Art History: Female Figures In Ancient Greek Sculpture Expository Essay A Level English Language Essay Help

The ancient Greeks were one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It thrived more than 4,000 years ago. The years between 2000 B.C. and 146 B.C. were the years of the Ancient Greece Empire’s prosperity. Greek culture, ideas, religion, and art were spreading all over the world day by day. Ancient Greek sculpture deserves attention because of its uniqueness and richness. Greeks had a wonderful opportunity to use different kinds of marble, bronze, stones, and wood. There were several periods in ancient Greek sculpture, and each of them had its own characteristics. The most known periods were Archaic (650 – 480 BCE), Classical (480 – 431 BCE), Late Classical (404 – 323 BCE), and Hellenistic (323 BCE – 1st century AD).

The development of female figures in ancient Greek sculpture was noticeable during those times; each period added something new; the influence of other countries and their cultures was reflected in almost each piece of work, and female sculptures were one of the brightest examples.

Ancient Greek sculpture was characterized by numerous works of nude women. However, it does not mean that Greek men had a kind of disrespect to their women. Ancient Greek women were portrayed rather respectfully. If nudity is considered to be a sign of sex or predilection for sex, it is necessary to admit that ancient Greek sculptors used males as sex objects oftener than they used females. Most of the sculptors in Ancient Greece were men, and the role of women was to inspire their men. Men used women as models for their sculptures to present the images of real women, real life, with its advantages and disadvantages.

The Archaic period started in 650 BCE and lasted until 480 BCE, and it was one of the earliest periods in ancient Greek art. The ancient Greek sculptures of the Archaic period had lots in common to those of Egypt sculptures. Egypt influence reflected on both male and female sculptures. “During this period of intense creativity, the great traditions of monumental stone sculpture and temple architecture appeared.” (Davies 159) Female figures of the Archaic period were usually called ‘kore’ (maiden). The peculiar features of the figures of that time were draped clothes and read hair. One of the brightest examples of archaic sculptures was Draped Female (created in about 530 B.C. Special attention was paid to female haircuts – new hairstyles were elaborated for each sculpture. After 550 BCE, stone was changed into bronze; such changes allowed sculptors to play with light and impress the viewer. Women nudity was one of the most brilliant devices, which were used to underline the realism.

The Classical period in ancient Greek sculpture presented the most exciting pieces of art. In spite of the fact that the Persians Wars blew up the economical and other spheres of the Empire, Greek found out new technologies and methods to improve the situation. The classical Greek style was characterized unbelievable freedom of movements and feelings. Greek sculptures represented people’s life with its speed, changes, and emotions. Even if female Greek sculptures could not move, the artists, as magicians, made people believe that at the beginning, that sculpture moved, and now it was frozen, for those, who observed it. Women’s nudity was not forgotten as well. In order to help own husbands, women spend days and nights posing. Such idea to present moving people raised ancient Greek sculpture once again and proved that talented people can save their country and its traditions even by means of art. “The sculptures of the classical period show an obsession with the human figure and with drapery.” (Hellander et al. 71)

The Late Classical period in the ancient Greek sculpture was known as a period of artistic decline. The Peloponnesian War was the major reason of why Greece lost its supremacy. The influence of Christianity made lots sculptors create less naked sculptures (and it was the key of all Greece sculptures ever). During the Late Classical period, the large components of all sculptures were portrait statues. Sculptors paid more attention to people’s features. It was a novelty for those times. After people paid attention only to female’s bodies, naked bodies, such changes turned out to be rather significant. It became more popular to present males’ portraits. Lots of sculptures were devoted to men, who defended the Empire. The image of women was almost forgotten.

In 336 BCE, it was Alexander, who saved the Empire and spread the influence of Greece all over the world again. The Hellenistic period started in 323 B.C. and lasted until the end of the first century of A.D. It was a kind of revival of Greek sculpture. This period is usually compared with the Classical one. Greeks again started portrayed young women and created nude figures using marble and bronze. They had a chance to appeal to the lower preferences of their masters. This is why, the Hellenistic period was also known by its ugly, comical, and sensual themes. The major purpose of art was to represent the world as it was during that concrete period of time. One of the brightest examples of the sculptures from the Hellenistic period is The Venus de Milo, a representation of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of women is crucial indeed. It does not matter whether we regard a woman as a wife, friend, mother, or muse. Without women, this world would be dull and boring. Even in sculpture, women play a very important role. Specially, it concerns Ancient Greece, to be more exact, the ancient Greek sculpture. Greek sculptors got used to create male figures to underline their power and significance for the country. However, the role of female figures still remain considerable. Each period of ancient Greek sculpture created certain limitations and added something new. The material for sculptures changed as well. First, it was wood and stone, with time, Greek sculptors started to use marble and bronze. Such changes provided people with the opportunities to enjoy colours and lights for lots of years.

Works Cited Davies, P. J. E., Denny, W. B., Hofrichter, F. F., Jacons, J. F., Roberts, A. M., and Simon, D. L. Jason’s History of Art: The Western Tradition. Prentice Hall, 2006.

