view to reducing levels of poverty thereby creating sustainable development. By the virtue of the fact that humanitarian assistance goes hand in hand with security, the policy has integrated aspects of strategies of reducing poverty.

The policy seeks to ensure that humanitarian response is coordinated. Poverty is further fuelled when there is inadequate insecurity and exposure to hazards. The action plan has to be integrated with other aspects so that poverty and conflict can be checked.

The policy seeks the input of the government and concerned communities. The action policy will embody unpredictable events and the HIV/AIDS. It is for a fact that poverty and poor governance exposes people to disasters as seen with countries whose development records are low.

This is also true for countries that depend practically on primary production. The poor become the worst hit when disasters occur because they lack resources and government good will with which to address these issues. Countries with low or medium development become most hit with disasters.

Disasters impact on economies and peoples livelihoods by damaging their belongings and their means of production. Individuals who have been affected take too long to recover from these devastating effects.

Political, social, and economic reasons that fuel violent conflicts are so prevalent in developing or less developed countries with no democratic space and poor record of accountability. Such conflicts are witnessed in terms of civil wars as opposed to cross border wars.

Such civil wars are quite often prompted by inequitable distribution of resources, unemployment, and divisive policies. Countries that host these refugees have to learn to endure the extra burden exerted on their scarce resources. The Australian government has since endorsed good humanitarian donorship.

The government in delivering humanitarian assistance tries to be neutral by ensuring that humanitarian workers do take sides in a conflict. Humanitarian donorship implementation plan ensures the government remains accountable in undertaking her humanitarian duties.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Australia and humanitarian rights of refugees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The policy goals are embedded on principle of burden sharing. Protection of life and alleviation of suffering remains the government top priority. The government also endeavors to maintain human dignity while assisting refugees in recovering from conflicts.

The government emphasizes the need for enhancing effective response, prevention and preparedness for disasters. Their primary focus in geographical perspective is the Asia pacific region.

This does not deter them from responding to emergencies that do not fall in the Asia pacific region. In this respect, their response would be guided by the magnitude of the disaster at hand and their ability to effectively contribute in such circumstances.

When the Australian humanitarian services are to be offered in areas that they do not traditionally operate in, the concerned department works in liaison with the foreign affairs ministry and trade to sort out the diplomatic issues involved in such operations.

Attorney general’s input ma also be sought when issues pertaining to international humanitarian law need to be corroborated. The Australian government provides material assistance to safeguard the victim’s life and health and alleviate suffering.

It also works with relevant UN agencies, international corporations, community based organizations to achieve coherent and strategic response. The government also advocates for access to affected groups so that they can receive humanitarian help.

The government also beefs up the security of humanitarian aid workers as well as the security of displaced persons or refugees. Finally it also engages in training initiatives.

Agencies for humanitarian aid advocate for respect for international law, refugee, and human rights law by developing an insight into how humanitarian law can be integrated into humanitarian practice. It undertakes to participate in international fora.

Alternatively, people who take part in humanitarian assignments are sponsored to study humanitarian law. Finally, the agency promotes international humanitarian law in all government policy settings.

To guarantee the safety of humanitarian workers, the government provides an impetus for creation of appropriate security and evacuation plans, giving their input in coordinating complex emergencies. The government also offers curriculum for training of humanitarian workers.

The government also seeks to bridge the gap between development and humanitarian programs to rest the case of insecurity and enhance transitional planning. This she intends to achieve by reintegration of AusAID activities into different parts of the country; coming up with guidelines of assessing their humanitarian activities.

By doing this they intend to analyze the specific needs of the vulnerable groups. Creation of a link between development and humanitarian programme helps the government to come up with strategies that will stem people’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in areas affected by the crises.

Finally, the linkage helps the government to enter into long term funding agreement with humanitarian agencies to enhance flexibility and response to emergency. This helps the government to plan even better.

The policy plan also put the government and the local communities in a position where they can come up with their own capacity to mitigate the effects of disasters.

This is done by appreciating the role the local communities and devolved government play in minimizing the effects of disasters; bolstering disaster management offices organizational capacity; empowering the local community to enable them combat the effects of disasters; ensuring both sexes are given opportunity in disaster management programs; integrating ways that communities use in mitigating the effects of disaster; careful evaluation I order to deduce if there are benefits when the government and its development partners engage in developmental and humanitarian efforts to alleviate disaster.

The policy action plan also seek to enhance stronger international, regional and local partnerships to aid in faster mobilization of resources by extending funds to NGO’s to enhance their capacity to handle disasters; supporting international red cross and red crescent; supporting United Nation’s agencies concerned with handling humanitarian crisis; strengthening the government tie with other development partners like the international corporation; and keeping in touch with the donor agencies.

The policy action plan underscores the need for fully involving both the gender to ensure that their expertise is fully utilized. This can be guaranteed by coming up with guidelines and best practices that would ensure that both men and women are given equal opportunities in mitigation of crisis necessitated by disasters.

This action plan nevertheless seeks to encourage the implementation of UN six point plan that tries to stem out sexual exploitation during disasters. The action plan intends to reduce the vulnerability of those affected by disaster to HIV/AIDS infection by ensuring that HIV/AIDS analysis becomes part and parcel of those issues that have to be considered in implementing humanitarian action.

Moreover, strategies should be developed to make HIV/AIDS prevention program a part of relief program. The Policy action plan also contemplates improving the input of military personnel and other actors in humanitarian situations by instituting consultation, sharing of information, assigning of tasks, and joint planning.

The humanitarian actors can also come up with a curriculum for training peacekeepers and other personnel whom their services are used in times of emergency. Before military officers are involved in these activities, conformity to international humanitarian law has to be interrogated.

Any military personnel involved must know that they are accountable to civilian authorities. Australia has also come up with a policy that seeks to integrate refugees into countries of first asylum.

Refugees settling in Australia for the first time can seek the services of Refugee Resettlement Advisory Council. This body was set up in 1997. They offer expert advice on refugee and humanitarian issues. Its membership is drawn from people who have extensively worked with refugees (Department of Immigration and multicultural affairs, pp. 1).

In fact quite a number are refugees themselves. They do not represent community organizations or states. They ensure that there is steady flow of information especially on issues touching on settlement policy from the central government to the community organizations (Minister for Immigration and Multicultural affairs 1).

They also advise minister on matters that relate to how adequate are the government services to refugees residing in Australia, how humanitarian entrants should be housed, how their settlement services should be planned, how these families should be supported and issues relating to their employment (Department of immigration and citizenship, pp. 1).

Works Cited ACIL Consulting, Impact of Migrants on the Commonwealth Budget, 1999.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1999 Year Book Australia, Number 81, ABS, Canberra, 1999.

Australian Government AusAID, Humanitarian Action Policy. January 2005.

Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Refugee and Humanitarian Issues Australian Response. Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Australian Citizenship, Fact Sheet 66, 19 June 2000.

Dharmanan, Mala, “What looks like a welcome hides a wall of inhumanity” Prevention Action, 9th Dec 2009.

Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, 1998-99 Migration (Non-Humanitarian) Program Outcome, Media Release MPS 116/99, 12 August 1999.

Ziffer, Dan. Australia’s human rights record under attack. 2009. Web.


GU chocolate company: Marketing Plan Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Overview of the organisation

Target market

Marketing Goals

Market strategies

Implementation and Budget


List of References

Introduction James Averdieck readily acknowledges the competitive nature of the food industry in Britain. Large multinationals daunt the industry thus are not ready to search for new customers.

Therefore, making entries into new markets is rather intricate. In the past seven years, GU has made significant progress in establishing its market niche by elevating its ability to enter new marketplaces thus rapidly expanding revenues (Averdieck 2011).

The management established that most customers buy their products from supermarkets and retail shops. The most effective way to market product entails linking up with strategic partner, advertising and ensuring that product quality does not depreciate.

Overview of the organisation GU chocolate company focuses on the fabrication of confectionary products with puds as the main product. Launched in 2003, the entity has grown admirably. This is attributable to resilience of the management.

GU, which had three products, at the beginning has turned its fortunes around by rapidly expanding its product portfolio and now boasts of a wide variety of products. The subsequent founding of Fru, which is a sibling company, has helped GU to assert its influence in the market.

Their product includes mousses, cakes, chocks and other delicacies that are a preserve of the adults. Marketing of chocolate is very sensitive to packaging (Averdieck 2011). A professional management team led by James the founder of the institution heads the entity.

Their experience will count in trying to market their brand in a market that is very competitive. The expansive range of product that GU deals with helps in establishing its niche since it provides a large variety of products. The entity’s main strength lies in its experienced management and expanding market share.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main challenge to this organisation is competition and the need to maintain appropriate quality (Perner 2008). For GU to survive the entity needs to offer more than what other ordinary Chocolate company’s offer.

Target market Consumers of Chocolate Puds are adults. Such a target market has disposable income hence pricing should be moderate. Due to the product range, this entity offers, it can segment its market. GU’S customers are available in many countries in Europe (Averdieck 2011). Marketing will assist GU to make an entry in new lucrative markets.

Marketing Goals GU puds aim at expanding its market share, a process that will require the management to enact several measures. To achieve an expanded market share, GU will have to launch an audacious advertising campaign that will draw new customers. Winning a significant fraction of the market will require creation a noticeable brand name to counter competition and assert influence in the market. Moreover, the entity would need to put in place appropriate strategies to ensure that the products reach the new target market, which is the major challenge to entities in such an industry.

Market strategies In an industry, that has Multinational Corporation as players; a tender firm like GU will need to initiate effective strategies as the competitors have expansive financial resources. A forceful crusade in media that include Television and print media is necessary.

To enable GU compete with other multinationals, it can develop various products that suite different economic classes. This would allow the company to discriminate prices thus, reaping maximum profit (Perner 2008). GU will forge agreements with companies that can help in marketing products.

Airlines are perfect example as they address the needs of a noticeable fraction of clientele. GU’S product will be available as delicacies during the flights. The catering division, which promotes cuisine, will be pivotal in promoting puds as it sets the standards in the provisions industry.

A large proportion of puds reach customers through supermarket and retailing chains therefore, it is the management’s priority set up mutual agreement with their distributors.

We will write a custom Essay on GU chocolate company: Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Puds consumers are sensitive to packaging and quality (Averdieck 2011). GU must prioritize the enhancement of product quality in face of growing demand for their product. Packaging is crucial in confectionary products as it attracts customers’ attention. It is evident that poor packaging leads to dwindling sales.

However, there is minimal difference between products sold to the higher and lower end of the market. Evidently, the firms that distinguish the market exploit the value difference by offering classy packaging. GU will take up social responsibility in the different countries where it operates.

Social programs will help in building its corporate image and promoting the brand name thus boosting its sales. The above entity is expanding rapidly thus, it needs to initiate decisions swiftly.

Decision making needs logistical support and the planned creation of logistic department will be a plus in facilitating decision-making supported by research and data from the market. Obesity that is attributable to junk food like puds is on the rise.

In an effort to adhere to the various calls by social movements and governments, GU should create products that do not pose health concerns. Customers are scrupulous on the delivery time. Failure to make judicious delivery leads to lessening of demand.

In an effort to counter this, adequate supply, modalities ought to be in place. Customers have varying taste and GU will continue to expand its product profile to meet all customer tastes.

Implementation and Budget GU ought to make investments in production thus satisfying its widening clientele. To maintain their quality, GU will need to invest in research to enhance preparation of quality products.

The managers will seek the expertise of an advertising specialist to make advertisements that will capture the interest of potential customer and draw them to the products. GU will plough back its returns from previous financial periods and seek further capital from financial institution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on GU chocolate company: Marketing Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ploughed capital and loans will finance the expansion of production line and set up a research facility. To the airline corporations and hotels, the company will offer free sample to the various clients of these industries. Consultation with distribution outlets will assist in set up agreements to facilitate distribution of puds.

The execution of the above strategies will require financing. Expansion of production capacity and setting up of a research facility will be a fundamental undertaking for GU.

Thus, the entity will need to solicit funds from financial institution if the revenues are not adequate. GU will set aside funds to finance well-vetted social projects that promote the welfare of the members of public.

By creating an extra department, the organisation will need to spend more funds internally to equip the new department with the necessary labour and equipments (Averdieck 2011). Diabetes is a lifestyle disease, preventable by consumption of products that contain the various nutrients in appropriate proportion. GU has to ensure that its products contain the required nutrients

Conclusion It is necessary to sum up the plan by highlighting the evaluation process. This step acts as a control measure to assess the progress of the strategies. GU’s marketing and the logistic unit will assess the change in sales since the initiation of the marketing plan.

Change in sales numbers will serve as the main assessment criteria of the plan. A negative change in sales revenue will imply that the plan has flopped necessitating review. An increase in revenues will indicate surging sales hence the plan is successful but need improvement.

List of References Averdieck, J. (2011). Gü Chocolate Puds, Business Development Insight Web.

Perner, L. (2008) Food marketing, University of Southern California Web.


Flexi Cool Gifts Website: Business Plan Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Executive Summary Flexi Cool Gifts runs a small business of selling gifts and presents in different cities of Australia. The management of Flexi Cool Gifts is considering the option of a website which might help in increasing revenue and improve the marketing and advertising of the products offered.

Accordingly, the following study has focused on how Flexi Cool Gifts can utilize a website in promoting its business. The proposed plan discusses how the website will be structured and what information and other features will be available on it. Apart from this, the benefits and costs associated with this plan have also been mentioned.

Introduction The owners of the Flexi Cool Gifts are considering the development of a website to enhance their business. Miss Wong, business development manager, has been asked to lead this project.

Miss Wong has contacted Deakin Innovative Solutions Pty Ltd for a proposed business solution. Following personnel from Deakin Innovative Solutions Pty Ltd took part in carrying out this study:

Marketing Manager (considered the marketing strategy)

Finance Manager (considered the costs and benefits)

Web Developer (considered the structure and design of the proposed website)

IT Manager (consider other relevant IT issues)

Company Profile

Flexi Cool Gifts is a small chain of gift shops selling a large variety of gifts and presents through 12 shops located in Melbourne, Geelong, Hobart, and Mt Gambier. The business is owned by Mr. David Peterson (VIC), Kenny Wong (SA), and Ms Sandra Demetrious

(Tasmania). The owners of the business have realized that their business needs a website in order to earn the benefits associated with e-commerce. Accordingly, the management is looking for the development of a website which will help in the marketing and advertisement of the gifts and presents offered by Flexi Cool Gifts.

Moreover, the management also desires to generate more revenue through on-line transactions and improve relationships with their customers through on-line communication.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Proposed Business Solution

In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the development of an effective and customer friendly website is the ultimate solution.

With the development of a website, Flexi Cool will be able to target its existing and prospective customers more conveniently and efficiently in terms of costs. It is expected that the website will be accessed by 1.5 million users of internet in Australia.

This projection will enable Flexi Cool to promote its products along with additional services through its website.

Implementation The implementation of the plan will consist of the development of the proposed website, which will focus on its structure, content and other features.


A website without a proper structure is nothing more than a collection of documents. A properly structured website facilitates the visitors and allows them to roam around easily and understand what the website offers (webdesign, 2011). The structure of the website will consist of homepage, main sections and subsections.


XHTML (eXtensible HyperText Markup Language) will be used in developing the website because a website written in this language can be executed in any browser through computers, mobile phones and other devices (w3schools, 2011). Apart from this, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) will be used in designing the website’s fonts, colors, and other styles (w3, 2011).


After the identification of the structure, content will be placed in the subsections. The layout of the homepage will be divided in three major parts. The centre of the homepage will be the main content column and additional columns will be given on the right and left of the main content column.

We will write a custom Assessment on Flexi Cool Gifts Website: Business Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main content column will contain information related to the enterprise and its operations will be available. Main sections will carry links to contents available in the subsections which will inform the visitor of the website about the products and services offered. Moreover, the subsections will also direct the visitors in using the on-line facilities provided (rocketface, 2011).

Shopping Cart

An ideally placed shopping cart will enable the users of the website to order gifts and presents online while sitting at home. This facility will give Flexi Cool a significant advantage over its competitors who lack on-line transaction processing.

Products Details

As discussed earlier, there will be two columns placed on either side of the main content column. In the left column of the homepage all products offered will be placed tactically to make sure that the visitor is well informed of the products available.

The gifts and presents mentioned in this section will carry a hyperlink. Upon clicking any gift item, a new window will open which will carry details of the item selected including its price and shipment charges. A separate space will be reserved in the same column for displaying any special or discount offers (Web Style Guide, 2011).


The upper portion of the right column will be reserved for advertisements including banner ads and others. It is expected that within one year of its launching, the website will be able to attract new clients for placing their advertisements. This will increase the sources of revenue generation.

Special Features On-line order placement and payment

The customers will be provided with the facility of online order placement. Once a customer has selected a particular gift, he/she will be required to fill out a form.

The form will contain personal information of the customer like, name, address, contact number, email address, place of delivery, etc. this information provided by the customer will also be used to maintain relationship and letting him/her know about the new discount offers and products.

After filling up the form, the customer will be required to make on-line payment through their credit cards or debit cards, cash payment upon delivery or payment through third parties like PayPal.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Flexi Cool Gifts Website: Business Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On-line Tracking and Tracing

The website will also allow customers to trace and track their orders all over Australia. This technology is expected to bring attraction to the services provided by Flexi Cool. The customers will only be required to insert their order numbers, date of placing order and destination to find out the current position of their orders.

Benefits, Costs And Limitations Benefits

It has been estimated that with the development of website, an increase of 20% in annual sales will be recorded in the first year. This rate is expected to grow steadily at 8% to 10% a year. Apart from the sale of gifts, the website itself will present new sources of revenue through third parties advertisements.

Other benefits include:

The website will enable the business to expand through increased projection on the internet.

It will be more convenient for the customers to go through the products offered on-line.

Customers will be able to give their feedback easily about the services and products.


On the other hand, the cost of the website will be $25,000 with an integrated e-commerce system. This amount includes the charges related to domain and hosting. Moreover, a monthly payment of $1200 will be required for website maintenance and updating activities.


Along with benefits associated with the e-business, there are some limitations also which are discussed below:

Technological limitations: lack of proper or high speed internet facility is often regarded as a barrier to e-business success.

Products cannot be inspected: one of the greatest limitations of e-business is that the customers cannot feel what the product is. They are unable to touch, smell, taste or feel the product.

Recommendations In order to expand the customer base and improve advertising and promotion of Flexi Cool Gifts, it is recommended that a website shall be developed with a professional structure and design offering the visitors up to date information related to the gifts and presents available at Flexi Cool.

Considering the nature of business, it is also suitable for Flexi Cool Gifts to offer on-line order placement service together with a smart tracking system, which will help in building credibility.

References Rocketface, 2011. WebSite Structure. Web.

W3, 2011. Learning CSS. [Online] .

W3schools, 2011. XHTML-Why? Web.

Web Style Guide, 2011. Page Structure and Site Design. Web.

Webdesign, 2011. Web Site Structure. Web.


Film “The Imitation of Life” by Sirk Douglas Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Overview of film cultures

Sirk’s American film analysis

Summary and restatement

Reference List

Overview of film cultures Films and cultures have a close relationship with film acting as a mirror of many cultures in the world. Wollen describes films as “cultural mirror” which signifies that, films are a true reflection of the cultural activities and practices of many different communities in the world (1972, p. 26).

In most occasions, people would want to highlight what they have experienced in life and filmmakers are not different. Cultural reflections by the film industry help to publicise the cultural values, norms, philosophies, lifestyle, beliefs and contemporary attitude towards a phenomenon and therefore, fostering understanding among cultures.

This helps in avoiding cultural conflicts. Wollen further relates the relationship of culture and film to that of chicken and the egg where film is the egg and culture is the chicken (1972, p. 28). The implication here is that, film comes from cultures and therefore without cultures there would be no film industry.

On the other hand, films not only emphasize on the exploration of the cultural values, beliefs and norms, but also attempts to dig into the cultural and social conventions of a society or community.

These generic conventions are common in many contemporary societies and signify unity, oneness, and commonness within a society. In some contemporary societies, the generic conventions agreed upon become cultural or societal laws after legislation into customary law.

Traditional conventions differ greatly from the modern conventions all cutting across the different cultures of the world. For instance, traditionally, some communities conventionally agree that people should welcome strangers by shaking their hands, while others hold the opposite.

Filmmaking highlights these differences and without films, it would be very hard for anyone outside a given culture to appreciate some practices upheld in that particular culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, convention concerning strangers is different since people have different ways of welcoming strangers with some shaking their hands and others not but doing verbal introduction before the welcome.

The film industry in the world exemplify these conventions among others, giving a deeper understanding of different cultural symbols, and encourages maintenance of the generic conventions hence reducing cultural conflicts. On the contrary, some other films encourage the breakage of the generic conventions and advocate for adoption of the modern patterns and rules.

Sirk’s American film analysis Films’ presentations of cultures and social activities not only attempt to break the generic conventions of communities, but also endeavour to intensify the generic conventions across and within the cultures of the world.

The intensification of the generic conventions gives way for the acceptance of cultural norms and allows free interaction of people within the cultures. Sarris (1976) noted, “Social rules reflect what acceptable or normal behaviour in any situation is” (p. 233).

This indicates that the social rules generated from the conventionally agreed upon cultural values show the culturally accepted behaviours and guiding rules in all circumstances that any one lives.

One of the major films, which support the intensification of the generic conventions of the world’s cultures, is the 1959 film by Sirk Douglas, “The imitation of life.” This film reflects on the struggles that two widowed women go through as they bring up their daughters from two different cultures but living in the same home.

One of the widows is white while the other is a black but her daughter has a light skin as opposed to that of her mother and therefore, the light-skinned daughter imitates the life of the whites. The scene unveils by revealing the white widow, Lora, who is contending to become an actor, losing track of her daughter, Suzie.

We will write a custom Essay on Film “The Imitation of Life” by Sirk Douglas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Woman looks worried and walks all around to look for her daughter until she meets a stranger by the name Steve Archer who promises to give her a hand in the pursuit to find her daughter.

Although Lora and Steve are strangers, they shake hands in the first instance of their meeting, which reflects the conventionally accepted way of welcoming strangers. As Sarris (2004) observes, “…western societies welcome strangers by offering a firm hand shake while Korea and Japan bow towards each other” (p. 45).

This scene truly reflects the Western society since the strangers share a firm handshake. In addition, the man offers to help the woman in search of her lost daughter.

As a Generic convention, man and woman should help each other and so was the case in this scene. This confirms the Sirk’s intension to intensify the generic conventions in his films as he focuses on different cultures.

Out of women desire for children’s safety and security, Annie a black woman finds the lost little Suzie and takes care of her together with her daughter, Sara. Suzie’s humane heart compels Annie to accept to live and care for her as long as her real mother finds her.

As conventionally accepted, mothers have a duty to protect and care for the little and young children and so was Annie. She took care of the daughters until Suzie’s mother found her. She provided for them and indeed, she acted as a mother for both.

This led to development of a strong relationship between Annie and Suzie and Suzie was free to consult Annie on any difficult issue she encountered. On the other hand, Although Annie is black and her daughter Sara has a light skin, she loves her but on contrary the daughter pretends to be white and yarns to lead a lifestyle similar to that of the whites.

As it is the generic convention for parents to love their children, Annie loves her daughter even though she does not love her simply because she is blank little does she know that she is also blank only that she is light-skinned.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Film “The Imitation of Life” by Sirk Douglas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lora displays a unique behaviour when she finds her daughter in Annie’s custody. She is very kind and thankful to Annie for taking care of her daughter and in return, she takes Annie and Sara to live with her so that Annie can take care of Suzie as Lora pursues her quest of becoming a celebrated actor.

According to Mulvey, “…kindness is a physical reflection of gratefulness of the heart” (2005, p. 24). Getting back her daughter, Lora was grateful to Annie and although she could not afford to pay a housekeeper, she opted to temporary take in the Annie’s family. The two women end up being lifelong friends.

This scenario reflects the generically accepted way of expressing appreciation to someone, like Annie, who does a recommendable task.

With Annie helping as housekeeper, Lora pursues her dream career and ends up being a famous actor. She however focuses more on her career and forgets her daughter, Suzie. In most times, she is out of the house leaving her daughter to the sole care of Annie, the black woman.

Lora trusts Annie so much that she freely allows her to take care of her daughter as she goes for her career. This scenario reflects the western culture, which conventionally allows women to pursue their careers at the expense of their societal roles provided they get someone to take care of their families and children.

In his films, Sirk attempts to intensify the culture of women pursuing their careers as accepted in the western cultures, while on the other hand, the black woman opts to remain at home and take care of Suzie and Sara her daughter.

After some time, Sara follows up on her career though her quest to lead other people’s lifestyles preoccupies her. Because of persistence and hard working of the whites, they end up being rich and wealthy as depicted in the film where Lora starts as a poor white widow but ends up being very rich after she goes for her career. On the contrary, the black widow remains poor throughout her life under the care of rich Lora.

On the contrary, failure to accept ones cultural conventions or status can lead to later troubles and disappointments. Sara refuses to accept that she is black and she disowned her culture, pretends and adopts the white lifestyles based on her light skin.

Acceptance of generic convention of belonging to ones culture regardless of the skin colour intensity can save one from disappointments, which was not the case with Sara. Sara got into a relationship with a white boy and lied that she was white. However, this ends up in disappointment where the boy beats Sara.

Furthermore, when her mother emerges in the nightclub, her boyfriend associates her with blacks and as a result, she losses her job. These series of frustrations comes about simply because Sara refuses to accept the conventional value of belonging to her culture and appreciating it instead, she imitates other people’s lifestyles leading her to unintended frustrations.

Sara’s refusal to accept her cultural background causes her to run away from her heartbroken mother. Many mothers go through this pain after their children disown them and their cultures. Ironically, Sara associates closely with Lora; the white widow who is a famous actor and Sara develops the desire to become an actor too.

This further illustrates her character of imitating other people’s lifestyles. On contrary, Suzie, the Lora’s daughter draws closer to Annie, the black woman, because her mother is hardly at home. Sirk in this context explores the consequences of disowning ones culture and failing to accept generic conventions as stipulated in the customary laws and beliefs.

Although there is a mixture of two cultures, it is clear that there is a struggle between members of the cultures in acceptance or refusal of the conventional and therefore there is an outstanding division between members of the same culture or race.

The blacks want to assume the cultures, behaviour and lifestyles of the white and out rightly reject theirs. The young girls from the two cultures want to orientate to the other culture as the case of character of Sarah and Suzie evidences- Sara associates closely with Suzie’s mother while Suzie associates closely with Sara’s mother.

In this sense, Sirk attempts to intensify generic conventions in the society and not to break it because breaking the conventions leads to divisions within the affected cultures.

Although heartbroken, Sara’s mother sets out to look for her daughter who does not even care about her. This depicts the value children have in the family social setting whereby, as conventionally agreed parents have the mandate to know the whereabouts of their regardless of the children’s perception to them (Klinge 1994, p. 622).

For Annie’s case, she upholds this value and leaves the luxury life in Lora’s house to look for her daughter. When she finds her in theatre performing her music and dancing like the whites, Sara shows less concern to her mother.

To the surprise of Willemen (1971), “Sara denies her own mother, her own blood, her own flesh in order not to live real life but to live an imitation of a life in which she could have a white woman” (p.63). This open denial of one’s own daughter causes distress to Sara’s mother but she still insisted to see her daughter and say goodbye (Sirk 1959 [film]).

Sara’s mother does all these painful things simply because she loves her daughter and honours the generic conventions hence she is ready to go contrary to the norm. On the opposite, Sara adores her work and career over her own mother and she is even ready to disown her- her blood and flesh for the sake of her career.

Sara’s change of her cultural name to Western reveals a high degree of her quest to lead imitated life. This illustrates a total disrespect for one’s own people and culture, which has its own consequences.

After rejection and open denial, the black woman goes back depressed and becomes bedridden probably out of what transpired between her and her daughter. This leads to a worse tragedy, Sara’s mother, Annie, passes on. At this point, it is too late for Sara to apologize to her mother as she presumably dies because of being heartbroken.

Although Sara realises her mistakes later, it is too late to reverse the situation. She has to accept the reality of life, agree to honour, treasure, and respect the generic conventions of her society and cultural background, which would safe her from subsequent troubles.

According to Sirk, “Just before the funeral procession begins, a remorseful Sara tears through the crowd of mourners and throws herself on her mother’s casket to beg for forgiveness” (1959 Film). Sara finally begged for forgiveness but this was too late for her mother to forgive her.

As conventionally accepted they accorded the deceased a descent burial in a church ceremony. This action upholds the dignity and respect of humanity regardless of one’s economic or political status. The case of Sara’s mother was no different. Dignity and respect portrayed over her dead body signified that the community held high the generic conventions of their society.

On the other hand, the family of Lora, the white widow flourished well as they had little conflicts with their generic conventions of the society. After Lora became renowned actor, they rekindle their relationship with the stranger who helped her to look for Suzie, as the film was unfolding.

Finally, they ended up in marriage and continued to abide by the customary conventions of their society. Sirk in this film explores both sides of acceptance and respect for the generic conventions as well as refusal and failure to accord the generic conventions.

In both cases, he exemplifies the benefits and consequences accrued and in addition, he intensifies the quest to support the generic conventions rather than destroying them. If anything, some conventions are not bad at all; for instance, westernization introduced wearing of clothes in Africa; a continent where hides and skins formed the great part of fashion and clothing.

Summary and restatement Various cultural and social settings have different generic conventions, which dictate the behaviour of the people in the society regardless of their economic and political status. It also stipulates the societal beliefs and norms, which members of the society ought to respect.

In many of the social settings, the conventions agreed upon form the customary laws. As any other law an attempt to bridge the customary law attracts cultural punishment, therefore people should abide by these customary laws. Respect to these laws yields to many benefits as compared to violation which results into severe consequences.

Cultural films provide a universal media through which different cultures can express their cultural activities as they attempt to intensify the affirmation of the generic conventions.

Although many cultural films break the generic conventions in many societies, Sirk’s film “Imitation of life” attempts to intensify generic conventions of societies. It supports the creation of these conventions and their subsequent respect and honour by the members of the society.

In the light of intensifying and upholding generic conventions, the African example comes in handy; breaking of the hitherto conservative African societies came with relaxed morals and many people especially teenagers and youth are caught in the we of immorality courtesy of westernization. If only Africa remained rooted to her conservative norms, the social thorn of immorality would never emerge.

Reference List Klinge, B., 1994. The progressive Auteur, Melodrama and canonicity in Melodrama and Meaning. Bloomington: Indiana university press.

Mulvey, L., 2005. Repetition and return , textual analysis and Douglas Sirk in the twenty first century. Manchester: Manchester university press.

Sarris, A., 1976. Towards a theory of film history. Movies and methods, 1(2), pp. 237-238.

Sarris, A., 2004. Notes on the Auteur theory in 1962. Oxford: Oxford university press.

Sirk, D., 1959. Imitation of life. [Film], Universal pictures.

Willemen, P., 1971. Distanciation and Douglas Sirk’s screen. The Sirkian system, 12(2), pp. 63-64.

Wollen, P., 1972. The Auteur theory, signs and meaning in the cinema. London: BFI Press.


Foot Locker Marketing Plan Essay a level english language essay help

Executive Strategy Within the past year China has eclipsed Japan to become the second largest economy in the world making it a potential high yield market for Foot Locker’s expansion into new international markets.

Various studies examining the market in China have shown that the Chinese have developed a certain “hunger” for international brands with fashions and food being among the most highly sought after items in the Chinese market today. Other U.S. based companies such as Wal-Mart Inc. have actually successfully opened up various branches in China with great success.

In fact recent industry data shows that the branches of Wal-Mart located in China are among the highest earners of the company’s international ventures with various high priced retail items quickly being bought as a result of a greatly enriched Chinese economy.

It is based on this that it can be seen that in roads into the Chinese market is a viable step for the company, one which would help to raise company revenues in light of the deteriorating sales in U.S. based markets as a result of the 2008 financial crisis and the resulting deterioration of the U.S. economy as of late.

The primary market objective of this plan is to properly establish the Foot Locker brand in the Chinese market as a retailer of top of line, high quality and original footwear. The primary financial objective of this plan is to reach sales of at least $2.2 million to $3 million during the first year of operations of a single Foot Locker branch in the local Beijing market.

Current Marketing Situation Foot Locker is one of the world’s largest retailers of foot wear in the world with branches located in 20 countries and with a yearly revenue of roughly $4.85 billion dollars.

Right now Foot Locker is about to enter into the lucrative Chinese market where the appetite for foreign brands makes it an ideal location for subsequent company expansion as seen by the successes of other foreign brands that have attempted forays into the Chinese market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, one of the inherent problems with selling brand name items in China is the fact that most retailers face stiff competition from counterfeit brand name goods that are ubiquitous throughout China’s various shopping centers and markets.

In fact China is the source of the majority of fake brand name sneakers that are being sold in various global markets that actually undermines the business models of our stores in those areas.

Selling within China presents itself with its own risks due to the fact that not only would Foot Locker have to compete with other brand retailers in the area the company would need to convince its customer base that buying original brand name sneakers is comparatively better compared to buying cheap knock offs.

Market Description Foot Locker’s market in China consists of consumers in the middle and upper tier of Chinese society, namely the new class of Chinese “elite” that have emerged as a result of the boom in China’s economy.

This specific segment of the population has been known to spend thousands of dollars on various brand named goods such as fashion accessories, clothiers, cars shoes etc. It must also be noted that this particular segment of the population is not as discerning as compared to Foot Locker’s customer segments in the U.S. and Europe.

Various studies examining the buying habits of the Chinese elite show that they tend to buy products based on the brand and the value and rarely take into account product longevity, actual performance in competitions etc.

As such, this particular consumer base presents itself as a potentially lucrative market for the higher priced items that the company currently has in stock.

We will write a custom Essay on Foot Locker Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Foot Locker’s Chinese market customers will have the option of choosing from several brand name sneakers such as Nike and Reebok however in order to distinguish ourselves from the competition and to cater to the buying preference of the chosen market segment Foot Locker branches located in China will retail only the most expensive types of athletic sneakers available from various brands.

The reason behind this is rather simple with the current proliferation of cheap knock offs in the Chinese market and the fact that the “elite” market segment the company has chosen to cater to only favors the most exclusive and expensive products, Foot Locker will be able to distinguish itself from the competition by stocking products that will not only look better than competing retailers in the area but it will be highly unlikely that there would be imitations of that particular type of product since it has been shown by various studies that Chinese manufacturers that produce knock offs usually do so on only specific types of shoe types and largely avoid the more expensive to produce varieties that Foot Locker will stock in its stores.

Product Review The products that the company will primarily focus in selling to the Chinese market are name brand athletic shoes by the following companies: Nike, Puma, Reebok.

Other high quality shoes of the distinct non-athletic type will come from the following companies: Converse, Everest, Dr. Martin.

Competitive Review

An examination of the local Chinese market in Beijing shows that stores that utilize the proposed business model for Foot Locker shoe sales in Beijing are actually a rarity. In fact most shoe sales that occur over there usually sell moderately priced products and never delve into the higher range of sneaker types that are available in some of the company’s U.S. based retail locations.

It is due to this that entry into the Beijing market should prove to be rather seamless and profitable due to the proposed marketing strategy that targets the more affluent members of Chinese society.

It must be noted though that an examination of the local Beijing market reveals that one of the greatest impediments to business success of brand name goods is the fact that they are often quickly copied by local manufacturers and cheap knocks offs are churned out by the dozen and sold in various local markets.

In fact it can even be said that the main competitor of Foot Locker in this particular case isn’t other brand retailers but rather the counterfeit product industry that could possibly copy products available at Foot Locker and sell them at a far lower cost. Their business strategy revolves around copying items sold at certain stores that have created sufficient public interest and demand.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foot Locker Marketing Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While it is unlikely that they would be able to copy the design and materials to every minute detail experience in this particular aspect of the counterfeit industry has taught the company that most counterfeiters can and usually do produce a product that at least looks somewhat like what is being sold in our stores.

Since they don’t need to pay the same fees as our branded stores have to this enables them to undersell their prices at significantly lower prices which affects the bottom line of the company.

It is estimated that that counterfeit shoe industry alone has cost the company millions of dollars in potential sales and as such our entry into their “home turf” so to speak creates numerous potential problems that should be addressed in the future.

Distribution Review

For Foot Lockers China based operations distribution will first be tested through a single Foot Locker area within Beijing in order to test the market compatibility of the Foot Locker brand and the proposed method of targeting the selected consumer market.

No other distribution partners will be included in this particular venture due to the fact that Foot Locker usually focuses on selling foot wear via its own retail outlets.

One potential method of distribution could involve a partnership with Wal-Mart wherein the Foot Locker brand could be incorporated into several of its stores within the China market however such a plan have to wait to till proper market establishment has been accomplished and it has been judged that China is a viable location for future expansion.

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat Analysis While Foot Locker has various strengths at it disposal which have proven themselves time and again as the company has entered in new retail markets in the U.S. and other foreign countries one of the company’s major weaknesses is the lack of brand awareness within the Chinese market.

While most people in China have a passing familiarity with brands such as Nike, Reebok and Puma they have little knowledge of Foot Locker as the ideal location to buy brand name sneakers.

On the other hand it must be noted that China does possess potential as an ideal market for the Foot Locker brand and as such despite threats from sources of competition such as the counterfeit product industry entry into the Chinese market should not be backed out on.


1. Quality of Products Sold. One of the inherent problems with the current Chinese market is the fact that the proliferation of fake footwear within the country has made people rather skeptical as to the durability and overall quality of particular types of athletic shoes.

By presenting the target market with original, high quality and durable products Foot Locker will be able to make itself stand out from the competition due to the fact that not only will our products outlast the fakes sold in the market but their quality is far better as well.

2. Pricing. While it may be true that in comparison to the counterfeit product industry Foot Locker is at price disadvantage however due to our long term relationship and contracts with several of the major brands, Foot Locker’s prices are still far better and more ideal compared to similar types of original branded shoe wear sold in other establishments in the area.

It is due to this that it can be assumed that given enough time consumers within the Chinese market will be able to properly discern the price advantage of shopping at Foot Locker as compared to other retail locations.

3. Brand Awareness of Products. Several of brands of the items we have for sale such as Nike, Puma and Reebok are actually quite well known in various international markets due to the marketing tactics of our suppliers. It is due to this that entry into the China market should prove to be a rather smooth transition due to presence of brand awareness already in the area.


While Foot Locker has various strengths attributed to its name in various retail markets it does have several weaknesses that need to be taken into account before venturing into the market in China.

1. Lack of Awareness of the Foot Locker Brand. While the Foot Locker brand has been well established in the U.S. and in 20 countries abroad the fact remains that there is a distinct lack of awareness of the brand name itself in the China market.

The reason for this is due to the fact that Foot Locker has not ventured into this particular market in the past and the company has always been a U.S. based corporation that has made in-roads into foreign markets only within the past decade. It is due to this that various marketing campaigns will need to be established in order to raise brand awareness in the Beijing area.

2. Higher Priced Items Compared to Local Chinese Brands. Due to the presence of various manufacturing facilities and the fact that the Chinese population has had a hunger for western goods various local Chinese brands of foot wear have appeared within the market in China.

Such items, though of relatively low quality, do have lower prices as compared to the items that Foot Locker has for sale in its U.S. and international retail locations.

One method, as mentioned earlier, of resolving such an issue is to focus more catering to the Chinese “elite” namely the newly rich population demographic in China that have a distinct “hunger” for named brand goods. By appropriately modeling the Foot Locker business structure in order to take into account the need to cater to this specific market it is expected that


In the current Chinese market Foot Locker can take advantage of 3 major market opportunities that are available:

1. Increased demand for foreign brand named goods. One of the current trends in global retailing has been an increase in the amount of brand named goods sent to China. As Chinese incomes increase as a direct result of the outsourcing industry the end result has been a marked “upgrade” in the types of products normally purchased by the Chinese population.

This in effect has encouraged various manufacturers to export their products into China in order to take advantage of this apparent market boom and in effect making substantial profits over the increased demand.

2. Higher Income Threshold of the Chinese Market. With the recent expansion of the Chinese economy to that of the second largest in the world this has in effect created a whole new generation in the Chinese population that is flush with monetary assets.

This in effect has actually resulted in comparatively higher volume purchases of brand name goods and services as compared to other countries in the world. An examination of the car manufacturing industry shows that aside from the U.S., China is its largest market for top of the line cars due to the relatively higher income threshold of the new Chinese “elite”.

This presents itself as a gold opportunity for Foot Locker since entry into this new market could result in significantly higher profits for the company as a result of a relatively rich Chinese populace.

3. Lower Operating Costs in China. Comparing to operating costs in the U.S., Europe and other Asian markets China has a significantly lower operational cost. This is due to the fact that costs in relation to the various salaries of workers are actually far lower than the going rate in various markets resulting in significant savings over time in terms of comparative employee salaries between branch locations in China and the U.S.


In the Chinese market the company faces 3 main threats to its proper establishment:

1. The prevalence of the counterfeit product industry. As mentioned earlier one the main threats to the entry of the company into the Chinese market is the current prevalence of the counterfeit product industry in China.

With various manufacturers within the country easily counterfeiting goods that legitimate retailers sell this presents itself as a problem for Foot Locker since the likelihood of the company’s own product selection the proposed Beijing area may be copied as well resulting in a significant reduction to company profits.

One possible method would be to locate the proposed retail outlet in of Beijing’s exclusive shopping enclaves in order to ensure that the potential for product counterfeiting remains low.

2. Current retailers already in the market. While retail outlets such as Foot Locker are not as prevalent in China as they are in other countries the fact remains that various international retailers such as Wal-Mart do actually exist in the area.

While they may not have as wide a product selection as compared to Foot Locker they do have better brand awareness and prevalence in the Chinese market which presents itself as a problem that the company will need to overcome in order to entice people to buy their branded shoes from Foot Locker instead of other locations

3. Prevalence of E-commerce Shopping in China. One of the current trends in China today has been the prevalence of E-commerce shopping through various China based sites for E-commerce.

While Foot Locker does have its own online retail site a lot of Chinese seem to prefer shopping from locally based sites as compared to international ones. As a result this current trend does present itself as worrying factor since online retailing does have significant advantages over the traditional retail model that the company is going to utilize for its expansion into China.

Objectives and Issues While daunting the following objectives have been created for the first year of entry into the Chinese market where Foot Locker will attempt to test the waters so to speak and determine the viability of China a new area for continued expansion.

First Year Objective

To attain revenues of $2.2 million to $3 million within the first year of operations in Foot Locker’s primary flagship store in China that will be established in Beijing. Should the project prove to be successful subsequent expansions will be undertaken in Shang Hai and other cities within China


One of the major issues that needs to be addressed is the fact that the Foot Locker brand name is still relatively unknown in China. As such extensive advertising campaigns and product promotions need to be created in order to drum up interest for store’s opening.

Another issue that must be taken into consideration is the fact that foreign markets have their own cultural sensitivities that need to be taken into account before a venture is launched.

For example when Pepsi first expanded into the Chinese market its advertising slogan of “we bring life” was translated rather humorously into “we bring your dead relatives back from the grave”.

It is due to rather unfortunate cases such as this that when operations are established in China the company needs to make sure that proper translation and cultural sensitivities are followed in order to properly incorporate Foot Locker into the local Chinese business community.

Marketing Strategy Foot Locker’s marketing strategy in its entry into Chinese market is to position itself on the basis of high quality and exclusivity with the various shoe models and types available at the store being of the highest quality and rarely found in other stores within China.

The company’s primary target consumers will be the relatively young Chinese “elite” who emerged from the recent economic boom in China to become one of the highest spenders in the country to date.

The ages demographic for this particular segment of the population are men and women aged 14 to 30 who are part of the relatively affluent upper class of Chinese society or the relatively well-off Chinese middle class.

In order to reduce revenue costs and to make the company more distinct from its competitors in the local market such as other retailers and counterfeiters the company will not stock any of its low priced shoe selections such as those found in several of its U.S. locations rather the company will instead stock only the latest and most sought after shoe models for that particular year.

The reason behind this is to help establish the Foot Locker as the place to go for the young and affluent to purchase exclusive shoes that people would be hard pressed to find anywhere else thus catering to their sense for style and exclusivity.


Utilizing quality and brand name distinction Foot Locker will position itself as the best place to buy foot wear within the initial Beijing market. This will be done by stocking the highest quality athletic foot wear that are available from our various suppliers and advertising our exclusivity as the best and only place to buy shoes of this particular type and quality within China.

Product Strategy

Should the flagship store in Beijing prove to be successful the company will expand into locations such as Shang Hai and Guang-Jo city as well as various urban centers that have opened up within the past few years as a direct result of the continued expansion of China’s economy.

Similar to the business model utilized in Beijing these stores will stock similar high quality athletic shoes targeting the same consumer demographics however these stores will be smaller than the flagship store present in Beijing and in fact will not stock as complete an assortment of shoes as the main store.

The reason behind this is the fact that establishing various retail outlets in different cities within China still brings with it a certain level of uncertainty. It is due to this that the amount of stock that the company should bring in upon initial expansion should be limited in order to ensure that should the worse come to pass the cost of lost revenue to the company will not be as high as it could have been.

Pricing Strategy

As mentioned earlier the pricing strategy the company will employ in its initial expansion into the Chinese market is to stock only high value shoes. This means that shoe prices will average $50 to $200 or more depending on the make and model of the shoe and if it is in limited supply.

The reason behind stocking such high value merchandise is to better distinguish the company from the various retailers and counterfeit goods sellers that emphasize low prices.

By stocking high quality and high priced goods not only does this send out the message that only a certain amount of people can afford shoes here but it also creates a certain form of exclusivity that various commercial studies have shown is an integral aspect of the buying behavior of the new Chinese “elite”.

Distribution Strategy

In this particular case product distribution and sale will all be done through the initial Foot Locker retail outlet located in Beijing. Should this prove to be successful subsequent retail outlets will also be opened in other cities all of which will be under the Foot Locker brand.

Foot Locker itself utilizes the re-seller business model wherein the company buys shoes en masse’ from the shoe manufacturers such as Nike. The company doesn’t actually make the shoes itself and as such other distribution partners beyond that of the company’s retail outlets will not be a necessity.

Marketing Communication Strategy As mentioned earlier one of the inherent problems with doing business in China is the fact that Foot Locker is a relatively unknown brand within the Chinese market.

In order to remedy this particular situation carefully created and culturally sensitive TV and online campaigns will be created that specifically target the upper and middle class demographic for shoe sales within the Beijing area.

Viral marketing will be utilized as well in the form of various interesting online videos promoting the opening of the store. Not only that a certain contest will be set up on the stores opening day similar to that of the Amazing Race but it will be held within the city of Beijing.

The winners will be given $25,000 thousand dollars and their pick of any shoe within the store. It is assumed that by combining all these elements enough consumer interest will be generated resulting in high amount of sales during the 1st year of operation of the store.

Marketing Research

Utilizing market research Foot Locker will try to discern which particular shoe styles, designs and prices are the most desired by our selected niche market. This will be done through various online surveys, market tests and focus groups in order to help develop the initial conceptualization of the store.

Further more the company will test the brand awareness of certain types of shoes in order to see which brands are more prevalent in the minds of the Chinese populace in order to stock those particular brands and minimize lost revenue through the purchase of shoes that consumers within China won’t buy.

Further more various consumer satisfaction surveys will be utilized in order to determine the reaction of various consumers towards the establishment of the store.

In order to actually get people to fill out the surveys a small competition will be held wherein each individual survey submitted per person will act as raffle coupon for a select pair of shoes within the store. This should at least encourage people to fill out the surveys and submit them.

Marketing Organization

In this particular case the responsibility of determining proper marketing strategy and direction will be headed by a locally hired advertising firm that specializes in promoting foreign brands to Chinese consumers.

The reason behind this is the fact that Foot Locker is still rather inexperienced when it comes to properly marketing its products within the Chinese consumer market as such professionals who actually have experience in the matter need to be hired in order to ensure the establishment of proper precedent regarding proper procedures and strategies in marketing to the local populace.

Actions Programs The opening of Foot Locker’s new retail branch will be March 2012 and as such the following program of events has been created in order to give a better impression as to the needed timeline of events and actions.


During the start of the year Foot Locker will begin construction on its new flagship store for its Chinese market in Beijing and as such this will be the period when the hiring process will begin in order to find capable individuals for both managing the store and being customer service representatives within the store itself.


On February Foot Locker will start its aggressive ad campaign in Beijing by buying several advertising segments on local Chinese channels in order to advertise the up and coming opening of the store.

A local advertising firm will also be used in order to help coordinate efforts in spreading the word of the store’s opening through print ad campaigns and viral network advertising. It is estimated that this initial ad campaign will cost between 130,000 to 150,000 thousand dollars in order to achieve full market saturation.

During this period training should also commence for the various customer service representatives as well as the managers of the store.


The opening of the store will be done in the middle of the month as such this gives ample time to help complete the advertising campaign to help inform the selected consumer demographic that the store is opening on the 15th and that they should expect it due to the Beijing Amazing Race that will be promoted by the company.

By the 15th the preparations should all be in place and the start of the Beijing Amazing Race should commence indicating the successful opening of the store.


During this particular month various operating standards should be finalized such as proper handling of merchandise, customer assistance and the various nuances that come with the new opening of a retail establishment in a foreign country.


By May a new $25,000 advertising campaign should be instigated in order to drum up further interest in the store and increase its profile in the public eye. In order to do so more viral marketing campaigns will be established along with several print ad campaigns in various popular Chinese magazines.


By this month the entire process should be completed and a smooth flow of both customers and operating efficiency should be underway in order to make the campaign a success.


The total first year sales revenue from the Foot Locker pioneer store in Beijing should reached $2.2 to $3 million dollars by the end of the 4th quarter sales period. With a variable cost of $50 to $200 and above per shoe the company will need to stock at the very least 30,000 pairs of different kinds of shoes in order to meet potential demand.

In total this could cost $1.5 million for the price of the stock alone thus the break even point in this particular case is $1.8 million due to the costs of the advertising campaign and subsequent operating costs incurred by the end of the 4th quarter.


In order to ensure that proper guidelines regarding sales etiquette and the quality of the products are assure the store will implement strict guidelines regarding proper customer service and product handling in order to ensure customers feel welcomed within the store and get the best products possible.

Works Cited Atkinson, William. “Doing Business In and With China: The risks are great, but so are the rewards.” Risk Management (00355593) 51.3 (2004): 24-28. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Caron, Joseph. “The business of doing business with China: An ambassador reflects.” Ivey Business Journal 69.5 (2005): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Chapman, James C., and Xu Wanli. “The Road to China: Ten Key Lessons for Doing Business in China.” Licensing Journal 28.7 (2008): 8-12. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Cohen, George. “One Billion Customers: Lessons from the Front Lines of Doing Business in China.” Booklist 102.2 (2005): 15. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Cunningham, Margaret G., Daniel B. Cunningham, and Daewoo Park. “Reflections on Doing Business in China: A Case Study.” International Journal of Management 25.1 (2008): 119-123. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Kivela, Jaksa, and Leung Lin Fung-Lin. “Doing Business in the People’s Republic of China.” Cornell Hotel


Family Life Definition and Identification Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction A family can be defined as domestic group of people linked together by either a common descent or ancestry or marriage (Avner, 2005, p. 1): “A family is also defined as two or more persons who are related by blood, marriage or adoption and who live together as one household “(Washington Post, 1998, p. 1).

The identification of the family is based on two factors: first is blood relationship and two is genealogical ties and the first one is more concerned with the transmission of identity among its members while the second one concerns relations. The family is one of the greatest pillars of the society.

It is also a fundamental social institution and also an important agent of socialization and a source guidance, support and belonging (Eshleman, 2000, p. 1). Just like any other institution, the family has its own set of norms, roles and values which are tailored to meet the specific objectives of the society.

The family is both a social system and a social group. It is a social system in the sense that it consists of several interrelated parts which play certain functions; it is also a system because it forms part in the societal spectrum. The family as a social group primarily concerns the various individuals or persons that form the family and the roles played by these individuals.

Modern definition of the family totally contradicts the traditional definition. The lack of a modern and conventional definition of a family has been linked to dynamism of culture and the different form that the family has assumed.

Traditionally a family comprised of two parents and exceptionally single parent and this is no longer the case since there is emergence of preferred single parentages, adoptive families, same sex families, and blended families (Eshleman, 2000, p. 1).

Influence of Social factors and cultural changes on family transmission The traditional perception of the family is vanishing at a faster rate. Modern family is characterized by fewer marriages, more divorces and increase in the number of children born to unmarried or single parents.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, increased lifestyles founded on practices like cohabitation, separation and homosexuality have changed family image. The ever-growing challenge is how to reinvent the family and its future (Beck-Gernsheim, 2002, p. 1).

According to Beck-Gernsheim (2002), the traditional family was community based; homosexuality was illegal and a condemned act. All this has been eroded by legalized use of modern medicines to substitute sexuality and reproduction and liberalized laws that permit same sex marriage.

The dynamism of culture and emerging social factors has changed the lifestyle, development and interaction of family as an institution. Among the factors that have been attributed to the family transformation range from economic to social-cultural and political. To begin with, hard economic times have weakened the social fabric of the family.

Parents have been forced to choose between love for the children and money or employment. This has led to the idea of parents employing nannies to look after their babies; these nannies characteristically are of different cultures that the children might adopt due to the reduced biological mothering and the several hours spend with the nanny.

This factor is attributed the deteriorating of the Filipino family as demonstrated by the Filipino president Fidel Ramos who considered it auctioning of the family solidarity (Parrenas, 2003, p.1).

Inadequate parental care and instability of the family has led to the increased cases of drug and substance abuse, gambling and drinking. Limited parentages have also resulted in several cases of rape and incest and subjected the children to emotional turmoil (Parrenas, 2003, p. 1).

According to kellarhals et al. (2002), changing family transformation has been increasing from 1960 as manifested by the increasing cases of divorce, increasing number of children born out of wedlock and also falling nuptialiy. Kellarhals (2002) and the research group identified several reference points that characterise family.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Family Life Definition and Identification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This included factors that anchor family ties and kinships which include social class and religion, family symbols and the prescribed values; they classified this as normative factors. The other category of family reference is the transmission channels which may include patrimony or discipline.

The debate as to whether social or cultural factors have brought radical changes in family as an institution has been raging for years and has been accredited to several factors. Family structures and processes have undergone massive social and cultural transformation and transformation this have altered the functions and the forms of family establishment:

First is individualism: Increased Individualism has eroded the traditional bonds and the belief systems which defined the level of coexistence in the family setting. Individualism has altered the rules of coexistence from the family to the community, it has eliminated cooperation and gender roles, today, men and women make decisions for their own self and choose the destiny of their lives.

Individualism has been brought about by political dynamics, state bureaucracy, industrialisation and new labour laws which produce some demands that address individuals as opposed to the family or society at large. Individualism has led to the development of the principle that one lives own life which puts the family establishment in jeopardy (Beck-Gernsheim, 2002, p. 1)

Another social factor that has transformed family life is divorce. Divorce has been touted as the greatest modern factor that has transformed family lives especially in the United States of America where the rate of divorce is very high due to increased individualism, laxity of laws, religious decay and urbanization.

In traditional times, the death of a parent was considered a greatest loss and could cause parental disruption among the children and separation was prohibited by social and religious restrictions. This is opposed to the modern times where it has become rampant and a matter of choice.

Divorce often results in the division of the children, this makes the children not only separated from their parents but also among themselves. This reduces the link between the children and parents and also delinks them from the grandparents since one or all of the parents may try to wipe out reference to either of the divorce party.

Consequently, many divorced people get married to new partners who bring new children into the relationship leading a clash in values and habits and a situation where many children grow up with non biological parents. Divorce brings confusion since its consequence makes it complicated to identify who belongs to the family and more so makes it hard for children to trace their lineages.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Family Life Definition and Identification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marriage, which is the basic institution that establishes family, is another social-cultural factor that has transformed family life. The dynamics that have characterized marriage have deteriorated family life.

Traditionally, the purpose of marriage was for procreation and perpetuation of generations, in this view a marriage was supposed to bear children and it involved people of different sexes.

The development of homosexuality or rather same sex marriages and adoptive families have rendered marriages useless. The popularity of child frees parentages or childless by choice syndrome is the greatest threat to procreation (Bohannan and Middleton et al., 1968, p. 1).

The emergence of immigrant families is one cultural factor that has transformed family life. Immigration is the movement of people from one state to another with the purpose of changing their residence permanently.

Immigration has led to a situation where children develop with at least one foreign –born parent (Lansford et al., 2007). Family is a fundamental unit of the society and it is entrusted with the duty of socializing and nurturing children. This is clearly manifested in the United States of America which is considered the melting pot of all cultures.

Increased cases of family stress have also been associated with increasing transformation of family life. Family stress is largely because of financial difficulties whereby working couples are trying to balance between having time for their children and family affairs and fending for themselves through employment.

Divorce and remarriages discourage young men from marrying and also failure of societal values. All these contribute to societal stress.

Industrial revolution led to family transformation where many economic factors were transferred from home to factory, also economic and social factors have pushed husbands away from home. Wives have also been employed away from their homes and hence leaving their children under the care of nannies or in the day care centers (Goode, 1964, p. 1).

Increase in gender violence and gender related violence has had an impact on marriage and family. Assault was in traditional family sanctioned as a corrective measure. In the modern family several laws and legislation have been enacted which provide punitive measure in case of any gender violence. This has strengthened the fact that the family has evolved.

Also social change and family structure has impacted the family. There has been strong reduction in the number of people who owe allegiance to the family. Nuclear family which was considered fundamental form of family establishment is today not common an evidence that family change has undergone transformation. Unwed motherhood and reversal of gender related roles is also on the rise.

The shrinking of the family in America has also transformed the family life. Parents no longer value procreation as the main item in marriage a sign that people have become non committal to the ancient principles of a family more so some couples have opted not to have children at all.

An example is the scenario where if this current trend continues in the USA, it will be extremely hard to replace the current population in the coming generations (Newman and Grauerholz, 2002, p. 1).

Reversal of gender roles has also transformed families. Traditionally, motherhood and household tasks were meant for women but with the emergence of division of labor and specialization women have taken an active role in economically productive tasks.

Women have also turned to be breadwinners of their families. This idea of women entering the labor force makes them less dependent on their husbands and more so in case of the wives income superseding that of the husband, then there develops high tendencies of divorce.

The demand for equality by women has piled pressure on the families. Modern women demand man does what woman can do and when they are restricted to performing household tasks, they choose to abandon babysitting to baby care centers and nannies and these impacts on the nurturing of the child.

The emergence of sexually transmitted diseases has transformed family life. The discovery of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases have created suspicion among family members. Several people have resolved to adoption of children out of fear of contracting these diseases.

In some societies, for example, people who suffer from the disease have been treated as outcasts.Modern medical technology has transformed family life. This specifically takes into account the test tube technology.

This has taken the place of marriages and biological births where those who don’t want to be married may opt to adopt or resort to having test tube babies. Test tube technology has also given hope to the barren population who could not have babies through the conventional ways.

Biomedical research has had effect on family establishment as exemplified by the story carried in the Washington post where “a surrogate mother was impregnated with an egg (fertilized by an unknown sperm donor) of a deceased woman whose parents had arranged for the production of a grand child” (Washington post, 1998, p. 1).

Several theories have been put forward to elaborate the importance of the family and it calls for our judgment to critically analyze the relationship between sociological theories and their influence on the social transformation. These theories are functionalist, feminist and new right perspective.

The functionalist approach considers the role of the family as an agent that socialize the children, the feminist theory consider the role of the family as agent that can reinforce men within the patriarchal realm of the society, the new right perspective consider the role of the family as a teacher that teaches the children dos and don’ts or what is right and wrong.

Conclusion That many families are not traditional should not be interpreted to mean that the institution of family is diminishing in influence instead it should be acknowledged that a family just like any other institution undergoes political or demographic change.

It should be strongly argued that the collapse of traditional family has contributed largely to its decline and governments and policy makers should advocate for nuclear family to restore the image of family institution.

The government of the United States of America should rethink on the policies that can help safeguard the institution of the family. They should pay attention on how to curb the high rate of divorce, falling marriage rate and low birth rate.

Marriage is founded on long term issues like love, companionship and affection and this have shifted family expectations. A lot of young people have developed interest in marriage and have a growing sense of commitment of having children.

Many people argue that the small size of American family is detrimental and has adverse effect on the institution of marriage. This point is wrong and over exaggerated since we all understand the effects of overpopulation.

There can never be a relationship between small family size and degeneration of family values and the decline of family institution. Several indicators that support the point of declining family live are increasing single parenthood cases, divorce, and reversed gender roles.

References Avner, G. (2005) Family Structure, Institutions, and Growth: The Origin and Implications of Western Corporatism. Web.

Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002) The New Confusion about the Family, Reinventing the family. New York: Cengage.

Bohannan, P and Middleton, A. (1968) Marriage, Family, and Residence. New York: Prentice Hall.

Eshleman, J. (2000) The Family. New York: Allyn


Tourette’s syndrome: Causes and Treatments Research Paper essay help free

Tourette’s syndrome, also known as Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, is a neurobehavioral disorder which was first recognized as a medical condition almost two centuries ago. Originally, Tourette’s syndrome was perceived to be a rare condition and only a few papers were published about the syndrome in the 19th century after its discovery.

This has since changed and in the present day, a substantial number of papers have been documented. In the early days of the study of Tourette’s syndrome, scientists described it as a disorder that demanded immediate clinical conceptualization of the mysteries leap between the body and mind.

The patients who were studied mostly stated that their tics originated from within, from an urge which they felt was too difficult to resist. As research continued to shed more light about the condition, a debate arose on whether Tourette’s syndrome should be treated as a motor-form of obsessive –compulsive disorder or whether obsessive-compulsory disorder is actually a mental version of the Tourette’s condition.

A careful observation of the Tourette’s syndrome reveals that the epistemological issues confirm that both perspectives are both accurate. In order to help those suffering from the condition, it is important to understand the issues surrounding Tourettes’s syndrome including its cause, diagnosis and treatment.

History of the condition The first lucid description of the condition was made with the documentation of Marques de Dampierre’s (1799-1884) condition by a physician known as Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard. Dampierre was an upper class, intelligent and well mannered woman who was known for involuntarily speaking obscene words in the middle of a conversation that otherwise seemed normal (Kushner, 2000).

Itard reported Dampierre’s unusual case in a medical journal describing how she often felt embarrassed by her vocal tics even though she had no control over them. Several years later, in 1885, Georges de la Tourette, a French neuropsychiarist documented the case of eight other patients who exhibited vocal and motor tics that were associated with the syndrome.

It was during this period that Tourrette’s mentor, who was a medical doctor, named the illness after him. Tourette’s descriptions of the symptoms exhibited by the eight individuals emphasized on three symptoms shared by all the victims namely multiple tics, echolalaia, and coprolaliua.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Echolalaia and coprolalia are the involuntary echoing back of what others say, and the involuntary and inappropriate swearing, respectively. Since the time of Tourette’s documentation, numerous other studies have been carried out and documented concerning the condition.

Symtoms of Tourette’s syndrome The condition is characterized by a reoccurring pattern of tics, both vocal and motor. Tics are uncontrollable movements and sounds that occur when the brain communicates to one or more muscles to contract resulting in unwanted movements and sounds.

The sounds and movements usually occur in a sudden manner and repeat without warning. The motor tics may either occur in brief, rapid or darting sessions at the face, shoulders or in other cases, may involve more complex movements. Similarly, vocal tics may either take the form of simple sounds or complex sounds

The tics may either be simple or complex depending on the number of an individual’s body parts that are involved in the tics. Single movements involving a single body part are referred to as simple tics. In relation to voice tics, sounds such as sniffing and grunting which are the result of air being forced through the throat, nose or vocal cords are referred to as simple vocal tics.

Complex tics entail utilization of multiple muscles to cause multiple movements. An example of complex motor tics is the involuntary making continuous jumping movements. Examples of complex motor tics include echopraxia and copropraxia which are the copying of another individual’s deeds and making of gestures that may appear offensive, respectively.

Complex vocal tics include echolalia, palilalia and coprolalia (Hamiton, 2005). The coprolalia symptom is the most popular of these symptoms and is also known as cursing or publicly saying inappropriate words. An example of an individual who experienced coprolalia was Madame Diamperre mentioned above.

Causes of Tourette’s syndrome The process of determining the exact cause or causes of Tourette’s syndrome is still a subject of extensive research. What has clearly emerged from the numerous studies is that the syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder that cannot be outgrown.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tourette’s syndrome: Causes and Treatments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many researchers believe that abnormal metabolism of the neurotransmitter dopamine is what triggers the occurrence of the condition. Other chemicals found in the brain such as serotonin have also been associated with causing the condition. In some rare occasions, a virus or head trauma, or oxygen deficiency during birth have been known to cause the disorder.


Most scientists believe that either parent having the gene or genes that cause Tourette’s syndrome can pass them to their child. In incidences where one of the parents is a carrier of the gene, each of the children has a fifty percent chance of inheriting the gene and later on developing the symptoms associated with the syndrome or in some cases, may exhibit no symptoms at all.

Among the children who inherit the Tourette’s syndrome gene, the probability of the male children developing the syndrome’s symptoms is three times that of the female children (Leckman


Effects of the Social Construction of Gender Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

An individual’s view and expectation of their gender and that of the opposite gender is a social construct. People have to identify with the typical definition in their society as a means of defending themselves against being labeled as opinionated (Butler 2004).

Ethnicity of an individual affects how they interpreted the cultural aspects of the community they live in. Moreover, the population of a similar ethnic group as the individual in their community determines the level of influence that the ethnic group has on the popular culture of the community. This then influences the individual construct of gender.

Being a man or a woman is more than a biological fact because the attributes that a person’s learns to associate with manliness or womanliness are not in born. People learn how to behave like a man of a woman and what to expect of a similar gender or an opposite gender.

As individuals grow up, they acquire a definition of their gender through normal day interaction. This can be by observation, direct influence by others and a negative reaction to an opposite stimulus. For example, children learn to behave like boys as they are advised by their parents and guardians of how boys should behave.

The treatment they receive and the manner in which they see other children behaving reinforces their character as boys (Butler 1993).

The transformation of the duality of gender does not occur in one instance. Although the realization of one being a boy or a girl is instant, the modification of ones attitudes and the overall personality undergoes a gradual shaping dependent on the rate at which the individual receives stimulus from their cultural environment.

Different ethnic groups and social communities will turn towards the periphery, certain characteristics, in people’s personality, according to gender. For example, in an ethnic group it may be okay for boys to play with girls up to a certain age where they become men and should no longer be associated with girls in a playful manner.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a similar way different ethnic groups as diverse roles assigned specifically to male or female members and belonging to a given group influences how an individual regards gender roles and the expectation of their personality.

In accordance with posit presented by Holmes (2007), one becomes a woman despite the fact that they are born female. The embodiment of the social expectation of woman hood makes one a women. Therefore, it becomes right to indicate that gender as perceived in the contemporary world is a social construct.

Women are seen as objects because the historically men have shaped the universal view of gender. Children learn from their families and communities to observe girls and women as less capable of their individuality and therefore unable to shape up the societal view of gender.

Women appear to exist to be watched by men and in return, they endeavor to increase their likelihood of being watched. On the other hand, men seek to be the most tactical in identifying the most watchable women.

Therefore, the men choose the correct image that is likeable and the women try to fit into the description provided. All this is a social adjustment that is not hinged on the body of the male or female but the social conditioning of the expectation of being a man or a woman.

The interaction of cultures as people migrate has rusted in a more complex definition of gender roles and personalities. As a result, new thoughts have arisen advocating for different social construct of the genders (Ashe 2007). However, such effort does not abolish the fact that gender is a construction of the historical social setting.

Reference List Ashe, F 2007, The new politics of musculinity: men, power and resistance, Routledge, Abingdon, OX.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of the Social Construction of Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Butler, J 1993, Bodies that matter, on the discursive limits of sex, Routledge, London.

Butler, J 2004, Beside oneself: on the limits of sexual autonomy, Routledge, London.

Holmes, M 2007, What is gender?: sociological aproaches, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.


Profession and Cultural Language Report online essay help: online essay help

Executive summary Psychology is one among many professions that is considered to be fulfilling. The psychologists are concerned with the behavior of human beings. They are mainly interested in solving problems that are emotional and mental.

Their aim is to help patients recover and live normal lives. Like in other professions psychology has its own culture and language. Culture and language are revealed in their daily practice as they solve different problems.

Culture is evident in the training, teamwork, research, work and experience, ethics, communication and use of internet, working environment. Language is interactive, with frequent use of psychological concepts and based on research.

To become a psychologist one trains as an undergraduate for four years. They later work under the supervision of a qualified and registered psychologist. Training enables learners to acquire the language used in the working environment. Experience is gained over time and the individual is considered valuable and knowledgeable.

Psychologists learn to deal with different individuals from diverse background and assist them equally. Teamwork yields excellent results as the tasks to be covered are adequately and efficiently done.

Effective communication skills have an impact on the quality of work. Written and verbal communication is frequently used. The emails are also used communicate both within and outside the institution.

Psychologist can either be self employed or be employed in different organizations. They can work in the area of development of research or be involved with patients. Patients have behavioral problems like drug abuse, mental illness among other emotional problems. They give assistance while observing ethical guidelines provided by the psychological regulatory boards.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Psychology engages in research to generate knowledge and to find solutions for emerging problems. Concepts that are used in the profession are as result of the concepts. The findings of research are verifiable and recognized by authorities. Research influence policy making and can be effective in preventing undesirable behavior.

Introduction There are many professions that one could join. Before joining students evaluate what their interest is and choose a profession from a long list. Among many professions, psychology is a widely known profession that has been practiced over many years.

Many who join the profession are interested in helping people who have emotional and others with mental illnesses. Psychology is a well developed profession. It has well established and developed theories as discussed in the Occupational outlook handbook (2011, p. 1).

Those who train in psychology can be employed in institutions and can be self employed. Moreover the field has the challenge of dealing with behavioral problems that have emerged in the contemporary world. Like many other professions, psychology has its own culture and language. This report will identify and discuss the culture and language within psychology.

The culture and language of psychology Psychologists though different in areas of specialty have commonality in their practices and language. They observe regulations and ethics of the profession. They focus on behavior to assist patient overcome difficulties and lead healthy lives (, 2010, p. 2).

The America Psychology Association (2011, p. 1) indicates that research is at the core of the profession as theories are developed through research. Concepts are also developed and used as professional language to refer to specific ideas. The language used is understood amongst them and is part of their daily work.

Culture within the field of psychology Training

Training marks the beginning of a professional journey in psychology. All psychologists are trained to be competent professionals in accredited institutions. They cover units relevant to the field as the tutors mentor them. They participate in individual work, group work and work as interns in psychological institutions.

We will write a custom Report on Profession and Cultural Language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also engage in research in the relevant field. The training prepares them to be knowledgeable, efficient, effective, team workers and to rely on verifiable knowledge.

Those who undergo training can choose to specialize in different areas. they can become sports psychologists, social psychologists, school psychologists, engineering psychologists, clinical psychologists, cognitive and perceptual psychologists, counseling psychologists, educational psychologists, developmental psychologists, evolutionary psychologists, experimental psychologists, forensic psychologists, health psychologists, industrial psychologists, rehabilitation psychologists, research psychologists and neuropsychologist (America Psychology Association 2011, p. 2).

After training for four year training in an undergraduate program, the psychologist works under the supervision of qualified and practicing psychologist for two years. Thereafter they can be registered with the professional bodies (, 2010, p. 4).

Team work

A common observation in today’s organizations is the adoption of teamwork in the working environment. Teamwork encourages the psychologist to complement each other as well as motivate each other while working. They contribute ideas and share ideas within the teams.

A team leader who is a member of the team is in charge of the team. Psychologists share ideas in their team and better decisions are made. However, decisions take a very long time to be concluded and disagreements within the team can affect the efficiency of work negatively.

Teamwork creates a competitive environment. Those who fail to meet the targets required and have difficulties coping are likely to be relieved from their work.


Knowledge on used in the study of psychology is obtained from research findings. The psychologists investigate on a prevailing problem among patient to find explanations of the causes and also find solutions. What is more research can be done to generate knowledge.

Besides generating information, research facilitates the psychologist to make informed decisions. Information obtained from research is trusted by the authorities and can influence change in policy. Research is also an effective tool in prediction. Policies can be adopted to prevent undesirable situations in the future from happening.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Profession and Cultural Language by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research helps identify the changes that have occurred and helps the professional deal with specific situations accurately. The information obtained clarifies doubts and differentiate facts from myths. They get information from literature review, observations and investigations.

Psychological institutions are diverse in their objectives and goals. The research is done within the organizational objective. The findings are presented inform of report. The report gives details on the investigation done, the findings and the recommendations. Implementation of the recommendations requires may have financial effect among other outcomes.

In accordance with the America Psychology Association (2011, p. 1) research is vital in finding solutions to emerging problems. Individuals keep changing behavior which leads to new problems. Research generates knowledge that is used to train new professionals. Moreover the knowledge helps understand different cultures of the world.

Work and Experience

Lannon (2010) argues that the most experienced psychologists are valuable to their institutions. They are seen as a reservoir of knowledge. The patients prefer those with experience too. Gaining experience means that one must be practicing and at the same time take note of the new developments in the field.

Psychologists work hand in hand with other professionals. They work with policy makers, the medical practitioners, school educators and courts as well as interact with a wide range of professionals.

They assist people handle mental challenges and emotional experiences so that they can have healthy relationships within their environment. Their advice is highly regarded in disaster management where people are traumatized.

There are many opportunities for those who train as psychologists as pointed out by the America Psychology Association (2011, p., 1). Psychologist can provide counseling in a firm, be involved in research, become educators in education institute and may also become a consultant for both individuals and society.

Problems that psychologist treat are behavioral and constantly increasing. Some include adolescent rebellion, drug addiction, stress related to work and family life, disasters related trauma and other ailments that are emotional or mental in nature.

The field of psychology is one of the most fulfilling professions that last as long as the psychologist is healthy and capable of working.


The ethics within the psychology discipline must be followed. According to Lannon (2010) ethical issues require understanding between members of a profession such that there are well laid regulations and standards that must be followed.

Ethics in psychology is requiring psychologist to be conduct themselves in the acceptable manner when handling the patients. Like in other professional bodies, psychology has its own ethics that are stipulated by the psychological regulatory boards, the state and other organizations within the profession (America Psychology Association 2011, p. 2).

The significance of following the ethics is ensuring that patients receive quality services. Ethics originate from the professionals. They engage in discussions that lead to formulation of the ethics. The more experienced psychologist is the more likely they are to give contributions.

Experienced psychologists give major contributions in the discussions. In some cases they vote before implementing or discarding the idea. Those who violate the ethics could receive sanction from either the state or the psychological organizations.

Psychologists have to learn different personalities to be able to communicate. Psychologists deal with different people with unique problems. Listening is given important so that they clearly understand the patient.

Communication and use of internet

Communication between the professional and patients is important. Within the workplace there are various forms of communication. They include written, verbal and non verbal. The written form of communication is usually formal. It is used by the superiors to communicate to the employees.

They give instructions and communicate changes in written memos and letters. The employees use written communication to give feedback to their superiors. The employees request for assistance and give reports inform of writing (America Psychology Association 2011, p. 2).

Consistent with Lannon (2010) the world has many developments in technology which have been incorporated in the working environment. The employer and employees use the internet in communication. The emails have been used to recruit and to communicate within the organization. Psychology is no exception. Patients can get assistance from online psychologists who offer services over the web.

The internet is very rich in knowledge and can be handy in assisting professionals find facts very fast. Other institutions have used the internet to communicate with the patients. The institutions have web pages that are designed by the employees to get feedback.

Working environment

The Occupational outlook handbook (2011) mentions that the working environment in different institutions is diverse. The diversity is identical to the different subfields of psychology and the goals of the institutions. The psychologist adapts to the culture and the goals of the organization that they join.

The psychologist gives high regard to patient. The patient is assured of confidence by the psychologist who offers to assist them.

After being assured of confidentiality, patient feels liberated to talk to the psychologist. Additionally, they are not supposed to be condemning the patient if they confess, their role is to be understanding and have a relationship that will be effective in helping the patient recover.

Language within the field of psychology Interactive language

Psychologist interacts with the patients engage in a face to face conversation. They maintain good relations. Verbal conversations matter a lot as the psychologist uses a polite and friendly tone while assisting the patient.

During the four year training the student of psychology learns the concepts used. They engage in literature review to understand their meaning and importance. Moreover, they can learn about the concepts during internship in a psychological institution.

More concepts are learnt in the journals after the publication of an article or a book. Knowledge is cumulative and with time one adds knowledge on the concepts they know and use in conversation or in writing (America Psychology Association 2011, p. 2).

Use of psychological concepts

Language is one of the best ways of expressing oneself as Lannon (2010) indicates. The language an individual uses gives a lot of information about what the individual. In psychology, language use is important for both the patient and the psychologist.

There are several important concepts used in everyday life of a psychologist. According to the America Psychology Association (2011, p. 1) the word psychology refers to the study of an individual’s behavior. This is different from sociology which investigates the behavior of people as a society.

What an individual thinks is the concern of the psychologist. To be able to assist an individual they have to understand the individual behavior.


Concepts used in psychology are generated from research. The concepts are used by psychologist to refer to specific ideas or conditions. The concepts are developed for easy communication within the field. They are more specific and well understood by the professional (America Psychology Association 2011, p. 1).

The psychologist uses the language of the patient to communicate. The language in most cases should be simple. The psychologist explains meaning of complex words to patients when they request for explanation.

While communicating, the psychologist is sensitive to different communities and diversity in the use of language. They pay attention not to use words that may be offensive in a community. Moreover they pay attention to the age and of the patient while making a conversation. For instance children require a polite conversation.

Conclusion Psychology is a field whose objective is to assist individuals overcome emotional and mental problems. The professional language and culture are learnt throughout ones professional life.

Research is very important and increases the knowledge and helps solve problems. It generates concepts used in the field and influences policy. The students specialize in different areas after training.

Working as a psychology requires one to be good in communication teamwork and observe the ethics of the profession. Moreover one has to learn to work in an environment with diverse people.

Reference List America Psychology Association. (2011). Career in Psychology. Web. (2010). The Psychology Profession. Web.

Lannon, J. M. (2010). Technical communication 11th edition. Web.

Occupational outlook handbook. (2011). Psychologist. Web.


Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Executive summary


Problems encountered at Enron Company

Root Causes of the Problems at Enron

Analysis of the Problem: Organizational Theories

Organizational Behavior


Works Cited

Executive summary Enron Company experienced a crisis to its collapse in the year 2001 which was culminated by application for bankruptcy. The firm was characterized by malpractices in its administration that led to embezzlement of funds by top officials and a subsequent accounting cover ups.

The major cause of the collapse of a once prominent company was its selfish leadership that disregarded management’s elements such as organizations theories and behavior leading to inappropriate culture and ethics and practices.

Introduction Organizational theory refers to the study of organization with the aim of identifying themes into an organization’s objectives. Organizational theory ensures that issues facing an organization are resolved and responsibilities undertaken.

This paper seeks to discuss organizational theory with respect to Enron Company that was forced into collapse. The paper will look into the issues that faced the company leading to its collapse. The paper will then analyze the problems and then look into organizational behaviors and theories that affected the company.

Problems encountered at Enron Company Enron Company was characterized by a number of problems in the form or malpractices that led to the eventual collapse of the entity. The collapse was a result of a long time venture into unchecked practices by the company through its executives.

These practices were for a long time concealed from the public and the company’s stake holders such as its investors. The company started by ensuring that it was not under regulation by the government. This meant that the practices and records of the company were exempted from scrutiny that is normally done over business entities.

Under the deregulation, the company’s “executives were permitted to maintain agency over the earnings reports that were released to investors and employees alike” (Laws 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result of the deregulations, Enron was able to make biased representations of its records to parties who could be interested in such data. Information about losses and debts by the company were not fully reported portraying an untrue status of the company.

Consequently the accounts, which were presented by the company, continually attracted more people to the company in the form of investors. The application for deregulation by the company seems to have been a planned move to help it conceal its malpractices that was to follow the grant.

The company was then reported to have a high level of misrepresentation of its records to its investors and potential investors. As a result, the unreal profitability status of the company stimulated its then existing and potential investors into putting money in the company.

These increased supposed investments were embezzled by the company’s executives rather than being put into the company and further misrepresentations made. Apart from intentionally concealing its true financial status, the company also engaged in practices that were fraudulent in nature.

The company for example posed an energy crisis in the state of California in the year 2000. The major issue that faced the company was however the embezzling of funds by the company’s executives. As people were busy investing the company, the management was on the other hand looking for avenues to channel the company’s finances into pockets of individual executives.

Money that was meant for use on the company’s activities and interests as well as those due to the company’s employees was misappropriated by the company’s top brass. It is actually this embezzlement that led to the company’s insolvency (Laws 1).

The company was also characterized with high level of dishonesty in the delivery of its services and goods to its consumers. Enron is for instance reported to have been inducing problems in transmission of electricity in order to gain more revenues as it posed to solve the unreal problems.

We will write a custom Essay on Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accounting malpractices such as “reduced tax payments, inflated incomes and profits and inflated stock piece and credit rating” (Tesfatsion 1). The company’s money was then channeled by the management to their accounts or those that belonged to their friends of relatives (Tesfatsion 1).

Root Causes of the Problems at Enron The Enron Company was driven into collapse by a number of factors that fuelled its malpractices. One of the causes of the malpractices was the competitive nature that the company had, or was assumed to be having. The firm had strived to be one of the best and gained favor with the business community, including the press that helped in refining the company’s image.

The company, having been ranked among the country’s top ten firms, had to look for avenues to keep its feet on the economic ground and avoid at least as much as possible any eventuality that could lead to its collapse. It is this need to protect its gained untrue competitive status that the company had developed which fuelled its cover up avenues.

The company could not afford to compromise its credit rating which would translate into its stock prices and its investor’s attitude. The desired competitive culture is therefore responsible for driving the organization into actions that were meant to protect the firm but which later spilled to its collapse.

This particularly led to the company’s engagement in partnerships that were not actually at the firm’s interest such as profitability, but to help the management in hiding the true status of the organization. It similarly led to adoption of compromised accounting practices that were also meant to hide the true status of the company (Garsten and Hernes 107).

The environment that was created in the Enron Company that forced it into its desire to competitive was a significant development into the subsequent practices that compromised the business. It was actually this desire that led to the company’s loss of ethical practices as anything had to be done in order to protect the organization’s hidden secrets.

Though unethical values can be checked and controlled easily in an organization that has an ethical top brass that is ready to influence and control ethics in the organization, it is very difficult to first of all detect and then even control such practices if they manifest in an organization’s top management.

In Enron, the problem was an organized scandal that was planned and started by the organization’s founder and then fuelled by the company’s executives.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since it’s such leadership that should “create, reinforce or change the organization’s culture” through “attention, reaction to crises, role modeling, and allocation of rewards” among others, a compromising leadership in the organization was a cause to its problem (Garsten and Hernes 107).

A good ethical leadership could have for example advised against the practices that were going on in the firm or even informed the public of the happenings. The organizations reward system, or its lack of reward system to its employees was another factor in the resultant problem that was later to be realized.

While the top management ripped the firm of its finances through embezzlement, the firm’s other employees were not taken care of in terms of rewards or motivation. Consequently, they were discouraged and probably lost interest in working for the company.

Though the company was making losses due to its poor investments and embezzlements, there is a possibility that reduced efficiency of the company’s workers must have as well contributed to the firm’s loss making (Garsten and Hernes 110).

Sims records that the Enron Company was also a victim of its own culture of greed that was formed after the energy industry was deregulated. The firm then went into experimental activities that stretched its workers through continuously raised standards that forced the workers off ethical values.

The high targets that were set for the workers were at the same time not healthy as they were forced to overstretch their capacities (Sims 150).

Analysis of the Problem: Organizational Theories The failure by Enron Company leading to its collapse was based on the firm’s deviations from principles that ought to have guided it through to its success peak.

The short term objectives that the organization relied on that for instances forced its workers into unethical measures in order to meet the company’s high standards and the accounting malpractices that the firm employed fell short of professional expectations of management.

Organizational theories that help managers into understanding their activities were for example greatly ignored by the organization. Motivational theory for instance provides that a management should understand the terms of contracts of its employees under psychological considerations.

Any alteration to such terms should be undertaken in a way that will motivate the employees. On the contrary, the firm contravened its employees’ psychological contracts by continuously hiking their targets. Role theory on the other hand provides that an organization recognizes the efforts that employees are putting with respect to their roles.

Management should therefore ensure that roles are allocated in a manner that is not oppressive because this can cause conflicts among employees. Personality theory also explains the eventuality of the firm. The type of individuals that ran the company was characterized by a high level of impatience with respect to their targets.

The bright guys at Enron wanted a faster achievement of objectives for the firm as well as for themselves. This is why the firm’s employees were driven to high targets even if they were to break rules. The top officials also had to make their way to quick wealth even at the expense of the firm.

Personality theory explains that these traits never lead to long term success. The firms can therefore be said to have ignored organizational theories (Barzilai 1).

Organizational Behavior Organizations behavior refers to people’s reactions with respect to an organization. Reactions such as thoughts, emotions and actions within or around an entity form the behavior. The actions of Enron’s management that was evidenced in their embezzlement of funds, malpractices and disregard to employees form behavior that led to the collapse of the firm (McShane and Steen 1).

Conclusion The Enron Company was faced by a scandal that was caused by the firm’s management. It is revealed that the management was driven by selfish motives that aimed to enrich the top individuals and disregarded the organization and its other stakeholders. Cases of unethical behavior, poor organizational culture together with disregard to organizational theories and behavior contributed to the firm fall.

Works Cited Barzilai, Kathryn. Organizational theory. Organizational Theory, n.d. Web.

Garsten, Christina and Hernes, Tor. Ethical Dilemmas in Management. New York, NY: Taylor


The Ethical Issues Brought about by the Technology and How the Country has Dealt with It Term Paper essay help free: essay help free

A passenger car is a railcar in which passengers ride (The Free Dictionary). The first of this means of transport in Great Britain started operation in the early 19th century as Europe entered the peak of the Industrial Revolution.

This proved to be a great impetus to the economic standing of Britain and powered a growth that would probably have headed in a radically different direction if the passenger car did not commence operations in the country.

As with most engineering novelties in the world, passenger cars brought numerous advantages and disadvantages that shaped the way in which Britain subsequently developed economically and socially.

On the economic front, Britain became the first country to have a rapid mass transportation system, greatly improving human movement.

This made possible the rapid deployment of human resource across the island state, cutting transportation time, and boosting the dispersal or distribution of expertise and goods across the whole country at a lower cost. Bagwell and Lyth (2006) quantified the impact of the enterprise as follows:

Cost of Royal George, £425; number of tons conveyed by her in one year (1828), 22,442 tons over twenty miles; cost of conveyance, one farthing per ton per mile, including all repairs and maintenance, and interest on sunk capital at 10 per cent, £466.

They continued to say that an economy was working which “rarely exceeded at the present day, after a lapse of twenty three years… the cost of the same work performed by horses was £998, showing a difference of £532 in favour of the engine over the animal power” (Bagwell


Georgia State University Employee Benefits Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Works Cited

Introduction Benefits are compensations offered to employees by their employers in addition to their wages and salaries. To qualify for a benefit, the employee must have worked in a regular position for at least half of time for a permanent period of six months.

If an employee registers for a benefit while he/she is not qualified for it, he/she must refund the money to the university. The employee decides on when to begin enjoying his benefits and the level of coverage he needs (Georgia state university, para. 1).

Findings The benefits consist of health and welfare, retirement plans, family medical bills, paid time leave, education, flexible spending accounts, Americans with disability act, cobra, and other benefits such as social security, medicare, unemployment, and workers compensation (Honey 348)

Discussion The health and welfare involves programs such as wellness Wednesday that help the staff practice health and wellness. There are sponsorship of yoga and meditation classes, first Thursday health screening, weight watchers, GSU book club and Georgia state university on the move programs.

Others include the great American wellness check, wellness e-library, and smoking cessations (Georgia state university 2). Employees using tobacco are added extra fifty dollars to their monthly medical payment once in the tobacco sensation.

There will be monthly insurance premium deductions to cover the dental, vision, and flexible spending accounts on the payroll on a pre-tax basis. The payments will be done according to the month spend on and the effective date. The insurance company gives out medical ID cards for each family member that is unique from the other social security members.

If an employee uses his money after registering for the card while still in process is supposed to be refunded his money (Georgia state university 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each employee gets pre-tax benefits. Incase of any changes to this benefit the employee is required to report within 30 days otherwise the IRS has strict rules of retaining its records effective for the entire year.

These changes include marital status, birth or adoption of a child, death of a covered depended, loss of eligibility status, loosing or gaining healthcare coverage under the Medicaid. In addition, change in location to the outside of the healthcare plans service area should be added (Georgia state university 2).

He benefits from receiving a service from a non-network provider that qualifies him as a patient under the HMO or PPO and plan compensation as payment in full.

If an employee travels abroad or outside the service area, board of regents PPO and HSA PPO offers him a blue card world wide that is processed by the university to offer service at the time the employee needs. During payments, one will receive benefit coverage (Georgia state university 3).

HMO offers compensation incases of life threatening injuries or illness offers the benefit of blue choice compensation. The employee pays his medical bills but later claims for refunding. The Kaiser Permanente HMO benefit offers 24-hour worldwide emergency coverage like illness and injury needing emergency cares.

The benefit of academic faculty is ten months contract and saving money for higher education expenses for his children and grand children or other beneficiaries.

Members enjoy tax- free accounts, withdrawals, and tax deductions on education purposes. HIPAA compliance provides the employee with privacy and security of personal information regarding his health and whereabouts. The family medical Act (FMLA), requires that qualified employees take up to twelve weeks unpaid but job protected leave each year (Georgia state university 4).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Georgia State University Employee Benefits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employee must complete one year or one thousand two hundred and fifty hours. The conditions for change include birth or approval of a child and severe health circumstances of the employee, the employee’s child, spouse, or parent.

Other conditions are incapability of treatment attached with hospital care, hospital or housing medical care facility and any period of uncontrollable irregular absences from work, school, or other regular every day actions that also involves ongoing treatment by a health care provider.

An enduring treatment by a health care provider for a persistent or long-term health condition must be curable or so serious that if not treated, would probably effect in a period of inability and prenatal care (Georgia state university 2).

Severe health state of an employee relying on service membership benefits in the line of duty is permitted up to twenty six weeks of leave in a single twelve-month period to care for the service member. Incase of inconveniences from the employee’s reliance service member, notifications of awaiting call to active duty status are issued in support of an emergency action (Georgia state university 4).

Conclusion GSU has emphasized most of their benefits on the health and well-being of their employees. Their benefits are vey organized and attractive. It is important that the employee goes through the benefits to understand the rules and regulations set for the qualifications of the benefits.

Otherwise, he/she might find refunding the expenses to the employer difficult. This benefit program is very efficient in today’s working conditions and therefore should have its full impact on the employees.

Recommendation It is important for employees to understand the benefits their employees provide for them. The benefits help the employer to create a competitive advantage in the hiring and firing of employees. Benefits are designed to motivate and reward employees.

Works Cited Georgia state university. Human health care. Georgia City: Georgia state university. 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Georgia State University Employee Benefits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Honey, Michael. Southern labor and back civil rights: organizing Memphis workers. King of the queen city: University of Illinois Press, 1993. Print.


The Palestine-Israel War Essay essay help free

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has a long history dating back to the late 19th century. The conflict has been in existence for all these years without an amicable resolution. The rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism in the late 19th was the genesis of this conflict.

The Jewish immigrants in Europe got fed up with the continual persecution of Jews and began thinking about relocating to their original land of Israel (Milton-Edwards, 2009). The intense desire to re-establish the Jewish nation by the Jewish population was sparked by the underlying beliefs of the Jewish religion with of them being repatriation to Zion.

Zionism gave rise to a political movement whose main objective was to establish a Jewish nation in Palestine (Milton-Edwards, 2009). The Jews needed the right to self-determination and this mission was the perfect way of achieving their long-term dream. This paper will extensively discuss the history of the Israeli-Palestinian war and the major players in the conflict.

The task of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine was a tall order and required the right strategies and adequate planning. To show their determination towards attaining their own state, the Jewish population around the world began forming organizations such as the Jewish National Fund and the World Zionist Organization.

These organizations raised funds for purchasing land in the Palestinian region during the British rule (Karsh, 2002). This action by the Jews did not go down well with the Arabs in Palestine and this gave rise to the Palestinian nationalism as reaction to the Jewish Zionism Movement.

The Jewish population around the world began migrating to the Palestine region and in the process brewing a conflict due to the desire for self-determination by both Jews and Palestinians (Karsh, 2002).

The Arab leaders in Palestine became concerned with the increased invasion of Jewish in their area. The Zionist Jews continued to buy more settlements under the Ottoman rule.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tension between the two parties was further fuelled by the eviction of the fellaheen tenants. This eviction drew a lot complaint from the Palestinian population about their continual displacement from their settlements by the Jewish immigrants who were returning from the Diaspora (Kamrava, 2011).

Under intense pressure from the Palestinian population, the Ottoman Empire was forced to introduce land purchase regulations.Since most of the early Jewish immigrants were from Russia, the Ottoman empire being of the Russian origin had been very hospitable to them as it expected complete loyalty in return.

The Arabs in Palestine feared that immigrants form Russia and other parts of Europe would erode the Arabic culture and traditions in the region. The Palestinian population continued to protest against the Jewish invasion prompting the Ottoman authorities to ban land sales to Jewish immigrants in 1914.

The number of Jewish settlers in the Palestine region had significantly increased to 60,000 from 2700 within a span of twenty years (Kamrava, 2011). The major breakthrough for the Jewish population in Palestine came in 1917 when the British Empire was allocated the West Bank and the Jordan regions during the Belfour Declaration.

The declaration was a ray of hope for the Jewish nationalists but a major area of concern for the Arabs in Palestine. The Faisal-Weitzman Agreement was signed in 1919 calling for co-operation in the Middle East. The World Zionist Organization’s leader future president Chaim Weitzman led the Jewish delegation while the Arab delegation was led by King Faisal I who would be the future leader of Iraq (Harms, 2008).

The British Empire took control of the Middle East region officially in 1919 after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire from Turkey. The control of the Eastern region was handed over to the Hashemite Arab Dynasty from 1923 to 1946. The Jewish aspirations were seriously hampered during this period.

The anti-Semitic manifestations in Europe contributed to the increase in migration of Jews to the Palestinian region under the British Mandate in Palestine. Their relationship with Arabs became hostile in 1020s because the Palestinian population felt that their national identity and relationship with other Arabic countries were at risk (Harms, 2008).

We will write a custom Essay on The Palestine-Israel War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The British administration continued to favor the Jewish immigrants in many ways and in the process to the Arabic onslaught on the Jewish settlers in Palestine. The Palestinian Population that was against the perpetuation of Jewish policies in their land resolved to terrorism and violence in attempts of retaliation.

Mohammad Amin Al-Husayni was the leader of the Palestinian Arab Movement and was very instrumental in inciting the Palestinian Population to stage riots against the Jewish immigrants (Gelvin, 2007).

The Palestinian authorities were fighting to take control of the Western Wall in an attempt to reclaim what they termed as the sacred place for them. The Jaffa riots were as a result of the religious tension created by the fight over Kotel.

These tensions led to the killing of many Jewish immigrants around the region with those who managed to survive being expelled from Hebron. In 1937 there were some proposals made by the Pell Commission put in place the British Empire (Gelvin, 2007). Among some of the recommendations that would help end the conflict was the division of the Palestinian state into two states.

One state would be occupied by the Jewish Population whereas the other state would be occupied by the Arabic population. This suggestion was opposed by both sides with the Arab leadership ruling out any possibility of sharing land with the Jewish Immigrants. The British government was forced to restrict the number of immigrants to Palestine with the region remaining one state (Gelvin, 2007).

The tension between Arabs escalated during the Second World War that saw illegal immigration of more Jewish immigrants into the Palestinian region who were fleeing Europe at that time. The Yishuv leadership that was under the British administration was responsible for facilitatiting these illegal immigrations.

In 1939, the Zionism movement under the leadership of Ben-Gurion accepted the 1937 Peel Proposal as one of the steps of completely taking control of the Palestinian region (Cohn-Sherbok, 2003).

According to Ben-Gurion, the Jews would first of all accept the division but later think of expanding to the rest of Palestine of strengthening its forces. The Yishuv concentrated on shipping in more illegal Jewish immigrants during the Second World War.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Palestine-Israel War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The formation of the Jewish Resistance Movement in 1945 as away of opposing the British policies led to the death of many innocent civilians in the course of the Jewish onslaught on the British Military.

The British government had tried all the available diplomatic avenues to resolve the conflict but all in vain (Karsh, 2002). The newly formed United Nations Council was handed the Mandate of Palestine in a written form by the British Government.

The United Nations took over and immediately came up with new recommendations for conflict resolution in Palestine. To begin with, the region was to be split into three states.

The third state would comprise of Arabs and Jews in equal numbers as and the other two would comprise of majority Arabs and Jews respectively. The size of the area to be occupied would be decided by the resolution 181 of the United Nations (Karsh, 2002).

The third state referred to as the international zone would be under the control of the United Nations with Bethlehem and Jerusalem as the major cities in the state.

This suggestion was objected by Arab leaders were against the Jewish independence but this did not stop the UN General Assembly from implementing the plan. The voting for the partition plan took place in 1947 against the wish of all Arabic countries.

The partition plan was to take place immediately after the end of the British rule in 1948. In attempts of retaliation, the Arabs in Palestine declared war on the Jewish Immigrants after their efforts to reverse the decision through the International Court of Justice had failed (Alpher, 2009).

The following days saw fresh fighting and violence emerge with thousand of people being killed and wounded in the process. The state of Israel was officially declared in on May 14, 1947 immediately after the expiry of the British Mandate in the Palestinian region.

This declaration was made by David Ben-Gurion in accordance to Resolution 181 of the United Nations (Harms, 2008). The new state of Israel was supposed to ensure that all the rights of its inhabitants are protected irrespective religion or political affiliation.

The declaration of Israel as an independent state in 1948 sparked fresh violence with major Arabic countries combining their forces to fight the newly formed state of Israel.

Israel emerged victorious and got a perfect opportunity to expand its territory past the initially set boundaries. Almost all the regions were seized by Israel except the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

This led to the expulsion of Jews living in Arabic nations with almost 600,000 Jews returning to Israel by 1967. This war led to almost one million Palestinians being expelled from their settlements making them refugees in the southern part of Lebanon (Harms, 2008).

Those Arabs who remained in Israel were given Israeli citizenship. Attempts by the Palestinian refugees to take control of the West Bank and the Gaza strip led to the deportation of all Palestinians from Israel.

The Palestinian refugees were trained and funded by other Arabic countries in an attempt to reclaim the territory lost to Israel. This was followed by the establishment of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as a new strategy to reclaim their region.

Israel strengthened their onslaught and managed to capture the Gaza Strip and the West Bank from the Palestinian fighters that had the backing of the Egyptian Army.

By 1955, Israel had completely taken control of Jerusalem on the fact that Palestine was yet to be recognized as an independent state (Karsh, 2002). The Palestinians appeared to give up in the following decade but the election of Yasser Arafat as the new PLO leader rejuvenated the Palestinian forces to continue fighting Israel.

The struggle to control the West Bank intensified in 1969 with many Palestinians being killed. King Hussein, who was the then King of Jordan played a crucial role in trying to end the fighting between PLO and Jordan (Kamrava, 2011).

Thousands of Palestinians sought refuge in the Southern part of Lebanon after the Cairo Agreement in 1949. This new development led to a civil war in Lebanon since the Lebanese population was against the idea of the Palestinian refugees becoming autonomous in their country.

Having established a new base in Southern Lebanon, PLO had found a perfect opportunity to continue with its attacks on Israel under the leadership of Yasser Arafat. The Palestinian resistance was further strengthened by the formation of Hamas in 1947 by Ahmed Yassin (Kamrava, 2011).

The decision by Arafat to oppose the US-led coalition attacks on Iraq dealt a serious blow to PLO. The relationship between the self declared state of Palestine and other Arabic states that supported the US invasion of Iraq began to deteriorate.

After the Gulf war in 1991, the US in coordination with Russia started fresh diplomatic initiatives to end the Israel-Palestine conflict by sponsoring the Madrid Peace Conference (Gelvin, 2007).

The negotiations continued in Oslo, Norway and culminated in the declaration of a ceasefire by Yasser Arafat through a letter sent to the Yitzhak Rabin who was the Israeli Prime Minister at that time.

This deal was officially sealed in Washington, D.C with PLO recognizing Israel as and independent state. Many concessions were made by both parties during the Oslo peace process but the control of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank still remained the bone of contention.

The Hamas opposed the recognition of Israel as an independent state vowed to continue with the armed struggle (Harms, 2008). The Hamas intensified its attack on Israel and managed to reclaim some of its lost territory.

Many Jewish radicals were angered by the new development and one of them was prompted to assassinate Prime Minister Rabin in November, 4, 1995. After the death of Rabin, Simon Peres took over and promised to continue with the peace process.

Benjamin Netanyahu emerged victorious in the 1996 elections after promising to have a more rigid stand opposed to the Oslo process. Netanyahu was opposed to making any concession because he thought that would encourage more extremist elements. 1996 and 1997 saw a series of attacks from both sides resulting in the assassination of Yahya Ayyash by the Israeli forces (Harms, 2008).

The activities of Hamas were seriously paralyzed because Yahya was their chief bomb maker. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu saw the signing of the Interim Agreement of 1998 before the election of Ehud Barak as the new Prime Minister in 1999.

Barak promised to continue with the peace initiatives started by Rabin. He was even ready to handover the entire Gaza strip to the Palestinian Authorities but Arafat blatantly refused the offer.

The second Infidata began in 2000 with Israel developing a new strategy of selective assassinations (Alpher, 2009). Ariel Sharon came into power in 2002 and launched the operation defensive shield that reduced the Palestinian attacks on Israel.

The Hamas has been strengthened since 2005 to date especially after the death of Arafat. The fight over Gaza continues with both sides determined to control the region (Alpher, 2009).

In conclusion, the Israel-Palestine conflict is here to stay despite the many attempts made by the UN and the international community to bring the conflict to an end. A lot of damage has been done to the Palestinian people and it is the responsibility of Israel to make the necessary amendment to restore peace in the region.

References Alpher, Y. (2009). Future of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Critical trends affecting Israel. New York, NY: DIANE Publishing.

Cohn-Sherbok, D. (2003). The Palestine –Israeli conflict: The beginner’s guide. New York, NY: Oneworld.

Gelvin, J. L. (2007). The Israel-Palestine conflict: One hundred years of war. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Harms, G. (2008). The Palestine-Israel conflict: A basic introduction. New York, NY: Pluto Press.

Kamrava, M. (2011). The modern Middle East: A political history since the First World War. New York, NY: University of California Press.

Karsh, E. (2002). The Arab-Israeli conflict: The Palestinian war 1948. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing.

Milton-Edwards, B. (2009). The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A people’s war. New York, NY: Taylor


Active Euthanasia Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction Euthanasia is a Greek word meaning “good death”. Euthanasia refers to the deliberate action that is taken with the intention of ending life due to a pressing suffering. The suffering may be for instance incurable diseases, injuries, or irreversible coma.

Death is only euthanasia if there is intention of death occurring by whatever was done or not done. As it concerns euthanasia, three different terms are necessary in bringing out the exact meaning of the word.

The first word is action. This is what is done to cause death. The action must be from one’s wish and no force or conditions should be met for taking of life. The other term is suffering. This necessary condition is the key to the action.

This leads to accepting the action of taking life to get relieved from the pain. The last term is intention. The death should be intended and not accidental. The intention should be positive as the good of the victim of the matter is concerned.

The means of the action taken to bring death should be made painless as possible and it should prove it as a merciful killing. In this argumentative essay, different forms of euthanasia shall be discussed in depth for the argument to be brought out.

This has been legalized in some countries. However, it is not morally right to kill. One should be left to die as per our religious ethics and no one should be killed even when it is intentional. With different reasons, the issue shall be examined at to determine if it should be banned or not.

Discussion Euthanasia is classified into three different categories depending on whether the individual facing death had given informed consent or not. These three categories are voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Voluntary euthanasia is death done to a person with his/her consent. The person should be ready to be killed from his/her own wish and there should be no external forces compelling the victim to accept death.

Non-voluntary euthanasia is the one in which the person killed had not made the request of the action taken and he/she had not made any consent. This type of euthanasia is not accepted in all countries around the world.

Involuntary euthanasia is the situation in which an individual is killed and the action taken was contrary to his/her wish. This kind of death exhibits ignorance as the victim’s wishes are given a deaf ear.

These three categories of euthanasia can be further divided into passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Passive euthanasia is done by inhibiting some necessities to the individual, for instance food and antibiotics, which are necessary for continuity of life.

Active euthanasia involves use of lethal substances or use of force to cause death. Active euthanasia has been debated for long on whether it should be banned or not.

Active euthanasia should be banned as all individuals have the rights to live. Each individual should be given a chance to determine his/her own fate. Every individual should enjoy the right to life.

Although sometimes it becomes difficult, to continue living with a person, for instance a person who has used massive wealth of a family in treatment and yet there are no improvements in the individual’s condition.

We will write a custom Essay on Active Euthanasia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More No matter how the situation is, the right to life should remain. No one should have the authority or desire to take another persons life even incase of many expenses on the individual.

Many believe that in conditions like the latter, active euthanasia should be accepted but it should not. An individual should live with his/her pain and suffering and his/her destiny should not be affected by anything but he/she should remain alive until the last gasp of air on earth without any factor coming in.

Many people try to show tenders of mercy to the victim but it would be better if they extend their mercy in giving aid to the victim for instance giving out money to cater for operations and other treatments.

Active euthanasia has recently resulted into many cases that become difficult to solve. For instance, in a situation where an individual was killed without all the parties desiring the action coming to the point of accepting the actions to be taken.

In such a case, individuals who had not yet accepted the actions taken may go to court and accuse those who accepted the action. In other cases, an individual may be forced to die but the individual refuses to give out his/her will.

After the person’s death, the greatest possibilities are that the members alive will have many miss-understandings and quarrels. In some cases like the latter, the individuals inheriting property may even end up killing one another.

To avoid all these situations, an individual should be left to live and die in peace and leave others peaceful. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned to avoid occurrence of the situations that result after the individual is dead.

Legalizing active euthanasia will place the whole society in a slippery slope that will lead to unacceptable actions and consequences. For instance, members of a family who are against one of them may find it worthy to kill the person.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Active Euthanasia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This may lead to the people doing much harm to the person they are against. They may do this secretly without the individual noticing and this will mostly end in active euthanasia where the individuals accept merciful death.

This is a clear example showing the negative impacts of legalizing active euthanasia. To avoid such pathetic actions from happening, active euthanasia should be banned. This will aid in promoting the right to life and all people will have equal chances of living with no threatening factors or action that may determine their destiny.

Illegalizing active euthanasia will therefore give each person assurance of determining their fate. This as seen may also act to promote peace, as individuals will have to negotiate peacefully over a matter since they have no chance bringing harm to any one of them so that active euthanasia may be the last option.

In the world, it is also very clear that not almost all the religions accept active euthanasia. The governments should not go contrary to the rules and regulations of majority of the religions. No individual who is in a religion that does not support active euthanasia should take part in the actions.

The god of every individual should be the only one to bring death to a person and no person should have the authority to accept dying no matter the situation he/she is in. In addition, physicians should not accept taking any action leading to death, as they would be held responsible for their actions.

In addition, a physician may kill a person and other issues against the action arise. Although many people do not accept people in severe suffering and term them as liabilities, no one should have the permission to take any action leading to the death of the individual. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned completely and no physician should be involved in taking any actions that may result to loss of life.

It would be very inhumane and cruel to kill someone because of suffering. No party should advocate for killing of another person and yet his/her own life is not affected.

It becomes unfair to do to others what cannot be done to you. It becomes difficult to ignore the interests of the majority in killing an individual but no matter what they say, an individual’s right to life should not be violated.

Most countries allow active euthanasia in such conditions to promote the interests of the majority but it is not worthwhile since they will have rendered the right to life useless and will have violated it.

It would be senseless to say that promoting the interests of the majority will mean no violation of rights and yet we know that the right to life is enjoyed individually and therefore the person’s right will have been violated. All the governments should therefore ban active euthanasia in whatever conditions.

Active euthanasia is not intended to be painful. However, with modern medicine there are only few cases where pain can be alleviated. The physicians carrying out the medication to bring death will therefore have caused another kind of death and not active euthanasia, which is supposed to be painless.

Instead of giving medication to cause death, the physicians should better their medications to save life and help the individual recover. Also, if a doctor is in a position to give painless medicine to cause death, then the same doctor should also be able to give medicines to stop the pain felt by an individual hence death will not take place.

This kind of assisted death should be banned, as it will also give pharmacists enough time to research on life-saving medicine and not life-ending medicines.

When physicians are in training, the aim of the training is to help people recover life and not to help people lose life. A lengthy period is spent educating them on medications until they become qualified personnel to work in the field. If active euthanasia is legalized then it will render the medical profession a body performing wrong duties.

The duties they were taught to carry out should be the only ones done. Patients are brought to health centers so that they can receive treatment that should help them in recovering from a suffering.

The physicians should therefore play their role effectively. It becomes a great fault to take another person’s life, which was not part of their long training. Active euthanasia should therefore be banned, as it will also make the medical body worthy.

If a person accepts to be killed mercifully, many say it is morally upright. I however do not accept this because life is personal and no one should be involved in taking of another person’s life.

Life is not communal neither is it group-oriented like land, where the owners can decide on what to do. The personality of life should be maintained and this can only happen by banning active euthanasia.

The person wishing to be killed should be morally counseled and be helped to change his/her life perspective from needing death to needing recovery. Active euthanasia should not be used as a means to end life of an individual.

Each individual should do what he/she would like done to him/her. One cannot be ready to kill another person and yet he/she cannot accept the same to be done to him or her. This becomes unfair and so the act should be banned to enhance fairness.

Conclusion The right to life is a right to every one in this world. This right should not be violated in any way and people’s lives should be respected. To promote this, active euthanasia should be banned completely no matter the situation.

Physicians should make their profession realistic by saving people’s lives. They should not be involved in any act of killing patients since their training does not consist or promote losing of life but saving of life.

Life is a gift from God and since we were made in the likeness of God, the when one kills he/she has killed God. Though they say that the interests of the majority should be put into consideration, the government would be contradicting itself in accepting the majority’s desire and yet they are the ones singing on right to life.

Death should not be on mercy grounds but by God’s own plan. Majority accepts the action to be taken on others and yet they themselves cannot accept it. This is unfair and therefore active euthanasia should be banned to promote fairness.

Bibliography Cavan, Seamus and Dolan, Shean. Euthanasia: The debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2000.

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. The animal rights debate. New York: Rowman


Concept and Importance of Social Control Essay a level english language essay help

Louis Rodriguez was a member a gang member in East LA since he was 12 years old. He was slowly lured into the gang because he wanted to gain money and fame in his neighborhood.

In the course of his involvement in the gang, a lot of factors contributed to his involvement. These were the micro factors and macro factors that affect the behavior of an individual.

Micro factors are those factors which grow from within an individual and affect the overall outcome of his behavior (Barling and Cooper 151). Louis had these in him. He wanted to be a famous person within his neighborhood.

This could only be achieved by having money and power. The only way which this can be achieved was by him having an easy access of money. Due to this, he was slowly drawn into the gang.

Macro factors are those factors which come from the surroundings of an individual (Coles 15). For Louis, the gang was the source of macro factors which affected his behavior.

He witnessed people being beaten up, others being killed and robbed from while in the gang. For him to rise up the levels of the gang, he had to commit several crimes and social evil. These factors changed his behavior making him be a danger to the society.

Social Control In the process of socialization of an individual, social control is an essential aspect. This is because it regulates the behavior of the individual to conform to the rules and regulations of a country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are therefore norms or rules which are universal in nature and have to be followed by an individual or the entire society (Fourier 204). If an individual or a group goes against these rules and regulations, they would have committed a criminal offence which is punishable by law.

Social control therefore regulates the behavior of an individual or groups within a society. They aim at maintaining, good relations among members of the society and at the same time they ensure that law and order is maintained.

There are two forms of social control. They are: formal social control and informal social control (Liska 185). Although they have the same intentions of achieving similar objectives, the nature in which they are organized and applied is different.

Informal social control is exercised by the society itself. Its rules and regulations are not stated but operate on the norms and customs which the society follows. Social control is therefore implemented by informal agents through an unofficial capacity of ensuring that law and order is maintained within the society.

As a result therefore, the informal social controls will vary from place to place and region to region within one state or one country. This might be due to the differences in the culture, customs and beliefs of the people in different societies.

Informal social controls use shame, sarcasm and criticism are used to punish those individuals who go against them. Discrimination and exclusion from the society are used at extreme cases.

On the other hand, formal social control is exercised by authorized agents of the state. This includes the police, military officials, employers and judicial officials (Dean 405). This form of social control is carried out as the last result when informal social control fails to instill favorable behavior to the members of the society.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept and Importance of Social Control specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its implementation and severity of the punishments imposed vary between countries. Social control in the formal context is implemented in the forms of statues, rules and regulations against the individuals or groups who were defiant to the law(s).

Laws against murder, theft and other civil torts for example are directed to all the members of the society. Once they are breached, standard procedures will be followed in instilling punishment to the parties that were found guilty.

Corporate laws and fishing and hunting regulations are directed towards specific individuals or groups within the society and not to all members. When they are breached, there are also standard procedures which will be followed to ensure that the guilty parties suffer punishment for the offences that they committed.

Formal control is contained on written documents that are coded and formalized. Authorized institutions that were created by the government are used to implement them. Due to its strictness it finds easily applicable even in larger populations unlike informal social controls.

Despite their effectiveness and efficiency, applicability of these laws sometimes becomes difficult. This is because they fail to limit social behavior. Informal controls for example are only applicable in small settings where the population is not dense.

On a larger scale, informal control fails since individuals tend to ignore them. Formal controls on the other hand are rigid thus difficult to change or amend to suit the changing behavior of individuals. The world is dynamic and people tend to change their behavior with time. It is therefore difficult for formal control to keep up with this pace to maintain normality and sanity in the society.

Works Cited Barling, Julian and Cooper, Cary. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior: Micro approaches. London: SAGE Publications, 2008.

Coles, Roberta. Race


Who was Pedro Calosa? Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Pedro Calosa was a Filipino who organized a revolt against the feudal system formed by foreigners in their land. The system focused on developing their land without improving the worker’s conditions. In addition, the revolt intended to make known their Church, which was called PIC, Philippine Independent Church.

This Church was also referred to as the church of poor Filipinos as well as the oppressed. During this church’s inception, it was meant for the underprivileged, the oppressed as well as the landless along with those disenfranchised (MSC Communications Technologies, Inc. 1). This church was started by Calosa and his followers, who were mainly poor and oppressed.

These were peasants, who labored on feudal farms. According to the then Governor’s secretary, Calosa’s organization was deemed as aimed at looting the Landlords and officials, which was not the case as they only destroyed property as well as records instead (Miller 239).

Calosa started by organizing peasants together for this revolution, aiming to stop the oppression that kept them poor and disenfranchised. This leader was a veteran, and organized this strike in 1924 on Hawaiian plantations.

This led to his banishment from Hawaii back to Philippine territory for organizing a union. The revolt was known as Tayug Colorum and deplored the feudal system for poor land tenure without success.

The tenants who were grieved were tenants across Luzon. This revolt did not succeed as it only lasted a day, leading to Calosa’s capture and his subsequent arrest.

His sentence was between fourteen years to forty to a Pilipino prison. Calosa later died in 1967, his killer is still unknown. The revolt activities included besieging garrison in 1931, led by 1931.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They burned most of the land titles, debts, tax records as well as tenancy contracts. The casualties were two Americans and three other officers, although the group of 70 was prosecuted (Beck 1).

Works Cited Beck, Sanderson. “Philippines to 1949”. EAST ASIA 1800-1949. 08.06.2011.08.06.2011.

Boquiren, Rowena-Reyes. “History Of Colonialism And Struggle: Local Streams In Philippine Nationalism”. Prepared for the 1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, Baguio City. 08.06.1999.08.06.2011. Web.

Miller, Stuart. “Benevolent Assimilation”. Boston Journal. p. 239.

MSC Communications Technologies, Inc. “Central Luzon and NCR: Felipe Salvador”. Centennial Resource Book: Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan. 09.02.2010.08.06.2011.


Childhood Obesity’ and Poor Health Indicators’ Connection Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Childhood obesity has become an important health and social problem in the 21st century. Today, there are many children experiencing obesity-related complications, than ever before in the history of mankind (Kopelman, 2005, p. 493).

In America for example, it is estimated that, the prevalence of childhood obesity has tripled over the past two decades, with recent statistics showing the prevalence rate of childhood obesity at 28% (Neighmond, 2000, p. 1). This statistic is very high, as compared to previous years. More so, this trend has been brought by a change in lifestyle.

Due to the adverse health effects of childhood obesity on a child’s health, this study focuses on the topic “childhood obesity” because of its expansiveness and its impact on childhood health. Moreover, there has been a constant increase in prevalence of childhood obesity in the country and experts all over, are registering their concerns over this trend as well.

Refinement and Limits of the Topic of Discussion The topic of childhood obesity is very expansive and is often, marred by a lot of controversy regarding the extent to which it affects childhood growth and development (Ebbeling, 2002, p. 473).

This study focuses on childhood obesity as a unique health factor in childhood development and seeks to exclude other factors associated with the pandemic, such as obesity statistics, causes, health implications and such like factors.

More importantly, this study focuses on childhood obesity as a unique segment in health circles and fails to include other factors relating to obesity in general, or factors associated with adult obesity. To properly refine the research data to be included in this study, I will only focus on determining the extent to which childhood obesity affects childhood wellbeing.

Since this topic is particular to childhood health, this study will only focus on the physiological and psychological factors regarding the wellbeing of a child, which are affected by childhood obesity. This aspect of childhood obesity is the specific claim to be argued in this topic. This fact is further explained below.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Topic Argument There are numerous studies and literature excerpts which have asserted that, childhood obesity has a profound effect on a child’s health and psychology. Specifically, emotional impairment and psychological difficulties have been cited as the primary health effects of childhood obesity.

Other studies focus on health-related complications, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiac diseases and the likes, as examples of the various health-related complications brought about by childhood obesity (Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Health Committee, 2004).

More so, many of these studies have focused a lot on the causes of childhood obesity such as genetics, lifestyle factors, diets, home environments, medical illnesses, psychological factors and the likes (Cornette, 2008, p. 136). However many of these studies have failed to expose the degree to which childhood obesity affects the health or general wellbeing of a child. This is the focus of this study.

From this understanding, this study will focus on the extent to which childhood obesity affects the growth and development of children, with a much detailed focus on qualitative factors affecting childhood growth and childhood obesity.

In other words, this study will try to establish the extent to which childhood obesity impact a child’s health. Focus will be directed to the nature of the relationship between childhood obesity and poor health indicators, with a possibility of a strong relationship between childhood obesity or a weak relationship of the same variables. This analysis will constitute the argument of this study.

References Cornette, R. (2008). The emotional impact of obesity on children. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs, 5(3), 136–41.

Ebbeling, C. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331), 473–82.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Childhood Obesity’ and Poor Health Indicators’ Connection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Health Committee (2004). Obesity – Volume 1 – HCP 23-I, Third Report of session 2003-04. Report, together with formal minutes. London, UK: TSO (The Stationery Office).

Kopelman, P. (2005). Clinical obesity in adults and children: in Adults and Children. London: Blackwell Publishing: p. 493.

Neighmond, P. (2000) U.S. Childhood Obesity Rates Level Off. Web.


Darwin on the Origin of Species Research Paper essay help free

Evolution by natural selection is considered the backbone of biology. It is proposed that modern students should have time to read the literature of naturalists regarding their perception of evolution. This is endorsed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Lussel Wallice.

Darwin commenced his superb creativity in evolution by natural selection with the initiative of divergence. Darwin’s idea was expanded by botanical arithmetic.

In Darwin’s perception he discovered that a direct comparison between the old and new species from different parts of the world will lead to several indifferences between the features.

Geographical botany enabled Darwin to spot differences not only amongst categorized species from different places, but also amongst similar species.

Domestic diversity results from artificial selection. The continuous emergence of domestic diversity, results in the divergence of the natural species.

This made Darwin to attest on the availability of transmutation by means on natural selection. Charles emphasizes on the principled availability and essentiality of selection. This is due to the fact that this is a consequence of the diversity among species as well as the struggles.

Darwin expands on selection. He states that selection is brought about by the heritability and natural variation which further comprises of the endurance plus reproduction. He emphasizes on the continued existence and sufficiency of the species.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Darwin supports his argument concerning the theory of evolution by natural selection with different features, for instance fossil records, embryology as well as morphological characteristics.

The divergence in the features of species can only be spotted after a long period of time. In this theory, living organisms tend to compete for the available resources; organisms with sophisticated features tend to survive while those organisms that don’t fit simply perish. The living organisms reproduce, thus passing their unique features to the next generation.

The Darwinian revelation as a source concerning the origin of species is valid. The source fully emphasizes on Darwin’s perception concerning evolution of species specifically natural selection. Perceptions from various authors and naturalists are also outlined as evidence of Darwin’s perception regarding the origin of life.

This is an academic source. This is evident since the article is a product of the University of California. The source also entails views from researchers as well as academicians.

The source has biases. This is derived from the author’s recommendation as well as the contents of the article. The source majorly focuses on the positive views concerning the Darwinian theory of evolution.

The author also urges educators today to principally focus on Darwin’s ideas regarding evolution. He prefers Darwin’s perception to arguments from other researchers concerning the theory.

The source would be good for a research paper as it encompasses perceptions from various researchers and naturalists.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Darwin on the Origin of Species specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author, James T Costa, is a biology professor at Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, North Carolina. He has written several journal articles, two books, abstracts, correspondences and various articles as well as scientific papers that he has presented.

He has also held several seminars and given special lectures, exhibits and panel discussions over his career. His arguments basically have a bias toward Darwin’s theory.

Darwin was more able to influence avid readers about the authenticity of metamorphosis rather than of his own proposals that drove the process. As stated by Costa “he pointed out that he never argued that it was the sole agent of transmutation, despite claims to the contrary” (Costa 2003, 1030).

Despite converse claims, Darwin pointed out that he did not dispute that the primacy of natural selection as being the single source of transformation and he stuck by his views.

Regardless of several deliberations on the process of evolution, biology has relied on evolution as a main pillar.

Reference Costa, James. Teaching Darwin with Darwin. Massachusetts: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 2003.


Human impacts on the hydrology of the Mekong River Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Damage to the River Mekong Basin

Mitigation strategies to address damage to natural systems


Damage to the River Mekong Basin Mekong is a river that runs across Southeast Asia and is considered as the tenth longest river in the world. It is approximately 4,900 km and covers an area of roughly 795,000 square km. the river runs across several countries, including China, Burma, Laos, and Vietnam.

Since the river flows through highly populated areas with intensive agricultural activities and water diversion practices, it has continuously undergone a shift in its hydrology especially when it flows through China.

For instance, China is currently embarking on a project in which it will construct dams out of the river, three of which have been completed, while 12 are on different stages. In Thailand, the Pak Mun dam is already complete, and in Cambodia, a reserve has been constructed on the Tonle Sap River, which flows into the Mekong.

These dam construction activities have had adverse effects on the hydrology of the river. The lower Mekong River has experienced a reduction in water levels over the years, and this reduction has been attributed to dam construction activities upstream.

For instance, the filling of the Manwan reservoir 1n 1992 caused a drastic reduction in the water level in the river (Walling, 2006). An assessment of the river at various stages showed that an interruption of the regular water flow, evidenced by an increase in sediment in Mekong’s bed.

Eve though some of these constructions are not undertaken on the main course of the river, the effect is still significant, for instance, studies show that construction on the Lankang River, the Mekong’s main stream, has caused a considerable reduction of water downstream (Lu and Siew, 2006).

Dam construction has increased the volume of sediments in the Mekong River. This is because a reduction in the flow of water effectively reduces the amount of water to transport the sediments downstream. Therefore, the sediments settle at the bottom of the river and reduces it depth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, studies show that areas along the middle and latter points of the Mekong River have had a reduced amount of sediment flux, mainly attributed to the sedimentation of the Manwan dam. The sediments are also captured in the reservoirs and dams that are constructed on the river or its tributaries.

A reduction in sediment flow has had a huge effect on the hydrology and ecosystem of the Mekong, especially at the downstream sections (Kummu


Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Same Sex Marriage

Critical theories, Same Sex Marriages and Homosexuality


Reference List

Introduction Modern society is very complex and dynamic in that, perception of body, gender, sexuality, and identity is becoming very subjective depending on various schools of thoughts and theories. Critical theories have emerged to elucidate and explain changing trends of societal perceptions regarding body, gender, sexuality and identity of persons.

Same sex marriage is one of the issues related to the changing trends of societal perceptions on body, gender, sexuality and identity. The issue has come to haunt modern society and compel social theorists to formulate new theories in a bid to explain conclusively the cause of aberrant sexual orientations in the society.

The emergence of same-sex marriages has complicated conventional and religious teachings since both view it as an immoral issue in the society that should never happen at all. Despite the denial and renunciation of the same sex marriage in the society, gays and lesbians continue to exist in the society while their numbers are increasing alarmingly.

According to Glen, high rates of divorce and marriage abuses have left many young people wondering and questioning whether marriage has any significant importance in life with regard to happiness and achievements (2009, p.3). Such and many other fears compel young people to get involved in aberrant sexual behaviours of gay and lesbianism in order to avoid problems associated with heterosexual marriages. Therefore, changing perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identity have led to emergence aberrant sexual orientations resulting into same sex marriages in modern society.

Same Sex Marriage Same sex marriage is an emerging social and religious issue that is gradually finding its way into legal systems as constitutions of many countries recognize heterosexual marriage only. Conventional and religious ethics view marriage as a union of opposite sexes with the prime objective of bearing children and companionship. Same-sex marriage is an outright immoral association of two people against natural and divine morals.

In spite of the fact that the society continues to deny existence of same-sex marriage, gays and lesbians continue to practice their ‘marriages’ behind the scenes as evident in legislations adopted by various countries signifying their recognition in the society. Proponents of the same sex marriage argue that denial of same-sex marriage in the society is discrimination of people based on their sexual orientations and thus unacceptable in the modern world of freedom and democracy.

Gay-rights proponents are advocating for legal recognition of aberrant sexual orientations and same sex marriages so that they can enjoy equal rights as heterosexual marriages (Jost 2003, p.723). Gays and lesbians hold that, it is their inalienable right to enjoy same-sex marriage as their counterparts in heterosexual marriages.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emergence of same-sex unions in the society threatens marriage as a divine and social institution that forms basic unit of the society. The opponents of the same sex marriage categorically perceive same-sex marriage as an immoral union intended not only to destroy the foundations of the family, but also the entire society.

Family in the modern society is surviving amidst great challenges such as high divorce rates, unfaithfulness, late marriages, cohabitations and polygamy. Thus, the acceptance of the same-sex marriage in the society is a deadly blow to an already fragile marriage and family institutions. Somerville (2003) argues that, marriage is a critical social and divine institution of procreation that has stood the test of time in upholding cultural and societal values of morality (p.3).

The uniqueness of the heterosexual marriage institution is that it functions in the procreation and perpetuation of human life in the world. In contrast, same-sex marriage demands equals rights as heterosexual marriage yet it has no function of procreation. If union of same-sex is a marriage, what makes it qualify as a marriage with equal legal and social rights as heterosexual marriage? Terming same-sex union as a marriage begs many questions concerning posterity of marriage.

Modern marriage and family values contradicts with the values of the same-sex marriage because conventional and religious morals maintain that, same-sex marriages pose a great threat to the heterosexual marriage in the society. Proponents of same sex marriage argue that basic importance of marriage is societal and social recognition of intimate relationship between any two people and thus it is discriminative to exclude same sex unions (Murphy 2001, p.4).

Gays and lesbians perceive intimacy as the primary role of marriage while procreation is a secondary role that has no significant importance to them. From the perspective of same-sex marriage, the society has no need of procreation anymore since the world is already overpopulated and therefore, intimacy takes precedence over procreation. The proponents further assert that the society should recognize and accept diversity of sexual orientations as natural occurrence that is morally right.

In contrast, the opponents of the same-sex marriage perceive the primary role of marriage as procreation and intimacy. They argue that marriage and family are social and divine institutions that have stood the test of time and need no amendment whatsoever to gather for emerging immoral behaviours in the society.

Esplen and Jolly assert that, definition of marriage in the context of heterosexual unions emanate from perception of marriage as procreative union and family as source of morals, but not an attempt to exclude or discriminate against homosexuals in the society (2006, p.11).

We will write a custom Essay on Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gays and lesbians see the struggles of the heterosexual marriage to fulfil its role of procreation as efforts of discrimination directed against their inability to raise children. Therefore, due to the inability of the same-sex marriage to procreate, gays and lesbians resort to other means of getting children contrary to the societal and religious conventional morals.

The proponents of the same-sex marriage are using legal, political, and social forces to ensure that the conservative society and religious doctrines recognize their rights. They passionately believe that heterosexual marriages are undermining their efforts of advocating their rights and they can only champion for their rights using legal, social and political means.

In a case of gay marriage presented in the court, an American lawyer, Evan Wolfson argues that, marriage needs legal support and recognition for couples to enjoy immense benefits of marriage such as social recognition, intimacy, love and protection, which enhances assurance of life and happiness to couples (Jost 2003, p.724).

The lawyer cited same-sex marriage as a union that does not access such benefits due to discrimination by the mainstream society. The legal gateway is the only way that can offer equal opportunities to both same-sex and heterosexual marriages in the society. On the other hand, opponents of the same sex marriage assert their position that legalization of the issue will not change ethical perception of such marriage.

Critical theories, Same Sex Marriages and Homosexuality Changing trends in perception of body, gender, sexuality, and identity in modern society have led to the acceptance of homosexuality and same sex marriages as inherent components of the society. Various critical theories elucidate and explain perceptions of body, gender, sexuality, and identity relative to the emergence of homosexuality and same sex marriages in the contemporary society.

Over the course of history, many people practiced same-sex marriages but they did it behind the scenes because the social fabric that holds values and morals in the society was very strong. Currently, the increased democratic space and adoption of more laws such as affirmative action have empowered gays and lesbians to speak openly while championing for their rights.

In the society, there are varied sexual orientations such as bisexuals, gays, and lesbians that make it difficult to define marriage as heterosexual union only. Blackwell and Bynner argue that, aberrant sexual orientations are inherent attributes of modern society that can never change and thus require acceptance (2002, p.22). The inherent nature of the sexual orientation in the society compels people to satisfy their respective sexual drives. Thus, sexual orientation is the prime cause of homosexuality and same-sex marriage in the society.

Since sexual orientation is the prime cause of homosexuality and same sex marriage in the society, critical theories such as essentialism, social constructionism, modernism, and queer theory give different perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identities in modern society. According to the essentialism theory, sex and gender are biological attributes that differentiate men and women in the society (Ruberg 2005, p. 5).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Critical Theories of Bodies, Genders, Sexualities and Identities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Opponents of homosexuality and same sex marriages view identities of human bodies from the perspective of biology. Since bodies of men and women have different physical and physiological structures, it follows that they have different gender, sex and identities. In this perspective, heterosexual marriage is the union of distinct bodies while homosexual marriage is the union of similar bodies.

From essentialism perspective, same sex marriage is abnormal since couples have similar physical and physiological structures. According to the opponents of same sex marriage, the cause of homosexuality is the aberrant sexual orientations coupled with troubles in heterosexual marriage, which has made many to opt for alternative means of sexual satisfaction.

Many youths have experienced great ordeal in their families forcing them to question the importance of marriage in the modern world. Although conventional view of marriage depicts it as a union of happiness, procreation, and companionship, the reality portrays otherwise. Due to the increasing rates of divorce, unfaithfulness, violence and lack of sexual interests, many youths are devising alternative means of achieving happiness and satisfaction in life.

Given an instance that there is no meaning in marriage, existence of varied sexual orientation provides an opportunity for gays and lesbians to explore their sexual interests (Hernandez 2002, p.26). If one has aberrant sexual orientation and individuation attitude, heterosexual marriage loses importance because its primary role is procreation, which is contrary to the selfish interests of individual.

Social constructionism theory elucidates how societal perception of body, gender, sexuality and identity changes owing social constructs. According to this theory, gender is a dynamic social identity, which undergoes constitution and construction through ages by the acts and performances, hence, gender depiction is arbitrary and biased depending on cultural, political, and theatrical perceptions.

Butler views sex and gender as quite different entities of self that have been constructed to relate with one another in a subversive way, as one is not born as a woman or a man but through cultural, political and social acts and performances, one attains the status of a woman or a man respectively (1988, p.522). This implies that aberrant sexual orientation, homosexuality and same sex marriages are the product of social, political, and cultural constructs that have shaped the societal perceptions.

Since change in societal perception of body, gender, sexuality and identity is due to dynamic social constructions, same sex marriages are constructs of homosexuals and proponents of same sex marriages who are changing conventional perception of marriage. Change in conventional perception of marriage and family is to blame for the increasing cases of same-sex marriage. Modern society has neglected ancient values and norms that guarded social institutions of marriage and have adopted new norms.

The new norms in the society are not stringent as the old ones, thus increasing freedom of exercising individual rights relative to morals in the society. Aberrant sexual orientation, fragile heterosexual marriage, and liberal social norms are factors that contribute to positive social construction of homosexuality and same-sex marriage in the society. Marshall and Sawhill explain that, modern social norms are precarious social constructs that are subject to volatile conventions and thus cannot absolutely define ethical values in the society (2002, p. 27).

In this case, media and internet has contributed greatly in the adoption of varied social values that promote same-sex marriage because its proponents use them in stating their sexual orientations explicitly. The media and internet also provides networks of socialization and pornography that encourage and enhance positive construction of same-sex marriages in the society.

Social constructionists further argue that body, gender, sexuality and identities are not natural or inherent attributes of an individual but they are social constructs. According to the perspective of constructionists, homosexuality is a social construct, thus comprehensive understanding of homosexuals and same sex marriages lies in historical social context.

For instance, during the course of history, perception of abnormal sexual behaviours has changed from sodomy to homosexuals and eventual sexual orientation. Modern society hardly perceives aberrant sexual orientations as abnormal or sinful but it has transformed and stylised them as normal sexual orientations. The transformation is due to overwhelming influence of social constructs that has shaped societal perceptions of body, gender, sexuality, and identities.

Since youths are very inquisitive in exploring their sexual orientations and socialization, technology has enabled them to satisfy their curiosity at the click of the button. Internet has provided immense knowledge regarding sexuality and immoral behaviours such as pornography.

Smith argues that sexual orientation in children is very flexible and exposure to pornographic material at their tender ages can significantly alter their sexual orientations making them become gays and lesbians (2006, p. 33). This argument suggests that families play a great role in bringing up children well by protecting them from unnecessary influence of pornographic materials and even bad company in order to enable them identify their sexual orientation.

Queer theory postulates that body, gender, sexuality and identity are not inherent attributes of an individual but dynamic attributes of society that result from social constructs. Proponents of this theory argue that it is inappropriate to classify individuals based on their actions and not their own identities. Hence, classifying people into different categories due to different sexual orientations does not give the identity of an individual.

Sexual orientations such as lesbianism, gay, transsexual, and heterosexual are not individual attributes but class attributes. Halperin (2007) argues that gender and sexuality are neither fixed nor natural identities of the people but they are social constructs that depend on social, cultural, religious, and political factors within a given society (p.341).

Thus, emergence of homosexuality and same sex marriages is due to the influence of social constructs that are changing perceptions of sexual orientation. Modern society has embraced and accepted the presence of aberrant sexual orientations that have clouded the definition of marriage.

Conclusion Changing trends of marriage in modern society is due to the transforming perceptions of body, gender, sexuality and identities of people. Although marriage and family are basic institutions of the society, they have experienced overwhelming problems such as polygamy, divorce, early marriage, late marriage, unfaithfulness and cohabitation, same sex marriage threatens the existence of heterosexual marriage because the society is undergoing tremendous social changes.

Critical theories predict that the society is undergoing great social construction of new identities and deconstruction of old identities in terms of body, gender and sexuality. Currently, homosexuals are increasing exponentially in the society because heterosexual marriage is experiencing problems, presence of aberrant sexual orientations, conventional change of marriage as institution, and legalization of same-sex marriage, all of which are forces of social constructs that are reshaping social perception of marriage.

Critical theories of essentialism, social constructionism and queer theory explicitly elucidate how aberrant sexual orientations are emerging, and becoming integral part of marriage in the modern society. Hence, critical theories of body, gender, sexuality and identity are critical in the understanding of homosexuals and same sex marriages in the current society. From the insights in this paper, I have now changed my perception of aberrant sexual orientations; I now understand that it depends on the school of thought that one belongs and I should not be quick to judge or condemn same sex unions.

Reference List Blackwell, L.,


UAE and Bahrain in the revolution Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Background Information

Relationship between Bahrain and UAE


Works Cited

Background Information The recent uprisings in the Middle East and the Maghreb have taken different dimensions. All these uprisings which were inspired by the Tunisian revolution have spread over to Egypt, Libya, Syria and Bahrain.

And just what began as simple uprising in quest for political rights and freedoms has led to the massive loss of lives in Syria, Bahrain and both the loss of lives destruction of property in countries like Libya. The Libya situation has taken a different dimension which threatens to put the stable country into anarchic situation.

States in the Middle East and the Maghreb occupy a geostrategic position in the global politics. Increased industrial revolution in Europe and the discovery of oil in the Middle East are the two main phenomenons that have increased the influence of these countries on the world politics.

The wealth and resources of the region have made it a safe haven and breeding ground for dictators who are interested in looting as opposed to social welfare of the people.

Bahrain is considered more strategic by the foreign powers. This has been evidenced by the availability of the USA’s fifth fleet and the United States naval support which places it in an important position. Bahrain has enjoyed long period of stability and this has made it a favorable financial hub.

Relationship between Bahrain and UAE The strong ties between the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain is majorly because of the presence Sunni community of Muslim who are present in both countries though they are a majority in united Arab emirates and a minority in Bahrain.

The relationship between Bahrain and the United Arab emirates during this moment of Arab protests and crisis has been driven by two fundamental principles which guide the foreign policy of UAE.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First is that UAE is a member in good standing of the gulf cooperation council (GCC) and which Bahrain is also a member as evidenced the words of Anwar Mohammed Gergash, the foreign affairs minister of UAE who said “UAE’s decision represents a lively embodiment of its commitment to brothers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC),”(Ministry of National Defense 1); and two, it believes in the peaceful settlement of issues.

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) charter includes cooperation in all spheres from political, economy to military (GCC 1). The UAE’s foreign policy which provides for peaceful settlement of disputes and the principle of non interference (Government-Political System 1) also drives the conduct of UAE in the Bahrain crisis.

It is worth mentioning that the above two principles especially Bahrain’s membership to the GCC is considered critical and exceptional in the sense that as opposed to the other crises in the middle east, Bahrain is the only member of GCC.

This factor influenced not only the approach of UAE but also for other member states like Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait towards Bahrain. This is different as compared to the reaction of the same states towards other countries facing similar problems as Bahrain. An example is Qatar’s approach to Libyan crisis where it advocated for military intervention.

Notwithstanding the above argument, the overriding factor that governed the relationship between Bahrain and UAE and which has guided the approach of UAE towards the Bahrain revolution is the Sunni Muslim factor.

The uprising in Bahrain which began in February was aimed at achieving political freedom, civil liberties and democratic governance. It was considered a wake up call to the minority Sunni who had trampled upon the rights of majority Shia population.

The Shias were angered by the actions of the monarchy to import more Sunnis in efforts to increase their population. Since the Sunni are the majority in UAE, their interest in the crisis was more centered on the protection of their minority brothers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on UAE and Bahrain in the revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first response of the UAE was to send troops to Bahrain to maintain order and security (Eurasia Review 1). These forces together with the Bahrain forces have managed to suppress and crack down the opposition.

Besides the Sunni factor which unites both countries, the relationship between the two countries is also guided by the principle of complementarities. This is to say that both UAE and the Bahrain share a lot of geographic and demographic problems.

These include; they both have sheikhdoms, they lack adequate defense mechanisms and their vulnerability to the attack by Iraq and Iran makes them united in times of adversities (Cordesman 1).

Conclusion In international relations, foreign policy and national interest are considered important instruments in global politics. The extremely different and radical approach taken by UAE in the Bahrain revolution as juxtaposed to the latent approach to the similar revolution in other Arab countries is a clear demonstration that relations among different states are merely driven by national interest.

This is also exemplified by the response of America, Britain and France to the Arab crisis. Whereas they have adopted military approach to Libyan crisis and economic sanctions in Syria, they have displayed reluctance to act in Bahrain and Egypt. US president Barrack Obama and secretary of state Hillary Clinton just issued plain warnings (BBC 1).

Works Cited BBC. Bahrain crackdown on protests in Manama’s Pearl Square. BBC, 2011. Web.

Cordesman, Alan. Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE: challenges of security. New York: West view Press, 1997. Print.

Eurasia Review. UAE Sends Troops to Bahrain, Joining GCC Forces. Eurasia, 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on UAE and Bahrain in the revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GCC. Article 4-Gulf cooperation council. GCC, 1981. Web.

Government-Political Systems. Government Political foreign policy. UAE Interact, 2011. Web.

Ministry of National Defense. Defense news: ministry of defense, People’s Republic of china. International Military, 2011. Web.


Sixth Meditation, Rene Descares Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Descartes in his first meditation is skeptical about perceptual knowledge, his concern being the inability to cite the difference between the way one thinks and reasons while asleep and when awake. His argument basically is that dreams are fallacious and that they disguise to be real but in reality, he argues, they are not.

His second argument rests upon the idea of dreams being false experiences, those that seem to be real, but are not (Descartes 16). His aim therefore is to discredit dreaming claiming that it is far from reality and that senses should be doubted. Descartes seeks to justify the argument that some sensory experiences are false, and that whatever that happens in dreams are always false. But why is this so because sensory experiences occur in both dreams and while awake.

Logically it is evident that by the time of waking up, Descartes was able to distinguish between reality and a dream because he realizes that he was asleep and that whatever happened was in his sleep which means that he was able to draw a line between dreams and reality.

In his first meditation, he claims that the realities in both dreaming and waking up are so similar, because most of the things and happenings in dreams were usually similar to those that happen when one is awake. The problematic issue in this argument is that at times those things that one dreams of do not exist in reality. Where then will one place and describe those things that are nonexistent in reality but existent in dreams? How can one explain an imaginary object that exists in dreams?

In both waking up and dreaming, the senses are involved because were it not for them, nothing would have happened in both. He argues that whatever we dream is based on real life experiences and so, stipulates that dreams are not independent but rather borrows a lot from the real world.

But it is evident that be it in dreams or when one is awake, senses are involved. A question arises here as to how one knows whether he is dreaming or he is awake because in both senses are involved. Which of the two can be assumed to be the reality (Descartes 46)? The idea of not trusting the senses therefore comes in and doubt takes center stage.

As shown by Descartes, dreams and real life activities relate to each other. That is why when one is asleep; he may dream and upon waking up get into the realities of life and fail to put a clear cut distinction between the two. But the difference between the two can be that one happens in the mind and the other happens outside the mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In as much as they may appear to be the same and real, those that are in existence in the mind could be false and as a result be doubted and those that are outside the mind be seen as real and truthful. Therefore the senses are applicable to both can be subject to doubt (Descartes 63).

Descartes argues that dreaming experience and waking experience are both difficult to distinguish from each other because the visions that come in sleep could be things that are in existence in reality. By putting forth the argument that objects that deal with imaginary things are valid, then one can assume that dreams are valid because to a larger extent they are considered nonexistent in the real world.

Throughout the meditations the concepts that are put forward are issues that are envisioned in the imaginary world which can as well be held in relation with objects and things of the real world.

Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations on first philosophy: Issue 29 of Library of Liberal Arts. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1960. Length85


Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies Report writing essay help

It is assumed that one of the causes of inflation is too much money in an economic system. However, as some economists have discovered, there are other forces that determine inflation and recession in economies especially production oriented economies such as the USA.

This can be best described by the relationship that is exhibited between demand for consumer goods at the household, national and regional level as well as the supply of funding by financial institutions. This relationship is expected to stabilize aggregate demand.

These forces do affect the country’s GDP. Insufficient demand for commodities is created by a number of factors. They include the tendencies of fallacies to adjust their spending in anticipation of tough economic times ahead. In this case the demand of commodities is likely to go down.

Furthermore governments might also fail to issue incentives such at tax cuts to manufacturers to mitigate the reduced demand. Under such circumstances companies are most likely to result to external sources to fund their own operations. In such circumstances it means that most of the companies are operating under loses and will negatively affect the GDP.

In such a case companies are most likely to have an increase of consumer prices as companies try to cushion themselves from the influences of the increased cost of doing business (increase of operational costs results as a result of borrowed funds to meet demand).

Such a scenario is also characterized by the rise of interest rates as a result of increased borrowing for manufacturers. It further leads to an increase in the prices of consumer goods.

This leads the consumers to pressurize manufactures to source for funds from external sources to meet demand. This creates a need for additional funding but does not necessarily mean that supply of funding has gone up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This might result to a rise in demand but not all demand will be recovered due to the increasing interest rate and consumer prices. As such aggregate demand will continue to fall. With aggregate demand lowered below the GDP, then manufacturers will need to have additional finances to cater for their increased demand.

Such a need for additional funds continues to drive interest rates high, and keeps the aggregate demand of commodities even lower. What does it mean then for such companies? To begin with, employment is affected as there may be lay offs especially for redundant employees (employment is kept down).

Furthermore, the output level is also kept down due to the reductions of the number of employees. This is accompanied by the increase of prices as companies pass on the increased cost of doing business to the consumers.

However companies in this case are likely to borrow more to support production in the hope that this will keep the prices of commodities down. This does increase the demand for goods. This sees an improved GDP which in turn creates a need for additional funding.

To maintain such levels of increase in GDP level financiers need to loosen their lending laws and increase capital especially to producers. When this happen producers will be enabled to go back to their pre-recession production levels.

However, demands must be able to accommodate all commodities produced with the new empowered environment. Otherwise, manufacturers are likely to develop cold feet towards supporting production. This may drive the aggregate demand down.

The most important lesson is that for any economy to sustain growth during troubled economic times it must be able to adjust its monetary policies to support production. Money must be used to bankroll the production function of that economy.

We will write a custom Report on Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To do this money must been kept liquid and not just limited to fixed assets and as such can allow manufacturers to responded effectively to fluctuation in interest rates.

Classical macroeconomics Creating such a monetary policy where is a deviation from the microeconomics that existed in the 20th and the turn of 21st century. During this time money was only quantified as physical assets and expressed in such commodities as gold and silver.

Such a monetary policy would not work in the current financial state as it does not guarantee that money is not responsive to inflation in interest rates. Classical manufacturers thought that they would respond to tough economic times by adjusting prices of commodities.

Furthermore such rigidity of supply of funding means that it becomes difficult to finance aggregate demand. The figure below shows the relationship between funding supply, fluctuation in interest rates and aggregate demands.

From the figure above it can be seen that at economic equilibrium, GDP, supply of funding as well as aggregate demand are equalized. But if the demand increases beyond the supply of funding it means that there would not be enough money to meet that demand and as such interest rates will go up.

Classical economics stipulates the need for funding supply would not increase due to the fact that it does not react to any change in interest rate. However, such rises in the rates of interest aggregate demands only affects interest rates due to the fact that manufacturers will be competing for little funding. As such under will offer high interests rates. Prices are not affected in this sense.

However, if the aggregate demand falls then it is automatic that the supply of funding will effectively fall. The reduced supply of funding increases the amount of money available for borrowing and as such interests rates fall.

The rate of interest will lower to such an extent that the aggregate demand will start to rise until it is equalized with the addition supply of funding. Classical economist explained that when such a situation happens, then manufacturers are likely it hike the prices of commodities because manufacture would be interested in attracting as much profit s possible.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Macroeconomics and Monetary Policies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus any increase in supply of funding only affect the increase in consumer prices but not interest rates. Actually the rate of interest may decrease for time but eventually returns to their original rate. As such employment and levels of output are kept at a constant.

The opposite is true: a fall in supply of funding leads to a fall in consumer prices. Thus the rate level of supply of funding is directly proportional to the level of consumer prices.

Such classical economic theories would only serve during small types of economic turbulence but would be insufficient with large scale economic turbulences such as the great depression of the 1930s America. Such an occurrence as the great depression could not just be dealt with by just adjusting the prices of commodities without affecting employment and output.

This is because lowered prices would also mean a reducing employment as well as production to meet the new level of demand. Such economic processes distribute efforts of harmonizing the economy at various economic functions such as households, government’s economic interventions, market schedules and manufacturers.

All these functionalities only deal with the harmonization of economic inefficiencies for their own benefits and at the levels within which they can. Such processes create an uncoordinated economic harmonization.

Policy interventions Decentralized economic harmonization efforts do mean that government interventions are key to trying to control economic inefficiencies. As such a number of policy interventions have been generated.

The federal reserve has develop a three step monetary policy that is aimed at creating the desire control the output level, interest rates, jobs and productions levels. Unlike the decentralized economic policies the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy stipulates closer goals regarding job security the rates of interest as well as commodity prices.

Search efforts however do create business cycles that are provoked by monetary based policies. Creating this type of cycles has a number of problematic issues. There has been a noted, unfortunately that such efforts lead to an unstable employment pricing as well as output, which is the opposite of the expectation.

Thus is so because in some cases when household adjust their spending in anticipations of an economic occurrence. This definitely has an effect of demand and as such affects pricing output.

As such it creates a see saw scenario ( tightening and loosening) of monetary control policies that are intended to influence employment, pricing and commodity output in hope that such controls will have an positive effect in controlling interest rates.

The Federal Reserve can however opt for alternative and effective policies such as inducing an artificial supply of funding by lowering the discount rates. This would effectively have an effect in the employee level as well as output levels which would be stopped from falling.

This is achieved by ensuring that there is an assured amount of necessary financial capital for sales activities needed to boast profits that would enable companies to keep employment levels high. Thus enhanced supply of money lead to enhanced supply of funding that is essential for assured growth in output. This is described in the figure below.

This shows that if the supply of money (note: not supply of funding) can artificially induce several economic shocks such as demand as well as money and credit oriented recessions by ensuring that there is enough capital to support such activities as improved output that do have a positive effect on the GDP. This can only occur if interest rates are lowered to such an extent that it generates desired responses from demand.

The situation is however different in mega economic crises such as the great depression as money is not liquid enough as it is trapped in loans. Increased monetary supply can however create and actually have created mammoth inflations such as the German Hyper Inflation that did occur o in the 1923.

This is due to the fact that monetary polices that induces demand supported policies cannot keep employment high and prices low at the same time. As witnessed in the US, government need to employee different tactics to curb prices and unemployment, other than increased-money-supply tactic.

Such polices include taxing wages in such a way that wage targets are set from tax as well as setting price limits beyond which tax penalties would be awarded. When that idea is implemented not only will employment be kept high but also prices controlled.

International issues Despite the numerous bottlenecks, monetary authorities have strengthened the monetary policy which has in turn given them humble time to concentrate on domestic policy aspirations for a number of reasons: the balance of payments record comprising the current and the financial accounts.

The current account monitors cross-boarder exchange of goods and services and even gifts while the financial account keeps track of all foreign acquisition of America’s real and financial assets.

The pegged rates domestic policy on the other hand refers to international agreements obligating governments undertaking multilateral transactions to maintain a constant supply of their currency at the foreign exchange market so as to stabilize it at an agreed-upon standard.

At the moment, however, the relative values of the dollar and the euro are allowed to vary. Under the pegged rate system, sustained by the demand and supply a currency, other factors, say a growth in the GPD may come to play and affect the demand-supply equilibrium at the international markets consequently impacting on the exchange rates of the dollar.

To curb this, a domestic policy to increase the interest rates in the US will stabilize the dollar, discourage investment in Europe and attract more foreign investors. That is, a policy manipulating the interest rates in the US keeps the dollar at the official pegged value against the euro, encourages domestic investment, hence its value is kept constant.

As such, there is a variety of GPD and interest rates for the market-manipulated value of the dollar. This establishes a balance of payments (BP) on which the value of the dollar is kept constant despite the foreign exchange market dynamics which bring about huge demand and supply changes for the dollar.

Pegged interest rates does mean that there is negligible bots to foreign trade due to the nature if its rigidity. As such the US government should consider moving from such rigid policies to more liberal polices that guarantee enough space for maneuver in any economic situation.

The move towards flexible monetary policies is encouraged as it will see powerful domestic monetary based policies. Such polices will also see an improved supply of funding that in effect positively lead to an improved GDP.

However, flexibility in decision the prevailing interest rates do have a negative effect on the country’s fiscal policies. This means that if the US government has to realize the assured economic control it has to carefully balance the employment of both fiscal and domestic monetary policies.

This means that the Federal Reserve with which domestic monetary based policy falls under and the congress which handles matters of implementing the fiscal policies must closely work together.

However due to the fact the legislation process within which the congress takes to have fiscal polices take a very long time, then congress might need to consider ceding some of the fiscal possibilities to professionals (Federal Reserve) who are more oriented with economic matters.

The effect is that economic polices will be implemented faster from the same central locations, the federal reserve a opposed to the long tedious procedure that would involve endless and sometimes fruitless communications between congress and federal reserve.


Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case study

External Environment facing Coglin Clothing

International aspects

Factors that would impact Coglin in Vietnam and Thailand

Control measures to challenge in Vietnam and Thailand


Introduction Internationalization and outsourcing refers to the elements of interest in global aspects with contextual respect to business. With the spread of globalization theory, institutions have sought to obtain their resources as well as sell their products in a global perspective.

International trade and outsourcing of an organization’s resources have therefore become fundamental of large as well as medium companies. This paper seeks to discuss challenges facing Coglin clothing company in relation to internationalization and outsourcing. The paper will explore external environmental conditions of Coglin clothing.

Case study Coglin is a clothing design and manufacturing company in Australia. The firm has been in existence for twelve years and under one chief executive officer. The company has experienced a considerable level of growth though it is currently faced with a number of threats.

Its recent growth has led to changes such as increased level of recruited staff and expenditure on management. The company is also facing increased competition from the global market following the government’s move to liberalize the local market to international trade.

The company is thus faced with the task of copping with the external environment in order to handle its current and future contracts (Case Study, n.d., p. 1).

External Environment facing Coglin Clothing External environment facing an organization refers to forces that emanates from outside the organization which has the capacity to affect the operations of the particular organization. Factors such as competition facing an organization as well as issues that pertains to regulations and natural factors therefore constitute an organizational environment.

The environment with respect to Coglin Company can be viewed from two perspectives: “task environment and general environment” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83). Task environment refers to the organization’s immediate factors such as its “suppliers, distributers, customers and competitors” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These factors are immediate in the sense that they face the organization in every aspect of its operations. The other category of environment, general environment, consists of widely extensive factors that include “economic, technological, sociacultural, demographic, political and legal, and global forces that affects the organization” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).

Suppliers to an organization are the parties that make the organizations provisions for resources. Such parties are occasionally subject to variations with respect to elements such as “nature, number and type” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83).

The organization’s suppliers can for example change their structures and terms or relation with their contracting partners such as coglin or their number could change due to closures or entry of more firms in the supplier market.

Any change with respect to the organization’s suppliers will call for adjustments by Coglin’s managers in order to maintain the company’s desired and planned operations. This is because any of such changes will either have an advantage or a disadvantage to the organization calling for a move to either capitalize on cases of opportunities or to counter any form of threat.

A reduction in number of suppliers is, for example, associated with a stronger bargaining power by the remaining parties over the company. Coglin might therefore be forced to endure dictated terms from suppliers if the number reduces to levels that can have monopolistic or oligopolistic influences.

An increase in the number of suppliers on the other hand gives more power to the company through its increased options in seeking supplies. Competition among the suppliers will also lead to moderated terms which will be advantageous to Coglin.

Similarly, distributers have a significant level of impact in a producer company such as Coglin. As a link between the company and its customers, the effectiveness of the relationship between the company and distributers will be reflected in its level of sales.

We will write a custom Assessment on Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A reduced number of distributers will have a negative impact on the company in terms of more bargaining power by the remaining distributers together with a threat of reduces consumer servicers in cases where the number of distributers cannot reach all customers.

The company may therefore suffer from reduced sales. An increased number of distributers will on the other hand give more advantage to the company with respect to relatively increased power by the company over the distributers and subsequent customer coverage (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 87). Customers refer to the parties that purchase products from an organization.

Being a clothing design and manufacturing industry, Coglin’s customers include “individuals, small companies, large companies, government agencies and educational institutions” (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 83) that might be interested in the company’s textile products for final use in houses and office premises.

The products from the company can be used by these parties for clothes or furnishings. Changes with respect to consumers also affect the decisions made by management of the company. Unlike suppliers and distributers, customers exhibit a wide variety of changes that can include fashion, taste, and income, complimentary and supplementary products among others.

The changes in consumers will also be realized in either an advantageous or a disadvantageous perspective. Competitors also shape the direction of the organization’s decision making in terms of moves to gain or maintain market control (Wadolell et al., 2007, p. 88).

The general environment surrounding Coglin Company is on the other hand diverse in nature and is mostly out of control of the company’s management. Coglin is therefore in response forced to adopt decisions that will align the company to its best advantage following the environmental conditions.

Being a profit oriented organization; the company is highly affected by economic factors in its surrounding. Elements such as “interest rates, inflation, changes in disposable income, share market fluctuation and the general business cycle” are some of the economic factors that affect the company (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86).

The economy with respect to individual customers is for example directly associated with the level of demand for products in any market. Economic factors such as reduced incomes or increased unemployment rates therefore cause negative effects on the company’s capacity to generate revenues.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Challenge in Internationalization and Outsourcing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because such changes causes customers to either reduce or suspend expenditures on non basic commodities in which category, clothing may fall. This effect is also felt with respect to institutions that will be forced to control their expenditures and concentrate on necessities.

Inflation which affects elements of the company such as the prices of its resources also has direct impacts on its management. When the economy realizes inflation prices of resources shoots up raising production costs of the company’s commodities.

Consequently, the management is forced into the dilemma of whether or not the increased costs should be transferred to customers in the form of increased product cost. More complications are realized in cases where production costs in external markets are not affected by inflation and cheaper products are availed through importation (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86).

Political and legal requirements in a business set up also drives the operations of organizations in their territories. Political stability, for instance, has both direct and indirect impacts on the operations of organizations.

Political instability induces negative impacts on environmental factors such as security, economy and even investor confidence. Instances of politically instigated violence can, for example, disrupt production processes and even distribution of finished products due to curtailed movements of employees, distributors and even customers to Coglin.

Compromised investor confidence due to political instability can also lead to reduced levels of productions in order to avoid loses due to economic instability. Legal issues also significantly affect the organization.

Laws that cover elements such as: “practices regulations, environmental protection laws, anti discrimination policies and industrial relation legislations” (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86), play a direct role in shaping management decisions making.

Every decision by the management that relates to sourcing of raw materials, recruitment and management of human resource, production processes and relations with other parties are conducted in line with constitutional requirements and bi-laws.

Regulations such as antidiscrimination laws and rights of employees significantly affect decisions with respect to actions against employees who might not be performing or behaving to the expectation of the organization.

Managements may be forced to compromise on the company’s principles and objectives just to avoid legal actions that can be instituted by certain disciplinary actions are taken against employees. Social and cultural factors such as “crime, violence, religion and spiritual activities and lifestyles” (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 86) also affect the organization.

The products of the firm are directly related to religious and traditional believes that are evident on people’s clothing. Lifestyles and fashion in dressing codes and premises’ furniture and decorations are also directly related to the organizations products.

Coglin’s management is therefore obliged to yield to pressure as caused by these factors and align the company accordingly (Robbins et al., 2009, p. 87).

International aspects The company’s operations especially with respect to international trade are also dependent on forces in foreign countries that affect business transactions. One of the forces in international trade is the fluctuation of currencies of the countries which the trading parties come from.

When the Australian currency rises against currency of an importing country, Coglin experiences a disadvantage with respect to global competitiveness.

This will negatively affect and even limit the company from exploring foreign markets. A fall in value of the domestic currency relative to foreign currencies on the other hand favors the company with respect to international trade.

The economic stability of Australia which categorizes it under developed countries also influences its impact in the international market following the recognized flow of goods from developed countries to developing countries (Bartol et al., 2009, pp. 65, 519).

International business refers to the trade activities that are conducted between countries. With the emergence of globalization, international trade has been realizing a growing trend in terms of the amount of commodities that are moved across boarders in terms of trade.

Data revealing the trend in volume of international trade from the year 1995 to 2004 indicates a general increase in the volume of trade especially after the year 2001. The percentage increment in volume of international trade has also been significantly increasing (IFCBA, n.d., p. 2).

Administrative measures of exploring international markets, identifying and capitalizing on factors such as “mergers and acquisition” are some of the steps to internationalization of business (IFCBA, n.d., p. 7).

A company’s involvement in international trade however enlists more responsibility with respect to managing “delivery of goods and money, bureaucratic hick ups and distance and travel time” (Sercu P., n.d., p. 8).

Factors that would impact Coglin in Vietnam and Thailand External environmental factors in Vietnam such as cheaper labor and cost of locating a business enterprise, “intellectual property threat” and poor infrastructure contributes to task environmental factors.

Consideration of factors such threat to intellectual property and poor infrastructure in Vietnam can overweigh factors such cheap labor to influence investors away from the country (Nieuwoudt, 2010, p. 1).

The market in Thailand which has a wide advantage with respect to general environment such as government policies is on the contrary not favorable with respect to task environmental factors. The Thailand textile market is also already saturated with both export and import activities that might not make it very attractive for new investments (Report, 2010, p. 1).

Control measures to challenge in Vietnam and Thailand The challenges in Vietnam and Thailand include both general and task environmental forces that include factors driven by government policies and market forces for resources and finished products.

A firm in these locations will therefore enact decisions to capitalize on the advantages that are offered by market forces such as cheap labor and market liberalization effects as well as adopting policies that are in line with the country’s legislations (Nieuwoudt, 2010, 1).

References Bartol et al., (2009). Management. Sydney: McGraw Hill.

IFCBA. New trends in international trade, emerging business models, and the needs of small and medium-sized businesses in preparing the Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. Web.

Nieuwoudt, T., (2010). Vietnam’s textile industry: Opportunities and challenges. Web.

Report., (2010). Prospects for the textile and clothing industry in Thailand. Web.

Robbins et al., (2009). Management. Sydney: Prentice Hall.

Sercu, P., Managing credit risk in international trade. Web.

Wadolell et al., (2007). Contemporary management. Sydney: McGraw Hill.


English as a dominant language Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Declaration of English as official language

Invented Language




Introduction It has been argued on more than one occasion that the dominant position taken by the English language is more than just a matter of language. Some people feel that it also has a lot to do with political and economic domination, a claim that has been refuted by yet another cross-section of people (Barber 2000). This discussion seeks to establish which of the two arguments is correct and why it is so.

Background Information Since the establishment of America as a state, there was one unique aspect that this nation has always had which is allowing people from diverse cultures to come into their land and become part of the nation.

America did not only welcome people from other cultures with open arms but they also allowed them to continue practicing their different cultures without forcing them to adopt their own culture. Some people seem to forget that at one point all the citizens of America were all immigrants whose cultures and languages differed (Ronowicz


Concept of a small world Essay a level english language essay help

A small world can be viewed from different perspectives. This can be from the mathematical, physical or sociological perspectives. Small-world network is a mathematical graph. In this graph most nodes don’t neighbor one another.

Apart from this, these nodes can be approached from different directions. Small-world networks are characterized by cliques and near-cliques. From the sociological perspective, these small-world networking has advantages. One of the advantages is their resistance to change.

This is due to the presence of the filtering apparatus that makes use of highly connected nodes. Also, the other advantage is the efficiency in transferring information. It has the capability to transfer information and at the same time has the capability to maintain the number of links needed to keep the network running (Murray, 2010).

The models related to this are mostly applicable to empathy group theory. The theory has been represented in sociological argument. Affinity groups can be described as social movement groups. They are characterized by their small size. Also, they are semi-independent pledged being directed towards a bigger goal.

The model has been used to prove the protest directorial strategies against police action. The model urges that the higher the populations in the network that result from merging of small networks, the more valuable are the nodes. The same can be put across when defining the affinity group model. (Cohen, 2003).

In this phenomenon social connections are formed. The social connections link individuals from different regions of the world. The concept brought about the well known phrase of six degrees of separation. This was after the small world experiment.

During the experiment, people were requested to reach a certain person by sending a message through a chain of links. In that experiment most of the chains failed. The relationship between individuals can be shown by the use of collaboration graphs. An affirmative relationship is indicated by a positive edge between two nodes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, a negative one is illustrated by a negative edge. Prediction can be done on the probable outcomes of the graph. Signed social network graphs are used to illustrate this. To illustrate the behavior of those who can change their opinions, balanced graphs are used. Vice versa takes place for those who can change their opinions (Cohen, 2002).

According to study, it has been observed that joy has a relation with social networks. In case one individual has joy, a certain fraction of those surrounding him or her have joy too. Individuals at the central part of a certain network enjoy life in future than those in the outer region.

Genetical values can also be seen in the social networks. This is according to research carried out within the recent years. Also, taking an example that the chances that a two individuals being friends to another are high. In addition, the numbers of routes that can be used to move to another person in a network are heritable (Bartheleny, 1999).

Reference List Bartheleny, M. (1999). Small-world networks:Evidence for a crossover picture. Phys.Rev. Lett. 82(15), 3180.

Cohen, R.,(2002). Structural properties of scale free networks: A handbook of graphs and networks. London. Lilly printing press.

Cohen, R.(2003). ‘‘Scale-free networks are ultrasmall’’: phys.rev.lett. 98(23),4321.

Murray, R.(2010). ‘‘Networks with the smallest average distance and the average clustering’. Web. Retrieved

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of a small world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Korea as a link between the continent and Japan Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Korean relations to China

Korean relations to Japan

Korea As link between Continents

Discussion and Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Northeast Asia is the most influential region in the Asian continent and affairs in this part of the continent have an impact on the whole of Asia. China and Japan are the two super powers in the region and their geographical proximity and economic interdependence means that the two countries are deeply connected.

Even so, the history of these giants is turbulent and there continues to be a mutual hostility between them. At the present, there exist a number of significant issues facing Northeast Asia. These issues include: China’s rapid economic growth and her increasing role in international affairs and Japan’s possible remilitarization which is cause for concern for her neighboring countries.

Korea stands between these two powers and her geographical positioning together with her history with both nations gives her particular relevance in the region. Korea has a shared history with both China and Japan and both countries consider her an important player in their international strategies. This paper shall discuss the role of Korea as a link between the continent and Japan. In particular, the paper shall analyze the Korean relationship to both Japan and China so as to highlight Korea’s role as a link.

Korean relations to China The Korean Peninsula has historically enjoyed close relations with China. This relationships have in part been as a result of China’s security concerns. Historically, some of China’s invaders have made use of the Korean peninsula to perpetrate their attacks against China. The border has also served as the arena for conflicts between China and her traditional rivals; Japan and Russia.

This security concerns are part of the reason why China is concerned about the affairs of Korea since she would not want Korea allying herself with nations that China perceives to be enemies. The renowned scholar Quansheng Zhao best articulates the relationship between China and Korea by stating that “Chinese interest in the Korean peninsula has been based on the combined factors of national interest and the historical connections between China and Korea” (102).

China-Korean relations date as far back to the year 6 AD when Korean emerged as a unified state. In this period, Korean rulers sought to establish relations with China which was an influential actor in the region. From its relationship with China, Korea obtained numerous cultural influences including language, philosophy and even religion. China on the other hand had a market for her products as well as a sphere of influence.

The relationship was mutually beneficial for both nations although it was the Koreans who gained more from the more civilized China. Korea also paid tribute to the Chinese court since China regarded herself as the superior party in this relationship. Even so, Korea saw the relationship as mutually beneficial and regarded themselves as equals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Selig asserts that Koreans regarded the relationship as suzerainty where the paying of tribute was of little consequence and real independence (309). Korean kings constantly sought and received protection by China from both internal unrest as well as external aggression which was mostly from Japan. As such, the history of China and Korea was based on development as well as security concerns.

This historical relationship continued amicably until the fall of the powerful Ming dynasty. This fall was precipitated by the rise of the Manchus in the early 17th century. This dynasty was regarded by the Koreans as weak and barbaric in comparison to the Ming dynasty.

This weakness led to the creation of factions within China and many historians blame this lack of a centralized command for the defeat of China in the Sino-Japanese war. Following this defeat, the Shimonoseki Peace Treaty was reached upon. The first article of the peace treaty which was signed after the Sino-Japanese called for China to accept Korea as a completely independent country. This loss of Korea to Japan hence severed the historical tie between China and Korea.

China had a chance to assert her influence in Korea following the defeat of Japan in the Second World War. As an aftermath of the war, Japan was required to relinquish control of the Korean colony (Oberdorfer 230). This led to the emergence of a vacuum which China was quick to fill. China therefore became the closest ally and supporter of North Korea. To demonstrate her commitment to this, China sent in her troops to defend North Korea from imminent US invasion in the Korean War (Wang 480). China has continued to be a key actor in Korean affairs up to date.

Korean relations to Japan The relationship between Korea and Japan was historically one of violence with Japan constantly making attempts to invade Korea. Zachmann reveals that in the 1590s, Japan engaged in disastrous campaigns against Korea that further alienated it from both Korea and China (8). These campaigns also resulted in the upsetting of the balance of power in Northeast Asia thus contributing to the downfall of the powerful Ming dynasty and the rise of the Qing dynasty.

Even so, Japan did attempt to establish good relations with Korea for reasons of domestic authority as well as economic considerations. As of 1607, Japan welcomed the first embassy from Korea and sought to establish international relations that would guarantee Japan’s authority. China was able to deter Japanese aggression in Korea effectively up until the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.

Japan was keen to expand her influence on Korea and in 1876, Japan pressured Korean into a Treaty of Amity. This was a western-style imperialist treaty by Japan and it purposed to remove Korea from the “hermit nation” stance that it had taken. In 1888, Japan openly supported a planned coup d’état in Korea where pro-Japanese factions purposed to take over the leadership. In this case, Chinese troops intervened and quickly extinguished the coup at the request of the Korean government.

We will write a custom Essay on Korea as a link between the continent and Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This Chinese action enraged Japan since it once again symbolized China’s dominance in Korean affairs. However, Japan let the matter to pass and proceeded to sign a treaty with China where both sides agreed to withdraw their troops from Korea (Zachmann 17). In addition to this, both parties agreed that in case of future disturbance in Korea, troops from both sides could only the sent upon notification of the other party. Following this incident, Japan pulled out of Korea and did not object to increasing Chinese influence in Korea.

As a matter of fact, Japan and China at times worked closely to keep Russian influence in Korea at bay. Despite the temporal withdrawal, Japan was still keen on establishing her dominance in Korea and in the 1880s, Japanese leadership began an intensive military build-up of Japan’s forces.

Even as the military preparations took place, the hypothetical enemy was not Korea but rather China. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 which is regarded by historians as a watershed for both Japanese and Chinese modern history was a major turning point in Korea-Japan relations since it resulted in the abject defeat of China. The war was as a result of the Tonghak riots which took place in June 1894 in Korea.

Following this riots, the Korean government requested for Chinese military assistance to help quell the uprising. China sent in her troops to assist but Japan also responded by sending her own troops allegedly to protect Japanese citizens and diplomats living in Korea. Japanese troops were excessive and this provocative action resulted in the situation escalating.

Eventually, Japan declared war on Chine on August 1894. Japanese forces were immensely successful with the Japanese navy defeating China in the Yellow Sea while the Japanese army gained victory in the battle of Pyongyang. This resulted in the negotiation of a peace treaty which was largely on Japan’s terms

During the course of the war, Japan viewed herself as a liberator who was saving weak Korea from the cunning interference and exploitation by China (Zachmann 34). In fact, the Sino-Japanese War was popularly considered by the Japanese population as a “just war” for the sake of Korea (Zachmann 25). However, following the decisive victory obtained in the Sino-Japanese war, Japan took the opportunity to advance her interest in Korea.

This resulted in Japan expanding her influence to Korea and subsequently colonizing the country for half a century. At the onset, Japan’s policy with Korea was hoped to be one of non-interference insofar as possible with the goal being for Korea to stand up by herself (Tsuzuki 132). This policy was not implemented for long since other powers wished to exert their influence on the weaker Korea. In particular, Russia aimed to extend her influence in Korea and thus challenged the role of Japan as Korea’s protector.

Korea As link between Continents Korea has historically had a huge bearing on China and Japan and Ilpyong reveals that under the influence of China, Korea was seen as a “dagger pointed at the heart of Japan” (28). Similarly, China viewed a Korea under Japanese rule as a dagger pointed at it. These fears are not unfounded as if evident from Japan’s expansion into Manchuria and its subsequent occupation of China’s northern territory following the colonization of Korea at the onset of the 20th century.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Korea as a link between the continent and Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Zachmann proposes the Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea was as much a matter of prestige and the need to perpetuate dominance as it was a security issue (16). Security wise, Korea plays the role of buffer state between China and Japan. The possibility of a common border with Japan has been a historical fear by China.

Following the annexation of Taiwan by Japan, there was fear that if china remained inactive, Japan would attack Korea and the loss of Korea would result in a common border between China and Japan (Waltz 143). This was seen as unacceptable and China prepared for war with Japan from 1879 onwards in anticipation of Japan take over of Korea. Following the Korean colonization by Japan as a result of Japanese victory in the Sino-Japan war, China felt threatened by this occupation of Korea by a hostile power.

The relationship between Japan and china continue to be strained despite the huge economic progress that both nations have made through the decades. During the cold war era, Japan and China were on opposite side with Japanese favoring the Unite States while China favored communism and the Soviet Union. Even after the end of the cold war, the two countries still continue to regard each other with suspicion.

The United States-Japan Defense Cooperation Guidelines which was come up with in 1995 is one of the grounds on which China and Japanese differ. To China, This pact is regarded as a sign of Japanese militarization and a means through which Japan can expand its influence in the region. China also perceives the US-Japan defense agreement as a move to undermine its influence in the region and isolate it from other countries in the region.

Presently, there is growing rivalry between China and Japan and as China’s power grows, there is the dangerous possibility for the peace and stability of the region. Both China and Japan are keen to maintain stability and peace in the Korean peninsula. For China, the stability of the reason is good both for its economic interests and security interests. Japan also considers a stable Korea as being good for the security of the region.

Korea therefore acts as a key link between these two countries that have a bitter history and view each other with suspicion and mistrust. Korea (South) is uniquely positioned to play an important role to encourage better relations in Northeast Asia (Denny 23). Heo, Roehrig and Seo state that part of the power that Korea has is that it has never attacked any one of its neighbors nor given any indication that it intended to do that (107). Korea is seen as a legitimate mediator between China and Japan without being perceived as a competitor or a threat. This strengthens the effectiveness of Korean mediation.

Discussion and Conclusion While Korea is the significantly small power when compared to the big and powerful China and Japan, it is not a powerless party and indeed has the ability to shape the future of her powerful neighbors. This is because both China and Japan regard Korea as an important actor in their foreign policies. While China and Japan have an entrenched enmity due to their tragic confrontations of the past, Korea is of interest to both countries and therefore forces them to interact. Korea acts as a link between these two traditional enemies and if there will ever be the formation of an Asian power bloc, the role of Korea will be monumental.

This paper set out to discuss the role of Korea as a link between China and Japan. A brief history highlighting the relationship between Korea and the two countries has been given so as to underscore the importance of Korea in China-Japan relations. This paper has highlighted that there exists an intense and deep-rooted suspicion and competition between China and Japan.

Even so, a level of cooperation between these two powers is necessary for the peace and stability of the Northeast Asian region. The paper has then analyzed how Korea acts as a link between Japan and the continent. From the discussions advanced in this paper, it can be stated that while Korea lacks the economic and military might of China and Japan, she plays a significant role in the affairs of Northeast Asia by serving as a link between these two giants.

Works Cited Denny, Roy. “China and the Korean Peninsula: Beijing’s Pyongyang Problem and Seoul Hope”. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Volume 3 – Number 1, January 2004 Heo, Uk, Roehrig Terence, and Jungmin, Seo. Korean security in a changing East Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. Print. Ilpyong, Kim. Korea’s Relations with China and Japan in the Post-Cold War Era. International Journal of Korean Studies. Fall/Winter, 1998. Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. London: Warner Books, 1999. Print. Selig S. Harrison. Korean Endgame: A Strategy for Reunification and U.S. Disengagement. N.J: Princeton University Press, 2002. Print. Tsuzuki, Chushichi. The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 1825-1995.

Oxford University Press. Print. Waltz, Kenneth N. Anarchic Orders and Balance of Power. New York: Columbia UP, 1986. Print. Wang, Hongying. “Multilateralism in Chinese Foreign Policy: The Limits of Socialization.” Asian Survey 40, no. 3 (May – Jun. 2000): 475-491.

Zhao, Quansheng. “China and the Korean Peace Process.” In the Korean Peace Process and the Four Powers. Burlington: Ashgate, 2003.


Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Problem Statement and Research Question

Significance of Research Question

Report of Research Findings

Connection to Personal and Professional Goals

Discussion, Recommendations, and Conclusions


Introduction Placebo and pharmacological effects are factors that have complicated the study of behaviors in response to various stimuli in the environment. The study of placebo and pharmacological effects is very important in distinguishing between drug-induced response and classical conditioning due to the environment.

Pharmacologists and psychologists have been grappling with great challenge of varying doses of drugs at different environments. Numerous studies have revealed that effective doses of different drugs vary according to environmental conditions, which have placebo effect or cause classical conditioning.

Revelation of these studies has compelled pharmacologists and psychologists to establish the relationship between placebo effects and pharmacological effects. Ader, Mercurio, Walton, James, Davis, and Ojha (2010) argue that, unraveling the relationship between pharmacological effects and classical conditioning is very critical in establishment of tolerance and addition of drugs (p.195).

This means that classical conditioning has overwhelming influence on development of tolerance and addiction. Thus, effective doses of drugs do not only depend on physiological mechanism of the body, but also psychological and environmental conditions. Since effective dose of drugs depends on placebo effects and classical conditioning, how do they lead to tolerance and addiction?

Problem Statement and Research Question Placebo effects and classical conditioning are two environmental factors that have greatly influenced effective dose of drugs. Researchers have established that, there is variability of drug dosage given to patients according to patient expectations and environmental conditions making them to consider presence of other mediating and confounding variables as well.

The variability of drug dosage is due to placebo and classical conditioning that influence pharmacological effects of drugs in an individual. The variability of drug dosage used in treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis has led to the development of tolerance and addiction.

In some patients, when administered with standard dose, the drug does not reach the effective dose, hence leads to tolerance, while others experience overdose leading to addiction. Due to the confounding and mediating variables of pharmacological effects, pharmacologists and psychologists have been struggling with the issue of addiction and tolerance. According to Ader et al. (2010), placebo effects and classical conditioning have significance influence in determining effective dose of drugs and thus establish tolerance and addition levels of drugs in patients (p.196). Thus, pharmacologists must factor in placebo and classical conditions when calculating the effective dose of drugs that are specific to certain patients.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given that effective dose of the drugs is not only subject to pharmacological effects, psychologists and pharmacologists need to establish the critical relationship between effective doses of drugs and classical conditioning due to the environment. The relationship is imperative in the optimization of doses together with classical conditions in bringing about optimum pharmacological effects of drugs while minimizing addition and tolerance levels of drugs.

Stockhorst, Enck, and Klosterhalfen (2007) assert that, proper understanding of the placebo effects and classical conditioning of certain drugs is very important in calculating appropriate dose of drugs to minimize development of tolerance and addiction to drugs (p.3433).

Usually, patients with chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis that require long-term use of drugs are prone to tolerance and addition to drugs. Therefore, how can optimization of pharmacological effects of drugs occur through modification of placebo effects and classical conditions, while limiting development of addiction and tolerance?

Significance of Research Question The research question on how to optimize pharmacological effects of drugs while minimizing development of addition and tolerance is very important in determining effective dose of drugs. Given that effective dose of drugs varies depending on placebo effects and classical conditioning of the environment, understanding of the mediating and confounding variables is critical in determining effective dose of drugs.

Thus, calculation of the effective dose of drugs should consider mediating and confounding variables such as placebo effects and classical conditioning. Numerous studies have confirmed that there is variability in the effective dose of drugs based on the placebo effects and classical conditions that patients have during chemotherapy.

At similar dosage of drugs under same environmental condition, patients experience differing pharmacological effects implying that placebo effects mediate the effectiveness of drugs. Mendez, Williams, Bhavsar, Lu, Bizon, and Setlow (2009) argue that, classical conditioning is very important in enhancing pharmacological effects of drugs since rats fed on amphetamine chronically had increased frequency of feeding as compared to those that did not receive amphetamine (p.75).

This means that classical conditioning is an integral part of placebo effects that have overwhelming influence during chemotherapy. Thus, the research question is of essence in determination of effective dose and minimization of unnecessary adverse effects of drugs such as tolerance and addiction.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Report of Research Findings Research findings have revealed that there is significant variability in effective dose of drugs that results into development of tolerance and addiction as adverse effects of drugs. Pharmacologists and psychologists have agreed that, there are mediating and confounding variables that have overwhelming influence on the effective dose of drugs leading to tolerance and addition. It is very hard to calculate the effective dose of drugs because placebo effects and classical conditions of the environment determine the effectiveness of a dose.

Ader et al. argue that, since there are placebo effects and classical conditioning due to the environment, general application of standard dosages of drugs to all patients under different environmental conditions and varied psychological perceptions have contributed significantly to increasing cases of addiction and tolerance (p.194).

Patients at different environments and varied psychological expectations of chemotherapy experience differing effective dosages of drugs. Therefore, calculation of effective dosage of drugs requires consideration of placebo effects and classical conditions of the environment.

Although placebo effects and classical conditioning have significance influence in determination pharmacological effects of drugs, modification of these conditions can be of great benefit in optimization of drugs.

Usually, standard dosages of drugs have negative effect on health because they result into addiction and tolerance due to placebo effects and classical conditioning. According to Stockhorst, Enck, and Klosterhalfen (2007), proper modification of classical conditions and placebo effects can improve effectiveness of drugs without inducing tolerance or addiction in patients (p.3435).

Modification of classical conditions and placebo effects is appropriate in the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis while preventing the development of addiction and tolerance due to long-term use of drugs. Various research findings have confirmed that reduction of dose and optimal modification of classical conditions and placebo effects can increase effectiveness of drugs and reduce development of addiction and tolerance.

Connection to Personal and Professional Goals The research is very important in psychology because modification of classical conditions and placebo effects is integral in understanding human mind and behavior relative to chemotherapy. Given that psychotherapy and chemotherapy link intricately, optimization of therapy requires optimal interface between the two fields. Optimal interface of psychotherapy and chemotherapy will result into appropriate calculation of the effect of dose of drugs at various environmental and psychological conditions.

This research will also enable me to determine ways in which I can apply the knowledge learned in the classroom in daily life and understand factors behind certain actions and how to handle them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Placebo Effects in Medicine by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the research will provide a clear understanding of the role drugs can play in classical conditioning and the application of the findings in management of various conditions that afflict people on a daily basis such as chronic diseases and addiction. Since tolerance and addiction are adverse effects of drugs that emanate from ineffective doses due to placebo effects or classical conditioning, the research will help me to establish effective dose of drugs by considering confounding variables.

Discussion, Recommendations, and Conclusions Effective dose of drugs vary depending on the placebo effects and classical conditioning of the environment. Variability in effective dose of drugs has resulted into development of tolerance and addiction as adverse effects of drugs, particularly in treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer and psoriasis, which require long-term use of drugs.

Studies have shown that the environment of administering drugs plays a significant role in development of tolerance to the drug such that a change in location of administration of the drug may result in overdose even though the dosage remains constant.

Bryant, Roberts, Culbertson, Le, Evans, and Fanselow (2009) contend that, classical conditioning and placebo effects are the major factors in an environment that determine effectiveness of the drug, irrespective of the dose (p.77). The argument implies that environment is a significant factor that determines effectiveness of a dose during chemotherapy. A standard dose can be an overdose in one patient leading to addiction or under dose in another leading to tolerance.

Since there is variability in effective dose irrespective of drug dosage due to classical conditioning and placebo effects, it is critical to establish optimal conditions that increase effectiveness of drugs. Pharmacologists and psychologists should develop integrative determination of effective drug dosage to prevent unnecessary development of addiction and tolerance to drugs when treating chronic conditions such as cancer and psoriasis.

Carmack, Wood, and Anagnostaras (2010) posit that, adverse effects associated with long-term use of drugs can significantly reduce if there is appropriate modification of classical conditions and placebo effects (p.21). Thus, appropriate formulation of effective dosage and reduction of adverse effects of drugs depends on chemotherapy and psychotherapy factors.

In conclusion, placebo effects and classical conditioning have significant influence in determining effective dose of drugs. Favourable placebo effects and classical conditions increase effectiveness of drugs and minimize adverse effects, while unfavorable placebo effects and classical conditions reduce effectiveness of drugs and increase adverse effects of drugs.

Hence, pharmacologists and psychologists are grappling with the challenge of minimizing dosage of drugs and creation of optimum conditions that have placebo effect to maximize effective dose of drugs.

Proper optimization of placebo effects and classical conditioning is very important in the formulation of effective dose of drugs that have minimal side effects of addiction and tolerance. Therefore, integration of chemotherapy and psychotherapy factors in the design and formulation of drugs dosages is imperative in enhancing safety and efficacy of drugs.

References Ader, R., Mercurio, M., Walton, J., James, D., Davis, M., Ojha, V. (2010). Conditioned Pharmacotherapeutic Effects: A preliminary study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(2), 192-197.

Bryant, C., Roberts, K., Culbertson, C., Le, A., Evans, C.,


Non-Conventional Energy Resources Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction In the world, there exist different forms of energy that are categorized into two groups that include the fossil fuels and non-fossil fuels. Technological advancement has played a key role in determining the form of energy a particular country depends on. Developed countries such as the U.S., Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and China among others prefer forms of energies that are less harmful to the environment.

For instance, United Nation prefers fossil fuels to non-fossil fuels because they are cheaper, readily available and reliable sources of energy. On other hand, developing countries such as those of Africa use non-fossil fuels as their major source of energy.

Several scholars have defined energy as the capacity of any system to perform a duty or work which actually it is true. The purpose of this study is explain how people can convert energy from one form to another by giving specific examples, to define fossil fuels and finally to discuss two different alternatives to fossils fuels (Ollhoff, 2010).

Discussion How energy can be converted from one form to another

Energy as mentioned in the study is a vital component in people lives because all the human activities involve the use of energy. The change of energy from one form to another is what known as energy conversion and it involves the change of energy from potential to kinetic energy forms. A good example is in fuels whereby chemical energy is changed into heat energy.

Another example is the food that people eat in order to sustain their lives. Such foods contain chemical energy that when people eat food, the energy is converted into mechanical energy that brings about muscles movement. This process is known as respiration process and it only happens when people eat food. In addition to ease digestion, the food need to be broken down into tiny particles a process that result to generation of heat energy (thermal) that keeps our body warm.

Another good example is light bulb that involves the conversion of electric energy to light energy and heat energy as a resultant of heating the filament wire. The light emitted during the process led to generation of heat energy in the surrounding.

Finally, we witness conversion of kinetic energy into potential energy when a system is lifted to a higher level and while at this elevated level, this energy is momentarily transformed into a unique transitory form of energy called mechanical energy. Conversely, when this weight is allowed to fall freely, this energy is again converted into kinetic energy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Definition of fossil fuels and why they are an attractive source of energy

Fossil fuels refer to hydrocarbons that are gotten from remains of plants, ancient things and animals. Examples of fossil fuels include the natural gas, oil and coal that are considered as non-renewable sources of power (energy). Many nations in the world depend on fossil fuels as their source of power. Fossil fuels are considered as an attractive source of power because they are made from materials that are readily available.

For instance, many countries prefer using fossil fuels as opposed to other forms of fuels because coal and natural gas are in plenty meaning that the power plants will be in a position of supplying more power in the country. Another reason as why fossil fuels are an attractive source of energy because they are easily distributed and are cost effective (inexpensive) compared to non-fossil fuels.

Example of two different energy alternatives to fossil fuels and their comparison with fossils based on their advantages and disadvantages

Non-fossil fuels are considered as alternatives to fossil fuels and they include solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy and tidal energy among others. All these sources of power are considered as being renewable energies because they are gotten from sources that will remain for ever as long as people are living.

The most widely used non-fossil fuels are the solar energy and wind energy because they are harnessed from sun and wind that are available in large quantities compared to natural gas and coal which are fossil fuels (Neville, 1995). They are considered the best option because environmentally-friendly because the process involves utilization of clean natural sources. In the United States, the amount of wind prevailing in the country each year can produce 17 billion GJ of electricity which is more than half times the amount of electricity consumed in the country.

On the other hand coal can produce 7billion GJ of electricity meaning that non-fossil fuels produce more energy than fossil fuels. The only disadvantage of non-fossil fuels is that they are expensive for instance take the amount of resource needed make solar panels and turbines. They are capital intensive and therefore expensive for most people. Fossil fuels on other hand are disadvantageous in that they pollute our environment.

They are considered as the major contributors of the global worming that affects people lives in the world. Finally, another shortcoming of fossil fuel is that they are exhaustible. It has been predicted that they will be exhausted in the near future and that is why scientists have been forced to look for alternatives.

A good alternative for fossil fuel is hydroelectric power that entails harvesting the kinetic energy of running water to rotate turbines in order to generate electricity. Wind power involves taking advantage of speeding wind to rotate fan-like turbines to generate energy (Khan, 2009).

We will write a custom Essay on Non-Conventional Energy Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The study is interesting in that it explores the concept of fossil fuels therefore enabling the reader to understand the different forms of energy contained in the fossil fuels. Through the study the reader is able to understand the reason why many nations depend on fossil fuels more than non-fossil fuels.

The study has highlighted solar energy and wind energy as important alternatives to fossil fuels because they are readily available in the world though they are expensive compared to both coal and natural gas that are non-renewable.

References Khan, B.H. (2009). Non-conventional energy resources. London: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Neville, R. (1995). Solar energy conversion: The solar cell. New York, NY: Elsevier.

Ollhoff, J. (2010). Solar power: Future energy. New York, NY: Abdo Pub Co.


Madonna of the Meadows and Madonna of the Long Neck Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

There have been many paintings of Madonna done by different artists. Among all these images, Madonna is illustrated using different artistic expressions and despite the difference in time, the paintings still hold some similarities; the differences also notwithstanding.

The great artistic works illustrate the possibility of having shared themes but expressing them differently. By analyzing the Madonna of the Meadow done by Raphael and Parmigiano’s Madonna of the Long Neck, it will be easier to develop a comprehensive comparison that will serve as a guide to understanding the paintings.

Raphael’s Madonna Raphael’s Madonna is one of the most unique pieces of art. This is because the background is developed beyond the viewers’ expectations. The background is brought out under vast scenes and this even affects the intimacy of the foreground scene. As seen from the photo, the artists intended to pass a theme of protection.

The background, which was developed to contain several things, illustrates the impression of a city. There are many dangers and risks associated with the city. While the city is considered as the hub of developments, it is still a place understood for all the vices present.

Cities are associated with violence, unethical and immoral practices. The painting therefore develops a protection theme in which the mother is perceived to be protecting the children from the dangers of the city. The background is painted as an appealing and captivating scene, but the whitish cover illustrates the hidden issues behind the seemingly beautiful background.

Raphael was therefore in a position to capture the viewer’s attention by moving away from the limits of the studio and developing and involving real scenery. From the painting, Raphael is able to develop future predictions by drawing the baby John Kneeling before baby Jesus and holding out a cross.

It seems like a reflection of the things and experiences that were to follow and the cross was the sign to these things. It was therefore evident that the painting not only spoke about the present, but also the future and its activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parmigianino’s Madonna This painting dubbed Madonna earned its name from the elongated neck of the figure developed in the painting. This artistic work illustrates the Virgin Mary seated with baby Jesus and angels coming down to admire the baby.

In addition, the painting has the image of St. Jerome, a renowned worshiper of Virgin Mary. The painting has a relaxed and carefree posture, illustrating that the women are more at ease due to the presence of the angels. She is developed as an affluence woman who wore expensive and elegant clothing.

The woman developed by Parmigianino was exaggerated in most of her features. The neck is not the only elongated feature; she also has long fingers and shoulders. The painting therefore exaggerates on some important features bringing out the painting as elegant and carefree.

The woman appears to be relaxed and less concerned about her motherly responsibilities since there are possibilities of support from the angels besieging her. The angels are also characterized with lots of controversy. This is because the angels have been developed in such a way that some parts are suggestive.

While the angels are supposed to have the uttermost decency, the artist develops some erotic themes from the painting and this helps make the painting among the most controversial of the Madonna’s.

The background is also less emphasized and this brings out some aspects of imbalance. Rather than having a detailed and balanced background, the artist develops some aspects of imbalance and lack of proportion when utilizing the space to the background of the characters in the paining.

This helps to bring the viewers into understanding the ironical setting and the controversies in the painting. Rather than developing a balanced piece of art, Parmigianino generates a debatable and controversial painting.

We will write a custom Essay on Madonna of the Meadows and Madonna of the Long Neck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Comparison When Parmigianino’s Madonna is compared with Raphael’s Painting, several similarities and differences can be realized. Firstly, the characters are developed holding a baby. This illustration of a mother is well developed in all paintings and despite the differences in scenes, both of the paintings emphasize on developing a continuation of life.

In addition, these paintings have religious connections. Both of the women are illustrations of Mary, the mother of Jesus, who is a key figure in the Christianity belief. There is an emphasis on the holy nature of the women in the paintings.

The paintings are however differing in many instances. While the first painting has a well developed background, the painting by Parmigianino is less emphatic on the background features. Raphael helps to develop a background that has a key role in developing the theme of the painting while Parmigianino embarks on developing the painting to illustrate the preferred theme.

The emphasis on the background is therefore different in the Madonna developed by Raphael and that developed by Parmigianino. While that done by Parmigianino is dim and unclear, that of Raphael is more clear, bright and easy to analyze.

The characters of the women also differ in both paintings. While Raphael’s painting develops a caring and down-to-earth persona, the painting by Parmigianino brings out a carefree and elegant woman. The noble nature of the woman painted by Raphael contrasts with the elegance and affluence illustrated in the woman developed by Parmigianino.

In addition, the decency of Raphael’s painting contrasts with the erotic emphasis developed by Parmigianino in his painting of Madonna with the long neck. There are also other contrasting features detectable in both paintings; while the painting by Raphael looks balanced and proportional, that by Parmigianino looks exaggerated in terms of some features like the neck, fingers and the shoulders. Raphael emphasizes on balance more that Parmigianino does and for this reason, both paintings differ a lot and generate different interpretations of the same character, Mary.

In conclusion, both paintings by Raphael and Parmigianino are illustrations of the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. Irrespective of the differences in presentation, there is an aspect of motherly care developed from the manner in which the mothers hold their baby. In addition, the differences between them help in elaborating the different approaches to understanding artistic skills and religious beliefs.


Solar Energy Business Report best essay help

The scope of issues that modern day businesses deal with stretch further than purely the exchange of goods and services. Tecck Industries recognizes that operating in today’s business climate requires a wider understanding of societal issues way beyond the basics of prudent business management.

There are values and ethical considerations to make. There are also legal issues to ponder. In addition, there is an increasingly globalized experience by clients and staff alike. This leads to inevitable clashes between clients, company employees, and other stakeholders in an effort to find a middle place where all the different values can coexist.

The moral issues in the current business climate emanate from the values that the different sections of the society hold. In the current moral climate, the key moral issues include; fairness of wages, employee benefits, environmental concerns, sexuality, rights of workers, child labor, and use of sweatshops. Other key issues in the current business climate come from health, safety, and environment.

Tecck Industries recognizes that there are laws that govern certain aspects of the ethical, moral, and social issues present in its business environment. While the industry does its best to adhere to these legal requirements, it aims at going further.

It achieves this through a stricter ethical code. The goal is to keep ahead of the law in these matters in order to create greater trust within its clientele. This ensures that the industry does not spend valuable time and money on litigation against it from the society and other associates.

Tecck Industries considers it unethical to use any processes, systems, or methods that do not respect human rights, or those that harm the environment. The industry is against child labor and does not trade with suppliers who use sweatshops to produce their products.

The company also has put in place mechanisms to ensure that none of its production lines develops the characteristics of sweatshops. In particular, the company has ensured that it has a standardized wage structure, that its facilities are free from health and safety threats, that the enforcement of discipline among employees is not arbitrary, and that the employees are free to participate in a workers union. These measures, coupled with an attractive pay structure, makes the company a place that many people would like to work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are a number of options for positive social involvement for Tecck Industries. The industry, as a renewable energy company, has the opportunity to promote the use of solar energy in the entire country by providing subsidized products to needy sections of the Hawaiian community.

Some of the profits from business provide the funds required to undertake corporate social responsibility activities, which include the provision of solar lighting and solar water heating equipment. The industry issues them free of charge or at highly subsidized rates for needy institutions such as schools for the blind, children’s homes, and homes for the aged.

These places need the hot water and emergency power that solar energy products provide. Since these institutions mainly rely on charity, they are unable to meet the initial costs. The Industry notes that a strong corporate social responsibility policy not only improves the company’s bottom line, but it improves the life of the society in general. This is our value statement.

Reference List Choi, C. J., Eldomiaty, T. I.,


Twentieth-Century Composers: Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky and Alban Berg Essay essay help: essay help

Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918) Claude Debussy has earned the “impressionist” composer idiom for his exemplary mood evoking compositions based on tentative integration of harmonization and color tones in his styles. As opposed to romanticism with emotional ting and programmatic composition, Debussy embraced symbolist poets’ and impressionist painters’ composition styles in drawing his works. Such symbolism and impressions in his productions were aimed at creating exciting ambience and did expose him to new approaches of fine-tuning timbres and scales.

Debussy’s pioneering works in his treatment of the orchestra and use of harmony laid the foundation for the then upcoming composers like Alban Berg. Some of the major pieces of representative works done by Claude Debussy include Cinq poemes de Baudelaire, Fantaisie, La demoiselle elue, Prelude a Lapres-midi dun faune among others. Debussy’s other significant orchestral productions include Nocturnes, Revue blanche, and La mer.

Igor Stravinsky (1882 – 1971) Igor Stravinsky’s composition excels most of his contemporary composers to the extent that his flavor and style has revolutionized the universal manner in which the world listens to music. Stravinsky’s master piece compositions range from the then conventional classicism through neo-classicism to atonalism, forming a stage for the integration of his harmonics and rhythmic innovations in the universal music system. Stravinsky’s exemplary performance in revolutionizing the music industry of his day can be attributed to his consistency in maintaining a strong profile through his exposition of the underlying beauty of real classical music.

Stravinsky’s music composition style contravened the standard structure of melody, harmony and canons in that his on-set presentations were extremely dissonant that the audience would be revolted by the sound yet at the same time they were drawn by the inherent genius of his production. Although such an innovation shattered the imagination of many, it did reveal the originality and authenticity of music composition. Claude Debussy most greatly thrilled by Stravinsky’s ingenuity and gave him the right hand of partnership in creating an open platform of being heard.

Stravinsky’s music was so devastating original that it astounded the audience and awed his colleague composers. His trio of ballet is the highest praised piece of aesthetic work of any group today, characterizing the uniqueness of his unforgettable music. Although harsh dissonance is evident in most of his compositions, a colorful classic harmony bids the whole production creating a serene and beautiful mood.

Alban Berg (1885 – 1935) Alban Berg compositions were mostly romantic, with some of his representative works being the atonal and 12- tone, orchestral music, chamber music, songs, and operas. Fastidious and perfectionist outlook characterized Berg’s compositions the better part of which was triggered by momentous inspiration, and thus Berg’s works were limited to his intrinsic drives.

Although Berg’s powerful and complex compositions harness a broad spectrum of musical resources, the success thereof is primarily depended on a few universal strategies; the integration of powerful chromatic expressionism, which partially contravenes, yet fulfils the conventional boundaries of tonality, the amendment to classical musical presentation to the inclusion of the atonal component, and a skillful structuring of the atonal compositions using the 12-tone strategy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One such an integral part of Berg’s theatrical works in the atonal idiom is the Wozzeck, which created a platform of addressing social challenges through an opera, characterized by extensive use of symbolic and metaphorical literary devices.


Marketing for Maximize Product Sales Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Target market

Reference List

Introduction Marketing is one of the most important activities in an organization. This is more so in the contemporary world where the market has been characterized by a very high level of competition. The main goal of any organization is to maximize its sales. This is because the level of sales is the major criteria that determine the profitability of an organization. Therefore, marketing is of great importance to an organization.

Promotion mix refers to the various methods and choices which an organization has to make in its attempt to bring its product or service to the market (Mind Tools 2011). This process can clearly be expressed through the concept of 4p’s which stands for product, place, price and promotion. This framework provides guidance on how an organization can market its product effectively.

Product in this case is the services or tangible products that are produced in an organization. An organization has to make several decisions on the product. These include the safety of their product to consumers, brand name, quality, packaging among others.

Place is all about the distribution of the product. It ensures that the product is available to the customer on the right place in the right time. Some of distribution decisions include market coverage, transportation, ordering, and distribution centers among others. Price is also an important part in marketing.

Some of the price decisions that can be used in marketing include the volume discounts, price discrimination, retail prices as well as seasonal pricing. Promotion involves the process of communicating to the consumers about the product. It is aimed at building positive attitudes towards the product. These may involve advertisement, sales promotion, personal selling or marketing communication.

Apple Inc is one of the most successful organizations in the world. This success can be attributed to its effective marketing strategy. Ipad2 is the second generation computer which has been designed and marketed by the company.

Product In order for the product to perform well in the market, it should be beneficial to the consumers. For any organization to maximize its sales, its product must be stronger when compared with the products or services provided by its competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several ways through which an organization can modify its product in order to improve its competitiveness. One of the most common methods is through differentiation. Through differentiation, an organization manages to make its product unique from other similar products provided by their competitors in the market.

Ipod2 has several features that make it unique from others especially those provided by its competitors. It is very thin and therefore it is more portable than the other products. This attracts a significant number of customers because most people do not like carrying gorgeous electronic devices.

This product also has batteries which can last for more than ten hours (GJ56 2011). This attribute attracts a large number of customers because it can be used for instance when one is traveling places where they can’t access the power. These unique characteristics win a significantly large number of customers in the market. It also helps in differentiating the product from the similar products provided by its competitors.

Place In order for an organization to maintain a high level of sales, it must ensure that the product and services are always available and always accessible to both existing and potential customers. For an organization to ensure that its product is available to its customers in the right place and in the right time, it needs to have a clear distribution strategy.

An organization must include the strategies which ensure that the company’s goods and services are available to their customers in the right place and in the right time. Inefficiencies like shortages are likely to discourage the customers and an organization may lose some of them in the process.

Apple Inc is very much determined to ensure that its products are available at the right time and in the right place to its customers in order to avoid unnecessary shortages. For instance, ipad2 is available in all places where other Apple Inc products are sold.

There are significant numbers of retail outlets that sell a wide variety of Apple products. Therefore, it is very easy for the customers to access ipad2 from anywhere. For instance, there are very many Apple stores in the United States. There are also more than 300 Apple stores all over the world from which one can get this product (Apple Inc 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing for Maximize Product Sales specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Price The price of product is also of great significance. It is important for an organization to decide on whether the product or service will either cover the costs of production only or give some allowance for profits. According to the law of demand, when the prices are high, the level of the quantity demanded is relatively lower.

On the other hand, when prices are low, the level of the quantity demanded is higher. It is also important to note that both the level of prices and sales are major determinant of the level of profits an organization makes. This clearly indicates that prices have an important role in marketing. If an organizations sets price levels which are beyond the level in the market, then it will more likely lose its customers to its competitors.

Prices can make an organization fail or perform well in its marketing (The Times 100. 2011). On the other hand, too low prices can dip an organization into losses. Therefore, an organization must be very keen in setting its prices. Prices play a significant role in the marketing process. According to Becatti (2007), pricing is one of the key factors in marketing.

Process plays a pivotal role in determining the realization of the organization’s objectives. However, the pricing is largely determined by the life cycle of the product in question as well as the objectives for the sales turnover. In addition, the pricing will also largely depend on the market share.

Apple Inc has an effective marketing strategy for its products. This has contributed in expanding its market share. The company has been providing consumer friendly prices which has helped in developing good relationship with its customers.

For instance, since the release of Ipad2 in March, the product has recorded a good performance in the market. Soon after the release of ipad2 in March, its price was cut by 5% in United Kingdom to $399 (Anonymous 2011). The company also promised even cheaper prices after increases in the value added tax. In other words, the company has applied all the necessary effort to ensure that it cuts the prices for the ipad2 as much as possible. This increases the attractiveness of the product hence maximizing the level of sales.

Promotion Promotion is another important component in the marketing mix. It is through promotion that an organization is able to expose its service or product to the members of the public. Through promotion, an organization manages to increase the visibility of its product or service. This practice plays a pivotal role in marketing because customers cannot buy things they are not aware of. They should be informed in order to make appropriate decisions.

One of the main ways through which an organization can do this is through advertisement. Through promotion, an organization pushes its product into the market. An organization can do this through various ways like offering discounts for its product. This is one way of marketing its products in the market. By offering discounts, an organization may attract new customers and also retain the existing customers at the same time (Tuto2 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing for Maximize Product Sales by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over the past, Apple recorded a good track of heavy and effective advertisement and promotion of its products across the world. This has helped the company to maintain a high level of sales for its products.

This product has been successfully marketed through internet advertisement (WebProNews 2011). This is one of the most effective marketing methods in terms of costs and the number of people it can reach. Ipad2 has also been advertised through TV which has also helped in selling the product.

Target market In any marketing operations, it is important to identify the target market for a particular product or service. A target market can be viewed as a group of customers having similar wants and needs (Moehlman 2010). Identification of the target market plays an important role in organization’s marketing operations because it helps an organization in developing an offering for the parts of the market which they can best serve. This identification is also very important because it helps in reducing operational expenses in an organization.

Market segmentation is an important stage because it forms the basis for the target marketing. Market segmentation involves the characteristics of a certain consumer group which affects their purchasing behavior for a certain product. One form of market segmentation is the geographic segmentation.

This is the form of market segmentation which involves the aspects related to the geography. Some of the geographic variables which are useful in market segmentation are the market density, topography, population density in a region and climate.

Demographic segmentation on the other hand is based on the social characteristics of a certain population for instance in a certain market. Some of the most important variables necessary in the marketing process involve the income, occupation, ethnicity, Education, age and the social class. These variables play a pivotal role in the marketing process.

Psychographic segmentation is a method of market segmentation which involves aspects like the motives, lifestyles or personality attributes. This form of segmentation seeks to segment the market based on how people live their life. These may be determined by such things like the most preferred forms of entertainment.

Apple products are used by a wide variety of people from different backgrounds and various demographic characteristics. The target market of the Apple iPads is mostly the prospective Amazon kindle owners (Cellfanatic not dated). One can access many things without necessarily firing up the laptop or desktop.

Reference List Anonymous. 2011. Apple cuts UK iPad 2 prices by 5% to £399 and up – yet will make more profit. Web.

Apple Inc. 2011. Apple Retail Store. Web.

Becatti, F. 2007. Marketing Mix: Strategic Marketing Insight. Vol 25 Issue No. 7/8 I 2007 I R25. Web.

Cellfanatic n.d. Understanding the Target Audience for the Apple iPad. Web.

GJ56 2011. Review of the Apple ipad2. Web.

Mind Tools. 2011. The Marketing Mix and 4 Ps. Understanding how to position your market offering. Web.

Moehlman, M. 2010. Target Market. Canada: BeWrite Books LLC.

The Times 100. 2011. Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product). Web.

Tuto2. 2011. Promotion – introduction to the promotional mix. Web.

WebProNews.2011. Internet Marketing and Online Business. Web.


Social Analysis in Canada Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help

In Getting Started on Social Analysis in Canada Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift explain that the Third World conditions experienced in the southern countries (Third World countries) are as a result of unfair economic constitutions adopted by the rich nations, which are the US and the Western European countries (110). They argue that although international exchanges of ideas of arguably everything have increased, leading to faster flow of money, goods, people and information (Cairns and Sears 243), rich nations have taken advantage of their superiority to trample on the developing countries.

This, they explain, is as a result of unequal financial, as well as, trade relations. I completely agree with this assertion, based on the economic policies adopted by the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund and the World Bank where the rich nations are the major shareholders and signatories (UN Development Programme 2).

In my view, the rich nations in Western Europe and North America are responsible for the economic problems experienced in Third World countries. The global trade and commerce has not been able to generate the economic growth essential for the development of the Third World countries, while the rich nations continue to achieve significant economic growth and development (Shah 2).

Third World countries have been turned to beggars and highly depend on the rich nations for financial assistance. The enormous debts that they owe to rich nations have become the main obstacle to achieving human development and economic stability. According to Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift, poor countries pay more in debt services as compared to what they receive from loans (110).

Rich nations siphoned-off massive resources from Third World countries during the colonial period, and to further cement their economic power and growth, adopted economic policies that allow them to scoop more wealth from these countries. The rich nations have sometimes imposed loans on Third World countries so that they can achieve their interests, thereby increasing the debt burden on poor countries (Shah 8).

These unfair debts which result from illegitimate loans destabilize the economic growth of poor countries considering the high interest rates that they repay the loans with. Rich nations therefore get richer while poor nations only achieve minimal economic growth. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift advocate for development based democracy and fair dealing (110).

While it is important to create economic institutions for the growth of a country or the world as a whole, the provisions of international economic constitutions should not favor the rich nations at the expense of the poor nations. The international economic and financial institutions such as IMF and World Bank have been instituted in such a way that the rich nations from North America and Western Europe control and scoop wealth from the poor countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third World countries are forced to play along the rules created by rich nations or else they risk economic alienation or sanction even though these economic policies have more disadvantage to them than advantages. I take the example of Ethiopia where the IMF suspended financial aid due to its rejection of the one-size-fits-all development model adopted by the organization, at a time when the country lagging at the 170th position on the UN list (Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift 111-112).

Liberalization of markets and privatization policies further worsens the ability of poor countries to achieve significant economic stability. Rich nations have not allowed poor countries to stabilize their economies before they adopt the liberalization and privatization policies. In my view, this is the major reason as to why rich nations continue to unfairly drain off resources from poor countries to develop their own economies.

It is now several decades ranging from 6 to 3 since most of these poor countries attained independence from colonial control, and yet they are still not ready to compete favorably in global trade and commerce with the rich nations. This means that they were ambushed to adopt these policies. The former chief economist of the World Bank, Joseph Stiglitz, argues that IMF and the World Bank have adopted economic policies which push governments of poor countries away from controlling their internal markets claiming that free-market capitalism would help these countries solve their economic problems (Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift 110).

Today, the markets are controlled by demand and supply, as well as competition and not governments. Rich nations therefore take advantage of the poor countries by expanding their already established companies to developing economies. They quickly control the markets in such countries ahead of the domestic industries, yet the revenue collected in the process is repatriated. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift are also share my view that the financial liberalization advocated for by the rich nations and international institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank unfairly benefit the economies of rich nations (111).

It limits ability of the poor countries to establish protectionist measures for their not yet stable financial markets and therefore opening them up to free-market economics. Poor countries no longer have the capacity to control the financial markets, meaning that they can not influence productivity, jobs, as well as, the prices of imports and exports.

I strongly believe that the economic policies applied by the rich nations and the international agreements which they make with the rich nations, have got nothing to do with achieving global economic growth. These policies and agreements are meant to achieve protectionism to their domestic products and companies, and to expand the market for their commodities and services.

The mutual benefits in these relationships are skewed and highly favour them. Clarke, Czerny, Davies and Swift (119-120) explain that some rich nations have occasionally applied technical barriers to limit trade abilities of other nations. Such governments have always quoted worker, consumer or environmental protection as their reasons for banning the importation of some products.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Social Analysis in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In my view, these are protectionist measures adopted to protect their economic interests. Canada has been forced to sign many international economic agreements to satisfy the economic interests of the US, and the World Trade Organization to benefit from the trade and economic relations with the US and Western European countries (Naiman 126). Rich nations normally sign agreements which have more trade benefits to them and which result to trade creation on their side more than it does to developing countries.

The market economics programs of liberalization, as well as, privatization which have controlled the new era of globalization are questionable. They have unfairly given rise to development for the US and the Western European countries.

I therefore conclude that development as a result of globalization should not just consider economic growth, but should be made sustainable, and participatory. There should also be checks on the free market particularly by Third World countries. Besides, there should be liberty to participate effectively and equally in trade and commerce.

Works Cited Cairns, James and Sears, Alan. A Good Book. In Theory Making Sense Through Inquiry, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Print.

Czerny, Michael, ]ackline, Clarke, Davies, Robert, and Swift, Jamie. Globalization and development. In getting started on social analysis in Canada, 4th ed. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines, 2003. Print.

Naiman, Joan. How Societies Work: Class, Power, And Change In A Class, Power, And Change In A Canadian Context, 4th Ed. Fernwood Publishing Company Ltd, 2008. Print.

Shah, Anup. Causes of Poverty. Global Issues, 05 June, 2011. 08 July, 2011.

UN Development Programme. Human Development Report 1999. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.

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People from diverse backgrounds apparently portray differences in belief systems and behavioral patterns largely due to disparity in cultural settings (Lonner, 2000). On the other hand, similarities are also inevitable in human culture. These similarities and differences in cultural backgrounds have led to emergence of cross-cultural psychology, a study on the interaction between diverse human culture, belief systems and behavioral patterns.

Cultural psychology attempts to create correlation between human mind and culture (Smith, Bond


Classic Tale About Janie Crawford Essay custom essay help

This novel is about an interesting classic tale about Janie Crawford. The identity of this woman takes her through several life processes whereby she gets a good opportunity to learn more about love, to differentiate lives’ joys and sorrows, and then settle in peace with much knowledge and skills concerning life.

The life expectations of Janie especially how she was treated were very high than what she received. Her life started becoming real when she met young man called Tea Cake, who offered her an opportunity to enjoy life full of love. Although Janie’s story does not have a good ending, there is a conclusion that leaves readers with satisfaction.

It is a fact that Janie is a one black woman who tirelessly stood out from the bondage of sorrow, foolishness, and fear. She confesses that she had done the two most important things that any human being ought to do; one is to go to God, and the second one is to reveal the secret of how to live for her.

Motifs are structures that happen again and again in a piece of literature, and they help a reader or the audience to understand the theme of that piece of literature. For instance in this novel community is one of the motifs used by the author to assist the readers understand his themes.

When Janie returns to Eatonville, the author centers his attention to the porch-sitters who gossip openly about Janie’s situation (Hurston 86). There are two major places in the novel that the author puts significance, the Eatonville and the Everglades, the environment that Janie made interactions.

In several cases, we are shown Janie’s desire to be part of this vibrant social life, which she feels safe and well connected with other people. For instance in chapter 18, whereby Janie was in the company of Tea Cake, and Motor Boat when they were looking for a safe place to shelter from the rainstorm.

The author makes us aware that the group of these three characters sheltered themselves in shanties with others. The author did not literally mean that they shared the same room with them, but he wanted to show us how they united against that natural disaster which was devastating (Hurston 103).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the author indicates several occasions whereby Janie ridicules the gossip and rumors that exist in these communities. Most of these gossips found within these communities were to criticize Janie especially due to her independence nature and possession of a strong will power.

Most of people in these communities were trying to demonstrate a negative picture of practicing unity, because they preferred the total sacrifice of individuality. On the other hand, Janie was against this type of sacrifice, a she was a strong woman who could not allow any person to control her life against her desires.

Janie cared much about the outcome of her deeds, and that is why she used to take her time before making such decisions. She did not mind how people in the surrounding community would say and think of her, but she always stood on her grounds.

Towards the end of the book, it is clearly indicated that Janie did not behave in such a manner because of fearing death, but she disliked misunderstanding of people (Hurston 186). In the efforts to understand herself better, Janie was very keen to understand what people in the community thought and said about her.

The major reason as to why Hurston used dialect in the novel is to put his story and his characters especially the main characters into the real life. The presence of dialect in a story makes the characters to appear real in the eyes of the reader. Whatever the character is saying or demonstrating becomes believable to the reader.

The efforts of the readers to familiarize themselves with the new used language make them end up feeling as part of the action or the story. This novel has made much use of the spoken version of the language, for instance, in early parts of the story Hurston acknowledges the readers that there would be use of dialect as the language of his characters. Readers are made aware that at a certain point Janie would narrate her story to Pheoby in “soft, easy phrases” (Hurston 102).

The use of play in the dialect used by Hurston in the novel is to bring out the imagination aspect in the story. When every character is made to act her or his parts, it becomes easier for the reader to understand the concept of the author and get the theme correctly.

We will write a custom Essay on Classic Tale About Janie Crawford specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through the use of play also makes the readers to master new and hidden concepts of the story, as it is easy to point out these concepts as the characters are role playing. Another important reason of Hurston to make use of the play is to improve the imagination aspect of the reader, which would in turn improve the understanding ability.

In addition to the use of dialect, Hurston as well made use of standard language as the main language to make the story flow, and to keep the reader in the right path. The story may lack its original taste incase the author decides to use dialect throughout the story. The mixture of the two languages is interesting and helps in drawing the attention of the reader.

The title of the novel has a greater significance in the story as it is assisting the author in bringing out several thoughts and ideas from the story to the real world of the reader. For instance, during a big party, the severe hurricane starts disturbing people and both the Tea Cake and the Motor Boat are much disturbed to a point of not concentrating with the party happenings (Hurston 98).

Janie tries to make them calm down assuring them that it’s God doing his work, and should not worry. They thought that the noise that they were making in the party was loud, but that one of thunder was very strong compared to theirs.

The implication of this strong sound of the thunder was that it was a natural occurrence from God, signifying itself as stronger than any sound from human beings. In the early stages of the story, we read about the power of nature of Janie’s gentle bee, which is the same power of nature shown by the storm.

The author uses the storm as a metaphor. Throughout the story, the power of God is signified through various natural phenomenons like the strong wind, thunder, storms, and the strength of the moving water in the lake (Hurston 152). All these natural aspects are used to illustrate the presence of God in the midst of these people, it was an indication that the strong power of God was watching over them in their doings.

Work Cited Hurston, Neale. Their eyes were watching God. New York: Paradigm Publication, 2004.


Drinking culture in US and UK Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Alcohol consumption in the United States

Alcohol Consumption in the United Kingdom



Introduction Cultural values and practices are identified to vary from one location to another. Whether defined by laws or by societies, it is common to realize that what is practiced or is considered to be normal in one society may be differently perceived in another society. Such is the difference as realized between the United States and the United Kingdom. This paper seeks to discuss the difference in drinking habits in the two societies. The paper will research on identified behavior and trends as exhibited by individuals who drink as well as regulatory measures over drinking.

Alcohol consumption in the United States Consumption of alcohol in the United States is considered to be a relative normalcy due to the percentage of the American population which is reported to be drinking. With a significant population of almost twenty million citizens being associated with the drinking problem, the habit can be identified to be common with different types of complications for varying individuals.

Alcoholism in the United States has been identified with a variety of categories that also determines the level of consumption of the drug by individuals. There is the category of individual who are associated with a strong force of attraction that pulls them into alcohol consumption but poses a sense of control to their level and rate of consumption.

There is yet another group of individual who are identified to have lost their sense of control with respect to the consumption and are rather driven by the desire while some individuals are so much into drug consumption to an extent that failure to drink induces physical body problems such as shaking among others (NIH, 2011).

A research activity as conducted in the year 2010 revealed that the United States has adopted an increasing level of alcohol consumption as compared to the level that was realized two decades ago. The increasing trend in drinking is associated with a number of factors that include socioeconomic considerations. The trend is also associated with population changes that have been realized in the states in the past years.

Consideration of demographic records in the United States has for example explained the association of the rates of drinking with the aging population and high level of immigration. Based on this opinion, the drinking habit in the United States can be defined in terms of occupations as well as social factors around an individual.

The aging population for instance associates the drinking habit with the economically inactive population that has been rested. This approach alienates economic impacts of adverse alcoholism with respect to the overall economy of the nation as it does not significantly affect economic activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It would be a different case if the middle age population were the major consumer as this would take them out of work especially if they are identified by loss of control with respect to alcohol consumption or to have physical complications due to overconsumption of alcohol.

Another association of alcoholism with immigrants in the nation also exhibits a positive perception over the physically active Americans who are identified by the research as non significant consumers of alcohol. Though the native youths and active adults may be consumers, the research identifies them to portray a low level of such consumption (Science, 2010).

Social consideration of alcohol consumption in the United States also identified the middle aged category of people associated with heavy alcohol consumption to be individuals with social issues. Factors such as poor education that was identified by lack of a university degree for instance reflected a higher level of alcohol consumption.

Individuals who lack social commitments in families such as unmarried people for instance also reported alcohol consumption. Whether based on the economically inactive elderly population, the immigrants or natives with less social commitments, the research reports that the general level of alcohol consumption in the United States has been on the increase (Science, 2010).

Even though the trend in the United States is identified to have changed with an increasing number of people consuming alcohol, a contrary trend on the level of individuals’ expenditure on alcohol is registered to have been on the decline. According to Hanson David with reference to a separate report that was released by national reports, a consideration of consumption of alcohol among individuals aged above fourteen years recorded a decline in the average quantity of alcohol that is currently consumed by individuals.

The research that was also conducted with respect to the same two decade duration reveals more features about the drinking habit in the United States. The increasing number of people who drinks together with its association with the aging property as well as immigration and the revelation of reduction in people’s per capita consumption of alcohol explain a cancelation of the two to a conclusion that the overall consumption of alcohol in the country has most likely been constant over the last two decades.

The trend can also be seen to have shifted to the elderly and immigrants indicating a relief from the active population that was initially involved in the habit. It is also reported that even though young people consume more alcohol as compared to the elder category on an individual basis, the rate of alcohol consumption in young people has been reducing with time. This finding is also consistent with the concept that the elderly consume more on an overall consideration due to their larger numbers (Hanson, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Drinking culture in US and UK specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Legislations that have been established in the United States over drinking age are also an important factor with respect to alcohol consumption. While a majority of nations across the globe have fixed drinking age to the majority age, the United States has its minimum drinking age fixed at twenty one.

This means that by federal laws, individuals below this age are prohibited from consumption of alcohol. Its consideration as an offence under federal regulations thus provides a benchmark over the level of alcohol consumption by individuals.

Though the law might not be effective in arresting drinking among individuals below the stated age, it has been effective in reducing the rate of alcohol consumption among the youth in their earlier years in which they are susceptible to peer influence. This is also a time at which the individuals are not mature enough to make concrete psychological decisions. This can be associated with the reduction in the number of individuals that consume alcohol in the middle age.

The freedom that the youth are offered only after reaching twenty one years, an age at which they are considered by the government to be able to make reasonable choices, may be a significant base for the choice of individuals not to consume alcohol in their middle age because the legality of consumption comes at a time when the youth have developed focus to other important things such as career that keeps them away from alcohol consumption.

Even though exemptions are provided for consumption of alcohol by individuals bellow the age limit, the law is a step to reducing influence into consumption and even addiction to alcohol at an earlier age (Potsdam, 2011).

The United States also has a number of regulations on consumption of alcohol that are seen to play a direct role in reducing the level of alcohol consumption in the nation. There have for example been different rules and regulation over sale or even consumption of alcohol across the nation.

Apart from the limitation in the minimum drinking age, there is a regulation on the level of alcohol consumption that is expected of individuals. The percentage of alcohol that can be in an individual’s body is for instance stipulated under the nation’s constitution to regulate individual’s cumulative consumption of alcohol. Regulations of alcohol consumptions when an individual is on specific tasks such as driving are also realized in the United States (Alcohollaws, 2008).

Alcohol Consumption in the United Kingdom Alcoholism as realized in the United Kingdom is on the other a major problem that is even associated with health hazards including death. According to statistics on alcohol consumption in the country, the number of reported death cases that are associated with alcohol has been rising. This is realized at the same time that alcohol consumption in the country is reported to be on decrease.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drinking culture in US and UK by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to reports that focused on data as realized in the year 2009, there were increased usage of medicine in treatment of alcoholism and alcohol related complication. Much of the treatments were realized with respect to individuals who were trying to pull out of alcohol consumption.

This indicated a high level of the consumption that had gone to affect people on physical capacities. Though some regions of the United Kingdom such as London was associated with reduced level of consumption, other regions like southern parts of the country were still experiencing high rates of consumption (Guardian, 2011).

Though a decline in consumption of alcohol in the country is reported to have been slightly on the decline especially with respect to the youth bellow twenty five years old, the overall trend of alcohol consumption in the country is reported to have been on its increase over the past one decade. A consideration of parts such as Ireland for instance has continued to experience an increase in the level of consumption of alcohol.

This drinking habit is at the same time reported to be defying stipulated regulations. A limitation over the quantity of alcohol that an individual should consume in one week is for example in existence in the country but is not effectively enforced leading to people consuming more than the recommended rates.

One of the factors that have been realized to increase the trend of drinking in the United Kingdom has been the increasing culture of women adopting the drinking habit. Though women generally consume less alcohol as compared to men, their increasing involvement leads to higher cumulative values. Increased levels of consumptions are at the same time being realized among the young people, especially among teenagers (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009).

The level of consumption of alcohol in the United Kingdom is particularly realized to be high as compared with that realized in America. The trend of consumption also reveals higher consumption levels in the current time periods as compared to earlier decades.

With alcohol consumption being realized at about seven liters per person in the 1960s and just above ten liters per person towards the year 1980 as the minimum and maximum consumption levels, the current consumption of about ten liters per person can not be considered to be a low level. The country can actually be reported to be at its high consumption levels since fluctuations are also just realized about mean values.

While consumption of beer has been falling in the country, the rate at which people have been using wines and spirits have been on drastic increase. A consideration of trends on the average amount of money that people spend on alcoholic drinks has similarly been on the rise (Selvanathan


Writing a Learning Objective Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Learning Objective

Grade Level



Learning Objective The objective of the lesson is to learn how mathematics is related to art through understanding of the linear perspective and relation between proportions that enable the viewer to recognize the real size of objects and objects depicted in pictures. In this respect, we should focus on the three simple components such as proportions in relation to division and multiplication, linear perspective that depends on proportions directly, and renaissance with regard to development of art techniques.

Grade Level Students in the Grade Three are introduced to multiplication and division. Moreover, they should know how these simple actions are used everywhere in everyday lives and art using the example of linear perspective in Leonardo Da Vinci’s works.

Script Teacher: Good morning class. Today we’re going to learn about multiplication and division as obligatory actions in mathematics when applied to everyday life and arts. Do you know how math is related to arts?

Students: The students raise hands and answer questions as directed. If they have some ideas, they are free to voice those.

Teacher: Art has its history and it can be logically divided into definite periods. Renaissance is one of the periods in the history of art and science when most of great inventions occurred including identification and application of linear perspective. Who knows what the liner perspective is?

Students: Probably, no one would know answer to this question though I am ready to listen to possible interpretations.

Teacher: Does anyone know prominent personalities of the Renaissance period?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Students: As with the previous question, there would be no apparent answers. However, if some students name Copernicus or Da Vinci, I can encourage them to tell a bit more about those people and their contribution to the development of art and science in the period of Renaissance.

Teacher: Here is where I think it is necessary to listen to a piece of Renaissance music (instrumental) that can help you to understand the spirit of the era and conservatism of ideas in contemporary society.

Students: All students listen to the audio tape with Renaissance music (instrumental) previously recorded from YouTube (

Teacher: Now let us think about possible areas where multiplication and division operations can be used.

Students: The students give examples; the teacher approves them if appropriate and corrects if examples are not relevant. Besides, a teacher can make hints (think about your average grade; how about counting calories when the amount is given for 100 grams of the product, etc.).

Teacher: Now, let us discuss how multiplication and division operations are related to understanding of the linear perspective.

Students: Here where all students watch the video about linear perspective previously recorded to the laser disc from the digital channel ( Besides, it is possible to record this video from the discovery Channel directly.

We will write a custom Essay on Writing a Learning Objective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Teacher: As you can see, multiplication and division operations are an integral part of the linear perspective and every artist should be able to apply those operations while creating a picture. Now, let us look at these objects (here is when a teacher introduces tangible artifacts) – these are models of geometrical figures such as a cube, parallelepiped, and trapezium.

Students: The objects can be made from the cardboard or purchased in a toy shop where different meccanos are available. Students should look at those objects from different angles and see how the length of lines differs if watching at them from different angles and perspectives.

Teacher: Now work in groups and try to find out the length of the farthest line using the blackboard as the horizon line.

Students: The students work in groups and make their assumptions when teacher addresses each group and discuss the objects with the teacher.

Teacher: Now, let us look at the following picture (the teacher introduces a picture Annunciation by Leonardo Da Vinci) and see how lines tend to one point in the horizon line. Here, the teacher addresses students and asks them to show the lines they see and possible point where they tend to join up. This assignment can be also designed by dividing students in groups and giving every group a different picture.

Students: The students are supposed to show the lines in the picture that outline the scheme of the linear perspective approach. The picture can be taken from the private collection of postcards with well-know paintings or borrowed from the library where books on arts are available.

Teacher: To summarize, let us look at the following book and at the page 62 particularly (here the teacher shows the book Eyewitness Art: Perspective by Alison Cole that can be either borrowed from the library or purchased through digital resource in advance).

Students: Students are supposed to indicate that they see linear perspective applied in practice and recognize the horizon line and how the entire scheme of lines changes regarding the position of the viewer toward this horizon line.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Writing a Learning Objective by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Teacher: To conclude, let us write a short description of what we learnt and what we now know about the relation between Maths and painting. Write 150 to 200 words about proportion, linear perspective, and fine arts.

References Cole, A. (1992). Eyewitness art: Perspective. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, in association with National Gallery Publications, London. Borrowed from library.

Da Vinci, L. (1475–1480) Annunciation. Postcard from private collection.

Discovery Channel. (2011). Assignment Discovery: Blueprint Proportions. Video recording – DVD. Private collection.

Geometrical figures. (2011). Cube, parallelepiped, and trapezium made of cardboard. Private collection.

Theatrum Instrumentorum. (2011). Renaissance music (instrumental). Audio recording – CD. Private collection.


British Policy and the Indian Mutiny Cause and Effect Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economical setting of India before 1875

Political causes of the revolt

Religious reasons

Social implications of the British presence

International relations




Introduction This is India in AD 1875. The British had just conquered a new territory and expanded to what we to today as the common wealth. However, the conquest was not received kindly by the people of India; the noblemen were angered since they had lost their control and influence. They were then being led, not the leaders but as people under a colonial ruler whose homeland was territories away from this sub-continent.

As a result, the rulers organized a resistance due to the annexation of their territories. The land revenue collection system used by the British was viewed as exploitative in the eyes of indigenous communities arising their gross hatred of the British presence around them.

In the examination of the causes that led to that revolt, we look at the possible aspects such as the revolt’s effects on the then economic activities, religion social setting (social movements) in the Indian context of political setting.

Besides, the revolt may have been justified due to the interpretation of an Indian man, yet the effects were not localized to the areas that felt the bitter pinch of the revolt.

Consequently, from the aftermath of the revolt, could we possibly make some conclusions that this may have had a strain on a local and provincial subject in India then?

Furthermore, the revolt which led to a mutiny may have as well stretched relationship internationally between India and Britain leading other anti-British nations away and around India to review their ties with the British.

Economical setting of India before 1875 India had thrived because of its textile industry which was known internationally. Although, the industry was not highly mechanized, the value attached to the products was significant due to the level of skill that was employed to produce them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The majority of peasants and common men worked for the landlords for rich noblemen for a living1. Also, another industry which was highly developed was craftsmanship. There was also royal patronage given to some religious group leaders.

The causes to revolt for economic reasons were due to British economic policy2. The policy meant that the royal patronage formally enjoyed by the religious leaders’ was withdrawn, the revenue policy was strenuous to peasants due to its high demands-the policy was also strict.

Furthermore, the British policy in trade favored negatively the Indian craftsmen since the coming of the British led to an influx of cheap substitutes for these craftsmen, making their hand produced goods expensive to the buyers and uneconomical to produce.

The people had a discontent that they revolted hopping that they could lessen these economic strains and regain their former livelihoods that they enjoyed before the coming of the British annexing their territory.

Political causes of the revolt The revolt leading to the mutiny had political implications to the rulers India. This was due to the British policy of annexation. This policy led to a mass displacement of many rulers at that time.

The major parts felt the impacts were felt in Awadhi. The British enforced strictly The Doctrine of Lapse and Subsidiary Alliance. Awadhi was seen as a loyal territory to the British rule. Its annexation made the rulers angry and drew criticisms of betrayal.

This led to a revolt in this part. The Indian peasant did not however see any difference due to the presence of the British since levies in tax increased from what they were formerly charged.

We will write a custom Essay on British Policy and the Indian Mutiny specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, there was a collective discontent with the political policies of the British. Besides, the collapse of the Nawab’s rule led to loss of jobs by the subjects in that territory. The coming of the British, which was the major course of the collapse, did not provide alternative employment to the people.

Religious reasons In the perspective of religion, the Indian people did not like Christianity which was brought by the British. There was a mass fear among the Indian people due the activities of the Christian missionaries of converting local people to Christianity.

The fear was that all the people could be forced to convert due to the oppressive British rule3. What made their fears to grow more was the imposition of taxes on land under the temples and mosques.

The policy of taxation of the land under mosques and temples aroused a fear that the religion was under threat making the conservative section of the Indian society be united against the British who was viewed as a common enemy to all of them.

The revolt followed and a mutiny resulted; in the name of religion under threat and the policy of taxing “religious land”4.

Social implications of the British presence Racial discrimination was the gist of social unrest. The British practiced superiority and class segregation5. Orthodox Indians looked at the British presence with a keen suspicion that they were interfering with their social custom. Some of this customs concerned widows. India of that time did not support remarriage of widows.

At the time the British amended laws leading to the legalization of widow remarriage. This caused a high resentment among conservative Indians leading to a general hatred from conservative groups, who thought that the British were interfering with their social customs.

Another part of social aspect that the Indians showed resentment was the extension of woman education. India was a male dominated society which did not support total education of a girl child. The British extended the education of women and this was not received happily by conservative and orthodox Indians.

Not sure if you can write a paper on British Policy and the Indian Mutiny by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lastly, the coming of the British gave the Indians an opportunity to access formal education. By early 17th century, Britain was already undergoing a rapid industrial revolution.

This revolution was also being transferred to territories in foreign lands which were annexed by Britain. The revolution in industries brought with it mechanization of processes of production.

The technology was embraced in India but the educated Indians were not granted promotions to higher positions. It was even alleged that due to British dominance, a less highly educated British was more likely to be given promotion over a highly educated Indian. This also caused a total resentment to the Indian society.

International relations The events leading t the mutiny, took the relationship between India and Britain to a bitter end. The mutiny happened only in some portions of India but the impact was felt nationally in India as a nation.

The Indian view of Britain was that of an enemy, an oppressor, racist and disturber. Some political analyzed commented that the mutiny may have been the first step to independence for India.

Since Britain was also annexing lands in the neighborhood of India, the resentment of British rule also spread to other nations hence accelerating independence campaigns around the region.

Conclusion Indian mutiny in 1875, shaped cultural, political and social relationships between India and Britain. The act was seen by many as barbaric and betrayal. Although it was an imperative way of quelling an uprising, it only led the relationship to a bitter end; lack trust between the two nations.

Bibliography Chakravatry, Gautam. The Indian mutiny and the British imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2005.

Hukam, Chaud. History of Modern India. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 2005.

Imam, Hassan. Indian national Movement. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 1999.

Social Science History. Social science history, 10(1): 1-4. New Delhi: Retna Sgar, 1986 Thomas, Ronald. Dreams of authority: Freud and the fictions of the unconscious. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Footnotes 1 Thomas, Ronald. Dreams of authority: Freud and the fictions of the unconscious. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.

2 Hukam, Chaud. History of Modern India. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 2005. P. 90-92.

3 Imam, Hassan. Indian national Movement. New Delhi: ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD, 1999.

4 Social Science History. Social science history, 10(1): 1-4. New Delhi: Retna Sgar, 1986. P.1-3.

5 Chakravatry, Gautam. The Indian mutiny and the British imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2005. P. 130.


The Development Psychology: Parents’ Probability of Having Another Children Essay (Article) essay help free: essay help free

Introduction According to Jokela (2010), the characteristics of the first child are critical because they help parents to predict their probably of getting another child. The purpose of this study is to summarize the development psychology article by provision of answers to the questions related to the entire content of the article (Jokela, 2010).

Discussion What is the general topic that this paper is addressing? What is the purpose of the research described in this paper?

The Characteristics of the first child predict the parents’ probability of having another child is the topic that is addressed within the context of this study. It is quite difficulty for many people to believe in this the findings of this study although numerous studies have provided numerous evidences that the characteristics possessed by first born children contributes to the determination of the parents’ probability of having another children.

In conjunction to this argument, the purpose of the study topic is to create awareness to the people in the society that the characteristics of the first born child affects siblings birth in the family thus enabling the parents to predict their probability of giving birth to another child (Jokela, 2010).

Methods of data collection, participants, the intention of the research and the measures that were collected

According to the article, the researcher embarked on the use of survey as the only appropriate method through which enough and useful data could be collected for the study. The data was collected using a questionnaire whereby questions were administered to the target population.

The article described how the researcher collected data by door-to door home visits. According to Jokela (2010), the research targeted parents with first-born children aged 9 months, 3 years and five years. The major participants of the study came from the MCS, which is described as a national body of British prospective concerned with the study of infants that are born in Wales, England, Northern Ireland and Scotland. The MCS were aimed at investigating the impacts of the characteristics of first-born children on sibling birth (Jokela, 2010).

Results of the study

The study findings indicated that some of the characteristics of first born child such as high cognitive ability, behavioral characteristics, infant temperature and socio-emotional characteristics among others contribute greatly to parents’ probability of having second child.

It was evident that the probability increased during 2.5 years of growth of the child then began decreasing. Good general health, high education, low psychological stress and good financial status have been identified as some of factors increasing the childbirth probability in the family (Jokela, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Major conclusion of the study and its implications

The major conclusion of the study is that the results have suggested that the characteristics of first-born child affect the parents’ timing and the probability of getting a second child. High novelty adaptability, high cognitive ability and high socio-emotional and behavioral traits of the first-born child predicted parents’ likelihood of having another in the first five years.

The implication of the study is that apart from the characteristics of the firstborn child, the future psychological research will use factors such as good general health, high education, low psychological stress and good financial status to determine human behavior in general (Jokela, 2010).

What are the strengths of the study?

According to the article, the study is resourceful because it has used the survival analysis technique that offers readers with the opportunity to understand time dependent nature associated with child effects. The study also used validated instruments to assess the characteristics of the firstborn child. The other strength is that the study was based on MCS accompanied by prospective follow-up among others (Jokela, 2010).

What are the Limitations of the study?

According to the article, the study presents enormous limitations that include dependence on observational data as opposed to experimental data. Another limitation is that the study failed to address the parents’ effects on the firstborn child but it focused on the effects of characteristics of the firstborn child on sibling birth (Jokela, 2010).

What you think about the study?

The study is valuable in that it played a key role in highlighting the impacts of the characteristics of firstborn child on parents’ likelihood of having a second child. It also analyses others important factors that increases parents’ probability of having a second child in the family (Jokela, 2010).

Reference Jokela, M. (2010). Characteristics of the first Child Predict the Parents probability of having Another Child. American Journal on developmental psychology, 46, 915-926.


A Total Rewards Program Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

How total rewards differs from other more traditional approaches

A total rewards program is different from conventional methods of compensation and benefits because it acknowledges the importance of other motivators, other than pay, in the work environment. In this school of thought, it is assumed that monetary rewards are important but that non monetary or intangible rewards are also a crucial part of the compensation plan.

Consequently, this method addresses challenges in recruitment and retention by offering an all rounded approach. Additionally, most compensation programs in the past would focus on divergent and uncoordinated benefits and pay packages but these were not integrated into one uniform program.

Total rewards allow organisations to cover all aspects of workplace motivation in reward systems such that ample returns on employees can be realised by organisations. Previous methods of compensation were often standardised; most made it difficult for companies to stand out from the crowd.

Total rewards changes all this by giving employers great flexibility in deciding which incentives, motivators and pay packages to choose for their employees (HR Focus, 2006). The unique combination of these rewards makes every organisation that uses total rewards exceptional and that contributes towards their competitive advantage. Also, traditional methods of compensation were too focused on pay to the detriment of the employer.

In those environments, employers would end up with very high costs. However, in total rewards compensation programs, employers can exercise control over their business expenses because these are spread over a vast portfolio.

Advantages and disadvantages from the employer’s perspective

The total rewards program’s main advantage is that it allows employers the ability to attract the right pool of employees and retain them. Certain drivers in the total rewards program have the ability to bring in the right kind of employees needed to meet company objectives in the future.

Also because there is a dynamic combination of rewards that accommodates employees’ careers, chances are that most will be motivated to remain in their positions and this will increase retention. The method is also quite good for employers because it is linked to business strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since performance improvement and assessment form an important part of the total rewards system then companies have a chance of aligning their business goals with their human resource practices (Dixon


Globalization of the US Media Research Paper essay help

Introduction Globalization can be defined as a force or a process that connects more and more people across heretofore-impermeable economic and social boundaries. This means that people become connected across large distances with the assistance of information technology and human transport.

This process can also be seen as the advancement of human co-operation across national boundaries, therefore making the world ”a global village”. ”Globalization” is a term that is often used to explain today’s world. Its terminology has gradually been accepted by the greater public and various scholarly personalities have integrated it as a vocabulary it into their field of research.

Globalization has also increased the inclusiveness and the unification of economic systematization, global relations, and has led to a trend of doing business in different organizations (Appadurai, 1996, p. 41-55). Proponents of big businesses look at globalization as a blueprint of a straightforward policy agenda that promotes economic growth, increased trade, and integration into the global economy.

Therefore, from this perspective, globalization is viewed as unequivocally benevolent and corporations are seen to be leading the way towards spreading the benefits of globalization around the world. Since the advent of information revolution in the 1950s, the media is one of those industries that has undergone through a radical change so as to meet the current global demands as a result of globalization that increasingly manifests itself through media and its forms of communication.

Globalization has now penetrated and influenced the hegemonies of the media industry towards a massive following of both young and old. Cultural practices have emerged from the globalized media industry to depict social movements and communication in America and the world at large which currently has a youthful population who are spearing this sector.

The relatively youthful American population has greatly affected the supply and demand of media-related products and services with items such as music, videos, and latest films having a strong demand among the young populace. The film industry in the U.S. has a well thought-out release schedules and plots centered on young audiences as they intensely rely young viewers for the high ticket sales.

Through the praxis processes in the globalized media, an audience is able to grasp the daily inklings of a concealed system of solidarity which responds to dominant circulation of convalescent memories, rumors, crafts, humor, dance, song, and recipes that defines and mobilizes popularity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The globalized media is also a major source of instruction for most Americans who uses the vast wealth of multiple cultures to contest or embrace social experiences in a wider context, since it also redefines the ethical norms in national, international, and regional way of doing business (Lyons, 2005, p. na) Although most governments around the world treats and views the music, film, and broadcasting emanating from the media industry as national heritage and culture, some ‘protectionist’ measures that limits foreign cultural materials have emerged though various promotional measures that are meant to promote ‘home-grown’ products.

However, the globalized American media industry embraces a multicultural society through an open system of information which has eventually led to a surge of entertainment from various cultures and ideologies since globalization basically does not exist with the absence of media and communication. Also since the trends of globalization does not choose on who should be on its receiving end, the U.S media industry and way of doing business has co-opted globalization into commercial Americanization of and by non-American media products.

The effects of globalization has also re-brandished both geographical and cultural variations through language which is a significant aspect that affects consumer love and demand for a media product, as it draws out and relates a global social experience through music videos, dance, and film, to name a few. Although the world has a diverse set of languages, globalization of the media industry continues to perpetuate and draw upon cultural and ideological values in the U.S as people warm up to the idea of other cultures through popular media consumption.

Since I have an ardent love for different genres of music and films, they have played a major role to my cultural and ideological values in the presently globalized world (Appadurai, 1996, p. 41-55). Therefore, we are going to look at the effects of music and film which are just some of my popular media sources of music. The two media consumptions do not only have an upshot in my cultural and ideological significances, but also have had a tremendous effect to the lives of Americans over the years.

Globalization of Music towards U.S. Cultural and Ideological values Globalization of music through different mediums such as television, computers, radio, and mobile phones, just to name a few, has dramatically changed the education environment in the twenty-first century and with this change, new doors have opened for both students and teachers around the world.

It has created an environment where different cultures have converged at various centers of education for the main purpose of learning, and despite the cultural mix in learning techniques and environment, music has acted as a vehicle for communication, therefore bringing more cross-cultural understanding. It is also an ideal instance of how globalization has used technology to frequently morph the format and delivery of the media throughout America despite the ideological or cultural preferences associated with it.

Through the media-hyped television music videos and various festivals held by various communities in America, they have proceeded to be a source of interest and attraction to people who are not related to the particular community or kind of music, therefore enhancing socialization among different cultures. These kinds of interactions have made the American society become a microcosm of the entire world, and music is the only means to create a fundamental understanding of other people’s humanness (Colwell, 1991, p. 175-180). We are always defined by the kind of music we listen to and so through these cultural differences, music acts as a ground for appreciating and understanding ones identity.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalization of the US Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the cultural mix in the United States is portrayed through the tribal music that defines the heart and soul of a particular tribe or community. A country can therefore be patently identified through the piece of music that originates from it.

Through Online social and music sites, and television channels such as MTV, Americans have managed to get an array of foreign music predilection from users and musicians around the world which has also helped the U.S society to appreciate and be considerate to other cultures by having a convivial ideological belief towards marginalized groups. In addition, minority groups in America and around the world have managed to turn dominant ideologies through music globalization by being causative to the dynamic hegemonic concessions (Benshoff


The Lowell Observatory Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction The space contains various wonders objects with significant effects on the study of astronomy. A wide range of research is commonly conducted in space to establish and prove various theories that are aimed at explaining the origin and significance of these heavenly bodies. The space was largely unknown to many in the ancient times.

In fact, people thought that the sun goes around the earth, which they believed was stationary. These facts were trashed as more researchers made progress in observing space with the aid of a telescope, among others. The solar system has increasingly received much attention as to its origin and significance to a community that is continuously exploiting the airspace.

These researches cannot be achieved without the aid of advanced astronomical facilities. Among these is the Lowell Observatory, located in Arizona, in the United States. This facility has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It has also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescopes.

Other services that people enjoy in Lowell include widescreen multimedia shows, tour in the universe through space theatres, and beautiful sceneries, among others. This paper will explore the Lowell observatory, its establishment, functions, and significance to research in astronomy and the society at large (Ribokas 1).

The Lowell Observatory The Lowell Observatory was founded in 1894 as an institution that serves researchers and also for public outreach. It is usually known as the people’s observatory, given its significance in the development of astrophysics and research. The Observatory is also credited with telescope viewing, tours of the universe as well as widescreen multimedia shows, among other services to the public.

The institution is a non-profit making organization and was founded by Percival Lowell. In addition, the institution is committed to providing excellence in research as well as outreach to the public. This is of great significance to the community and the development of astrophysical research (Ribokas 1).


The Lowell Observatory was instituted in 1894, in flagstaff, Arizona. The institution, which is based in United States, has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It has also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescopes. The space was largely unknown to many in the ancient times.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, people thought that the sun goes around the earth, which they believed was stationary. These facts were trashed as more researchers made progress in observing space with the aid of telescopes, among other devices (Lowell 34).

Fig. 1: shows Percival Lowell’s mausoleum

Source: Lowell Observatory

Lowell Observatory was founded in 1894 as an institution that serves researchers and for public outreach. This was done by Percival Lowell, who founded the institution. The institution has a rich account of observations that have been conducted.

For instance, it contributed to discovery of many heavenly bodies, such as the planet, Pluto. It also predicted the discovery of the same planet. The observatory has undergone several improvements and technological developments to advance its functions. Its initial function was to aid in measuring solar irradiance variability.

However, this changed when Harold Johnson assumed the Observatory in 1952. Instead it focused on studying light reflecting off Neptune and Uranus, from the sun. This led to the installation of its present 21-inch telescope. Furthermore, it was this period that led to more research on Neptune and Uranus.

Functions of the Lowell Observatory

Lowell Observatory has been influential in providing a renewing experience to the society. These include telescope viewing, tours of the universe as well as widescreen multimedia shows, among other services to the public, among others. The institution is therefore very instrumental in the society and works to provide resourceful services to the neighborhood as well as national and international researchers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Lowell Observatory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover the center acts as a good facility for astronomical research and other relevant space research. In addition, it has been utilized to promote human understanding of the solar system. This is important as ancient understanding of solar system has changed over the years.

Myths that arose in the ancient times have been diffused to pave way for a better understanding based on provable and observable ideas and objects respectively in research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices such as the astrograph, LONEOS Schmidt and Clark telescopes, among others. The following figures illustrate the Lowell Observatory and some of its telescopes.

Fig. 1 LONEOS Schmidt telescope

Source: Lowell Observatory

Fig. 2 Pluto Telescope

Source: Lowell Observatory

Fig. 3 Observatory Dome of Clark telescope

Source: Lowell Observatory

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Lowell Observatory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The facility currently posses over 11 telescopes, five of which are used Mars Hill. In addition, two of the five are available for use by the public. Six telescopes are also used mainly for scientific observation in the institution’s dark-sky site, which is located in the southeast. The major functions of this institution may be categorized as stated below (Ribokas 1).

Research center Lowell observatory offers a wide range of astronomical research facilities to the astronomers. Through its vast and advanced facilities, which include telescopes (that are space based), among others, astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars.

Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1). In addition, the studies Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune.

The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is very important in facilitation investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in telescopes. This sets the institution aside as a research center.

Educational center The institution acts as an educational center as it brings knowledge through research and observation of some of the mysteries in space. In addition, it has been utilized to promote human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years.

yths that arose in the ancient times have been dismissed through better research to provide for a better understanding based on observable research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices that have been instrumental in promoting knowledge on space and astronomy (Lowell Observatory 1).

These researches cannot be achieved without the aid advanced astronomical facilities, such as those in Lowell Observatory. These facilities have enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It as also been utilized to observe space through its high resolution telescope.

This has also aided astronomers to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system and thus promote it as an educational center. These have included studies on planets, their formation, forming of planets around stars and young stars, asteroids, among others (Ribokas 1).

In addition, the studies that Lowell institution supports include those focused on investigating Kuiper Belt, which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is therefore very important in facilitating investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in the telescopes.

Tourist site The institution also acts as a tourist attraction center, given the services it offers and its unique location in the country. The dark skies provide good sceneries for tourist and this helps them to discover wonders of the solar system.

Furthermore, some of the tourists who visit Lowell center usually come to learn about skies and its inclusions. The location of this institution also makes it unique as it lies on the high mountains that provide fresh air, which is renewing to observers. Objects usually viewed near-earth asteroids, meteorites and other heavenly bodies that make up the solar system (Strauss 23).

Recreational center Over 700000 people visit the center yearly, some of which come for recreation purposes. This is because, as much as space is a mystery, it is also exiting to watch. Other recreational activities include tours of the space through 3D theatres and views of multimedia shows that are broadcasted in widescreen high definition devices.

All these provide exciting site for both children and adults in their quest to understand their world (Ribokas 1). In essence, the facility provides an exclusive site for recreational activities and explorers who are increasingly visiting the institution.

Significance of the Lowell Observatory The Lowell Observatory has been important since it aids scientific discoveries and research in the United States and other parts of the world, with regards to astronomy and space. Through its vast and advanced facilities, which include telescopes (that are space based), among others. Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system.

Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. In addition, it has been utilized to promote the human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years (Bowell 1).

Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1).

In addition, the studies the Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is very important in facilitation investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are utilized in the telescopes.

The institution acts as a tourist site as has been mentioned above. Several people visit the center for recreation purposes over the years. This is because, as much as space is a mystery, it is very exiting to watch. Other recreational activities include tours of the space through 3D theatres and views of multimedia shows that are broadcasted in widescreen high definition devices.

All these inclusions are important in establishing the institution as a center for excellence in research and outreach to the public. It is also important to note that the institution acts as a tourist attraction center, since it offers great sceneries and observations through the telescope. In addition, its unique location serves it best in attracting more visitors. For instance, the dark skies provide good sceneries for tourist and this helps them to discover the mysteries of the solar system.

Conclusion The Lowell Observatory has been influential in aiding scientific discoveries and research in the United States and other parts of the world, with regards to astronomy and space. In addition, it has been utilized to promote the human understanding of the solar system. This is important as the ancient understanding of the solar system has changed over the years.

Myths that arose in the ancient times have been diffused to pave way for a better understanding based on observable research and experiments. This has been achieved by the introduction of telescopes, and other devices that have been instrumental in promoting knowledge on space and astronomy (Lowell Observatory 1).

These researches cannot be achieved without the aid advanced astronomical facilities. Among these is the Lowell Observatory, located in Arizona, in the United States. This facility has enabled astronomers to conduct major research on a wide range of astrophysical systems and the solar system. It as also been utilized to observe the space through its high resolution telescope.

Astronomers are able to conduct their research on various astrophysical subjects as well as the solar system. Other areas of concern to astronomers are studies on the planets, formation of planets, forming of planets around stars and young stars. Still others include studies on asteroids, which include surveys on those that exist near the earth’s surface (Ribokas 1).

In addition, the studies the Lowell institution supports include those centered on investigating Kuiper Belt which lies beyond the Neptune. The facility also aids studies on variability of the sun, which are essential to meteorology and space technology. Lowell observatory is therefore very essential in facilitating investigations on formation of stars, building and customizing Instrumentations, which are used for telescopes.

Works Cited Bowell, Edward. “The Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS): Ten years of asteroid and comet discovery”. What’s Happening Magazine, Space. Web.

Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: Daily events”. Web.

Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: The Discovery Channel telescope”. Web.

Lowell Observatory. “Lowell Observatory: The people’s Observatory”. Web.

Lowell, William. “The Explorers of Mars Hill: A Centennial History of Lowell Observatory, 1894-1994”. New Hampshire: Phoenix Publishing, 1994.

Ribokas, Bob. “Lowell Observatory – Flagstaff, Arizona”. Grand Canyon Explorer. Web.

Strauss, David. “Percival Lowell: The Culture and Science of a Boston Brahmin”. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.


Simple Illustrations Yield Powerful Messages Essay college essay help near me

The advertisement, “SAVE WATER, SAVE LIFE”, is comprised of a dripping water tap connected to a quarter-filled, oval-shaped fish bowl. Within the fish bowl, an orange fish nervously stares at the dripping water tap. The color scheme of the ad is a combination of light and dark greys, yet the orange fish disrupts the color scheme which makes the fish the focal point of the ad.

The fish bowl with the dripping tap only covers about one-third of the ad, and the remaining portion of the ad is filled with grey which makes the advertisement very simple, but the simplicity of the illustration bears a powerful message. The advertisement, “SAVE WATER, SAVE LIFE”, makes an attempt to persuade a diverse audience to conserve water.

In my opinion, the ad successfully persuades a broad audience because the subject matter and techniques used in the ad allow the audience identify with the message. Specifically, the contrast of color, the usage of the fish, and the shape of the tank are the tools that effectively persuade audience into identifying with the message of the ad. The following will illustrate how the tools in the advertisement are effective in conveying the message of the ad.

One of the aspects of the advertisement that accentuates the message is the contrast of color. The ad consists of varying shades of gray in the background and the orange color of the fish in the foreground. In my opinion, the author chose shades of gray in the background in order to draw attention to the fish which is the subject matter of the ad.

Personally, when I saw the ad my eyes went straight to the orange fish because of the gray background. If there were more colors used in the ad, they would draw attention away from the fish, thus, distracting the audience from the message. Using simple color schemes in the background of the advertisement also accentuates the severity of the topic (Bedan 7).

The grays in the background create a somber feeling in the audience because gray is a color that represents serious subject matter. The somber feeling of the audience allows them to realize the severity of the topic being discussed in the ad. Although the color scheme of the advertisement was simple, the simple colors enhanced the message of water conservation for the audience.

The advertisement appeals to a varied audience because of the indirect human appeal (Langford 42) created by the manner of the orange fish. The orange fish is humanized by the panic expressed by the stare of the fish at the dripping water tap because all humans have felt panic which allows for a varied audience to identify with the plight of the orange fish.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The orange fish also appeals to a varied audience because the fish does not represent a particular type of person. No race, gender, age, or career is specified in the ad because of the orange fish being the subject matter. Since no particular division of people is targeted, the ad can reach out to a variety of people. A farmer or a lawyer will be compelled to conserve water due to the ad not singling out a particular group of people.

Overall, the author’s usage of the clever usage of the orange fish draws a diverse audience because the manner of the fish humanizes the fish and the subject matter of the fish allows different groups of people to identify with the fish which helps to effectively convey the message of the ad.

Another way the author conveys the message of water conservation to a diverse audience is through the usage of a round fish bowl as the habitat of the orange fish. A broad audience can identify with the habitat of the orange fish because the fish bowl is round like earthly habitat of the audience. The constant dripping of water out of the fish bowl that is already a quarter-full can be compared to the wastage of water on earth as a whole which amplifies the message of water conservation in the ad.

No matter what walk of life a member from the audience may come from, all of the audience share earth as their home, and in some way identify with water being an important natural resource. The tank only being a quarter-full also amplifies the message of the ad because the little water in the tank illustrates how severe the water situation is on earth.

If the tank were to be almost full, the audience would not feel the urgency and severity of the message. The previous information illustrates how the shape of the tank allows the audience to identify with the message of the ad.

Ultimately, the techniques mentioned above come together to bring an important issue to a diverse group of people by using what the audience has in common with one another. The gray color scheme in the background allow for the focus (Bedan 4) to be on the orange fish in the bowl.

The panic in the fish illustrated by the stare at the dripping tap humanizes the fish and allows a diverse group to identify with the manner of the fish because all humans can identify with the feeling of panic, and the fish does not target a particular race or gender.

We will write a custom Essay on Simple Illustrations Yield Powerful Messages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The shape of the fish bowl allows for a diverse audience to identify because the bowl is very similar to earth. The author uses the techniques mentioned to make the audience identify with the ad which makes conveying the message of water conservation more effective because the audience can apply the aspects to the ad to their individual lives.

Works Cited Berdan, Robert. (2004). Composition and the elements of visual design. Photo Composition Articles, 20 January, 2004. Web.

Langford, Michael. The Master Guide to Photography. New York: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1982. Print.


Advanced Literary Theory Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

“Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” by Barbara Johnson

“Disney: A Degenerate Utopia” By Louis Marin’s


Works Cited

Introduction Literary works including novels, short stories, narratives and poems provides us with lenses through which we can see and understand deeply various cultural, social and political aspects of our society which are critical to our societal well-being. They are a mirror through which a society can attain self realization more so in relation to its desired destiny in terms of development.

Academically, they are usually a creative and constructive way of criticizing evils such as corruption, impunity, gender violence, and discrimination among others which are understandably a stumbling block to realization of societal dreams in the eyes of the wise people and intellectuals, as well as, political leaders of good will. Due to their critical contribution towards progress of a society authors should strive to be clear in their writings so that readers of different intellectual and educational calibre can understand what they are trying to put across through their works.

They are however professionally expected to maintain high levels of creativity and linguistic masterly. This expectation together with other factors leads to difficulties of communication between an author or a poet and his or her target audience.

These reading difficulties have been categorized as tactical, contingent, modal and ontological difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss ontological difficulty in Barbara Johnson’s reader response essay titled “Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” and Louis Marin’s structuralist essay titled “Disney: A Degenerate Utopia.”

“Apostrophe, Animation, and Abortion” by Barbara Johnson A difficulty in literary criticism in negative terms refers to an element of writing that points to or indicative of a rift between a poet or an author and the reader (Shetley 1932).However, it is important to note that just like conflict is a way of sociation, so difficulty which in literary studies connotes lack or breakdown of communication is itself a form of communication (Shetley 1932). In other words, difficulty itself communicates if nothing else in a poem or another piece of literary work.

Difficulty also serves as a deliberate instrument used by writers and poets in choosing readers with whom the poet have something in common out of a vague reading public. It also functioned to educate and instruct the public in the kinds of demands that the work of a poet is made of (Shetley 1932).Ontological difficulty of content refers to a cultural gap between author and reader.

A poet or an author may be from or might represent a culture that is absolutely strange to the audience. Consequently, the reader must strive to make all types of imaginative hurdles and learn many things in order to be at home with and in the literary piece be it a narrative or a poem or even an essay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barbara uses her reader response essay to explain effects of rhetoric in literary works by analyzing different poems written by different poets at different times. Unlike other literary theories reader response school of thought empowers and allows the reader or the audience to be the source of meaning of a literary work.

Reader response theory acknowledges the reader as an active agent who passes on actual existence to a literary work and finishes its meaning through interpretation. Reader response school of thought sets the reader free from the uninteresting undertaking of attempting to discover what the author had in mind (Lorimer


Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Space hazards

Space travel health and safety issues


Works Cited

Introduction Space hazards refer to the events that take place beyond the surface of the earth and that may affect the health of an individual. The study of space is best understood under the subject of astronomy which explains what space is composed of as well as what can be done and what cannot be done in space. Astronauts are best positioned to operate in space since they have studied the universe and understand the risks and the benefits of the operations in space.

There are various hazards that are associated with space which are mainly as a result of the events that are carried out in space. Aircrafts are the most common manmade objects in space as well as other objects that astronauts use in the space operations. Space hazards are mainly as a result of the effects of weather, radiation.

Astronomy Astronomy refers to the “science that investigates the distribution, composition, physical state, movement and evolution of material in the universe beyond the earth’s surface” (Becker 1). The distribution of matter or energy includes its position, arrangement and frequency over a certain area in the universe or in the whole space. The composition of matter includes its chemical composition qualitatively and quantitatively.

For instance, the qualitative composition of the sun includes hydrogen and helium while its quantitative composition includes the numerical or actual percentages of the substances that make it up i.e. the volume of the sun is made up of 95% hydrogen and 5% helium while its mass is made up of 78% hydrogen, 20% helium and 2% heavy metals (Becker 1).

The physical state of the matter in the universe can either be in the form of “solid, liquid, gas or plasma” (Becker 1). On the other hand, the movement of material in space involves their positional change which mainly involves rotation and revolution. Finally, the evolution of matter in space refers to the theories that have been put across by scholars to explain the origin and the future of matter in the universe. Some of these theories include the steady state, the big bang and the oscillating universe (Becker 1).

Space hazards Many space hazards occur in the universe every day and not only affect the objects operating directly in space but also technological processes on the surface of the earth such as communication, power grids and others (NASA 1).

The effects of space hazards are so extreme since space is one of the most extreme environments imaginable with experiences of extreme temperature, extremely hot and extremely cold as well as threatening levels of radiation. These are the conditions that aircrafts are subjected to when they are operating above the insulating layer of the earth (Cain 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Launching is one of the extreme situations. The space craft is maintained in the space from the pull of gravity by the rocket which enables it to have enough mass and speed thus avoiding the pull of gravity from the much heavier objects near them (Jessa 3). While launching, this very “rocket shakes the air craft violently and batters it with extremely loud sound waves” (Cain 3). These phenomena are capable of shattering the delicate parts of the space craft thus causing space hazards (Cain 3).

The extreme temperatures in space are again prone to causing space hazards on the objects operating in space like the aircrafts. Weather conditions vary extremely “temperatures in space go hundreds of degrees below the freezing point and hundreds of degrees up especially when the spacecrafts are near the sun” (Cain 6).

Though there is no air in space, energy from the sun is transferred through radiation which when absorbed by the spacecrafts, it causes a lot of heating in objects that have such machines as computers that ought to operate under moderate temperatures. Though engineers have put effort to make spacecrafts models in such a manner that they have features that can withhold these conditions, this is not always the case as explained below (Cain 6).

As we have seen earlier, energy in space is transferred through radiation either through “trapped and the transient types” (Cain 8). The trapped radiation is composed of sub atomic particles mainly the protons and the neutrons which are usually trapped by the earth magnetic field thus creating Van Allen radiation fields around the planet (Angelo 124).

It has been noted that, “the transient radiation is mainly composed of protons and cosmic rays which constantly streams in space especially during magnetic storms on the sun” (Cain 8). The transient radiation can be so harmful in that when they collide with electronic circuit, they are capable of interfering with the content of memory, they can cause spurious flow of currents around the object or even burn out computer chips (Cain 8).

Space hazards can also be caused by meteor showers. These refer to the little dust particles that make shooting stars visible to us while traveling through space. They are capable of sand blasting some useful large rays of the solar panels thus affecting their importance (Cain 15).

A NASA-funded study carried out in January 2009 describes the consequences of solar eruptions on communication, power grids and other technology on the surface of the earth, the risks of extreme conditions in space as a result of magnetic activity on the sun and effects of extreme space weather (NASA 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the study, the sun is the most vital star on the surface of the earth but its contribution towards space hazards is adverse. Apart from “emitting a consistent stream of plasma, it often releases quite a large volume of tons of matter known as the coronal mass ejections” (NASA 5).

The study further confirmed that space weather produces solar storm electromagnetic field which induces extreme currents on wire resulting to various adverse effects. Some of the most common effects of this induction on wires include power line disruptions which results to widespread blackouts and also disrupts communication cables that supports the internet. Extreme space weather produces solar energetic particles and causes dislocation of earth’s radiation belts. (NASA 5)

These phenomena are capable of damaging satellites used for “commercial communications, global positioning and weather forecasting” (NASA 5). The modern advancement in technology did not mark the beginning of its problems with space weather since these problems were recorded since the nineteenth century when the telegraph was invented (NASA 5).

The professor and director of the laboratory for atmospheric and space physics at the University of Colorado really appreciated NASA efforts for beginning the extremely challenging task of investigating on space hazards in a quantitative way. This is because their impacts are equally as much as those of natural hazards on the earth’s surface and need not be ignored.

Space travel health and safety issues For a long time, space travel has been associated with a lot of accidents and hazards thus leaving the activity to just a small number of highly trained and highly motivated individuals.

The Apollo, an American space program, recorded three major hazards of space travel “1 Mission Fire of January 27, 1986, the Challenger accident of January 28, 1986 and the Colombia accident of February 1, 2003” (Angelo 123). These hazards have made space travel to be approached with a lot of consciousness such that it will remain a highly hazardous undertaking in now and in the near future, unless, something is done about it (Angelo 123).

There are various health and safety issues concerning space travel some of which include:

Launch abort, spaceflight and space based assembly and construction accidents, life support system failure, collisions of space vehicles and habitats with space debris and meteoroids, ionized radiation hazards, psychological stress due to strenuous living conditions and many others. (Angelo 124)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Space Hazards as a Challenge to Astronauts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The three major challenges that people living in space face are “the substantial acceleration and deceleration forces when leaving and returning to earth, living and working in weightless conditions for long periods of time and chronic exposure to space radiations” (Angelo 124).

Astronauts and cosmonauts usually experience up to a maximum of six times acceleration as compared to that of the earth’s surface. These conditions result to some physical difficulties such as space adaptation syndrome, feelings of isolation and stress as well as post flight recovery problems.

Microgravity or weightlessness results to bone calcium loss and though most of its other effects recover a few weeks after return to earth, this may take longer especially after a long duration space mission. Space travelers throughout circular and interplanetary are bombarded by galactic cosmic rays, which are very energetic atomic particles that contain protons, helium nuclei and heavy nuclei. These rays expose individuals to excess ionizing radiation doses as compared to the standards set for various space missions and occupations (Angelo 124).

Mars expedition personnel and lunar surface base workers’ are prone to experiencing various psychological disorders, some of which include solipsism syndrome and shimanaghasi syndrome. Solipsism syndrome is a state of mind where a person feels like every occurrence is not real but a dream and is usually as a result of small space base or confined expedition vehicle.

The shimanaghasi syndrome is a feeling of isolation where an individual feels left out even when life is comfortable; a situation which requires proper communication with the earth and careful design of living quarters (Angelo 125).

Conclusion Livings, traveling through space, working and other space missions have been quite challenging and are yet to be since the ever present dangers and hazards have not yet found a solution. However, there is a group of highly motivated and trained individuals who may continue enjoying the extraterrestrial lifestyle which outweighs any personal risks.

Though space hazards have been a challenge to most astronauts, a few things can be put together to curb the challenge. First, most of the psychological and health issues related to the space hazards can be attended to medically.

Works Cited Angelo, Joseph. Encyclopedia of space and astronomy. New York. InfoBase Publishing, 2006. Print.

Becker, Gary. Astronomy Survival Website. Astronomy, 1990. Web.

Cain, Fraser. “Some of the Hazards in Space”, 2004. Web.

Jessa, Tega. Orbit Universe Today, 2009. Web.

NASA. New study reveals hazards of severe space weather. Astronomy, 2009. Web.


The Case of Martha Stewart: On Improper Actions Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Struggle Begins: the Sufferings of the Celebrity

Into the Details: The Charges

That Is Unfair, or On Personal Opinions


Introduction One of the most intriguing cases, the one of the famous Martha Stewart, offers quite a lot of food for thoughts. With help of the mystery that has been created about the case, the popularity of the celebrity has increased immensely. However, it cannot be denied that Martha suffered greatly, trying to prove her innocence – unfortunately, in vain.

Although the guilt of the celebrity has already been proven, it must be admitted that the case, quite complicated and entangled, requires certain clarifications. It seems that there are certain issues that might bring the entire case into conflict and prove that the fault of the convicted was far not that great as the court has emphasized.

One of the women known for her TV shows with her recipes for a comfortable life in a cozy house, the superstar of our times is now considered guilty of selling the Erbitux medicine, which resulted in ImClone Systems company suffering certain losses in their trade. Quite a precedent to be discussed in the court, this story could have led to rather sad consequences for the film star.

However, as it has turned out, it was not the very issue of selling the medicine in the improper way that turned Martha into the accused – but the improper behavior! This is quite a reason to feel concerned, it seems. On the one hand, there is no doubt that the high standards for the behavior of the world celebrities must be somewhat coordinated, and some standards must be set, yet the accusations themselves seem ridiculous.

The Struggle Begins: the Sufferings of the Celebrity Despite all the emotions concerning the social status of the accused and her attempts to plead not guilty, there is no doubt that the woman is to be charged for the negligence of laws. No matter how hard this might result in her career, the case was supposed to be carried on until it had resulted in either conviction or the exoneration.

Such are the postulates of the law – it must be kept in mind that all people are equal when it comes to facing the justice, and the social status does not matter in this case. Thus, it is absolutely clear that Martha Stewart, “charged only with lying after the fact about the stock sale” (Turrow 64), should have received the penalty, which she actually did. Therefore, the sentence passed by the jury can be considered well-grounded and completely just.

However, certain details must be kept in mind. On the one hand, Martha’s guilt has been proved, which leaves no place for doubts. Yet the way in which the woman was treated makes one doubt if the basis for the conviction was just enough. Logically, Stewart should have been penalized for the unjust behavior and for selling the medicine that she had no right to. Yet at present all the details of the case point at the fact that the attitude towards the accused was shaped because of the way she treated Douglas Faneuil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Into the Details: The Charges According to the official charge, the woman was accused of selling the shares of the ImClone Systems company, which led to its considerable drop of rates. Therefore, the celebrity was accused of the unfair manipulations and charged. However, that was the official version of what had happened.

According to the comments that the public made after the judgment was passed, the decisions of the jury were based on the celebrity’s behavior – the woman treated Douglas Faneuil in rather rude way and behaved in the manner that was considered as an “inappropriate” for a woman. Therefore, it can be considered that the sentence passed was based mainly on the personal impressions of the jury.

That Is Unfair, or On Personal Opinions Based on the testimonies of Larry Stewart, the court decision seems rather unfair. Although the official sentence was based completely on the facts and the actual pieces of evidence, the following question can be raised: once the celebrity behaved in a “proper”, “female” way, would the decision of the jury the same? “Are we punishing Martha Stewart for refusing to fulfill expectations?”, Lisa Nuss (4) asks.

It is quite doubtful that, once Martha displayed the emotions that one is “supposed” to in the given situation, and behaved in the most composed and modest way, the sentence passed by the court would have been the same. It is necessary to emphasize that the decision of the court seems to be based on personal opinion rather than on the evidence that was displayed.

Conclusion Therefore, it must be considered that the case of Martha Stewart is much more complicated than it used to seem. Unless the case had been so emotionally rich and filled with personal likes and antipathies, it would have been able to find out whether Martha had been convicted justly or not. Yet with the controversy of the present situation, it is impossible to claim for sure whether the sentence passed to Martha was well-grounded.

Thus, it seems that the appellation could be used in this case. Only reconsidering the details of the case, one can pass the right verdict, with impartial judge and the jury that would not base their convictions on the gossips and the prejudices concerning women’s behavior.


Latest Japanese Earthquake Expository Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The latest Japanese earth quake is the Tōhuku earthquake which occurred in March 2011. It is also referred to as the Great East Japanese Earthquake. The earthquake had a magnitude of 9.0 on Ritcher scale occurring at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) on Eleventh of March, 2011.

The earthquakes epicenter was approximately seventy two Kilometers on the Eastern part of Oshika Peninsula and a Hypocenter of approximately thirty two kilometers beneath the waters. The government of Japan confirmed this as one of the catastrophes of its kind (Ito).

The earthquake took place at a zone of subduction between the pacific plate and the plate that lies below the Northern Honshu. The rate at which the pacific plate undergoes displacement is at eight to nine centimeter per annum, hence the plate subduction of the plate led to a discharge of large amounts of energy leading to a geological event. This interaction between the two plates resulted to stress initiating seismological events.

One of the effects of the seismological event led to a rise in the sea level (Chang 5). Since the region of subduction of the two plates does not lie on a straight line, the faulting resulted to a large earthquake with a magnitude of more than 8.5.The JMA (Japanese Meteorological Agency) indicated that the catastrophe broke the fault region extending from Iwate to Ibaraki having covered 500km by 200km.

The Tōhuku earthquake was purported to have comprised of three sequences of events leading to extensive destruction to infrastructure. The catastrophe initiated extremely destructives waves of the tsunami of up to thirty seven point nine meters/ one hundred and twenty four feet that attacked Japan in just minutes following the earthquake.

In some of the places the waves travelled as far as 6mi (ten kilometers) inland with short waves being felt in most of the adjacent countries after a few hours of the earthquake. The Japanese government issued warnings prior to the catastrophe ordering relocations along Pacific Coast. Prior to the earthquake, warnings were issued out to 20 nations close to Japan as well as countries close to United States Pacific Coast (Wire Staff).

The effects of this catastrophe was very pronounced such that the Japanese NPA (National Police Agency) thereafter confirmed 12,228 missing persons, the death toll was at 14,238 persons whereas the injured cases were 5,314 in all the Japanese prefectures. There were 125,000 buildings which were also destroyed during the earthquake.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The disaster affected most of the infrastructure such as railway network as well as the roads cutting off communication within the affected region. Great destruction was also felt in the Northeastern Japan where approximately 4.4 million dwellings were cut off from electricity supply including 1.5 million households which were completely cut off from safe water.

Countless electrical power plants were destroyed and more than 3 nuclear reactors were destroyed as a result of hydrogen gas build up inside the nuclear reactors covering due to the failure of the cooling system. Most of the people living within a radius of twenty kilometers within t nuclear plants were ordered to relocate to safer regions. Furthermore, the United States recommended that all of the U.S citizens be relocated up to eighty kilometers of the nuclear plants.

The magnitude of the Tōhuku earth quake makes it the greatest and most powerful geologic catastrophe to have affected Japan. It is one of the top five most harmful catastrophes ever since the current documentation of catastrophes started in 1900. The prime Minister to Japan stated this as the most destructive and harmful geological event to have hit Japan since the second world war causing a heartfelt crisis to this country.

As a result of the earthquake, Honsu was moved 7.9ft(2.4m) east and the earth was shifted from its axis by approximately 3.9in(10cm) (Chang 6). Economically the quake cost Japan a big loss. Japan was forced to compensate the banking sector a total of 15 trillion Japanese Yen with the aim of returning the market systems in normal working condition.

According to the estimates by the World Bank, the total damage caused by the earthquake is estimated at 122 to 235 billion U.S dollars. The government of Japan on the other hand estimates the cost of the Catastrophe that caused a lot of strive in Northeast at 309 billion dollars and this makes this the world’s most costly catastrophe.

After the Tōhuku earthquake, Japan continued experiencing several after shocks. More than nine hundred aftershocks have been experienced in Japan with nearly sixty of them having a magnitude of 6.0M and up to three aftershocks having more than 7.0M quake occurring in March and the third aftershock occurring on April 7,2011 even though its magnitude was under contention.

The epicenter of this aftershock was submarine, sixty six kilometers off Sendai coast. Never the less, the JMA estimated the magnitude of this aftershock as 7.4, whilst United States geological survey brought it down to 7.1 (Wire Staff). During the aftershock, there were four lives lost, and power was disconnected across most of the Northern part of Japan as a result of destruction of the electrical cables and other infrastructure including the external power disconnection to Rokkasho Reprocessing station and Higashidori Nuclear station.

We will write a custom Essay on Latest Japanese Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the earthquake resulted to a large Tsunami which led to the destruction of Japans islands which lie along the pacific coastline resulting to thousands of deaths and strive in the whole town. Most of the countries bordering Japan were affected by this tsunami. For instance, Chile was affected by a wave length of 2m high in spite of its being the furthest country, 17,000 kilometers away from Japan.

In conclusion, Tōhuku earthquake is one of the five major catastrophes and the latest earthquake to have occurred in the world since the beginning of catastrophe documentation. The data collected from this earthquake is important to both the geologists and seismologist since it provides valuable information across several disciplines for instance on how structures should be constructed to withstand extensive periods of shaking in the event of any seismological event.

Works Cited Chang, Kenneth. “Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S and Alters Earth’s Spin.” New York Times, 14 Mar. 2011. Print.

Ito, Masami. “Kan Names Quake at Pep Talk.” 02 04 2011. The Japan Times Online. Web.

Wire Staff. “Tsunami Warnings Issued for atleast 20 Countries after Quake.” CNN, 11 Mar. 2011.


Fat Ethics – Obesity and Society Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In recent years, there have been raging debates in the public arena regarding the effects of obesity in the developed world. These protracted debates can offer certainty and authority in this area of research. However, these debates may also rule out the possibility of such certainties. Debates on obesity have given rise to various forms of discrimination and oppression. The discriminated individuals have had ill-health because they may resort to unhealthy eating habits and exercises.

The paper will also critically look at the causes of obesity and why it is increasingly becoming a major medical dilemma to the developed world. The paper also seeks to establish the role that sociology plays in obesity debate other than the traditional lifestyle and body-society relationship talk. The obesity debate has always been dominated by psychology and genetics. This essay seeks to summarize two works that have been done in regard to obesity and fat ethics.

It is true that the number of people suffering from obesity have remarkably within the last two decades. This has made some spectators to refer to the situation as a crisis. This has made relevant government department to develop interest. The topic on obesity has since attracted the attention of sociologists whose input cannot be downplayed.

These sociologists also stand to gain a lot. The media has given a lot of attention to issues obesity. Much of their reporting has been on relationship between the body and the society. Prominence has however been given to disciplines like psychology and genetics ignoring the fact that fat is basically a sociological issue.

The obesity debate has created an environment where people with certain body feature are look down upon while certain body sizes are cherished and idolized. There has to be interactive relationship between biological and social processes as envisaged in increase or decrease in the rates of obesity and the consequences of such fluctuations. It should be noted that the influx of the number of people suffering from obesity is purely a preserve of changes in lifestyle in the dynamic society (Crossley, 222).

It is very important that sociological perspective be introduced when lifestyle factors associated with obesity are ventilated. It is prudent that the input of these sociological factors into rising rates of obesity be critically looked at. Obesity is indeed a crisis at an individual point of view and in the societal perspective. Social agents have had their input in determining how they look.

To them slimness, fitness, and efficiency are the central social values. These have been christened by academics as body projects and technology of the self. Social agents have also used terminologies like mastery and awareness to spur debates concerning obesity. Social agents have at times been forced to rebel against sexual natures which were previously being imposed on them citing sexual liberation. Many women have done considerable damage to their own bodies by trying to ape some dominant ideals of thinness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many women have ended up suffering from anorexia nervosa. In the thriving economies of developed world, many people have taken to registering with health clubs leading to a 18% increase in private health clubs between 1998 and 2002. It is interesting to note that membership to health clubs has surpassed that of trade unions in the developed world between 1998 and 2002 in a survey conducted citizen audit.

These health clubs have turned out to be schemes for slimming and keeping fit. Apart from health clubs, dieting has become an in-thing in slimming. Diet books are really treasured. A third of developed world’s adult population had in 2002 tried to slim with the female population taking the bulk of this statistics.

All these show that many people have become conscious with their bodies hence preoccupation with body maintenance. In 1980 England 8% and 6% of women and men respectively suffered from obesity a figured that multiplied threefold in 1998. This was commensurate with the figures in North America and Europe. Age plays a pivotal role in determining rate of obesity with obesity being an issue for an older generation.

Other than age, gender and class also plays greater role in determining the rate of obesity in a population of people. Obesity runs in opposite direction with bodily ideals in our today’s modern society. Regarding the issue pertaining to whether obesity should be treated as a social construct, it should be understood that obesity is a scientific concept. It should be noted that the rates of obesity are seen to be in the increase of the monitoring by relevant public health departments.

By merely approving that obesity is a construct does not disqualify it from being researched on and learnt about. The issue on obesity and resistance has been raised quite often. When agents are coaxed into slimming and staying fit they developed some form of resistance by becoming fat instead. This has however been faulted. Some people have mooted the issue of passive resistance by saying that obesity is passively motivated.

Some media reports have made the society to be speaking only on weight issues. Some of their deliberations have relegated the debates to gender issues hence the moral panic witnessed in the modern society. Much of attention has been given to body mass index and how it can be used to show whether one is underweight, overweight, or obese.

Such debates have left the public preoccupied with what ideal weight figures should be. Scientists who have taken center stage in writing all sorts of literature on obesity have on many occasions failed to factor in issuing regarding how fat has been stereotyped, the brunt of guilt and shame that has been borne by those suffering from obesity and the cropping up of culture of individualism and healthism (Rich and Evans, 352).

We will write a custom Report on Fat Ethics – Obesity and Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These issues are central if one needs to develop proper scientific evidence. However, they have been considered secondary issues. The media personalities and public health experts have held that obesity is an epidemic that is largely influence by people’s lifestyle, emergence of fast food joints, and changes ion diets.

This may be treated as credible scientific fact but are however laced with ideologies and cultural beliefs of people’s perception of fatness. Because of raging public debates, many people have been made to believe that being overweight obviously imply ill health and that when one undertakes to shed some weight will cure certain diseases that are associated with being overweight.

The papers are interesting because they state that it is prudent people get to know that not only medical experts and psychologists who can be quoted as authorizes in issues related to obesity. Even sociologists have a role to play as fat is indeed a social issue.

Discussion questions:

Should the issue of obesity be a preserve of the medical practioners?

What is the role of sociologists in the fight against obesity?

Is obesity really an epidemic or that is the creation of the media?

Is obesity really a lifestyle disease?

Works Cited Crossley, Nick. Fat is a sociological issue: Obesity rates in late modern, Body conscious societies Social Theory


Definition and Importance of Employee Compensation in Organizations Essay essay help online

Table of Contents General Overview



Reference List

In every economy, workers play a pivotal role in promoting its wellbeing. The more productive the workers, the better will be the economy. However, employees need motivation in order to maintain a high level of performance. One way through which this can be done is through compensation.

General Overview Compensation is the reward to employees for the amount of work they have done in a specific time period. In the modern world, people’s view on employee compensation has significantly changed. In the olden days, people were more concerned about the wages with less attention given to the working conditions.

This is despite of the significant impact the working environment can have on the overall performance of employees. No much attention was paid in an effort to motivate employees. In fact, employees were viewed like any other instrument in the organization, which can easily be replaced. In other words, employees were not valued.

With time, the situation has completely changed. Employees are more concerned about the working environment which has forced the employers as well as the government to act accordingly. These changes were triggered by increased cases of strikes, violence, labor disputes and work slow down. Consequently, this has forced employers and other concerned parties to put more emphasis on the issue of employee compensation.

Discussion There have been various attempts to ensure fair compensation for employees. The government has implemented several acts all of which are aimed at preventing exploitation of employees by their employers.

One of these acts is the Fair Labor and Standards Act of 1938. This act seeks to address the issues relating to compensation, unfair or long working hours and unfavorable working conditions (Whittaker, 2003). The United States department of labor is obliged with the duties of enforcing this act. The act is also related with the minimum wage. The minimum wage applies for all those who are covered and nonexempt workers (Anonymous. 2008).

The main aim of the minimum wage is to ensure that employees get just compensation. On the other hand, overtime regulation ensures that employers do not distribute the overtime discriminatively. Moreover, employers are supposed to give a relatively higher compensation when employees work overtime. However, there are some cases where there is exemption from Fair Labor and Standards Act wage and hour overtime criteria.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These include professional exemptions, administrative exemption, executive exemption and the highly paid employees. When employees receive a fair compensation, they will be motivated to work hard. This will improve on their productive levels. This will also reduce wastage of time through strikes and negotiations.

Later, the Equal Pay Act was formed. The main reason for its formation was to promote gender equality in compensation (Solotoff


Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats Term Paper best essay help: best essay help

According to Victor Hugo ‘Romanticism’ is ‘liberalism in literature.’ Romanticism is that idea which can be understood as an expression of life having imagination (Goodman, 2007, p.22).

Background Individualism was brought by Romantic poets. These poets showed their respect not only in natural world but also in idealism, physical and emotional passion. Their interest in mystic and supernatural elements was also keen. Romantic poets opposed order and rationality of neoclassical poets.

They did this to get freedom in art and politics. English Romantic Movement was started by some famous poets like William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, George Gordon Lord Byron, and John Keats (John Keats, Romanticism, n.d., p. 10).

Similarities between Wordsworth and Keats Wordsworth and Keats took nature as an infinite source and for them it was like lovely imaginings. In his poetry Wordsworth portrayed mountains as the symbol of loneliness and Keats’ portrayal of darkness reflecting glooms and windy mossy ways made both the poets different from other poets who wrote about nature (Goodman, 2007, p.22).

For example from Keats’s poem, ‘I Stood Tip-Toe Upon a Little Hill’:

“The breezes were etheral, and pure, And crept through half closed lattices to cure The languid sick; it cool’d their fever’d sleep, And soothed them into slumbers full and deep. Soon they awoke cleared eyed: nor burnt with thirsting, Nor with hot fingers, nor with temples bursting”: (L. 221 – 226).

In above lines Keats is showing compassion how air affects physical health (Ngiewih, 2008). The most important feature of the English Romantic Movement, which is very popular, is ‘Return to Nature’ that will be analyzed in relation to Wordsworth (Goodman, 2007, p.22).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main feature of Romantic poets was to use time and memory in their poetry. Wordsworth and Keats also used these two themes in their poetry. In his ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn,’ Keats description of pastoral imagery which is painted on an urn shows his thoughts about nature of time.

Similarly, Wordsworth is also recalling his previous visit to the banks of the River Wye in ‘Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey’. In both the poems the similarity of thoughts about nature between both the poets can be seen clearly. In both poems both the poets enjoy the time spent with nature. In ‘Tintern Abbey’ Wordsworth becomes sentimental and the opening lines of the poem establish the tone of the whole poem (Terrall, 2008):

“Five years have past; five summers with the length of five long winters! and again I hear These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs With a soft inland murmur.” (1-4)

In the whole poem Wordsworth has used the combination of time, memory and nature. He is very definite about using the length of time. He is connected with past in ‘Tintern Abbey’ and makes all the time frames important in this poem like: seasons, years, days, hours and minutes.

But here we can find some difference in Wordsworth and Keats of using time in their poetry. As Wordsworth is connected with past, Keats is more related with future. The following lines from Keats’ ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’ depict his thoughts on time (Terrall, 2008):

“Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, Though winning near the goal-yet, do not grieve; She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss, For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!” (15-20)

Difference between Wordsworth and Keats All six great Romantic poets are divided in to two groups. Wordsworth, Coleridge and Scott belong to the elder group, while Byron, Shelly and Keats are of the younger group. The first group poets were all similar in many ways but the younger group had differences due to belonging to different generation and age. The ideas and aspirations which Wordsworth first embraced had kindled humanitarian passions even in the artist Keats (Goodman, 2007, p.52).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wordsworth

Wordsworth is the leader of Romanticism and true son of Romantic Revival. Wordsworth’s historical background and his poetry are the best introduction of 19th century Romanticism. “Both Wordsworth and Coleridge formulated that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful human feeling” (Goodman, 2007, p.50). They believe that the subjects of the poetry should be only nature and human nature and its objects should be the reflection of emotions stimulated by the World and humanity. Wordsworth’s lyrics odes and sonnets make him a great romantic poet (Goodman, 2007, p.50).

Wordsworth’s Romanticism gives an extraordinary contrast because he categories the sublime and the ridiculous. He has a kind of middle style; at its best it has grace and dignity, a heart searching simplicity, and a certain magical enlightenment of phrase that is all his own.

His position and influence are due partly to the fact that he greatly enlarged the boundaries of poetry giving it, as subject matter; themes varying from the joys and sorrows of the simple, homely lives to the transcendental interests of soul in communion with nature and God, partly to his development of a poetic style befitting such material.

The instinct to perceive nature and human life in transcendental terms was early manifested in Wordsworth. This habit of mind sobered and strengthened by reflection, pervades all his poetry and gives to it a peculiarly stimulating character (Goodman, 2007, p.51).

His Romanticism is deeply rooted in realism. His great poems are saturated with the very breath and spirit of life. In a lonely highland meadow Wordsworth saw the solitary girl, making hay and heard her singing at her work. Normally, there was nothing unusual in those rustic notes of the peasant girl to quicken thought or inspire expression.

But to Wordsworth imagination, the doleful strains of the forlorn reaper seemed to derive a pensive sorrow from memories of old, unhappy, for off things and battles long ago. He has the gift of imagination in the highest and strictest sense of the word (Goodman, 2007, p.51). Wordsworth always saw beauty in nature rather than any man-made objects (Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, 2011, p.2).


John Keats was essentially a Romantic poet. His poetry is the meeting ground of old Hellenism and medieval romanticism and even his Hellenism is romantic. His romance is largely derived from English and Italian romancers of the Middle ages (Goodman, 2007, p.134).

Keats always admired Spenser and Boccaccio and his imagination was always influenced after reading both the poets’ poetry. Keats poetry showed the romance of three worlds: the antique; the medieval and the modern where his poetry had rich and pictorial expressions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and contrast Wordsworth and Keats by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Romantic element in Keats appears less in his choice of subjects than in his manner of treating them. ‘Hyperion’, ‘Endymion’, ‘Lamia’ are old classical in story but at the same time they have romantic element too. On the other hand, ‘The Eve of St. Agnes’, ‘Isabelle’, ‘La Belle Dams Sans Merci’ are drawn from the Middle of ages in which romance breathes more freely (Goodman, 2007, p.138).

Keats had no interest in men. In the passion and struggle of ordinary human life he discussed his feelings for poetry. To him poetry was the world of the imagination only, realm of enchantment where only those might dwell who saw visions and dreamed dreams- a land of voluptuous languor, where magic filled the air and life passed like a dream, measured only by the exquisiteness of its sensations and the intensity of its delights (Goodman, 2007, p.139).

Keats’ principle was “Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty” (Goodman, 2007, p.140). He was passionate about beautiful things in an intellectual manner not in a sentimental way. Keats had intense romantic fervor. His Romanticism had an outlook different from that of his colleagues Byron looked around and criticized; Shelly looked forward and aspired; and Keats looked backward into the romantic past and sighed (Goodman, 2007, p.146).

Keats wanted to become a pure, simple and natural poet (Sen, 2009, p. 23-24). He was simply a poet. Neither was he a teacher nor a preacher.

Wordsworth put emphasis on spontaneity and imagination. He focused on the element of thought that should be used in poetry. He gave a particular shape and direction to English Romanticism (Tilak, 2002, p. 14, 15, 24).

In the Romanticism of Wordsworth there is the consciousness and will of a return to natural sources. The disease that is preying upon poetry is the artificiality of the language in which the external and explicit means of conveying intensity have been worn out by the deadening effect of custom. The romantic idea had crystalized round these themes and these rhythms, which are still pregnant with the old time vigor of the English genius (Legouis


Risks in an Organization and Ability to Manage Them Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Reference List

Introduction In every organisation, there are some key management decisions about management, which play a pivotal role in determining the performance of an organization. Managers have the ability to control these variables in their attempt to optimize on various things which affects an organization. One of these practices is the risk management. In every business, the managers often find themselves faced with a wide range of risks. The success of an organization is determined by its ability to manage these risks.

Discussion Poor risk management can lead to a complete death of an organization (Ferreira, not dated). The long term performance of an organization is significantly determined by the company’s ability to detect and act upon any threatening risk. Risks can come from different angles. They can come from within an organization (internal risks) as well as outside an organization (external risks) (Sekhar, 2005).

In the current business world, risk management has become more important than ever. The market has become highly competitive and, therefore, it requires every organization to have the ability to detect the exposure to risks as well as the best methods to solve particular problems. Ability to manage risks has a significant impact on the competitive advantage.

In many cases, an organization may be forced to take a risk as a way of advancing its efforts to realize its goals or visions. In other words, leaders in an organization may take steps of which they are not sure of their possible consequences. In such cases, an organization takes a risk. The action taken may help an organization in realizing profits and it may also dip it into losses (Ferreira, not dated). It, therefore, needs risk management skills to anticipate and prepare for such risks.

In business, there are different types of risks. One of the main types of risk in business is venturing into a new market. In order to expand its market network, an organization needs to invest extra amount of money. However, this poses a risk because the new market may fail.

The managers are not sure that their product will succeed in the new market. Another type of risk is financial risk. In some cases, an organization may be forced to take a loan in order to invest in a certain field. Such sources of capital carry risks because the organization must pay with interests. The risk rises from the fact that an organization is not always sure whether the new venture will end up to profits or losses. However, the risk managers should make the necessary assessment in the new market in order to minimize the impacts of risks.

The process of risk management plays a pivotal role in overall performance of an organization. One of the most important steps in risk management is identification of the problem. This directs the risk managers on how to handle a certain problem. According to Bunyan (2006), it is necessary to consider whether a certain solution will solve the problem partially or completely. In order to have a successful risk management process, it is necessary to allocate adequate funding to the risk management program.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that risk management is an important practice in every organization. Risk management prepares an organization in early risk detection which reduces the impact of such risks to an organization. Risks can be very dangerous to the overall performance of an organization if not properly handled.

It is, therefore, advisable for every organization to take the necessary measures in order to improve their risk management processes. The risk managers are obliged with the responsibilities of detecting risks early enough and then acting accordingly to compress these risks.

Reference List Bunyan, N. (2006). Managing Risk and Business Security. Retrieved from

Ferreira, G. (n.d.). Best practices for Risk Management. Web.

Sekhar, (2005). Management Control Systems: Text and Cases. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.