Assistive technology device According to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), assistive technology (AT) device is “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 1997).
Assistive technology service Assistive technology service refers “any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device” (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 1997).
Discuss the role that the IDEA has had on the application of AT
IDEA concerns itself with the need of serving children with disabilities in an environment of least restriction. IDEA wants inclusion in education, in each State. It also looks into individual students with any form of disability have an individual education plan (IEP). IEP is a program of a particular student with a disability.
IDEA has statements that make references to AT services and devices, which the IEP must take into account when developing a program for the benefit of a student with disabilities. The IEP team must establish whether the AT will allow the student to achieve set goals in the education system, which the student cannot achieve due to disability.
They also must establish whether the learner will need AT device while in and outside the school. Likewise, IEP must also if the AT will help the student participate widely in educational programs, and augment their communication abilities.
Any positive establishment of the issues under evaluation results into satisfying the needs of the student by providing the necessary AT services or devices, which help the student achieve his or her educational needs.
Discuss the definitional ambiguity of assistive technology
There exists ambiguity with the reference to the definition of AT as Golden notes. The US federal law recognizes the term as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 1997).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Golden notes that this definition can be specific with reference certain elements such as the purpose of AT. For instance, it covers assistance in education, accessibility of the environment, competition, promotion of independence, and improvement of quality of life (Golden, 1998).
Lewis also notes that AT has two main functions. It can enhance a student’s ability to counteract effects of disabilities, and AT also offers alternative methods of doing tasks such that AT compensates what the learner with a disability lacks (Lewis, 1998).
Thus, assistive technology presents diverse meanings to different people based on their views, use and specific requirements. Lewis notes “in the area of rehabilitation, the term refers to technologies, such as mobility devices, environmental controls and adapted equipment” (Lewis, 1998).
Professionals working in “the areas of physiotherapy and occupational therapy focus on technologies that support access, and quality of life issues when referring to AT” (Lewis, 1998). These individuals also use the terms “adaptive technology or rehabilitation technology in reference to AT” (Lewis, 1998).
In the teaching area, “AT means the inclusions and adjustments given to a student’s learning program” (Lewis, 1998).
The British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta) defines AT with this view as “the software and technology which helps people with disabilities and special needs to overcome the additional challenges they face in communication and learning” (Becta, 2003). Becta also uses others terms such as “instructional technology or information technology, special education technology” (Becta, 2003).
The usage of the term is dynamic and changing. For instance, “the term inclusive technology is popular in the business world” (Becta, 2003). Some critics have suggested that the name should be e-inclusion rather than assistive technology. This is because AT focus gives priority to technology over education.
We will write a custom Essay on Assistive Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They argue that e-inclusion is appropriate because of the social justice and inclusion debates. At the same time, e-inclusion shows the use of technology to enhance learning and other inclusive activities for students with disabilities and learning problems. Thus, e-inclusion would be appropriate because it covers technologies, learners, and activities.
Thus, AT provides different meaning to different professionals. For instance, to a physiotherapist it may mean a physical tool that aid movement, while to a teacher it may mean a software program that helps students read and write. These many meanings can lead to confusions among “professionals in identification, consideration, allocation and implementation of assistive technology” (Becta, 2003). This ambiguity in the definition of AT requires collaborations among these professionals.
Assistive Technology can provide students with a tool system that can improve their functional capabilities at school, in the home, and in the community and workplace. Discuss the following: What are the indicators that would suggest an evaluation is warranted?
There are situations where the student has self awareness of the various factors of his or her disability and has recognized the need for inclusion in learning. Thus, this is the primary indicator for any need for evaluation. There are also cases of self-advocacy where the student needs to disclose his or her disability status in order to get inclusion programs as stipulated in the federal and state laws.
There are cases where the student seeks confidentiality regarding his or her documentation, handling of grievances, and evaluation of learning progress. These may indicate that there is a need for AT evaluation to provide useful information for inclusion and learning.
Students may also engage the faculty in the provision of AT and inclusion to allow them be independent and access learning aids and curricula. In this respect, a student may conduct a self-evaluation concerning his or her dependent on AT and propose the necessary AT, justification for the new AT devices and how to get the new AT devices.
A student may also decide to choose a suitable AT for his or her disability and decide on long-term AT devices and how to acquire them. At the same time, he or she may also identify issues with his or her existing AT devices and seek appropriate support and service from faculties or service providers.
Describe both a formal and informal evaluation
Both formal and informal evaluation strategies are suitable in the evaluation of learners with disabilities. Formal evaluation applies standardized systems or certain standards of instruments, which are academically suitable for learners with disabilities. There are standardized referenced tests, which compare a student’s performance to previously established standards rather than using performances of other students. Standardized referenced tests use standardized data for scoring such as age, ethnic group, or gender.
Informal evaluation methods employ the use of non-standardized items like as teachers’ feedback, observations, developmental ratings, performance results, checklists, interviews, which are academically suitable for learners with disabilities. Informal evaluation methods depend on the knowledge, evaluation experience and judgment of the person who carries out the evaluation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Assistive Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We must note that some of the evaluation items may fall under both informal and formal items. For instance, we have standardized and structured observation procedures consisting of instruments. On the other hand, we may also have informal observation techniques with formal and professional evaluation. In some case, the evaluation process may use formal rating scale and use professional observation in assessing the learner’s behavior, motivation, strength, and weaknesses during an evaluation procedure.
Describe the Principles of Universal Design (CAST) and how it has impacted the application of computer based assistive technology for individuals with disabilities
The idea of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) emanated from Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). UDL strives to achieve universal ranges of product design built for the widest ranges of disabilities. This is necessary instead of resorting to other items, which are difficult to adapt, costly, and inconvenient.
Therefore, UDL focuses on the following agendas. First, UDL seeks to have several means of representation. This enables learners with disabilities to have multiple channels of acquiring information and knowledge. Second, UDL looks at a number of possible ways of expression.
This enables learners to demonstrate their knowledge in a number of ways. Third, there are also ways of engagements. This focuses on capturing learners’ interests, providing motivation, giving challenges, and implementing different AT measures. Thus, the purpose is to assist learners with disabilities achieve their academic goals, and help teachers in delivering curriculum content that students can master, meaningful, understandable, and engaging.
Discuss the role and importance of assistive technology in the lives of individuals with disabilities
AT has several roles in the lives of people with disabilities, and there are wide ranges of devices to cater for different forms of disabilities. AT devices allow people with disabilities to access, manipulate and control their environments. These devices include certain keyboards, mice, switches, and remote controls. There are also devices that help such people move from a point to another such as automatic door openers, ramps, and Braille signs.
These devices also assist in daily life experiences. There are devices for eating, walking, dressing, and even brushing teeth. These devices include adapted toilets, special utensils, mugs, shower stalls among others. There are also listening devices to assist deaf or people with hearing problems. Such devices include amplifiers, hearing aids, typing telephones, and captions on TV.
Communication or augmentative devices allow people with disabilities hear or communicate effectively with others. Such devices include voice output devices, computers, picture boards, and computer software. There are also computer-based instructions that help people to read, learn mathematics, write and learn other subjects too.
People with disabilities also have mobility devices to assist them with their movements safely and independently in their environments. These devices include wheelchairs, adapted vehicles and walkers. There are also devices that can position people to retain good postures or avoid exhaustion. Such devices include the adapted chairs, standers, and tables among others. People who have visual difficulties in accessing information may use magnifiers, books on tapes, large-text prints, and talking computer programs.
Describe how computer based assistive technology has impacted the areas of reading and writing for students with disabilities. Include in your response the potential barriers and solutions offered by AT from a multi-disability perspective
Computer-based AT can address many challenges in reading and writing among learners with disabilities. There are recognition networks, which allow the student to identify and recognize patterns in the learning environment, such as letters, voices, colors, pictures, words, and among other complex patterns and give meaning to them.
Learners have different recognition abilities. For instance, a learner who has a talent for English may have an aptitude for recognizing changes in sentence lengths while reading. Likewise, a learner with visual difficulties may use tactile and optical character recognition (OCR) as a means of recognition.
Strategic networks “give the learner instructions on performing tasks by monitoring and carrying out actions” (Rose and Meyer, 2000). For instance, strategic networks enable learners to develop their writing, listening, and problem solving skills. Learners with disabilities can achieve and enhance skills and thinking abilities using experience, practice, and reinforcement. However, learners are unique and have different learning characteristics which affect the learning outcomes.
Affective networks consider what is essential and offer learners the motivation for learning. Learners have several diverse motivating factors, which depend on individual differences in emotional state, culture, interests, level of difficulty, and performances outcomes among others.
These are computer-aided AT that support learning i.e. writing and reading. However, learners’ abilities and their applications of these technologies in learning environments vary considerably. Meyer and Rose note “UDL approaches to instruction and curriculum development provide flexibility in the presentation of information, multiple ways for students to demonstrate knowledge, and diversity and choice in the content of lessons and assignments to support students’ diverse interests and learning styles” (Rose and Meyer, 2000).
Thus, traditional forms of assessment, materials, and instructions like lectures, text materials, and written tests may present challenges to a number of learners. This is because educators develop such materials with broad needs of students. This means that merging AT and traditional methods of learning present serious challenges to instructors.
We must recognize that “flexibility in classroom management, curriculum, teaching strategies, and evaluation is an essential part in realizing that learning opportunities are accessible to all learners” (Lewis, 1998). UDL aims to eliminate “learning barriers and the need to for an inclusion of individual students with disabilities by incorporating the needs of the largest range of learners in the design of lessons and curricular contents” (Lewis, 1998).
Instructors can support recognition networks by providing several and flexible formats for learners to get information and reinforce key concepts. These formats may include video, oral presentations, highlighting, digitized text, graphic organizers and give useful information about background of the study.
We can support strategic networks through providing a number of means of expressing knowledge. These include written, oral, group presentation, PowerPoint, and so on. Likewise, we can also provide chances for practice and give immediate feedback to allow learners monitor their progress.
Instructors can support “affective networks by offering learners with multiple choices of contents and tools, giving challenging tasks, providing varieties of recognition and rewards” (Rose and Meyer, 2000). For instance, learners may choose to work independently or as a part of a group. Teachers must ensure a balance and challenging contents with suitable supports for AT to enhance learners’ engagement.
AT developments have their foundations on flexibility that support diverse learning techniques within these learning networks. Majorities of traditional teaching methods and curricular contents do not focus on the range of learners diversities that exist in a learning environment today under inclusion programs. AT approaches offer instructors chances of exploring innovative techniques to meet the diverse needs of different of learners.
Consider Anna’s needs for AT and accommodations in the areas of reading and writing. Please consider no tech, low tech and high tech solutions as part of your assistive technology plan. Please include a rationale or justification for the assistive technology selected
Some of Anna’s condition regarding reading and writing may require no technology device to resolve. For instance, Anna can choose to read as a part of group with other learners, take parts in role plays and presentations.
When we consider low technology devices, Anna may use readily available solutions such PowerPoint, highlighting texts, books on tapes, videos, and so on. This is because Anna has an IQ that is above average. It means she encounters minimal difficulties in the learning process.
Anna’s need for high technology solutions may be more elaborate than the two previous cases of no technology and low technology. These may be specific AT devices and services. In Anna’s case of recommending a solution for her reading and writing, we need specific tools.
Anna has a problem of small, fine motor movements making her have difficulties in writing. Thus, she needs high technology devices of specialized software or hardware. Suitable AT devices for Anna include a larger keyboard that gives her hand movements to type, and computer-developed voices such as the synthesized speech.
These tools will enable Anna to keep on track with her writings. Anna also needs abbreviation expander to enable her create, store, and re-use abbreviations for frequently-used words or phrases. “This can save Anna hand movements and keystrokes, and ensure proper spelling of words and phrases she has coded as abbreviations” (Rose and Meyer, 2000)..
Anna needs AT devices for writing text because she has such significant spelling problems that her teachers lack suggestions of what they are. She also has illegible handwriting that she cannot use for note-taking in class. AT devices, which can assist Anna write are word prediction, and a large electronic keyboard. These AT devices will support Anna in writing notes, which match and cover for the areas of difficulty and allow her write at level that matches her ability.
Anna still needs AT devices, which can help revise the notes she has written even if she can avoid poor handwriting. She can use text-to-speech device to review and read the notes on the screen. She also has her key words or all notes highlighted as she reads them back. This enables her visually follow them as she reads aloud. Text-to-speech will enable Anna detect errors she makes while writing. With this support, Anna has the ability of becoming independent in revision of her writings and other notes.
Anna can also use audio books and publications for a possible case of dyslexia. Recorded books will give Anna opportunities to listen and understand the text. “Recorded books are available in different formats like audiocassettes, MP3 downloads and CDs” (Rose and Meyer, 2000).
References Becta. (2003). What the research says about ICT supporting special educational needs (SEN) and inclusion. Coventry: Becta.
Golden, D. (1998). Assistive Technology in Special Education: Policy
Westboro Baptist Church Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Activities of the Westboro Baptist Church
Controversy in relation to the 1st Amendment
Introduction Westboro Baptist Church is an independent Baptist church found to the west of Topeka approximately three miles from Kansas State Capitol in the United States of America. It is led by Fred Phelps and its membership is mainly derived from his family. This essay seeks to discuss the problems that are caused by the church.
It will discuss by giving examples why everyone hates them, what makes it controversial, why having them continue what they are doing is a problem, their activities in relation to 1st amendment and how offensive it is within the setup of the society.
Activities of the Westboro Baptist Church The church is known for its disorderly conducts and taking an extreme position against gay marriage. It is particularly hated for its persistent habit of carrying out protests in public places such as churches, schools, and funerals for prominent people and American soldiers killed in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The group has also conducted protests outside the United States, including Sweden and an unsuccessful attempt to enter into Britain. However, they managed to enter Canada in August 2008 against the authority’s wishes and protested at the funeral of a young man who was a victim of a cruel murder on a passenger bus.
The group’s extremist activities are a threat to the society. Their unfair targeting of some churches such Catholic, Lutheran and schools that they believe to be lenient towards homosexuality only continues to draw condemnation directed at them. This Church does not respect the rights of other religious groups such as the Jewish and Muslim community.
In fact, they have recently begun mailing a powerful anti-Semitic DVD to Jewish organizations and their leaders. They also attacked President Obama in the DVD depicting him as an anti-Christ. Such moves are not only disrespectful but are also misguided as they have created tension between its members and those of other churches.
The church is also known for its abnormally strong stance against homosexuality. They often hold anti-gay protests and picket the funerals of gay victims of murder or deaths resulting from AIDS related complications. They once picketed a local appliance store selling Swedish vacuum cleaners which they accused of being sympathetic of gays. They also threatened to picket the production of a play based on the murder of young man known as Mathew Shepherd who was killed by two men because of his sexual orientation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These activities are a disruption of people’s private businesses and lives and are not acceptable in any civilized society. Their protests towards fallen heroes such as soldiers killed in Iraq and celebrities such as Michael Jackson and Ronnie James Dio, among others, make them a public enemy. They are also an enemy of the state because they occasionally picket federal courthouses that they deem to be partisan in legitimizing gay marriages.
This amounts to interference with the state judicial system. The group is never sympathetic or sensitive and their careless utterances to bereaved families shows that they do not value human lives and are not keen in promoting a sense of unity in the society (Fitzgerald, par. 2). For instance, their criticism of the family members of an 11- year boy who died of brain tumor that they did not teach him to “obey God” caused great distress to the family within a few hours of the boy’s death.
The group’s activities are controversial since their intentions cannot be clearly visualized and comprehended. While they claim to be Christians, their actions do not concur with the Christian teachings of preaching peace and forgiveness. For example, the harsh words they utter aimed at grieved families and their violent demonstrations are not Christian.
Controversy in relation to the 1st Amendment The activities of Westboro Baptist Church contravene the constitution of the United States of America under the bill of rights as contained in the First Amendment.
This law guarantees freedom of religion and right to peaceful assembly. The perennial action by the Westboro church members of attacking other Christian churches and religious organizations such as Muslim and Jews is a breach of other citizens’ right to exercise their freedom. The operation of picketing public gatherings such as funerals is also a violation of people’s right to peaceful assembly.
This law therefore gives the government an open opportunity to take action against any mischievous activities of the church against members of the public without fear or favor. It also guarantees citizens protection against organizations with wrong motives, such as those that purport to be the official government religion, that is, it separates state from religion.
Conclusion The group’s belief that they are the perfect church and their constant criticism of other religious faiths is seriously offensive to other people and is likely to cause disharmony amongst citizens from different religious background.
We will write a custom Essay on Westboro Baptist Church specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, their interference in other people’s private lives is equally offensive and therefore it is important that this group be monitored closely. It is also imperative that the government respects the constitution and treat all religions equally and in doing so protect the public from dangers imposed by the Westboro Baptist Church among other churches or organizations with similar motives.
Works Cited Fitzgerald, Walter. “Interview with Westboro Baptist Church: Hate in the Name of God.” Digital Journal, June 16, 2010. Web.
Giving an Overview of Music Education Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
In this presentation I am going to give an overview of music education and its relationship with music therapy. Music forms play an important role in human lives. In this paper, I want to consider music therapy. I will focus on some arguments and controversies concerning the matter. While there are many people who believe that music therapy is not effective, I believe that music can provide us with one of the most effective therapies. However, the debate and controversy about music therapy does not end here (Wheeler 13).
Music Therapy Music therapy is the use of music as something that will have positive effects in social, psychological, and physical functioning of people with different educational or health needs. Personally, I believe that current studies are effective because they show the profound effects of music.
This involves the use of music to heal individuals with different complications. The main therapeutic responses include calming patients, easing tension, promoting movement, and reducing depression (Wheeler 18). It is possible to state that music positively affects the human brain because it eases tension and creates calmness that helps in healing different diseases.
On the other hand, there is certain controversy in this issue. Some individuals argue that music is useful for personal relaxation and fulfilment but has no therapeutic properties. Various individuals and researchers argue that music can distort somebody’s feelings especially at high volume (Wheeler 19). Such individuals argue that music cannot be used for individuals who are sick. This controversy is what has excited researchers and has encouraged them to conduct surveys to explore the relevance of music as a tool of therapy.
Application of Music Therapy It is important to look at the different views and approaches towards the of use music for therapeutic purposes. With different views and controversies about effectiveness of music as a tool for therapy in mind, I still believe that people can use music for different purposes. Studies have shown that music can influence heartbeat and breathing (Wheeler 28). This can make the body function better and, therefore, we should be willing to use music for our own health benefits.
Music can improve somebody’s state of mind thus making it easier to deal with anxiety or any form of depression. Listening to music can help reduce stress and make the body active. Other possible benefits of music include lowering the body pressure, boosting the immunity and easing tension of muscles.
However, I would like to point out that some individuals do not see the benefits of the use of music. They argue that music therapy cannot address some of the complications. However, I think the Individuals who are sceptical about the therapeutic properties of music should try to listen to music and check if it helps ease their tensions and depression.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I would like to state that, because there are different opinions about music therapy, different individuals should be willing to use music and see whether it can be helpful (Wheeler 38). This will make it easier for them to have a first-hand experience. They will be able to come to the right conclusions as for the use of music. They will definitely agree that music can be a potent tool to treat certain diseases and conditions. This will help people dissolve the existing controversy.
Business Pressures in Aviation Industry Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Challenges of the 21st Century
Introduction The airlines in the world have been facing business pressures and this has raised eyebrows. The aviation industry has been forced to start thinking of how to re-strategize its business activities (Kayal, 1997). This includes business at the operational and financial levels. However, these challenges have worked for good to most airlines.
It made the airlines to work even harder to combat the situation and as a result, faced up to the challenges. This has in turn led to the success in turning around most of the affected companies (airlines). Most airlines underwent complete transformation as they reinvented themselves in order to be more effective and efficient. This essay paper examines the worldwide Airline Industry focusing majorly on the business pressures that the industry has been forced to undergo in an effort to stay afloat.
Overview The final quarter of the twentieth Century has seen many countries of the world experience transformations in their transport industry. The situation has brought major impacts in the lives of the passengers and even in the business of the transport service providers. The transformations have mixed effects. On one hand, it has led to positive results to the stakeholders and on the other hand, the changes have had negative impacts. The negative changes have been a great challenge to both the customers and the service providers.
The transport industry is a vast industry involving land, air and even sea transport. Air transport is one of the transport modes that have been faced with the major challenges that come with generational change. The challenges that have faced this industry are vast.
Examples include challenges arising from macroeconomic difficulties such as the Asian financial problems of 1997 (Sarawati, 2001). Another occurred on ninth of September 2001. Majority of the transformations have majorly been as a result of dynamisms within the industry itself without involving the external factors.
These transformations, in a way, have contributed broadly to social welfare majorly because of the aspect of competition with the various stakeholders trying their level best to outdo the other and overcome their challenges.
The 21st Century has come with its fair share of the major issues that have greatly affected the airline industry. In the Western Hemisphere and specifically North America, the airlines have been greatly affected by these changes. Examples include the oil crises and the eventual increase in oil price. Another challenge is the blatant actions of terrorism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Challenges of the 21st Century People and governments have been faced with some terrible situations as a result of these unprecedented challenges in the industry. A recent paper, the Sunday Herald, provided some well-investigated information about the Jamaican Airline industry or rather Air Jamaica. The news article stated that the industry had lost up to a whopping $JA33 over a business period of ten years.
The article went on to state that the last time that the industry made a substantial profit was in the year 1974. This clearly shows how this industry has been undergoing a difficult business situation (Gordon, 2007).
The transport industry, just like all other industries has faced the need for wide and broad adaptation to the trends in vogue according to the evolving world in terms of the economical, social and labor changes. The three major factors have been the major players in the revolution of the transport industry. They include information revolution, globalization, and government financial and budget constraints.
Many airlines have been forced to downscale their employee base. This has resulted in the employees being considered redundant. This is as a result of the scaling down of national and regional operations and carriers.
In addition to the elevation of the budget carriers, many of the major carriers have been driven to bankruptcy forcing them to come up or rather develop their own budget subsidiary airline in order to compete. A good example is the Far East in which almost all the airline companies have each bought shares in the regional budget airlines (Ballantyne, 1997). In other words, they have completely owned the airlines.
There is a major and widespread belief that transport is always better organized by the private sector as opposed to the public sector or the government. In addition, it has been postulated that the rise of the private sector in the industry has given rise to very effective competition. This is another business pressure. Majority of the nations are aiming at attracting private airline investors. This is in an exercise that is set to cut government spending in the sector.
However, most currently, countries have the majority of their airline companies owned privately. For example, private individuals own almost all Latin American airlines. This is a great aspect characterizing the modern airline industry. This has done well in enhancing efficiency in the industry.
We will write a custom Essay on Business Pressures in Aviation Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The challenge has been in the controlling of the surge in the number of prospective companies ready to invest in the sector. It is common knowledge that the airline, with its delicateness, has to be carefully taken care of in terms of who is given certification to proceed with the business.
Another business pressure that the aviation industry has been faced with is the ever-changing state of technology. Technological advancement has been challenging to the industry runners.
In order to keep up with the large extent of competition, the installed state of technology has to be up to date. It is important to keep in mind that it is a rather expensive affair coming up with a single plane, let alone installing an up to date state of technology. This has been a major challenge majorly because of the transitory nature of technology.
The occasional oil crises are another inhibitory factor to this industry. Oil is the source of fuel and consequent energy to this sector. During the 21st century, oil supply has been quite inconsistent as a result of many causes and effects. This has affected this industry greatly since there is always a direct correlation between this important commodity and the transport sector and not only the aviation industry.
One negative impact of such pressure has been the cost of transportation and freight. Transport costs have seen great elevation within this period and have led the passengers to dig deeper in to their pockets. Most of the time, they are forced to bear the burden since all the costs are directed towards them.
Apart from the passengers, the industry owners have to spend extra dollars to ensure a maintained supply and consumption of the commodity. This has greatly raised the cost of operation and maintenance of the industry and this is a problem that has seen some of the companies ground some of their planes.
This is in effort to cut down on expense and only remain with the number of fully functioning planes that are cost effective in terms of maintenance and operation. The industries that have been forced to reduce plane numbers have not been spared in terms of financial deficits, however. In addition to the financial challenges that the industry may be faced with, the companies are forced to scale down the number of employees and result in the loss of very vital human resource.
The aviation industry has everything to do with hospitality since it majorly involves providing services in order to appropriately serve their clients. Another form of pressure facing the hospitality industry is security. This century has seen a number of cases involving terrorist activities. Terrorism had previously haunted the whole world with various terror groups emerging and carrying out their heinous activities in various countries and nations of the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Pressures in Aviation Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The trend has been that every incidence of attempted or successful terror attack is followed by travel warnings. The various countries through their embassies impose travel warnings and sanctions against their citizens travelling into the besieged countries. During these periods of sanctions and warnings, the aviation industry is largely affected.
Travel warnings translate into reduced transportation in terms of freight and freight into and out of the affected countries. Aviation companies are forced to deal with a problem of a great reduction in the number of passengers, which translates into reduced revenues to the industry.
The fact that these acts could be equally carried out in the planes, worsens the situation of terrorism. This has brought the widespread call for caution to be practiced in the airline sector (Gill, 2004). Thus, these companies have had to enhance and facilitate their security systems to keep up with the prevailing security situation boggling the entire globe (Markiewicz, 2000).
One major airline affected by these current challenges is the Southwest airlines. This is an industry that has been known to rake in millions in terms of profits year in year out. However, as the airline flew into the year 2009, the airline became under pressure (Kaiser, 1997).
Most of these challenges brought about financial implications, which forced the airline to cut its fight and slow down its network of new airplanes. The investors became greatly worried with shares of the respective shareholders falling as low as 40% in a period of three months.
This was a vaunted fuel system that had given the Southwest airline industry a great advantage over their competitors earlier (Jeff, 2007). However, this power turned negative when the prices of fuel went plunging down hence costing this industry hundreds of millions of dollars. The airline, once renowned for performance, was faced with a major rise in prices and was even forced to downsize the number of employees.
Conclusion The period of global slowdown had negative effects on the aviation industry throughout the world. It went through a period of unprecedented changes. The changes occurred due to various reasons. One of them is that most of the well-known airlines had been incurring losses for several years.
This resulted in bankruptcy and there was need to restructure the whole thing (Blyton, Lucio, McGurk,
Niccolo Paganini and Karol Lipinski: The greatest Violinists of all times Compare and Contrast Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Life and Work of Niccolo Paganini
Life and Work of Karol Lipinski
Why Paganini was more famous than Lipinski
Introduction The violin is a musical instrument that is considered as one of perfect. It is indeed perfect due to its versatility and attractive musicality. The violin has been described as a human voice because its model is able to reproduce different human moods from a sorrowful mood, to a pathetic mood to exhilarating joy and even lyrical happiness. Massart and Kreisler were violinists reputed for their ability to make their violins cry.
The violin can emulate almost all the other music instruments and can produce varied feelings depending on the skill of the player. It is within the range of the four octaves of a violin to play all the microtones and tones of the scale and can play chords, as well.
The violin can also imitate all sorts of animal noises and bird singing and generally any other sound that can be imagined. There have been many great violin players in history, but the greatest of them all were Niccolo Paganini and Karol Lipinski with the former being more famous than the latter.
The two lived at the same time and even shared performances. The paper presents the life and work of the two prominent violinists going a step further to provide working supportive evidence behind the claim that Paganini was more famous in relation to his counterpart Lipinski.
Life and Work of Niccolo Paganini Niccolo Paganini was an Italian composer, guitarist, violist and violinist. He lies in the category of the most popular violinists ever in history. In fact, today’s violinists have declared him the foundation of the famous violin skill. Paganini was the third of Antonio and Teresa’s six children and was born in October 27, 1782 in Genoa, Italy.
His parents, particularly his father, were not triumphant as dealers. As a result, they had to venture in other sectors, for instance, the music industry, as a way of backing up their earnings. At only five years old, Paganini began attending mandolin lessons steered by his father.
The bright student, as revealed by the father, was good enough to apply his violin skills learned from his father in real life situations at only seven years. Paganini showed musical talent at an early age, which earned him several scholarships for training in violin playing. Paganini carried out his lessons under a very close mentorship of people like Giacomo Costa and Giovanni Servetto. As a result, his mastery of violin outweighed that of his former teacher: his father.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Accompanied by his father, Paganini paid a visit to Parma in search for more skills from people like Rolla Alessandro. Ghiretti and Paer mostly influenced the composition style adapted by Paganini even though he did not take long with them.
In 1796, the French invaded northern Italy including Genoa. The Paganini family escaped to Romairone near Bolzaneto to seek refuge. Accompanied by his father, Paganini paid another visit to Livorno in 1800. Here, he got a chance to participate in concerts while his father did nautical exertions. He did not earn much from his position and would get most of his income from freelancing. As much as Paganini was a famous violinist, he was equally a womanizer and a gambler.
In 1805, Napoleonic France annexed Lucca, ceding the region to a sister of Napoleon called Elisa Baciocchi who appointed Paganini as a violinist in her court. Paganini also gave private lessons to Elisa’s husband. Baciocchi, the impressive Duchess of Tuscany, went along with Paganini who later left her in 1809 for a freelance career.
In some time to come, Paganini had planned to visit most of the places near Genoa and Parma. Despite the fact that he was popular with the locals in Parma and Genoa, he was little known in Europe. In 1813, he performed at a concert in Milan, which turned out to be his first break in Europe. His success in the concert began to draw the attention of prominent musicians across Europe, although most of them were more conservative compared to Paganini.
He had encounters with famous musicians such as Luis Spohr and Charles Lafont, which created intense rivalry. He continued to perform in Italy for the next few years. In August 1828 to February 1831, he ran a European tour, which he started with a concert in Vienna. It was followed by more concerts in major European cities in Poland, Germany, Bohemia and Strasbourg. He then had another tour in Britain and France.
The tours made him famous in Europe due to his technical ability and willingness to display it. Besides embarking on his own masterworks, with the most liked of it addressing the subject of variations and thesis, Paganini went a step further to change the compositions done by former violinists, for instance, Giovanni Viotti and Rodolphe Kreutze.
Despite of his numerous idealistic conquests, Paganini got a chance to meet and share some dialogue with Antonia Bianchi, a famous musician from Como. They both performed in numerous concerts all through Italy. They even had a son although they never legalized the union.
We will write a custom Essay on Niccolo Paganini and Karol Lipinski: The greatest Violinists of all times specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paganini was a close friend of composers such as Hector Berlioz and Gioachino Rossini with whom he performed in various concerts. Paganini owned several fine string instruments, most of which he acquired and lost under very legendary circumstances.
For instance, in Livorno while he was still a teenager, he was lent a violin to use in a concert by a wealthy businessperson named Livron. Giuseppe Guarneri, the master, had made the violin. Paganini’s performance at the concert impressed Giuseppe so much: he could not accept his violin back.
During his displaying of his exemplary talent in Parma, the devoted violinist, Paganini, stood an excellent opportunity of winning a precious violin also engineered by Master Giuseppe, after taking the first position of a quite challenging sight-reading exercise.
In his concerts, Paganini restricted himself in his own masterworks. A good number of these works have had a significant positive impact in the world of violin skills. While serving at the Baciocchi court, he composed 24 caprices, as well as quartets, trios, duo-sonatas and solo pieces for guitar. Most of these works were inspired by guitar quintet publications of Boccherini.
Paganini is the de facto master of variations, many of which he composed and performed before the European tour. Generally, Paganini made technically imaginative compositions, which greatly expanded the timbre of violin. He would imitate the sounds of various animals and instruments in his performances. One such a performance was called the Spanish dance, which humorously imitated farm animals. Duetto Amoroso stands out as one amongst his most outstanding performances.
It was a music played by Paganini alone. The solo performance attracted the eyes of many based on the content, as well as message, which the singer passed to the entire violin fans. Even then, his works came under intense criticism for lacking true polyphonic characteristics. He inspired many prominent composers who wrote variations for his compositions.
Life and Work of Karol Lipinski On the other hand, Karol Lipinski was born on October 30th 1790, eight years after Niccolo Paganini. Lipinski was born in Lublin on an estate belonging to the aristocratic Potocki family in Poland.
Lipinski’s father was a director of music for the Potockis. The notion that a teacher will always have a bigger share of knowledge than the student does not always hold true. There exists cases where students end up acquiring knowledge and skills from their teachers, and based on the criterion they use to deliver the same to others, they do it better compared to their teachers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Niccolo Paganini and Karol Lipinski: The greatest Violinists of all times by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Karol Lipinski was such a type: his music knowledge gained from school went far beyond that of the teacher (his own father) who imparted it to him. By the time Lipinski attained eight years of age, he had been playing concertos of Giornovichi and Pleyel. Seeing his son’s ability, Lipinski’s father decided to show some signs of appreciation by offering to take his son for a visit.
This was an excellent opportunity of encouraging Lipinski to do better, as he still had the capacity to improve his present performances. However, it is surprising to note that Lipinski did not accept the offer. He literary rejected it based on his humble background that could not allow him take the offer. Many orchestras of the polish courts were disbanded, as well.
As a result, Lipinski’s family moved to Galicia, in the Austrian partition where his father served as the Kapellmeister of the musical establishment of Count Starzenski. Lipinski took up some of his father’s responsibilities as the Kapellmeister and composed three symphonies and several dances before 1810.
After he had played the cello for some time, Lipinski took up the violin with obsessive practice and a renewed passion. He was confident of the fineness of his technique, but he would later rival Niccolo Paganini for the title of Europe’s greatest violinist. Lipinski was appointed as the concertmaster of the Lwow Theatre in Galicia in 1809. In 1812, he was appointed the Kapellmeister.
He later met Impresario Jan Kaminski, a dramatist whose productions featured at the theatre often. At the time, Polish performances were only allowed twice a week. Impresario inspired Lipinski that he started a career in light opera. Lipinski started contributing as an operetta composer.
He composed The Danube Mermaid, which was performed in 1814. He steadily rose in his profession, which helped him maintain financial security and was able to marry the love of his life, Regina Garbaczynska in 1814. Lipinski was relieved of his theatre duties in 1814 to allow him Vienna, where he met and was acquainted to Louis Spohr who was one of the finest violinist and composer in Europe at the time.
After attending a performance by Louis in February 1815, he was so impressed that he decided to abandon the theatre to become a virtuoso. He took two years to prepare for public performance and made his first performance as a virtuoso in 1817 at the Lwow theatre. Having heard of Niccolo Paganini’s prowess as a violinist, he departed for Italy in late 1817 to hear him. Lipinski dedicated his three capriccios to Paganini and played for him.
Meanwhile, Paganini delighted him when he took up his guitar and played as an accompaniment to the three capriccios. Paganini and Lipinski appeared together in Piacenza during the month of April 1818, where they performed Kreutzer’s Symphonie Concertantes that involved an orchestra and two violins.
Paganini then invited Lipinski to accompany him for a tour of Italy, but Lipinski declined and returned home to his wife since she was expectant and about to give birth. On his way home, Lipinski met a pupil of Tartini who impressed him a lot. In admiration of Paganini, Lipinski followed closely the artistic ethos of Tartini and Spohr.
From 1821, Lipinski organized concerts in Galicia and its neighborhoods in which he performed. In 1823, he jointly performed in a concert with Maria Szymanowska, a pianist in Kiev, and Jacques Mazas, a violinist in Poznan. In 1828, he performed in Warsaw where he was appointed as the Royal Polish Court’s first violinist.
Both Lipinski and Paganini performed 1829 in Warsaw during the celebrations of the coronation of Nicholas Tsar as the king of Poland. Lipinski had been unsuccessfully dissuaded not to perform at the event and let Paganini perform alone. There was a furor in the press following the event. Between 1830 and 1833, Lipinski did not perform in public with in order to polish his technique and make it perfect.
He performed in Poznan and Warsaw in 1834, and then toured Germany between 1835 and 1838 where he tried to vie as a concertmaster for orchestra belonging to Mendelssohn Gewandhaus but was unsuccessful. He also toured France where he performed in various concerts and taught the daughter of Chopin the piano, and Russia. In Riga, he met with Richard Wagner with whom he performed in several concerts.
In the year 1839, Lipinski’s family relocated to Dresden. This is where he got an appointment as a concert director for the imperial group. Berlioz and Wagner worked with him in the royal orchestra, and he made friends with Clara and Robert Schumann. In the same court, he mentored several young violinists who later became famous such as Joachim and Wieniawski. Lipinski received an Amati. Based on the persistent conflicts he had so far experienced with his life, Lipinski made up his mind to let go of these struggles of life.
According to him, he had experienced enough of these vicissitudes. In fact, he officially withdrew from the meticulous life in1846. He was composing his works to be published soon after he was through with editing. He occasionally played in public and even, in the company of Liszt, performed Beethoven’s Kreutzer Sonata in 1853. He established a music school in Lwow for peasant children shortly before his death in December 1861.
Why Paganini was more famous than Lipinski Based on their performance, fame, character, amongst other outstanding parameters, it would be next to impossible to tell who between the two violinists was more famous in relation to the other. Paganini had his share of fame, just as his counterpart Lipinski had his other share. However, as the paper reveals, although both Noccolo Paganini and Karol Lipinski were great violinists, Paganini was more acclaimed and more famous than Lipinski.
The claim comes in based on the many outstanding performances that Paganini made, as revealed herein, as opposed to Lipinski. For instance, by performing with Paganini in Milan, Lipinski’s fame as a violinist soared due to the association with Paganini who was already a famous violinist in Europe. After the two jointly played for various concerts in Warsaw in 1829, they became rivals, and Paganini would later testify that though he could not tell his position, he knew Lipinski was behind him in terms of fame.
Lipinski was a conventional violinist that was acclaimed for his hard work as a violinist. However, Paganini was very random and introduced a unique style of playing the violin that made his critics doubt his style. However, Paganini’s success made people believe that he was a demonic violinist. Paganini’s legend has it that he acquired magical powers after he had made a covenant with the devil. The magical powers were believed to have enabled him play the violin in a way that created effects beyond people’s reach.
Some people of his time still, thought that the devil possessed him and was responsible for coaxing the violin to produce the music, which came to be known as the devil’s music. Paganini’s playing style in which he literally lashed his bow on the violin-encouraged people to believe that he was demonic.
In the Gothic sense, it meant that he was perverted and corrupt and a licentious criminal as it was in the tradition of Byron’s hero-villains and the Marquis de Sade. Paganini had many interrelated faces among his followers who were amazed by his ability as a violinist. He was viewed as magician, Faust, sadistic villain and Satan.
Paganini’s demonic image was viewed in the romanticist context, as shaped by Byron, Goethe and others with whom Paganini’s demonic image proliferated. The deviant behavior of Paganini as a violinist was associated with Faust’s popularity. This exemplified another romanticist facet that had interest resurge in the dark ages.
Paganini’s image was, therefore, resonating with a number of cultural overtones. People thus identified more with Paganini than they did with Lipinski. The belief that Paganini had supernatural powers within him made him be god-like among his audience in Europe. Therefore, Lipinski who was an exemplary conventional violinist could not match his greatness.
Paganini’s technique was unique and amazing to many because it eradicated any technical difficulties. This made the people believe there were occult forces at play, as it was not viewed as something that is naturally possible. His spectacle that saw him strike his violin with the bow, making it to ‘cry’ brought his audience to imagine him a demonic figure because they believed it was the devil in him that actually did the it. His way of performance was unprecedented with rich connotations that Lipinski’s technique lacked.
Paganini developed unique effects and techniques, which was unseen among contemporary composers. His performance’s virtuosity especially the visually arresting style created an image of a violinist that was beyond skill and technique. The audience could not comprehend it. They were left believing Paganini was supernatural.
Ivry Gitlis was an Israeli violinist who described Paganini as a phenomenon. Despite the fact that Paganini employed some techniques that were already known, his bowing techniques and intonation were not unique but were considered extraordinary. Paganini played a major role in reviving and popularizing some violin techniques such as those of Durand and the 24 caprices of Locatelli.
He used most of these forgotten techniques in his violin virtuoso but in a modified and rather advanced way. Paganini’s flexibility as a violinist was unmatched by even his rival Karol Lipinski. His fingers were exceptionally long which enabled him to play three octaves in a hand span across four strings.
This is a difficult feat even when considered against today’s standards. Scientists attribute his seemingly unnatural ability mostly to Marfan syndrome. Comparing his natural endowment to Lipinski, Paganini had an edge over him, which he could not breach. In addition, Paganini’s unconventional tendencies made him unique.
Paganini was, therefore, extraordinary. This may explain why he was thought to have used unnatural powers. Some commentators regarded his violin bow as a a magic instrument. Paganini’s remarkable abilities were attributed to supernatural forces by his viewers due to their helplessness in explaining how he was able to overcome the difficulties of violin execution techniques.
The supernatural comments were not only made by the audience and critics, but also by great violin virtuosi. For instance, his greatest rival Karol Lipinski referred to him as “a Genoese Wizard” while another violin virtuoso Ludwig Spohr referred him to as a complete wizard.
Paganini earned German nicknames such as Hexenmeister, which means witch-master, and Hexensohn, which means son of a witch. The names did not only associate Paganini with witchcraft, they were also referring to one of his famous compositions called Le Streghe meaning ‘the witches.’
Paganini had taken the theme of the variation set from ballet II noce di Benevento by Franz Xavier. The theme signaled the entrance of the witches onto the stage. In 1813, after Paganini had seen the ballet, he composed the piece, which he frequently programmed during his European tour. The piece was billed as the withes’ dance during Paganini’s Berlin concerts in 1829.
Damages of Tsunami to Human Beings Essay essay help: essay help
Tsunami can be defined as a sequence of ocean waves of bizarrely enormous length that are engendered by incessant uproars of the earth’s outer layer. This sticking force causes mass destruction of property and human beings. There is also a widespread epicenter under or near the ocean, and with a vertical displacement of the ocean floor; these strong waves have numerous effects to Human beings (Danninger and Kang 75).
Loss of Life
Many lives of people along Japan coastal regions have been lost because population along coastal regions has been growing tremendously. This historically can be traced in parts of Japan coastal region which is closely populated according to a research, it is estimated that over 1,000 people lost their life after 1960 tsunami in Japan.
The force of tsunami wave may kill people instantly, or they may drown people when water rushes to land, the electrical installation also contributed to this loss since there was a possibility of people being electrocuted if wires are exposed. Many people were affected psychologically in most of coastal regions, due to this loss. 1,000 houses were destroyed in September 1498, resulting to around 500 deaths following a tsunami that hit the Kii peninsula.
In September 1596, there was another destructive tsunami in Kyushu (OECD 56). These findings show severe effects of tsunami to human beings who have been affected. Most of coastal regions’ vulnerable women, men and their children lost their lives while carrying on with their daily chores.
Destruction and Damage
Many people’s property was lost since many businesses are set along the coastal lines during this devastating time. People lost their daily income due to the destruction. Coastal regions took long to stabilize because of this effect. Tsunami effects were reported in the media across the world.
However, these effects continue for many years after the natural disaster struck Japan. Many people affected, will never forget this terrifying experience of being caught in a tsunami they live to tell shocking of their lives moments. Tsunami tide waves on the sore can destroy anything on the path these includes. Boats buildings, hotels, cars trees telephone lines (Danninger and Kang 90).
New Diseases Emerged
The stagnant water displaced by tsunami waves in flooded areas also caused illness such as malaria from stagnated water and contamination. This caused more deaths and sickness in the affected areas. The tampering with infrastructure like sewerage and fresh water supplies worsened the situation. Lack of fresh water led to the outbreak of diseases like cholera and other related diseases due to this situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Victims Suffer Psychology Problems
This could continue for a while or often their entire life time According to the study done by WHO on survival of tsunami victims recorded stress, disorders to children, anxious among other effects that were noticed in the area. Loss of homes also resulted to depression.
High Cost of Fighting Tsunami
The total cost of tsunami could be billions of dollars since the damages of income generating business, and the cost used to curb the situation on the ground was quite high. Japan government issued newer bounds for rebuilding and reconstruction. The country spent most of the finances on the victims.
The better part was that Japan has a substantial income. This made it easier for it to rekindle finances lost, since it has excellent infrastructure and quality health conditions on top of a huge economy. The greatest loss was demographic challenges and existing fiscal burden.
Export and Import Alteration
Since Japan is an industrialist state, it was affected in terms of exports and imports. Many of the manufactured products in Japan could still stay in ports since transporting them during tsunami was risky. Therefore, manufactured products like Honda Toyota, Sony added up to the financial burden consequently affecting the economy (OECD 43).
Closing down Japanese prime oil refineries due to the calamity decreased demand for oil and lowered the cost of crude oil prices. In addition, Japan is an industrialized country; shortage of electricity jeopardized the operations in this sector. This was attributed to slowdown due to the shortage of electricity generating capacity.
The risk of nuclear reactors when tsunami hit Japan
Nuclear reactors in Japans’ tsunami and earthquakes have hampered efforts to get it restored. Some nuclear reactors lost their cooling ability during the tsunami prompting a rush against time to fix the problem. These media reports showed that Tsunami had a role to play in these reactors.
The Japanese government treatment with the tsunami Before the Tsunami
Japanese government ability to deal with crisis is beyond doubt. The fact that Japan is a developed country, it was in a position to respond to Tsunami swiftly. Despite its impact on the economy, Japan government had set its military base in order to respond to this situation (Dick and Nanto 27). This unique military base is capable of dealing with any situation of which they had set right materials and equipments and manpower to curb Tsunami.
We will write a custom Essay on Damages of Tsunami to Human Beings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This prompted this military base to keep on practicing and equipping its self from any calamity this readiness by the government was able to respond to the crisis swiftly and saved thousands of people. Special techniques’ and right equipments used by the government placed the government in a particularly strategic place. This acquainted the soldiers with confidence and also the residents.
A government’s unique unit was of significant help to residents since it taught victims on how to respond to such calamities. Japan metrological department warned people of Tsunami and asked people to be cautions of it, by possibly vacating the area. The department used satellite and kept on monitoring the ground and alerted people on the television of its whereabouts.
However, this information come about late and people could no act swiftly to the onset of the Tsunami since it was quite fast. This left many people being confused on the way. Signs, alarms and media warnings were a little bit late since the population was high along this region (Danninger and Kang 143). Unfortunately, many did not make it out of danger.
After the Tsunami Happened
Japan has tried to prevent Tsunami effects by building concrete breakwaters and floodgates to protect coastal areas around the country. This will prevent strong currents that come with force. However, it has warned that it cannot prevent Tsunami. Government has also set personnel to encourage the victims and depressed people to cope with the situation this has given the victims motivation to continue to survive (Dick and Nanto 46).
They have also set laws related to this destruction. These will be able to budget for the calamity when it occurs so as to avoid it hurting the economy. These guidelines have seen Japanese people build confidence in investing in coastal regions which were considered risky by many local and foreign investors.
This development has seen the Japanese recover from previous loses that arouse from the Tsunami. Development of technology has also boosted swift measures on ocean areas. This has been done by setting new devices and machines which will help Japan to cope with Tsunami in future (OECD 32).
Conclusion In conclusion, Tsunami can be defined as a sequence of ocean waves of bizarrely enormous length that are engendered by incessant uproars of the earth’s outer layer. This sticking force causes mass destruction of property and human beings. In Japan, Many people affected will never forget this terrifying experience of being caught in a tsunami they live to tell shocking of their lives moments.
In an effort to prepare for such a disaster, Japan has tried to prevent Tsunami effects by building concrete breakwaters and floodgates to protect coastal areas around the country. This will prevent strong currents that come with force.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Damages of Tsunami to Human Beings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Danninger, Stephan and Kenneth Kang. Finance
The Peculiarities of Discussing the Theme of Death in Poetry and Prose Research Paper essay help online free
What is the strongest people’s fear which influences their life and attitude to the reality and to the other persons? It is the fear of death. Life as the major value which people have can also be discussed from the point of death as its opposite side. If people consider life as the most significant value, it is rather difficult for them to determine the clear attitude to death. The difference in attitudes depends on the difference in the intensity of the fear.
Death is the main theme of such works as the poem by Dylan Thomas “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” and the short story by Ambrose Bierce “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge”. Moreover, death is also is one of the important motifs in the piece of poetry written by John Donne and known as “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”.
There are the centuries between these works, but the themes discussed in them have no time limitations, and the authors have as differences as similarities in their visions of the problem of death.
Bierce discusses death as the opposite side of life, Thomas accentuates that death is the enemy and people must fight with him, and Donne concentrates on death as the metaphor for persons’ parting. To analyze the peculiarities of the authors’ approaches to the issue, it is necessary to focus on their opinion on what separates death and life.
John Donne wrote his poem in 1611 as the manifestation of the limitlessness of spiritual love. Thus, if people love each other, any borders in space and time cannot destroy their spiritual bonds. Such vision is typical for the metaphysical poetry of John Donne.
Nevertheless, the symbol of death in the combination with the love theme creates a new specific vision of the idea. Donne relates to death in the first lines of his poem. Thus, he says that “As virtuous men pass mildly away, / And whisper to their souls to go, / Whilst some of their sad friends do say, / “The breath goes now,” and some say, “No” (Donne 1-4).
To understand the link of the beginning of the poem with the theme of love, it is important to pay attention to the next lines in which the author insists on hiding the emotions and not mourning because of parting caused by any reasons, “So let us melt, and make no noise” (Donne 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is possible to determine the key elements which are necessary for understanding Donne’s vision of death as the metaphor for the eternal love.
John Donne accentuates that the men are “virtuous”, they pass away “mildly”, and it is even impossible to notice the fringe between death and life when they pass away (Chambers). The question of this fringe helps to emphasize the problem of the lovers’ separation. “The separation of the soul from the body, and the separation of lovers from each other, is not an ending but the beginning of a new cycle” (Cavanaugh).
Moreover, the image of a cycle which accentuates the cycle of love between to souls is also relevant for describing the circle of the life. It is presented in the last two lines of the poem. The author states “Thy firmness makes my circle just, / And makes me end where I begun” (Donne 34-35). That is why Donne depicts not only the circle of life and death, but also the circle of souls and their love.
In his poem “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” Dylan Thomas focuses on the circle of life and death is more directly in comparison with the metaphorical vision of John Donne. The author’s main idea is presented in the first line of the poem, “Do not go gentle into that good night” (Thomas 1).
The poem was written in 1951 and can be described as the address to the author’s father as it is stated at the end of the poem, “And you, my father, there on the sad height, / Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray” (Thomas 16-17). The usage of the villanelle as a form for this piece of poetry allows Thomas’s making accents on refrains. Thus, the first line which expresses the main idea becomes the major refrain which is supported by the other one, “Rage, rage against the dying of the light” (Thomas 3).
The usage of refrains makes Thomas’s poem more rhythmic and dynamic in comparison with Donne’s rather melancholic tone of the work. Moreover, in spite of the fact these two refrains reflect the same idea, the language which is used in these lines is quite opposite. Thus, Thomas uses such words as “gentle” and “good night” in the first line intentionally. They form a kind of a paradox for depicting the author’s attitude to the problem of death.
That is why the first refrain can sound ironically, and the second refrain reflects the author’s clear position with the help of repetition of the word “rage”. Nevertheless, the opposition of the lines is also balanced with using the word “night” in the first refrain and the word “light” in the second one (Emery).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Peculiarities of Discussing the Theme of Death in Poetry and Prose specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dylan Thomas is rather strict in his consideration of death. If Donne emphasizes the necessity of being not frightened by death because it is only the part of the circle, Thomas accentuates his fear of death with basing on the necessity of fighting with it.
In spite of the fact it is impossible to avoid death, it is important to resist it till the end, and the expressions of rage can help to be powerful in this fight. To support the opinion of the necessity of fighting, Thomas refers to “wise men”, “good men”, “wild men”, and “grave men” who can fight with death till the end.
This reference is similar to Donne’s relying on “virtuous men”. However, if Donne’s “virtuous men” pass away “mildly”, Thomas’s “wise men”, “good men”, “wild men”, and “grave men” do not accept the coming of death and try to live the full life till the end. According to Thomas, death is a challenge which is necessary to fight with and the fringe between life and death is the feeling of fear which can make people live (Emery).
If Dylan Thomas’s vision of death is rather categorical, and John Donne admits death as the inevitability, Ambrose Bierce’s vision of death can be considered as the most complex one reflecting all the aspects of the person’s feelings while waiting for his death. Bierce’s work “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” was written in 1890, and it helps to describe the author’s idea of death as the logical end of the people’s life when the notions of time and reality disappear.
In his short story Ambrose Bierce states that “death is a dignitary who when he comes announced is to be received with formal manifestations of respect, even by those most familiar with him” (Bierce 6). The author’s words sound satirically with references to the circumstances of their stating. Is it possible to discuss the death caused by killing as a kind of respect?
The whole story is the vivid combination of reality and illusion, the main character’s journey between the past and present. However, the main character of the story Farquhar has no future because at the end of the story the readers can realize the peculiarities of his death.
Nevertheless, as Thomas’s characters of his poem “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” should resist the coming death with all their powers as Farquhar tries to avoid his death in his virtual reality where he has the opportunity to create another variant for his life and escape from death. The depiction of this alternate variant provokes a lot of the readers’ questions because the border between the illusion and depicted reality in the story is almost destroyed.
The situation of waiting for death is depicted by Bierce in detail. The main accents are made on Farquhar’s subjective perception of time and his natural fear of death. If Thomas in his poem encourages people to fight with death being under the influence of the feeling of fear, Bierce discusses the concept of fear in his story more thoroughly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Peculiarities of Discussing the Theme of Death in Poetry and Prose by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It includes the fear of death as the basic element with references to all those fears which a person can experience during his life. According to Bierce, death as the opposite side of life and reality is the form of the unreal world, a kind of illusion (Stoicheff). That is why the fringe between the life and death in this short story is a symbol of bridge. This is that bridge on which Farquhar meets his death, and it is that bridge which can connect the world of living persons and the world of dead people.
The theme of death is one of the most discussed themes in pieces of poetry and prose. It can be associated with the theme of life or be presented with the help of its depiction through the analysis of the human values. John Donne and Dylan Thomas use different approaches to the examination of the notion of death in their poems.
Their poetic tones are also various and depict on the peculiarities of the word choice. Ambrose Bierce’s vision of the problem of death in his short story “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” also has many differences in comparison with the ideas presented in the poems.
Nevertheless, it is also possible to depict a lot of the similarities in the authors’ discussion of the issue of death. Thus, death can be considered as the main personal fear, the fact which separates two worlds presented in the human life circle or even as the metaphor of the lovers’ parting.
However, in spite of the peculiar features of the used devices, Thomas, Donne, and Bierce pay attention to the problem of the fringe between life and death as the most significant element which divides two worlds. This fringe can be almost impossible to be noticed, emphasized with the fear of death or be presented as the symbolic bridge.
Works Cited Bierce, Ambrose. An Occurrence at Owl Creek. USA: CreateSpace, 2011. Print.
Cavanaugh, Cynthia A. The Circle of Souls in John Donne’s “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”. n.d. Web.
Chambers, Alan. “Glorified Bodies and the ‘Valediction: Forbidding Mourning’”. John Donne Journal: Studies in the Age of Donne 1.1-2 (1982): 1-20. Print.
Donne, John. A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning. n.d. Web.
Emery, Clark. The World of Dylan Thomas. USA: Literary Licensing, LLC, 2011. Print.
Stoicheff, Peter. “’Something Uncanny’: The Dream Structure in Ambrose Bierce’s ‘An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge’”. Studies In Short Fiction, 30.3 (1993): 349–358. Print.
Thomas, Dylan. Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night. n.d. Web.
The Consequences of Using Corporal Punishment Argumentative Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The usage of corporal punishment as the way of providing discipline and controlling the children’s behavior is one of the most controversial questions which are widely discussed by psychologists, sociologists, and philosophers today. These debates involve arguing on the main moral and psychological aspects of the issue because it is the problem of not only a family, but of the whole society.
Corporal punishment can be considered as the most abusive method to control the children’s behavior which can be used by parents at home and by teachers at school because the consequences of corporal punishment are always negative for children without references to the intensity and frequency of such punishment.
Corporal punishment as a kind of physical punishment cannot be discussed as the effective method to provide the discipline, but only as the violation of the children’s rights which can lead to the unpredictable consequences in the future.
Children can experience the challenge of corporal punishment at school and at home. If the public’s position according to the usage of corporal punishment at school is rather clear and can be stated as quite negative, the reaction to the issues of corporal punishment at home can be different.
It is significant to pay attention to the fact that many parents do not consider their actions as abusive and that is why they are not aware of the existence of the problem in their families. Elizabeth Gershoff is an Associate Professor of Social Work at the University of Michigan, and she is studying the problem of the usage of corporal punishment in families during several years.
According to her latest findings, the problem of physical punishment is still current for US families, in spite of the development of discussing this question in society. Dr. Gershoff states that the American parents use the “physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience bodily pain or discomfort so as to correct or punish the child’s behavior” (Gershoff, 2008, p. 9).
Nevertheless, corporal punishment rarely leads to the expected results and can correct the children’s behavior. Instead of it, children are inclined to react aggressively or express the signs of the oppressed moods to address the attempts of their humiliating.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the negative consequences of the usage of corporal punishment as the method of controlling and correcting the children’s behavior can be divided into short-term and long-term ones. The short-term results are, for instance, the facts of children being aggrieved with the punishment.
Moreover, children’s behavior can be unimproved, and they can provoke the parents’ further negative reaction to their actions. In his research on the aspects of the conflict theory of corporal punishment, Randall Collins accentuates that parents use corporal punishment for receiving the immediate results, but the real results can be unexpected, and moreover, such a punishment cannot be morally justified (Collins, 2005).
The long-term consequences of corporal punishment are influential for the development of children as personalities. Violent actions with which it is possible associate corporal punishment often provoke the violence in response or help to form the opinion that it is possible to use violence in social interactions as the way to achieve the definite personal goals.
After the years of investigating, Joan McCord discusses such negative unintended consequences of corporal punishment as the formation of the aggressive antisocial behavior (McCord, 2005). Using corporal punishment, parents allow children using of violent physical actions in their everyday life which often leads to the occurrences of the facts of antisocial behavior at school and in society.
Moreover, possible mental health problems in the future also can be considered as the long-term consequences of corporal punishment. When parents decide to punish their children physically they do not understand all the negative effects of their actions.
Murray Straus in his studies of the development of corporal punishment in the USA states that many parents do not see the possible effects of their immediate actions when they choose corporal punishment instead of simple explanations and warm conversations with their children. Focusing on corporal punishment, parents create the atmosphere of mistrust in their family.
According to Straus, those children who suffer from the facts of corporal punishment at home also have many psychological problems which can develop in the mental health problems (Straus, 2001).
We will write a custom Essay on The Consequences of Using Corporal Punishment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The researchers agree that physically punished children often suffer from depressions and fears of being punished which can result in their low self-esteem and the feeling of the lack of personal safety. They also can choose anxiety and rigidity as the ways to react the problems and life challenges (McCord, 2005; Straus, 2001).
The issue of corporal punishment in families requires its further discussion by the researchers in order to provide the effective system of the alternate ways to control and correct the children’s behavior. Parents should not consider corporal punishment as the most quick and effective way to control the child because this method not only ineffective but also risky because of a number of its negative effects. Moreover, the usage of corporal punishment breaks the human rights, moral and ethic norms.
References Collins, R. (2005). Conflict theory of corporal punishment. In M. Donnelly
Analysis of the Vietnam War Timeline 1961-64 Argumentative Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of the JWPs in the Vietnam War of 1961-64
Examples that linked directly to JWPs in the Vietnam War
Introduction Indeed, the just war wage policies (JWPs) were famous with the Vietnam War of 1961-64. However, it can be critically argued that the JWPs might fail in certain war cases owing to several challenges such as terrorism, lethal weapons, and genocide issues, which render this policy ineffective.
Therefore, it is important to re-think whether this policy was actually important in the Vietnam war, and through such analysis, the scholars of history might be in a position to advise policy makers to either adopt or reject this war strategy.
Analysis of the JWPs in the Vietnam War of 1961-64 The just wage war policy can be analyzed under different contexts. First, it is important to argue that the policy constitutes jus ad bellum, which justifies the underlying principles and reasons of taking the war advances.
In addition, the study can be centered on the principle of jus in bello, which deals in justices concerning war conducts. Another principle to be analyzed under the JWPs approach in the Vietnam War is that of jus post bellum, which is concerned with war conclusions as well as the establishments of the peace settlement programs after the war (Biondi 119).
In essence, the analysis of JWPs in this war would entail critical exploration of the jus in bello, with the aim of determining the combatants and non-combatants, and this is important in the sense that it makes it possible to prevent unnecessary loss of life among the innocent civilians. This principle is directly linked to that of jus ad bellum, which can be used to ascertain the causes that justified the conflicting countries to go into war (Biondi 120).
In this analysis, the focus is not centered on rejecting or disapproving the relevance of the just wage war policy in the Vietnam’s case, but the essence is to establish its effectiveness in achieving the intended goals. For instance, the JWPs in the Vietnam War led to loss of lives among innocent citizens, thus it would be important to rethink or even revise this policy approach.
Besides, it is important to incorporate religious variants as well as secure elements when addressing the suitability of adopting the JWPs in the Vietnam War since elements of moral and justice should not be overlooked when countries are going into war (Evans 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such loss of lives and destruction of property do not justify a country to engage in war activities. Therefore, war should be adopted as the last resort, only if all the possible non-violent choices have been fully exhausted (Blattberg 12).
Examples that linked directly to JWPs in the Vietnam War Even though the democratic South Vietnam, under the support of the United States refused to comply with the communist North Vietnam’s request to unite Vietnam as one country, the latter with the backing of other communist countries were not justified in waging war against the former.
Under this, the support against the implementation of the JWPs can be evidenced in the sense that there were other possible avenues to address the concerns, which might include the non-governmental organizations, religious based organizations, and International Law on Human Rights (ILHR).
Another example was witnessed when North Vietnam attacked the United States in 1964 (Daryl 592). Though, the American governments could argue that the war was justified in this case since the North Vietnamese interfered with their sovereignty, but still there were other avenues to address the issues and reach a peaceful agreement under the international law (Walzer 1).
In sum, the adoption of the JWPs in the Vietnam War was not appropriate in the sense that it failed to establish a permanent agreement between the North and the South Vietnamese. Moreover, it did not take into account the justice and moral principles, thus it violated the fundamental human rights. Therefore, it should have just been adopted as the last resort.
Works Cited Biondi, Carrie-Ann 2007, Rethinking the Just War Tradition. Web.
Blattberg, Charles 2009, Taking Politics Seriously. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the Vietnam War Timeline 1961-64 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Daryl, Charles 2005, Just-War Moral Reflection, the Christian, And Civil Society. PDF file. Web.
Evans, Mark 2005, Just War Theory: A Reappraisal. Web.
Walzer, Michael 2003, The United States in the World – Just Wars and Just Societies. Web.
“City of God” by Fernando Meirelles Essay (Movie Review) college essay help online
The life in Rio de Janeiro can seem to be the never ended festival with a lot of smiling people and bright colors. Nevertheless, the reality of the people’s life in the city can be far from this vivid picture. Rio de Janeiro is surrounded by the territories known as favelas where the peculiarities of people’s life differ from those living in the center of the city.
Favelas are the territories inhabited by the poor Brazilians who were isolated from the other population many years ago. People in favelas live according to these suburbs’ rules which are based on the violence and crimes. Criminal gangs were the leaders of these territories during the period of the 1960-1980s which are depicted in the movie directed by Fernando Meirelles and known as City of God (Cidade de Deus).
City of God is the name of the favela where the society lives according to the dangerous and unjust rules provided by the youth gangs, where guns and drugs form the base of the social values. That is why the social decline of City of God depends on the historical aspect of inhabiting these territories, on the peculiarities of the environment, on the lack of moral norms among the youth, and on the lack of the authorities’ control.
The favelas which surround the center of Rio de Janeiro are the result of intensive inhabiting these territories with a lot of immigrants and those people who had no rights to live in towns, but tried to find the work in this city where the industrialization process began and workforce was required.
The amount of poor people who came to Rio de Janeiro searching the work was enormous. However, it was impossible for them to settle with those rich people who lived in the center of the city. That is why the number of slums known as favelas increased. In his film City of God, Fernando Meirelles describes all the peculiarities of the everyday life of the poorest people who suffered from a lot of problems caused by the low social position in the city and their environment.
It is impossible to speak about the definite strict social system or social network which could function in these slums. Nevertheless, it is the territory where many families live in dangerous conditions of the pressure and lack of space and funds and follow the rules provided by the youth gangs which control the life in these slums. Traditional social laws and rules as well as moral norms are not considered as significant items in these suburbs.
It can seem that there are no any laws at all in these slums. The main characters of the movie are Rocket and Li’l Dice. In spite of the same social origin and the fact of birth in the favela City of God, their visions of their future are quite different. Rocket wants to become a press photographer when Li’l Dice is ready to share the life of the slum’s gangsters. Making this choice, Li’l Dice follows those principles the realization of which he observes in these slums every day (City of God, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the peculiarities of City of God as the urban slum with its specific physical environment are depicted in the movie with a lot of shocking details. The picture is too close to reality with focusing on many jerry-built sheds where people have to live and on the everyday routines of these inhabitants. Living surrounded by such depressed pictures, the youth thinks and acts according to that patterns which they can often observe everywhere in City of God.
These pictures are dreary and do not provide any chances for changing the situation. The growth of violence and inhumanity in these territories can be explained only by the peculiarities of the conditions in which the population of the favela lives. Thus, the poverty of these people is the main cause for their acting out of laws and moral principles (Ebert, 2003).
City of God is the slums where common social norms are replaced with the notions of violence, rape, revenge, anxiety, anger, and pressure. The inhabitants of these territories are inclined to the moral degradation because of the aspects of their everyday life. The only way to avoid this social impact is to find the possibilities to escape from these territories (Ebert, 2003).
Those children who are brought up in these slums grow with their special vision of the world and its laws and norms because they are involved in the social network of these territories where crimes are the ordinary facts of the everyday reality. Moreover, crimes are the ways to survive in this small world known as City of God where God’s laws do not work. The understanding of the good and the evil has its peculiarities in City of God affected by the specific social conditions.
And those children isolated in the slums from the other world can dream rather of holding a brothel as Li’l Dice does because it is his vision of acquiring the high social status in these slums (City of God, 2002). These children are poorly educated and have wrong visions of the life principles broken by their everyday reality.
City of God is the place where people create their own laws and make the other people live according to them. Nevertheless, it is difficult to speak about the strong social structure or social organization of these territories. The rules are rather simple.
Those people who have guns, use drugs, and commit crimes have more advantages in comparison with those ones who do not follow such a style of life. That is why the participation in the street gangs can be considered as the question of prestige. It is a definite social status which can ease the life of the inhabitants of these slums which are full of violence (Ebert, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on “City of God” by Fernando Meirelles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The problems of the society caused by the peculiarities of the environment of the slums in Rio de Janeiro are depicted in City of God with references to such issues as the historical context of inhabiting these suburbs with the working population, the features of the moral degradation of the people who are oppressed by the challenges of poverty, the development of urban crimes realized by the violent youth gangs the participants of which have no idea about the moral rules and norms because of the lack of education and the authorities’ control.
It seems that these dangerous territories with the poorest population in the city for which every day is the fight for survival are not controlled by any governments and follow only the rules and laws of the street gangsters.
References City of God. (2002). [Video file]. Web.
Ebert, R. (2003). City of God. Retrieved from https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/city-of-god-2003
Moral Development and Its Relation to Psychology Compare and Contrast Essay best essay help: best essay help
While discussing psychological notions, moral values and judgments are avoided. Nevertheless, the concept of morality is closely connected with many psychological, social, and cultural dimensions that shape a foundation for the definition.
In this respect, social learning approaches consider morality an outcome of environmental patterns and forces forming the behavior of a person in a socially acceptable manner that, in turn, outlines norms of conduct (Knowles 49). There are many other frameworks that describe this process as a role taking, identification, or various types of operant conditioning.
In this case, the concept of morality is linked to the empirical dimensions of conduct deriving from experience, but not from general principles. In particular, they explain the way moral virtues and skills are acquired, rather than revealing the essence of morality. In addition, they tend to correspond to the so-called traditional approach to moral education.
Judging from the above, the concept of moral development closely correlates with psychological theories as far as moral reasoning is concerned. The appearance of cognitive psychology has put a foundation for analyzing such aspects of personality development as motivation, creativity, logical thinking, and moral reasoning (Knowles 50).
Psychology of moral reasoning, therefore, describes evaluative and justifying dimensions with a specific reference to socially acceptable and right actions. It also involves the cognitive process by means of which an individual expresses opinions and makes decisions concerning the right and the wrong (Knowles 52). Because moral judgments are affected both by cognitive processes and socially accepted norms, much emphasis should be placed on the concept of social psychology as well.
While understanding the concept of moral development from a psychodynamic perspective, less empirical and molecular frameworks are engaged. These theories perceive morality as the concept deriving from both environmental and individual forces and expectations. Moreover, they present implicit virtues in relation to what is constructive and adaptive to behavior.
Hence, individuals have much more space for making choices and deciding what is good or bad. At the same time, a psychodynamic approach does not presuppose a priori decision on the part of individuals because of the social and environmental influence (Knowles 52). Consequently, definitions of moral choice seek to illuminate motivational challenges connected to moral conduct rather than to distinguish between the good and the bad.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While connecting social and individual influence on moral development, specific pro-social behaviors are revealed shaping psychological and dynamic perspectives of moral conduct. In other words, cognitive and structural formation of individual perception is largely premised on the socially accepted norms of moral behavior imposed by different environmental forces and societal expectations.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg is among the pioneers in presenting cognitive theories of moral development. The theories advances Piaget’s theory and introduces six stages of moral reasoning where each one responds to moral dilemmas more adequately than the preceding one. Kohlberg was interested in the way individuals justify their moral actions when being placed in similar moral situations. In addition, the concept of moral development is largely concerned with justice and value judgments made by individuals.
According to Kohlberg’s moral stags, each person starts with a pre-moral level focused on the external consequences of the specific actins, proceeding with a conventional level based on group rules, and ending with a principled moral level revealing person’s independent moral reasoning.
These stages reveal the individual’s moral orientation expanding his/her experiences and perceptions of the world with regard to the cognitive development of a person admitting this expansion (Hoffman 129). Age characteristics do not matter when the stages are analyzed because usually, the pre-moral stage can be revealed among both children and adults.
The above-presented levels of development are split into six stages through which individuals progress while developing their moral responses to ethical dilemmas. At the first stage – preconventional or premoral – presents people judging with action upon the direct consequences, which is usually confined to punishment (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman 266).
Moral decisions are based on externally accepted standards whereas ethical behavior is identified by a reward and punishment scheme. Therefore, the essence of the first stage is focused on avoiding punishment, which is applicable mostly to children.
The second stage is concerned more with rewarding rather with punishment (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman 266). Within this framework, children tend to make morally right decisions so as to receive a reward. In some situation, the actions are aimed at exchanging favors.
We will write a custom Essay on Moral Development and Its Relation to Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conventional level is the next step of moral development based on encountering traditional roles accepted in society. During this stage, individuals strive to please other individuals in order to receive social approval.
Despite the process of internalization of social standards, behavioral and moral codes of conduct are premised on what other, more influential individuals dictate to do, rather than on individual opinion (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman 267). Within the conventional model, the third stage emphasizes the importance of gaining approval and recognition from others.
Establishing good relations creates a major condition for being accepted as a social individual. The fourth stage focused on the need to follow the legal regulation and adhere to the standards dictated by authorities. At this point, higher authorities in society, such as the one controlling law and order should be respected for a person’s actions to be morally justified and socially accepted.
The final postconventional level is connected to progressing a moral conscience that is presented beyond the socially accepted standards. In this respect, people adhere to existing norms and regulations because of the inner feeling of necessity to distinguish between the good and the evil (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman 267).
Individuals decide on their own which action is morally justified and which one should be withdrawn. Achievement of true morality is the priority for individuals reaching this level. Within the postconventional framework, the fifth stage includes adherence to socially accepted principles and laws, which are subject to change and individual interpretation.
The final stage enables an individual to become free of socialized opinions and his/her decisions are premised on personal conscience. This stage of postconventional level is considered the most complicated and controversial from conceptual and empirical perspectives.
At a conceptual level, Kohlberg was challenged by distinguishing the fifth and the sixth stages. In empirical terms, the theories had difficulty in identifying the subjects justifying the final stage because it cannot be identified with personal moral development (Sonnert and Commons n. p.). Rather, the stage should be perceived as a discourse, an outcome of social construction. Therefore, the theorist looks at this stage through the prism of consequences rather through prism of social development.
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Within a theoretical frameworks proposed by Piaget, there are three stages of moral development. They include premoral level, the moral realism level and the moral relativism level. During the first stage, a child under the age of 5 ignores conceptual rules (Shaffer 347). In addition, the theorist found that “in natural setting the younger children more consistently acted on the basis of the consequences of their own others actions and disregarded the intention behind these actions” (Marjorie 263).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Moral Development and Its Relation to Psychology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In other words, children do not take different rules and principles seriously, but assign those rules with their own importance and functions. For instance, they can ignore the rules of the game; instead, they strive to gain fun or other outcomes of the game.
The second stage – moral realism – introduces the signs of rule adherence. At this stage, children blindly follow the established rules and, therefore, their behavior is often characterized as egocentric (Marjorie et al. 262).
Egocentric children are guided by their personal consequences, but not on the external norms dictated by society. In other words, children do not distinguish between right and wrong actions, but also think over an action as the one bringing either good or bad personal consequences (Shaffer 349). The true moral incentive is punishment at this stage.
A young child believes that the rules should be obeyed because they come from parents as authoritative figures and, therefore, they cannot be changed. Adolescents and adults evaluate a moral act by both actor’s intentions and the consequences of the performed act. Hence, in case the act was accidental, the act cannot be judged as immoral whereas the intention of carrying out the wrong action should be punished.
In the course of psychological and moral development, children become less egocentric and are more empathic. Children over 8-10 years old are able to imagine how a person feels and, which denotes children’s behavior can be controlled by the outcomes their behavior and acts have on their personal development, but also the effects these actions have on the surrounding people (Marjorie 263).
The final stage or moral relativism indicates shifts in children’s behavior that are revealed through greater flexibility while making decisions and assessing their actions (Marjorie et al. 264). This means, that children can make personal conclusions about the morale of a particular actions and critical judge their personal deeds. Overall, the final stage of moral development indicates an individual autonomy from the socially accepted norms of moral conduct and behavior.
According to Piaget’s theory, the early stages of children’s moral development are highly associated with the consequences, rather than intentions, for a particular action. A belief in immanent justice enables children to act in accordance with their personal judgment.
Despite this, there are many controversies which should be discussed with regard to age determination, clear distinction between stages, sequences of stages and many other factors shaping Piaget’s theoretical framework. In addition, because the theory touches upon social dimensions influencing moral development, it should also involve a social learning perspective. At this point as deep evaluation and comparison for Piaget’s theory and Kohlberg’s addition to it should be introduced.
Contrast and Compare of Kohlberg’s Theory and Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Outlining the Similarities in the Identified Theories
Because Piaget’s theory became the basis for Kohlberg’s theoretical framework, the presence of similar concepts is evident. The direct dependency between the theories lies in a structural representation of acquiring skills for making moral choices represented through clear stage distinctions.
Both theorist apply to three stages of development which provides a transition from personal awareness of personal actions to socially-imposed incentives for following the accepted patterns of ethical behavior. At this point, both Piaget and Kohlberg refer to preliminary stage of realizing the values and essences of individuals’ actions from their own perspectives. In addition, both theorists are congruent with the idea of direct consequences being the major force driving children’s actions.
The final stages of the cognitive development theories also coincide in terms of incentives and social expectation triggering actions of individuals. At this point, people are fully aware whether the action is morally right or wrong. What is more important is that individuals are capable of distinguishing which actions should be performed to reach the desirable outcomes. Both actions are also evaluated from the perspectives of socially accepted standards of ethical behavior.
In addition to the above structural similarities, both theories represent a cognitive prism of analyzing moral development among children. At this point, Piaget and Kohlberg analyze moral development a consistent and sequential series of stages where one surpasses another by sophisticating the individuals’ responses to moral dilemmas.
Therefore, there is no a rigid confrontation between the views represented by both scholars because the morality development is seen as stage progress. Finally, both theories can be applicable in the sphere of moral education and professional realization. They also provide a solid theoretical basis for philosophical foundation of defining the concept of morality.
Despite structural and cognitive similarities existing between the theories, the differences still prevail. In particular, significant emphasis should be placed on the analysis of theoretical perspectives, action and problem identification, and moral education.
Under theoretical umbrella, Kohlberg presents moral developments as a set of six consistent stages where the development is perceived as gradual progress from universal moral principles regulating moral actions and thinking of individuals to more concrete embodiment and realization of moral choices. In this respect, Kohlberg’s theory is strictly structured and unfolds elements related to each other in a hierarchical way.
The basic principle of the theory is based on Plato’s philosophy viewing justice as the premise of moral thinking. While comparing this theory to Piaget frameworks, a constructivist stress is highlighted. It means that each person’s moral structured are presented with regard to socially accepted standards. Therefore, the process is unlikely to lead to universal concept because of the variety of social relations and circumstances.
Piaget’s universality does not discover specific moral principle or content. Rather, it is constructed through scientific and logical processes hat are necessary to fit the nature of an individual. Kohlberg believes that moral development unfolds through a sequence of moral principles leading to discovery of universal morality. Therefore, it cannot be congruent with the concept of constructivism.
Unlike Piaget, Kohlberg supports the concept of ethical realism that does not depend on cultural peculiarities because of the principle of universality. Social values, therefore, are represented as ethically situations for an individual to make moral decisions. In contrast, Piaget is more consistent in these terms because the framework can be applicable both realists and relativist environment. Hence, the theorist takes into account social environment and individual outlook on different moral and ethical situations.
While considering the prism of though-action problem, Kohlberg theories provides ambiguous distinction between moral though and moral action. At the same time, the theorist provides an extensive overview of moral reasoning and its relation to moral action. In addition, the frameworks ignores the concept of though formation as a result of moral action. Piaget’s theory is more consistent because provides a more detailed evaluation of the thinking process and the way it is reflected in moral actions.
The views of Piaget and Kohlberg differ in terms of moral education. In this respect, Kohlberg offers a much deeper analysis of moral actions highlighting sub-stages of moral development and explains those as a sequences of moral reasoning.
Though the scholar bases his views on Piaget, the differences are still seen in the way he explore the impact of moral atmosphere on shaping and adhering to new rules. Hence, Kohlberg’s tendency is based on the concepts of moral atmosphere, role taking, equality and cooperation. In this respect, Piaget represents disequilibrium for forming new rules for cooperating individuals and understanding how moral development depends on social environment.
However, Piaget’s school of though does not reject Kohlberg’s framework because they are very similar in terms of the subject of analysis. The point is that Kohlberg is more interested in characterizing the community whereas Piaget is more concerned with thought formation by giving social medium secondary importance.
In conclusion, Piaget’s view on moral development provided a foundation for adopting Kohlberg’s ideas and representing the concept of moral reasoning within the social and psychological perspectives. Despite the differences in their view on the moral principles, both theories represent sequential stages of moral development.
Works Cited Hoffman, Martin, L. Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Knowles, Richard T. Psychological Foundations of Moral Education and Character Development: An Integrated Theory of Moral Development. US: CRVP, 1992. Print.
Marjorie Nathanson, et al. “Social Learning And Piaget’s Cognitive Theory Of Moral Development.” Journal Of Personality
Nuclear Energy Effectiveness Essay a level english language essay help
It is argued that nuclear energy has negative impact on the environment. It is believed that nuclear energy can be used to promote terrorism through manufacturing of weapons. It is also feared that the radioactive elements of nuclear can have adverse effects on the environment. However, nuclear energy is the most cost effective and environmentally friendly way of generating electricity.
It is regarded as the most effective way of producing electricity in large scale (Bull 1218). This essay will argue that nuclear energy is the most appropriate way of producing large scale electricity with minimal effects to the environment.
The first argument presented is, nuclear energy can produce large scale electricity without depleting environmental resources available. Nuclear energy is extracted from atomic nuclei through nuclear fission (Serrano
Thomas Hobbes beliefs and thinking Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), a well-known English philosopher is best known for his political and social thoughts. He had a unique vision for the world. He was concerned with the social and political order of the world (Michaelis 101).
Hobbes implied that every individual in this world holds obedience to an unaccountable sovereign, e.g. each person or group has been empowered to decide their political and social order (Williams 213). Hobbes had a complex view of human lifestyle. His philosophy reversed the ancient perception of relating reason to passion (Pink 541).
He purported that the world as a society ought to be a peaceful place, where everyone lived in harmony (Michaelis 104). Despite his political views, Hobbes concentrated his efforts on the social aspects of the world. He availed temporal understanding of human beings’ privileges that the future held (Michaelis 104).
Hobbes frame social issues as a state of nature. He believes that every human being ought to avoid implications that cause harm (disharmony) to the society (Thivet 709). According to him, it is easy for a society to avoid social vices like violent deaths and civil wars.
Hobbes often empowered people to embrace freedom. He advocated for freedom because it was the key to liberty, right and liberation. The right to liberty authorizes an individual to exercise power (Pink 559). Moreover, he cautioned the use of freedom as a multi-way to gain power. Hobbes vehemently condemned the illegitimacy of political orders, lack of ideology and knowledge (Williams 213).
Currently, the world has taken a different twist from what Hobbes had in mind. Every society holds different duties and responsibilities towards moral obligations. The natural law, which all philosophers in the medieval period used in their philosophy, no longer applies in the current world (Pink 550). People in the world today disregard the moral instructions and governing principles set by natural law (Pink 559).
Societies have resorted to make laws that govern themselves. Many people have resolved to disobey the laws enacted by the government. In addition, the ethics of freedom is overstepped. People are using it to kindle uprising and movements whose objectives are to overthrow sovereignty (Michaelis 104).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example is the current uprisings and political movements taking place in the Middle East. Moreover, there is an increase in human rights and vocal protests by religious clergymen. These protesters believe they are attesting universal moral truth. Hobbes advocacy to right to liberty no longer applies (Pink 559). It was overshadowed by obligations of law imposed on people.
To add to that, religion has been ignored. Hobbes thought and believed that all individuals will be at the fore front in respecting and obeying the natural law of religion. The law of nature set up by God strictly demands that all religious individual obey God’s commandments (Pink 550). On the contrary, the religious conscience is a thing of the past. Immoral laws have taken precedence over God’s commandments. Furthermore, national political authorities have taken control.
They are responsible for a majority of wars and conflict facing the world as a society. This has left people with no choice but to rely on moral obligations and ethical considerations when making decisions. The moral demand will necessitate an individual to make decisions based on ethics and the law. Consequences availed by breaking the law has become the governor of the actions and decisions made by people (Pink 550).
Hobbes stressed out the importance of moral justification in obeying sovereignty (Thivet 703). He came up with 19 laws that would govern the state of nature. He also believed that any person that wields sovereign power automatically holds the right to all things. This is quite vivid in the current world. Political leadership is driven by greed. Political leaders have gone to the extent of depriving less fortunate individuals’ wealth. This has led to an increase in poverty levels in the society (Pink 546).
Hobbes believed that the society holds an obligation to obey sovereignty. He inferred that individuals are not bound to obedience because the threats associated by force and power do not deprive them liberty (Pink 552). The liberty that every individual enjoys allows them to move whichever way they wish.
Obeying sovereignty still remains a personal choice. He adds that obeying sovereignty carries immense moral weight that dictates the dos and don’ts for the society (Williams 213). Once members of the society stick to these laws of the sovereign, peace and harmony will be enhanced. There will be minimal cases of conflicts between the society and sovereignty. Sovereignty holds greatest responsibility to protect its subject. Citizens under sovereign protection and safety measure enjoy maximum security and a happy life (Thivet 709).
Hobbes has foreseen the resulting implications of people tempting to follow their ego and disobey sovereignty (Thivet 710). This is exactly what is happening in the world today. Many people opt to go against rules and laws that govern them. The punishments of disobedience are wars, violence, and conflicts that have arisen in almost all regions of the world.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Thomas Hobbes beliefs and thinking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effective threat caused by disobedience is in the self interest of each individual (Thivet 706). However, Hobbes philosophy has been neglected by many scholars and leaders in the sovereign. This is the chief cause of the implications evidenced in the modern world (Thivet 714). It means that human beings need authority and systems for them to coexist peacefully.
The world today has taken a totally different dimension from what Hobbes had in mind. The society of today faces several challenges of insecurity, poverty, epidemic, violence and civil wars. In my view, violent, death and conflicts are not the only fear to bring disharmony in the society. There are other numerous factors that cause disharmony (Williams 213). The line of thought Hobbes took does not give a clear account of a reasonable sovereign between human beings and state of nature.
Every human being has a mandate to assess the state of nature and avoid the implications that may arise. Much of the civil war and conflict have led to key players using the advantage of war and conflict to hoard the much desired peace (Michaelis 104). The current world governments are imposed on the society through corruption or fraud. News of corruption and fraud in government cycles has become the order of the day in the world today. Leaders promise change and development during elections.
They later become consumed with personal greed. It is the same in almost all governments, in the world. It becomes extremely difficult to defend or remove the existing governments. This is because they are very powerful. This prompts the need to go for vital necessity of reasoning for economic subsistence, as advocated by Hobbes (Thivet 708).
Works Cited Michaelis, Loralea. “Hobbess Modern Prometheus: A Political Philosophy for an Uncertain Future.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40.1 (2007): 101-27. Print.
Pink, Thomas. “Thomas Hobbes and the Ethics of Freedom.” Inquiry 54.5 (2011): 541-563. Print.
Thivet, Delphine. “Thomas Hobbes: A Philosopher Of War Or Peace?.” British Journal For The History Of Philosophy 16.4 (2008): 701-721. Print.
Williams, Michael C. “Hobbes and International Relations: A Reconsideration.” International Organization 50.2 (1996): 213-250. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Hobbes beliefs and thinking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Critical Analysis of Good Country People by O’Connor Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
In a short story Good Country People, O’Connor provides a plethora of reflections about the true attitude of people to religion and the nature of people’s relations with each other. The main character of this story, Joy, is a woman with physical challenge. She lost her leg in childhood and, probably, at the same time lost her belief into religion as a set of rules that should regulate human lives, thus, making this world better.
For Joy, religion has no sense; she cannot imagine the presence of God in this world which is full of violence and unfairness. People often try to explain the real meaning of things without understanding their true nature, being blind to see pure knowledge. Therefore, the key message implies that people use religion as a shield behind which they can hide their true attitude to life.
However, even well-educated people make the wrong conclusions when they start believe in nothing. The author uses irony in order to emphasize that when one is sure of the true nature of things from the scientific position of view, the universe is empty and God is a fiction, one cannot live without reflections about the supreme power that always exists in people’s lives. Hence, if there is no God in someone’s life, the empty space will be replaced by evil.
The story is based on a line of contradictions between science and religion, education and foolishness. Despite her solid education, Joy tends to isolate herself from the rest of the humankind, feeling that she loses her faith. Because of that, she changes her name, choosing the ugliest one possible, i.e. Hulga. In addition, her relations with mother are as bad as than they can possibly be. One can notice that Hulga does not love her mother; treating the latter as an enemy.
Hulga’s attitude towards her mother makes it obvious that the women is much like one of those good country people around but not Hulga’s family member. Thus, when Hulga changes the name, she feels satisfied by the victory over mother: “One of her major triumphs was that her mother had not been able to turn her dust into Joy, but the greater one was that she had been able to turn it herself into Hulga” (O’Connor 1632).
Hulga believes in nothing, which becomes obvious from her consideration of life and world, the universe is empty. She supposes that religious people as the fools who are unable to comprehend the real meaning of things and, therefore, replace it by mystical beliefs.
However, as a result of her new spiritual experiments, Hulga replaces the emptiness within by evil, which further on leads to her is inability to believe in goodness, God or another supreme power that could affect her life. Hulga’s reflections make stronger after meeting with a Bible salesman Manley Pointer, who, at first glance, seems religious and gentle, yet later on steels Hulga’s wooden leg.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the author adds considerable irony to the novel, making the main character, a woman with such powerful mind, physically challenged. Hulga supposes that she is better than all those good country people who believe in their God, including her mother, neighbors and a Bible salesman.
It is peculiar that Hulga’s assurance grows stronger when she learns that Manley Pointer is an atheist and, in fact, he is even more evil than people who seems less religious. Obviously, Hulga’s previous conviction that the universe is empty changes to the belief that the world is based on evil.
Finally, she gains the mystical knowledge that was missing during her previous study, yet this is the knowledge of evil. Therefore, although Hulga finally comes to possessing the knowledge which she was longing for, she is still unable to see the beauty of the universe or to feel the presence of goodness in human life.
Works Cited O’Connor, Flannery. “Good country people.” The American Traditions in Literature, 12 ed. Ed. George Perkins and Barbara Perkins. US: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Science/Languages, 2008. 1632. Print.
The Effects of Media on Teenagers Case Study essay help site:edu
Media has played a central part in the liberalization of communication across the global village. Through the media, exchange of information has not only become easier, but also efficient. By a click of a button, an interested party may be in a position to pass important information to as many recipients as possible.
As the world steadily embraces the use of internet, teenagers are not left behind. These teenagers communicate and use internet to interact with peers. Often, internet use among teenagers is addictive and robs them of the physical interaction and association with family members as they dedicate excessive time blogging with those they perceive as equals and members of the teenage culture.
Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to openly analyze the connection between teenagers’ internet use and their interaction with the society. Besides, the paper attempts to establish an existing association between internet as a tool of communication and loss of desire for face-to-face communication society. In addition, the paper looks into the high risk of social networks.
Reflectively, to enable a clear understanding of the above concept, the source of media reference in this paper dwells on the internet use among teenagers which has surpassed other means of communication.
Scholars in the field of communication media are still fully glued to the well distributed channel of communication known as internet to predict and explain the underlying factors that enabled certain cultural influences to be more popular than others and how these cultural influences were integrated into the society as part of society alongside the pre set norms and regulations. Moreover, still up to date, internet remains to be the most popular central element of information transference landscape (Burton 31).
In the last decade, many scholars and media consultants have come up with the open idiom ‘internet communication ‘to represent the substantially declining use of face-to-face model of communication assumed to be traditional among teenagers. With the modern technology, consumer of information has comprehensively redirected their interests on the content, reliability, comfort and privacy rather than just means of conveying information.
The target audience and their response are explored after which a conclusion is made depending on the derived results. In addition market position is steadily undergoing transformation posing a threat to the usual face to face communication (Ott
Impact of global warming on Arctic wildlife Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Global warming, which is a phenomenon of the recent times occurring within the 20th century, results from rising of the average temperatures of the atmosphere and oceans of the world. The rise in temperature leads to warming of climatic systems, of the world, especially the Arctic and Antarctic regions (Polar Regions) leading to devastating effects on both terrestrial wildlife and aquatic life.
The level of certainty, by scientists, “that global warming result from the increase in concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere, due to human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the continued use of harmful insecticides, is 90%” (Lubin, 2008)
Further projections, by intergovernmental panel on climate change, indicate that, in the 21st century, global surface temperature is probably rising by 1.1oc to 2.9oc due to further accumulation of green gases from the continued human activity.
High surface temperatures lead to “the melting of ice in Polar Regions such as the Arctic and Antarctic regions causing a rise in the ocean and sea levels, which affects the amount and pattern of precipitation and expansion of subtropical deserts” (O’Neel, 2008).
Further prospects indicate that, global warming would result into extreme climatic changes with heat waves, droughts, species extinction, changes in crop yields and heavy rainfall.
The expected strong warming on the Arctic regions of the world will lead to ice melting causing significant rise in the sea and ocean level even beyond the polar region. The rise in sea levels, resulting from the melting of ice in the Arctic region, destroys aquatic habitats, as well as the terrestrial habitats, when the rise displaces terrestrial wildlife along the coastal lines (O’Neel, 2008).
On the other hand, the adverse climatic changes due to global warming leading to droughts and expansion of deserts, affects the wildlife, both plants and animals, as food shortage and destruction of habitats sets and thus Arctic ice melting will have major effects beyond the polar region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The growth and establishment of sustainable wildlife depends largely on the availability of a healthy habitat with elements of good temperature, fresh water, good source of food, and good places to raise the young ones. Global warming affects negatively on these constituents of a good habitat in that, it causes an increase in temperature ranges, destruction of food sources, and deflowers fresh water bodies meant for wildlife consumption.
Temperature rise in the Arctic region leads to increase in the level of ice melting thus destroying the hunting grounds for polar bears. The removal of hunting grounds puts polar bears on the risk of extinction due to lack of sustainable food supply. Moreover, warming of water bodies due to melting of ice eventually leads to reduction in population of animals surviving in cold environments such as the trout and salmon.
Bleaching of massive coral ecosystems destroys breeding grounds for many species of fish due to global warming and increase in ocean temperatures. The destruction of coral reefs destroys the substratum for the growth of phytoplankton, which serves as food for different species of fish.
The reduction in the food supply in the ecosystems adversely affects the population growth of the aquatic life; therefore, temperature increase not only affects the coral ecosystem, but also affects the aquatic populations even beyond the Polar Regions as the melted ice trickle down from the Polar Regions to the lowlands.
The expected large floods resulting from “ice melting in the Polar Regions, ruin aquatic habitats interfering with water quality and causes increased erosion levels amounting to ruining of both aquatic and terrestrial life, in the affected areas” (Hartmann, 1997, p. 28).
Furthermore, droughts resulting from climate changes accruing from global warming leads to destruction of plants as primary producers, thus affecting negatively on the animal life, which largely depend on plants for food and shelter. Droughts cause enlargement of deserts and diverse wildlife fresh water.
For migratory animals, climatic changes cause changes and alteration in food availability. For instance, migratory birds arrive in patterns to find insects, flowering plants, and seeds, which are food sources, but due to changes in climatic patterns, “the migratory birds may find food sources have bloomed or hatched too early” (Rosenzweig,
Santa Claus and Mythical Creatures Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Significance of Santa Claus
Similarity of Santa Claus to Mythological Creatures
Adaptations of Santa Claus over time
Common Beliefs about Santa Claus in Modern Day Society
A mythical creature is a monster that is prominent in myths and folklores. They include mythical beings, basilisks, monsters, cockatrice, hellhound and centaur among others. They are believed to possess some supernatural powers albeit to some extent. The aim of this paper is to study the Santa Claus as an example of one of such mythical creatures.
This is a mythical creature that is believed to deliver gifts to children on the Eve of the Christmas day. It is particularly common with the western cultures specifically in Europe and the U.S. He often wears red attire with cuffs and a collar which is white. In addition, he puts on leathered boots with a black leathered belt.
History of Mythology behind Santa Claus. Santa Claus is believed to have been brought to New York by a Dutch legend called Sinter Klaas during the seventeenth century. A variety of mythical creatures and different legends tell the tale of Santa Claus. The foundation of the association of Santa Claus in Christianity is believed to be Bishop Nicholas in a present day Turkey, formerly known as Smyrna (Izmir).
Bishop Nicholas is believed to live in the 4th century A.D. He had immense wealth and was very lovely, caring and generous towards children. He always threw gifts to poor children as a way of showing them joy. Consequently Saint Nicholas was accorded high esteem by different churches. It was because of his honor that the Orthodox Church, which is the oldest church in Russia, was built.
Within the Catholic Church fraternity, the Saint became the patron of children and seafarers. He was referred to as der Weinachtsmann within the protestant areas in the central and northern Germany. The English people called him Father Christmas. Some Dutch immigrants however took him with them to the United States where he became known as Santa Claus.
Santa Claus drew the curiosity of children who wanted to know what he does and where he lives in between Christmases. Apparently this curiosity led to the conclusion that Santa Claus had a Christmas gift workshop in the North Pole where he lived. But in 1925, it was again discovered that Santa Claus actually lived in Finnish Lapland.
With time, different customs from the Northern Hemisphere joined together and created a global Santa Claus, who was immortal and not affected by either age or time. He wore a red suite and gave gifts to children on the Christmas day before going back to Korvatunturi in Finnish Lapland.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Santa Claus is said to have made several stop over at Napapiiri, near Rovaniemi since the year 1950 to meet children. Due to his now regular visits by 1985, he later established his own Santa Claus office in the same location where he came to daily to listen to children. In addition to his office, there is also a Post Office where he receives letters from children around the world.
Significance of Santa Claus Santa Claus is believed to spread happiness and joy during the Christmas celebrations. Santa Claus is also said to be big bellied. This ensures the inexhaustible cheer that he carries around. His big belly also translates into a big heart and hence his generosity. The Santa possesses a white beard made of cotton.
This is translated to mean that he has a lot of wisdom. He always assumes the shape of an old man and owing to the fact that old age ahs always been associated with wisdom, he is believed to be wise too. His red attire is however associated with his roots. Saint Nicholas was a bishop and bishops used to wear red in those days. Therefore the Santa is associated with Godly things.
Similarity of Santa Claus to Mythological Creatures Santa Claus possesses some similarities with other mythological creatures in various aspects. Some mythological creatures such as the dragon are capable of flying. The same is true with Santa Claus. The mythological creatures also had the ability to perform some weird things that cannot be simply explained. For instance, one could make simultaneous appearances at varied locations at the same time. This is also true with Santa Claus since within the Christmas Eve of twenty four hours, he is supposed to have visited around two billion children.
There also exist number of differences between Santa Claus and other mythical creatures. To begin with, Santa Claus is widely associated with religious practices and events. Other mythical creatures are however related to evil and satanic things. Some, like the dragon, for instance is dreaded and is believed within some faiths to be a demon.
Santa Claus is depicted in the form of a human being while other mythical creatures come in forms of animals or mixtures of different animals or even animals with enjoined in a human being. While Santa Claus is associated with generosity and the availability of gifts, other mythical creatures are associated with destruction and harm.
Adaptations of Santa Claus over time Santa Claus is believed to have been found by Ak, in the Burzee forest as a baby and placed in the acre of lioness Shiegra. During his teens, Claus was taken by Ak to contact with other mortal lives in a bid of gaining experience on the way they lived. The mortal lives included poverty, war, child abuse, brutality and child neglect. He did not like the experience though. From there he stands doing kind acts to children. This earned him respect and admiration of many till they christen him as a saint and hence the title ‘Santa’.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Santa Claus and Mythical Creatures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Common Beliefs about Santa Claus in Modern Day Society Many Christians still presume Santa Claus to be an important element in the celebration of Christmas, which they so much cherish. However there are very sharp divides as pertains to his origins. While many Christians hold the view that he is the Saint Nicholas whose love for children and generosity are well known, others consider him as an offspring of the Northern European gods and the spirits who were in existence before the advent of Christianity.
Yet other Christians are vehemently opposed to his involvement in the celebration of the birth of their savior, Jesus Christ. Some even think that his main objective is to commercialize the important day of Christmas. Meanwhile some do not believe that such a creature ever exists.
Works Cited Barrett, Justin L. “Why Santa Claus is Not a God.” Journal of Cognition and Culture 8.1- 2 (2008): 149-161. Print.
Baum, Frank L. The Life and Adventures of Santa Clause. Pittsburgh: 1st World Publishing, 2005. Print.
Belk, Ressell W. “A Child’s Christmas in America: Santa Claus as Deity, Consumption as Religion.” The Journal of American Culture 10.1 (2004): 87-100. Print.
Eason, Cassandra. Fabulous Creatures, Mythical Monsters, and Animal Power Symbols: A Handbook. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
Federer, William J. There Really Is a Santa Claus – History of Saint Nicholas
Why English Should Become the Official Language in the United States Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction The United States (US) is home to many people who come from all parts of the world. This means that they come in with their native languages. Most of the people who come to the United States have little or no English background. I believe that the US should take up English as an official language because it will be a unifying aspect when it does become. It is actually used in almost all sections of the US, and by this I am referring to schools, parliament and the constitution.
The unifying language To begin with, there have been cases of misunderstandings that sometimes result to meaningless arguments that cause physical or mental harm as a result of the use of native languages. If only English was an official language, then such incidences would be avoided. Secondly, we have an education system that uses English, and an economy that operates worldwide with the use of English just to mention but a few.
A common language like English will bring about a common understanding leading people to having a common vision hence creating unity. Most nations of the world use English as their first or even second official language, if this is so then why not the US as well?
English would serve as a uniting factor among the different races that exist in America. English is a rather simple language to learn. Since it is already spoken or is understood by a majority of the population, then it would be a viable tool to unite the different races in the country.
Lately, Hispanics have been segregated as they use Spanish for communicative purposes. If the trend continues, this will aggravate the segregation eventually alienating the Spanish and other communities as well. It is therefore necessary to have a unifying linguistic factor which would also go a long way in alleviating the racial conflicts
Bilingualism is proving to be too expensive for the American tax payers. The government has been allowing immigrants to use their native languages of which the government provides government funded translators. This is not only inconveniencing the whole system as more and more immigrants arrive from different countries, but will also be unsustainable in the near future.
Looking back at history, regions with a common communicative tongue have always flourished. Those without were forced to develop a lingua franca to meet their communicative needs. This has not changed in the present conditions. There is a need to have a common language to be used in business and other areas in America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This would go a long way in further improving the country’s economy and well being. Opponents would argue that this language need not be English, but developing another language to the level where English is would take America a lot of years and resources. It is therefore very obvious that the language of choice here would be none other than English.
English language has the largest vocabulary as compared to any other language in the world. It is estimated that there are between 500,000 to 1,000,000 words to choose from in the English vocabulary. This makes English the most practical language to give a national status due to its ease of expression.
Scientific innovations are precisely expressed in the English language. In this field, English has proved to be viable tools as even other languages tend to borrow some scientific terms from the English language. This includes all fields of science ranging from biological and technical sciences.
A lot of books are already written in English. This includes books that were originally written in other languages. It is always very easy to translate books from other languages into English than it is to translate English into other languages. This shows that English opens up an avenue for American citizens to embrace more knowledge from other countries and societies.
English is also used in majority of the American educational institutions. This includes the institutions from elementary to university level. This has considerably elevated the status of the American universities which are ranked among the best in the world.
Simplicity English is relatively a simple language. The level of understanding is high as this can be witnessed by its use in the lowest elementary education level. Other languages have borrowed a lot from it as well. Its Accessibility There are many English resources available in schools such as books, journals novels among others.
The internet is as well a good source of English language and is more practical as aspects such as the social media have made it easier to learn the language. It is the language that is most used as a mode of communication in the social media. Utility It is through the use of a language like English that business can be carried out and brings about profits.
We will write a custom Essay on Why English Should Become the Official Language in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reason behind this is that, numbers mater most when it comes to business and a language like English that is used by billions of people all over the world means good returns. This thus proves that it is important to officiate the language in the US for economic and growth purpose.
A cultural aspect English is a culture in its self. This has been displayed in different forms like drama and theatrics to the way of living.
Its dialects and diphthongs have often been used to express feelings, and emotions among others. This thus means that English can be used to derive a common culture among the people of the Unite States. Job creation Once it is made the official language, more job opportunities will be at people’s disposal, as the need to teach the language will be greater.
Conclusion If one is asked which language is best fit to become the official language of the United States, English would be the best fit. This however does not mean that all other languages would be disregarded. English is the one that has a favorable connotation. By the fact that it is used in almost all systems of the Nation, it deserves to be made the official language.
The people in the United States have a variety of languages and if all are spoken, then communication would be a challenge. There needs to be a unifying language like English so as to enhance the common good since there will be more understanding between people, and in the end, peaceful co-existence.
This peaceful co-existence can only come about through the promotion of English culture amongst the people. English, therefore, should become the official language to be used in the United States for the common good of all.
Are The Enacted Voting Law Changes In 2012 Intended To Deter the Minority Vote? Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The enacted voting law changes in 2012 are intended to deter the minority vote and will significantly affect the minority voters in the U.S. The changes in the voting law will require voters to possess identification requirements and will create more problems to the minority group since most of them will be ineligible to vote.
Most states have enacted the changes that have made it difficult for citizens to register as voters. The changes in the voting laws target the minority group, blacks, students, and the older people since most of them have do not have the government issued ID’s and photo identification (Jonel 2006).
Those who support the implementation of the changes in the voting law argue that voter fraud will be prevented. However the causes of fraudulent acts in the voting process is very rare. This has led to questions regarding authenticity of the changes made in the voting law.
The rights of voters and voting fraud have become an increasingly debatable issue, but the process had been supported by the Republicans. The Republicans imposed these new restrictions on voter registration to bar the minority group.
According to the views of the Republicans, the new rules are intended to boost a practical way to prevent frauds and to enhance the integrity of the voting process, but the Democrats argue that the changes have little to do with preventing fraud, but are intended to create obstacles to their supporters including the minority groups and the older people (Jonel 2006).
These changes are intended to prevent the massive turnout of the minority voters who supported President Obama to achieve victory during the 2008 presidential elections. Hence, the changes are aimed at reducing the numbers of the minority group and to increase the numbers of the republican supporters. The decision of the Justice Department brought the administration of the Obama into hostile criticism on the new wave of voting restrictions.
The changes are mostly supported by the Republicans in the pretext of curbing fraud in the ballot box. Initially, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was implemented to prohibit discrimination to any person due to the previous conditions of slavery, race, and color, from participating in the voting process (Jonel 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the 19th century most legislators held a belief that the law would protect the minority group from discrimination during the voting process.
The requirements of the new law, such as, proof of citizenship by presenting photo identification are an obvious restriction because it will cause millions of the minority voters to become ineligible to vote (Brennan Center for Justice, n.d). The policy that requires voters to show proof of citizenship is a substantial setback to the voting rights of the minority.
The Voting Right Act of 1965 has been a success for many decades in the U.S. The presidential elections of 2012 should be even easier for citizens to take part in the voting process. The partisans should consider avoiding the changes in the fair electoral playing ground. They should avoid making unnecessary amendments to the voting laws in order to restrict the minority from exercising their freedom.
The impact of the enacted voting law changes will profoundly affect the 2012 presidential election results. Most states have already implemented the changes that will limit the voting rights of the minority group. Some states have enacted the bills that require citizens to provide photo ID’s, but more than 11% of the U.S citizens do not possess the government issued photos (Randon 2009).
Furthermore, other states have also introduced the bills requiring voters to identify themselves as U.S. citizens in order to be eligible to register as voters.
The whole issue is related to the past events of the organized voter suppression efforts by the Republicans that targeted the minority group. This strategy is intended to target the minority voters, and it seems as a violation to the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Randon 2009). The Republicans have been working extraordinarily hard to suppress the minority voters for many decades.
Currently the U.S should count on moral outrage, but it is surprising that the Democrats do not practice the vice because it seems as if the Democrats believe that the Republicans have a patent on it that they use to make up on issues such as war on religion and Obama’s native origin.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Are The Enacted Voting Law Changes In 2012 Intended To Deter the Minority Vote? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the U.S. can only be successful if all people get a fair share and are treated equally in all matters that affect the U.S. However, when it comes to voting rights the Republicans do not believe that the minority should be treated equally. Thus, the changes in voting law in 2012 will significantly affect the minority vote since they will be denied their rights to vote.
It is true that the Republicans view the minority groups as an obstacle to their victory in the 2012 presidential elections. Therefore, they are working hard to implement the changes in the voting laws to make them achieve victory in the forthcoming 2012 presidential elections.
Bibliography Brennan Center for Justice. N.d. Web.
JoNel, Newman, ( 2006). Unfinished Business: the Case for Continuing Special Voting Rights Act Coverage in Florida. University of Miami Law Review 61.1: 52.
Randon, H., M., (2009). What We Know about Voter-ID Laws, Registration, and Turnout. PS: Political Science
Select a Fortune 500 company or another company you are familiar with. Consider pharmaceuticals, computer hardware, retail, or automotive industries for your selection. If you choose a company that is argumentative essay help
Consider pharmaceuticals, computer hardware, retail, or automotive industries for your selection. If you choose a company that is not in the Fortune 500, ensure that enough financial information and key performance indicator results are available to complete the assignment.
Imagine your manager has asked you to help with a presentation on the company’s financial performance at the company’s annual meeting.
Research financial information and key performance indicators for the company.
Create a 10- to 16-slide presentation for investors to assess the company’s financial growth and sustainability.
Identify key performance indicators for the company you selected, including the following:
The company and its ticker symbol
Cash flow from operations
Stock dividends and the yield, if any
Earnings per share ratio
Revenue estimates for the next 12 months
Revenue from the previous 3 years
Statement of cash flows and identify net cash from operating, investing, and financing activities over the past 3 years
Average trade volume.
Current stock price, 52-week high, and 1-year estimated stock price
Analysts’ recommendations for the stock (buy,sell, hold)
Market cap for the company
Relate the stock price to price-to-earnings ratio.
Explain the market capitalization and what it means to the investor.
Evaluate trends in stock price, dividend payout, and total stockholders’ equity. Relate recent events or market conditions to the trends you identified.
Determine, based on your analysis, whether you think the organization is going to meet its financial goals, the outlook for growth and sustainability, and explain why you recommend this stock for purchase.
Cite references to support your assignment.
Format your citations according to APA guidelines.
Beloved by Toni Morrison Essay (Book Review) best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents The plot
Evaluation of the novel
The plot Toni Morrison’s novel “Beloved” is a sensational story about the history of slavery and racial segregation in America. “Beloved” is based on the story of a fictional character named Sethe, who escaped from enslavement, and her children named Denver, Howard and Buglar. Their home is haunted by a visible ghost, whose presence is associated with bizarre occurrences, such as objects being are hulled at them and the mysterious death of Sethe’s mother in law (Morrison 33).
The ghost attacks are traumatizing and almost drive Sethe insane. Nevertheless, Paul D, Sethe’s friend attempts to restore sanity, and almost succeeds by driving the ghost away. The ghost, sensing Paul D’s power turns into a charming young woman. Seethe is won over by the woman’s charm, and banishes Paul D’s from her house.
The young woman’s charm seems to give her superhuman powers. She overpowers Paul D to the extent that she forces him to have sex with her. Paul D’s attempts to resist the ghost are efforts in futility. Instead, Paul D appears to be helpless. Paul D reveals to Sethe his intentions to impregnate the young woman (Morrison 293).
In the midst of this excitement, Sethe reveals to Paul D about her unfortunate past, and the reason why the community in Cincinnati fails to accept her. From this revelation, Paul D learns that Sethe had escaped from slavery, to her mother-in-law’s home. He also learns that, she attempted to kill herself and her children in order to “keep them where it was safe” when her master came for her (Morrison 233).
Fortunately, she only manages to kill her eldest daughter. Shocked by the revelation, Paul D leaves the house, paving way for the return of Sethe’s dead daughter in form of a ghost. She haunts the house, but eventually the black community unites in Sethe favor and helps her to chase away the ghost.
Historical significance “Beloved” is based on true story, and is of historical significance especially regarding American Civil Rights Movement. Set in the 19th century, “Beloved” reveals underlying biases with regards to concept of race.
The story alludes to major legislations that helped to define the concept of race in 19th century America. For instance, the arrival of a posse to reclaim Sethe and her children reflects the machinations of the Fugitive Slave Act, passed in 1850. The Act gave powers to slave owners the right to hunt down escaped slaves all over the US.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is imperative to note that before the American Civil War, slaves enjoyed no rights. Sethe’s escape from slavery is a clearly portrays the lack of basic rights for all blacks. In addition to this, Sethe’s attempt to kill herself and her children also reveals age old crimes committed against innocent blacks by their own.
In the 19th century America, the only sure way of escaping slavery was death. Sethe is symbolic of many black mothers who chose to free their families from slavery through death. This however, is not to mean that the story is all bleak.
“Beloved” depicts faint attempts at granting basic civil rights to the black community. Before passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, blacks were not allowed to enter into legal contracts. This implies that no black was allowed to be legally married. Nevertheless, Sethe’s marriage to Halle signifies loosening of this rule. As a result, Sethe’s master allowed her and Halle to stay married. The rights to be legally married were introduced through the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
“Beloved” also portrays the reluctance with which blacks were given basic rights. Despite the fact that Civil Rights Act of 1866 allowed Sethe and other blacks to marry, the denial of voting rights alludes to Jim Crow’s Laws, which are largely perceived to have attempted to institutionalize racism. By institutionalizing racism, Jim Crow is thought to have hindered the advancement of the American civil rights movement.
Evaluation of the novel “Beloved” is a sensational account of the historical challenges that have faced the black community in America since time immemorial. The novel also depicts a community in social economic peril. The novel, other than depicting a race suffering the worst form of inhuman treatment, also portrays one of the darkest periods in America’s history.
This resonates well with efforts to eliminate racism and racially aggravated attacks. It seems ironical however, that while “Beloved” is all about America’s dark past, the story is not all gloomy. “Beloved” depicts the determination with which black Americans fought for freedom. This is evident through characters such as Sethe who overcome insurmountable odds and survive when least expected to.
Additionally, Morrison alludes to the fact that the biggest challenge facing the marginalized black community is not racial segregation. The afflictions affecting Sethe, Paul D and other black slaves seem to emanate from the spirit world rather than from the physical world.
We will write a custom Book Review on Beloved by Toni Morrison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Critics argue that the ghost is Sethe’s murdered daughter. Her presence in the story seems to be Morrison’s way of rebuking to the black community for committing the abhor-able crime of murder. The ghost attacks seem to be much more harmful than those suffered from racial segregation. Critics argue that this betrays Morrison’s perceptions concerning the essence of human suffering; that it is more spiritual than physical.
Works Cited Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New Jersey: Knoff. 1987. Print
Moral Panic from Implementing Stern Security Measures Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
According to Thompson (2008), “Moral panic can be described as the intensity of feelings that are usually expressed within a population in regard to an issue that can be said to threaten the specified social order”. As such, moral panic arises whenever an episode, condition, a person or even a group of individuals emerge such that they become perceived as a threat to social interests as well as social values (Waddington, 2006).
Increased security measures in schools are usually perceived as threats and thereby causing a moral panic among students. To the students’ point of view, imposition of stern security measures causes the students to live in compromising situations.
The stern security measures tend to elbow the self proclaimed freedom that comes with loosely held security measures. With this regard, imposition of stern security measures eats away the freedom of the students and therefore seen as a threat to the student’s social interests, that is, the sense of freedom (Waddington, 2006).
The stern security measures can also cause moral panic to the adults held responsible with regard to students. As such, the interests of these adults are to see their children, the students, grow and live within the moral scopes (Schneider, 2004). In any institution, strict security measures are set, the students become defiant and as such, their actions entail all sorts of evils towards showing disrespect to the set security measures.
This defiance is not within the intended moral scope and as such, they violate the interests of the adults (Ungar, 2000). From this perspective, the stern security measures can be said to be threats capable of causing a moral panic among the adults (Perrow, 2004).
The media can be said to influence the occurrence of moral panic among individuals. As such, the media is attributed as the major cause of crimes. This is because, usually, it inflicts negative effects with regard not only to behaviors but also to values as well as the attitudes of individuals. In reality, the media influence is largely on the youth but rarely to other groups. As such, the young are usually susceptible to every kind of influence.
One way that the media creates a moral panic is when it imitates a certain role in a deviant way. In addition to this, by lining up televising programs as well as films that entail violent or imagery largely attributable to sex. As such, it causes an arousal and this indeed can be considered as not only crime but also deviance and as such, this causes a moral panic. These kinds of situations warrant imposition of stern security measures in schools (Ungar, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instead of implementing stern security measures in institutions, it is necessary that the administrative body establishes other effective ways such that moral panic is not aroused. As such, the administration can decide to offer guidance and counseling to the students and ensure follow up actions are made.
In addition to this, the institutions can invite iconic and authoritative figures within a society to guide the students on the right course of action. As such, these prominent figures may be a great wish to the students and this would follow that the students as well as their actions will entail an aspect of streamline, that is, they will adopt the desired moral standards (Perrow, 2004).
References Perrow, C. (2004). Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies. New York: Basic Books.
Schneider, S. (2004). Detecting Climatic Change Signals: Are There Any “Fingerprints” Science, 63(5145): 341–725.
Thompson, K. (2008). Moral Panic. London: Routledge.
Ungar, S. (2000). Moral Panics, the Military Industrial Complex, and the Arms Race. Sociological Quarterly, 31(2): 165–85.
Waddington, P. A. J. (2006). Mugging as a Moral Panic: A Question of Proportion. British Journal of Sociology, 37(2): 245–59.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Moral Panic from Implementing Stern Security Measures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Michel Foucault ‘s Discourse Theory and its Relation to Dr. Seuss’s Works Essay cheap essay help
When speaking about Michel Foucault ‘s discourse theory and its relation to Dr. Seuss’s books, it is necessary to consider some key concepts of the philosopher’s discourse. First of all, it should be pointed out that the analysis of images and other symbolic practices as well as some ideas and thoughts is recognized to be really important process, as such analysis gives us an opportunity to focus on the so-called continuities of change.
Generally, one is to keep in mind that Foucault ‘s discourse “tells us something about the person speaking the language, the culture that that person is part of, the network of social institutions that the person caught up in, and even frequently the most basic assumptions that the person holds” (Whisnant 5). In other words, one can make a conclusion that discourse seems to be the social tool, which main purpose is to show the peculiarities of understanding human experience.
One of the most important points, which should be considered, is a historical transformation discourse theory is related to. Thus, according to Michel Foucault, small shifts are considered to be significant elements, which reflect the ways the language is expressed. For instance, when speaking about Dr. Seuss’s The Cat Not in the Hat, it becomes obvious that transformativeness inquiry is one of the key concepts of a humorous book.
On the other hand, it is also necessary to remember that children’s classic The Cat in the Hat can be analyzed differently. Laura A. Heymann is of the opinion that “reader recognition of the defendant’s recontextualization mediates any potential conflict between a reader-response view of transformativeness and the derivative work right” (464).
As far as discourses Michel Foucault speaks about affect numerous areas of life; for this reason, one is to keep in mind that discourses exist everywhere, they encompass all the genres, and Dr. Seuss’s works cannot be regarded as exceptions.
Generally, it should be pointed out that the social construction of reality Dr. Seuss highlights depends upon the chains of language Michel Foucault depicts. In other words, culture cannot exist without discourse. Discourses undergo transformations, and these changes can be traced back.
When analyzing Dr. Seuss’s works, it becomes evident that “once transformations in a given discourse happen, the new rules can spread, infiltrating their way into new areas of life and even transforming older discourses or forcing them out of practice” (Whisnant 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interdependence between Michel Foucault’s discourse theory and Dr. Seuss’s works generates the truth. For instance, the context of Dr. Seuss’s works convinces people to accept the reality. Moreover, as far as discourse communicates knowledge, it also shows us the ways people interpret the world.
Finally, cultural transformations explanation is recognized to be one of the most important aims of a discourse. As far as the production of discourse can be controlled, the author can impact on languages, images and signs he creates. In other words, the author can create his own reality and convince the readers to accept it.
However, if the reader does not understand truths of a discourse, one can state that discourses exist independently. So, taking into account Michel Foucault’s discourse theory, one can state for sure that Dr. Seuss’s works reflect cultural transformations French philosopher speaks about. In other words, the truth one accepts through the reality is considered to be absolute.
Works Cited Heymann, Laura. Everything Is Transformative: Fair Use and Reader Response. 2008. Web.
Whisnant, Clayton. Foucault
Speeches that Changed the World Compare and Contrast Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A speech encompasses an expression of a person’s feelings and thoughts using articulate sounds. Most famous speeches that have been compounded by different world leaders encompassed various message to different intended audiences. “Tear down This Wall” by President Ronald Reagan, “I have A Dream” by Martin Luther King, Jr. and “Ask not what your Country can do” by John F, Kennedy encompass famous speeches in American history.
Though the three speeches can be analyzed rhetorically using allusion and metaphor, they differ in terms of the audience for which they were intended.
Reagan alludes himself to the “I am A Citizen of Berlin” speech by Kennedy, to emphasize on the importance of liberty and freedom. This allusion enhances the clear understanding of the fact that Reagan is more interested in enhancing freedom and liberty in the world. King alludes himself to the US declaration of independence, The Gettysburg Address and the Bible, to emphasize on the fact that all human beings are created equal and should always be treated equally, regardless of their race or social background.
Kennedy alludes himself to the America’s independence, with the aim of building a good character for himself and assuring the American people that he would work towards the liberation of all and the securing of freedom for all Americans. The use of allusion in these speeches is intended to reveal to the audience the speeches’ main subject as well as to enhance the persuasiveness of the speech to the intended audience.
While Reagan’s and Kennedy’s speeches emphasize on the enhancement of freedom and liberty in the world, King’s speech emphasize on the enhancement of equality for all Americans, regardless of their Race and social standing. Metaphors are utilized in the three speeches to emphasize on the speeches’ subjects.
Kennedy uses the passage of a torch to the new generation, to emphasize on the passage of the responsibility of enhancing freedom and liberty in the world, to the new generation by the old generation. King utilizes the joyous daybreak and the long night of captivity, to emphasize on the gaining of equality by the African Americans that were initially oppressed due to race.
Reagan utilizes the tearing or the wall as a metaphor to emphasize on freedom and liberty for the world, as to him tearing of the wall is equated to according the world with freedom and liberty. Based on the metaphors, the three speeches are powerful, as they culminated to positive actions on the basis of their subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In contrast, the three speeches utilized metaphors to emphasize different message to different audiences. Kennedy’s speech was written for the American people, its allies, Foes as well as the other countries it had aided in acquiring freedom in the world. King’s speech was written for all Americans, but with particular emphasis on the African Americans that were still seeking equality in liberal America.
Reagan’s speech was written for Soviet Union’s Leader, with the aim of encouraging him to break down the Berlin Wall. Based on the different audiences for which the three speeches were composed, they work for me well because their similarities and differences manage to emphasize on the messages being passed to the three different audiences. In conclusion, though the three speeches can be analyzed rhetorically using allusion and metaphor, they differ in terms of the audience for which they were intended.
Sport and Society Report essay help online free
Table of Contents Race
Race There is undoubtedly a wide gap between white people and black people involvement in certain games or sports. As evident by recent study conducted by the U.S. swimming Association, nearly 31 per cent of white children between the ages of 6 and 16 cannot swim, in comparison to 60 per cent of African-American children who cannot swim (Baker, Cunningham
Value of Research Report best essay help
Bad survey Questions and their Rewards Research use questions to conduct research. In addition some of these questions may be good bad at times bad depending on how they are formulated.They should not have vague words i.e.
Do you consider yourself liberal?, The questions should not use abbreviations e.g. which is the determining factor for GDP growth?, the questions should not use jargons or technical terms e.g. should a strict fertility policy be formulated?, the should not exhibit double negatives e.g. should Kenya not oppose the ICC? The language should not be slang e.g. how do maparoz view the youth? Lastly, there shouldn’t appear any ambiguous phrases i.e. the money laundering policy should not be legal at all(Zikmund 2010). Research questions should be rewarded in a way that they don’t directly lead the respondent to a defined answer.
They should give the respondent a clear way to respond very independently. To avoid these controversies the questions should be formed in such away that they start from the least sensitive to those that are most sensitive. They should also emanate from questions that are quite general but geared towards being more specific. The research questions are geared towards finding out about the reality hence there is need to formulate questions which tends to find out about facts to those which tend to seek opinions.
Moreover, the questions are again rewarded by placing them in the best sequence and alignment possible. Neutrality in the research questions is a virtue that has to be upheld in the research questions. This allows for independent thinking of the respondents (Zikmund 2010).
Rating vs. ranking comparison Words like rating and ranking are commonly used words; they are normally subject to confusion of the same meaning a notion which is never true. The areas of application of the two tools can be to conduct the evaluation on employees or assessing on the satisfaction of the consumers.
The difference now comes in a situation where ranking does the evaluation using a numbering scale. They compare one question to the other directly and in different ways to arrive at the conclusion. It is mostly used by those involved in the collection of data to analyze and tabulate results.
Rating on the other hand uses a comparison mode where they collect items and compares them using a common scale(Zikmund 2003). The scale to be used is graduated and the judgments are exact. Ranking is the best at measuring customer satisfaction due to the following reasons: – they are consistent in their modes of tabulation of the responses that they are striving to seek.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consistency is an aspect that is brought about by the fact that there are set standards of comparison and therefore fairness in operations are achieved; ranking is highly objective in its efforts to measure consumer satisfaction. This is brought about by the mere fact that the scales are graduated in numbers and therefore the results are highly objective (Zikmund 2003).
The other advantage that ranking has is that it is highly flexible and allows for the use of a variety of methods to collect information by way of the ranking scales. The methods range from use of telephone surveys, face to face conversations or even through mail. The method of collection highly accepts the personal variations and vast integration of aspects. They use highly simplified means to analyze and do presentations on the aspects of investigation.
The ranking scale is of much importance to organizations since they are future oriented; they do investigation focusing their questions into thefuture. Like what is likely to take place in the future and how is it likely to impact on the organization in such times (Zikmund 2003).
How can a research project be reliable but invalid? Whether a research project is reliable and valid is a subject of a wider discussion. When conducting research it would be of no use if the terms reliability and validity are not mentioned. This is because these are the aspects of research that needs assurance for the outcome of the research to be generally accepted for consumption otherwise the research work would be rejected hence a waste of the constrained resources (Hair 2003).
Reliability is the measure of consistency of measurements so as to avoid the possibility of the respondents being confused. Research has the possibility of being valid without actually being reliable;the resultant effects of these may be the use of wrong tools and the making of wrong assumptions in making conclusions.
This may bring about poor administration whose outcome is wrong interpretation and presentation of inadequate results. Reliability is due to appropriateness and consistency in character and the analysis and information should be handled very comprehensively to attain reliability alongside validity (Hair 2003).
Summary 1- Questionnaires Well constructed questionnaire are a fundamental for obtaining perfect data for analysis to aid good research findings.
We will write a custom Report on Value of Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A well-constructed questionnaire must possess the following elements without which they may not be in the position of bringing positive outcomes; the questionnaires must be as short as possible, this is because most of the targeted respondents in a research exercise are busy, therefore to obtain comprehensive data for analysis within a short time short questionnaire are appropriate. This is obtained by being exact to what is required and avoiding wordiness.
The respondent should carefully be targeted for a questionnaire to be effective; this is because if a wrong target is approached then they may be discouraged once they can’t respond to the introductory questions. This is a waste of both valuable research time and limited resources. Confidentiality is paramount and the anonymity of the respondents needs to be upheld always. Questionnaires should also not be inducing and mouthwatering to the respondents since this would bring bias (Creswell
Letters from the Earth Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Letters of the Earth by Samuel Clemens narrates about Satan’s visit to earth after banishment from heaven for one heavenly day. One heavenly day is equals one thousand earth years. He is punished by God for talking sarcastically about his creations in the universe. Having being deported to space, he decided to visit the earth to determine the progress of God’s experiment. He wrote private letters from earth to his fellow archangels, St. Gabriel and St. Michael to informing them the development of God’s creation.
Analysis In his first letter, Satan found the man as a curious being who believed he was a masterpiece crafted by God. Satan found this to be sarcastic since he viewed man as a low graded angel yet God viewed him as his masterpiece. Clemens elaborates how Satan criticizes the way human beings pray crudely to God. He believes God does not enjoy the praises and worship by men nor does he answer their prayers. Clemens believes humans are taught by “salaried teacher” about hell and everlasting fires which will be used to punish sinners.
In his second letter, Clemens critics’ man’s ideology of heaven as a place filled with activities that he hates while on earth. According to man, heaven has people singing, playing musical instruments and praying yet only a handful of men on earth can sing, play instruments or pray. In heaven, people from all nations and races live peacefully with each other, yet these people dislike, oppress and hate each other while on earth.
Clemens sees it ironical for men to enjoy a variety of life while on earth, yet they all aspire for life in heaven which is full of monotony. Ironically, man forgot to include sexual intercourse as an activity in heaven, an act people enjoy while on earth. According to Clemens, man will risk everything he values on earth only by the thought of sexual intercourse yet he does not believe it will be in heaven.
In the third letter, Clemens criticizes the current Bible as lacking the originality of the earlier Bibles. He believes the earlier Bible contained imposing events unlike the current one which contains only hell and heaven.
According to Clemens, Adam and Eve never understood what God meant when he told them not to eat the forbidden fruit. He believed it would have been fair for God to show Adam and Eve of what would have happened if they ate the fruit. The forbidden fruit contained knowledge on how to identify ethical and evil ways to engage in evil acts.
Clemens believed God has different a moral code for himself and another for the people. He punished Adam and Eve for eating the forbidden fruit yet the snake which was responsible for their actions escaped unpunished. He believes that God should have given them another chance since the Bible requires people to forgive each other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Bible, humans lost everything they had after eating the forbidden fruit. In the fourth letter, Clemens believes humans walked away with the “Supreme Art” which is valued higher than what they had before. Currently, this art is no longer forbidden since God allowed sexual intercourse as a way of filling the earth.
Clemens believes the animals learned the “Supreme Art” after watching Adam and Eve. He believes that they avoided the knowledge of morality without eating the forbidden fruit. According to Clemens, God would have made his reputation had he followed the teachings of the Bible as required by men. He believed God was responsible for the behavior of the human beings since he created them.
Instead of saving Noah and other few people, he should have saved or killed all of them without showing any favoritism. Clemens believes Adam ate the forbidden fruit and learned the “Supreme Art” of multiplying the world’s population.
Conclusion In the first letter, I found Clemen’s view of man as a low grade angel to be unconvincing. According to the Bible, God created humans in his own image thus he views us as his masterpiece. God also answers prayers as it is written in the Bible, “…Whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive” (Matthew 21:22).
Clemens is also wrong with his believes that salaried teachers teach people about heaven and hell. The bible clearly states the existence of heaven and hell where sinners are punished by eternal fire. The salaried teachers teach only what is written in the Bible.
In his second letter, I found his views on the way people treat each other as convincing. I believe that humans cannot fight their neighbors while on earth and yet when they pretend to be friends while in heaven. His arguments on people singing, playing instruments, praying and monotony in heaven are unconvincing since no one is sure if people will do these activities while in heaven. I believe the activities in heaven will not be monotonous to human beings.
In the third letter, Clemens argues that the current Bible lacks originality. I find this unconvincing since over the years, the Bible has been translated to different languages, but the contents have remained the same over the years. Clemens argument that Adam and Eve lacked the knowledge of morality is unconvincing. The Bible clearly states that even though they were sinless, they could choose what was right or wrong. Contrary to Clemen’s belief, the snake is punished to crawl on its belly for its role in the Garden of Eden.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Letters from the Earth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the fourth letter, Clemens argues that humans lost everything except the “Supreme Art”. I find this as unconvincing since God only punished Adam and Eve but they did not lose any other thing. I find Clemens argument that the animals watched Adam and Eve having sexual intercourse as convincing. The Bible is silent on how the animals came to learn the “Supreme Art”; thus there is a possibility that Clemens argument is true.
Animism and the Alphabet Analytical Essay scholarship essay help
I would like to concur with Abram’s words that writing is a form of animism. This portrays writing as a kind of magic output advanced in a creative way by man. Abram argues that human beings tend to complicate the meaning of magic yet they do perform magic every time they get a book to read or a pen to write.
Magic can be defined as the art of producing effects by superhuman means. From the definition of magic, human beings tend to perceive magic as being a supernatural thing. This is however not the case for Abram. Despite the common human perception of magic, he tends to disagree with the fact that magic is superhuman.
Abram describes human beings as extraordinary animals but nonetheless they are animals. He tries to put across the fact that the alphabet is a sign of magic. However, people see it to be normal and obvious. He argues that human beings are not born with the knowledge of reading or writing but after sometime, they are able to do it. Magicians are also human beings who are not born with the knowledge of how to perform magic.
They learn after sometime due to their interest in performing magic. “The efficacy of these pictorially derived systems necessarily entails a shift of sensory participation away from the voices and gestures of the surrounding landscape toward our own human-made images,” (Abram David, P.31). This implies that writing is not a magic but an occurrence that comes about man’s interaction with the environment.
Abram argues further by giving an example of a person reading a newspaper. When someone is reading a newspaper, he sees words and pictures talking to him yet they do not have mouths to speak.
Despite the fact that they are producing sound, they speak to the person and the person is able to get the message that the alphabet is communicating. In the same way, people are able to pass messages from their minds into paper through writing to other people. A person speaks to a pen or a writing material by way of magic and so does the writing material does to the recipient of the message.
Magic is a result of humans’ five common senses which are: sight, hear, touch, taste and smell. It is therefore the way a human being associates with the environment that enables him to perform magic. It is therefore important to note that the way the alphabet speaks to us is the same way other non human things can speak to us.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This however requires deep sensual communication for one to be able to learn to communicate with it. If a person is able to talk through the use of the alphabet and vice-versa, I wonder why people think it is magic for the same person to see a stone and hear from it.
Serious questions abound as to what really differentiates the sound of the stone and consequently the sound of the alphabet. Writing therefore is magic because it is equated to the same way the “Hopi” elder sees a stone and hears from it or the same way a “Lakota” man sees a spider on a tree and communicates with it.
Writing therefore came with the application of senses to the environment and the ability to use the senses to get messages from our surrounding and so is magic. This shows that writing is bodily and people learn to write from their body contacts with the environment.
When one decides to pass information with an emotional feeling, he is getting the message from his brain onto the paper and also to the mind of the intended recipient. The aspect of communicating emotions through the written word is magical in its own right. The receiver of the message reads and gets himself into the same mood that the message was written by the writer.
This shows that the writer of the message had the same senses with the reader. For example, if a teacher writes a note, “Poor work, see me”, on a student’s assignment, the student perceives that the teacher is annoyed and puts up a mindset that he or she is likely to be punished.
This shows good communication initiated through the magic of writing as evident in Abram’s words, “A direct association is established between the pictorial sign and the vocal gesture, for the first time bypassing the thing pictured” (Abram David, P.33).
Writing is magical in the way it is able to explain pictures or symbols. This is evident because before the era of computers, there were no symbols or graphics which could be printed to take up the place of words (Abram David, P.36). If words are capable of drawing a picture or a symbol in one’s mind, it is beyond doubt that they are magical in nature.
We will write a custom Essay on Animism and the Alphabet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, if a driver driving on a high way finds a board written “Bumps Ahead”, and another finds a board with a bump drawn on it, both drivers are likely to slow down because the words and the symbols bring out a similar message.
Abram puts it clear that the computer era is affecting the magic of writing because it is providing shortcuts to writing. He points out that the graphics and symbols that are being used in a computer make writing less of a magic.
He however remains firm by stating that a person can learn how to use a computer without knowing how to write. He says, “Human utterances are now elicited, directly, by human-made signs; the larger, more-than-human life-world is no longer a part of the semiotic, no longer a necessary part of the system,” (Abram David, P.33)
Abram also came up with a good example of the word, “Spell” to show that writing is a magic. The word, “Spell” can be used to mean the spelling of the letters that make a certain word or, “Spell” meaning a natural disaster like the dry spell.
The magic in this case is shown by the fact that before the introduction of technology, the word spell used to give one meaning (Abram David, P.37). After the introduction of technology, it was so magical that the word got a different meaning hence the magic in writing.
Abram concluded that there is magic in writing and for people to understand this, they are supposed to let things live and use their senses to interact with the environment. Through this, people will be able to discover the influence of things to them. I therefore agree with Abram’s statement that writing is a form of animism.
Abram’s, “ Ways of Reading” will never cease to predict the coaching of writing techniques by initiating a unique and motivating approach in composition writing to learners. This goes in hand with learners writing, reading and thinking of the appropriate features.
This is evident when he says, “Our first writing, clearly, was our own tracks, our footprints, our hand-prints in mud or ash pressed upon the rock,” (Abram David, P.30). He tries to show how writing has been a form of magic that human beings have not yet come to discover.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Animism and the Alphabet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is truly magical especially in the eyes of learners because it guides them on ways of determining how to select the best features to value or to specialize in. The learners read and internalize the message of the reading. We can therefore conclude that learners are able to uphold writing as form of magic and define their understanding through their writing.
Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl is a controversial book that many students and parents would like to see removed from their school curriculum. Some schools have actually removed it already. They have argued that the content in the book is inappropriate for the age level of students. It is argued that the book is too sexually explicit and that it is depressing; therefore it should be removed from required high school reading.
The truth is that the reasons for banning the book can also be the reasons for keeping the book in the curriculum. Banning the book could have a negative impact on learning. There are several reasons to retain the book as required reading in school. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl reminds children of real life historical events; it helps answer questions they may have, while encouraging deductive reasoning and problem solving, it also encourages the students to think for themselves.
Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl is a non-fiction account of Anne Frank’s personal strength and courage as she was hiding from Nazi soldiers. The diary accounts for two years of Anne’s life, beginning at age thirteen. Anne’s age is one reason to require the continued reading of her diary in school. It is important for students to know what struggles a similar child went through, especially as a child of the same age.
Children need to know that life is not easy for everyone, but there is a way to continue with life, regardless of adversity. This book is a reminder that war is real; it is depressing, but the events really happened. People must remember the past in order to appreciate the present and avoid the possibility of making the same damaging mistakes in the future. This book reminds the reader about the Nazi occupation and World War II.
Anne created her own written account of the reality she personally saw; she documented what was happening to everyday people. The diary was to be a revelation of the truth. As Anne’s motivator, the Dutch Minister for Education told the civilians to keep personal records of the events they experienced. There was a fear that the truth would be hidden or lost forever. Anne saw the importance of recorded history.
Recorded histories can teach future generations about the past, and can also help teach the reality of the human condition. After the Dutch Minister for Education completed his speech Anne revised her earlier writings. She made them easy to read and added extra details that she felt would be important. She also removed anything she felt was too personal for public viewing. After Anne’s death, her writing skills even surprised her father. After reading her entries he said that her words were accurate and very vivid.
This book is an eye-witness account of what the Jewish people endured in that time period. It is also a look into the maturing life of a young woman. While reading, students can compare their lives to the life of Anne. Anne was a normal girl, growing up in adverse times, doing the best she could to survive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While recording her account, she thought of others; she wanted the world to know what really happened. If people do not learn from their past they are doomed to repeat it. The book is an account of real events. It is graphic and has sexual content, but it would be ridiculous to ban reality.
Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl was written with the intent to answer questions. Anne suspected that in the end the truth would be lost, hidden, or altered. She did her part in recording the details of her true story. The book answers some important questions about the war. The first person point of view allows the reader to use deductive reasoning and encourages them to use problem solving skills.
In this book the reader is given the facts as Anne sees them. She relates an idea of what the time period was like. Students can use these tools to form a conclusion. They can also determine how society can learn and grow from the information given. One of the biggest reasons for required reading, such as Anne Frank, is the ability it has to expand the mind. Thinking and reasoning allow the mind to further explore the real world.
Enough time has passed, that some students do not realize what the World War II era was like. This book is a reminder of what war was like. It is easy to forget the suffering of others, especially if it is not personal. Anne’s words reflect the reality of her actual life, a life lived in adversity. Emotions are a wonderful learning tool. People tend to remember what touches them personally. It would be hard to dismiss the unnecessary pain of a thirteen year old girl.
Literature is a good reminder of the past, and an indicator of how events are perceived over time. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl gives a reminder of the realities of war; the reality of war is something that should not be forgotten.
War should feel real. In today’s technological world there is a desensitization of the reality of war; Anne’s account allows a student to see the real life view from the eyes of another child. Children need someone to relate to, a reason to hold on to their personal strengths. It is easy to become complaisant.
This book allows children to think and ask questions about why these events of war happened. Students can learn how some people respond to life; they can have some insight into the cruelty of some people, and the strength of others. This book reminds students to fight for themselves as well as others. Everyone is important; it is difficult to learn that lesson sometimes. People can grow from the struggles of others.
We will write a custom Essay on Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Required reading teaches students to think for themselves. Discussing reading assignments in class can also help the students see various points of view. Everyone views literature differently. Certain quotes and situations will stand out for different students. The characters in a book can help the students relate. Perception is subjective and variable. When students actively communicate they can see how others think differently.
They will understand that everyone has their own opinion, right or wrong. Learning how people think strengthens the individual thought process. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl introduces real life events, and helps encourage deductive reasoning and problem solving, while encouraging students to think for themselves.
Warriors Don’t Cry Analytical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Social issues in Warriors Don’t Cry
How social issues were dealt with
How social issues are dealt with today
Warriors Don’t cry is a book by Melba Pattilol. It mainly focuses on the challenges African students faced in white schools. The level of injustice that was present in these schools. Melba was one among the nine black students that were first to join white schools. Her life in this school was not easy. White students together with their parents were not happy about integrating students.
According to them, Africans did not deserve to learn in white schools. These students faced mobs frequently from their fellow students. It is due to this that president Eisenhower came up with a plan for protecting these students. Melba tries to explain how a student nearly blinded her by use of acid. All these persecutions did not make her give up on going back to Central High. She has clearly indicated in her Warriors Don’t Cry that she still hoped to go back to this school.
Governor Faubus, however, shut her dreams by passing laws that restricted blacks from integrating with white students. This paper analyses different social issues that have been addressed in Warriors Don’t Cry. In addition, it analyses means through which these issues were addressed in the 1950’s and today
Social issues in Warriors Don’t Cry Melba together with her African friends did not give up fighting for their rights even after going through racial discrimination, death threats, abuse and bombs.
They called themselves Little Rock Arkansas a name that bound them together as Africans. They were not allowed to study in Central High because of their black race. The whites considered the black people as inferior a fact that made them despise Africans. The black people were denied access to public amenities such as education, transport and health. Little Rock Arkansas, therefore, hoped that they would try to bring change.
Segregation was another challenge that faced the Africans. They were not allowed to integrate with the whites. White people attended prestigious schools while the blacks had to attend low schools. All these issues are similar in the sense that they led to humiliation of the black people. It is because of these social issues that Africans could not develop compared to the whites
How social issues were dealt with The main reason why Melba together with her friends was persistent in staying in Central High was to promote integration between the whites and blacks. They wanted the whites to give them a chance to learn in the white school regardless of their race. Persistence and trust in God helped them in dealing with the social issues that faced them in Central High. Melba’s grandmother India played an important role in helping her deal with challenge she faced in Central High.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She advised her to shun violence at all cost. According to Melba’s grandmother, violence promotes hatred and cannot help in achieving one’s desires. Some Africans due to the level of inequality witnessed in America decided to go on strikes demanding the government to help in protecting their lives. Others used demonstrations and boycotts. Melba did not only receive support from her grandmother, but also, a friend by the name Link.
Link was the only white who opposed the actions of students in Central High. According to him, it was not wrong for Africans to learn with the whites. He, therefore, decided to protect Melba from her attackers. Grandma India, the Little Rock 9 and Melba, were trying to do the right thing in order to ensure Integrated Central High and educational equity.
How social issues are dealt with today It is evident that our society is full of social issues. Melba together with her friends are not the only individuals that faced these challenges. Inequality is still witnessed all over the world. Freedom to choose is not a privilege for every individual in society. In addition, freedom of expression has been a major challenge in most countries.
There is nothing important as having the freedom to choose what is wrong and right. Everyone would like to have the freedom to express themselves without being held back. This is the same freedom that the Little Rock 9 was fighting. They were interested in receiving fair treatment and acquiring quality education. Research indicates that the struggle to promote equality in America is not yet. Africans still fight for equality in different places.
Today, people would try to fight for their rights in different ways. There are those who take a violent approach while other would advocate for peaceful demonstrations. In cases of poor pay, for example, workers would go on strikes in order to receive an increase in payment.
Other violent approaches used by individuals in dealing with social issues are riots, strikes, demonstrations and boycotts. Most people argue that the only way they can receive democracy is by use of force and not diplomacy. Dialogue proves to be the best approach that can help individuals in receiving their rights. In most cases, violent approaches lead to hatred and massive destructions a fat that promotes economic degradation
Conclusion Warriors Don’t Cry is one among many books that have tried to address the challenges that faced the African Americans in the 1950s. Warriors Don’t Cry defines the author’s pain due to the level of discrimination Africans faced due to their race. They were denied access to most public amenities just because they were black.
We will write a custom Essay on Warriors Don’t Cry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is through their struggle that most Africans are able to enjoy certain privileges like the whites. Through these struggles, we get to understand that nothing come easy. One can only achieve his goals through hard work and determination.
Unemployment as Sosial Problem Report (Assessment) college essay help online
The whole world seems to recover from the 2009-2010 crisis and the development of different types of manufacturing and other spheres should improve. However, looking at the announcements from the Euro zone, the economical situation there is much worse than it was expected. The Euro zone has always been the example of stability and growth.
The economy of its region has never appeared in too complicated situation and difficulties. Having created the united zone and the same currency, the Euro zone has been developing and its economy has been flourishing. However, even such stable and constantly developing country could not hide from the crisis. David Jolly in the article “Unemployment and Inflation Rise in Euro Zone” published on March 1, 2012, dwells upon the main problems which has raised in the Euro Zone.
The author stresses on the level of unemployment and quotes some specialists who try to predict the level of the problem and the particular measures which may be taken to improve the situation as soon as possible. Many specialists predict that the problems are going to last for some period of time and the countries which are included in the Euro zone should try hard to remove the problem and to return to the pre-crisis activities.
Looking at the economics of European zone, it is easy to notice the increased unemployment rates. Different source announce that the unemployment rate has increased since the end of 2011 and it continues to rise in 2012. 17 countries in Euro zone report about rapid increase of the unemployment (Figure 1).
The official sources report that there has never been such critical situation from the day of the united currency implementation in 1999 (Figure 2). The unemployment in Euro zone has a lot of consequences which may lead to unpredicted situations and may result in greater disasters for other countries.
Considering the situation from aside, it is possible to state that the banks and the governments of the countries which have appeared under the critical consequences try to do all possible to reduce the number of unemployment. However, the situation becomes more and more complicated. If to check the situation from the side of the number of those who are involves in the manufacturing processes, it is possible to conclude that the increased rate of unemployment has reduced the manufacturing volumes.
Therefore, each company involved in the manufacturing processes is to reduce the pace which does not support the recovering from the critical situation. Therefore, the manufacturing activity is reduced to minimum and if nothing is going to happen, the reduction of the manufacturing activity may reach the critical level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, there are many other factors which do not help the economy of the country to raise. Two main factors, the increase of the unemployment and the reduction of the manufacturing activity, lead to the predicted result. People begin spend less money as they are unable to allow the expenses they could make in the times with the normally functioning economy.
The regime of economy people have to follow leads to the fact that hey spend less money, of course, and it constrains the economy of the Euro zone. Therefore, it seems that there is no way out as one of the problems raises another one which does not give an opportunity for the first one to rehabilitate and continue its normal functioning.
Of course, the banks and financial establishments do not stay away from the problem and do all possible to improve the situation. The loan for three months of a sum of about $1.3 trillion is great money, however some specialists consider that this loan will help the Euro zone to improve its situation and recover from crisis.
However, some skeptics correctly announce that the intensive money supply may increase the inflation. It should be stated that he unemployment in the Euro zone is supported with inflation which creates additional difficulties on the way to the stabilization of the economics in the region. Therefore, one of the fears of some economists remains the rapid grows of money supply which may cause additional difficulties on the way to the economy recovery.
Of course, no one says that the problem the Euro zone suffers now from are too crucial to be solved. The situation is going to improve if much attempt is directed at the problem. However, there is no need to wait for too fast results as it is impossible to correct the problems which are impacted by the world issues. The problems in the economical situation in the Euro zone are caused by many factors and only the application to those factors may help to improve the situation.
Among some of the most complicated and unregulated factors which impact negatively the economic situation in the Euro zone remain the increased and rising prices on energy. These factors cannot be effected, therefore, it is important to make all possible to adjust to the situation and to create additional factors which may help the economy of the European zone to improve its positions.
Figure 1: Unemployment rates in January 2012, seasonally adjusted (Jolly n.p.)
We will write a custom Assessment on Unemployment as Sosial Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Appendix 2 Figure 2: Euro area and EU27 unemployed (in millions)
EA 17: Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia and Finland (Jolly n.p.).
EA 27: Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom (Jolly n.p.).
Works Cited Jolly, David. “Unemployment and Inflation Rise in Euro Zone.” 1 March 2012. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/02/business/global/unemployment-and-inflation-rise-in-euro-zone.html
“Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko: Full Free Essay Example essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko
Leslie Marmon Silko as a Storyteller
“Ceremony” by Leslie M. Silko as an Autobiography
Further Study: FAQ
Introduction This text is a full and free example of the essay on “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko. Silko is a famous American writer and the key figure in the First Wave of the so-called “Native American Renaissance.” She was awarded by the first MacArthur Foundation Grant in 1981. In 1994, she received the Native Writers’ Circle of the Americas Lifetime Achievement Award.
Leslie Marmon Silko is the author of numerous novels, poems, and short stories about love and nature. “Ceremony,” published in 1977, is her most well-known novel. Her other publications include Laguna Women: Poems (1974), Storyteller (1981), etc. The free online Leslie Marmon Silko list of works can be found here.
Summary of “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko In her novel “Ceremony”, Leslie Marmon Silko tells a story about Tayo, the main character in the novel. He needs to adjust to his environment after he came home from the war. Tayo experiences numerous problems because he lived as a prisoner in Japan. This affects him bodily and emotionally.
Tayo worries about how he will interact with his family in Laguna Pueblo and his mixed culture problems since he was half-White and half Native American. According to Tayo’s family members, they believe that the only solution to his problems is through practicing Native American rituals that will help him to become an average person. Finally, Old Betonie applies various rituals to ensure that the Native American ceremonies give Tayo peace (Silko 2).
In Ceremony, different things happen, and Tayo participates in each one, which acts as a manner of getting him back with his Native American culture. The “Ceremony” novel talks about the celebration of separate brief ceremonies, and this describes why the story itself is a ceremony. In the novel’s plots, the author chooses various ceremonies as they either start or end.
To Tayo, these ceremonies were a transitional stage since ancient times in Pueblo. The community members performed rituals after the warriors return from fighting because they avoided stains caused by fighting destruction (Walther 9).
Leslie Marmon Silko as a Storyteller Storytelling is an aspect that happens to human beings because they are capable of using words to pass information amongst individuals and generations. The concept of storytelling is only possible for people because the trial of teaching non-human creatures failed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Ceremony, the word story refers to factors that contribute to the identification of a story. A story can be either real or fictitious, contains true situations or fantasy. Therefore, a story provides the narrator or writer with the freedom to explore any genre around the world. The analysis shows that the novel “Ceremony” backs this concept because it contains all forms of freedom in telling its stories (Walther 3).
In the novel, storytelling focuses on how the Native American traditions used to tell stories.
Previously, all the Native American cultures on biology, history, morality, medicine, among others, transferred among different generations through storytelling in their culture. The title of an “official storyteller” belonged to the elders who made storytelling to become a famous event. The main goal of storytelling is to transfer information among generations. Stories are rhythmic.
Indeed, they have repetition and sometimes presented in the custom of a song. In the novel “Ceremony”, these ways of storytelling occurred as a poem, which surrounded the novel narrative in both the beginning and end. The stories told in the novel Ceremony about Pueblo culture are real stories that exist outside the context (Walther 3).
In Ceremony, there is a narration of different brief stories, which include stories on war told by Harley, Emo among other soldiers. We also see Old Betony and Night Swan tell part of their stories as Tayo claims to remember a story that Rocky told him. Old Betonie claims that there is a time that Tayo’s aunt distracted him during a part of the story. At the start of the novel, it ensures that the whole narrative in it represents a story.
Within the novel, the author indicated that storytelling ranked to be the primary matter compared to other ethical concerns entailed in the story. From the story, it is true that from stories told by other people, “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko shows to be extraordinary because it resulted in significant changes, which changed the modern world. In addition to that, it shows that stories are capable of curing as they create rituals and formalities, which enhance individual and community healing (Domina 9).
As the novel starts, Tayo’s grandmother communicates with Tayo’s aunt, and she tells her how she is aware of bad stories regarding an individual who was gossiping about them. The writer says that Tayo’s aunt feels happy about the fact that other people gossip about her family, after her conversation Tayo’s grandmother, she now understands why her story instigates the many gossips regarding her family.
We will write a custom Research Paper on “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko: Full Free Essay Example specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Here, one recognizes that a shared story through two persons creates a sense of community between them because they both understood why people were gossiping about their family.
Before the end of this narrative in the “Ceremony” novel, Tayo’s grandmother tells two ceremonial poems. It happens after showing a story on how Pinkie died in Emo’s hands, while she got bored because she had repeatedly heard the story. The quote below illustrates this fact.
She says, “It seems like I already heard these stories before”…. “The only thing is the names sound different” (Silko 260). That means how different people usually narrate the same story to her (Domina 10)
In the novel Ceremony, storytelling enhances the quality of the narrative. For example, during the scalp ceremony, Ku’oosh told Tayo “this World is fragile,” (Silko 35), in clarifying the meaning of the world is weak, Ku’oosh uses different stories to elaborate sense in his statement and according to the novel, and this shows how storytelling leads to affect narratives. These stories were also crucial to Tayo after returning from war as they erased all the painful memories that he had regarding the war and his prison life in Japan.
“Ceremony” by Leslie M. Silko as an Autobiography Leslie Marmon Silko, in the novel Ceremony, tells a story of her life. As a matter of fact, she says that she is originally from the Pueblo community found in New Mexico. Silko identifies herself to be a Native American, and her culture highly values storytelling. She insists that the purpose of writing her novel was to enhance her life and categorize the Native American foundation in her.
Furthermore, she highlighted the differences that existed in the Native American and White cultures. Here, Silko asserts that for Tayo to balance with his mental state, he should formulate stories that support both cultures of his origin (Silko 12)
In Ceremony, Leslie Silko does not apply mythic stories and requires the reader to link these stories to the personality of the persons in the novel. Indeed, Silko intended to involve readers to participate in the creation of her written stories. The strengthening of storytelling as a theme in the novel Ceremony shows where Silko uses different types of storytelling narratives in the novel (Walther 9).
The entire novel narrates Tayo’s story. The book indicates that Tayo is a Native American but with two different origins from Laguna Pueblo. The novel tells a story of how Tayo is stressful because of some issues that Tayo faced from his childhood and the experiences he encountered in war. The book tells us the recovery of Tayo from his problems through practicing different native American cultures, such as practicing rituals and ceremonies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko: Full Free Essay Example by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, the field of storytelling is an exciting part of literature. Indeed, it has been on study for quite some time now. Different individuals conduct studies concerning the subject; for example, Walter made a research to establish the differences between oral and written storytelling. Ruth Finnegan also studied the differences that exist between oral and morality. These researchers have also discussed the benefits of storytelling to languages, cultures, and writings.
That is why people should note and apply storytelling in the world because of its benefits. For example, in the novel Ceremony by L.M.Silko, storytelling played different roles, which includes offering powers to cure. Indeed, from storytelling, Tayo realized that the only solution to his problems was through practicing rituals and ceremonies, which was storytelling.
Ceremony combines the Western narrative methods and Native American legends that were largely derived from Pueblo and Navajo sources. Both prose and poetry are used in telling the events, and poetry is reserved for the Native American version of the narrative as connected by the Thought-Woman, who predicts, “the only cure is a good ceremony.” Tayo, in the novel, is a World War II veteran, and he is both white and Laguna.
He is estranged from the Native Americans and the white culture. His cousin Rocky died in the Philippines, and his death was haunting him. The government only noticed the cousin with other Native Americans in times of war. The government needed them to fight for the land that was already taken from them. There was a likelihood that Tayo would become a crazy Indian descending into the same alcohol-ridden fate like his mother, before being healed by the ceremony that was conducted by Old Betony and Shush.
The journey to the mountain was essential to Tayo since it would heal him, and it was also of great cultural importance. Tayo had visited the traditional healer who was the Laguna elder but was never healed. He also visited the modern hospital in Los Angeles, and still, he did not recover. The Old Betonie’s healing worked, and this was because he recognized the need to change and adapt to the old ceremony (MacGowan, 305).
Silko employs the narrative and spiritual heritage of the Laguna to show the struggle between dissimilar cultures towards the natural world instead of racial hostility. In the novel, the whites despise the kind of relationship that the Indians have with nature. The whites’ domination of the natural world confronted the Indian’s relationship with nature, which was reciprocal.
In Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony, nature is the contested ground between the two cultures. To restore the conflict, Silko’s mixed-blood protagonist re-creates cultural Laguna stories and ceremonies that contradict the destructive thoughts of the whites. The novel explores injustice, racism, and other connected issues to get the attention of the whites, even if it addresses the Native people. Silko’s work stresses the significance of the community.
His cousin Rock is doomed after being uprooted from the community. On the contrary, Tayo was able to reconnect to the community, and hence he was saved. Disgusted by the exploitation of the American Indians, Silko uses subversive writing to defend the individuals from the native cultures (Chavkin 13).
“Ceremony” novel transforms a certain kind of healing ceremony and a more significant prophecy to cure cultural illness. The novel reflects a Deena Metzger’s response that we suffer from the world fatigue from cultural self-loathing. The story connects sick individuals to the sick world.
In a pattern and culture of medicine women, Silko takes the people reading the novel on a journey into her wellness narrative so that they can connect with the healing ceremony. Silko perceives herself as an instrument of narratives, which are derived from the spiritual foundation. That is why within the context of her own culture, which is Laguna Pueblo, she functions as a healer by relating to the Thought Woman’s story, and the novel progresses as a chant to heal the cultural disease.
Through Tayo’s healing in the novel, Silko revives a traditional tale in modern time. Silko went ahead to employ a specific Amerindian therapeutic tradition to reconstruct this tale. However, she is still faithful to the cultural imperatives of Native American states to find other ways to tell old stories anew (Wilentz 82).
Conclusion “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko reminds its readers about the European and the European American representations of New Mexican natives, by re-imagining local stories and connecting them with the white stories. In the novel, Tayo is the first victim of the Western talk, which articulates Indians as violated objectives presences instead of subjective agents of their destinies.
Tayo is both Laguna and Anglo, so he had to learn to balance between the native culture and the Western culture to survive in New Mexico. His first identity is influenced by the modern world. He must read the native stories and re-constellate them into the modern, which have been affected since he and his people have forgotten the stories that remind them of their identity in the world.
The authoritative Western claims fill this articulated space to knowledge claims, which does not connect the individuals with the community. It is vital to know that the current New Mexican natives constructions of reality have traces of the Western talks since the West has been affecting New Mexican natives from the sixteenth –century Spanish incursion into the New Mexico.
Tayo’s responsibility is to recover a balance among competing stories to sustain his story and his people’s story. Tayo’s account of the separation from the self and this community is a microcosm of the instability of the world, and New Mexico plays a vital part in the story (Dean 146).
Annotated Bibliography Silko, Leslie. Ceremony. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2007. Print
In the novel, Tayo is the main character who underwent many problems when he was a prisoner in Japan. He was both Native American and white, and his mixed culture made it intricate for him to cooperate with the affiliates of his community. The experiences that Tayo had during the war made him sick psychologically and bodily. The people of his community believed that if they performed some Laguna rituals, Tayo would recover. The Old Betonie performed the ceremony to make Tayo have peace.
Dean, John. Travel Narratives from New Mexico: Reconstructing Identity and Truth. Amherst, N.Y: Cambria Press, 2009. Print.
In the literature, the native stories are linked with the white stories. Being a Laguna and an Anglo, Tayo had to ensure he was balancing the Western and the Native culture to ensure his survival in Mexico. The initial identity of Tayo was affected by the modern world, and to remind him of the lost identity, he had to read the native stories.
Domina, Lynn. Understanding Ceremony: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print
The review argues that the novel contains various stories told by different people. The people who told their stories were Harley, Emo, Old Betony, and Night Swan. In the literature, storytelling was very significant compared to other ethical issues. Among the stories told in the novel, Tayo’s story was very different because he was influenced by modern culture.
From the novel, stories are essential to the community because of their capabilities to heal. Additionally, the community believed that when two people tell each other stories, the bond between community members becomes stronger.
MacGowan, Christopher. The twentieth-century American fiction handbook. Oxford( u.a); Willey-Blackwell. 2010. Print.
The writer shows the combination of the techniques of storytelling of the Native Americans and the whites. In Tayo’s community, the pros and the poems were used in describing the events. Being white and Laguna caused his alienation from the Laguna and the white culture.
The Native Americans were only seen as important people during the war since the government needed them to fight for their land. In the novel, Tayo’s cousin died during the war, and he was haunted by his cousin’s death. Tayo was sick, and he visited the modern hospital and some traditional healers, but he was not cured. The only person who cured Tayo was the Old Betony, and it was because of his recognition of the importance of adapting the old ceremony.
Chavkin, Allan. Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: A Casebook. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002. Print.
Laguna’s spiritual heritages that are used in the novel show the differences in the native and the white culture. The individuals from Western culture do not like how the Indians relate to nature. In the restoration of the cultural conflict, Silko’s mixed-culture re-creates the native culture stories and ceremonies to dissolve the negative thoughts of the whites. The writer explores injustice to get the attention of both cultures.
Walther, Berenice. Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silkos̕ Ceremony. München, Ravensburg: Grin Verl, 2006. Print.
In the story, Silko does not employ the mythic stories, but she wants the readers to connect the book to make the readers partake in creating the written stories, to make them appear as they are being narrated orally. Storytelling is the theme of the novel, and this is shown when Silko uses various storytelling techniques.
Wilentz, Gay. Healing Narratives: Women Writers Curing Cultural Dis-Ease. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2000. Print.
In the novel, cultural illnesses were healed by the ceremonies. If one reads the book, he sees how the natural world problems are connected to the sicknesses of individuals. Silko’s narratives were derived from the spiritual culture of the Laguna. By writing, the healing novel Tayo makes the traditional stories to revive in the current times.
Work Cited Chavkin, Allan. Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony: A Casebook. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002. Print.
Dean, John . Travel Narratives from New Mexico: Reconstructing Identity and Truth. Amherst, N.Y: Cambria Press, 2009. Print.
Domina, Lynn. Understanding Ceremony: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004. Print
MacGowan, Christopher. The twentieth-century American fiction handbook. Oxford(u.a); Willey-Blackwell. 2010. Print.
Silko, Leslie. Ceremony. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2007.Print
Walther, Berenice. Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silkos Ceremony. Munchen, Ravensburg: Grin Verl, 2006. Print.
Wilentz, Gay. Healing Narratives: Women Writers Curing Cultural Dis-Ease. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2000. Print.
Federal Government Funding Enron: Exploring Challenges Case Study college admissions essay help
Government should have supported Enron, a large energy corporation, because the company advocated strict global regulations and followed the environmental principle of energy distribution (Carney, 2006). In addition, Enron have significant influence on the government in Washington, which is the second reason why the government should have supported this company. In particular, by providing financial support, the authorities could have taken greater control of bureaucracy and bribes.
At the same time, excess support of such large company as Enron could have hampered significantly the development of smaller businesses. In this respect, funding of Enron would have led to a shifted balance of small and big businesses. Another reason to withdraw funds allocation among big businesses lies in a possibility to support environmental and ecological reform because Enron would have had a direct impact on the polluted environment.
Influence of Enron on Political Environment Enron actively engaged political leaders into their business activities to monitor the economic situation in the country (Milbank
The Epic of Gilgamesh essay help
As part of the intensive writing requirements for HIS101, you will write a 1,500 word formal paper where you employ critical inquiry to develop and support a thesis. Using The Epic of Gilgamesh as your source, you will gather, interpret and evaluate evidence from this source to address one of the topics listed below.
1,500 word paper.
You can choose any of the following. Only one topic
The role(s) of kingship in Sumerian society
The role(s) of the gods and religion in Sumerian society
The friendship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu
The flood story in The Epic of Gilgamesh. Compare and contrast to the story of Noah in the Bible.
The role(s) of women in Sumerian society.
What Gilgamesh learns about death and immortality
Enkidu’s dream. What does it suggest about Sumerian concepts of the afterlife?
Gilgamesh’s quest for immortality. What does it reveal about Sumerian attitudes concerning life and death.
Remember to write on just one question from the list of choices. Formulate a thesis and interpret The Epic of Gilgamesh to explore your topic and prove your thesis.
Democracy in the Middle East Expository Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Democracy is a word often used to refer to being ruled or governed by “the people.” Democratic societies base everything, crucial state decisions, control, and policy formulation upon the people. This is contrary to communist societies where everything is controlled by the government.
Interestingly, even communist nations like China claim to be democratic. Democracy gives power to the people and not their representatives. It puts the interest of the majority and minority in public administration and gives no room for leaders to practice individualist and selfish leadership.
The openness of democracy has many advantages and is the principal reason that has continued to push many nations to fight for democratic leadership. In the last decade, many countries moved from being non-democratic to being democratic. Considering this trend, it is possible to predict that all recognized counties in the world could attain democratic leadership, something that has been deemed impossible for centuries.
Even though some Middle East countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, and Ukraine are still non-democratic, it is just a matter of time before they can become democratic. This is not an outrageous claim considering the pressure non-governmental organizations, and human rights groups in these countries have been putting on the respective governments to adopt democratic leadership.
The fight for democracy in these countries cannot be belittled. Democracy ensures accountability of leaders (Mitchell 2). This, therefore, gives the people authority over public funds. They can question how their funds are used, influence government spending, revenue collection, and trade policies.
Democratic countries also have good international standing, which enhances their trade ties with other countries. Generally, democratic nations have a better chance of achieving significant economic growth as compared to non-democratic nations.
Non-democratic countries have tried so hard to maintain the status quo. Protesters, human rights activist, and the media face threats in these countries for voicing the need for democratic government. Many have been executed, others detained, others tortured, and others have been forced to flee the countries for fear of their precious lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These governments resort to the use of uncodified rules to instill fear among the people and to make them submit to authoritarian leadership. Freedom of expression and human rights are vocabularies to these non-democratic governments. By refusing to allow free expression, they have succeeded, until now, in denying the people democratic government. Freedom of expression is pivotal in the fight for human rights and democracy.
It gives the chance for existence of uncontrolled press, free flow of information, the sanctity of citizens’ opinion and embraces free speech. The freedom of expression is integral to other rights, civil and political. It is designed to support, protect, and enhance democratic governance. These non-democratic governments are aware of the power of the freedom of expression and hence the fight to thwart it.
Despite the limitations and endless efforts by these non-democratic governments to maintain the status quo, the fight for democracy has continued to gain momentum with each passing day. The fight for democracy is both complex and demanding. Thomas claims, “There is a question which is deep and fundamental and which I am afraid we are inclined to ignore; that is the question-how to fight for democracy” (58).
He further claims, “The method men commonly use in fighting allegedly for democracy has not proved to be overwhelmingly successful…” (58). The fight for democracy in the Middle East non-democratic nations has taken different fonts. First and most importantly, the human rights activists have often resorted to street protests at a great cost. The protesters have witnessed gross human rights violations meted against them by the authoritarian governments.
In Iraq, for instance, many protesters have been shot with live bullets killing many instantly. Kennedy, a Middle East AOL News correspondent, reported that the Iraq police killed six people on “the day of rage” protests marked on February 6, 2011. There have been many other attacks targeting human rights activists aimed at scaring them to submit to the governments.
Interestingly, these attacks have continued to spur wide spread support for their course. Many people have joined the human rights activists including University students. This has given the activists the much-needed momentum and morale to continue pushing for democratic leadership.
The activists have also sought the support of democratic nations to intervene and save the situation before it can get out of hand. Since many countries have achieved democratic government through blood shade and loss of human lives, such nations are a good inspiration to the activists. By seeking the support of these nations, activists in the Middle East countries believe they can get indirect of direct support in their fight for democracy.
We will write a custom Essay on Democracy in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United States of America and the United Kingdom have provided a lot of support to these nations. At times when the lives of these activists are threatened, the western nations have been ready to provide asylum to them. In Bahrain, for instance, those opposed to the ruling family’s leadership “fear retribution and are claiming asylum in Europe” (Parvaz).
However, this intervention has faced great challenges from developed non-democratic countries that continue to support these governments. Counties such as China and Iran have continued to support these non-democratic governments thereby leading to continued resistance for change (Dominick 247).
The media have also been a critical tool in the fight for democracy. The activists have continued to use the media to air their grievances to the international community. Despite state control of media houses, the fight for democratic rule has not stopped as activists have resorted to using alternative means such as the internet, social media, and international media such as the BBC, and CNN.
These media houses have not disappointed. They have continued to air the grievances and unjust activities of these governments to the world. This has made their reporters to be targeted as the enemy of the people. There have been cases of journalists being arrested, tortured, or even killed by the regimes.
In 2011, for instance, more than 11 journalists were killed in Afghanistan alone (Plunkett). Ahmed Omed Khpulwak, who worked as a news reporter with BBC, was amongst those killed in the insurgent attacks. His death was described as “unspeakable tragedy shared by whole BBC family,” (Plunkett). Despite the losses, the international media have not stopped highlighting the filth in these nations.
Seeking the support of the international community through the United Nations is another avenue that has been exploited to help achieve democracy in these nations. Western states have thus attempted to intervene by imposing trade sanctions, punitive actions, and in some cases like in Iraq, military intervention.
Despite the will to support these nations by the western states, successful non-democratic states have continued to act as the obstacle to achieving democratic rule in these nations. The United Nations Security Council, which is responsible for enforcing the rule of law and promoting human rights in the world, is comprised of member states who must vote to adopt any resolution.
The People’s Republic of China is a member of the Security Council. China has frequently frustrated efforts to install democratic leadership in these nations by voting against any such resolutions. Worst, it has continued to trade with nations such as Iraq despite trade sanctions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy in the Middle East by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The non-democratic states in the Middle East deserve democratic rule. In the current world, two forms of democratic governance are considered most appropriate; that is, a parliamentary democracy and direct democracy (Goldwin and Kaufman 65). In parliamentary democracy, citizens take part in elections where they vote for leaders they believe will air their grievances and help in policy formulations that favor them.
These leaders then join the legislative assembly where crucial decisions are made to help in governing the nation. This is the form of democracy widely used around the world. Many Western nations France, Germany, Spain, and the United States of America have adopted this form of government.
The success of this democracy in the Western world has seen the West pushing for its adoption in the Middle East. Direct democracy, on the other hand, stipulates that members of the public take the responsibility of making state decisions themselves by voting before any decision is made. Such elements are associated with lower level governing units such as counties.
However, a few states have adopted direct democracy despite its costliness. Some forms of democracies are representative of the people and provide room for freedom of the people than others. As such, a representative democracy can be the best solution for the Middle East countries wallowing in dictatorial regimes.
This will ensure that the people elect their representatives and the president. In order to win a re-election campaign, elected leaders often try to follow the wishes of the people. The system should also be structured to avoid any branch of the government from altering the constitution to enable them bypass the people in making any crucial decisions or enacting essential policies.
Such tendencies have been witnessed in other parts of the world and cannot be ruled out. After voting for a new constitution in a referendum, greedy and selfish leaders find their way around the corrupt and inefficient justice corridors and change the constitution to further their selfish ambitions.
If a stable democracy in the Middle East is to be achieved, constitutional amendments must be pushed for to create space for democratic leadership. However, keeping the process on course requires vigilance and stringent constitutional amendment policies to deter any attempts by leaders to alter the constitution to favor them.
The need for democratic leadership in the current world cannot be understated. It is the right of every citizen to be governed by the leaders of their choice in the manner they want. This choice of government and participation in policy formulation is only possible through democratic leadership.
As such, adopting democratic rule gives power to the people and should be promoted. Despite strong resistance from the Middle East leaders and other developed non-democratic states, the fight for democratic leadership should not be abandoned, as this could be betrayal to those who have lost their lives in the fight.
Works Cited Dominick, Joseph R.. The dynamics of mass communication: media in the digital age. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. Print.
Goldwin, Robert A., and Art Kaufman. Separation of powers–does it still work?. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1986. Print.
Kennedy, Dana. “5 Protesters Killed in Iraq as Soldiers Move to Contain ‘Day of Rage’.” Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. AOL News, 25 Feb. 2011. Web.
Mitchell, Neil J.. Democracy’s blameless leaders: from Dresden to Abu Ghraib, how leaders evade accountability for abuse, atrocity, and killing. New York: New York University, 2012. Print.
Parvaz, D. “Bahraini activists: Seeking refuge in a storm.” AJE – Al Jazeera English. N.p., 18 Nov. 2011. Web.
Plunkett, John. ” BBC journalist killed in Afghanistan.” Latest US news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian. N.p., 28 July 2011. Web.
Thomas, Norman. “Fighting for Democracy.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 3.216 (1941): 58-64. Print.
Analysis of the Third World Debt Crisis and Its Causes Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of the Debt Crisis
Introduction Economic development requires investment by the government in infrastructure and other sectors that will help in propelling growth. Unfortunately, less developed countries most of the times are unable to raise the required capital for development from the local savings because their saving rates are low. Therefore, these countries always borrow money from either developed countries or international financial institutions to fund the deficits in their budgets.
However, due to industrial inability and technological deficiency, third world countries export mostly raw materials which generate low income that fully repay the loans these countries receive. Consequently, the debt level of the less developed countries has been escalating year in year out making this countries use larger and larger proportions of their budgets each year to service debts.
Causes of the Debt Crisis Debt crisis of the developing countries can be attributed to many issues both internal and external. Much as the developed nations and the international donors are to blame for the problems facing the developing countries, third world countries also share the blame due lack of proper debt management policies. To begin with, most third world countries have very poor economic management policies making these countries invest in unworthy projects (Reitan 67).
It is prudential that when a project is financed by borrowed funds, then returns from the project should be able to service the loan. However, this is not the case in developing countries due to poor investment decisions compelling the government to pay the loans using money from other sources.
On top of that, most third world countries are governed by leaders who usually put their personal interests first as opposed to national interests. It has been proved that corruption levels in Africa and Latin America are high and keep on increasing each year. Consequently, it is not unusual for borrowed funds that were meant to finance various national projects to be diverted into the pockets of few politicians or influential people in the government (Jochnick and Fraser 37).
Therefore, the country continues to pay for loans that were never invested in any project or if they were invested then the project stalled on the way and requires more money to be completed. Furthermore, the problem of corruption escalates because the stolen funds are usually not invested in the third world countries to boost their economy but are instead stuck in European countries.
Furthermore, most developing nations export raw materials either due to lack of industries to process the raw material or lack of technology. The raw products are highly undervalued in the international markets thus fetching very low income for these countries, which cannot fund the loans let alone the countries’ whole budgets.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This problem is worsened by the fact that third world countries import finished products from the developed nations which are very expensive, and drain up all the income from the exports thus limiting the ability of these countries to save any money (Reitan 68). On the same note, third world countries are technologically behind and they do not produce most commodities which make them net importers further exacerbate the situation.
In conjunction with that, the debt crisis that is facing developing nations has also been precipitated by some external forces which are even strong and beyond the control of these countries. Firstly, there have been very poor lending policies that have placed the interests of the developed nations, especially Europe and unite states of America, in the forefront disregarding the effects that this may cause to developing nations.
The international monetary institutions have, in the name of determining the ability of a country to pay back their loans, imposed tough conditions which have reduced developing nations to being subjects of foreign forces both politically and economically (Rajagopal 34).
Using this as a weapon, developed nations have manipulated third world countries to become entirely dependent on loans from them. Additionally, since 1979 and more significantly from 1982, international monetary institutions including the IMF and World Bank imposed one sided lending conditions as prerequisites for them to offer loans to third world countries.
This served only to escalate the indebtedness of the sub-Saharan African nations and other third world countries. The servicing of these debts not only exhausts the earnings from exports but also makes developing countries to allocate portions of national incomes to debt servicing.
On the same note, the developed nations through international monetary authorities compelled developing nations to devalue their currencies drastically in 1980s. This action not only made imports very expensive for developing countries, but also made loan repayments very costly. To fund the deficit that this caused in the budgets of developing countries, governments were forced to increase borrowing which further increased the indebtedness of these countries.
In addition to that, the Oil crisis of 1973 created surplus income for developed nations of Europe and United States of America (Jochnick and Fraser 39). In order to eliminate the surplus that was present in their banks, Europe and America invested this money in form of loans to developing nations at generously low but fluctuating interest rates.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the Third World Debt Crisis and Its Causes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Third world countries took advantage of this and borrowed in large amounts. However, this money was either misappropriated or poorly invested in projects whose economic returns would not service the loans thus increasing the loan burden.
On the other hand, the repayment of the loans from the oil crisis was seriously hindered in the 1980’s due to the devaluation of the third world countries’ currencies as a result of fluctuating interest rates, and the sharp increase in interest rates. On top of that, terms of trade of developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, deteriorated while at the same time developed nations implemented protectionist policies that condensed markets for raw products exported by developing countries.
Moreover, the World Bank and the international monetary fund implemented Structural adjustment program, during 1980s, in what was termed as efforts to help developing nations catch up with their developed counterparts. This involved eliminating of controls on retail and producer prices, restructuring of public institutions, liberalization of trade and exchange systems as well as broadening the tax base.
Contrary to the expectations, this increased the burden on the poor person and instead of alleviating the economic problems of developing nations, the programs only protected economies of rich countries (Rajagopal 36). This placed the rich countries in a position to set rules about loans while the entire burden was shifted to developing countries.
Conclusion Developing countries continue to struggle with servicing loans that were advanced to them as early as 1980s, yet the projects that were funded using the money are nonexistent.
However, much as many countries are trying to find a way out of the debt predicament, this requires the joint efforts of the international monetary institutions, the developed nations and the political will of the third world countries. Unfortunately, changes might take long to be realized especially in Africa, because though elections are carried out regularly, leaders remain the same corrupt ones who have for years mismanaged public funds.
Works Cited Jochnick, Chris, and Fraser Preston. Sovereign Debt at Crossroads: Challenges and proposals for Resolving the Third World Debt Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. International Law from Below: Development, Social Movements, and Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of the Third World Debt Crisis and Its Causes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reitan, Ruth. Global Activism. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2007. Print.
American Foreign Aid Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Justification for the Foreign Aid
Types of Foreign Aid
Foreign Aid Programs
Introduction The American foreign aid is one of the instruments used to extend American dominance in the world. In other words, it is a tool of foreign policy because it gives the US an advantage in the world politics. Reviews are made on the foreign aid yearly whereby the legislature and the executive agree on modalities of the instrument.
Changes are made regarding the composition, objectives and the size of the aid. Recently, the US has been forced to change its strategy following the 9/11 attack. Foreign aid is specifically used to safeguard the American interests related to security. Before the world wars, the US foreign policy was no-interventionist in nature. The policy changed after the Second World War mainly due to President Truman’s policy of containment.
Communism was to be countered in all parts of the world using available mechanisms, including foreign aid. This paper analyzes the various types of foreign aid and how they were used during the Second World War, during the cold war and after the world wars. The effectiveness of the foreign aid is also discussed.
Justification for the Foreign Aid Various American governments have always come up with foreign policies aiming at enhancing the American national security. The first American foreign aid came in after the Second World, popularly referred to as the Marshall Plan (1948-1951). In the 1980s, the foreign aid policies aimed at taming the spread of communism.
The states that were gaining independence at the time were prevented from adopting communist ideas since they could hurt the American dream of dominating the world. In this case, USSR was to be prevented from taking control of the Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa.
Foreign aid was mostly given out in form of economic benefits and military assistance. After the Cold War, foreign aid policies took a new shape since states were held responsible, especially on matters related to governance. Foreign aid was no longer used to appease states to reject communism since USSR was no more. For instance, the US foreign aid focused on Middle East conflict system.
The US utilized its military and economic power to bring sanity and tranquility in the Middle East societies. In Europe, the aid was used to restore democracy in the newly independent East European states. The aid was also used to end drug trafficking in various parts of the Latin America. Consequently, the fall of the USSR reduced the American funding in the third world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the 9/11 attack, foreign aid gained momentum where states around the Middle East such as Pakistan and India received military aid. American foreign policy makers noted that global development was vital in case national interests are to be realized (Calvocoressi 78).
Foreign aid has been an issue that has raised a heated debate because realists view it as a tool used by the state to enhance its foreign domination. In this sense, the government uses the foreign aid to improvement relations between Americans and other nationals in foreign states.
This would give Americans an advantage since they would be in a position to produce and distribute goods easily in other states. Liberalists would argue that foreign aid is specifically used to help those in need. This is because the US is charged with a moral responsibility to help those in need.
Objectives Foreign policy formulators have justified foreign aid as a technique since it promotes the financial development and reduces poverty among the American citizens. The main objective of foreign aid as claimed by realists is to fulfill the American interest. Even though liberalists argue that foreign aid improves foreign states’ governance, the main aim is to command conformity, which is very important in trade.
Other objectives of foreign aid include dealing with population increase, increasing access to fundamental education and health care, defending the atmosphere, supporting constancy in conflictive areas, caring about human rights, limiting weaponry propagation, intensification of alliances, and tackling drug manufacture and trafficking.
In case the above objectives are met, the US would achieve its national interests in the simplest way. Global security would allow American investors to participate in trade easily. It is upon the realization that poverty and few chances are the major causes of insecurity in the world. The US should therefore fund various programs in foreign states to limit the chances of political insecurity.
It is noted different foreign aid programs support different American aims and goals. However, foreign aid programs can be combined to fulfill the broader objective of the state. Multilateral and bilateral aid may combine to come up with a powerful policy that would best meet the demands of Americans. Military and economic aids exist to implement American wishes in the Middle East and South Asia. Foreign aid policies in the Latin America aim at countering drug trafficking.
We will write a custom Essay on American Foreign Aid specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of Foreign Aid The US government uses two major types of foreign aid to enhance its objectives. The two types differ because each of them has specific aims and objectives. Bilateral development assistance programs are mainly used to enhance sustainable financial growth and socio-political strength in the third world.
The funds released through this program are managed by the American agency, USAID. The funds are used to finance economic project, with long-term objectives. In the third world, the USAID uses the funds to promote microeconomic projects, which would help people sustain their own lives. Through the funds, various American dreams are achieved, such egalitarianism, ecological fortification, population control, and development of human wellbeing (Barston 56).
Development plans that have received more fame in modern years consist of fundamental education, water and hygiene, and support for management of HIV/AIDS and other communicable infections. Additional bilateral assistance is channeled to specific agencies such as African Development Foundation, the Peace Corps, Inter-American, Millennium Challenge Corporation, and Trade and Development Agency. Bilateral assistance has been used variously to advance the American objectives.
For instance in Kenya, the US government collaborated with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund to introduce structural adjustment programs. The programs were aimed at opening up society in 1986 and creating an enabling environment for individual fulfillment. It can be reported that bilateral assistance has been successful in fulfilling the American objectives.
On the other hand, the US has not been using multilateral form of assistance. A small share of the total funds is allocated to multilateral assistance. Multilateral funds are used jointly with funds from other states to fund social services. It can be observed that, the US rarely uses multilateral type of assistance because the national interests are not achieved.
Foreign Aid Programs The Marshal Plan was aimed at reconstructing Europe after the Second World War. Europe had suffered huge losses since many people were killed while others were wounded. Many companies and factories in England, France, Germany, Italy, Poland and other parts of Europe had been destroyed. Europe could not exercise agriculture because farmers had been destabilized by the war.
Infrastructure was badly affected implying that goods could not be moved from one part of the region to the other. Between 1945 and 1947, the US came up with foreign direct investment programs to rebuild Europe. Through the UN, the US offered humanitarian aid to Greece. The Head of state, Harry Truman, appointed an expert named George Marshal.
The program under Marshal was named the European Recovery Program. The program was mainly aimed at rebuilding economies of the European states. The US government offered technical assistances and administrative advises to states in need such as Germany and Poland. In total, the European states received $13 billion, which involved relief food, fuel and farm machinery.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Foreign Aid by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The program was terminated in 1951 after realizing that all European states were stable. From the program, the US government benefited a lot because US firms could easily produce and distribute goods in the European continent. It can be observed that the program was successful because the American national interests were achieved.
Point Four program was another foreign aid assistance that aimed at uplifting the lives of the poor in the third world during the cold war. It was aimed providing technical skills and knowledge to the policy makers of the third world. Through the program, investment capital would move freely from the industrialize states to the less developed. The program was the fourth in President Truman’s agenda launched in 1949.
This was upon realization that Europe was already under the American control. The program would give the US access to the economies of developing nations, especially in Africa and South Asia. During the Cold War period, the policy was effectively used to win the states that were still confused on whether to adopt capitalism or communism.
Public Law 480 (PL 480) was a food program that was aimed at assisting the developing countries faced by food shortages. The program has four major parts, the first part is managed by the US department of Agriculture while the three parts are managed by the USAID. Dwight Eisenhower signed the program into law in 1954.
The main aim of the law was give American farmers a chance to export their products to countries facing deficiencies. Through the program, American farmers were able to invest abroad since their commodities could be exchanged with other products. In 1961, F. Kennedy redefined the program, by renaming it Food for Peace.
The US government could use the aid to demand for transparency and openness in the foreign states. Good governance was liberalization of the economy was one of the requirements in case a particular state was to benefit from the program after the Cold War. During the Cold War, states could receive the aid by supporting American ideologies. In 1991, the US used the program to bar African states from attending an economic conference that would have affected American businesses in the continent (Domingo 13).
Economic Support Funds are meant to help states recovering from wars, especially those in Africa. The US government would come up with various strategies on how to help the third world country to develop. The US utilizes this chance to achieve its national interests. For instance, trade barriers barring the US from accessing the economies of the third world are always reviewed during the formulation of policies. American businesspersons are always represented in key decision-making agencies in the third world.
Works Cited Barston, Ronald. Modern diplomacy. New York, NY: Pearson Education, 2006. Print
Calvocoressi, Ambrose. World Politics since 1945. 9th ed. New York: Longman, 2008. Print.
Domingo, Richard. The New Global Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
How the Constitution applies to being a Military Leader/Officer Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sworn Oath of Defending the Constitution
Military Justice and the Constitution
Limitation of Powers
Introduction It is the duty of the U.S. Armed Forces to protect the country from both internal and external threats yet few people seem to realize that the basis for such responsibilities is not due to orders from the president or that of Congress but rather it is a result of a sworn oath to protect the Constitution.
The Constitution itself is greater than any single branch of government however it is still vulnerable to corruption from within and as such it is the duty of each and every military officer to ensure that such corruption is stamped out.
On the other hand, it must be mentioned that though it is the duty of the military to protect the Constitution it is only through the Constitution itself and its various amendments that the military was even brought into being in the first place For example, it is only through the powers given to it by the constitution that Congress is able to authorize the creation of the military as well as control its budget and it is only through Congressional action that war can be declared (McCarthy, 2011).
It must be noted though that the constitution also happens to give the President significant powers in terms of being the commander and chief of the Armed Forces in times of war and as such all military leaders/officers are de facto obliged to obey the president. Based on such factors, this paper will explore how the Constitution applies to being a military leader/officer and what are the various contributions the Constitution has had in the creation of the modern day system seen in the U.S. Armed Forces today.
Sworn Oath of Defending the Constitution First and foremost among the oaths sworn by a military officer/leader is a pledge to defend and support the Constitution of the United States, do note that this isn’t a pledge to obey the President or support Congress in its decisions rather it is an obligation to defend the tenets of the Constitution from both foreign and domestic threats.
What you have to understand is that while the Constitution itself is responsible for the creation of the U.S. armed forces (seen in Section 8 Article 1) the fact is that it also entails a distinct separation of powers in order to create a checks and balances system of which each and every U.S. military leader/officer is a part of.
The pledge to defend the Constitution is in part an aspect of this check and balances system wherein despite the fact that the military is under the control of a civilian government, military officers/ leaders also acts as a means of ensuring that such a system isn’t abused (Kuehn, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, in cases where an obviously corrupt elected government is in control, military officers/leaders have the solemn duty to ensure the continued protection of the tenets of the Constitution by intervening in civilian affairs whether through arms or through protest in order to ensure that the Constitution is protected at all costs. This is one of the main reasons why the oath every single military officer takes is not to the President, to Congress, the Judiciary, or the Senate but rather to the Constitution itself.
This is to ensure that should all else fail and the government of the country is corrupt beyond measure and is pursuing a path that is in direct conflict with the ideals put into practice by the founding fathers, there would still be some form of resistance in the form of the Armed Forces of the country in order to ensure that such actions can be prevented and to ensure the reassertion of the proper form of government that is necessary to put the country back on track.
Military Justice and the Constitution Under the 5th Amendment of the Constitution the creation of a separate justice system for the U.S. military was enacted in order to create a system that specifically deals with cases involving military personnel. What you have to understand is that the creation of such a unique justice system was due to the fact that civilian law lacked the necessary “severity” and “strictness” needed for the Armed Forces (Underhill, 1924).
For example, neglecting ones duty, gross disrespect for a superior, abuse of power in the work place or arriving late for an assignment is normally seen as adverse actions however perfectly allowable under civilian law. Under the military justice system, though such actions have a corresponding criminal punishment due to their violation of military codes of conduct and ethics.
The reason behind this is quite simple, all militaries whether they are based in the U.S., the Philippines, the U.K. or other such countries all function through a process of strict discipline, unquestioning observance of orders and the rules of military codes of conduct, as well as loyalty to ones country.
Without such systems in place the end result would be an undisciplined organization that would be unable to work as a cohesive whole should a period of war occur this resulting in the potential deaths of thousands of soldiers as a direct result.
It is based on this that once a civilian has entered into military service he/she understands that under the 5th amendment to the Constitution they will henceforth be subject to the military justice system until such a time that they released from active duty within the military.
We will write a custom Essay on How the Constitution applies to being a Military Leader/Officer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Limitation of Powers As mentioned earlier, there is an inherent separation of powers within the U.S. Constitution which ensures that no single branch of government has too much power in order to ensure that the there is a certain degree of “control” in order to limit potentially unconstitutional policies from being implemented. The same though can be said in the case of the military wherein based on the constitution the power of the military is limited and controlled by the civilian government of the U.S (Agency group, N.D.).
This is in line with the aforementioned checks and balances system mentioned earlier which all military officers need to take into consideration since despite the potential power at their hands they need to realize that such powers are there only to defend the constitution, protect the people of this nation and ensure its continued existence and as such should not be utilized for personal gain.
Reference List Agency group. (n.d). Civilian control of military based on constitution. FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database,
Kuehn, J. T. (2010). Talking Grand Strategy. Military Review, 90(5), 74.
McCarthy, A. C. (2011). The law: servant or master?. New Criterion, 29(6), 26.
Underhill, L. K. (1924). Jurisdiction of Military Tribunals in the United States Over Civilians. California Law Review, 12(2), 75.
Cleopatra and Her Influence on the Ptolemaic Dynasty Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Inspiration to Women
Introduction Cleopatra is certainly one of the successful and respected queens in the history of ancient Egypt since she brought huge influence on the society, governance, politics, and even on women. Her romantic stories and death are always celebrated throughout Egypt and she governed Egypt and created it relatively influential during her regime. Cleopatra was a third born daughter, born in Alexandria in 69 B.C and her father was Ptolemy XII. Ptolemy XIII, her younger brother, got engaged in the kingdom governance with Cleopatra.
Her life history is among the greatest stories in history, not only due to her exceptional romance, but since she was greatly in love of Egypt (Grochowski, 2005). While in power, Cleopatra influenced most women through her education, love, governance, and invasions. Her role in the society is felt in the modern society of Egypt and her encouragements and achievements serve as an inspiration to all women.
Biography Cleopatra is recognized by most historians as the last Pharaoh of Egypt and started her journey to the throne after her elder sisters and father died. Her father was much hated all over Egypt and he went to Rome for exile many years before his death. Throughout the two centuries after the death of Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII, the Ptolemies were in cooperation with Romans, but the powers of Ptolemies were declining and the Roman Empire was growing since they were attempting to overpower Ptolemies.
There was a need to regain their strength and Cleopatra took power in 51 B.C when she was only 17 years old. She understood the religion which existed in Egypt and she was very bright. She was an insightful politician with an exceptional charisma, but was not good-looking and possessed mannish qualities (Bianchi, 2011).
Ptolemy XII, the father of Cleopatra, died in 51 B.C and he left the will that he allowed Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII, her younger brother, to rule the kingdom and Cleopatra was directed to wed her brother and deputy ruler because of the Egyptians’ traditions and customs.
These customs directed that all female leaders should have a partner who may be either son or brother and her younger brother was just 12 years of age during that transition. Cleopatra excluded the name of her brother from all managerial records and created her personal name and portrait included in all legal tender, discarding Ptolemy XIII’s existing powers.
Cleopatra governed alone for almost three years, but the guiders of Ptolemy XIII cheered by Pothinus started working against Cleopatra. In 48 B.C, they overpowered Cleopatra and took over power and she ran for refuge in Syria together with her other sister, Arsinone IV (Bianchi, 2011). However, she did not surrender her throne effortlessly and she started building an army on the border of Egypt to be equipped to attack and overrule her brother.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cleopatra formulated a strategy to meet Julius Caesar on her personal conditions looking for a political coalition and a way of going back to the throne. She planned to be covered inside a carpet that was intended to be delivered to Julius Caesar. When the carpet was unwrapped, she came out and directly charmed him and during the same day, Caesar was seduced by Cleopatra, although he was married. They eventually became lovers and Cleopatra was connected with the Roman Empire.
The death of Cleopatra is among the most celebrated and well-known ever and after she prepared burial for Antony, she was captured as prisoners with her children, but they were taken care by the authority. She did not want to be embarrassed and this led her take her life. The Roman Emperors began to govern Egypt and Cleopatra is considered the last Pharaoh because after passing away, Egypt was changed and became Roman province (Harold, Anton, and Duca, 2010).
Inspiration to Women Queen Cleopatra created huge impact on the Roman Empire and acted as an inspiration to all women in Egypt and other parts of the world. She also left huge impression of the Roman Empire since she portrayed an ineradicable representation of women as reliable, shrewd, and strong-minded.
Additionally, she further inspired different interests in the society and strong impact remained in art history. Cleopatra played a great part in the production of a new art culture and practices. Queen Cleopatra’s life and influence will remain permanently in the area of art history and women’s leadership in Roman Empire and her influence as spread to some parts of the world (Harrella, 2011).
Cleopatra possessed different royal and feminine influence all over the Ptolemaic era that embraced society, invasions, authority, women, leadership, and role modelling. She portrayed several excellent characteristics of a role model that embraced, but not limited to, her objective, aptitude, personality, and royalty.
Her role model features particularly included shining academically, politically, romantically, and understood different languages. It is obvious that Cleopatra was a relatively role model for all women during the Ptolemaic era and even in this generation.
Cleopatra also portrayed special characteristics that were respected and inspired traits of the position of women in the community of which included promoting schooling, independence, and hierarchy position of women during the Ptolemaic dynasty and in the current world. Egyptian traditions greatly treasured education of which the Ptolemy era highly valued and reinforced this custom. Women were inspired by Cleopatra to create courage and importance of schooling (Harrella, 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Cleopatra and Her Influence on the Ptolemaic Dynasty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cleopatra possessed different effects on society of which included her personal change, the manner in which she was represented in the society, and a religious ceremony. The Queen was recognized as a woman with objective, dynamic, influential, and a mother of positive strength of power. She had also exceptional ability and knowledge that helped her as a woman to be portrayed by society as an outstanding person.
Colourful traits of Cleopatra had a major influence on the women’s role in the traditional society and the current women’s position. She obtained high standard as a respected, motivated, and dedicated women of her monarchies to be strong-minded and determined as they go after their objectives in life through their schooling, professions, affection, and talent.
Cleopatra obtained the same educational status like male Pharaoh that emphasizes comprehensive ‘enkukleios paideia’ that signifies encyclopaedia and this Cleopatra’s status allowed women to realize their importance in their society.
She also inspired women in field of mathematics, geometry, and science which took her in significance and interest in the group of well-known learned individuals consisting of Sosigenes (astronome), a physician, and Dioscorides that motivated most women to take part in these fields (Gascoigne, 2011).
She showed the abilities of women after inflicting an effect on the government when she brought strategies along with Antony to offer greatly reliable, optimistic, and constructive policy, along with his intelligence in several administrative positions and decisions.
She also had an impact on the government through her straightforward approaches of ruling because she had certain inborn abilities of a Ptolemy, reliable governing, resolution, and adequate resistance, and these helped to motivate the powerful queens of that time and upcoming leaders.
Cleopatra possessed different royal influence on women and society, for instance creating her personal coin, engaging herself in a religious ceremony, and the manner in which she was represented in the society. Cleopatra had a distinct portrait coin that represented her personality and individualism.
She also got involved in a religious ceremony which allowed her to receive respect and honour from her kingdom. Bearing in mind all Cleopatra’s accomplishments and encouragements, most societies took her as an outstanding person since she influenced women to realize and participate in the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cleopatra and Her Influence on the Ptolemaic Dynasty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Queen Cleopatra had a significance royal and womanly influence on women in the past and in Ptolemaic era. She possessed encouragements and achievements as a role model on the role of women and even women’s romance of which motivated the scripts of her romantic stories. Cleopatra as well had a royal influence on the fields of governance, war, and invasions, together with the manner in which the society portrayed her.
Cleopatra remains as a major female historical representation that significantly had an impact on the Ptolemaic dynasty through acting as a representation of women, role model, romantic figure, governance, education, and her role in the society, and was an intelligent Queen which adequate skills and knowledge in challenging role in politics, a woman’s leadership with the sensuality to draw the outstanding traits of heroes, and the ability to understand and apply it.
References Bianchi, R. (2011). Interpreting the Uninterpretable: Cleopatra and Biography. Journal of Historical Biography, 9: 77-89.
Gascoigne, B. (2011). History of Cleopatra. Web.
Grochowski, J. (2005). Cleopatra VII. Web.
Harold, L., Anton, K.,
Water Crisis in UAE Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and results
Introduction Water crisis refers to the situation where the available water within a geographical location cannot meet the needs of the population in that location. This prevalent situation has drawn attention in most countries due to its severity to humanity. Despite the fact that the earth is covered by seventy percent of water, only four percent of this water is fresh.
The rest is saline. Additionally, out of the fresh water, sixty-nine percent consists of glaciers, while the rest is available as surface or underground water. As a result, only one percent is available for direct human consumption, which is relatively less than the human demand (Jennifer, 2010).
This condition necessitates many countries to embrace the option of underground water or desalinization to sustain the ever-increasing demand for water. Similarly, climate change considerably contributes to the worldwide water crisis. Due to global warming, the level of water loss on the earth’s surface increases especially in tropical regions. This with other factors leads to water crisis.
In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), water crisis is on the rise with the increase in population. With the rapid growth in population influenced by the booming economic activities within the country, the need for clean and safe water increases surpassing the supply. The country’s climate, characterized by little precipitation because of high temperatures and low humidity, contributes to the water crisis.
The temperatures, which fluctuate between 400C and 200C during the year, significantly influence the long run average precipitation. The country’s precipitation levels are an estimated to be 80 mm per year (Environmental Agency, 2010). This situation is alarming especially in consideration to the growing population. The country has resorted to other forms of water generation such as desalinization and underground water mining to meet partially its water needs.
Nevertheless, the people’s culture of water consumption is linked to the water crisis. It is estimated that an individual in UAE spends about 500 liters of water in a day, while the average consumption on a worldwide scale is approximately 250 liters per day. On this note, it is vital to ascertain the major contributor of water crisis based on the controversy of nature and humanity causes in UAE and other parts of the world.
Background Water crisis is known as the scarcity of water that can support humanity, agriculture, energy generation, industries, and general usage. This phenomenon has been adverse in most nations dictating the need for the addition of the valuable resource. The continuous increase in population is one of the contributing factors. In UAE, since 1962, after the full exploitation of oil, the country continues to receive a massive population growth because of immigration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This population provides the needed labor in the commercial exploitation of oil and other economic activities. With the small percentage of arable land and low precipitation in the country, it is considerably important to develop water alternatives that meet the peoples’ needs. Since the country has little amounts of surface water, it focuses on the extraction of underground water and desalinization in order to sustain the growing water demands.
Similarly, the economic proceedings in the country have facilitated the appropriate means of supplying water. Regardless of the government’s efforts, there still exists a huge gap between the amount of water supplied and its demand. Therefore, the study focuses on the factors that influence water crisis in UAE with regard to humanity and nature.
In analyzing the water crisis, the study seeks to establish the role that nature and people play in contributing to the phenomenon. In this regard, conclusions will be drawn based on the major contributor, which has escalated the water crisis in UAE.
This implies nature will entail factors such as the level of precipitation and availability of surface and underground water, which enhance the adversity of water crisis in the country. On the other hand, people will refer to analysis of the level of water utilization in activities such as agriculture, electricity generation, and consumption. Therefore, one can establish the major contributors to the water crisis.
Literature review Ali (2010) comments that “the consumption level of water exceeds the available sources” (91) while Boberg (2005) asserts that “water is one of the resources that is scarce” (112) made an analysis of the water crisis in UAE based on the water stress in the region. Ali and Boberg clarified water stress as the imbalance that exists between the amount of water needed and the available useful water. They utilized the water stress index for the rating of water crisis.
Nevertheless, they failed to take into consideration various factors like the potential sources of water such as desalinization. On the other hand, the analysis of Mehmet (2000) portrays “the severity of water crisis is attributed to industrialization which consumes and pollutes available water” (p.76) but never addresses the role of nature and people regarding water stress.
According to Environmental agency-Abu Dhabi (2010), “breakthroughs in desalination technologies are responsible for the climate change in UAE” (p.101) depicts how climate change has affected UAE. While the Environmental Agency (2010) reported, “Middle East regions experienced an annual increase of temperature from 38oC to 40oC” attributed to global warming.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Water Crisis in UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the amount of water available on the surface as well as underground has declined. This implies that there are possible chances of increased severity of the water crisis. Despite the fact that other sources of water are disregarded, there are indications that the prevailing situation in UAE is due to climate change as per the Human Development Report (2006).
Jain and Singh (2010) claim that “climate changes influence the level of rainfall, which contribute to water crisis.”(p.251), and Jennifer (2010) attributes that “failure to address strategic water management has been the lead cause of water crisis.”(p.185). In addition, Waterbury (1997) asserts, “with the high rate of industrialization, water stress has been on the rise” (p.234), concurring with them.
In their reports, they discuss the various factors that contribute to water crisis such as climate change, industrialization of countries and strategic water management policies.
In this case, they attribute the water crisis to emanate from the various environmentally destructive activities. While World Bank Report (2007) considers that “economic activities in the Middle East countries leads to decline in rainfall from approximately 100 mm per year to 80mm per year” (p.172). Thus, climate change affects the underground water. Considering the availability of other sources of water, none was mention concerning their impacts on water crisis.
World Bank Report (2010) reveals, “Seawater desalinization is the leading source of fresh water” (p.127). Similarly, Landrais (2010) recommends, “the Middle East countries ought to go for desalinization of water to sustain the growing water demand” (p.268). Therefore, addressing desalination activities in the Middle East countries depends on the countries’ ability to adopt the process of desalinization as a source of water.
Through this process, the countries will considerably tackle the water crisis. UAE Report (2008) affirms, “The need to sustain water demands is a real challenge with the growing population” (p.305). In spite of this undertaking, there is a shortage regarding the water use leading to crisis, which arouses the debate of nature or humanity in the case.
Discussion and results Initially, water crisis stimulates creativity and innovation. The impacts of water crisis in a country depict the importance attached to water. In UAE, Water, which is used for various purposes such as consumption, agriculture, energy generation, and industries, contribute to the economic growth of a country. As a result, the country embarks on countering water crisis effects to ensure economic prosperity. For this reason, the country looks for non-conventional sources that they can exploit in order to meet the people’s demand for water.
Some of these sources include desalinization and reuse. In the process of desalinization, the extracted seawater is converted to fresh water in the desalinization plants. This source of water adds a significant volume of water, which is necessary for consumption and other economic activities. Additionally, since the costs of desalinization are high, the country adopts reuse procedures to supplement other sources.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Water Crisis in UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondly, with the resolution of water crisis, the country’s economy will advance since production will increase and the living conditions for the citizens will improve. These developments would sustain the need to look for a variety of water sources that counter water crisis during harsh climatic conditions. On individuals’ perspective, water crisis poses a challenge of adopting means of conserving the valuable resource.
As a result, the consumption levels would be moderate. This implies that with the increase in population size, the country would be able to sustain its population in relation to water demands. Based on the prevalent water crisis in UAE, citizens have been able to appreciate the need to conserve water and utilize it appropriately. Similarly, industries have developed measures that facilitate wastewater reuse. This contributes to an increase in the total volume of water useful for similar purposes.
Another crucial importance of water entails electricity generation, where water plays a key role in the country. It is possible to enhance the country’s production processes with the availability of water and its sufficient supply. This implies that the management of water crisis is significantly important to the progress of the country.
Similarly, various agricultural activities, which supply the population with the necessary food or raw materials for industries, can only be successful with the availability of sufficient water. Therefore, the two activities could be undertaken simultaneously by using the wastewater from industries for irrigation purposes. In UAE, this concept has been applied comparatively well and the attempts for water management have been considered.
In the search for the appropriate strategies to counter water crisis, there are a lot of demerits associated with it. Some of the crucial impacts include environmental effects during water extraction and the health of the population. Water exploitation from other sources apart from the surface and underground water involves a lot of environmental pollution.
For example, water desalinization leads to environmental pollution through the waste materials released such as smoke and salt. These pollutants cause environmental degradation resulting in climate change.
Climate change affects the availability of water by interfering with the precipitation level and temperatures of a region. Hence, countries would lose fresh water from the surface and underground sources. This considerably hinders other economic factors and contributes to severe water crisis.
On the analysis of the role played by nature and people, it indicates that the people have significant contribution. This is due to the uncertainty associated with nature in serving the need for water. Therefore, nature cannot be controlled. In addition, people have to adopt other varied sources of water. With the activities that people undertake, they are necessitated to look for alternative sources of fresh water to meet their needs.
Some of the vital progress in countering water crisis has been desalinization and reuse. This indicates that people are the main cause of water crisis and put all their efforts to counter the effects on this perspective. As a result, the processes yield the success of engaging in water sourcing to counter the disastrous activities associated with water crisis.
Another crucial demerit of water crisis entails the cost of the problem. In the process of implementing the projects for solving of water crisis, the country has spent multiple resources. Similarly, the process of addressing the problems of the water crisis has led to pollution of environment resulting in water crisis. This is because the consumption level of the UAE people is extremely high. Thus, the prevalence of water crisis has adverse effects on its major contributors who are the people.
Conclusion In consideration of the effects of water crisis, most nations undertake measures to counter this vice and prevent its impacts on humanity and economic performance. At the core of the importance of clean and safe water is the consumption need. In this case, humans as well as other biodiversity are at risk of dehydration.
For this reason, most nations without the adequate supply of surface water engage in considerable inputs to ensure the sustainability of sufficient water. Some of the major plans include water reuse, extraction of underground water and seawater desalinization. In UAE, the need for water supply has been constantly met through the desalinization process. Despite the harmful effects such as pollution that desalinization plants have on the environment, significant volumes of water are derived through this process.
The efforts employed in the process of seawater desalinization have been significant towards the realization of its sufficiency. Comparing the severity of water crisis as between the people and nature, the government of UAE has imposed regulations that ensure water preservation and its uniform distribution to all industries.
Similarly, since nature plays a critical role considering that UAE is in an arid region, any precipitations that results within the year are optimally harvested to supplement other sources of water. Under the study, the world, with specification of UAE, has realized the fact that humanity contributes considerably to water crisis compared to nature. This implies, people are attributed as the main cause of water crisis.
Recommendations The water crisis demands appropriate solutions considering that water is one of the vital reasons for population survival as well as the growth of economic activities. UAE, being one of the countries with high immigration rates that influence population growth, ought to address its water crisis amicably. This need has compelled the government to invest heavily in water treatment and generation.
With the underground and saline water being the major sources of water, the government has invested in the extraction of clean and safe water. Regarding the underground water, the anticipation of climate change necessitates the government to counter the possible impacts of the phenomenon since most of its underground water originates from other regions. While desalinization is the largest contributor of safe and clean water, the government needs to adopt measures to counter its effects on the environment.
Therefore, it needs to adopt policies that ensure that the establishment of new desalinization plants conforms to the needs of environmental conservation and preservation. The implementation of policies that regulate the establishment of ecologically friendly industries will facilitate the realization of this objective. Incidentally, the effects of plants on climate change would decline facilitating the continuous supply of underground water.
For the growing population, there are needs to address the populations’ policies and strategic water management. To counter the rapidly growing population due to high fertility rates and immigration, the government should formulate policies and strategies that will ensure the regulation of population.
This will assist in controlling the population size, and the water generated would be sufficient for the general population. On the other hand, the formulation of strategic water management would guide the country into efficient water utilization. In this regard, the country would plan on the management of the water used for consumption and prevent any wastage that may occur in the course of the process.
Concerning economic activities such as agriculture, energy generation, and industrial usage, the adoption of proper policies is vital in order to minimize water wastage. In addition, water could be recycled in any plant that produces wastewater and facilitate the preservation of the vital resource. In this regard, the country will be able to counter the impacts of the water crisis.
References Ali, F. (2010). Development of water stress index as a tool for measurement of water stress areas. International Sustainable Development, 1(1), 551.
Boberg, J. (2005). Liquid assets: how demographic changes and water management policies affect freshwater resources. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp.
Environmental Agency. (2010). Impact, vulnerability and Adaptation in the UAE. Climate change and the UAE, 1(1), 52.
Human, D. R. (2006). Reports (1990-2011) | Global Reports | HDR 2006 | Human Development Reports (HDR) | United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Human Development Reports (HDR) – United Nations Development Program (UNDP). From http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/
Influence of Transport on Lives of People who Live in Cities Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Metro Transport in major cities across the world
Underground Metro implementation in Dubai
Reasons why the Subway system is appropriate for Dubai
Introduction The most developed cities in the world attract a lot of people to work there. There are many economic activities which are carried out in the cities which are facilitated by transport. Transport therefore influences the lives of many people who live in cities. The various modes of transport that are used in cities include buses, trams, taxis, light railway systems, shuttles, ferries, and underground metro.
All these modes of transport help to facilitate the movement of people across the cities. Some of the busiest cities in the world include New York, London, Paris, Moscow, Montreal, Madrid, Tokyo, Beijing, Hong Kong, and Sao Paolo. These cities attract many people to work there because of the many economic activities that the cities engage in.
Since the largest cities in the world have very many people, they develop transportation systems which make it easier for people to travel without interfering with the economic activities taking place in the cities. The underground metro is the common means of transport that does not interfere with the activities that take place in the cities.
It is a very popular means of transport in large cities. This is because it has the capacity to carry many people at once and it does not interfere with other means of transport since it travels under the ground. This mode of transport is also very fast. It has therefore been implemented by many cities because of the convenience it offers to the members of the public.
The activities of the underground metro are not interfered with by other means of transport. It offers comfort and it ensures that trains do not get into jams. As a result, this is the fastest means of transport that people use to travel across the cities.
This paper will therefore analyze the various means of metro transport that the popular cities in the world adopt and collect data regarding their experiences and up to date developments. The paper will also discuss the feasibility of implementing the underground metro in Dubai. It will also develop a layout of implementing the underground metro and demonstrate why it is suitable for Dubai city.
Metro Transport in major cities across the world The prices of oil are rising at a very high rate thereby forcing people to use other means of transport which are more convenient and affordable. Driving is now being regarded as a pass time for the rich people. To help reduce transport expenses, many people are leaving their cars behind and opting for the most convenient and affordable transport systems such as subways, buses and railways to enable them get to their places of work in time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This analysis will therefore focus on the best mass transit systems that are available to people who work in the major cities all over the world. The different transport systems that the cities adopt depend on safety, reliability, cleanliness, and good coverage of the routes that the passengers use.
It is said that Denmark’s public transportation system was not able to meet people’s transportation needs before the construction of the Copenhagen metro. However, Copenhagen Metro has since 2002 been regarded as the best public transportation mode in the area. The people who live in the suburbs and outside Denmark use the s-train system which is linked to the Copenhagen public transit system.
The reliability rate of Copenhagen Metro was said to lie between 98-99 percent in 2006. This means of transport is very clean because the Danish culture does not entertain littering. The efficiency of Copenhagen train network is also very high because the trains are operated automatically. Copenhagen’s public transport is said to be dependable and comfortable. It also puts the safety of the passengers first.
In Berlin, the public transport system is referred to as u-Bahn and it covers approximately 132 kilometers. U-Bahn is linked to the S-Bahn which is an above ground system.
The s-bahn system then links with other routes across the city. There are very few accidents which are reported by U-Bahn. The system is also covered by a mobile phone network in all the stations and tunnels thereby making the transport mode very efficient. The trains are designed to get people to their places of work on time unless a person wakes up late.
It is said that approximately 90 percent of transportation in Hong Kong is carried out through public transit. The Hong Kong subway system is the main mode of transport that facilitates public transport in the region. It is said that the system carries approximately seven million people per day in the 175-kilometer network.
The trains arrive at their designated stations on time. The subway is safe because it uses platform screen doors which keep people off the railway track when the trains are not at the station. The Hong Kong subway also offers the passengers 3G network thereby enabling them to use their phones and computers while traveling.
We will write a custom Report on Influence of Transport on Lives of People who Live in Cities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The New York Subway System is said to be more than 100 years old and covers a distance of 375 kilometers. The subway system runs for 24 hours a day. Though the system had safety issues in the 1970s, these issues were rectified and the system is today one of the safest modes of transport in the region. The system also keeps a consistent schedule and it has the capacity to carry approximately 4.5 million people in one day.
The Paris metropolitan covers a distance of 214 kilometers and it has the most closely spaced stations in the world. It is also the world’s largest underground subway system. The system carries approximately 4.5 million passengers in one day. The system also gives people bikes to ride from one station to the other.
The Seoul Metropolitan subway carries more than 8 million people in one day and it covers a distance of 287 kilometers. The subway system also links with the Seoul’s bus system. The stations have LED screens which notify the passengers when the other trains would arrive. The system is also equipped with Wi-Fi access both in the subway and in the stations. The system also has robots whose goal is to help the riders get help with any information that they need.
The Tube is a subway system that is located in London. It is the most travelled system and it covers a distance of 400 kilometers. It reported more than 1 billion travelers in 2007. The stations are equipped with LED displays to notify the passengers when the next trains would be arriving. It also has CCTV cameras installed in order to make it easy for the police to detect any terrorist activities. This system has been voted as the best subway system in the world many times.
The Moscow Metro is one of the oldest systems in the world. It is also the second most used system because it carries more than 7.5 million passengers in one day. Its routes cover more than 293 kilometers and all the stations are clean. It is also regarded as one of the most reliable systems. It runs approximately 40 trains in one hour with no major accidents being reported. The system is therefore one of the best performing subway system in the world.
The Tokyo metropolitan is the most widely used system in the world because it carries an average of 8 million passengers in one day. The Japanese culture believes that cleanliness should be given first priority. As a result, the subway system is very clean because people do not litter at the stations.
The system also has a computerized messaging system which notifies the passengers about their location while on the journey and tells them when they should expect their next stop. The trains arrive on time and incidences of vandalism or crime are very rare. However, when people are traveling during rush hour, they are stuffed into the trains thereby making their travelling experiences unpleasant.
Underground Metro implementation in Dubai Dubai is increasing its competitiveness in the world market. There are many viable business opportunities in Dubai which are attracting people from various parts of the world to invest their resources in the region. Because of the influx of people within the city, the government has found it important to invest in a transportation system which will make transportation within the city convenient and smooth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Influence of Transport on Lives of People who Live in Cities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government has found it important to invest in a transportation system which is capable of transporting people to and from the city without interfering with other transport systems within the city. The Dubai Metro system is therefore proposed to address the transportation challenges that are facing Dubai.
In order for a city to increase its productivity, it is important for it to have an elaborate transport system which can manage to carry a large number of people conveniently and faster and without congesting the city. A subway system is an effective way of facilitating transportation within the city. This type of a project is worth the investment because it has the ability to improve the productivity of a city significantly.
The population of Dubai is rising at a very high rate. The current transportation network has not been able to transport people into the city in an effective way. This state of affairs has made Dubai to invest in the Dubai Metro project to enable it to reduce traffic congestion and inefficiency associated with the road transport system.
The prices of oil are rising at a very high rate. This state of affairs has made people to refrain from using their vehicles for transport. As a result, they have opted for the public transport because it is cheaper. However, most road transport systems do not offer passengers the comfort that they demand. In addition, road transport is subject to delays because of the jams which people come across on the roads.
The introduction of the Dubai Metro subway will therefore be very beneficial to the people who conduct their business activities in Dubai because it will make transportation faster and affordable. The subway travel will also be safe since it is less prone to accidents and vandalism.
Subway transport is efficient to use. This is because, subway transport offers certain services which a person cannot access while using his own car. For example, most trains using subways are normally fitted with services such as 3G, Wi-Fi connectivity and Wimax networks. These services enable people to use their mobile phones and laptops while heading to their places of work.
As a result, it is possible for a person to complete his job assignments before reaching his office. For example, Dubai Metro is fitted with a Wimax network to enable the passengers to access various network services while on their way to work. It is therefore true that subway transport offers the passengers more comfort than road transport.
Pollution of the environment is a very serious issue which many countries have paid critical attention to. This is because pollution of the environment has resulted to many devastative effects on the environment such as global warming.
The introduction of a subway train therefore means that many people will stop using their vehicles for travelling purposes thereby reducing pollution to the environment significantly. With the introduction of the Dubai Metro therefore, there will be a significant drop in the amount of pollution in the city. This will then ensure that people present in the city live healthy lives.
Many subway trains are designed for speed and efficiency in order to stimulate the growth of an economy. They are set to operate on a set schedule so that people can have sufficient information on when to expect the next train. As a result, Dubai Metro is being designed in such a manner that the trains will be operated automatically without the need of a driver.
The trains will be controlled automatically from an Operation Control Center using a computer. This will ensure that the trains are able to keep schedule and therefore be more reliable to the passengers. Automation of services will also make the cost of providing travel services to passengers less costly.
Comfort is also a critical issue which people look for while deciding on the means of transport to use. If travelling by train does not offer comfort to the passengers, many people would therefore prefer to use their own vehicles to go to work. To be able to attract many people to use public transport systems, Dubai Metro should ensure that the seats where the passengers relax are comfortable.
Reasons why the Subway system is appropriate for Dubai The subway system is an appropriate strategy for Dubai to adopt. This is because it will help reduce the congestion within the city. Therefore, once the subway is constructed, it will be possible for people to move within the city smoothly. The subway transport operates on set schedules. As a result, people will be able to perform their tasks efficiently because they will be able to reach their places of work on time.
Bibliography Benfield, K., The 10 Best Cities for Public Transportation? The Atlantic, 2011. Web.
Kochimetro, World’s Best Metro Rail Systems. Web.
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009. Web.
Voyer, M., Top 10 Public Transit Systems, Ask Men, 2012. Web.
Footnotes Benfield, K., The 10 Best Cities for Public Transportation? The Atlantic, 2011
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009.
Kochimetro, World’s Best Metro Rail Systems.
Benfield, K., The 10 Best Cities for Public Transportation? The Atlantic, 2011.
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009.
Voyer, M., Top 10 Public Transit Systems, Ask Men, 2012.
Kochimetro, World’s Best Metro Rail Systems.
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009.
Kochimetro, World’s Best Metro Rail Systems.
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009.
Benfield, K., The 10 Best Cities for Public Transportation? The Atlantic, 2011.
Voyer, M., Top 10 Public Transit Systems, Ask Men, 2012.
Systra, The Dubai Metro Project, ANG Dubai, 2009.
Saving Private Ryan: War and the Value of the Sacrifice Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help
Saving Private Ryan is one of the best American films about war of all the times. Steven Spielberg directed the film, and Robert Rodat wrote it. The work of these two people received much acclaims: Academy Award, Empire Award, NYFCC Award, and Golden Globe Award nominations. This film describes the events of World War II. It tells a story of how a group of soldiers leaded by Captain John Miller search for Private James Francis Ryan missing in Normandy, France.
The movie begins with a scene when an old veteran is going to the American Cemetery in Normandy accompanied by his children, grandchildren, and wife. He walks through the cemetery, looks around, and suddenly falls to his knees and starts crying.
In a moment, another scene begins. 6 June 1944. War… Lots of soldiers’ bodies ripping apart, limbs flying in the air, grey colors, and fire – all this makes us think about the horrors of war. Interrupted movements of cameras and emphasis on gory details astonished me a lot. Spielberg was not afraid to underline the details that may avert people. In my opinion, such technique is just perfect.
One more technique used by Spielberg that impressed me is the speed during the battles. A scene of Private Caparzo murder can serve a good example of this.
Quite atmosphere. No one expects that something can happen. Sudden shots, quick movements of cameras, and the life of one character, Adrian Caparzo, is over.
It proves once again the fleetingness of our life. On the one hand, you realize that you may die one day, especially, when you are in the field. On the other hand, you will never be ready for this. Death is something that catches unawares. This is one of the major themes in the movie.
A lot of things depend on the actors and their plays. Unfortunately, I cannot analyze the director’s work when watching the film for the first time. The main things that capture my attention are the plot and actors’ play.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cast of Saving Private Ryan is really great: Tom Hanks, Matt Damon, Edward Burns, Vin Diesel, and Giovanni Ribisi. The play of every actor is unique. I forget about all the roles these actors have played before. I was so captivated with the characters, their appearance, and ambitions.
For me, Captain John Miller (Tom Hanks) was one of the most interesting characters in the film. His devotion to the mission, ideas, and moral principles impressed me a lot. An ordinary schoolteacher became a great captain respected by lots of soldiers, this is really amazing indeed.
He leaves his own family to participate in war and save the future of his children. After each battle, Captain Miller shows real courage that makes his troops respect him. Once he said: “I just know that every man I kill, the farther away from home I feel.” (Saving Private Ryan)
One day, he gets a task to find and bring home Private Ryan. Captain and his troops know nothing about this person. The only thing they know is that Ryan’s family lost three sons in action in one day. Ryan is the only son who is alive. His family needs him, and the only purpose now is to bring the child home.
I was truly impressed with Captain Miller’s attitude to the task given. In spite of his careless to the person (Ryan), he gathered a troop, sacrificed own principles, and started the mission. Once, he said to Private Reiben (Edward Burns):
“I am a schoolteacher. I teach English composition… in this little town called Adley, Pennsylvania. The last eleven years, I have been at Thomas Alva Edison High School. I was a coach of the baseball team in the springtime. Back home, I tell
people what I do for a living and they think well, now that figures. But over here, it’s a big, a big mystery. So, I guess I have changed some. Sometimes I wonder if I have changed so much my wife is even going to recognize me, whenever it is that I get back to her. And how I will ever be able to tell her about days like today. Ah, Ryan. I do not know anything about Ryan. I don not care. The man means nothing to me. It is just a name. But if… You know if going to Rumelle and finding him so that he can go home. If that earns me the right to get back to my wife, then that’s my mission.” (Saving Private Ryan)
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Saving Private Ryan: War and the Value of the Sacrifice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To my mind, this monologue characterizes Miller as he is. He disregards his own ambitions and feelings to complete his mission. However, he clearly understands the importance of his job. And this is what makes him really strong. Wartime dictates the rule that anyone should be strong. He is a great soldier, a good friend, and a great man.
The mission to save Ryan requires a great leader with a strong will and power. Courageous Captain John Miller is the only man who can cope with this task. He is able not only to convince himself that he will achieve the goals, but also to persuade other soldiers that they will succeed and come back home one day.
“This Ryan better be worth it. He’d better go home and cure some disease or invent a longer-lasting light bulb or something.” (Saving Private Ryan)
The coming result does not really matter. We speak about present, not future or even past. It is crucially important to be strong, to be a leader both for oneself and for people around.
As the movie goes, we understand that the old veteran standing in front of Captain Miller’s graveside is James Ryan. Ryan addresses to Miller:
“My family is with me today. They wanted to come with me. To be honest with you, I wasn’t sure how I’d feel coming back here. Every day I think about what you said to me that day on the bridge. I tried to live my life the best that I could. I hope that was enough. I hope that, at least in your eyes, I’ve earned what all of you have done for me.” (Saving Private Ryan)
He salutes the American flag realizing the sacrifices of his comrades who came one day and saved his life in exchange for their own.
We will never forget about all those sacrifices that brave soldiers made in order to provide future generation with peaceful and happy life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Saving Private Ryan: War and the Value of the Sacrifice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Movie’s writer and director have made a good job. They demonstrate not only the horror of wars, but also the ways of how and why people should respect the actions of all war heroes.
The movie Saving Private Ryan changed my world outlook greatly. I realized what it means to be a real man, a real hero. It is not that easy to be a hero in a modern world. The film made me think over the questions like “Should the war heroes be recognized in war time only?”, “Is it possible to be a hero in peacetime?” and the like.
I truly believe that one can achieve a lot if he/she really strives for this. Your actions and your ideas – these can make you a hero. Just choose the right way and follow it. Such films as Saving Private Ryan help us understand this simple truth.
Works Cited Saving Private Ryan. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Tom Hanks, Matt Damon, and Edward Burns. DreamWorks. Paramount Pictures.
What Can Make People Blind? Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
A famous South Korea’s director Im Kwon-taek usually amazes viewers with unbelievable plots and settings. His works are based on past Korea’s traditions and culture, however, set in the modern period of time. Lots of the movies of this director gain recognition both at home and abroad.
Im Kwon-taek and his works won different awards, including Cannes Film Festival, Hawaii International Film Festival, and Grand Bell Awards. In 1993, he got Golden Goblet (Shanghai International Film Festival) for his extremely melodramatic story Sopyonje.
Sopyonje is a movie created by Im Kwon-taek in 1993. This movie is one of those that attract international attention to the Korean movie industry. It is a story about one pansori storyteller, Youbong, who never gives up and is not eager to change the world that is around him. Pansori is an old Korean art, folk music. In America, it may be slightly compared with blues. Unfortunately, this art has lost its recognition in the XX century.
In spite of the fact that lots of people advise an old storyteller to give up pansori and find a real job, he cannot leave this occupation and forget about his passion. He is extremely eager to provide this beautiful art of pansori all over the world; the world that will never care for pansori or even for Youbong.
One day, during his travel, Youbong meets two children: a girl and a boy. He decides to adopt them. Probably, one of the goals he wants to achieve is to find a person to whom it is possible to pass his knowledge about pansori. However, the methods he chooses are not really aesthetics. Youbong wants to blind his daughter, Songhwa. He thinks it is the only way to teach her pansori and to “teach about grief” (Sopyonje) .
Such way of studying presented by Im Kwon-taek causes lots of misunderstandings and critiques. Several feminist critics have blamed Im for neglecting humanist themes.
Chungmoo Choi argues that “Yu-bong’s violent act against Song-hwa is irreparable since concealed beneath the façade of national(ist) aesthetics is Yu-bong’s sexual desire.” (Kim, 63)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Without any doubts, Sopyonje is one of the greatest masterpieces of Korean film industry. However, the idea of male violence against women is present and causes lots of misunderstandings. It is not aesthetically beautiful to blind a person in order to teach something. If a girl is a talented person, a wise teacher can find some other ways to share his knowledge. This is why I cannot but agree with the ideas offered by Chungmoo Choi.
Youbong obsession to train just a perfect pansori storyteller makes him blind as well.
The story happens around 1960-1970s. These were the times when Korea became free from Japanese colonization. Modernization was one of the peculiar features of those times. It is not surprising that the art of pansori was slowly pushed into the shadows.
Usually, people have nothing to do but accept all changes and try to be up to dates. Youbong is one of those conservatives who are willing to save old traditions at any price. Unfortunately, not all methods can be appropriate. In this case, the idea to make a girl blind was really extreme. To my mind, his behaviour is a good example of human weakness.
Some people may understand Youbong and even justify his actions. He is in despair. His son, Dongho, runs away after he gets to know that it is obligatory to be blinded to grasp the essence of pansori. His daughter has no desire to sing and devote all her life to the art of pansori any more. All cherished dreams of Youbong may be failed. The art of pansori may die with him and be forgotten. He has nothing to do but feed his daughter a drug and make her blind forever.
However, is it correct that a man can decide either make or break someone’s life? Even if it is his daughter, no one can play God. On my opinion, a good father and a real expert on pansori should never allow one’s emotions control the situation.
There are so many ways to find other approaches and teach. Songhwa is really eager to learn more about pansori art. She cherishes a dream to become a pansori master. But she does not know how much such teaching will cost for her. Can it be that passion to pansori has already made its admires blind?
We will write a custom Essay on What Can Make People Blind? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sopyonje is a real treasure in modern Korean cinema. Im’s movies are always captivating to watch. Delight music, calm atmosphere, slowness, and beauty – all the techniques that make the film Sopyonje interesting to lots of viewers. Without watching the film and listening to the music presented there, it is difficult to understand all pansori’s beauty.
Sorry to say, but the unjustified action of Youbong, his obsession, and the choice of wrong way make lots of viewers blind as well. So, for me, it is impossible to find excuses of his actions.
Works Cited Sopyonje. Dir. Im Know-taek. Perf.Myung-gon Kim, Jung-hae Oh, and Kyu-chul Kim. Taehung Pictures. 1993
Kim K.H. “The Remasculinization of Korean Cinema.”, Duke University Press, 2004
Their Eyes Were Watching God Literary Analysis Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents General Analysis
Mule as a Main Symbol in the Story
Their Eyes Were Watching God is a novel written by Zora Neale Hurston in 1937. It is a story about an African American woman, Janie Crawford, her lifelong search for love and self-assertion.
In 1937, the times of the Great Depression, the novel did not get recognition as it gets today. Black people criticized the ideas presented in the story a lot. They said that Hurston had not underlined the real treatment of whites to South blacks. They argued that demoralization had not been described as it was in real. Only in the 1970s, the book was rediscovered and began studied by students. The essay on Their Eyes Were Watching God shall analyze Hurston’s story about African American women in 1930s.
One of the peculiar features of the work is the form chosen by the author. Hurston begins and ends the story with one and the same setting and people. The main character, Janie, tells the story of her life to one of her friends, Pheoby Watson.
Her story is a kind of trip to Janie’s past life via a huge flashback.
General Analysis To describe Janie’s story of life, the author uses a high number of metaphors and symbolism. First of all, it is necessary to clear up what a metaphor actually means.
“In cognitive linguistic view, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain of another conceptual domain.” (Kövecses 4)
In the novel, there are three brightest examples of metaphors: a pear tree, the image of the horizon, and mules. Two first examples are about Janie’s dreams and hopes. Janie climbs the pear tree to see the horizon. She wants to know what else is around her. She has a dream to make a trip and discover what is so special beyond the horizon.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third example of metaphor, a mule, is an image of African American’s status during the Great Depression. Hurston tries to underline the plight of African American workers by comparing them with the mules.
Mule as a Main Symbol in the Story The literary analysis essay on Their Eyes Were Watching God evidences consistent usage of symbolism in the novel.The image of mules represents Janie’s life, her searching, and her social status. Actually, mules represent Janie’s position in several ways.
With each stage of her life, Janie realizes more and more that her life is almost like the life of an ordinary mule. When Janie is a child, her grandmother, Nanny, usually compares black women and mules. She says: “De nigger woman is de mule uh de world so fur as Ah can see” (Hurston 14). Nanny tries to explain to her granddaughter how helpless the status of African American women in society is.
Nanny does not see another way for a good and free life for her Janie but a marriage. It is not that important to marry for love and happiness. Granny tells that love and joy may come with time. A family is the very place where true love will appear. This is why Nanny finds a good option for her daughter.
Inexperienced Janie has nothing to do but obey her granny, and she agrees to get married to Logan Killicks, an old farmer who needs a wife to keep the house and helps on the farm. She truly believes that in this marriage, she will find true love and become happy. Unfortunately, it was only her dreams.
Just like a mule, Janie is forced to work in the field with her husband. Janie continues to believe that, working together, she will be able to become closer to her husband. However, being closer was not the objective of her husband. The primary purpose that Logan wants to achieve is his financial prosperity, nothing more. Janie cannot stand such an attitude anymore. The only way she sees is to leave her husband and start a new life. She desperately thinks that her new lover, Jody Starks, will help her.
They come to a new town, where Jody becomes a major. However, the situation does not change considerably. Now, Janie’s role is to be a trophy wife.
We will write a custom Essay on Their Eyes Were Watching God Literary Analysis Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A situation with Matt Bonner’s mule can serve as one more example to find more connection between the life of the mule and Janie’s life.
As is clear from the summary, Jody Starks tempted Janie with his money and burning ambitions. He made her fall in love with him and took away from the husband. The same thing happens with Bonner’s mule. He buys the mule and takes it away from Bonner just to make it his property. This mule becomes one of the major themes for discussions. It is a centerpiece of the town, as well as Janie (because she is a major’s wife).
“The association between the mule’s liberation and its release from the debt of slavery comments in interesting ways on Janie’s own life history.” (Joseph 146).
Janie feels sorry for that poor mule. Maybe, it happens because she compares herself with it. She also suffers from abuse and sneers from other people. She cannot get into a way of being a major’s wife, listening, and obeying each word of her husband. Even though she has a better job (now, she should not work in the field but in the office), she does not feel satisfied. Such a “golden cage” is not for her.
It is also essential to underline one more situation that happens with Bonner’s mule and Janie. When the mule died, Jody does not allow Janie to go to the funeral. What are the reasons for such a decision? It is so evident that the mule symbolizes Janie’s life. In this case, why does Jody allow the mule to die and be eaten by the birds? Does he want the same destiny for his wife? Or, can it be that Jody wants to prove that even after the death, he can control the situation?
However, in any case, the mule’s death is a symbol of Janie’s freeing, at least, her soul. This death changes Janie in some way. Now, she is more or less ready to leave Jody and continue her search for freedom and happiness.
There is one more thing that needs to be considered – the color of Matt Bonner’s mule. It was yellow. Yellow is referred to light-skinned African Americans, just like Janie Crawford is. Is it a coincidence or one more technique used by the author? Maybe, it is one more attempt to underline an unbelievable resemblance to the status of an African American woman and a working mule.
Of course, the way Hurston chooses to describe the status of working black women was a bit offensive. To represent the terrible attitude of whites to black workers, the writer picks out mules. These animals have to obey their masters. They have nothing to do but work all the time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Their Eyes Were Watching God Literary Analysis Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Their Eyes Were Watching God resolution,the main character of the novel, Janie Crawford, should follow the same way. She wants to find true love and become free as it is in human nature. Unfortunately, her path is not that easy. Too many obstacles are in her way.
“Hurston’s heroine, Janie, progresses through a series of destructive relationships with men before finally choosing solitude and reflection as the resolution to her quest.” (Nash 74)
At the end of the story, Janie kills her true love. She has to do it to save her own life. Such a decision is the brightest evidence of her strengths and her only desire to survive and be free.
Novel Criticism Zora Hurston created the novel during the times of the Great Depression. These were the times when African American female writers were rather rare. Because of serious critiques and discontents of either whites or blacks, lots of her works were overlooked and even not published.
In the 1970s, Alice Walker reintroduced Hurston’s works. She wrote: “Her best novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), is regarded as one of the most poetic works of fiction by a black writer in the first half of the twentieth century, and one of the most revealing treatments in modern literature of a woman’s quest for a satisfying life.” (Walker A. 6)
Conclusion Zora Hurston described Janie as a strong and courageous woman who never stopped her searching for independence and happiness. It was an unusual theme for those times. The essay on Their Eyes Were Watching God showed that the vast majority of African American women could not demonstrate their characters and represent their own ideas at the time. It was a risky step, and the writer was not afraid to take it. Her attempt may be justified as the book is great, and all the techniques are appropriately used.
Work Cited Joseph, Philip. American Literary Regionalism in a Global Age. United States: LSU Press, 2007.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. United States: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Hemenway, Robert. E. and Walker A. Zora Hurston: A Literary Biography. United States: University of Illinois Press, 1980.
Kövecses, Zoltán. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. United States: Oxford University Press US, 2002.
Nash, William R. Charles Johnson’s Fiction. United States: University of Illinois Press, 2003.
Literary devices in Oryx and Crake [Analysis Essay] writing essay help: writing essay help
Oryx and Crake is a science fiction novel created by the Canadian writer Margaret Atwood in 2003. In this work, Atwood describes a future world when genetic engineering gets out of control, and the human race dies because of the plague. The story created by Atwood is a kind of puzzle where the reader should find the only right way and understand what is happening in the story. Literary devices in Oryx and Crake shall be analyzed in this paper. To reproduce the horror that grips the main character and the results of the experiment conducted by Crake, the author uses a high number of imageries.
They are metaphors, similes, personification, etc. Imagery is the primary technique used by the author in Oryx and Crake to help the reader get a clear understanding of how the human obsession with scientific achievements allows one person to destroy all humankind in a short period.
Atwood is a real master of uniting different meanings. She can quickly wrap several powerful ideas and themes in prose without telling them but showing using a wide range of imagery that is left in the mind of the reader long after reading the novel.
The novel starts with a description of perhaps the last human being in the Earth, who survived after the plague. As no one knows his name, the protagonist calls himself Snowman.
“Snowman wakes before dawn. He lies unmoving, listening to the tide coming in wave after wave sloshing over the various barricades, wish-wash, the rhythm of heartbeat. He would so like to believe he is still asleep.” (Atwood 1)
Oryx and Crake essay evidences that Employing flashbacks, Snowman remembers what has happened earlier and brought to the world fell apart. In his past life, he was Jimmy. He had a best friend, Glenn, a smart student who wanted to change the world for better. With time, Glenn changes his name into Crake.
The world, Jimmy and Glenn live in, is not perfect and has its pros and cons. People live and work in communities called Compounds. These communities provide safety for society. However, life in such Compounds is predictable and controlled by a specific security system (CorpsSeCorps). Jimmy’s father finds such a community to be the best option to live in:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Long ago, in the days of knights and dragons, the kings and dukes had lived in castles, with high walls and drawbridges and slots on the ramparts so you could pour hot pitch on your enemies, said Jimmy’s father, and the Compounds were the same idea. Castles were for keeping you and your buddies nice and safe inside, and for keeping everybody else outside.” (Atwood 26).
Jimmy’s father refers to this very community – safe and sound. He proves his son that they are those dukes and kings that live perfect lives without any troubles. Unfortunately, these Compounds are not idle, as it may seem at a glance. The father forgets about his son’s birthday all the time and does not involve in his son’s life. Atwood uses this type of metaphor, calling the society “Compounds” to emphasize the herd instinct inherent to that “idle world,” the inability to make choices, and follow their own desires.
According to Oryx and Crake character analysis, Oryx and Crake are the two quite mysterious characters. Oryx is a serenely and calm person. She realizes that it is impossible to change the situation, and it will be better to accept everything as it is. Even though she was a sex-slave sold by her parents, she tries to pay attention only to the positive aspects of her life. She gets the role to be the mother of our future, the mother of Crakers.
In contrast to Oryx’s naivety, Crake seems to be rather an ambitious person who pursues the same goal – to change the world for the better, taking into consideration his preferences. The actions taken by Crake seem perfect to him. He notices every wrong detail in the existent society and thinks over the ways to change it.
Playing violent video games and watching intense programs make Crake disrespect his own life and the society he lives in. This character may be considered as an example of a negative personification of progress.
He wants to achieve his aim and reform a perfect society that will be in harmony with nature and each other so that he creates his first creatures, the Crakers. At the same time, Crake’s inventions cause a pandemic that kills all humans on the Earth. Only Jimmy remains alive because of being vaccinated to become a supervisor for the Crakers:
“Although the Crakers weren’t his business they were now his responsibility Who else did they have?” (Atwood 348)
We will write a custom Essay on Literary devices in Oryx and Crake [Analysis Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The imagery of Crakers is used to describe some novelty that humankind has never met before. It is not accidental that the word “Crakers” is the analogy of the two words “create” and “crackle” – create something unusual, wild, and even dangerous for humans, something that with time can be crashed down.
There is one more example of this literary technique in the novel that needs to be analyzed – the imagery of cats. It is known that cats are the only domestic animals, which retain their natural behavior in any situation and always follow their instincts, even more than dogs. This is why cats are nuisance animals in the perfect world created by Crake, the worlds of Crakers:
“They were supposed to eliminate feral cats, thus improving the almost non existent songbird population. The bobkittens wouldn’t bother much about birds…” (Atwood 348)
The main character, Snowman, has something in common with cats. He cannot but accept all the changes in the world, however, he tries not to forget about personal preferences and desires. He does not want to be a victim of circumstances as Crake and Oryx are. The only possible way out that Snowman sees is death. However, Atwood does not reveal what happens to Snowman. This is what the reader may think about and evolve their ideas.
Oryx and Crake literary analysis shows that the use of imagery in the novel Oryx and Crake is mighty indeed. The images of the main characters and society they live in help Atwood create an atmosphere of the future, the future that was created through scientific achievements and human obsession. Margaret Atwood introduces a brilliant idea that all humankind may be easily destroyed by its lust and arrogance.
This story is not about hope and happiness. This is a story about the obsession of living in a perfect world and the power to change other lives. Literary devices in Oryx and Crake such as imagery techniques that are chosen by the writer help the reader to comprehend the horror of personal desires and powers to make these desires come true.
Works Cited Atwood, Margaret. Oryx and Crake. New York: Nan A. Talese, 2003.
Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text Critical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
In Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text, its author, Burton L. Visotzky, presents to the reader a wonderful and exciting world of the midrash, one of the methods of interpreting the Hebrew Bible. Rabbis were the people who developed midrash in the land of Israel.
Visotzky finds the Bible like an entity with numerous insights available to any reader who wants to understand the essence of the text. In this book, he focuses on different issues such as good and evil in a person, parent-child relations, sibling envy, life and death, faith, etc. In the chapters 8 (Dying) and 9 (Siblings), Visotzky discusses the issues of death, faith, essence of life, relations between relatives, and envy.
In order to deepen the understanding of the text presented in Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text and in the Bible itself, it is necessary to clear up the differences between the Bible and midrash, using the ideas of Visotzky; to realize how exactly midrash may keep the text alive forever; and to discuss how Rabbis apply and elaborate the biblical story to their lives and the lives of their relatives using midrash and peshat in particular.
To start the analysis of the book and the Bible, it is important to have a clear understanding of what midrash is and how it differs from the Bible. “Midrash is often compared to new literary analyses of the Bible because the rabbinic and the contemporary approaches to the Bible are said to bear some similarities, such as close attention to textual detail, and openness for multiple interpretations.” (Teugels 140)
One of the peculiar features of midrash is that every word and even every comma in Torah has a reason. People truly believe that the Bible is written by God, so, such a text cannot have any punctuation or grammar shortages. The Midrash is created by people, the Rabbis, so, someone may think that it is not that perfect as the Bible. The relation between the Bible and the Midrash may be compared with the relation between the present and the past.
The text presented in the Midrash is a kind of interpretation of the text presented in the Bible from one concrete perspective presented by the Rabbis. This is what Visotzky tries to reproduce in his Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text. The Bible is the source text, and the Midrash is a kind of the target one interpreted by Jewish people.
It is not the question of race and inequality, it is just one more attempt to present the biblical text from another perspective, a kind of renewal of the information taking into consideration cultural aspects, traditions, and time. So, the main difference between the Bible and midrash is that the later is a type of interpretation of the former that concentrates on small details, and this is what makes midrash unique and significant.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is one more peculiar feature of midrash, it is its ability to keep the text alive. In Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text, Visotzky underlines that the text, the Torah, stays alive because of easy thematization prevention. In the Midrash, some alternative readings and interesting questions are offered. Midrash is not only a simple story to read, comprehend, and remember.
The Bible is a holy text with its rules, and midrash helps to interpret it and opens the God’s voice to the reader. Midrash lifts all the voices out of the text and makes them somehow audible. Readers do not involve into simple reading only, they are also the participants of the conversation, conversation with God, other people, and oneself. Almost at the beginning of Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text, Visotzky writes: “Every act of reading is a journey for which we carry baggage.” (Visotzky 5)
So, with the help of midrash, readers get an opportunity to analyze their own sense of life, improve it, and even help the others make the necessary changes. For someone, the Bible is simple words, for someone, these words have unbelievable meaning that rules the life. Almost the same happens to the readers of the Midrash. People take all the information in midrash seriously and pay attention to each word and even comma, if they need and believe in all this.
From the biblical perspective, the author touches upon such issue as sibling rivalry (in the chapter 9). It is not only about the envy between males and females (for example, in the Bible, the youngest brothers have been always in some kind of favor). However, the envy only between brothers or only between sisters is present indeed. This is what Visotzky describes in Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text.
One of the possible ways to understand clearly the reasons of such a rivalry between the relatives, especially between brothers and sisters, and the literary meaning of the text itself is the method of peshat. The author wonders: “Why should one prefer the midrash to the simple reading of the scriptural text, the peshat? (Visotzky 159).
Peshat is one of the methods that Jewish people use to comprehend the Hebrew bible. The literal meaning of this method underlines the simplicity. In other words, peshat is a kind of exegesis that presents the meaning of the text with the help of simple and comprehensible expressions for any reader. The purpose of peshat is to retain a clear literal understanding of the Bible narrative.
In the chapters 8 and 9 of Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text, the method that we call “peshat” or “pshat” helps to understand that the personalities presented in the Bible relate to ordinary people with their personal experience, their own dreams, and principles. The biblical narratives are captivating and unique indeed. They have such a quality to pull the reader and burn a desire to read more and more.
We will write a custom Essay on Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, with the help of the Rabbis interpretation of the biblical text, people get one more opportunity to comprehend the information presented in the Bible that gathered during such a long period of time. The New Testament and the Old Testament are not always comprehensible to every reader.
If people take into consideration the variety of traditions, cultures, and time barrier, it will not be that easy to create one source that will be appropriate for any generation and any culture. The Midrash provides the readers with an opportunity to look at the familiar text in another light.
The professor of interreligious studies and midrash in particular, Burton L. Visotzky in his Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text explains to the readers the grounds of the Bible from the Rabbis perspective. Such explanation helps to analyze the information in a different way. This book turns out to be interesting and understandable to people of any race, belief, and people with any religious background.
The interpretation offered by the Rabbis deepens our understanding in different ways: the readers realize that it is not that difficult to create and develop their own relationships grounding on the Bible, and present their own midrash. “Although midrash was mostly created by male rabbis, there is nothing to stop the modern writer and reader of the Bible from creating new midrash which re-examines texts that may be unfavorable and unsafe for women and re-fashions, re-interprets, and revises them.” (Graetz 19)
The ideas of jealousy, parenting, rivalry between siblings, responsibility, and faith presented in the book – this is exactly what rouses unbelievable interest in the readers’ mind. It helps to reveal a richness that the readers have not known or noticed before.
A new vision of the already analyzed and discussed problems, new ideas and suggestions – this is what the reader can get from the book Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text by Visotzky.
A clear understanding of the differences between the Bible, and one of its interpretations, midrash, the factors, which prove that midrash keep the holy text alive forever, and the analysis of the Bible with the help of one midrash methods, peshat, help to comprehend deeper not only the sense of the book by Visotzky, but also the essence of the Bible.
Works Cited Graetz Naomi. Unlocking the Garden: A Feminist Jewish Look at the Bible, Midrash and God. Gorgias Press LLC, 2005.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Teugels, Lieve, M. Bible and Midrash: the Story of “The Wooing of Rebekah”. Peeters Publisher, 2004.
Visotzky, Burton, L. Reading the Book: Making the Bible a Timeless Text. Random House, 1996.
A Simple Story by S.Y. Agnon Report (Assessment) college essay help near me
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, known as S. Y. Agnon, was a popular Hebrew fiction writer. He significantly influenced the development of Hebrew literature by means of the frequent usage of literary techniques. One of his known romantic stories is A Simple Story. He shares his viewpoints on the lives of Jewish people, offering insight into their prejudices, traditions, and culture.
A Simple Story centers on the life of an orphan named Blume Nacht. Blume has gone to live and work for her cousins after her mother’s death. Agnon uses two excellent literary techniques to describe the characters and their thoughts. He employs both the stream of consciousness technique and internal monologue. These techniques assist in helping the reader to comprehend the atmosphere of the story and enter the characters’ minds.
The story starts with Blume’s mother death. After her mother’s death, Blume needs to go to her cousins, the Hurvitzes, to find support and understanding. However, the only support that she encounters there is housekeeping. “So, Blume lived with her cousins, cut off from the rest of the world.
The girls from poor families who worked for the Hurvitzes did not seek her company.” (Agnon 8) With time, Hirshl, the son of Mrs. Hurvitz, falls in love with Blume. However, his mother does not approve of his choice of a poor girl. She thinks her son can do much better. As a result, she finds a wife for him named Mina Ziemlich. He is forced to obey his mother’s wishes.
The ideas of love, loneliness, desire, and madness become the central themes in this story. To perfectly represent these themes, the author concentrates on such techniques as internal monologues and streams of consciousness. The internal monologue is a literary technique that aims at presenting the character’s inner life, his/her emotions, and feelings.
This technique is used most often to describe Hirshl’s thoughts. Through his monologues, the writer illuminates his feelings: misunderstandings with his relatives, love to Blume, and marriage with Mina. As a result, the toll this takes on Hirshl makes him go crazy.
“Once again Hirshl had trouble sleeping. After not missing a single night of sleep since his arrival in the sanatorium, he suddenly could not catch a wink of it. And as bad as his insomnia had been in the first place, its reappearance following a long absence drove him to the verge of despair.” (Agnon 192)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another literary technique used by the author is the stream of consciousness. This aims to describe the character’s life by means of sentence fragments and flashbacks. This technique familiarizes the reader with each character. With the help of such technique, the reader gets the opportunity to relate the characters and comprehend them and their behavior better.
For example, Mrs. Hurvitz was pleasantly surprised that “Blume had indeed been taught all the things that a woman ought to know.” (Agnon 7) However, she did not want to pay Blume for housework underlining the fact that “She is one of us, isn’t she?” (Agnon 7) and, it was unacceptable that a girl like Blume would be a wife for her son. In this case, the use of the technique helps to clear up the true intentions of Mrs. Hurvitz and underlines her selfish nature.
The effect that Agnon has on the literary techniques is considerable. Such combination of literature techniques was a new one for those times, and this approach makes the reader get involved into the story, analyze situations from different perspectives, and enter characters’ mind and feelings.
American History: The Problem of Education in American Culture Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Education plays an important role in the life of every person. Usually, students’ life may be considerably changed after students enter a college. Students have to choose their professions, think about future life goals, define moral principles, and get experience. Unfortunately, nowadays, students face numerous problems in education: race and sex inequality, school vouchers, private or public education, requirements for distant education, and lack of teachers.
Each of these issues influences considerably the choice of future education and profession. Students, whose families have low income, usually lag behind, and students, who come from other countries, face language and communication barriers. To solve the problem of education in America, it is necessary to analyze and improve education policies, extirpate the problem of racism, create programs to help students who cannot choose institutions according to their own interests, and find more motivation for teachers.
One of the current problems of education in American culture is students’ unwillingness to study. Kids do not want to go to schools/colleges just because of lack motivation and unawareness of education importance. Nowadays, young people have lots of alternatives to education: free-lance jobs, family business, or marriages for money.
They just do not want to realize the importance of education and chances they can get. It is necessary to clear up who and how can influence children’s choice, first of all, and then, think over possible ways to inspire children.
It is possible to create certain programs, which will introduce the basics of education and underline how the life of every student may be changed after entering an institution. Parents may be provided with the necessary tools in order to prepare their children for entering a school/college. “Students unmotivated to learn are not apt to be as systematic in their learning efforts. The may be inattentive during the lesson and not organized or rehearse material.” (Schunk, Pintrich, and Meece 6)
Another issue that deserves attention is the problem of racism in education. It is still unknown why so many discussions concerning race inequality take place in institutions, and no concrete solutions can be presented. The fact whether you are black or white plays a crucial role in the process of choosing school or college.
It is high time to solve this problem and analyze what causes the conflicts between students of different races. For example, “In Midshire University widening participation strategy in colour and culture blind. Initiatives have been mounted to build compact with schools and further education colleges in order to facilitate access.” (Law, Phillips, and Turney 23)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Is it so important to consider the color of your skin when getting education? Why is it so difficult for lots of people to close eyes as for race and nationality? Such questions are needed to be answered with the help of numerous questionnaires and surveys. These investigations should involve either students or teachers, or parents. Maybe, analyzing this question from different perspectives will help to improve educational policies.
For lots of students, the choice of school/college creates numerous difficulties. Nowadays, education is not cheap, and not every family may allow their child/children enter any institution they want. Some families have low income that makes entering a college a bit problematic. As a result, talented students are deprived of the opportunity to get the necessary education and become real professionals in a certain field. This is why the idea of school vouchers takes an important place.
With the help of school vouchers, families can pick out any school/college for their children according to their own preferences. In the United States, school vouchers’ support is a bit mixed. Not every state supports educational vouchers and presents quite persuasive ideas (financial difficulties, unlimited number of students, etc).
Certain subsidy limitations have been adopted, so, most likely, students can get school vouchers if they win some contests or present interesting projects to demonstrate and prove their abilities and skills. Also, it is necessary to admit that the implementation of school vouchers is one more way to motivate students for studying. School voucher programs should be color blind, so that every student has an opportunity to get education in any institution he/she wants.
However, not only students are needed to be motivated. Today, lack of teachers creates one more problem in education in the United States. Nowadays, lots of unskilled teachers are hired in order to provide students with good education. Is it possible that a teacher with lack of experience can study a child in a good way? Hardly! This is why government also needs to think about the conditions, which will be appropriate for both students and teachers, and which will stimulate them.
Only a few people agree to work for low salary. Salaries of teachers is changed from $25 000 to $84 000. (Nelson and Drown) Living wages are too high, and people usually change their jobs in order to find something profitable. To my mind, it is high time to remember people that children are our future.
Without necessary education, children will not get opportunities to live normal life and earn money, and our future will be under a threat. This is why all people who can teach should remember their predestination and start teaching. In its turn, government should find necessary financial support to provide teachers with good salaries in order these teachers could study children.
We will write a custom Essay on American History: The Problem of Education in American Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the fact that education plays a significant role in the life of every person, students face numerous problems as for choosing an institution and career. Not every family may allow their children get the desirable education, and some students face racial and sex problems during their education.
In order to improve education conditions in the United States, it is crucially important to solve the problems as for the lack of teachers and remind them of the importance of educating; to diminish the ideas of race inequality; to provide appropriate conditions for education; and to develop school voucher programs in order to motivate students in spite of his/her social status.
Nowadays, students face numerous problems in education: race and sex inequality, school vouchers, private or public education, requirements for distant education, and lack of teachers
To solve the problem of education in America, it is necessary to analyze and improve education policies, extirpate the problem of racism, create programs to help students who cannot choose institutions according to their own interests, and find more motivation for teachers.
One of the current problems of education in American culture is students’ unwillingness to study.
Thesis: It is possible to create certain programs, which will introduce the basics of education and underline how the life of every student may be changed after entering an institution.
It is still unknown why so many discussions concerning race inequality take place in institutions, and no concrete solutions can be presented.
Thesis: It is high time to solve this problem and analyze what causes the conflicts between students of different races.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American History: The Problem of Education in American Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Supporting paragraph
Today, lack of teachers creates one more problem in education in the United States.
Thesis: It is high time to remember people that children are our future. Without necessary education, children will not get opportunities to live normal life and earn money, and our future will be under a threat.
Conclusion In order to improve education conditions in the United States, it is crucially important to solve the problems as for the lack of teachers and remind them of the importance of educating; to diminish the ideas of race inequality; to provide appropriate conditions for education; and to develop school voucher programs in order to motivate students in spite of his/her social status.
Works Cited Law, Ian, Phillips, Deborah, Turney, Laura. Institutional Racism in Higher Education. Trentham Books, 2004. Print.
Nelson, Howard, F., Drown, Rachel. Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2002. Washington: American Federal Teachers, 2003.
Schunk, Dale, H., Pintrich, Paul, R., Meece, Judith, L. Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
The Horror of the Holocaust in Different Styles of Writing Expository Essay cheap essay help
“They came there in the morning –
Trains coming from all sorts of places in Germany –
Until the Jews numbered thousands.
Here they were searched
And if anybody had more than ten marks
The rest was taken away…”
Charles Reznikoff, pp.3
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Almost every person in the world knows something about the Holocaust. It was a period during World War II, because of which more than six million of Jews died.
Adolf Hitler did not know any mercy to Jewish people: he ordered to create numerous camps and put to death all Jews. “For Hitler, Jews represented evil incarnate. Wherever Jews settles, he wrote, they strove for mastery over the host population.” (Fischel 4) Many writers try to represent the horror of those times. Some of them use interesting details to help the reader plunge into the history.
Some writers describe the events in general and underline how unfair all those actions of Hitler’s were. The idea of the Holocaust and the horror people lived during World War II ties closely three works of different writers: A Dead Child Speaks by Nelly Sachs, Babii Yar by Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and After Auschwitz by Anne Sexton.
These three writers, Nelly Sachs, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Anne Sexton are the representatives of three different countries, which were involved into the process of the Holocaust somehow. Sachs is a representative of German literature, Sexton is an American writer, and Yevtushenko is a writer from Russia. Their works are three different positions, three different opinions on one and the same event.
Nelly Sachs in her A Dead Child Speaks tries to individualize millions who died during the Holocaust. Instead of analyzing the mystery and reasons of why the Nazis used such terrible methods to lead other people, she concentrates on certain universal themes and metaphors. “Someone raised the knife of parting” (Sachs)
It is not an ordinary knife, which each woman has in the kitchen. It is a symbol of something that separate people forever. The Nazis did not pay attention whether they kill children, young women, or old men. People had no distinctions in age or sex. The only point that played an important role was a race. If a person is a Jew, he/she did not have the right to live.
At the end of the poem, the author repeats once again the presence of parting knife. “As I was led to death/ I still felt in the last moment/ The unsheathing of the great knife of parting” (Sachs) Such literature device as repetition helps the reader concentrate on one concrete detail. The word-combination “knife of parting” appears at the beginning and at the end to underline the hopeless that something may change.
We will write a custom Essay on The Horror of the Holocaust in Different Styles of Writing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After Auschwitz by the American writer, Anne Sexton, presents another picture of the events during the Holocaust. In this work, the author describes her own experience, her feelings about the brutality of camps, which found and killed all Jewish people. “Each day/ each Nazi/ took, at 8:00 A.M., a baby/ and sautéed him for breakfast/ in his frying pan” (Sexton) The last two lines is a kind of metaphor, which underlines how crass all humankind is.
In this poem, the writer tells about her hate for all males, the Nazi leaders. The major point of this poem is its last line. Many sources do not present this line. However, it exists and underlines the very sense of the story. “I say those things aloud/ I beg the Lord not to hear” (Sexton)
However, “on the other side of the ocean, the American writer, unless he actually participated in the military liberation of the concentration camps, had no direct contact with the life and death struggles of the victim of Nazism.” (Ezrahi 176) This is why the work by Yevgeny Yevtushenko Babii Yar represents more clearly those events and presents the real terror that happened during the times of the war.
“No monument stands over Babii Yar/A drop sheer as a crude gravestone/I am afraid.” (Yevtushenko) From the very first lines, the author tries to present how terrible the situation is; and he, as a viewer cannot hide his fear. Babii Yar is a ravine not far from Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, where the Nazi killed more than 70,000 Jews in several days. Many Jews got the order to dig the ravine and place all sick and killed people there, and then the Nazi killed the rest, who were alive.
One of the thematic thread that unites these three works of the writers from different countries is their attempt to reproduce how cruel and unfair the actions of the Nazi were. Nelly Sachs, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Anne Sexton do not mention the term Holocaust in their works. The Holocaust, the judgment of the Holocaust and its consequences is an enthymeme that is inherent to these works.
It is so terrible, when people do not have the right to make the decisions or just the right to live. The times of war always remind people of such unfairness and cruelty. The writers’ major purpose is to describe all war events and present them using numerous literature techniques, which help to concentrate readers’ attention on the necessary details.
Works Cited Ezrahi, Sidra, D. By Words Alone: The Holocaust in Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Fischel, Jack. The Holocaust. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Horror of the Holocaust in Different Styles of Writing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reznikoff, Charles. Holocaust. David R. Godine Publisher, 2007.
Schilb, John and Clifford John. Making Literature Matter: An Anthology for Readers and Writers. Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
Maldoror and the Completed Works of the Comte de Lautréamont Response Essay college admissions essay help
Isidore Lucien Ducasse was one of the most mysterious poets in French literature. During his literature career, he used a pen name Comte de Lautréamont and created only two works – Les Chants de Maldoror (in English, it is known as The Songs of Maldoror or just Maldoror) and Poesies. These works influenced considerably modern literature and are considered to be one of the first really surrealistic books.
The Songs of Maldoror is one of the most exciting and horrifically wonderful books in French literature, and, probably, in the whole world. Maldoror is a bright surreal image of a great philosopher and murder simultaneously. The influence of the Lautréamont’s work is really great; his idea of terrible and misunderstood human being, Maldoror, turned out to be a real shock during the times of its creation, and has even the greater power nowadays.
Maldoror is the major character of this novel and its narrator. He addresses to the reader, to his victims, and to everyone who could accidently read this story. This character is a pitiless murder, a sadist, who tries to hide behind the mask of a great philosopher. He is an outcast, who does not want to follow the general rules set by the society. However, all these characteristics do not make his a really negative hero.
He is a fighter; he has his strong point of views and is ready to prove them any time. He knows a lot about ethics and philosophy, and he also truly believes that this society is guilty because it cannot accept Maldoror as he is. “Mother, I can hardly breathe: my head aches…/See, he slumps against the back of chair, exhausted…/I hear in the distance prolonged screams of the most poignant anguish/My son!/Mother, I’m scared!” (Lautréamont and Lykiard 45)
At the beginning of the story, Maldoror even asks to forgive his intentions and ideas. He knows that what he is saying is weird, but he cannot do something to stop all this. He offers the reader to kidnap a child in order to torture him/her, enjoy the taste of his/her blood and tears.
The first lines present a new character to the reader, he is really powerful with his own ambitions and intentions. He may easily present lots of evidences and proof that his ideas are correct. He says that blood is tasteless and this is what makes it so attractive. Maldoror has a burning desire to taste everything that not every person may allow and encourage the other to follow his example.
One more idea, that deserves attention in this work, is Maldoror’s impiety. God is the creator of all beings in the world. He is the only one who has the right to create everything according to his own taste and desire. Maldoror cannot agree with such a decision to deprive him of being a normal part of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His ugliness and dissimilitude with the other humans makes him feel angry with God and despise own Creator. Such anti-theism of the main character contradicts all the religious aspects of those times and makes Maldoror unique and interesting to the reader. He blames God for all his sufferings and poor understanding from the society’s side.
The character, created by Lautréamont, is rather original for the literature works at the end of the 19th century. Any other writer has never created such personalities before and never used such strong evidences to prove his correctness of such inhuman ideas and actions. “His hero (or anti-hero) Maldoror is one of the greatest rebels of literature. Satanic, sadistic and Promethean, he plunges his whole being resolutely into evil and monstrosity, breaking taboos in search of transcendence.” (Rees 266)
Another aspect that fascinated me a lot is the author’s imagery of animals. Ducasse compares humans with numerous animals, both exotic and everyday ones. In order to be like an animal, a human being should get rid of personal vanity.
Pretension to culture and a fear to go against the set social norms – this is what binds the person and does not allow him/her to enjoy the life. The choice of animals is really unique. He does not concentrate on such animals as rabbits and polecats, which are always afraid of something and cannot prove their positions in this life.
People cannot be compared to such small and cowardly creatures. Maldoror chooses such animals as sharks, eagles, wolves, turkeys, and tigers to underline their power and rights. These animals are described from a pure biological point of view, as this very standpoint cannot be disproved. Maldoror prefers to be a son of tiger or a shark. To my mind, in such case, he could easily explain his hunger and cruelty, which are so inherent to those both animals.
After I read Maldoror and the Complete Works of the Comte de Lautréamont, translated by Alexis Lykiard, I was pleasantly amazed by its violent content. The author did not afraid to use terrific words, describing the actions of Maldoror, and, even more, to encourage other people to do the same things.
I really enjoy the structure of the novel – it was like a conversation of the main character, Maldoror with me. When he asks whether we ever taste the blood after we accidently cut a finger a bit, I unwittingly nod my head. Telling the truth, I have never thought that my blood is tasteless.
We will write a custom Essay on Maldoror and the Completed Works of the Comte de Lautréamont specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Of course, it does not mean that I start searching for a knife or something to cut my finger once again and check it. However, I start thinking whether its tastelessness makes any blood unique, and, upon the whole, what is so special about blood, and why so many people want to taste it. I suddenly remember the movies about vampires and other butchers, who cannot but admire someone else blood.
The characters of these movies get unbelievable pleasure from other people’s blood, especially when people try to resist and fight for their lives. Is it possible that, inside of every person, a kind of vampire lives and tempts to break all moral norms from time to time and do something not inherent to all humans?
Maldoror and the Complete Works of the Comte de Lautréamont is a kind of time bomb that just has to blow up during these times. Modern culture and the interests of modern people, young people in particular, are quite different. Some readers may enjoy this book and be sure that it reflects a lot of burning issues, which trouble many people.
However, some reader may find this book rather aggressive and inappropriate for everyone. It is possible that the readers of young age may comprehend the essence of the book in a wrong way and follow its examples without thinking about the consequences. This is why it is crucially important to make certain limitations on those, who can read this work, and those, who cannot.
Without any doubts, the work by Comte de Lautréamont is one of the best surrealistic books of all the times. Lots of translations have been already presented to the readers, the work by Alexis Lykiard is one of the best ones. Maldoror and the Complete Works of the Comte de Lautréamont attracts many readers by its simple language and structure. From time to time, Lykiard uses long sentences in order to represent the oddness, which Isidore Ducasse wanted to underline.
This book corresponds to almost all surrealistic features: gothic style, evil main character with its “correct” philosophy, identifiable plot, and a bit epic form. For French literature, such work was not inherent. The author made an attempt to recede Romanism and lyrics, which characterized French literature of the 19th century, and presented a terrific hero, who evoked pity, fear, and misunderstanding simultaneously.
This story cannot leave indifferent any person. Someone will be fascinated; the others may feel a kind of disgust. Not every writer may present such stories in the way, chosen by Ducasse: bold ideas, awesome actions, and animal desires. Such characteristics are not about an ordinary man.
Lots of them are beyond my understanding, however, such uniqueness amazes and fascinates me with every new page read. Our life changes every day, and we cannot be always ready to these changes. However, Isidore Ducasse created this story at the end of the 19th century, and could not even guess that his story would be relevant during all the centuries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Maldoror and the Completed Works of the Comte de Lautréamont by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Lautréamont, Comte. Maldoror and the Complete Works of the Comte de Lautréamont. Trans. Alexis Lykiard. Cambridge: Exact Change, 1994.
Rees, William. The Penguin Book of French Poetry. Penguin Classics, 1992.
Brazil: Imaginative Portrait of a Futuristic Socio-Political Structure Critical Essay essay help: essay help
Brazil is one of the best works created by Terry Gilliam in 1985. This movie is one of those masterpieces, which may be comprehensible not by every viewer, but if a person gets a clear understanding of the plot, the results and impression will be amazing. Brazil is a cooperative work of Gilliam with Charles McKeown and Tom Stoppard.
These people create a cult-favorite movie about the future society tied with one of so-called red tapes and bureaucracy and about a man, who decides to fight against the existed programs and society in order to be free and be able to love. In the movie Brazil, Terry Gilliam tries to present a magnificent imaginative portrait of future society with wrong socio-political structure and the consequences, which wait for any person, who will try to break down this system and be out of it.
In this movie, it is rather easy to trace the peculiar features of Kafka’s, Orwell’s, and Kubrick’s stories. Their ideas about possible future and the society that is under control of a certain group of people captivate lots of readers. People always want to know what is waiting for them in future.
Those writers, who make an attempt to look a bit ahead of time, are usually criticized by lots of people. To my mind, many people prefer to criticize such attempts because of their disabilities to use their imagination and present possible development of the events by themselves.
Brazil displays Gilliam’s really wild and vivid imagination and wittiness. Future socio-political system is perfect and weak at the same time. The life of each inhabitant is under control of one concrete system. When something goes wrong, the government can easily fix the mistake and not bother the rest of the population. One day, the governmental mistake leads to a death of an innocent person.
When certain people, such as Sam Lowry, get to know about this mistake, they cannot believe that such mishap and the innocent death should be forgotten. Such mistakes cause lots of misunderstandings and desire to get out of this terrible system that is not already as perfect as it seemed before. Unfortunately, the ruling system is much more powerful than a single person, and Lowry’s objections do not count. In order to save the existed socio-political structure, it is necessary to liquidate anyone, who can put it in jeopardy.
Cinematic imagery, presented in the movie, cannot leave any viewer indifferent to the methods used against people. Mysterious disappearance of Harry Tuttle, Sam’s presence at funerals, and all his dreams – this is what makes the movie really futuristic and unforgettable.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People have the right to dream, and the society usually tries to deprive them from such an opportunity. Terry Gilliam creates one of the possible options of our future, where bureaucratic government and machines may control every person’s life.
Is it possible to trace the trends, described in Brazil, nowadays? Of course, it is possible. Nowadays, people are so anxious about their rights and freedom, that they can hardly notice how the government tries to control their lives.
In order to be hired and have an opportunity to earn enough money for living, people have to pass numerous tests. In order to leave a country for some time, it is necessary to pass numerous controls and correspond to all the requirements. In fact, there are lots of similar cases, when human destiny is in the hands of a certain system and the government.
In Brazil, Terry Gilliam introduces his own vision of the futuristic socio-political structure, where everything is under control of government. Nowadays, our society is on its way to be under control of a certain system, and it is high time to decide whether we are ready to be under control or we should try to fight and protect our interests and the interests of our generations.
Monster by Walter Dean Myers Essay. Characters’ online essay help
Alongside with his poems, in 1999, Walter Dean Myers presented an excellent drama novel, Monster, about one 16-year-old black kid, Steve Harmon, who was charged with felony murder. One of the most attractive features of this book is its structure and style of writing. Monster by Walter Dean Myers essay shall provide an analysis of the characters of the book and author’s style.The reader is captivated from the very beginning of the story, as it is similar to the beginning of the famous Star Wars.
Steve Harmon is the writer, director, and main character of Monster. Such a decision to present the story from one person’s point of view, divide characters into good and bad ones, appeal to the facts from one diary only, and use not a standard form of narration is unique indeed.
The style chosen by the author of this story takes several pages to get used to.Monster writing style attracts the attention of the reader due to the contrasting mix of such strategies as controlled development of thoughts and stream of consciousness, which create unique tone and mood in the story. However, such a manner of writing influences Meyers’ development of the theme only in a positive way. Why did Walter Dean Myers write monster in the format of a screenplay? It may be assumed that, by doing so, he wanted to show the feelings of the characters and the development of the conflict at the same time.
Monster is interesting to read because it provides the reader with a chance to create his/her own impression about the main character. The writer does not tell you what to think, but let you make decisions and conclusions independently. During the whole story, it is not mentioned whether the main character is good or bad.
It was pointed out that the character is surrounded by bad people, with bad guns, and bad intentions. Kathy O’Brien is Steve’s defense attorney, and she does believe that Steve is guilty and tries to prepare him for the worst. “Both you and this King character are on trial for felony murder. Felony murder is as severe as it gets. Sandra Petrocelli is the prosecutor, and she’s great. They’re pushing for the death penalty, which is really bad” (Myers 12). Family members also support Steve, though the ending of the book shows complicated relationships between them. Thus, in Monster by Walter Dean Myers, characters provoke ambiguous emotions in the reader.
Steve, as the author of this script, realizes that he is too young to be sentenced to death or spend about 20 years of his life in jail. “They’re pushing for the death penalty, which is really bad” (Myers 12). He also understands that this case will be rather challenging to win because of two simple reasons: (1) even his attorney, O’Brien, finds him guilty, and (2) he is a young black man that makes him being concerned with numerous crimes and larcenies.
He tries to prove that he was just in the wrong place and certainly at the wrong time. (Jones 190) He cannot accept such a reality and decides to do everything possible to evade this likely verdict. He decides to escape if necessary, even if it costs him his life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More O’Brien’s decision to turn away from Steve after the verdict was announced makes all the readers think about why she did it. What made her turn away? Was it the right decision? Maybe, she saw something wrong that even made the screenwriter title this story as Monster.
Young adult literature is one of the most significant steps up, which allows comprehending and analyze various themes from different perspectives (Suen 41), Monster is the story about the importance of making choices in life, possible challenges, and consequences. This book is one of the most brilliant messages to young adults.
It underlines a straightforward truth that only a person, himself/herself, is responsible for all choices he/she makes. The consequences of any decision will undoubtedly affect both the life of the person, who makes a choice, and the lives of other people. This is why it is crucially important to realize such significance and make wise and well-weight decisions.
Works Cited Jones, D. Painless Reading Comprehension. Barron’s Educational Series, 2004.
Myers, W. D. Monster. HarperTemest, 2001.
Suen, A. Picture Writing. Writer’s Digest Books, 2003.
Groundhog Day: Ethical Analysis of the Movie Analytical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
“Groundhog Day” is, probably, one of the most interesting and memorable movies, starring Bill Murray and Andie MacDowell. It is a comedy directed by Harold Ramis in 1993. The point is that the plot of the film gets better and better each time the viewer watches it. This is a story about a weatherman, Phil Connors, who is sent to enlighten the events of Groundhog Day each year at the same place and at the same time and gets into a kind of timing loop, where he has to go through the same terrible for him day for many times.
The ideas, introduced in the film, deserve much attention; the story of self-improvement may help lots of people improve their own lives and the lives of the people around; the ethical aspects of “Groundhog Day” have something in common with the ideas developed by John Mill, Onora O’Neil, Rosalind Hursthouse, and even some Hindu philosophers.
“Groundhog Day” is a moral fiction that describes the story of one arrogant character, Phil, his style of life, and his attitude to everybody and everything around. He is sure that he lives a normal life and behaves just perfectly, taking into consideration current situations and moral principles.
He does not care that his work may hurt someone; the only thing he has to do is his job. February 2 comes, and Phil has to go to Pennsylvania in order to cover one of the most famous festivals, Groundhog Day. According to the behavior of a groundhog, people may get to know when spring will come and what weather will be during the following days.
In fact, Phil is sick and tired of his annual routine and demonstrates his indifference to people’s behavior and their reactions. The only thought, he has in mind, is to do his job, get back to the city, and continue his happy life. He cannot even suggest that he has to live the same, Groundhog Day during the following “several” days.
Phil gets an opportunity to do everything he wants and not to think about the consequences. He does not think to do something good and necessary for the society, he achieves the only goal – to get a clear understanding of what is happening, entertain, and take everything possible from this life in one day. However, such repetition of the events pesters him with time, and Phil decides to make something good and do everything possible in order to help other people, and make everyone’s life better than it is.
The variety of moral issues, described in the movie, is really impressive. People may spend their whole lives finding the way in order to make this world better. The idea of utilitarianism is one of the leading ones in the film.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Utilitarianism is based on the idea of happiness and pleasure; pain and numerous sufferings, which are so inherent to this world, may be considered as invaluable, because a true value and essence of life is to prevent suffering and cause happiness. John Stuart Mill (2004) underlines that some people may disagree to the fact that happiness should be considered as the end of life and can be completely dissatisfied with “such a moderate share of it.” (11)
However, in “Groundhog Day”, the main character is able to escape from a timing loop because he can and do help the others to become happier. It does not symbolize the end of life or something. Helping other people is another way to make your own life complete and satisfied. Phil does not comprehend such a simple truth at the beginning; but, with time, he sees that his abilities to help people, who really need this, may be much more pleasant for him.
O’Neil (2005) reflects that Kantians believe that all people’s actions cannot be wrong if they are justified (46). This ethical aspect may be also considered in the actions of Phil Connors. He can always find a good excuse to all his actions and prove his correctness. He does not sped much time with one and the same person in order to analyze what may hurt him/her, he does all his job quickly without taking into account the consequences, which do not disturb him, and he never allows some emotions distract him.
Such style of life may certainly be justified, however, it is possible from only one perspective, the person, who does all this. Unfortunately, lots of people prefer to think about personal profits only. We do not care about the actions, which, on the one hand, are beneficial for us, and, on the other hand, are hurtful for the others. This character proves that any action has its consequences. For example, Phil ignores one old poor man at first.
However, when this day repeats for the third time, he presents some money for that poor guy, and, with time, he gets to know about his death. We cannot fight against death or illness; however, we can easily help to alleviate sufferings. It is another significant point of the story.
The accuracy of human actions is one of the problems, which may also trouble people. Is it possible to know for sure whether our actions are right or not? Hardly! The point is that we may do certain things and hope that they are right; however, time is the only thing that may prove or disprove something.
Rosalind Hursthouse (1999) makes a wonderful attempt to explain what a right action is. She underlines that any action may be called correct if it leads to the best consequences (26). One of the most powerful things about “Groundhog Day” is the way it tells about the experience and its consequences to the life of a doer and the people around.
We will write a custom Essay on Groundhog Day: Ethical Analysis of the Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phil Connors is a symbol of the worst things in people. We do not pay too much attention to our own drawbacks, and truly believe that our life is adequate and worth. Without any doubts, it is quite possible to learn on own mistakes; however, if this live provide anyone with an opportunity to analyze the mistakes of other people, we should take this chance and improve this life without considerable losses. Do people have such a possibility?
Of course, they do, and the movies like “Groundhog Day” are the best helper in this case. We may laugh at Phil’s situation and think that the same will never happen to us. However, laughing is not the only thing we should take from this movie. Its creator, Harold Ramis, and a wonderful play of actors provide people with a fabulous chance to learn, and we cannot but use it.
In the movie, Phil says once: “Well maybe the ‘real’ God uses tricks, you know? Maybe he’s not omnipotent. He’s just been around so long he knows everything.” (Ramis
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism: America and Other Countries Compare and Contrast Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Nowadays, our world consists of so many different societies, with their own preferences, interests, customs, and traditions. Culture of every society is unique indeed; it is a set of own values and goals, which characterize the society as a whole and separate institution.
The representative of each society lives with his/her own ethnocentric attitude, the belief that his/her culture is much more superior than any other. In order not to become self-absorbed, it is necessary to train the sense of cultural relativism in the society and make certain differentiations between the idea of cultural relativism and ethnocentrism.
Ethnocentrism is a tendency, when a person uses the cultural norms of his/her own society in order to judge some other culture and its representatives. In addition, ethnocentrism underlines the superciliousness of one culture among the others.
Cultural relativism is another tendency, according to which personal beliefs and preferences are relative to another culture. Cultural relativism shows that there are not right and wrong standards with the help of which cultures may be compared.
Taking into account such simple and comprehensible definitions, it is possible to say that the ideas of cultural relativism are rather opposite to the ideas of ethnocentrism (Ned-Seelye and Seelye-James, 1995, p 70).
Without any doubts, ethnocentrism affects considerably the international affairs. Lots of people truly believe that America is one of the countries with too high idea of ethnocentrism. Of course, American ethnocentrism is known to many countries: some countries admire America’s power and abilities, however, some other countries cannot still understand what makes this country so powerful and dislike it a bit. “The image of the ugly American prevalent in the 1960s has become increasingly rare.
Although an occasional traveler still behaves as if the world owes him or her tribute as an American.” (Stewart
Beyond Good and Evil by Friedrich Nietzsche Analytical Essay best essay help
Beyond Good and Evil is one of the most famous works by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1886. This work is a kind of analysis that wills certainly to truth. His ideas are “beyond good and evil”; they are much deeper, and this is why they are so attractive and correct to lots of readers.
This work helps to discover not only the truth as it is, but also men’s truth that is crucially important for the society. With the help of a deep analysis of self-perception and religious issues, the reader gets a wonderful opportunity to analyze the truth and its components, to comprehend why truth is so important, and to investigate all spheres of life taking into consideration various perspectives.
Nietzsche was the only person who affirmed that “God is dead”. This statement appears in his several works. Even if Nietzsche did not concentrate on the idea of the dead God in his Beyond Good and Evil, that very thought is still considered to be present between the lines of the book, just expressed in other words.
In order to comprehend whether Nietzsche kept to such an idea of the dead God in all his works, and Beyond Good and Evil in particular, it is better to analyze his original works, written in German, and grasp the major idea of translation and the reproduction of the thoughts, and only than start analyzing them.
Friedrich Nietzsche is a German philosopher and writer, this is why it is necessary to underline that all his works were written in German and translated by other people in many languages in different ways. The point is that translated works may not represent the major idea that the original author had in mind.
For example, in The Gay Science (in German, it sounds as Die fröhliche Wissenschaft),Nietzsche said that “God ist tot!” All writers translated this very idea literary, as “God is dead!” Maybe, it is one of their big mistakes to translate the words with such a serious meaning in a literary way, which can easily confuse the reader.
Such translations make lots philosophers and Nietzsche’s followers in particular to think that Nietzsche was an atheist. However, it was not true. In spite of all facts, Nietzsche believed in God (if this were not true, he could hardly create his works and write about God and his role in every person’s life). If Nietzsche says that there is no God, it will make all his works and our life senseless. If God is already dead, he had to be alive some time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More And if he was alive, there should be some reasons for his death. In The Gay Science, Nietzsche mentions that God is dead because “we” have killed him. (p. 120) The first question that appears in my who all those “we” – all people or philosophers only. But, in fact, is it possible to kill God? Hardly! This is why, it is crucially important to think once again how it can be true that God is dead.
The German word tot may be also translated as obsolete or even no longer useful. Taking into account such meanings, it is possible to think that Nietzsche had another thought in mind that not the idea, which is know to lots of people. This is why it is possible to find out the similar ideas in Beyond Good and Evil.
The major theme in Beyond Good and Evil is the exploration of truth regardless of numerous religious, social, and moral aspects. According to Nietzsche, every person is able to comprehend truth on a certain level. Unfortunately, each belief may be comprehended in different ways and even makes a person blindly faithful.
Nietzsche underlines the fact that only men may understand and delve feels. Women are not able to complete the same task of the same level. Even more, Nietzsche scorns females from time to time. In Beyond Good and Evils, Nietzsche supposes that Truth itself is a woman, and lots of male philosophers have already tried to comprehend female nature and failed all their attempts. Female nature will never allow herself to be won by men. (p. 3)
In Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche also tells about Nihilism and its effect on the exploration of truth. The author tells that one of the possible reasons, which do not allow to comprehend everything clearly, is the idea of the old God. (p. 22) And this is what is so crucially important in order to answer the major question – if Nietzsche uses the idea of the dead God in Beyond Good and Evil.
After we analyze, that the translations of the works by Nietzsche may not really correctly represent his ideas and intentions, and clear up that his idea of the dead God may be interpreted in English in several ways, we can surely say that Beyond Good and Evil is also one of the works, which are based on the Nietzsche’s idea that God is dead.
In this work, he underlines that all humans are biological creatures, which are ruled by certain instincts. In order to live a full life, they need to will to power and truth, create their own values, live according to them, and do not take into consideration the principle of other people, who are not as strong as they are.
We will write a custom Essay on Beyond Good and Evil by Friedrich Nietzsche specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Without any doubts, to hear about the death of God may shock lots of people. (Kuehls, 6) However, exactly such ideas attract the attention of many readers. Searching for truth is one of the most important things in the whole world. People spend lots of time in order to comprehend what is really truth and what is not.
Friedrich Nietzsche created a wonderful work Beyond Good and Evil to help people and show them one of the possible ways in such kind of searching. He divides people according to their genders and points out why he makes such a choice. He grounds each his idea with the help of historically prevalent points of view and explain it to the reader. It is crucially important to comprehend all his words not literary, as it constricts the meaning he wants to represent.
The death of God is the common idea for Nietzsche’s numerous works, and the reader should not accept it literary in order to understand that God’s death represents the crisis, people live in. In order to overcome this crisis, it is important to explore truth casting aside all moral, religious, and social principles. All people have the right of choice, and if their choice is to understand the truth of life, Nietzsche is eager to help them and show the right way.
Works Cited Kuehls, T. Beyond Sovereign Territory: the Space of Ecopolitics. U of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Nietzsche, F. W. Beyond Good and Evil. Plain Label Books, 1917.
Nietzsche, F. W. The Gay Science. Cambridge University Science, 2001.
A Conversation with My Father and The Swimmer: Facing Tragedy at the End Analytical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The life of every person is unique indeed: every one of us chooses his/her own way and tries to follow the chosen way taking into consideration personal desires and the standpoints of people around. Sometimes, our personal desires do not make any harm, but sometimes the desire to follow own dreams may change many lives.
Literature is one of the most effective ways, which help to demonstrate what personal desires both reasonable and unreasonable may lead to. Literature can help to analyze the relations between people, find out its problems, and even solve them from time to time. With the help of numerous literature masterpieces, people get opportunities to learn more about human nature, comprehend the sense of life, and even improve it.
A Conversation with My Father, a short story by Grace Paley, and The Swimmer, a short story of John Cheever are good examples of literature works, which provide the reader with an opportunity to see the essence of life and comprehend the truth of life tragedies.
Not every reader may find common ideas in these two works at once. One of them is more about the complicated relations between a father and a daughter. Another tells a story about the unbelievable journey of one young man from a party to his own home. However, one of the themes that may unite the works of these two different authors is the idea of facing tragedy at the end of the story. Each character faces his/her own tragedy: for one of them, it is misunderstandings with the father, for another, it is the loss of the family and the sense of life.
A Conversation with My Father is not a simple imagery fiction. This work explains the author’s personal aims and describes how difficult the process of writing is. It is not that easy to be interesting to any reader. Her primary purpose was to make her own father be proud of what she was doing. It is quite possible that this story is a kind of talk to Paley’s own father and attempt to explain such a choice.
A peculiar feature of A Conversation with My Father and The Swimmer is the combination of realism with practice and constant experiments. How can a person know for sure about something if he/she does not test it? A Conversation with My Father is a story about story telling.
The narrator, a storyteller, discusses her style of writing with her bedridden father and tries to get an approval to create her stories in the ways she prefer. The father always criticizes her works and underlines her disability to make tragic endings, which make a basis for this life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of his health problems, his mind is rather alert, and he can easily prove his own points of view and analyze his daughter’s actions. He constantly underlines the necessity to use the works of such great authors as Anton Chekhov or Guy de Maupassant. They presented really tragic stories and used new ways to interpret one more theme.
Even if the father clearly comprehends that he is dying, he tries to explain her daughter that this life is all about tragedies. There are no happy ends. Everything has its reasons, and these reasons do not allow people live a happy life only. Of course, people have the right of choice, but unfortunately, such freedom of choosing does not always suppose something good.
Facing tragedy at the end of action, day, or life is an integral part of life, and people have nothing but accept this truth. A Conversation with My Father challenges the reader to comprehend the truth of tragedy by means of father’s words that there is no hope at the end. The daughter wants to please her father and creates a story about a mother and a son, who are drug addicts. However, with some time, they overcome this tragedy.
In order to make a bit tragic end and amaze her father, the daughter says that the son never comes back home. It is a grief for the mother. This is how the daughter sees a real tragedy. Unfortunately, it is not enough for the father. He wants to see a more tragic end, as the life of every person is inherently tragic; he wants the daughter to realize this, and he will make another attempt to explain everything.
His negative attitude to life and to the decisions people prefer to make is a kind of reflection of his own obstinacy. He does not want to realize that times and conditions may be changed, the only thing he can do is to criticize. His faith in the society is lost, and this is a personal tragedy of his.
In its turn, The Swimmer is a story of one man, Neddy Merrill, who chooses not ordinary way to reach his own home. In fact, this story does not suppose to be tragic. “It was one of those midsummer Sundays when everyone sits around saying, ‘I drank too much last night.’” (Cheever 603) Neddy’s decision to come back home by means of swimming over the pools of his neighbours becomes a turning point of the whole story.
Because of such a travel, he loses his friends, his job, and even his family. Such a simple decision with such unordinary intentions destroys the lives of so many people. Every reader may comprehend this story in different ways. To my mind, one of the major ideas is the fact that when a person gets an opportunity to have a look at the lives of other families and be involved into them, his/her own life and family may be under a terrible threat.
We will write a custom Essay on A Conversation with My Father and The Swimmer: Facing Tragedy at the End specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He wanted to be a new Odyssey in this modern world. “Making his way home by an uncommon route gave him the feeling that he was a pilgrim, an explorer, a man with a destiny, and he knew that he would find friends all along the way.” (The Swimmer, 2000) He wanted to gain recognition, but instead, he gained recognition as a complete looser with no friends and no family.
Such facing tragedy at the end of the story is a good attempt of the author to demonstrate how unpredictable and changeable this life is. People cannot or just do not want to think about their own future and the future of their families. However, such a blind following own personal desires is not always good, and it is necessary to weight all pros and cons to make sure that these actions are not harmful.
Our life is not simple. People face more and more problems during the whole life. The solving of these problems is one of the major purposes of many people. The major character of A Conversation with My Father does not want to believe that even in writing, there always should be a tragic end. However, her father, who loved and cared her so much, tried to explain that this life is not fair, and people should be ready to fight this life and face tragedies.
Is it really so necessary to present the tragic ends only in the literature works? Is it correct that people do not have an opportunity to enjoy happy life and not face troubles at least in literature? Of course, facing tragedy at the end is an inherent feature of the lives of every person, and this tragedy is called ‘death’. But if people always think about tragedies only, they may simply forget about the present and cannot enjoy this life. In such case, there is no sense of life at all, and living without any sense is useless.
With the help of the work by Grace Paley, A Conversation with My Father, and the short story by John Cheever, The Swimmer, the reader gets an opportunity to analyze what is so precious in this life. The right of choice and following personal desires is crucial indeed.
However, care about relatives and people around is also an inherent part of this life. Elder people want to share their experience and teach their younger generations not to make mistakes. Sometimes, such learning is quite possible. However, people just cannot always get understanding, and have to face tragedies at the end of their lives.
Works Cited Cheever, John. The Stories of John Cheever. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 2000.
My First Spurlock Museum Exhibit Essay college admissions essay help
This morning starts as any morning before in my life. The only thing that differs this day from the others is my future visit to a museum exhibition. The Spurlock Museum is known by its collections, documents, exhibitions, and objects that present cultural heritage of Ancient Egypt, Africa, Rome, Greece, East and Southeast Asia, and many other countries.
The circle in the center of the Spurlock Museum unites several different galleries in both thematic and physical levels. I have a choice to visit any gallery: affable and polite staff is eager to present any information, however, it does not really necessary to give some pieces of advice as all points are perfectly described with the help of the displays.
This museum is interesting from several perspectives: properly chosen colors, captivating design, interesting sizes of each room, and sound, the silence allows to feel the atmosphere of the chosen epoch and those times as the visitor may only imagine.
For someone, gray and white colors of the first room may be rather depressive and even boring. However, for me, such choice of colors underlines the accuracy and unprejudiced nature of the room, where each visitor can easily pick out the gallery according to his/her personal choice and preferences.
East Asian culture and Oceania always attract my attention, and I want to know more about more about their traditions and myths. This is why my first gallery to visit is obvious – East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. James Clifford once wrote about the exhibition he visited with his son that people can easily “skip the preliminaries because the next, larger, space draws you in.” (194)
People are so inconstant with their preferences and choices, however, their history and the objects of culture may say a lot about people and their past lives. Usually, people try to create lots of traditions in order to follow them and make their lives more or less dependable on something; something that is less comprehensible and even uncontrolled.
Mythology of Bali is one of my first stop. I have already read a lot about Balinese mythology: Rangda and Barong are my favorite characters. It is unbelievable pleasant to see these characters so close to me and even to ‘become aquatinted’ with them. Rangda was one of the most powerful Balinese evil witches. She had unbelievable power; her image plays an important role in Balinese culture and attracts the attention of lots of tourists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barong is a good character that struggled against Rangda. People of Bali represent barongs as different animals. For each region, there was another animal fighting against the evil of Rangda: a traditional lion, a marvelous dragon, a huge tiger, and even a big boar. Because of such inconstancy of images, the Spurlock Museum presents this exhibit with one of the possible and probably the most important masks – the mask of lion.
The bright colors of the mask attract my attention first. Unbelievable combination of red and golden colors and the light of the room make this figure rather kind and attractive to the viewer. Such bright colors are certainly inherent to the Balinese and their taste.
This barong ket is a gift presented by Professor John Garvey to the Spurlock Museum. The exhibit comes from Bali and participates in numerous festivals. In spite of the fact that the barong ket is a dragon-like figure, the presence of mask perfectly underlines that there was no concrete image of the barong in Ancient Indonesia.
The Spurlock Museum perfectly presents the culture of Balinese people: on the one hand, terrible and even terrifying image of evil witch Rangda is displayed with the help of red colors; on the other hand, the same colors were used to represent Barong. However, the ways these colors are used are rather different, and this is why such two exhibits may cause absolutely different emotions from the viewer.
The mask of Rangda is another exhibit that is interesting to me in the Spurlock Museum. This mask has long hair and dark eyes with black pupils and a bit light irises. (Spurlock Museum) One gold ribbon hangs from the mouth, where four gold objects are attached. Rangda is rather a complex figure.
Even if this terrible face with red tongue and sparkling eyes should cause fear, this figure is not a symbol of fear neither for the Balinese no for visitors of the Spurlock Museum. It is angry and scared. However, this very figure makes me think about the reasons why it is so.
Maybe, this Rangda is a symbol of misunderstanding and fear, but fear not of the people around but because of them. This mask comes to the Spurlock Museum in 2002. It is also one of the gifts of Professor John Garvey to the museum. Such presents provide the visitors with an opportunity to learn more about the history and the traditions of the favorite countries, about people and their tastes.
We will write a custom Essay on My First Spurlock Museum Exhibit specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With the help of such sculptures, the culture of the Balinese people may alive. People get a wonderful opportunity to imagine the possible development of the events by means of the images and exhibits. People always have the right of choice, and the Spurlock Museum provides its visitors with such choices.
My first meeting with the exhibits of the Spurlock Museum is really amazing. I try to use all my imagination to compare and analyze the historical objects, which are left for our and future generations. Museums help us to touch our history once again and comprehend why our world is like this, why people prefer to believe in old traditions instead of creating new ones and taking into account modern circumstances.
The presentation of the Spurlock Museum impressed me a lot. Bright colors of each room and their unbelievable combination in one room (the first one) are one of the most interesting approaches chosen by the workers of the Spurlock Museum. It is not that easy to unite different epochs, times, and cultures.
The Spurlock Museum does not confuse the visitor but helps him/her make the right choice and enjoy the beauty of the exhibitions. Next time, I want to visit the Spurlock Museum not alone in order to share this beauty and the history of different people with someone else, who will comprehend and enjoy it with me.
Clifford says that after he finishes observation all the exhibits in Paradise, he wants “a more ambivalent Paradise.” (221) Almost the same happens to me, after I watch the figures of my favorite ancient characters, I want more – more exhibits, more facts, and more history about the people of Bali.
Works Cited Clifford, James. Paradise. Stygall, G. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.
Spurlock Museum. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Feb, 2003. Web.
Sending Single Mothers into Combat Analytical Essay college admissions essay help
Not long time ago, such words as ‘a mother’ and ‘a war’ were too far from each other. Males have to go to combats and defend our land, and females have nothing to do but stay at home, bring up children, and wait their men.
With time, everything is changed. To see a woman at combats or running helicopters – all this s not that surprising. Women have already proved that they can do lots of things and be rather useful for their motherlands. Brining up children and cooking are not their only duties; they are able to do the things that men cannot even think about.
Anne Applebaum (2008), in her article “When Women Go to War”, says that the idea of women in combats is over after certain events, which happen to two female sailors, however, the idea concerning women in the military will be always open. Women have the right to serve their countries, but, at the same time, they have a kind of obligation to give birth to children and bring them up properly; this is why single mothers should not be sent into combats in order to provide our generation with bright and respectable future.
Anne Applebaum (2008) confirms that lots of women are eager to be a part of the military and participate into combats. She says that nowadays, the American military suggest numerous choices for women and men concerning their education and training. If a woman decided to spend a certain period of time serving her country, such points as possible pregnancy should not bother her.
If a woman does not have children and wants to be useful, it is quite possible to participate in different kinds of combats in men’s company. However, if a woman has a child, especially a little child, who needs care, love, and support, sending mothers into combats sounds ridiculous and unfair.
One the one hand, some people may dispute that mother just hide behind their children in order to be in safe. However, a real mother will never hide in such a way. Mother’s feelings are always frank and kind. Mothers should protect their children, and it is impossible, if they are apart.
On the other hand, women have the same rights as men have, and participation into combats is something they can try any time. Sorry to say, but lots of mother are eager to leave their children in order to serve their country and be in equal rights to men. In fact, it is very difficult to analyze why some women are eager to stay at home and spend lots of time with their families or at work, and why other women just cannot wait to serve their country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To my mind, women is combat is something not necessary. In fact, combats are unnecessary as well, but unfortunately, the absence of conflicts and combats is impossible for our world. It looks like people just have to have some quarrels and misunderstandings in order to have purpose for existence. It is certainly wrong, but it is human nature.
This is why, to serve a country and participation in combats is one of the men’s obligations, not women’s one. But if women have a burning desire to be a part of the military, they have to obey the same rule that any man does in the army. The Navy or any other kind of army cannot be divided for men and women. It is something common. If women, single women, agree to such conditions, they are welcome.
Reference List Applebaum, A. (2008). When Women Go to War. McGraw-Hill Guide, 334-335.
Report after Attending a Concert Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Visiting concerts of classical music is always something unbelievable and captivating. People suppose to find themselves in some other world, but are not sure in what exactly. Classical music provides people with an opportunity to dream, think, love, and even exist. For those, who cannot differentiate what major or minor is, it may be rather troublesome to analyze the works by such great composers as Gabriel Faure, Martin Bresnick, Astor Piazzolla, and Johannes Brahms.
Ballade for cello and piano, created by Martin Bresnick in 2004, was firstly introduced by Andre Emelianoff at Merkin Hall in New York. In spite of the fact that this work presents dark colors and trembling melody, it captivates from the very first seconds. This masterpiece proves once again Bresnick’s unbelievable style, his formal characteristics, and rigor.
This Ballade was created as an homage to Johannes Brahms. Bresnick puts this work in minor, a bit cantabile. He provides the listeners with an attempt to imagine gloomy surroundings and be taken up by rather dolce style.
Cello Sonata No. 2 Op. 117 is another work that deserves our attention. It is created by a French composer, Gabriel Faure, in 1921, however, the date of its first publication is around 1922. It is a work of 3 movements in G minor: allegro, andante, and allegro vivo. In spite of the previous work, this sonata is characterized by more romantic style.
To my mind, it is a story of lost love, when people are in confusion of what to do further. It seems like the world does not change, but everything around is different. Cello Sonata No.2 is one of the most remarkable stories in the world of classical music. Piano and cello find each other and create a magnificent story that may be inherent to any person.
Astor Piazzolla is one more composer, who tried to present life emotions, losses, and happiness through classical music. He was a kind of tango boy, who observed the world through “tango” glasses. Le Grand Tango for violin and piano is one of the most beautiful masterpieces in classical music.
It is episodic in structure: energy, passion, calmness, and languor. The end of this composition is fascinating and in a real Italian style – glissando, a kind of sliding from one pitch to another, like a person, who is looking for something in order to find the only his/her place under in this world. This chamber work was created in far 1921; however, it still excites so many people and will be never forgotten.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The last but not the least classical work under consideration is The Piano Sonata No. 3 by Johannes Brahms presented in 1853 for the first time. It is created in F minor and consists of five different movements: allegro maestoso, andante, allegro energetic, andante molto, and allegro moderato.
This sonata is quite large for musical pieces of work. It is a combination of romantic nature of the composer with the strict classical requirements, which were so crucially important for classical works of those times. The Sonata No.2 is rather dynamic and invigorative piece of work that allows to pay attention to each detail that is so important in music.
These five works of different composers came from different centuries and countries. With the help of cello and piano, the composers present a new world, full of emotions and dreams, to their listeners. It is really great to comprehend their purposes and other things, which evoke to create such unforgettable masterpieces.
Works Cited Astor Piazzolla. Le Grand Tango for Cello and Piano. 1982. New Orleans, 1990.
Brahms, Johannes. The Piano Sonata No.3 in F Minor, Op. 5. 1853. Leipzig: Barthold Senff, 1854.
Bresnick, Martin. Ballade for Cello and Piano. 2004. New York: Merkin Hall, 2004.
Faure, Gabriel. Cello Sonata Op. 117 in G Minor. 1921.
We will write a custom Report on Report after Attending a Concert specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Whig History of Science Analytical Essay college essay help near me
Table of Contents Theory-Loading of Observation
Popper’s Theory of Falsification
Merton’s Norms of Science
Whig history describes our past as a kind of progression towards independence and enlightenment. The major idea of this history is the raising of scientific progress, human freedom, and constitutional government. Kearney underlines that Whig interpretation of any history “implies a view of the past which divides men essentially into two simple categories, progressive or reactionaries, forward-looking or backward-looking.” (1971, 17)
According to such idea, Whig history of science divides all scientists into good and bad ones. Good scientists stick to the side of truth, and bad, ignorant, scientists prefer to disprove the truth.
Whig history of science presents all past cultures like blind groups, which try to arrive at the views people have already enlightened. Only great men or women can present great discoveries, which will be truthful and corresponding to the already existed theories. Whig history of science creates a kind of barrier to clear understanding of everything.
Theory-Loading of Observation Observation plays a very important role in the development of science. Alan Chalmers (1982, 23) points out that observation should be respected due to two reasons: (1) “science starts with observation” and (2) “observation yields a secure basis from which knowledge can be derived.”
The theory-loading of observation is rather important for humans’ understanding of how science works and can be developed. Humans observe many things and make certain conclusions about them. This is why it is possible to say that nature give all facts, which are so important for science, to humans.
People have nothing to do but continue observing things and compare them with their own predictions. The theory-loading of observation and facts, gathered by people from nature, infect all the tests and influence considerably future results. In order to make true, clear conclusions about something, it is crucially important for an observer to stay unbiased and unprejudiced.
Popper’s Theory of Falsification Karl Popper was a famous Australian and British philosopher. One of his main purposes was the explanation of why many people could not come to one and the same conclusion after the experiment had been already conducted. Proper underlines that things do go wrong during the experiments, this is why the results cannot be positive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Popper, experiments cannot prove something but just fail to disprove. “Popper’s theory of falsification relies upon closely similar ideas about the role of ‘agreement’ among the scientists.” (Niiniluoto, 49)
Popper works between two conceptions, which are the centre of his theory. They are verification and falsifiability. With the help of Popper’s theory of falsification, it is easy to analyze and criticize already existed works and experiments and demonstrate their falsifiability. In such case, the hypothesis, created according to Popper’s theory of falsification, cannot be disproved, and this is what is necessary for science.
Merton’s Norms of Science One of the sociologists, who influenced considerably the development of science, was Robert King Merton. He conducted numerous researches into the sociology of science and developed one of the most famous norms of science, also known as CUDOS.
The Merton’s norms of science “compose an interacting and mutually reinforcing system of behaviour designed to make the common intellectual property of science proof against the distorting possibilities.” (Trachtman
Analysis of Citation from Blu’s Hanging by Lois-Ann Yamanaka Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
“I wish my house was underneath Kaunakakai Groceteria…. In my bedroom there’s a secret door up to the groceteria, which I could sneak into at night, after everyone went home. Then I can choose anything I want to eat when I get hungry…. And I would take Maisie and you with me too, so we can get all the ingredients we need to make the biggest laulau dinner, the whole works–day-old poi, lomi salmon, haupia, pipi kaula, and squid luau, just for the three of us, and Poppy.” (9)
Blu’s Hanging is one of the most captivating works in Japanese literature. Lois-Ann Yamanaka, the author of the novel, presents a wonderful story about one family, Ogatas, the members of which try to survive in these terrible conditions and not lose their dignity and lives in Kaunakakai.
Yamanaka starts introducing the major characters and describes how three children have to live without their mother, face numerous modern problems, and be ready to cope with them. Ivah is the oldest child in this family. She has to take care of her two siblings, Maisie and Blu.
She is the author of the citation, chosen for consideration. These words help to underline the fact that this little girl has nothing to do but forget about her own dreams and helps her relatives. Even if this phrase is all about food and girl’s dreams, it is not that difficult to find out the issues, which are much more serious and significant.
In comparison to her younger siblings, she is introduced as a judicious person. Even in the questions of food, she remains devoted to her own tastes and traditions. The meal that may satisfy the girl is not Asian but Hawaiian. Only “laulau dinner” will stop her hunger. She wants to find her family and herself in Hawaii only. It is their homeland, where they can really be happy and even free.
The problem of race and ethnicity will never be forgotten in literature. People suffer so much from such inequality and fear to be used by another race, higher than their own. Specially, it concerns children. They do not have enough power to resist the already existed rules. They have nothing to do but accept these rules and follow the current flow. Their dreams, hopes, and feelings do not really matter. The ideas of violence and power will be always on their ways.
Is it possible to analyze the character by his/her tastes and preferences in food? To my mind, it is quite real. The language, used by the author, is not that difficult to understand. It underlines rather simple and kind nature of Ivah. She does not want to use complicated words in everyday language; however, she is aware of some traditional food. This fact underlines her knowledge and abilities to learn and remember more things, which are really interesting.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The presence of food in the first chapter is rather significant for the whole novel. One of the most important components of our existence is food. Unfortunately, not all writers pay enough attention to this very issue. Lois-Ann Yamanaka chooses one of the most correct ways to introduce her characters and their problems.
Attention to such details allows the reader to comprehend what may bother ordinary children without parents and without future. The focus on such fact also helps the reader trace how the preferences of the major characters may be changed, taking into consideration the appeared consequences.
The problems of race inequality, national identity, and imperialism are crucial indeed. However, not every reader may grasp their essence if the author just states such difficult for the analysis words.
A clear explanation of the same terms by means of known to everyone words about food, cloth, houses – this is what can be really helpful for the reader. This is what Lois-Ann Yamanaka chooses for her Blu’s Hanging, and this is why the reader easily gets an understanding of dark and unfair times, when an ordinary Japanese family lives.
Works Cited Yamanaka, Lois-Ann. Blu’s Hanging. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997.
Sex Offender Registration and Notification Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Criminology or criminal justice is one of the most exciting approaches in social sciences, which aim to analyze a crime as an individual or even social phenomenon. A crime is considered to be a violation of rules and laws set by the government in accordance with the legal regulations.
Usually, any kind of violation is pursued by a certain type of punishment. Unfortunately, nowadays, people can easily find out a way to be punished to a lesser extent or even avoid any kind of punishment. For example, when, in New Jersey, in 1994, Jesse Timmendequas raped and killed Megan Kanka, a 7-year-old girl, he was released within a certain period of time and got an opportunity to continue his crimes and murders.
This action called numerous misunderstandings from society, and was one of the reasons to create a law that requires a registration of all sexual offenders. Megan’s Law is served to notify the vast majority of sexual offenders in society; its study allows to analyze the impact of the law on inhabitants of New Jersey, its effects and effectiveness, and the implementation of the law in the other states of America and even in the whole world.
People should get an opportunity to be protected against offenders and other criminals, and Megan’s Law is one of the brightest steps to make our life more or less normal, as no one can be sure about personal safety and the safety of his/her relatives.
Discussion Megan’s Law: What, Why, and How
Megan’s Law is a general name of the laws, which make the information about sexual offenders available to the public. Usually, state representatives include names, pictures, and addresses of offenders, and the nature of crimes they commit. Such kind of information is available online and in special mass media. So, if a person wants to know whether a sexual offender is living nearby, it is possible to get to know from such sources. Megan’s Law is a good attempt to protect society from numerous sexual offenders.
After their daughter was terribly killed, Richard and Maureen Kanka admit that if the parents have any chance to known more about people live around, they should use it in order to protect their children from sexual predators, who may live nearby. With the help of Megan’s Law, not only parents, but any person can easily find out whether a sexual offender is near or not.
Zgoba and Bachar (2009) present the necessary information about Megan’s Law. It is all about the fact that “sex offenders are required to register with the local police department within a specified time after release from prison.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the one hand, such information should be rather helpful and significant for people. On the other hand, such crimes and their publicity mark out the offenders for the rest of their lives and do not allow them to redeem their faults.
What is better: to provide society with an opportunity to know about all sexual offenders or give those offenders a chance to change their lives and be useful for society. However, it is impossible to be sure about past sexual offenders’ good intentions. This is why it is not that easier to be concerned about Megan’s Law effectiveness. Even if the crime does happen, the offender may be justified.
Even if the victim is killed, the killer can have all chances to spend some time in jail, and then continue living and committing numerous crimes. Even if the killer is justified and gets a chance to live among other people, he/she cannot be sure that he/she will get an opportunity to be justified by people, who have already lost someone. There are so many “even if”, and we cannot say for sure what way in order to punish the guilty will be correct after the crime has already committed.
Importance of Research in Criminology Dantzker and Hunter (2000) point out that “research plays a very important role in criminal justice and criminology. It brings questions and answers, debates, and issues.” This is why it is crucially important to conduct researches in order to analyze the effectiveness of the actions taken.
In their article, Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Limited Effects in New Jersey, Zgoba and Bachar present a careful analysis of the effects of Megan’s Law, where they describe three major steps taken during the New Jersey Study: identification of trends, comparison what happed before and after this law’s implementation, and estimation of costs.
Identification of trends helps to define the years after and before the implementation of Megan’s Law. Ten years before and ten years after the law’s implementation are taken under consideration. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports provide this analysis of information.
During the second step, the actions of sexual offenders were carefully analyzed in the frames of certain communities. Their actions, behavior, relations to people around – all this were studied, and some differences were mentioned.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sex Offender Registration and Notification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The last stage of research was intended to identify costs, which had to be spent on implementation of the law. Zgoba and Bachar (2009) underline that, in 1995, more than $555,565 was spent to implement the law in New Jersey. In 2006, the analysis showed that more than $3,9 million was received from 15 counties of New Jersey. 15 counties of New Jersey of the total 21 counties have already completed the survey.
Unfortunately, the results of Megan’s Law were not as successful as it should be. The number of victims and sexual offenders does not decrease. People still commit crimes, sexual offences in particular. Of course, inhabitants have more chances to find the protections; however, it is not always in time. Children are under a threat to be offended by sexual predators, and parents should use numerous kinds of protection to be sure about safety of their children.
Limitations in the Study and Possible Improvements As any law set by government, Megan’s Law has its limitations and even shortages. These shortages prevent from getting concrete results in this research and clear effects of the law. First of all, it is necessary to admit that not every sexual crime is reported. There are still some people, who, by certain reasons, do not want to inform the others about the crime committed.
Not all sexual offences are reported, and such keeping back serves as the major cause of not true offending rates. Another challenge that many researchers may face is the fact that Megan’s Law mostly serve as a deterrent but not as support equipment. This is why it is necessary to determine once again the purposes of Megan’s Law and analyze why so many people cannot or do not want to inform about sexual offences and give up a criminal.
In order to make this research more effective, it is better to explain people how exactly their information is important. Even more, it is possible to promise people and provide them with free medical examination and support from police. People should believe that they have a kind of support and may trust someone to share their problems and find appropriate solutions. Dantzker and Hunter (2000) say that to “successfully complete any type of research, it is important to establish a feasible plan or blueprint, the research design.
This plan primarily responds to the common five W’s (who, what, where, when, and why) and H (how) of investigation.” When we talk about sexual offenders and the effectiveness of Megan’s Law, we have a clear explanation of who commit a crime and who should inform about it, what, where, and when is violated. The significant point is why this violation happens. This is why it is necessary to clear up why people commit the crime and why the victims do or do not announce it.
When we should answer how the crime is committed and how research should be conducted, it is better to take into consideration external factors, such as physical and emotional condition of the offender, place, where the crime takes place, and the reasons why the person was chosen as a victim. After researchers consider these facts, it will be much easier to make clear and strong conclusions at the end of the investigation.
Conclusions People cannot stop committing crimes. Usually, offenders have enough ideas to explain why they do this or that and who/what is the reasons. Sometimes, victims may provoke people to commit the crime: it may be their words or behavior, or anything else that may cause negative reactions. The case of Megan Kanka is terrible indeed. This girl was kidnapped, raped, and murdered. She was only 7 year old. Jesse Timmendequas has no right to do those disgusting things and deprive the girl from the opportunity to continue this life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sex Offender Registration and Notification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Megan’s Law is one of the brightest steps, taken by the government in order to underline that such murders play a significant role for society. Of course, the decision to release the murder may be considered as rather unfair. Without any doubts, it cannot be justified. This is why the measures taken to prevent other children are quite justified.
People have the right to know who lives nearby. The question is if people can live close to a person, who has already committed such a terrible crime as rape and kidnapping. Parents know that, somewhere near, a person, who has done terrible things, may repeat the same with their own children. What should they do: change their address or every day live with a thought that something bad may happen.
Sexual offenders’ registration is necessary indeed. However, is it fair that offenders and even killers have the right to continue living within society and frightening people? In order to clear up whether Megan’s Law is necessary or not, it is better to ask people inform about sexual offences. This information may be rather crucial in order to stop violence and provide people with opportunities to live safely.
Reference List Dantzker, M. L. and Hunter, R. D. (2000). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Primer. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Zgoba, K. M. and Bachar, K. (2009, April 9). Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Limited Effects in New Jersey. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved from .
Main Body: Megan’s Law: What, Why, and How
Importance of Research in Criminology
Limitations in the Study and Possible Improvements
American Pragmatism and Analytic Philosophy Essay a level english language essay help
Pragmatism and analytic philosophy are considered to be the two famous traditions in American philosophy. Analytic philosophy started its development in the XX century and spread over numerous English-speaking countries in several years. American pragmatism is one of the tendencies, which considerably influenced the rise of analytic philosophy in the whole world.
American philosophy attracts the attention of many people and is respected by the other cultures and philosophies. Together, analytic philosophy and pragmatism become one of the most unique American movements, which differ in many ways from European philosophy at one and the same period of time and deserve recognition and respect.
Charles Peirce was a father of pragmatism and presented the pragmatic maxim at the end of the 19 century. “Pragmatism, especially in the hands of Peirce, has strong affinities with analytic philosophy and thereby prepared the ground for the latter’s favourable reception from the 1930s onwards.” (Glock 2008)
It is necessary to admit that pragmatism was also contrasted with analytic philosophy and even connected to continental one. According to Peirce, pragmatism was a movement that rejected all ideas of subjectivism and underlined the importance of real effects and truth.
Taking into consideration that analytic philosophy grounds on the ideas that all arguments are crucially important for people, it is quite possible to unite pragmatism and analytic philosophy and prove their power, sense, and uniqueness. The representatives of American analytic philosophy believe that they can achieve the desirable goals and comprehend the essence of this life be means of analysis of language and respect to all natural science.
American people are considered to be rather practical; they prefer to use clear and strong evidences in order to prove their points of view. In such cases, their words will be hardly called in questions, and the vast majority of people will easily accept their ideas. With the help of the ideas taken from natural sciences, their thorough analysis, and concentration of truth, American philosophers can easily present the necessary arguments and amaze the people all over the world.
Lots of European philosophers consider pragmatism as the way of how Americans deal with truth, their knowledge, and evidences. They also find out a deep connection between analytic philosophy and pragmatism as they have the same goals, standpoints, and a certain connection to science.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such intentions to grasp the truth and follow only reliable ways during life raise American philosophy considerably. Nowadays, American philosophy is associated with American pragmatism that may easily criticize all traditional philosophical ideas with the help of scientific and even social developments.
Lots of people still believe that “pragmatism is the only unique contribution American philosophy has made to the tradition known as Western philosophy.” (Hammer 2003) However, it is necessary to admit that without proper contribution of analytic philosophy, pragmatism will hardly achieve the success that American philosophy has nowadays. People need to believe in something, and they need to have certain concepts to rely on.
This is why the traditions, offered by the representatives of pragmatism and analytic philosophy such as Charles Peirce, William James, and John Dewey, significance of arguments, and truth turn out to be rather unique and important for Americans, distinguish American philosophy from the other countries, nations, and their traditions, and make a lot of European philosopher respect the chosen approaches.
Reference List Glock, H. J. (2008). What Is Analytic Philosophy? Cambridge University Press.
Hammer, M. G. (2003). American Pragmatism: A Religious Genealogy. Oxford University Press US.
Main Body: Pragmatism
European Attitude to American Philosophy
Sun Chief: The Meaning of Don Talayesva’s Journey with the Help of The Rites of Passage by Arnold van Gennep Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Sun Chief is a story of Don C. Talayesva, a Hopi Indian, who has to tear between two different worlds and two different cultures in order to comprehend whom he should be and why. This autobiographical story is devoted to Leo Simmons, who was a white man and the author’s clan brother. Sun Chief is one of the most excellent accounts about the life of a Hopi person during the times of great changes, sever conflicts, and numerous splits in villages.
This is not only a simple story about life, this work may also serve as a reliable document about the life in primitive societies and troubles, which may be on their ways. In order to comprehend better the essence of Sun Chief and get the main idea, which Don Talayesva wanted to introduce, it is necessary to consider the work by Arnold van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, where a certain attention is paid to each important ritual in man’s life.
“Each larger society contains within it several distinctly separate social groupings. As we move from higher to lower levels of civilization, the differences among these groups become accentuated and their autonomy increases.” (Gennep et al. 1) When a person starts reading someone’s autobiography, it is necessary to know a scheme according to which the story may be introduced. Birth, maturity, marriages, and death are considered to be one of the most important stages in the life of each person.
Arnold van Gennep pays special attention to each of these steps, describes their importance, and underlines the major characteristics of each period. He perfectly describes each rite of passage and presents interesting insights in order to use and analyze them in our every day life. This work influences lots of anthropologists as it introduces a captivating theoretical framework that helps to explain numerous cultural beliefs.
Without any doubts, Sun Chief is a book written by an anthropologist for anthropologist. Not every reader is able to get the main idea of what Don Talayesva is going to explain. This is why The Rites of Passage turns out to be rather helpful to explain all those anthropological things to ordinary readers. Sun Chief provides the reader with a chance to learn the life of Indian community from inside.
Each ritual and each step of life in the ordinary Indian tribe has its reason and time. It is quite possible that the author of the story, Don Talayesva, does not concentrate on the importance of each tradition and presents each step as an obligatory one.
Readers, who are not aware of the Indian traditions, will hardly comprehend how significant each step in the life of young Talayesva. With the help of Gennep, the reader can find the thing that is crucially important in order to unite each piece of information, presented in Sun Chief.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The description of salt expedition may serve as a good example of the above-mentioned situation. Is it really important to be a member of salt expedition in our every day life? Hardly! This is why, due to Gennep emphasis, the reader should pay certain attention to this event, as more than three pages are devoted to this event. “Each of us wrapped our feathers in separate paper bags and smoked the mountain tobacco, exchanging kinship terms.” (Talayesva 234)
Is it possible that smoking and wrapping feathers play such a role in the life of a person? In Indian tribes, such things are quite normal. It is also necessary to admit that each ritual implies the other obligations, which have to be followed.
For example, after Don Talayesva wraps his feathers, his mother underlines that he should “stay away from girls tonight.” (Talayesva 234) The analysis of ceremony groups helps us to clear up that admission to certain ceremonies usually depends on gender, age, and even family relations. If you do not reach certain age or you are a female, you do not have the right to be a participant at the salt expedition.
If you are a little boy or girl, you cannot watch childbirth and have to be sent somewhere. For example, when Don Talayesva was born, the author mentions that his sister Tuvamainim and his little brother Namostewa” were sent to a neighbor’s house. Also, his dad decided to help his mother, “which was rather unusual for a Hopi husband.” (Talayesva 26)
Each stage of life has its own rules and peculiarities. Sometimes, people are eager to take into consideration these concepts and follow them. Don Talayesva is one of the most captivating narrators. Of course, not each piece of information he presents is clear, however, the work by Arnold van Gennep helps to clear everything up.
Rites of passages play a very important role. For Hopi, one of such rituals was a slat expedition, and Don Talayesva perfectly described it in his Sun Chief and provided the reader with an opportunity to learn more about the history of Indian tribes.
Works Cited Gennep, Arnold, Vizedon, Monika B, and Caffee, Gabriel L. The Rites of Passage. Routledge, 2004.
We will write a custom Essay on Sun Chief: The Meaning of Don Talayesva’s Journey with the Help of The Rites of Passage by Arnold van Gennep specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Talayesva, Don, Simmons, Leo W, and Hine, Robert, V. Sun Chief: The Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. Yale University Press, 1963.
Main Body: The Rites of Passage by Arnold van Gennep
Sun Chief by Don Talayesva
Meaning of Don Talayesva’s Journey and The Rites of Passage
Kant’s Categorical Imperative vs. Kierkegaard’s Notion of Faith Essay writing essay help
This paper will examine the conflict between Kant’s moral theory (his categorical imperative) and Kierkegaard’s notion of faith. It will defend Kant’s claim against Kierkegaard’s theory that faith is not a legitimate reason to disregards morality. The reason of why Kant’s ideas are preferable to me is that the categorical imperative allows to define what actions are obligatory and which ones should be forbidden and to choose the way that is more correct and not contradictory to moral norms and society.
Immanuel Kant is considered to be one of the greatest and the most famous German philosophers of the 18th century. He created a truly widespread theory that influences society even now. His moral theory and his categorical imperative remain one of the central philosophical concepts of all the times. In 1785, this great philosopher introduced Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals.
One of the purposes of this work was to help people get a clear understanding of what moral principles are all about in order to avert possible distractions. Lots of people may say that Kant’s ideas are something that is really hard to comprehend. However, his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is not that difficult to analyze in comparison to the works of some other philosophers.
Kant’s moral theory is based on the concept of good will. Moral knowledge is something that has lots of powers and should be a prior for all humankind. Without any doubts, Kant’s moral theory is rather complex, but at the heart of this theory, the only principle may be found; it is the categorical imperative. The idea of the categorical imperative lies in the fact that one may determine someone’s duty and decide what principles are proper and which ones are not.
“The imperative thus says which action possible by me would be good, and represents a practical rule in relation to a will that does not straightaway do an action just because it is good, partly because the subject does not always know that it is good, partly because, even if he knows this, his maxims could still be opposed to the objective principles of a practical reason.” (Kant and Gregor, 1998)
According to Kant, a maxim is one of the guiding principles of any action. With the help of maxims, people get a clear understanding of what should be done, and even how these things need to be done. Immanuel Kant was one of those believers, who proved that any person has the right to make choices. Freedom and reasons of actions are the two things, which distinguish people from animals, and we should lose this characteristic.
People just have to be free in order to be ready to perform all our duties. If people do not believe that they have enough freedom, they cannot be able to complete their duties, this is why the verb “have to” may be changed into “can or cannot”. People should give promises only in cases they are absolutely sure about their words and may keep them. Otherwise, if the words are not kept, and human promises are false, human life turns out to be senseless and all the beliefs are not true.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Søren Aabye Kierkegaard is another philosopher, who offered his ideas concerning faith, duties, and responsibility. In comparison to Kant’s rationalism, Kierkegaard is regarded to be an absurd thinker, who believes in subjectivism of ethics. In fact, Kierkegaard was one of the Kant’s followers.
He used Kant’s ideas as a basis for his own inquiry of faith. Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling is one of the best examples, which demonstrate his grounding on Kant’s ideas and standpoints. This Danish philosopher and, at the same time, a devoted theologian tries to prove that faith is not a simple formula, but something that people should reach only after certain divine inquiries are satisfied.
According to Kierkegaard, faith is a kind of leap to the absurd. People should trust upon something and believe in it. However, this something cannot possible be. This is why Kierkegaard’s notion of faith may be considered as rather paradoxical.
“A paradox enters in and a humble courage is required to grasp the whole of the temporal by virtue of the absurd, and this is the courage of faith. By faith Abraham did not renounce his claim upon Isaac, but by faith he got Isaac.” (Kierkegaard, 2008)
In this story about Abraham, Kierkegaard introduces this character as someone, who does not want to accept universal ethical principles in order to demonstrate his devotion to God. Abraham’s faith makes him break all those ethical norms; and this is what create an absurd line in the story.
Of course, it is quite possible to find some points in Kierkegaard’s story to admire. However, his extremism and idea that personal promise to the divine is the only thing that may glorify God cannot be considered as the most absurd things inherent to people. Kierkegaard does not show how exactly human belief in God may be absurd. He uses the word ‘absurd’ so many times, however, does not catch its uniqueness and make it an ordinary word.
This is why the faith, presented by Kierkegaard, may be called as the paradoxical nature of faith. This philosopher does not have any reservation about dealing with the things he calls absurd. However, at the same time, faith seems to be an eminently paradox, where a person tries to isolate him/herself in the sphere that is much higher than a universe.
We will write a custom Essay on Kant’s Categorical Imperative vs. Kierkegaard’s Notion of Faith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After I compare the ideas of two philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Søren Kierkegaard concerning human’s faith and duty, it turns out to be rather easy to take one certain position and explain the choice. People truly believe that God is absolute. He has enough powers to control any situation and be fair.
Both Kant and Kierkegaard present lots of arguments in order to prove their points of view. Their arguments also have certain drawbacks, but Kant’s position and his rational belief provides us, ordinary people, with better opportunity to understand deeper the relations between religion and ethics.
Kierkegaard’s notion of faith may be considered as a bit weak because it is based on the principle of divine revelation and the idea that clear interaction between ethics and faith may be hardly found out at all. Without any doubts, people just cannot leave without a thought that something may control their lives somehow and show the necessary ways out. However, the idea of the right of choice is crucial indeed.
We should take certain actions and believe in the things, which will not hurt other people and destroy their future. People should be free and, at the same time, have something to believe in. However, all those believes should not stay on the way to clear understanding of this life and its essence. People are unique creatures, who have a wonderful opportunity to choose.
This is what Kant tells about in his work. His universalism and ethical system are clearly detached from human relations and their abilities in accordance with moral principles, which are inherent to all people. This is why interaction that happens between humans and the experience they get play a very important role and help to realize that freedom is much more significant than faith and any other concepts offered by different philosophers.
Kant’s moral theory is rather deontological: human actions may be considered as right ones only in virtue of their real motives. These motives should be derived from duties, people promise to complete. According to Kant, people should think and choose taking into consideration their faith and moral principles, which are also called maxims.
Kierkegaard has another, not less interesting position about human’s duties and faith, however, his ideas turn out to be rather absurd and face numerous drawbacks. Of course, the theories presented by either Kierkegaard or Kant are quite inadequate: they neglect the idea of interpersonal relations and do not pay too much attention that such interactions may be rather important for formulation of moral issues.
This is why Kant’s ideas are closer to society and may be fixed in accordance with new preferences and interests. People always have a chance to perform the functions of responsible agents, but it remains crucially important to consider moral principles, which are obtained by society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kant’s Categorical Imperative vs. Kierkegaard’s Notion of Faith by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Kant, I.