Hellander, P., Armstrong, K., Clark, M., Deliso, C., Hannigan, D., and Kiriakopoulos, V. Greece. Lonely Planet, 2008.


Political Issues College Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation (also known as the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union) was the first constitutional document of the United States, adopted in 1777. However, all thirteen states ratified those Articles only in 1781. According to the Articles of Confederation, each state had the right to retain its freedom and independence. One representative from each state was chosen to create a committee, the Congress that would be responsible for army, navy, foreign relations, and declarations of war/peace. However, the Congress had no right to gather taxes and control the commerce between the states. Also, the Congress could not adopt laws. Such shortcomings were one of the first reasons for discontents between the members of the Congress. In spite of the fact that the Articles of Confederations defined the Congress as a national legislature, the states governments had more power.

There was a burning need for the government that would be stronger. The weakness of the republic government and its limited powers led to one more Constitutional Convention that took place in 1787, The Congress suggested revising the Articles of Confederation. First, it was suggested to make several amendments to improve the Articles of Confederation. However, the delegates realized that it would not be enough, and they started to create a new constitutional document. Today, it is known as the Constitution of the United States of America. It was signed by 39 representatives (42 were present) on September 17, 1787. On May 29, 1790, the last delegate, Rhode Island, ratified the Constitution. This document strengthened the government by providing a new system, the major purpose of which was to find a kind of balance between the federal government, each state, and people.

The Theories of Nullification and Secession The theory of nullification is a legal theory according to which any U. S. State has the right to invalidate any federal law. This theory allows the U. S. State, as a sovereign Union, to nullify any law, if the state finds some law unconstitutional. According to this theory, States are the last and the most important branch that may interpret the actions of the government. Another theory that underlines the sovereignty of each U. S. State is the theory of secession.

According to this very theory, the state has the right to terminate its membership within the Union. In 1799, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions asserted the correctness of the nullification theory according to the Constitution of the United States of America. The actions of john C. Calhoun reinforced the ideas of these two theories. However, not every political figure was for the theories of nullification and secession. For example, President Jackson argued against the right of nullification and secession and asked the U. S. Senate to provide him with the right to use arm forces in order to execute federal laws. It was the period when a force bill was introduced.

However, that step caused numerous misunderstandings from several states. The election of Abraham Lincoln played a very important role for the development of the theory of nullification and the theory of secession. During Lincoln’s first inaugural, he proclaimed against the right of nullification and referred to Jackson’s Proclamation Regarding Nullification. In 1861, the attempt to achieve the secession by means of force of arms was failed. The consequence of that attempt is also known as the American Civil War. In 2008, one American politician, John Zogby, was not afraid to mention that more than 70% of Americans knew that even if each U. S. State had the right to nullify federal laws, it was not able to become an independent state and go against the Congress.


Terrorists and the Left and Right: Definitions essay help

Terrorism is one of the burning problems in the United States. After the events of September 11, 2001, many writers try to analyze, investigate, and classify the sources, reasons, and consequences of terrorism. “Defining terrorism is a difficult but not impossible task.” (Simonsen and Spindlove, 2006) Scientists offer lots of captivating ideas, which define terrorism mostly like one of the styles of violence aiming to change people’s attitude and behavior to a certain problem. Usually, terrorism is not collective but small groups’ activities. There is no clear explanation why people are engaged into terrorism. Like in politics, the idea to use terrorism is usually caused by some psychological considerations. The major point about terrorism is that it is not a spontaneous act of violence. It is always deliberate and systematic. It is also necessary to distinguish two types of terrorism: from the left and from the right. If left-wing terrorism is characterized by perfectly planned attacks, right-wing terrorism is considered to be more indiscriminating.

With time, it becomes more difficult to present a clear definition of terrorism from the left and terrorism from the right. “Terrorist groups of the extreme “left” have often become aggressively nationalistic, whereas those of the far right are second to none with their ardent anticapitalism and anti-Americanism.” (Laqueur, 2003) However, the number of deaths caused by both terroristic attacks from the left and from the right is almost the same.

Right-wing terrorism is also called neo-fascist terrorism has nothing in common with liberal democracy. The major purpose of this type of terrorism is to create a kind of fascist state. The reasons of their attacks may be quite different: religious, political, or even social issues. One of the examples of terrorism from the right was killing abortion doctors and the destruction of numerous abortion clinics. Even if all these attacks were spontaneous, the consequences are rather terrifying.

Left-wing terrorism aims at destroying all the signs of capitalistic society and creating a communist state. Terrorism from the left may be also called eco-terrorism grounded on some moral principles. As it has been already mentioned above, left-wing terrorism is more planned and purposeful. The representatives of such type of terrorism create separate groups, set concrete objectives, develop reliable plans, and try to achieve the purposes using all possible methods. The problem is that time goes by, and it is not that easy to find devoted and faithful member in order to trust them such a serious business.

In comparison to right-wing terrorism, where the base of operations is concentrated on rural areas in different camps, left-wing terroristic representatives prefer urban areas and organize all work within safehouses. (Smith 1994) While terrorism from the left struggle for some political principles, the representatives of terrorism from the right fight for their religious beliefs. These are the main differences between terrorism from the left and terrorism from the right.

Analyzing both left- and right-wing terroristic groups, it is necessary to admit that the major differences lie in their ideologies and ways of planning and arranging attacks. It is impossible to say the activities of which group are more severe and which can be justified. The tactics of any terroristic groups have their own grounds. The question is not about the preferences, the point is to analyze why both right- and left-wing groups appear and what may prevent the destructions caused by their activities.

Reference List Simonsen, C. E. and Spindlove, J. R. (2006). Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Laqueur, W. (2003). No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. Continuum International Publishing Group.

Smith, B. L. (1994). Terrorism in America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe Dreams. SUNY Press.


San Manuel Bueno, Mártir Report essay help: essay help

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo was one of the first Spanish writers of the 20th century, who concentrated on the perspective of a man with his passion, desires, and hope and the world itself. This writer tried to analyze the idea of faith in the society. One of his last works was San Manuel Bueno, Mártir, a novel that represented Unamuno’s thoughts and beliefs. This story is about a parish priest, Don Manuel Bueno, who suddenly loses his faith because of immoral modern world, and the Carballinos, a Spanish family. Angela and Lázaro Carballino, and their mother are attracted by Manuel’s ideas about faith, Christianity, and the life after death. San Manuel Bueno, Mártir may be considered as a kind of tool used by Unamuno to reproduce his own philosophical ideas.

The narrator of this story is Angela Carballino. She gets her education outside the village, where her mother lives. The mother is a catholic woman, who tries to teach her daughter about the faith and love to people. In this small village with its lake and magnificent mountains, there is one priest, Don Manuel, who aims at helping people and making them happier and free. By some reasons, Angela is attracted by the village, the priest, and his ideas.

One day, her brother, Lázaro, returns to the village. Lázaro is characterized by strong unbelieving in God, faith, and any religion in general. The only purpose of his arrival to the village is to take his mother and sister to the larger, progressive city. However, all his dreams are broke down after his mother’s death. There is one promise that she asks her son to do – to pray for her. Lázaro cannot but keep his promise, that makes him contact with Don Manuel. In a short period of time, Lázaro realizes that Don Manuel does not resemble any other priest he have met before. The idea that there is no life after death is not inherent to priests, this is what makes Don Manuel interesting to Lázaro.

The main idea that Don Manuel wants to explain to Lázaro is the following: there is no life after death. However, people should not know this terrible truth, and priest’s purpose is to hide this terrible truth in order to make all people happier during their lives. Such idea attracts Lázaro a lot. He makes a decision to covert to Christianity and visit all Don Manuel’s masses in order to become his best disciple. Angela cannot comprehend how people who do not believe in the life after death may teach and help other people, and provide them with the necessary support. One of the most interesting aspects of this story is that Don Manuel does believe in God. He tells that when a person dies, he sees the God’s face, however, this person will not be admitted to the heaven, as it is promised.

Another not less interesting thing about this novel is that Unamuno decides to take the role of God in this story. He is the creator of all characters, he rules all of them and decides when and how each person should die. One of the characters, Augusto Perez, decides to commit suicide and rebel against the creator who rules everybody’s destiny. Before his death, he sees the creator, the author of this story, and gets to know that he is just a fiction character. Now, it is his time to disappear in the mist and be forgotten by the others, and nothing can be changed. Augusto’s attempt to rebel against the writer is his gross mistake, and he needs to be punished.

The story ends tragically. Don Manuel has some problems with his health, which suddenly lead him to death. Lázaro, his devoted student, dies soon after him. The idea that Don Manuel scarifies his own life for other people’s happiness makes Lázaro respect and follow each step taken by his teacher. Angela is the only character, who is left. Now, her faith and all moral principles, she has known before, was broken. She cannot understand how such a blind faith may lead to such a tragic end. She is at loss and no one can help to find the way.

This Spanish philosopher and great writer, Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo, influenced considerably the development of the literature of the 20th century. His bright ideas about non-existence of the life after death and that our lives are controlled by someone else were unique for literature of those times. Not every person wants to comprehend that his/her destiny is in the hands of someone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Everyone wants to control his/her own life independently. After I read this book, I cannot but think whether all my actions have been already written by someone, and I can do nothing to change my life. Of course, such ideas are just my impressions from the book. It is really great that there are such masterpieces, like San Manuel Bueno, Mártir, that make the reader think about his/her own destiny and the role in this world.


You have to be really specific with the question you are going to choose and respond properly after reading “Epic scholarship essay help

You have to be really specific with the question you are going to choose and respond properly after reading “Epic of Gilgamesh” and also “Gilgamesh-The verse play”. I will provide the first one but the second one you can find it online on Google and read it. In case you can’t find it let me know and we can solve it. Is really important that you read the texts. ——-Gilgamesh:The verse play: