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Incident at Morale Case Study essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Step 1: Determine Facts of the Case

Step 2 and 3: Stakeholders and Their Motivations

Step 4: Formulate Possible Solutions

Step 5: Evaluate Alternatives

Step 6: Additional Assistance

Step 7: The Best Course of Action

Step 8: Implementing the Solution

Step 9: Monitoring and Assessing the Outcomes

Introduction The case under analysis called Incident at Morale focuses on ethical responsibilities and decisions that are highlighted in engineering practice. In particular, the video demonstrates that good and conscientious people can sometimes face situations, leading to unfortunate and unethical outcomes.

Therefore, the main aspects of the case rely on ethical considerations, overview of codes of ethics affecting the decision-making process, and evaluation of obligations that engineers should fulfill while concluding an agreement with a customer.

Step 1: Determine Facts of the Case Incident at Morales involves a range of ethical issues that the company confronts while building a plant and launching a new chemical product to sustain a competitive edge. Phaust Chemical manufactures a paint remover that is considered the leader at the market. Chemitoil plans to launch a new product to capture the market dominated by Phaust.

On learning that, Phaust’s executives have decided to work out a new highly competitive product and build a new plant in Mexico. In order to develop a new paint remover, the company employs a chemical engineer that had previously been working for Chemitoil. As the project begins, Phaust’s parent firm located in France reduces budget by 20 %. Under these circumstances, the vice president tells the newly hired engineer Fred to decrease the construction costs.

However, Fred encounters a number of ethical contradictions that play an important role in discussing expenditures, budget plans, environmental issues, management issues. In order to produce paint removal, Fred has to buy pipes and other devices that are made up of either of high pressure alloy or stainless steel.

Due to the fact that the major conception of Phaust’s new product lies in delivering the remover requiring higher pressures and temperatures, it can cause significant problems in terms of technical process and ethics. As a result of reduced terms and challenging conditions, an unfortunate accident occurs, causing serious problems.

Step 2 and 3: Stakeholders and Their Motivations Both Chuck, the head of engineering department, and Dominique, the head of the parent company in France, were interested in immediate construction of chemical plant in Mexico to produce a new product and capture new markets. Under these circumstances, they also have the opportunity to outstrip to the indices of their competitor – Chemitoil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main responsibility imposed on Mr. Martinez lied in designing a new firm within the established deadline and budgeting, which is a serious challenge. These terms, however, prevented the new engineer from taking environmental and safety issues into consideration and considering the responsibility for the personnel and quality of equipment.

Finally, Wally, the official representative of the Mexican department, exposed significant pressure on Fred who attempted to make certain amendments to the construction plan. The role of Wally, therefore, lied in convincing Mr. Martinez of using his own experience in creating the chemical manufacture. Ignorance of safety measures and inspection process could be the main reason for the accident at the plant.

Step 4: Formulate Possible Solutions While evaluating the main premises of the case, specific emphasis should be placed on such aspects as responsibility distribution, accountability, and corporate culture. To begin with, the Mexican official should have considered the role of responsibility in handling such issues as inspection control, human resources management, and adherence to quality standards.

Negligence of the construction plan procedures was explained by Wally excess attention to the outcomes of the venture. At this point, Wally should have been more careful before choosing the supplier for delivering details to a new plant and accelerating the process by all means.

Aside from the security measures, Fred should have been more strict and accountable for the construction process before making decision. In particular, Mr. Martinez should reconsider the budget and insist on development of new alternatives for construction process. This is of particular concern to purchasing alloys, which the plant could not afford.

Second, the new plant designer was under the pressure of environmental contradictions because most of the regulations were not followed. At this point, the solution here should involve assessment of ecological situation before analyzing the possibility for purchasing new equipment.

Step 5: Evaluate Alternatives Strict allocation of responsibilities should be introduced to the new team of constructors and engineers. Chuck should be more concerned with moral codes and corporate culture before deciding on the new chemical plant project.

We will write a custom Case Study on Incident at Morale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the attention also requires external environment evaluation, including social and political challenges that are predetermined by other environmental organizations and governmental authorities. The case with Wally’s power overuse demonstrates increased pressure and serious violation of ethical norms, which can result in negative consequences for the welfare of the personnel

Step 6: Additional Assistance Environmental protection and social corporate responsibilities should be the pillars of any business organization operating at the global market. Therefore, the company should, first of all, rely on these concepts before launching a new business venture. Second, the head of the engineering department should be aware of the professional obligations that each employee should observe.

Step 7: The Best Course of Action Adherence to ethical values, such as civility, respect, fairness, and kindness, is crucial for the managers to succeed in monitoring and administering the entire business project. In order to avoid complication and disagreements with environmental organization, the head of the engineering department should take greater control of inspection, testing, and reliability of the plant design to avert damage and ensure security issues.

This is of particular concern to personnel testing, analysis of legality and publicity, as well as common practice test, which identifies the reasonability of the implemented practices.

Step 8: Implementing the Solution Before implementing the above-proposed solutions, the managerial staff should conduct a performance test to evaluate emotional, psychological, and cultural aspects in the employed environment. All these issues are urgent for ensuring productivity and ethics in the workplace.

In addition, all actions carried out during the construction process should be transparent and, therefore, the public relation department should be more concerned with constant reporting. Information related to the environmental aspects of construction, as well as employees’ ethics should not be concealed because it prevents from fulfilling the main objectives of an international company.

Step 9: Monitoring and Assessing the Outcomes Open Door policy should be beneficial for introducing amendment to ethical and moral issues of the project. At this point, the manager should constantly monitor the fulfillment of and compliance with existing legal and ethical regulations to avoid complications. Such a policy can contribute greatly to company’s reputation and attract larger customer base.

While assessing the outcomes, the managers and engineers should pay closer attention to testing procedures, including performance procedure and employees’ engagement into the production process.

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The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University Essay a level english language essay help

The question of gender is actively discussed in relation to sport with references to providing the equal opportunities for female athletes. According to Title IX, any discrimination regarding the sex or gender issues is prohibited (Thornton, 2010). The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University of 2010 became one of the most controversial cases associated with the question.

It was stated that the Quinnipiac University intended to eliminate the women’s varsity volleyball team because of the lack of funding and to develop a competitive cheerleading team instead. The volleyball team’s players and their coach insisted on trying the case in court because of violating Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for university athletes.

According to the injunction provided by the Judge Stefan Underhill, the volleyball team was allowed to continue the activities during the next season when the development of the competitive cheerleading team could not be discussed as the alternative to the female sport team to meet the Title IX requirements.

To evaluate the effectiveness of Underhill’s decision, it is necessary to pay attention to the details of the case. The volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University and the team’s coach accentuated that the plan to eliminate the team violates Title IX because the proportion of the male and female athletes would be defied.

From this point, it is possible to speak about the direct violation of Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for male and female athletes. Underhill stated that the fact of discriminating female athletes’ rights was presented, and the Quinnipiac University was obliged to provide the opportunities for the team to perform during the next season (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010).

Thus, the legal strength of the argument was accentuated, and the team could be discussed as winning the case. However, there are two visions of the decision. On the one hand, the rights and interests of the women’s varsity volleyball team were met, and the fact of discrimination was stated.

On the other hand, the team was allowed to perform only during the 2010-2011 season, and the question was discussed again in 2012. Thus, the decision provided by the judge lacked some details.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, Underhill concentrated on the fact that it was impossible to refer to the cheerleading team as the competitive team and to discuss that team as the alternative to the volleyball team to meet the Title IX requirements. The decision provided by Underhill was rather effective while discussing the cheerleading team as inappropriate alternative to the female volleyball team.

Nevertheless, the controversy was associated with the fact that Underhill focused on the standards of the competitive sport teams and judged about the relevance of the standards and cheerleading team’s features to discuss it as the sport team. Underhill supported the decision in relation to the definition of the varsity sport with references to the Title IX standards (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010).

It is important to pay attention to the fact that the position of the judge as the advisor or an expert to determine the standards for the varsity sport is rather controversial, and it could be more effective to focus on violating the Title IX requirements regarding the women’s volleyball team rather than on discussing the features and standards of the varsity sport.

In spite of the general win of the women’s volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University in relation to Title IX, the judge’s argument cannot be discussed as strong and effective because it was important to concentrate on the issue of discrimination to determine the position of the team not only for one season but for the long period of time.

References The Quinnipiac University Case. (2010). Retrieved from http://courtweb.pamd.uscourts.gov/courtwebsearch/ctxc/KX330R32.pdf

Thornton, P. K. (2010). Sports law. USA: Jones

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Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract It is projected that poly-substance abuse is the major cause of depression because there are high chances that a depressed individual is a frequent user of poly-substances. Poly-substance abuse forces people to abandon their social roles, which lead to depression. This paper looks at the ways in which poly-substance abuse is related to depression.

The paper looks at the way in which poly-substance abuse brings about depression in adolescent males. The essay suggests a quantitative study that would be critical in gathering relevant data related to the relationship between depression and drug abuse. In the subsequent section, the proposal suggests a data analysis method that uses statistics

Introduction Poly-substance abuse in adolescent males with depression is common in many societies. Winters and Latimer (2004) conducted a study, which established that poly-substance abuse affects all ethnic groups meaning that it does not affect only certain cultural groupings. This quantitative study focuses on the relationship between poly-substance abuse in adolescent males and depression. By definition, poly-substance abuse refers to the patterned intake of a substance (drug) that is usually taken either in large or small quantities.

The substance has the ability to affect the behavior and actions of individuals. The substance is usually used illegally using unapproved methods meaning that it would definitely change the attitude of the individual. It should be noted that poly-substance abuse is not restricted to those that change the mood of the individual or those that activate the psychological processes.

Athletes are usually reported to using drugs that stimulate their muscles and give them additional energy. This is also considered drug abuse because it changes the functioning of the body and the brain, which affects the psychological processes. Ksir (2002) observed that the use of illicit drugs such as narcotics, stimulants, and depressants are some of the examples of poly-substance abuse.

Poly-substance abuse is directly related to depression because those who use drugs are always miserable as compared to non-users of drugs. People suffer emotionally due to the intake of illicit drugs. For instance, athletes are usually snatched their medals due to suspicion of poly-substance abuse. Research gaps in literature, which is related to the relationship between substance abuse and depression, exist.

Problem Statement

In human life, there are moments that an individual feels confused and sad. This is a normal feeling, but its persistence is considered a sign of depression. Depression occurs when a male adolescent loses something that he values so much in his life. Sometimes, an adolescent could be depressed after going through a stressful event or event.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At times, depression affects the normal life of the adolescent male because he cannot execute his duties in a way that befits him. This may lead to a psychological disorder referred to as the major depressive disorder (MDD), also referred to as clinical depression. Therefore, there is need of establishing the extent at which poly-substance abuse is related to depression.

It is clear that adolescent males engage in poly-substance abuse because of a number of reasons. Depression is the major cause because many feel frustrated to an extent of engaging in poly-substance abuse as a way of reducing stress.

Statement of Purpose

A number of studies have been conducted to ascertain the relationship between poly-substance abuse and depression. Each study has been focusing on particular groups, depending on the choice of the researcher. In this proposal, the effects of poly-substance abuse in adolescent males would be evaluated.

The main purpose of the proposal is to suggest a relevant method that would achieve desired results. The proposal gives some of the articles that would be critical in understanding the relationship between poly-substance abuse and depression in adolescent males. Apart from suggesting some of the articles in the literature review section, the proposal suggests a quantitative method that will utilize the questionnaires in gathering relevant data.

The use of questionnaire enables the researcher to collect adequate information that is relevant to the study. In doing this, the proposal seeks to answer a number of questions, including the following:

Is poly-substance abuse the only cause of depression among male adolescents?

To what extent does substance abuse influence the behavior of an individual

What are some of the substances that the adolescent males frequently abuse

Hypothesis

Male adolescents go through various challenges, one of them being poly-substance abuse, which affects their behavior and mood. Poly-substance abuse is a major cause of depression in adolescent males because it affects their psychological and social processes. This causes depression because the adolescent might not be able to achieve the expected results owing to poly-substance abuse.

Literature review Depression is the most crucial aspect that makes young males to indulge in poly-substance abuse. Male adolescents express their depression in various ways. Poly- substance abuse lowers an individual’s level of judgment making him or her to indulge in risky behaviors such as premarital sex or even becoming homosexual an aspect that increases their risk to diseases such as HIV/AIDS among others.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the studies that Boys, Marsden, and Strang conducted in 2000 concluded that poly-substance abuse has a tremendous effect on the life of young males. The study utilized a snowball sampling technique to reach at the conclusion. The respondents noted that some of the commonly abused substances include alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.

The majority of the participants confirmed that they had actually utilized the above substances to fulfill their measured substance use functions. In another study conducted by Huba and Lisa (2000), it was established that poly-substance abuse increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In their study, young Hispanic males were more likely to abuse poly-substances while the Native American females were prone to poly-substance abuse.

Moreover, the study established that those who abuse drugs are likely to engage in unprotected sex, which predisposes them to the risks of contracting HIV. It is noteworthy that their research results are representative of findings in clinical gay-bisexual male adolescents and may not hold for the same group of male adolescents in the general societal setting.

Additionally, different ethnic groups exhibit varying frequencies of the involvement of depressed adolescent boys in poly-substance abuse. This was established through a study carried out by Winters and Latimer (2004) in their attempt to find the relationship between Alcohol and other drugs abused in adolescent boys from different ethnic groups in the U.S.

Poulin (2004) and other scholars investigated the relationship between depression and poly-substance abuse in male adolescents in the four Atlantic provinces of Canada as far as gender is concerned. Poulin’s sample consisted of 12,771 students in both junior and high schools of the public schools in the four provinces.

They found out that adolescent males were consistently at a higher risk of depressive symptoms, depressive disorders since they tend to internalize their problems more than others do. According to their study, the prevalence of very elevated symptoms among male adolescents was 8.6% while that of the males was 2.6%. However, male adolescents are at a greater risk of substance use disorders than the adolescent females.

Poulin (2004) found out that different substances are used at different rates among male adolescents with depression. The findings were similar to those of Nolen-Hoeksema’s (2001) who carried out a study to describe how the different genders have different experiences as far as stress in male adolescents is concerned. They identified most of the abused substances among male adolescents. They include alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis.

They associated the increased use of these substances with an increasing probability of depressive disorder. They also noted that smoking was the least controllable substance among the males. They established that depressive symptoms and disorder are the major predictors of smoking uptake not only in adolescence but also in adulthood. Early onset smoking poses a greater risk for severe depression symptoms than later onset smoking. On the other hand, cannabis abuse was associated with males with had a history of depression disorder.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An approximated 16% of those who had used cannabis at least once in their life were diagnosed with depression compared to 6% of the male adolescents who had never used cannabis. They also found out that most of the students had depression symptoms while others already had depression disorder but they had not received much help form the society. Only 10.3% reported that they had received help for depression.

Their findings show that for the different levels of depression only 12% of the students with somewhat elevated depressive symptoms had received help so was 22% of the students who had very elevated depressive symptoms. Major depression is one of the most common and serious disorders among male adolescents.

The estimated prevalence of the disorder is between 2.8% and 8.2%. Depressed adolescents are highly vulnerable to poly substance abuse such as engagement in multiple illegal activities (Poulin 2004).

No study proves that defective genes cause major depressive disorder. However, a relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depression disorder exits. This is based on the idea that some families are known to commit suicide while others have the ability of handling stress very well.

In one of the studies performed on twins, a relationship between genetics and major depression disorder was eminent (Smoller, Sheidley,

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Chapter 2, 3, essay help online

Book – Managerial Accounting for Managers By: Eric Noreen
– After reading Chapter 2 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 2-7, Exercise 2-13 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
– After reading Chapter 3 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 3-16 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
– After reading Chapter 4 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 4-16, Exercise 4-17 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)

Problems are attached

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Fishery Industry: UAE Term Paper online essay help

Introduction For centuries fish has been a mainstay of the diet of the people within the U.A.E. and, as a result, has brought about the creation of numerous industries which focus on harvesting, processing and delivering seafood to a vast consumer market within the region.

However, it should be noted that researchers such as Zoubir and Yahia (1999) state that industries such as these are not given carte blanche to do whatever they want in terms of harvesting the waters in and around the U.A.E. (Zoubir and Yahia, 1999). Certain limitations have to be implemented due to the potential for these industries to wipe out a finite ocean resource (Groeneveld et al., 2012).

What must be understood is that supplies of fish and other aquatic organisms take a certain amount of time to replenish. Unfortunately, due to the subsequent increase in demand for seafood as well as the advanced methods of capture that are being utilized at the present, unrestricted fishing practices often result in unsustainable local aquatic populations which subsequently die out (Groeneveld et al., 2012).

Evidence of this can be seen in the case of the blue fin tuna species as well as the North Atlantic salmon which have experienced considerable population declines to the extent that the W.T.O. as well as several advocacy groups have been protesting their continued use as a food product due to the very real possibility of extinction.

Due to instances such as this, the necessity of implementing proper policies and guidelines to create catch quotas has been at the forefront of present-day government legislation involving the local fishery industry within the U.A.E.

It is based on this that this paper will examine the current policies being utilized for fish within the U.A.E. and what these policies have achieved in terms of creating the necessary catch limitations to ensure sustainable fishing practices.

Through this study, it is expected that readers will develop a greater understanding of current import/export practices within the U.A.E. involving fish as well as whether there exists any potential problems within the fishery industry that the government should focus on in order to increase the effective and efficient utilization of aquatic resources in order to reduce cost and wastefulness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background of the Study Fish as a Staple of the Human Diet

For a large percentage of the current global population fish represents a readily available and above all affordable means of sustenance when compared to other food types. Based on comparative global prices it can be seen that certain species of domesticated fish such as milkfish, cod, and dory are actually consumed by the metric ton on an almost daily basis due to their relatively low prices.

While it may be true that beef, chicken and pork have a relatively higher rate of consumption the fact still remains that in most markets fish that are either caught on the open sea or produced through aquaculture have a relatively lower price as compared to most cuts of beef, chicken or pork.

In some cultures, particularly those in the Middle East, fish is actually consumed more than beef, chicken or pork due to their geography, which places them near larger sources of fish as compared to cultures located in Central Europe or the central states in the U.S.

Taking this into consideration it can be seen that fish has a different value depending on the geographic location of the culture that consumes it. For some cultures various dishes based on fish can be considered an integral part of their cultural tradition, while for others fish can be considered nothing more than a miscellaneous option between chicken, beef, pork or vegetables.

Sustainability

Sustainability refers to the utilization of resources and the production of goods/services in a manner that takes into consideration not only the impact of a company on the environment but also its ability to ensure that the resources it utilizes are sourced in a manner that ensures that they can be renewable.

By doing so, this creates a system where costs are reduced, efficiency is increased and the company presents a far better public image due to the general consensus that implementing sustainable practices creates a beneficial effect for the general public.

As such, sustainable supply chains implement the aforementioned principles into a cohesive whole in every aspect of the supply chain, whether it is the sourcing of raw materials, the manufacturing of goods/services or the distribution of such outputs to consumers. From the perspective

We will write a custom Term Paper on Fishery Industry: UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Abbasi and Nilsson (2012) an organization with a truly successful sustainable supply chain could theoretically remain in business forever (depending on continued consumer demand for its products of course) which lends credence to the beneficial effects a sustainable supply chain could have for a company (Abbasi and Nilsson, 2012).

One example of a sustainable supply chain is when a company’s management orientation is evidenced by a business model where economic goals are compatible with environmental and social goals. In this particular version of a successful supply chain a company does not focus entirely on a competitor oriented approach (though this is also important) rather what is being accomplished is that it focuses on developing a business model that utilizes Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.) as the basis behind its actions.

Since C.S.R. is a form of internal self-regulation, a company that implements this focuses on reducing adverse environmental practices while at the same time develops positive social effects. A second example of a sustainable supply chain is when sustainability becomes integrated in the organization where the organization has both a managerial orientation toward sustainability and an innovation capability.

This means that internal developments within the organization focus on developing methods wherein processes become more efficient, waste is reduced, resources are obtained from renewable sources and the focus of the company is towards the development of practices that result in positive environmental effects.

Objectives The main objectives of this study consist of the following:

To examine the current policies for fish and fisheries involving seasonal and species limitations.

Determine the extent by which the policies that have been developed are actually effective in ensuring sustainable fishing practices.

Examine the current import/export regulations of fisheries.

Investigate whether there are any inherent problems/discrepancies in government policies and regulations.

Create a means by which any identified problems can be succinctly addressed with an effective strategy that would resolve the issues.

Methodology Introduction to Methodology

This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.

Data Analysis

The primary method of data analysis for this study will consist of document analysis. As described in the book “Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation” by Merriam (2009), document analysis primarily consists of examining academic articles, journals and books as well as various analytic and statistical reports in order to investigate a particular topic or issue.

This method of analysis primarily concerns itself with the presentation of data in support of an argument through a summary and subsequent explanation of all the literature and statistical references collected by the author.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fishery Industry: UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This method of analysis was chosen since it would enable the most efficient investigation of the data necessary for this study as well as enables the researcher to easily present the needed data without undue complications such as scheduling issues or noncompliance with the objectives of the research which is often seen in interview/questionnaire-based studies.

Data Collection

Data collection for this study will actually be quite straightforward, the researcher will collect information from a variety of online databases such as EBSCOhost and Jstore as well as through other sources such as published books and articles (when available).

Online statistical databases created by the U.A.E. will also be utilized in order to collect data over the past 60 years regarding catch rates and present-day catch limitations that are being imposed on local fisheries within the U.A.E.

It is expected that through these databases an accurate representation of the current state of the fishery industry within the U.A.E. can be created.

Ethical Considerations

Possible ethical considerations that may arise through this study consist of the following:

The potential for unintentional plagiarism through verbatim lifting of information, arguments and points of view from researched source material.

The use of unsubstantiated information taken from unverifiable or nonacademic resources (ex: internet articles).

The use of a biased viewpoint on issues which may inadvertently result in an alteration of the data collection results.

Presentation of data without sufficient corroborating evidence or a lack of citation.

Falsifying the results of the research for the benefit of the initial assumptions of the study.

Using views and ideas without giving due credit to the original source.

According to various research guides, “Ethics refers to the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected by it”. It is based on this that the researcher will attempt to perform proper research ethics on this paper by actively avoiding all the listed possible ethical issues that may arise in order to ensure the validity and veracity of the study results.

Results and Analysis Fishing within the U.A.E

It is quite interesting to note that despite being one the richest and technologically advanced regions within the world, the U.A.E. actually has little in the way of large scale local fisheries. Most of the vessels utilized for fishing within the waters off the Emirate are relatively small scale with technological developments such as trawling through the use of large nets being banned.

While from a certain perspective the U.A.E. does not rely on its fishery industry due to its rich oil reserves, the fact remains that the region considers fishing as a form of regional heritage and, as such, various policies have been enacted which have created a state of rudimentary management as compared to the state of affairs that existed 40 years ago where no effective methods of management were implemented.

Despite the artisanal (i.e., heritage-based) fishing that exists within the U.A.E., it has been shown that nearly 90 percent of its fish stocks have experienced a significant decline in the past two decades.

Not only that, combined with the fact that vessel registration within the Emirate has seen a 25% decline is indicative of the fact that not only is there a decline in the availability of local species, the local fishery industries have actually noticed this and, as a result, have scaled back their operations resulting in a scant number of vessels actually fishing the local U.A.E. coastline.

In trying to understand the decline of fish stocks within the region it is important to note that within the past 30 years, the U.A.E. has actually experienced phenomenal growth in terms of industrial and commercial property development. This has impacted not only the region’s interior but has actually encompassed aspects of its coastline as well wherein various land reclamation projects have in effect significantly altered the bio-system of established aquatic species.

Researchers such as Tourenq and Launay (2008) have pointed out that the artificial expansion of the U.A.E. coastline without heed for the possible environmental ramifications would definitely have had some form of impact on the local fish population (Tourenq and Launay, 2008).

As Tourenq and Launay (2008) explains, coastlines act not only as breeding areas and sanctuaries but are also the local of a vast percentage of the local migration patterns of aquatic sea populations. The development that has occurred within the U.A.E. has upset such a balance resulting in the declining fish populations that are seen at the present (Tourenq and Launay, 2008).

Current State of the U.A.E Fisheries Industry

Based on an examination of recent catches, it can be seen that the following fish species are the primary catches caught off the local coastline by the fishery industry:

Groupers – consists of 24.7 percent of all caught fish

Jacks- consists of 16.5 percent of all caught fish

Emperors – consists of 25 percent of all caught fish

Sweet lips – consists of 10.5 percent of all caught fish

Scads – consists of 5.2 percent of all caught fish

While it may be true that artisanal fishing vessels in the form of dhows (wooden vessels that are 15 meters in length) or outboard powered vessels “tarads” (normally 8 to 10 meters in length) are the primary means by which the local fishing industry gets its “catch” the fact remains that combined with the current state of coastline development within the country, the means by which the local fishery industry catches fish is contributing significantly to the continued reduction of fish species within the Emirate.

The reason behind this is quite simple, in combination with traditional practices the local fishery industry at times attempts to utilize banned methods of fishing, which results in considerable reductions in the local population to such a degree that the methods utilized are in effect unsustainable in the long run.

First and foremost, the use of traditional fixed stake rake nets, which are called “hadra” has lead to the catch of fish that are less than the optimum size. These fish, usually juveniles, have yet to spawn and contribute to the local fish population and, as such, their capture is incredibly detrimental towards the continued survival of local species.

The problem with hadra’s is that the netting they utilize in catching fish has not changed in design in well over 100 years. This type of netting is usually meant to catch as many fish as possible without heed for size and, as such, has holes which do not let juveniles pass through as compared to a majority of modern-day fishing nets which are more discriminate in the type of fish they are able to catch.

While the Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency (ERWDA) has attempted to establish a variety of new regulations limiting the types of netting utilized as well as the size of fish caught the problem really boils down to the fact that there is an insufficient means of enforcement within the region to facilitate and effective means of enforcement for the agency’s policies.

Aside from the use of hadras, there has been a significant increase in the use of illegal trawling nets in order to catch Spanish mackerel during its fishing seasons.

The main problem with trawling is similar to that of the hadras since they are indiscriminate in the types of fish caught, however, unlike the hadras trawling nets are able to catch thousands of pounds of fish at a time and, as a result, this has lead to further reduction in local fish stocks since insufficient numbers of fish have been left behind in order to help boost the population.

Another problem with the local fishery industry is related to the fact that no official numbers have been collected regarding the amount of catches per fishery vessel within the Emirate.

Despite the fact that most of the fish caught is funneled through Abu Dhabi, there has been an insufficient level of investigation at the local level in order to determine whether local fisheries are staying within the catch allotments assigned to them by the government.

As a result, there is a very real possibility that overfishing is occurring which contributes to the current decline in the local aquatic species.

Discussion Management Efforts in Resolving the Identified Issues

Some environmental management efforts to resolve to the identified issues initially came in the form of freezing the amount of licenses granted to new fishermen in 2003, yet by 2004 licenses were allowed to be issued again despite the fact that there has been no sufficient recovery on the part of the local ocean life.

Other such limitations have come in the form of a limitation on the number of fishing traps (called gargoor) to 100 per boat (Al-Qaydi, 2008). However, despite this limitation on the number of traps, there was no limitation set on other types of fishing gear per vessel (i.e., nets), which enabled the fisheries to continue fishing with no apparent reduction in the amount of fish caught.

Other restrictions attempted by the local government came in the form of requiring a U.A.E. national to be on board the boat when it attempted to fish. While such a tactic worked initially, the lack of enforcement on the part of the government when it came to ensuring that U.A.E. nationals were actually on the boats themselves resulted in subsequent “ghost fishing trips” occurring wherein nationals claimed they were on the boat but were in fact nowhere near the boat in the first place (Al-Qaydi, 2008).

While the U.A.E. was able to introduce legislation to resolve the identified issues with its local fishery industry in the form of Federal Law number 23, the fact remains that there is an insufficient structure for enforcement and investigation at the local level. Catches are not monitored on a per boat basis but rather on the amounts found within the drop off centers and declared by the boats themselves resulting in the very real possibility of catch falsification in order to show compliance with local regulations.

Not only that, with no search and seizure mandates as well as sufficiently harsh criminal prosecutions on individuals who violate the established mandates on catch limitations within the coastlines of the Emirate, this shows that the current means by which the local aquatic environment is being protected is only a “show”.

There is no means by which enforcement is created and established with various public ministries merely patching up the damage rather than directly addressing the issue.

As a result of such actions, despite the attempts of the local government to create a sustainable fishing environment within the U.A.E., the fact remains that the lack of government willingness to actually establish concrete measures of enforcement and compliance has made it so that it is likely that fish populations within the U.A.E. will continue to plummet as a direct result of overfishing and the continued rapid development of construction projects along its coastlines (Al-Qaydi, 2008).

Resolving the Problems

Aside from implementing more stringent management and regulatory procedures on local fisheries, the U.A.E. government, along with various private enterprises, has actually actively sought to help address the problem of overfishing through alternative methods. One of these methods actually involves the raising of juvenile fish by the thousands at onshore facilities, which are then released into the wild to help address the issue of dwindling supplies of fish.

This program, which was enacted by the Ministry of Environment and Water’s Marine Resources Research Center has been effective in helping to temporarily curb the decline of various fish species within the past few years. Unfortunately, despite the fact that the fishing catch within the U.A.E. ha decline from 118,000 metric tons in 1999 to 90,000 tons at the present, the fact remains that the rate of reproduction of local species has yet to reach a sufficient level to become sustainable in the long run.

Adding to this problem is a general lack of public concern surrounding the issue of declining fish populations within the Emirate. What must be understood is that a vast majority of the current fish stock within many of the U.A.E.’s markets and grocery stores are actually imported from other countries and regions.

As a result, the general public has not “felt” so to speak the declining fish availability since they are used to having a large and prolific choice of fish as a direct result of international importers.

The end result of such a state of affairs is a slow and at times redundant introduction of new juvenile fish species by the Ministry of Environment and Water’s Marine Resources Research Center which do not have the desired impact due to the lack of general public support for a respite in the amount of fish caught locally (Fujiwara, 2012).

Other attempts at reducing the amount of fish caught have come in the form of establishing small fishing farms within various areas along the U.A.E. coastline in order to help raise the needed fish in a more sustainable fashion. Such attempts have actually proven to be immensely successful and have even led to the introduction of new types of fish species being introduced into the Emirate as seen in the case of the various.

Summary and Conclusion The defining factors of a successful society in the modern-day era has been the level of industrial and technological achievement from which that society derives a certain degree of economic success and creates the trappings of what is known as the “modern-day lifestyle”.

Societies all over the world continue to strive to reach this supposed pinnacle of success; yet, the price for reaching such a goal often comes through significant environmental deterioration as seen in the case of the U.A.E.’s local fishery industry. The inherent source of the problem is not the process of industrialization itself, but the attitudes many societies have developed in response to the supposed “necessity” of reaching the goal of “modern-day success”.

People are not concerned whether or not the continued development of the U.A.E. coast leads towards the destruction of the local aquatic ecosystem nor are they overly concerned with the impact of overfishing on the local marine life, instead they are more than happy to relegate such responsibilities to the local government which itself is unwilling to take the necessary actions in fear of being labeled “too harsh” by local critics.

This is particularly troublesome when taking into consideration the difficulties involved in a conjoined societal effort to implement new practices of sustainability for the fishery industry when there is mutual distrust as a direct result of the social stratification brought about by industrialization.

Based on the various arguments presented, it can be seen that it is not the process of industrialization itself that has lead to unsustainable fishery practices and the deterioration of the local coastline environment, rather, it is the perspective of U.A.E. society at the present wherein people believe that it is necessary to industrialize in order to achieve what is perceived as a modern-day lifestyle regardless of the possible costs that is the main culprit behind the problems seen today.

Recommendation As the demand for fish grows so too will the necessity of increasingly larger means of fish extraction and delivery to supply such a demand. The inherent problem with this is that the price of finite resources continues to increase over time as demand grows. There will eventually come a time where the U.A.E. will have to deal with the dwindling supply of fish and the aftereffects that continued construction and overfishing have caused on the environment.

There are already squabbles breaking out between India, China and Egypt regarding sharing the aquatic resources that feed into their respective territories with no end in sight in finding an effective solution. It is based on this that the researcher for this project advocate better methods of aquatic species conservation as well as a certain degree of self-imposed limitations on demand growth through the following methods so as to ensure that fish resources are not completely depleted within the coming years:

Use of Propaganda to Incite Public Opinion Towards Conservation

Propaganda is a method of communication which is used to influence the attitudes of specific groups of individuals towards a particular cause or position. In essence, instead of a sense of impartiality propaganda actually presents information in such a way so as to influence an audience through selective dissemination of information in order to create an emotional rather than a rational response to certain issues.

What must be understood is that propaganda utilizes elements such as loaded questions, partial synthesis or even lying by omission in order to gain the desired response. On the other hand, propaganda is also used in various public information campaigns by governments for positive effects such as the Australian governments fight against illegal downloads connoting their use with stealing and its use by the U.S. during the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq as a supposed “war on terror”.

In essence, the use of propaganda and its effects can be associated with the ethical reasoning behind its usage. It is based on this that a strategy utilizing propaganda can be utilized in order to help generate awareness and action among members of the general public within the U.A.E. in order to help them understand the current problems that the local fish population face and the sacrifices that must be done in order to resolve such an issue.

It is expected that through the proper propaganda campaigns general awareness will increase to such an extent that the government will have no choice but to implement far more stringent measures of control over the fishery industry to appease the clamor from the local population.

Implementing Methods of “Green” (i.e. Sustainable) Construction and Development

The term “green” means the utilization of technologies, ideals or concepts that put environmental stewardship at the forefront of one’s actions. In other words it is an attempt at modifying one’s behavior towards a more environmentally “friendly” course of action.

This means pursuing strategies involving the utilization of recyclable material, conserving resources rather than wasting them through negligent use, and finally advocating the pursuit of methods of environmental stewardship both in technologies used and in social action.

In a way going “green” can be described as a form of ethos, the concept of ethos can be described as a form of guiding beliefs that are an inherent part of a community or nation’s character. It is used as a guide that influences a person’s behavior to such an extent that by examining the ethos behind a culture you can determine how they will react based on a given situation.

It is based on this that it can be assumed that going “green” is an ideology that one attempts to follow due to it possessing characteristics that are appealing to a person’s inherent character and set of ideals. Such an aspect can be implemented in the case of the U.A.E. when it comes to the construction and development of its various coastal projects.

A variety of ecological sustainable practices can be implemented, which help to promote the continued health of the environment rather than destroy it. It is expected that should such “green” project developments occur, it can help to reduce the damage done by the recklessly destructive coastline construction that had occurred previously.

Reference List Abbasi, Maisam, and Fredrik Nilsson. 2012. “Themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally sustainable.” Supply Chain Management 17, no. 5, pages 517-530. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost .

Al-Qaydi, Saif S. 2008. “Tradition, Change, and Government Policy in the United Arab Emirates East Coast Fishing Community.” American Geographical Society’s Focus On Geography 51, no. 1: 1-6. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost .

Fujiwara, Masami. 2012. “Demographic Diversity and Sustainable Fisheries.” Plos ONE 7, no. 5: 1-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost .

Merriam, S. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, John Wiley

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Slowdown in U.S housing market Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Slowdown in U.S housing market

The government’s rent control and rental regulations

The minimum wage laws

Works Cited

Slowdown in U.S housing market During the period between 1998 and 2008, the prices of housing in the United States rose dramatically. In some part of the country, the prices increased by more than fifty percent (Roberts 25). This process can be explained by different factors such as deregulation, tax policies, low interest rates, and the firm conviction of many people that real estate will never depreciate (Roberts 25).

Nevertheless, in 2006 U.S. housing market began to slow down. The prices on housing declined in different regions of the United States. Despite the efforts of the government, the situation has not changed much, and the real estate market of the country remains stagnant even at the beginning of 2013.

This problem will be discussed can be attributed the fact that modern economy has become extremely interconnected, and the failure of one sector can adversely influence other areas of economy.

It is particularly important to speak about the context of this issue because in this way one can better understand its impacts. First of all, before 2006 the value of housing was important for the purchasing power of many people in the country. Furthermore, the sustainability of many banks depended on the price of housing since these institutions used real estate as a form of mortgage or collateral (Roberts 12).

Additionally, the financial performance of stock could be affected by the housing market. Thus, one can argue that different elements of the economy were extremely interdependent. This is the reason why the collapse and subsequent stagnation of the housing market produced far-reaching consequences.

There are several implications of this crisis. In particular, one can speak about the diminishing availability of credit for the population since many banks expect to receive some collateral from the borrowers. The problem is that real estate has long been the most conventional form of collateral, and currently it has become less valuable.

Furthermore, in the U.S housing market, the supply significantly exceeds the demand for real estate. Moreover, a great number of financial institutions and governmental agencies face a significant challenge. In particular, they should avoid numerous foreclosures since this trend increases the supply of the housing. These are the main challenges that should be overcome.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can identify several consequences that are very important. For instance, the revenues of many real estate companies dropped dramatically. These organizations have to lay off many of their workers. At this point, the sustainability of these firms is under threat. Furthermore, one should remember about the difficulties faced by homeowners.

At this point, these people do not know whether their real estate can retain its value in the future. This issue is very urgent when the rate of foreclosures increases. Furthermore, one should remember that many communities have been affected by this slowdown. Many of them have become almost abandoned because of many people had to leave their houses. This is another issue that should not be overlooked.

These examples suggest that the recession of the U.S housing market has affected various stakeholders such as homeowners, financial organizations, real estate companies and sometimes even entire communities. The most important challenge is the lack of stimulus that can revitalize this industry. This is the main problem that policy-makers and business leaders should address in order to boost the development of the American economy.

The government’s rent control and rental regulations Another issue that should be discussed is the rent control that is aimed at making housing more affordable (Rowley and Schneider 188). In many cases, governmental regulations are supposed to act as price ceilings that prevent the price of rent from increasing. Furthermore, they are designed to protect the rights of clients who often fall victims of information asymmetry (Rowley and Schneider 188).

Apart from that, these laws are designed to benefit many families since it may be difficult for them to find a new apartment. This is the main rationale for adopting this strategy. It is important to determine the implications of this policy, especially its impact on the market.

One can say that this intrusion into the market can create difficulties for tenants and renters. However, these regulations are vital for people with low levels of income.

First, it should be noted that these regulations have become extremely important at the time, when the price on housing was gradually rising. Some people could not afford to purchase a real estate, and rent was probably the only option available to them. This situation was very widespread among low-income people who could not receive a mortgage from a bank.

We will write a custom Essay on Slowdown in U.S housing market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, one should also remember about people who choose to rent their houses. These individuals and organizations can be affected by inflation, while price-ceilings do not always reflect the changes in the inflation rate. Moreover, it should be kept in mind that these stakeholders can invest capital in the redevelopment of the housing that they possess (Euchner and McGovern 168).

Nevertheless, they may be unable to recover these costs by increasing rent prices. These are some of some of the main circumstances that should be considered. These factors can explain some effects of governmental intervention in the housing market.

There are several consequences and implications of this issue. First of all, researchers believe that this policy decreases the mobility of people. In other words, they are willing to stay in those cities, where they can find more affordable housing. This means that they can be deprived of many economic opportunities, for instance, when they have to find a new job (Rittenberg 100).

Additionally, economists warn policy-makers about the existence of the so-called shadow market that are hardly regulated by the government (Euchner and McGovern 168). The problem is that in state-controlled markets the demand for housing will eventually exceed supply.

The property owners, who have to work in such an environment, can rely on the backdoor payments while dealing with customers (Rittenberg 100). For example, one can mention the use of large security deposits (Rittenberg 100). This is the main danger that legislator should be aware of while designing their policies.

Yet, one should remember about another effect of price controls. They create more security for many occupants are dependent on the availability housing and the stability of prices. These people cannot be easily evicted from houses. As it has been noted before, for many families it is extremely challenging to find a new accommodation.

The rent control is supposed to uphold the rights of these people. Thus, one should not forget about the possible benefit of this strategy. Economists believe that government can give some tax relief to the property owners who have to operate in state-controlled market (Rittenberg 100). In this way, they can reconcile the interests of different stakeholders.

Therefore, one can argue that the governmental regulations can create many difficulties for people who need to rent an apartment or a house. In particular, this strategy can eventually decrease the supply of accommodation. Nevertheless, it can increase the security of many tenants. Thus, it has both advantages and disadvantages that should be taken into account by policy-makers in the United States.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Slowdown in U.S housing market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The minimum wage laws The economic development of a country is also influenced by the existence of the minimum wage laws. According to these regulations, private companies and governmental organizations are obliged to pay a certain minimum amount of money for their hourly work (Mathis 371).

Overall, it is possible to argue that these laws are important for protecting the rights of employees in the workplace. Moreover, they are important for increasing the purchasing power of the population. This is why they can be regarded as a positive force. This is the main argument that should be examined in more detail.

It should be noted that minimum wage law has a long history in the United States. For example, they can be traced to 1933. In turn, the most recent piece of legislation is Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 (Mathis 372). Overall, these protective measures are particularly important for young and often unskilled people who often lack experience and expertise.

These workers are most likely to become the victims of unscrupulous employers. This danger is the most important rationale for enacting minimum wage laws in the United States. Nevertheless, one should not forget about the interests of companies that are now driven by the need to reduce their operational costs and labor expenses.

This conflict of interest is one of the reasons why these regulations are so often debated. The task of policy makers is to find some form of compromise. It is vital to look at the possible consequences of this strategy and its long-term implications.

Overall, one can say that nowadays the existence of minimum wage laws influences various kinds of businesses. These organizations can be engaged in different economic activities such as construction, hospitality, fishing, retailing, and so forth. The workers, who benefit from the legislation, often lack professional education, and their labor is not very expensive (Mathis 373).

The most important benefit of this policy is that the purchasing power of low-wage employees remains relatively stable. Some critics of this policy believe that minimum wage laws can decrease the demand for the labor of young workers. However, this hypothesis has been fully confirmed (Mathis 373).

Therefore, there are no adverse consequences of this regulation; at they have not demonstrated in an empirical way. This is one of the main points that can be made.

Thus, it is possible to argue that minimum wage laws have already become an inseparable part of the modern economic life. These regulations are important for a great number of workers in the United States.

Although some companies can be reluctant to accept these laws, they remain vital for ensuring the compensation of workers and the purchasing power of American people. This is the main reason why this initiative can be supported by the government.

Works Cited Euchner, Charles and S. McGovern. Urban Policy Reconsidered: Dialogues on the Problems and Prospects of American Cities. Philadelphia: Routledge, 2003. Print.

Mathis, Robert. Human Resource Management, New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Rittenberg, Libbie. Principles of Microeconomics, Boston: Flat World Knowledge, 2008. Print.

Roberts, Lawrence. The Great Housing Bubble, New York: Monterey Cypress LLC, 2008. Print.

Rowley, Charles, and F. Schneider. The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, New York: Springer, 2004. Print.

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Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Understanding the theory of ‘common sense’

The state of equality of mankind and the government

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Several theories have been advanced by a significant number of theorists, who seek to use these theories to explain the functionality of institutions within political realms of the society. One such theorist is Thomas Paine, who coined the theory of ‘common sense’. Paine is one of the ancient theorists in history.

He developed this theory back in 1776. The theory seeks to criticize the actions of individuals and authorities. Paine’s theory has a number of empirical justifications that can help in inspiring the actions by governments and individuals concerning issues of governance (Larkin 88). This paper explores Paine’s theory of ‘common sense’.

The paper expands on the subject of equality of people in governance as poised by Paine’s theory. The paper also carries a critical evaluation and the worthiness of the arguments that are postulated by Paine.

Understanding the theory of ‘common sense’ As observed in the introductory notes, the concept of ‘common sense’ was developed in the latter years of the 18th century. During this period, the accolades of British imperialism were still prevalent in the United States.

A substantial number of modern political theorists have argued that this concept by Paine posed the first major challenge to Britain’s Authority in the United States by critiquing the actions of the British administrators in the United States. The theory is strongly founded in the development of governance in the society and the implications for which it has on the interaction of people and the government.

Common sense as brought out by Paine entails passages that appertain to natural rights; human rights made humans equal and should, thus, be treated equally. The main argument of the theory, which is the abuse of power by the political authority, is often easily justified. However, the main concern is whether the justification of such abuses warrants to be given attention by the society.

The society is built by the common demands of the citizenry, while governments are often built on the grounds of exploitative thoughts. Therefore, Paine argues that the foundations of the society promote the equality of human beings through the aspect of common needs, while the foundations of governance kill the recognition of human equality through cultivation of wickedness for gains (Paine and Philp n.p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his exploration of the origin and existence of government in the society, Paine argued that the government is often the source of miseries that befalls man. He makes a comparison of government with the existence of a society in the earth, which does not have any attributes of governance.

He notes that such a population would be quite united and respectful of the rights of each other since human beings are united by their needs under what is known as ‘society’. He made reference to how power is molded in governance, where he noted that people fear power because of its negative attributes. Therefore, the fact that the government is molded along power makes it harder for people to trust the government.

The issue of power and its subsequent exercise is a complex issue altogether and increases the difficulty of embracing the state of equality. Power is molded by both the subjects and the rulers.

While it is claimed that the subjects have a role to play in shaping the exercise of power, the rulers take advantage of the loyalty and the respect accorded to them to abuse the power vested on them. What ought to be asked is whether power can be guarded and utilized for the benefit of enhancing natural equality of human beings (Paine para. 2).

The state of equality of mankind and the government It is critical to note that the subject of equality is one of the most debatable subjects in the philosophy of governance. One thing that comes into the minds of people concerning the argument of the ‘common sense’ theory is whether the argument provides rational ideas about the issue of equality in governance. Can equality of human beings exist in the political setup?

A number of people argue that some of the arguments that are advanced in the theory of common sense can be justified because of the nature and structure of the society. However, other people find the argument to be logical by citing instances that denote the importance of the embrace of human beings by governments (Aldridge 47).

The society is wide and the question of rights and equality of human beings in the society cannot be easily explicated. This is a pointer to the fact that the passages in the common sense that appertain to natural rights are not certain, thus they are subjected to a lot of critics.

We will write a custom Essay on Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, the publication of the theory of ‘common sense’ elicited a debate about the black population in the United States and the status or the level at which the black population had rights over the black population. It comes out that the blacks were considered to be lesser human beings than the whites. This can be blamed on the government (Paine para. 6).

What comes out here is that the issue of equality begins with the manner in which people look at each other and treat each other within the society. Racial discrimination existed in America long before independence and has continued to reign. The only difference today is that it is not done openly as was done before.

The cases of racial discrimination are still rampant and widely reported in a substantial number of states in the United States and other regions of the world. Therefore, it is quite irrational to blame the government for failing to respect the equality of human beings, while the society itself, which is considered to be a neutral entity, does not respect the equality of human beings.

However, what should be asked here is whether the government can shape the society and make it embrace human equality. Based on the foundations on which the government is built, it is doubtful to trust that the government can help the society to embrace equality of human beings (Paine para. 6-7).

Paine sought to understand the most critical thing between independence and reconciliation in the development of a nation. He noted that reconciliation is quite complex and difficult to attain, yet it is most critical in the embrace of the equality of mankind in nations. According to Paine, most nations prefer independence over exercising of independence and reconciliation.

The pursuance of independence by governments is argued to be the leading factor to the growth of dependency of nations. In the pursuance of independence, man remains to be a victim of the channels and steps that are put in place in order to attain the most sought for status by nations in the world. It makes more sense to put this argument in the contemporary political economy.

The question that needs to be asked is whether countries in the contemporary political economy pursue the doctrine of independence of the doctrine of reconciliation, and how each course promotes the equality of human beings.

Most analysts seem to be of the opinion that both doctrines are being practiced by countries, though on totally varying scales. Each country prefers to pursue dependency, which is the reason why there is a lot of competition between nations in the world today.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under such intense competition, the respect of equality of all human beings is often ignored. Reconciliation often comes out as an alternative doctrine after the interests to attain dependence have resulted in actions that raise an alarm on the respect of the rights of human beings (Paine 57-60).

The other thing that comes out in Paine’s theory is the issue of absolutism in governments. Paine opines that governments lack moral virtue. This resonates from the manner in which governments are formed. The lack of moral virtue in governments is a hindrance to the respect of human nature and the equality of human beings.

Pain applauds absolute governments by arguing that the citizens in these countries are often aware of the source of disgrace to human equality. The implication of this statement is that even the governments that claim to embrace the rights and equality of human beings are found committing atrocities, which questions their commitment to enhance the doctrine of human equality (Paine 11).

Conclusion According to the argument in this paper, the theory of common sense by Paine has been subjected to criticisms by a substantial number of people. As postulated in the paper, it is quite daunting for governments to embrace natural equality because of the foundations on which government is built. The exercise of power by governments is cited as the main impediment to the embrace of natural equality.

Works Cited Aldridge, Alfred O. Thomas Paine’s American Ideology. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984. Print.

Larkin, Edward. Thomas Paine and the literature of revolution. Cambridge University Press: New York, 2005. Print.

Paine, Thomas, and Philp Mark. Rights of Man, Common Sense, and other Political Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.

Paine, Thomas, Common Sense: Introduction. n.d. Web. https://www.varsitytutors.com/ebooks/earlyamerica/CommonSense/3755.txt

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The Natural Resource Curse Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The natural resource curse affects countries with abundant natural resources. Studies done to investigate this phenomenon reveal several paradoxical issues relating the presence of natural resources in a country.

For instance, countries that rely on natural resources for budgetary financing seem to have an inverse economic growth in relation to the percentage of the national budget financed using natural wealth. This paper looks at the issue of the natural resource curse with a view of uncovering why some countries suffer from it, while others do not.

Natural resources refer to endowments in mineral wealth, or naturally occurring plant and animal life. Mineral wealth in this case refers to mined substances such as precious metals, gemstones, or oil wealth. Some of these resources occur near the surface of the earth. In this case, the resource may not require mining in the conventional sense.

Timber is one of the most valuable natural resources extracted from naturally occurring forests. The worldwide demand for timber is growing mainly because of increasing control and restriction on logging by authorities concerned with the conservation of nature.

To a certain extent, the presence of animals such as elephants and rhinos makes a country vulnerable to natural resource issues related to the ivory trade. However, the significance of animal related natural wealth is reducing because of greater enforcement of animal protection legislation.

The natural resource curse refers to the paradoxical situation where countries endowed with natural resources tend to suffer from poor economic growth, war, and poverty, more than countries not endowed with these resources. This is counter intuitive because the presence of natural resources should mean the availability of finances to bankroll development projects in a country.

However, many countries that have vast amounts of natural resources tend to suffer from slow economic growth, resource wars, and disproportionate levels of corruption. Scholars present various reasons for this situation that range from corruption, to weak governance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Some Countries Suffer From the Natural Resource Curse There are many reasons why many countries suffer from the natural resource curse. This section examines the role of corruption, resource dependence, weak central governments, and the international business environment surrounding trade in natural resources.

The nature of natural wealth is such that it is difficult to track the exact quantities produced and then delivered to markets. In addition, after the sale of the resources, it is difficult to track with accuracy the exact amount of money that eventually ends up in projects that are for the benefit of the country. Many times, governments do not control the actual mining or extraction operations of the natural resources in their territory.

For instance, oil companies such as BP control mining operations in many territories around the world. This means that the governments cannot know with complete accuracy whether the quantities of oil mined by oil companies are the actual ones. It is also possible for a minister in charge of mining to collude with the company to defraud the country.

Since the government trusts the minister to control and report on the operations of the company, the country ends up losing revenue. On the other end, after the mining companies extract and sell minerals in the international market, the money may not reach development projects in the country because of corruption within government.

The second cause of the oil curse is resource dependence of countries endowed with natural resources. This especially affects oil-producing nations. A good example is Nigeria where the country relies on oil and gas exports to fund more than eighty percent of its recurrent expenses. This overreliance on mineral wealth makes it difficult for the government to develop a sustainable tax base.

Studies show that countries that do not have an effective tax net also tend to lack the capacity to address social issues in the country. Nigeria’s reliance on its oil wealth is part of the causative factors of the social challenges espoused by the conflict in the Niger Delta.

In addition, Nigeria is in no position to challenge the activities of oil companies when they fail to meet environmental stipulations simply because the government relies on these companies to generate its operating revenues.

We will write a custom Essay on The Natural Resource Curse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This situation, compared to the America for instance is appalling. America took strong action against BP after the Deep Water horizon oil spill. America does not rely on oil in the same terms as Nigeria. Therefore, it had the liberty to enforce its laws after the spill.

Thirdly, weak governments amplify the negative effects of the resource curse. A weak government does not have the capacity to address the social ills in the country. This usually comes from ineffective planning, or inconsistent implementation. Any government that cannot guarantee the territorial integrity of the country, or does not have the power to manage social order, is weak.

Countries with mineral wealth also tend to have rebel groups seeking to control mineral rich areas. For instance, rebellion in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) takes place around mineral centers. No government in the DRC has gained control over the entire territory of the country. The fact that natural resources tend to occur in one region makes the resource rich areas easy targets of armed groups since they are easy to seize and control.

Finally, the resource curse is a product of tilted international trading terms. For instance, OECD countries encourage the importation of raw material such as crude oil, but it discourages the importation of processed products. Importing processed products to the OECD is difficult because of a raft of tariff and non-tariff barriers.

The net effect is that any country that wants to sell its natural resources to the OECD countries cannot establish a strong local manufacturing sector. The result is that the country remains dependent on the export of natural resources, while it imports equipment and finished products from its natural resource export destinations.

How Countries Avoid the Natural Resource Curse Despite the strong indication that natural resources tend to bring more problems for some countries that solutions, there are examples of countries that seem to have avoided the curse. In this section, we look at three factors that contribute to avoiding the natural resource curse. These factors are the presence of a strong central government, diversified economies, and diversified markets.

Saudi Arabia is one of the largest oil producers in the world. Oil accounts for about fifty percent of its national budget, and is responsible for about ninety percent of its export revenues. As such, Saudi Arabia should be suffering from the oil curse. This is not the case. The country has one of the most stable governments in the Middle East.

It did not suffer during the Arab spring and it does not have any formidable rebel groups operating within its territory. Its only exposure is from terrorists who loath the presence of American bases in the country. This is an ideological issue, rather than a resource one. The case of Saudi Arabia shows that a strong central government can avert the resource curse.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Natural Resource Curse by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ability of the government to maintain territorial integrity is a key part of the process of avoiding the natural resource curse. It is also instructive to note that Saudi Arabia is not a western democracy. Rather it is a monarchy. Its laws are some of the harshest in the world especially in regards to issues of social harmony.

The point here is that avoiding the resource curse is not a question of the type of government in place. Rather it is a factor of how strong the government is in the management of the country.

The second way in which countries can avert the natural resource curse is by diversifying their economies. A good case in point is Dubai, which is part of the UAE. Dubai struck oil in the mid twentieth century. The rulers of the city-state soon recognized that while the oil wealth was a great resource for the country, reliance on oil was not sustainable.

This led to the development of economic plans that sought to transfer the oil wealth to other sectors of the economy. The goal of this move was to diversify the economic base of the country. The result of this is that Dubai is now an international trade hub, known more for its free port that for its oil. Oil is still an important part of the economic mix of the country, but even if the oil sector collapsed, the country will still be operational.

Apart from its famous free port, Dubai is becoming a financial capital, a tourism hub, and a transport hub. Emirates Airlines, which is currently one of the largest airlines in the world operates from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from the diversification of the economic base of the country, the UAE makes efforts to maintain social stability by ensuring all the citizens have access to quality education and healthcare.

The third pillar in the effort to avoid the natural resource curse is diversifying the markets for the primary natural wealth. Diversifying the market for a country’s natural wealth makes it possible for the country to develop other sectors of the economy, and to control the prices of the natural wealth.

Instead of relying on exports to regions with many tariff and non-tariff barriers, it is better to develop new markets for finished products to create jobs locally. Kenya exports processed oil to its neighbors after importing crude from the Middle East. If Kenya had its own oil, then it would have the full benefits of oil extraction.

In conclusion, the natural resource curse is not impossible to deal with. However, it takes strong leadership on the part of the country endowed with natural wealth to deal with the associated issues. In this sense, the natural resource curse is really the product of bad leadership in the midst of abundance.

Works Cited Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. “Natural Resources and Conflict: What We Can Do.” Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2003. 1-16. Print.

Chapin, Rosemary. Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis

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Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of Chinese economy and businesses

International management

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction One of the long-standing questions amongst economists relates to whether management practices adopted by firms explain the difference in the level of their productivity especially in emerging economies (Bloom, Eifert, Mahajan, McKenzie, and Roberts 1). According to Green (8), every industry and economic sector is subject to external changes, which are in most cases uncontrollable and unpredictable.

However, the expertise and quality of management developed by a firm determines its ability to develop sustainable competencies and sufficient internal dynamic capabilities, thus enhancing its ability to cope with the external factors. International corporations are increasingly facing macro-environmental changes, which have profound and long lasting effects on their internationalisation processes.

Moreover, environmental changes also affect the management of international operations. The international aspect of business and management has changed significantly due to globalisation. Consequently, international management has become an important consideration in firms’ operations (Faria and Guedes 1).

As one of the emerging economies, China has notably been incorporated into the global economy. Most investors are considering the country as one of the optimal investment destinations. Consequently, the country has experienced a substantial increment in the volume of foreign direct investments over the past few years compared to Japan, Germany, and the US (Faria and Guedes 1).

In an effort to attain high economic growth rate, it is fundamental for the Chinese government to be concerned with how firms are implementing international management concepts. Thus, stakeholders should appreciate the significance of international management.

Various international management theories have been developed and they apply to different economic sectors. In light of this insight, this essay evaluates whether the economic sector within which a firm operates matters with reference to international management theory and its impact on China’s catch-up prospects.

Analysis of Chinese economy and businesses Following the strategic transformation undertaken by China during the 1970s, the country’s economy has undergone rapid economic growth. Its average Gross Domestic Product [GDP] for the period ranging between 1978 and 2010 was 9.8 per cent, which was the highest during that period (Fung and Peng 5).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the past three decades, China has changed from being a planned economy to one of the most dynamic world economies. Some of the factors explaining the country’s high rate of economic growth include economic globalisation, adoptions of economic division of labour, adherence to market rules, and its active pursuit for a market economy (Fung and Peng 5).

Most Chinese firms are a new force within the world economy. Consequently, a significant proportion of firms are in their growth phase. However, they are experiencing innate deficiencies such as human resource management difficulties. Considering the fact that the country is in its growth stage of economic growth, most firms in China are copying and imitating their production processes.

A high rate of imitation and copying of products and services cuts across firms in diverse economic sectors in China. One of the factors promoting product imitation in the country is lack of adequate implementation of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) mechanisms by the government.

Abraham, Konings, and Shootmaekers (8) assert that imitation of foreign products in China is widespread in all sectors such as the car, music, health care, luxury products, and the fashion sectors. However, imitation is prominent with regard to innovation and technology.

The ascent of the country to the World Trade Organisation has forced China to amend its legal framework with regard to IPR in order to promote foreign direct investment. However, this aspect has not deterred counterfeiters and pirates due to ineffective enforcement of the measures instituted to prevent massive violation of property rights (Abraham, Konings, and Shootmaekers 8).

One of the major limitations in the country’s effort to fight counterfeiters arises from the fact that the country relies significantly on administrative mechanisms rather than judicial mechanisms.

The manufacturing sector is one of the largest economic sectors in China. Most Chinese firms are investing in low-cost manufacturing in an effort to attain sufficient market leadership and stimulate the country’s economic growth (Fung and Peng 4). The manufacturing sector contributes a significant proportion to the country’s economic growth by creating employment and enhancing productivity.

We will write a custom Essay on Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The adoption of low-cost manufacturing by most firms is necessitated by the fact that the country is experiencing high savings rates, high exports, and a low rate of consumption. On the other hand, developed economies such as the US are characterised by a high rate of consumption and imports and a low savings rate.

Due to its over-reliance on low-cost manufacturing, China has been in a position to promote its exports hence leading to accumulation of a substantial volume of foreign exchange.

In a bid to stimulate the country’s catch-up prospects, firms in the manufacturing sector should consider undertaking their own innovation rather than imitate foreign technologies. This move will culminate in the creation of a substantial competitive advantage. One of the aspects that the firm’s management team should consider in its planning relates to investing in research and development.

This move will create an opportunity for the firm to exploit optimally the opportunities presented within and without the Chinese business environment. Despite their economic sector, Chinese enterprises should consider investing in new technology in order to be competitive and catch-up and surpass their competitors.

Some of the technologies that the firm should invest in include information technology such as cloud computing, investment in sustainable and green energy technologies. Over the past decade, the technology industry has become intensely competitive. This case highlights the need for firms to institute optimal competitive strategies.

To remain competitive, TCL, which specialises in development of consumer electronics such as television has been consistent in undertaking research and development thus enabling the firm to sustain its competitiveness over the past 30 years.

In addition to research and development, the Chinese enterprises should consider investing in development of a domestic ecosystem that fosters innovation and increased productivity. This aspect will aid firms in diverse economic sectors to cope with the competitive nature of the business environment.

International management International management has undergone significant transformation over the past decade. Its development reflects the divergent context within which firms operate within the global business environment (Kriek, Beaty, and Nkomo 126). Currently, most Chinese firms have not been adequately globalised.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fung and Peng (7) are of the opinion that globalisation of most Chinese firms is directly influenced by their respective goals, intensity of competition in their respective industry and the organisational capability developed. Consequently, businesses in different economic sectors have incorporated diverse globalisation strategies in line with their needs and strengths.

However, one of the major challenges that the firms will face relates to the fact that they will have to develop a strong network in order maximise their sales. The firm’s management team will be required to formulate strategies that will contribute towards optimal exploitation of their low-cost advantage (Fung and Peng 8).

In a bid to stimulate the country’s catch-up prospects, it is paramount for the firm’s management team to consider the option of incorporating international management (IM) theories. This element will enhance the country’s competitiveness in the global market. One of the IM theories that the firm should consider in its operations relates internationalisation (Zhou and Li 456).

Considering the role of information technology in improving firms’ productivity, it is fundamental for both large and small enterprises in China to consider investing in IT. However, one of the greatest hurdles that will be faced relates to the existence of sufficient knowledge and skills with regard to IT.

Thus, Chinese firms do not have sufficient comparative advantage with regard to technology, which explains why most firms in China imitate technologies from developed countries in an effort to develop their own products.

Imitation of products and services is not only limited to the technology sector but has also spilled over to the fashion industry such as the fashion shoe and apparel sectors. Currently, China leads with regard to textile and shoe exportation. Additionally, it hosts dynamic fashion weeks in Shanghai and Beijing annually.

However, the textile and shoe sectors face a major challenge from foreign high-end firms such as Nike and Addidas, which are venturing the industry. This case has presented a major threat with regard to the promotion of creativity amongst Chinese fashion designers.

Lack of creativity has adversely affected the competition of Chinese fashion products such as shoes due to imitation thus leading to the development of a perception that poor quality fashion products are made in China (Girod 2).

In the attempt to deal with this challenge, Chinese firms should consider incorporating the concept of outsourcing. Outsourcing entails the process through which a firm seeks the services of another fir to undertake a certain task on its behalf. The outsourcing process will provide the firm with an opportunity to develop sufficient skills and knowledge regarding utilisation of the identified technology in their production process.

As a result, firms will be able to ensure that the produce competitive products and services. The concept of outsourcing should not only be limited to manufacturing services, but should also extend to service firms. In their internationalisation effort, firms’ management teams should consider

In the attempt to improve their productivity and catch-up prospects, Chinese firms should adjust their operational models by incorporating the most effective internationalisation model. Through internationalisation, the Chinese firms will be capable of creating an avenue for positioning themselves as globalised entities hence enhancing their contribution to the country’s economic growth.

Some of the strategic options that the firms’ management teams should consider in their internationalisation management practices include exportation, licensing, franchising, adoption of contract manufacturing, and foreign direct investment. Exportation will provide the firms in various economic sectors such as the manufacturing and services sector with an opportunity to venture into the identified foreign market and sell their products or services.

However, it is paramount for firms to possess a comprehensive understanding of the foreign market prior to entry. This aspect will provide the firm with sufficient knowledge to avert possible challenges that might hinder their success.

Alternatively, Chinese firms in the manufacturing sector such as Semi conductor manufacturing companies should incorporate the concept of licensing in their effort to venture the international market. One of the ways through which the firms can achieve this goal is by leasing their IPR to a firm operating in the same industry in the host country.

Licensing will enable Chinese firms to incur minimal risk in the international market while at the same time create a sufficient platform for its products to be manufactured. Consequently, the Chinese firms will be in a position to pursue their low-cost manufacturing strategy and at the same time increase profitability via increased sales.

However, prior to licensing, the Chinese firms should ensure that the host country has an effective legal framework that ensures protection of IPR (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).

Franchising is another option that Chinese firms should incorporate in their internationalisation efforts. Firms especially in the services sector such as hospitality should consider incorporating the concept of franchising in their internationalisation efforts.

A comprehensive market research should be conducted in order to identify and select the most favourable partner to undertake franchising with for business continuity and prosperity. Franchising will provide Chinese service firms such as hotels and restaurants with an opportunity to maximise their profitability.

Chinese firms in various sectors such as the fashion industry, semi conductor manufacturing, and services sector should enter cooperative agreements with other partners. The incorporation of cooperative strategies will provide the firms’ management team with an opportunity to deal with the technology gap that the firms might be experiencing.

This assertion emanates from the fact that the firm will be in a position to gain access to sophisticated technology possessed by the partner. As a result, the firms will be capable of dealing with the challenge of having to copy or imitate another technology, which is a major hindrance to the firms’ competitiveness in the international market (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).

In addition to the above international management practices, it is fundamental for Chinese firms to consider investing in a green venture. The green venture will provide the Chinese firms to exploit the opportunities presented in the international market effectively. Green venture will entail the firms establishing subsidiary firms into the international markets.

This move will provide the firm with an opportunity to undertake full control of all the activities that the subsidiary firm is involved in during its operations. In their foreign direct investment efforts, the firms will be required to ensure that operational responsibility of the subsidiary firm rests upon experienced expatriates.

The expatriates deployed to the foreign market should possess sufficient knowledge and skills to ensure that the firms gain competitive advantage in the foreign market. This aspect highlights the importance of the Chinese firms conducting a comprehensive market research in order to indentify the prevailing market trends.

The incorporation of international acquisition is another strategy that management teams of Chinese firms should take into account. The Chinese firms should incorporate a comprehensive market research of the host country in order to identify potential firms to enter a merger and acquisition partnership.

However, the Chinese firms should incorporate formation of mergers and acquisition when venturing a foreign market whereby the countries have significant cultural differences (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).

By incorporating the above strategies, there is a high probability of the firms in different economic sectors enhancing the country’s economic growth prospects. However, the success of Chinese firms in their internationalisation effort will not only be dependent on the choice of the internationalisation strategy, but also on its implementation.

Additionally, business executives of Chinese firms in different economic sectors should be concerned on how effectively the model selected will contribute towards the firm attaining effective business operation considering the specific industry dynamics. In a bid to improve the probability of survival, effective international management models should be incorporated.

Some of these models relate to leadership, ensuring that the firm has quality personnel, and integration of effective organisational processes, technology, and organisational structure. Additionally, an effective mechanism to determine the effectiveness and performance of the strategy should also be incorporated (Fung and Peng 7).

According to Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt (159), monitoring the internationalisation strategy incorporated is essential in identifying challenges that the firm might be experiencing hence creating an opportunity for improvement (Bloom, Eifert, Mahajan, McKenzie, and Roberts 7).

Conclusion The analysis conducted shows that China has undergone a significant economic growth over the past three decades. Some of the factors that have contributed to the high rate of economic growth include economic liberalisation adopted by the firm during the 1970s and the political reforms in the country. Consequently, China has become incorporated within the global economy.

Despite the high rate of economic growth, the country continues to lag behind in its economic development compared to other developed economies such as the US , Japan, Britain, and Germany. One of the factors hindering the country’s rate of economic growth arises from the fact most economic sectors especially the manufacturing sector have not developed sufficient competitiveness.

Therefore, the contribution of a majority of the economic sector to the country’s economic growth is through imitation and copying. This aspect illustrates the fact that the country has not developed sufficient comparative advantage to attract foreign investors. Additionally, the country does not have an effective legal framework to enhance innovation and creativity.

This trend is replicated across all the economic sectors. In a bid to break up from this trend, it is fundamental for the Chinese government and firms’ executives to invest in strategies that will contribute towards the development of the country’s competitiveness. Firstly, the Chinese government should ensure sufficient enforcement of the intellectual property rights.

On the other hand, business executives should consider incorporating strategies that contribute towards development of their enterprises competitive and comparative advantage. This move will contribute towards improvement in the survival rate of respective firm.

The analysis has also shown that competition due to the high rate of globalisation is one of the biggest challenges that Chinese firms are facing in their effort to contribute towards their country’s catch-up prospects. In a bid to deal with these challenges, Chinese firms irrespective of the economic sector should consider incorporating international management practices.

One of the strategies that they should incorporate in their management practices relates to internationalisation. Some of the internationalisations strategies that firms should consider while planning include the formation of strategic alliances such as joint ventures, mergers, and acquisition. Other strategies include franchising, exportation and licensing.

The success of Chinese firms in the international market is paramount in promoting the country’s catch-up prospects. The profitability of the firms will determine the country’s capability to develop a strong foreign exchange reserve base. In summary, one can assert that the economic sector within which a firm is does not matter, but what matters is its contribution to the country’s economic growth.

Works Cited Abraham, Filip, Jozef Konings, and Veerle Shootmaekers. FDI spillovers in the Chinese manufacturing sector: evidence of firm heterogeneity? Leuven: Catholic University of Leuven, 2008. Print.

Bloom, Nicholas, Benn Eifert, Aprajit Mahajan, David McKenzie, and John Roberts. “Does management matter? Evidence from India.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128.1 (2013): 1-51. Print.

Faria, Alex, and Ana Guedes. What is international management? A critical analysis, Rio de Jeneiro: Pria de Botafogo, 2009. Print.

Fung, Edwin, and Yali Peng. Forces driving Chinas economic growth in 2012: New thoughts, new strategies, new initiatives, New York: KPMG, 2012. Print.

Girod, Stephane 2012. Five lessons for the Chinese fashion industry from the French. PDF file. 23 Feb. 2013. https://www.accenture.com/us-en

Green, Roy. Management matters in Australia, Sydney: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science, and Research, 2009. Print.

Ireland, Duane, Robert Hoskisson, and Michael Hitt. Understanding business strategy: concepts and cases, New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.

Kriek, Harun, Dave Beaty, and Stella Nkomo. Theory building in international management research: an archival review of preferred methods, Cape Town: University of Pretoria, 2009. Print.

Zhou, Kevin, and Caroline Li. “How does strategic orientation matter in Chinese firms?” Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 2. 24 (2007): 447-466. Print.

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Debate about Real ID in the New Media Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online

Certainly, the urgency of the debate of anonymity versus real ID is on the current agenda because, on the one hand, introducing real names online makes users more responsible for posting comments and photos. On the other hand, disclosing real names can threaten the privacy of the user, causing problems in a real life.

Therefore, in order to understand the shortcomings of placing real names and define the benefits of anonymous communication online, specific emphasis should be placed on reconsidering the concept of online behavior and responsibility, defining the situation when placing real names are irrelevant, and developing arguments against real ID names during online transactions.

Online behavior and responsibility for the information placed online does not actually depends on validity and credibility of user’s personal data. There is no guarantee that placing real name enhances the users’ responsibility for the comments, videos, and photos posted online. In fact, most of the users are not confident enough about the security of the private information.

Therefore, concealing their real names does not influence the responsibility users take while uploading new information. Besides, there are many other means for detecting the ID of the person, in case cyber crime is committed (Good, 2005).

Besides, while surfing various websites and databases, most of the users prefer staying anonymous because it might negatively affect their reputation. Hence, there is no actual connection between online behavior and person’s ID on the Internet.

On the one hand, placing real names increases the chances to find friend sall over the world in case a person has lost his/her close friend’s number. Nevertheless, there are many other ways to find the person, especially if this person is the one you really know. Apart from this case, there are no obstacles for user’s intent to communicate online and expand the level of involvement in the social media.

As a proof, the studies conducted by Lee (2011) have discovered that anonymity can be regarded “…as a measure to promote the viewpoint diversity in cyberspace” (p. 2). The right of anonymity is available to everyone because it is considered the main mechanism for sustaining online community. Although placing real ID seeks to alleviate such cyber crimes as copyright infringement and defamation, anonymity must still be used for secure purposes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While carrying out online transactions, there is a threat of fraud because clients with concealed IDs could rescue from payment. One the other hand, the information about clients’ real IDs can have serious consequences for them. The point is that financial establishment could unveil their clients’ private information to use for their own purposes.

Under these circumstances, anonymous communication online can enhance user’s safety, as well as reduce the frequency of illegal invasions to user’s accounts. To support the argument, Papacharissi (2002) states, “anonymity online assist one to overcome identity boundaries and community more freely and openly, thus promoting a more enlightened exchange of idea” (p. 16). Thus, carrying out transaction does not always involve the presence of real IDs.

In conclusion, the benefits of concealing real names are more persuading in the light of the currently increased rates of cyber crimes. Communicating online anonymously provides individuals with stronger confidence in their security and privacy. It also makes their behavior more open and friendly. Besides, anonymity can be used to search for databases and websites where name identification function is presented.

References Good, R. (2005). Anonymous Surfing: What the Benefits and Issues of Making Yourself Invisible Online? Web.

Lee, J.-Y. (2011). An Old Regime for Viewpoint Diversity of the New Media: Protecting Anonymity for a Functioning ‘Masterplace of Ideas’ in Cyberspace. Performance and Participation. 10(13), 1-20. Web.

Papacharissi, Z. (2002). The Virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere. New Media and Society. 4(9), 9-27. Web.

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Total Spending on Medicare and Medicaid Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Trend of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid Spending on Medicare and Medicaid has been on an upward trend since 1962. In 1962, the spending on Medicaid was $103billion. This increased to $272,771 billion in 2010. Similarly, total spending increased from $2,525 billion in 1967 to $446,477 in 2010. The spending on Medicare and Medicaid has been on an upward trend.

This can be attributed to the fact that spending on Medicare and Medicaid is a mandatory spending in the US government. These are part of entitlements given to people who meet certain eligibility requirements. These spendings form a major component of the federal budget. They account for about 52% of the total budget. The Medicare and Medicaid is directly proportional to GDP and population.

As population increases and GDP increases, the spending on Medicare and Medicaid also increases. Further, an increase in the number of unemployed citizens and retirees also contributes to the increase in total spending on Medicaid and Medicare because they receive substantial amount of the mandatory spending.

Further, increase in pricing of medical services necessitates the state to increase the allocation on Medicaid and Medicare that can match the increases in pricing. The graph below shows the trend of spending on Medicare and Medicaid.

From the graph is is evident that spending on Medicare and Medicaid had an upward trend since 1962 to 2016. The values have increased gradually from 1962 to 1986. Thereafter it started increasing rapidly over the year.

The trend after 1986 is characterized by the steep upward slope. Also, it is evident that spending on Medicare is greater than spending on Medicaid over the period under review. The graph below shows the trend of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid.

From the graph, the spending on Medicaid and Medicare put together took a similar trend as the individual spending. There was slow growth from 1962 until 1977 thereafter it experienced a steep increase. The graph below shows the trend of the percentage change of total spending on Medicaid and Medicare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the graph it is evident that the percentage change in total spending from year to year has been erratic since 1962 to 2016 (estimates). This can be attributed to the dynamics in the economy ranging to from changes in GDP, changes in population structure, changes in the unemployment rate among others.

The total spending on Medicare and Medicaid can also be analyzed as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs in the economy. In 1962 the percentage of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending was 0.37%. The percentage increased to 37.6% in 2010.

The value has been gradually increasing over the years. The graph below shows trend of increase in total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs.

In the graph, it is evident that the total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs has been increasing steeply over the years. It is mainly attributed to increase in cost of medical services in the country and many more factors. As at 2015, the state estimates that it will be spending more than 40% of the total allocation for mandatory programs on Medicare and Medicaid.

Finally spending on Medicare and Medicaid can be compared with current and constant prices. The total amount of spending on Medicare and Medicaid in constant dollars is less than $1,000billion for all the year. When plotted together with total spending in current dollar, the values are negligible as shown below.

When total spending on Medicare and Medicaid in constant dollars shows an upward trend as plotted in the graph below.

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Apple Inc Market Entry Audit: The Entry of Apple Inc into a New Market with an Existing Product or Service Essay best college essay help

Executive summary Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American company specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software (Apple Inc, 2010). The company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players. However, during its international market operations, Apple faces various challenges and opportunities.

The company is nonetheless committed towards bringing the best user experience to all clients around the world through its innovative hardware and software. The peripherals and services have driven the company to open up its operations in the major emerging markets.

Thus, this report analyses Apple Inc market entry using frameworks such as Porters five forces, PESTEL, and SWOT. It concludes recommendation on what Apple should do to remain competitive.

Apple Inc Market Entry Strategy. Company overview Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American multinational company specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software (Apple Inc. 2010). Under the electronic hardware category, the company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players.

In addition to high tech hardware devises, the company produces a variety of software applications including third-party digital content applications and networking solutions. Within the mobile communications category, the company has launched into the market a variety of Smartphones including iPhone and other android Smartphones that have significantly hit the world Smartphones market.

The company is currently the market leader in the android smart phones and computer technology market. The company operations are based on geographical locations. In fact, the operations of the company are segmented based on the nature and location of its customers. The research report analyzes the external and internal environment where Apple Inc operates using various frameworks.

Main Findings Current Market Situation: External marketing environment. PESTEL analysis

Political factors

Apple Inc. is a multinational company operating in many countries especially in North America, Europe and Asia. Thus, its products are sold in a wide spectrum of political environments. Moreover, its Smartphones consumers are spread across the political divide found in all parts of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, political consideration is very important factor especially when introducing a particular product in the foreign country market. Thus the company marketing strategies must be in line with the country policy in which its products are sold (Herzog, 2010).

Economic factors

The current economic situation around the world has a profound effect not only on the company products but also on the general production capacity. The recent economic downturn experienced in America and Europe has a considerable consequence on the Smartphones domestic market. Sales for the Smartphones reduced as majority of consumers switched to other essential products as their income reduced.

Reduction in sales was also experienced in many parts of Europe as well as in many countries around the world. However, this presented an opportunity for the company to introduce cheaper Smartphones in the market (Wernerfelt 172).

Social and cultural factors

The company Smartphones is sold in an open cultural environment. Moreover, its target market of younger generation pursue vogue and like cultures. Their lifestyles are similar in almost all parts of the world. Moreover, the company Smartphone’s process designs are simplified to meet the needs of all cultures.

The company Smartphone’s designs combine simplicity and beauty, the logic that is praised highly in all parts of the world. All the Smartphones that the company has launched into the market has been popular among the younger generation, which has revolutionized the generation cultures (Blomstermo, Sharma

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The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo Research Paper college application essay help

Introduction Corporate concern about ethics has grown in prominence in recent times as business entities strive to incorporate moral values and principles into their operations. Companies no longer focus singly on profit maximisation and expansion of their businesses, but they also explore ways of treating the consumers, employees, and the environment in a morally praiseworthy manner (Shaw, 2011).

It is a common practise in the contemporary organisations to find special departments that are exclusively established to cater for the ethical needs of the organisations. As a matter of fact, various independent bodies evaluate the extent to which organisations employ ethical management and practise with the view of recognising their efforts and influencing improved services.

Companies are also realising the connection between their ethical practices and management, on the one hand, and the profit margins they register each financial period, on the other hand (Shaw, 2011). This paper seeks to discuss the ethics concept in business by specifically analysing PepsiCo’s practise in the same area.

Pepsi’s Morally Responsible Actions Environmental management

PepsiCo has an established elaborate policy on the environment, health, as well as safety management. The policy seeks to ensure that the company caters for its immediate business environment effectively. The policy comprises of eight critical points that include ownership culture, business integration, regulation compliance, as well as resource allocation (PEPSICO, n.d.).

It additionally entails the aspects of performance measurement, continual improvement, together with stakeholder collaboration and annual review.

In terms of ownership culture, for instance, the company’s policy identifies the need to build and sustain a proactive culture through driving environmental ownership, individuals’ health and safety, and managing the overall environmental aspect at the organisational level. The company engages, consults, as well as trains its people to influence active participation to enable these plans achieve realistic goals.

Another important aspect of the environmental management programme is the issue of stakeholder collaboration. PepsiCo works in collaboration with its business partners, such as the contractors, suppliers, licensed bottlers, along with the local communities and customers to limit the health, environmental, and safety outcome related to its daily operations (PEPSICO, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PepsiCo also works with a different group of stakeholders that comprises of governments, academia, other interested stakeholders, in addition to business associations and non-governmental organisations for purposes of striving to widen effective and sustainable resolutions with regard to health, environmental, and safety confrontations or challenges, all of which face the company’s operations.

Ethical Consumer Treatment

PepsiCo also strives to ensure that it treats its customers in morally acceptable ways without allowing inhumane practices to penetrate through its corporate human resource practises. The beverage and food company definitely deals with a large number of consumers that may prove too tricky to handle or manage effectively because it is a large multinational firm with a presence in almost all the continents in the world.

The firm has established a global code of conduct that generally identifies the main objective of conducting business in the right way as a part of its corporate mechanism aimed at ensuring that customers of the firm are treated in a moral way (PEPSICO, n.d.).

Employees are expected to adhere to these codes of conduct and embrace the underlying principles as a way of ensuring that the company achieves and sustains its objectives for long (PEPSICO, n.d.).

The code includes a requirement to show total respect at the workplace, an obligation to always act with integrity within the marketplace, as well as the expectation that all workers ensure ethics in the business activities that they undertake.

Additionally, and more importantly, workers are required to perform their respective tasks in more responsible ways for the purpose of fulfilling the shareholders’ expectations effectively (PEPSICO, n.d.). The company revises its acceptable practises more often to incorporate changing laws that may, in one way or the other, affect on its corporate operations as a way of making the corporate code of conduct more effective.

Moral Action towards Employees

PepsiCo fully supports and expresses a commitment to its entire workforce. The company encourages a diverse corporate culture where any qualified individual from whatever race, tribe, nationality, or gender can apply for job positions in the firm and be considered for employment without any discrimination.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company looks at this goal as an important one that encourages creativity amongst the workers, while also offering a chance for benefitting from new and unique perspectives (PEPSICO, n.d.).

Pepsi realises the key role that its employees play towards ensuring that the company attains its objective towards the customers. In particular, its corporate philosophy identifies the importance of the firm maintaining mutual respect, workplace safety, and integrity.

Pepsi’s inspiration of a collaborative culture focuses on recruiting, as well as retaining world-class talent by ensuring that its workers achieve employment satisfaction or what the company refers to as “Talent Sustainability” (PEPSICO, n.d.).

A perfect example of actions employed by the firm in encouraging employees to speak out entails the provision of an Organisational Health Survey that is conducted every two years with a view of obtaining opinions concerning the organisation and the general workplace.

Effects of the Morally Conscious Decisions on the Company’s Bottom line Customers. Trust

The morally acceptable practices and decisions of the company are likely to enhance customer trust and confidence towards the company.

Because the employees are showing greater dedication in serving the customers, the latter feel comfortable to conduct business with the firm than would be the case had the workers not been considering ethical and moral practises.

As this trust is developed and maintained by many potential customers, the company eventually succeeds in enlarging its profit margins because of high sales that translate into higher revenues.

Employees

Motivation

The moral actions directed towards the workers by the firm enhance the level of their motivation. The workers feel they are highly valued and consider themselves as owners of the firm. They are willing to increase their output because they are aware that their collective hard work will, in turn, mean that they will receive more benefits from the employer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the employees’ motivation increases and they express their willingness to work even harder for the firm, they enhance the chances of profitability because more consumers get served satisfactorily. This increases their trust towards PepsiCo.

Satisfaction

PepsiCo is likely to achieve a workforce that is highly satisfied with its mandate due to its continued employee moral programmes. Workers who are fully aware that their needs, both material and emotional, are well taken care of are less likely to consider changing employers. Instead, a huge percentage of them would prefer working with the same satisfying employer until they attain their retirement ages.

This is critical for PepsiCo because it will no longer face the need for undertaking employee recruitments after every short while. As a matter of fact, high employee turnover rates disrupt the overall planning and operation of the firm because the management has to keep training new employees who only last for a short while before quitting in search for better employers.

Community

Collaboration

The firm is likely to receive greater support and positive collaboration from the societies because PepsiCo is expressing a willingness to support the local communities through numerous environmental management programmes.

For instance, foreign governments will be willing to issue the firm with operation licences in their respective territories because they realise the benefits that the society will achieve in the long run. This kind of goodwill from the communities allows the company to expand its market and improve its revenue capabilities.

Critical Review of PepsiCo’s Ethical Policies

PepsiCo identifies six critical guiding principles that form the basis of its ethical policies and management. They include care for customers, the sale of products that attract pride, speaking the truth, and balancing the short-term plans with the long-term ones (PEPSICO, n.d.). Additionally, the firm emphasizes diversity and inclusion, while highlighting the need to respect others as a way of achieving success as a whole.

The company has divided these six critical guiding principles to address all its significant areas of business. In particular, the principles address issues about customers, products, verbal communication with the shareholders, and overall future ethical plan of the organisation (PEPSICO, n.d.).

It also addresses the issue of employment with regard to a diverse workforce and the employee conduct and behaviour not only towards the customers, but also towards the employees (PEPSICO, n.d.).

Ethical Areas Needing Improvement

Environmental Management

Given its wide array of products, PepsiCo also uses a lot of packaging materials that end up impacting negatively on the general environment (Wilburn

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Food Ethics Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The Responsibilities of the Government in Food Ethics

The Responsibilities of Producers in Food Ethics

The Responsibilities of Consumer in Food Ethics

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Food ethics has gained relevance in the recent past, especially following the increase in food-related health problems. We have a responsibility to various stakeholders, other than ourselves, to be healthy. Government spends a lot of money in the health sector, especially due to the rise in lifestyle diseases. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes account for the highest expenditure for the government in the health sector.

We have a responsibility to the government to be healthy. This is so because by being healthy, we will reduce the expenditure in the health sector, and this finance can be channeled to other sectors of the economy. Government depends on its healthy working population to earn its revenues. When we remain healthy, we will be able to work, and government will earn its revenues by taxing our income.

When we get sick and unable to work, we will not earn any taxable income, and this would deny the government opportunity to earn its revenue from us. It is also important to note that we work for the government in various positions, especially those of us working in public institutions. When we do not remain healthy, it means we may not be able to carry out some of the activities for the government.

This may paralyze its operations. We have a duty to remain healthy for the sake of our family members. When we get sick, a lot of money is always spent by the family in treating us. We should remain healthy in order to eliminate the need for this expenditure.

If we are healthy, we will be in a position to work and provide for these families. It is therefore, a fact that we have a responsibility to the society to remain healthy in order to play various roles assigns to us.

The Responsibilities of the Government in Food Ethics The government has the biggest responsibility in safeguarding the health of the food industry. According to Gottwald (92), consumers are not always able to determine the ingredients of food that is presented to them. Most of the food manufacturers would always want to avoid revealing the true contents of their products once they realize that they could be containing some forms of contaminated substances.

For this reason, they would give a false list of the ingredients in their products. Consumers do not have specialized instruments that they can use to determine the quality of foods presented to them. Pojman (45) notes that the government has enough resources and manpower to monitor operations of various food processors and determine the health conditions of the food they present to the public.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore, their responsibility to ensure that they safeguard the health of food industry. As was explained in the introduction above, government is always affected when its citizens fall sick after eating unhealthy foods.

It would be forced to treat them, besides losing the income that would have been generated if the population were to remain healthy. Given that it has all the instruments that can enable it monitor food industry, it should do all that is within its powers to ensure that food industry is responsible enough to provide healthy foods.

The Responsibilities of Producers in Food Ethics For a long time, there has been an argument that the corporate responsibility of business units is to make profits in order to give shareholders good returns. This may be true to some extent because firms can only exist if they remain profitable.

However, taking this as the central or the only corporate responsibility is an act that is not only unethical, but also illegal in case the process of gaining the profits affects other parties negatively. According to Burgan (31), corporate institutions in the food industry are in the best position to understand the ingredients that are put in the foods they produce.

These institutions know the types of ingredients that pose health problems when consumed. They also understand the quantities of specific ingredients that may pose health problems to people when taken. For this reason, they have the responsibility of ensuring that products they deliver to the public is safe enough for consumption. According to Vandamme (118), consumers love tasty foods.

They will therefore, go for such food items that have been prepared with a lot of calories or sugar. They enjoy eating such junk foods just because of the sweetness or their good taste. However, they fail to appreciate some of the health consequences they expose themselves to by eating such foods. It is the responsibility of the corporates to inform consumers of the contents of what they eat.

They can issue warnings as appropriate to the consumers, especially in relation to the volume that each product should be consumed per given period. As Farnworth (72) notes, the business units should develop a clear labeling systems that specifies the quantities of every ingredient they use. This will ensure that consumers understand the kind of elements they expose their body to when they consume such food items.

We will write a custom Essay on Food Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Alcoholic companies have accepted the responsibility of warning their consumers against excessive drinking. These institutions should also warn their customers against excessive consumption of some types of food. They should explain to the consumers the most appropriate amounts that should be taken and inform them why it is important to take these amount. This should be done through labeling.

As part of their corporate social responsibilities, these institutions should use media and other channels of communication to educate consumers on healthy eating. This way, they shall have met their obligation to the consumers and to the government. They will not be held liable when a section of their consumers decides to ignore the warnings.

The Responsibilities of Consumer in Food Ethics Consumers have a major role to play in food ethics. According to Pence (46), illiteracy levels have gone down in various countries around the world, and most of the consumers are always aware that the type of food they eat poses serious health consequences to them.

Hamburger is one of the most popular snacks, especially among the youth. Grilled chicken and red meat are also very popular. These consumers know, from their learning experience or the articles they read, that these are some of the most dangerous foods because of their levels of cholesterol.

However, they still go ahead to consume these products because of the sheer pleasure they generate from them. This is not only being irresponsible to their own health, but also exposing their families and the government into unnecessary expenditures when they fall sick. For this reason, consumers have a major responsibility in ensuring that they maintain healthy eating.

The responsibility of the consumers’ lies in understanding the type of food they eat in order to avoid what is considered unsafe. As mentioned above, many people around the world are literate. This means that they have the capacity to analyze the type of food they eat in order to ensure that they are safe.

They can take the initiative of analyzing all types of food they eat in order to determine their safety levels. Time and resources taken in such analysis are always much less as compared to the resources that are spent when one falls sick. Through this initiative, they will be able to plan their diets in order to ensure that they eat safe foods.

Consumers also have the responsibility to demand to know the true ingredient of every food they take. Food processors have ignored the request that all their products should be labeled because their consumers are always willing to buy the unlabeled foods. Consumers should reject any food that lacks proper labeling of the ingredients used to prepare them.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Food Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Food industry is one of the most important industries in a country’s economy. It is important for all the players in this industry to ensure that they maintain high levels of ethics in order to avoid cases where unhealthy foods are presented to consumers.

Government has the regulatory responsibility to ensure that producers use safe ingredients and label all their products. The producers have the responsibility of using safe ingredients and labeling their products. Consumers have the responsibility of questioning the products presented to them, and ensuring that they only take safe products.

Works Cited Burgan, Michael. Ethics of Food. London: Raintree, 2012. Print.

Farnworth, Cathy. Creating Food Futures: Trade, Ethics and the Environment. Aldershot, England: Gower, 2008. Print.

Gottwald, Franz-Theo. Food Ethics. New York: Springer, 2010. Print.

Pence, Gregory. The Ethics of Food: A Reader for the 21st Century. Lanham: Rowman

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American Television History Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Understanding the Origins of the Shift

Integration into Television Programming

Mass Media and Commercialism

Advertising and the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities

Works Cited

Understanding the Origins of the Shift Entertainment programming, as we know it today has undergone numerous iterations over the past 70 years ever since its inception during the early days of radio. In this instance, what will be focused on are the transitions in programming brought about through the influence of advertisers and sponsors.

What must be understood is that radio and television programming is “free” only from the perspective of the viewer/listener. Behind the programs is an assortment of contractual obligations that beholden a network to a series of brands and corporate sponsorships that pay to have their brand or company at the forefront of the public consciousness.

Schwoch (1990) explains that unlike the early years of radio broadcasting, which were characterized by little to no thought being placed on advertising sponsorship or commercialism, television programming from its very inception focused on the use of commercial support from the very start (Schwoch, 56).

This was one of the early signs of the transition where commercialism would dictate entertainment programming given the level of control that was developed into television network culture at its very onset.

On the other end of the spectrum, the culture of radio broadcasting advertising was far different wherein the approach was less “aggressive and bombastic” and instead focused on a softer and more cautious approach (Schwoch, 57).

Instead of the desire to control, what was present was a form of careful “reverence” involving advertising through radio as a medium wherein it was thought that an overly aggressive attitude would have resulted in a negative reaction not only from the audience itself but from the broadcasters.

Not only that, early advertising culture involving radio broadcasts were thought of as not only vehicles for the promotion and sale of products, but actually enabled a certain manner of self-improvement on the part of the listener through the broadcasted message.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Examples of this can be found on classic advertising spiels (i.e., scripts) utilized during the 1920s to the 1930s wherein the brand name of a company was mentioned after which it was followed by some manner of uplifting message (ex: Kellogg’s cereal wishes you a pleasant evening, drive safe and be sure to kiss your children goodnight).

The culture of broadcasting was less “in your face” and more focused on the projection of a positive brand image through association with a respectful and caring company. This changed in the coming years as advertisers transitioned from utilizing uplifting messages to aspects related to the present-day materialistic culture (i.e., utilizing visual mediums to show the use and advantages of products.

Due to the lack of sufficient early network infrastructure for television during the early 1940s (i.e., no major networks, stars, performers, etc.), this necessitated more “drastic” means of wooing advertisers to switch to television.

What you have to understand is that advertising agencies at the time became more accustomed towards having major roles in the production process of radio commercials through with their own sets, equipment, talent, etc. (Schwoch, 58).

When it came to television and the high costs associated with building their own advertising sets with no means of determining whether the ad would be effective or not (i.e., there was no means of measuring the number of television viewers at the time), this created a considerable degree of hesitance among advertisers to utilize television as a medium.

It was only when technological improvements arrived that improved the ability of broadcasts to reach a larger audience range and the fact that broadcasters mentioned to advertisers that television broadcasting was the “wave of the future” and would be thought of as “new, hip and exciting” that advertisers entered into mainstream television broadcasts.

When examining this section, it can be seen that the fundamental infrastructure for commercialism to be the driving force behind American television was laid out at the onset of creating television as a broadcasting medium.

We will write a custom Research Paper on American Television History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By making the system more “beholden” to advertisers and ensuring that the advertising culture at the time focused more on product advertisement and less on uplifting messages as seen during the prime years of radio broadcasting, this in effect changed the entire system.

As it will be shown in the succeeding sections, the culture of electronic advertising changed wherein advertisers became increasingly aggressive with their product placements and means of getting the public to be more aware of the company to the extent that they in effect dictated television programming to a certain degree.

Integration into Television Programming In American television history, one of the most pivotal examples of how commercialism became the driving force behind television programming can be seen in the 1950s sitcom “The Goldbergs”.

From its early success a radio sitcom, the series branched out into television programming at which point the style and message of series changed from being a working-class sitcom to being a television series that in effect glorified materialism and focused on “keeping up” with neighbors and friends alike in terms of having a certain lifestyle and being able to purchase particular types of products.

As explained by Brook (1999), while advertising during radio programming was expected by audiences during the 1920s to the late 1940s, it was not as overt as the process utilized in television programming by the 1950s. When it came to radio station programming, advertisements acted more as by-lines or even an afterthought to the main program itself.

While present, it was not at the immediate forefront of the perception of the listener at the time and could be considered as being relatively passive.

However, Brook (1999) explains that during the early iteration of television sitcoms, commercials became more integrated into the very show that was being presented as evidenced by the manner in which Molly, one of the titular characters from the Goldbergs, openly advertised a particular product at the start of every show with various types of product placement being integrated into scenarios as deemed fit by the producer (i.e., coffee cans with brand labels, pictures of the product, etc.) (Brook, 47-48).

Television stars in effect became hawkers of products with the programming often shifting in order to accommodate the type of product that was being hawked at the time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Television History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, when the sponsors of “The Golbergs” shifted from the Sanka coffee company to Rybutol (a division of a vitamin company) the normal opening scene of Molly presenting a product on a window sill immediately shifted to looking at a vitamin bottle that was placed on a window sill with a sudden close-up of the bottle with a line of dialog extolling its virtues.

This type of “in your face” advertising signified a distinct shift in the advertising culture at the time wherein instead of being camouflaged, skillfully integrated into the storyline of the program or hyper-realized in some way, the consumerist aspect of it now became openly embraced and forced directly into the forefront of the viewing experience.

Brook (1999) explains that while standalone commercials did eventually come into being wherein direct product advertisements were not as obvious in television programming, the fact remains that this just gave way to passive advertising in programs wherein the materialistic culture espoused by advertising was integrated into their scripts (Brook, 49 -53).

Brook (1999) points to the episodes of “The Goldbergs” wherein a distinctly materialistic orientation can be seen where the actors extol the virtues of particular consumer goods, present the notion that materialism is a social concept that is normal and should be lived up to and that excess consumption was no longer the domain of the rich and famous, rather, it extended to ordinary people as well (Brook, 51-55).

From a certain perspective, it can be stated that television programs in effect became one long commercial program which employed subversive and indirect means of bringing a particular product or lifestyle to the forefront of the thoughts of the American public that was viewing the program.

Evidence of this can be seen in glorification of certain types of suits and leisurewear, showing characters as having a distinct patronage towards particular types of products as well as showcasing how particular products became symbolic emblems of particular social classes (i.e. fur coats for the rich, petticoats for the middle class, as well as different models of cars, etc.).

This degree of cultural symbolism can be considered a manifestation of influences of advertisers in getting their respective brands and products out there in order to develop greater consumer interest through symbolism (Nelson, 333-340).

What this entailed was that when consumers saw a particular product being utilized and extolled by the social class that they belonged to, this in effect created a reaction wherein the came to associate that product as a symbol of their class and actively attempted to incorporate such a status symbol in their own lives.

This is one of the primary reasons behind the development of particular types of fashion trends over the years wherein items associated with “the working man”, “the hipster” and “the rich” were inspired by their counterparts on television that caused people to believe that they needed such products in order to be associated with their respective social class.

In a rather apt analogy regarding the shift towards commercialism controlled programming, Brook (1999) had stated the following:

“They were no longer a bridge to the white suburban middle class; they had become that class. The American Dream they had so ardently sought-and sold-had enfolded them, The Goldbergs, in its 1955-56 season, was for all intents and purposes a new show.” (Brook, 55-56)

While such a phrase was meant to encapsulate the change in the show “The Goldbergs”, it is also a rather apt way of showing how television programming had in effect “shifted” towards a more “overt” means of direct advertising where, through control of the creative process, advertisers in effect helped to shape television programming towards a method that influenced consumer purchasing decisions by presenting methods of product symbolism, cultural analogy and showcasing how a materialistic culture was perfectly acceptable.

Mass Media and Commercialism From the perspective of MacDonald et al. (1980), mass media whether in the form of radio or television showcased a profound effect on influencing the culture that it was set in (MacDonald et al., 303-14).

This came in the form of cultural predilections, social terminologies, ideas regarding social conditions and even themes associated with politics becoming aspects that could invariably be influenced through mass media and how viewers associated their everyday attitudes with what they heard on the radio or saw on television (MacDonald et al., 303-14).

In effect, their concept of social identity was influenced by what they saw on television and this had a profound impact on the development of American culture at time. Television and radio (to a certain extent) became a source of emulation and it still is as a matter of fact.

Popular culture (pop culture), as it is known today can be considered as a manifestation of mass media that was intentionally created by producers for the sole purpose of selling and advertising particular goods and services.

While on the surface, there may not seem to be any overt forms of advertising being done through pop culture, what you have to understand is that there are usually extensive systems in place meant to monetize nearly every single aspect of it.

For example, one of the classic icons of mass media popular culture is the average music star. Showcasing himself/herself as being hip, trendy and popular on television is a type of pop culture entertainment; however, what you have to understand is that such an individual is for all intents and purposes a product that was meant to be displayed to the general public in order to create a certain desire for emulation among viewers.

As a result, people that view the program are likely to purchase that music star’s records, pay for tickets to go to their concert, buy their merchandise, purchase the products they endorse and an assortment of other activities that puts money into the pockets of television producers and advertising executives.

Mass media has been recognized by advertisers as a perfect tool for creating public interest for whatever product they deem necessary and, based on the popularity of pop culture, showcases how yet again commercialism is one of the driving forces behind the development of American television as we know it today.

Advertising and the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities Lipsitz (1986) states that “Television delivers audiences to advertisers by glorifying consumption, not only during commercial breaks but in the programs themselves “ (Lipsitz, 355).

He attempts to showcase this by showing how despite ethnic working-class households being an inappropriate setting for depicting indulgence in materialism, a program’s producers during the 1950s get around this by showing ethnic families in urban working-class neighborhoods during historical periods where there are rising standards of living and better conditions for the working class and the rich alike (Lipsitz, 356-358).

In effect, the glorification of materialism is justified under the context that the conditions that the ethnic urban working class find themselves in are conducive towards such a means of consumption.

Lipsitz (1986) implies that ordinarily such a depiction would normally be counterintuitive to how ethnic working households at the time were really like given the economic hardships encountered by immigrants during this period. Shows such as “Mama” and “The Goldbergs” exemplified consumerist characteristics that advertisers wanted to depict.

The focus on consumer spending on some episodes, of conforming to the particular ideals of a social class as well as usage of particular types of products were all meant to do one very basic thing: sell products. The shows, while hilarious up to a certain point, were basically cleverly crafted commercialized advertisements meant to sell products and a particular lifestyle choice that advertisers wanted viewers to emulate (Nelson, 333-340).

Works Cited Brook, Vincent. “The Americanization of Molly: How Mid-Fifties TV Homogenized.” Cinema Journal. 38.4 (1999): 45-67. Print.

Lipsitz, George. “The Meaning of Memory: Family, Class, and Ethnicity in Early Network Television Programs.” Cultural Anthropology. 1.4 (1986): 355-387. Print.

MacDonald, Fred, Michael Marsden, and Christoper Geist. “Radio and Television Studies and American Culture.” American Quarterly. 32.3 (1980): 301-317. Print.

Nelson, Richard. “Sources for Archival Research on Film and Television Propaganda in the United States.” Film History. 3.4 (1989): 333-340. Print.

Schwoch, James. “Selling the Sight/Site of Sound: Broadcast Advertising and the Transition from Radio toTelevision.” Cinema Journal. 30.1 (1990): 55-66. Print

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Bullying in the Workplace Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

A culture of workplace bullying

Bullying in the workplace and its ethical connection

Laws of leadership and bullying in the workplace

The law of Respect

The Law of Influence

Conclusion

References

Abstract Bullying in the workplace has been a huge challenge that most organizational leaders have been struggling to contain. A common feature in most organizations is a workforce where members lack mutual respect for each other, fail to cooperate, intimidate each other, and constantly looking down upon weaker members.

Workplace bullying refers an unswerving pattern of bodily, psychological, or collective behavior subjected to an employee, which has the ability to compromise their dignity, cause harm or any form of threat. Promotion of ethical practices is very crucial for success in any organization, as people learn to respect each other, cooperate, and remain faithful to their duties and responsibilities.

Bullying within the workplace has many effects on the overall performance of an organization, such as poor employee retention rates and high cost of operation.

Everyone has the responsibility of stopping this culture of bullying within the workplace. Organizational leaders have an ethical obligation to ensure that they deal with cases of bullying within the workplace in a professional manner that demonstrates equality, honesty, and high sensitivity to the needs of others.

Introduction One of the greatest challenges that organizational leaders have today, is the need to create an ethical and cohesive workforce. The human resource department in an organization plays an important role in promoting ethical behavior within a workforce (Thompson, 2012).

Recruitment and selection is one of the crucial processes in every organization, because it determines the nature and character of people that form the workforce team. A common feature in most organizations is a workforce where members lack mutual respect for each other, fail to cooperate, intimidate each other, and constantly looking down upon weaker members.

One of the unethical practices common in most workplaces is bullying. Bullying refers to the act of intimidating a weaker person to make them do something (Needham, 2003). Bullying is a behavior that many people associate with a playing field. However, the unethical practice is slowly elbowing its way into the comfort of various workplaces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This character trait compromises the objective of the ethical principle of the common good. This principle argues that in order to achieve the benefits of the common good, everyone has to play their part and ensure they look out for the welfare of others.

Workplace bullying refers an unswerving pattern of bodily, psychological, or collective behavior subjected to an employee, which has the ability to compromise their dignity, cause harm or any form of threat (Thompson, 2012).

The tactics applied in workplace bullying can be either verbal or non-verbal depending on nature of messages sent, the recipient, the sender, and the environment under which it happens. Bullying in the workplace is unethical and unacceptable.

A culture of workplace bullying Bullying is a culture that has slowly developed among various workplaces, as the organizational leaders struggle to develop effective strategies for human resource planning and management. Bullying within the workplace has a close link to the behavior of culprits during their school days, where such unethical habits develop among many people (Chekwa

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Marketing Manager Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Marketing refers to the “management process through which goods and services are developed and sold to customers”. Marketing activities include product development, setting prices, identification of distribution channels, and implementing promotional strategies. These activities are often executed by marketing managers in most companies.

This paper will highlight the marketing principles that can be used to market Ford F-150 SVT in the United States and China. Ford F-150 SVT is a truck model manufactured by Ford Motor Company in the United States. Ford F-150 SVT can gain market share in China because it provides the four utilities of customer value and the demand for trucks in China is high.

Description of Ford F-150 SVT The four utilities of customer value include “functionality, time, place, and ease of possession”. Functionality refers to the tangible attributes of a product such as its durability, color, and safety.

Ford F-150 SVT has several in-built safety mechanisms such as front and rear cameras to ease navigation and hill descent control to prevent accidents when driving on steep terrain (Ford Motor Company, 2013). The truck is also available in several colors to satisfy the tastes and preferences of different customers. Similarly, the truck has manual and automatic gearbox options to ease its use.

Time utility refers to customers’ ability to access a product whenever they need it. Ford Motor Company has established a global distribution network to ensure that Ford F-150 SVT gets to the market at the right time.

The company also focuses on mass production of trucks to avoid delays in fulfilling orders (Ford Motor Company, 2013). Ford Motor Company has also partnered with independent distributors in countries where it does not operate to sell Ford F-150 SVT.

Place utility “includes where and how the product or service is delivered”. Ford F-150 SVT is sold through the company’s website and show rooms. Once the truck is purchased, the company arranges for shipment to the customer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ease of possession utility refers to the procedures that lead to acquisition of a product. In order to ease possession, Ford Motor Company allows its customers to acquire the truck in several ways. These include leasing, cash purchase, and hire purchase. Moreover, the truck has a warranty to encourage customers to purchase it.

Ford F-150 SVT’s Target Market In the United States, the target market for the truck includes construction companies, security companies, and individuals. Construction and security companies use the truck to transport equipment and materials to various sites (Ford Motor Company, 2013).

The truck’s off-road capabilities enhance travelling to construction sites in remote areas that have poor road network. Since Ford F-150 SVT is a low cost model, its target market among individuals includes middle-income earners who are interested in both comfort and extra space to carry their luggage when travelling.

The truck is also popular among individuals with large families, as well as, people who prefer to travel to remote areas such as wild parks and forests during their holidays.

In China, Ford F-150 SVT’s target market includes companies in the construction and manufacturing industries. Moreover, the truck can be used by farmers and medium-sized businesses that are not able to purchase large trucks. Farmers are likely to prefer the truck because of its ability to travel in the country’s rough terrain (Ford Motor Company, 2013).

Competition in Ford F-150 SVT Truck Category Ford F-150 SVT competes with several truck models in the United States and China. In the United States, the truck’s main competitors include Toyota Hilux, Isuzu Dmax, and Nissan Navara. Toyota Hilux and Isuzu Dmax are competing based on price. Their manufacturers are low cost producers who are able to charge competitive prices.

Besides, Toyota Hilux has a strong brand image that is known for durability and reliability. Isuzu Dmax is known for both comfort and low prices in the United States. Nissan Navara competes with other models based on quality and price. In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT faces high competition in the United States since most producers of medium-sized trucks are focusing on product differentiation.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The competition faced by Ford F-150 SVT in China is very high. The Chinese car market has several medium-sized truck models whose prices are very low. This reduces customers’ switching costs since they can easily shift from one model to another.

The Chinese market is also characterized with price sensitive customers. This makes local models more competitive than Ford F-150 SVT. In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT competes based on its qualities that are superior to those of the Chinese truck models.

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Segmentation is the process of using shared attributes to classify or categorize customers in a given market. Demographic and psychographic segmentation are relevant to the Chinese market since the customers’ purchasing behavior is mainly influenced by their income levels and perception of products.

Demographic segmentation involves categorizing customers according to attributes such as sex, age, income, and occupation. In this context, the Chinese market can be segmented according to customers’ income and their occupation in order to identify the group that is likely to purchase Ford F-150 SVT.

Psychographic segmentation involves categorizing customers according to their interests, activities, lifestyles, perceptions, and opinions. In this case, the Chinese market can be segmented based on customers’ lifestyles and perceptions.

Targeting refers to the process of selecting the right market segment. In demographic segmentation, the right group to target includes the high and middle-income earners in China. This choice is justified by the fact that high and middle-income earners are not likely to be sensitive to price changes. Consequently, they are likely to consider the non-price attributes of Ford F-150 SVT in their purchase decisions.

In addition, occupation is a relevant factor for choosing the right market segment. In this case, the segment that should be targeted includes owners of small and medium-sized businesses who are able to afford high quality trucks. In psychographic segmentation, the right group includes the customers who believe that American trucks such as Ford F-150 SVT are superior to local trucks.

Additionally, individuals who are interested in outdoor recreational activities such as visiting tourist attractions are likely to purchase Ford F-150 SVT because it offers comfort, style, durability, and off-road capabilities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Positioning refers to the process of “identifying the most appropriate marketing mix for a given target market”. Customers in the Chinese market are interested in product quality and price. Thus, the most appropriate elements of the marketing mix for the segments identified in the foregoing paragraph are product and price.

In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT will be positioned as a high quality, luxurious, versatile, and durable medium-sized truck. Given the high competition in the industry, it will be important to position Ford F-150 SVT as a truck that offers superior qualities at affordable prices.

Environmental Facts and Trends in the Chinese Market In the microenvironment, the factors that are likely to influence the sales of Ford F-150 SVT are high competitive rivalry and high bargaining power of the buyers (customers). The competition in the market is very high because there are very many sellers of medium sized trucks. The competition is also high because firms are focusing on product differentiation and cost leadership.

The high competition is likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 SVT negatively. Customers have high bargaining power because their switching costs are low. Specifically, the customers can easily change from one truck model to another in order to enjoy benefits such as low prices and high quality. Thus, Ford F-150 SVT might not penetrate the market if its qualities fail to satisfy the needs of the market.

In the macro environment, the factors that are likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 include social, political, and economic variables. China has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades.

This has resulted into an increase in business activities, emergence of a large middle-class, and improved purchasing power among citizens. This can be illustrated by the fact that China is the largest market for cars in the world. Thus, high economic growth in China is likely to boost the sales of Ford F-150 SVT.

High regulation is the most important political factor that is likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 SVT in China. The government of China has imposed high import duties on imported vehicles in order to protect its automotive industry. In addition, foreign car manufacturers that intend to produce vehicles in China must partner with local producers in order to be licensed to operate.

Thus, exporting Ford F-150 to China will reduce its competitiveness due to the high import duties. Although collaborating with a local producer seems appropriate, the partnership can lead to a brand war that will ultimately reduce the competitiveness of Ford F-150 SVT.

The social factors that are likely to influence the sales of Ford F-150 SVT include customers’ perception of imported cars and customers’ lifestyles. The low-income earners believe that foreign trucks are more expensive than local brands.

This perception is likely to discourage the purchase of Ford F-150 among the low-income earners. By contrast, the middle and high-income earners believe that imported trucks have superior qualities.

Thus, they are likely to purchase foreign brands even if they are sold at a premium price. This will boost the sales of Ford F-150 SVT in China. The rising demand for tourism products such as park visits is also likely to boost the sales of Ford F-150.

Marketing Campaign for Ford F-150 in China Marketing promotion refers to the “coordinated series of steps that are taken to promote a product”. The four elements of marketing mix can be used to promote Ford F-150 SVT in China in the following ways. Ford F-150 SVT will be positioned as a high quality brand.

In order to keep this brand promise, the design and production team will take into account the needs of the Chinese market such as fuel efficiency. In addition, the sales team will organize free test drives to enable customers to verify the qualities of the truck.

Penetration pricing will be employed to enable the truck to gain market share in China. This will involve setting relatively low prices in order to attract customers. Discounts will be provided to encourage cash and bulk purchases. These strategies are important because customers in China are price sensitive. Thus, charging low prices will help in overcoming competition.

Selecting the most appropriate distribution channel (place) will be integral in the process of marketing Ford F-150 SVT in China. In this regard, the truck will be distributed through Ford Motor Company’s retail outlets and independent distributors. The rationale of this strategy is that China has a vast geographical area.

Thus, partnering with local distributors will help in reducing distribution costs. Moreover, local distributors have a good knowledge of the market, which will enable them to sell the truck easily. Ford Motor Company’s retail outlets will also be used to train local distributors on the truck’s qualities and capabilities. Undoubtedly, having adequate product knowledge will improve local distributors’ ability to sell the truck.

Promotional activities will also help in marketing Ford F-150 SVT. The promotional activities that will be used include advertising, public relations, and providing free after-sales services such as repairs for a limited period. The objective of the promotions will be to increase product awareness and sales.

The effectiveness of the marketing campaign will be measured by predefined sales metrics. These include the generated sales leads, sales volume, and market share.

Ethical Marketing Considerations The ethical concerns that will be addressed in the marketing plan for Ford F-150 SVT will help in promoting fair competition and protecting the truck’s brand image. Unethical marketing activities such as price fixing, price collusion, and predatory pricing will be avoided since they are illegal and discourage competition.

Moreover, marketing promotion will focus on the use of adverts with appropriate content. Thus, inappropriate content such as sex messages will be avoided in the truck’s adverts.

Conclusion Ford F-150 SVT can gain market share in China since it provides the utilities of customer value. In addition, robust economic growth will boost its sales in China. However, an effective marketing plan must be developed in order to take advantage of the opportunities in the Chinese market.

In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT should be positioned as a truck that provides superior qualities at low costs. This will help in overcoming competition, thereby enabling the truck to gain market share. Moreover, the marketing campaign should focus on creating brand awareness in order to increase sales in China.

References Cant, M., Strydom, J.,

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The Taxi Driver and the Dance with Wolves films Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The themes

The Plots

Conclusion

Introduction A movie is a visual medium and normally attempts to portray certain parts of written piece of thoughts of characters not explicitly expressed. The film Taxi Driver by Martin Scorsese displays the frustrations of an ex-marine officer in New York City who becomes a taxi driver to contain his chronic insomnia condition. The customs in the city are too much for this driver who served in the just concluded Second World War.

Produced in 1976, this movie was met with criticism and support in equal measure. On the other hand, the film Dances with Wolves by Kevin Costner is often described as a classical masterpiece of the early 1990s due to its unique theme.

The unique cinematography and performances have perfectly fused to express the main theme especially when the characters interact showing emotions and mood in every scene. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly compare and contrast the cinematic themes creates by the two directors.

The themes Recognizing the themes of loyalty and moral crisis, Scorsese brings this movie to life. He creates a very human action thriller that combines stories of both self-discovery and love for the taxi driver called Travis. Scorsese convincingly mingles the ‘futuristic’ and the ‘realistic’ imaginations to create a world of exotic reality in the busy city life.

There is a lot of violence and prostitution in the New York City. Travis has to adopt very radical actions to try and restore order. He shots the little Irish ‘pimp’ and his friends for encouraging the young lady into prostitution.

On the other hand, Costner in the film Dance with Wolves revises roles as defined by traditions of the Indians and Cowboys. As depicted in the film, tradition and religion control the lives of characters. Specifically, the Sioux tribe is depicted as a unique and traditional society. The American soldiers are portrayed as imperfect, genuine, viciously brutal, and semi thoughtless.

Traditions control the mourning of Elgin who is a lieutenant and Stone. Despite attempting to quantify historical events into context, the film has little on reversal aspect. The movie commences with a civil war featuring antagonists and protagonists of tradition as both teams attempt to create a diversion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the Native Americans are painted as traditionally united group who appreciate peace, with strong family bonds and are desperate for opportunity of survival in the strife.

Unlike the film Taxi Driver, the film Dance with Wolves misses the truly poetic orchestrations of actions and heroic displays of bravado. The film Taxi Driver has an intriguing premise: heroism after dejection.

In the film Dance with Wolves, the director seems to be unable to convey the poetry and philosophical inclinations of the colonial masters and the natives of India. At the end, the underlying fear and destabilizations of the imaginative explorations mere summarized the plot rather giving it a poetic identity.

The Plots The film Taxi Driver has the urban plot and the story revolves around a single actor. The actions of the taxi driver affect other actors directly in this action packed piece. Reflectively, this creates a feeling of imaginative casting. Scorsese even goes ahead to include slow motion pictures, yet the film is a high speed genre.

Travis is a character in the movie and always is worried of what will happen next. His character is associated with the unfortunate events when he loses his ‘girlfriend’ after his strategy to take her to a sex movie fires back.

In comparison, the film Dance with Wolves revolves around ‘the kicking bird’ and ‘Wind in His Hair’ that come to the society of the Sioux. The new society’s of the Sioux philosophy is to “take without asking”. During the film, characters display a clear caricature hint which defies traditional stereotyping. At the climax, Dunbar defects from traditional culture to new culture.

To align to the traditional setting aspects on production design and the society, this film heightens hyper-real palate of emotional expression. Moreover, this choice of setting was essential in the need for a proper balance of production aural, sound accordion, and scenes characterized by traditional practices such as sharing of pipe. Subsequently, this balance has facilitated the addition of decadent love and hatred feelings in the film.

We will write a custom Essay on The Taxi Driver and the Dance with Wolves films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The endings of the two genres are quite different. The taxi driver realizes that the item that he never valued turns about to be a necessity for his survival. After being arrested and interrogated by the police, he walks out a hero. On the other hand, the ending of the film Dance with Wolves paints the indigenous Sioux community as people united by shamanism religion and tradition.

The film ends with these people still in the bondage of neocolonialism. The two directors adopt totally different approaches and settings in the two films. Scorsese adopts the urban setting and modern way of life, while Costner adopts the traditional setting and the traditional way of life.

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Marketing Plan; Southwest Airlines Report college essay help: college essay help

Executive summary Southwest Airlines was established in 1967 and incorporated in 1971 in Dallas, Texas as a low cost airline company. The firm has developed an optimal market position over the past decades. By the end of 2012, Southwest Airlines had a fleet of 576 aircrafts and operated in 89 destinations. The firm is committed in providing customers with unique experience.

One of the ways through which it achieves this is by nurturing a warm and friendly working environment. Furthermore, the firm ensures that its customers are provided with high quality services. This has played a critical role in developing a high level of customer loyalty.

In an effort to maximize its level of profitability, the firm intends to launch a new service which will entail establishing a new route. The new route will entail travelling between Atlanta, GA to New York LaGuardia.

The firm intends to dominate the new route by offering high quality services. The route will be characterized by short turnaround duration. This will ensure that consumers achieve a high level of flexibility with regard to air travel.

Southwest Airlines intend to achieve the following objectives by launching the new route.

To offer competitive low cost carrier services to consumers in the US airline industry.

To increase the firm’s sales revenue by 20% within one year after launching the new route.

To increase the firm’s market share by 15% within one year after launching the new route.

Situational analysis According to Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson (65), it is critical of firms to analyze the environment in which it operates by taking into account the internal, customer and the external environments. Therefore, firms should consider conducting a comprehensive environmental analysis by integrating the Porters five forces, PESTLE analysis and the SWOT models.

The Porters’ five forces

Rivalry

The US airline industry is experiencing an increment in the intensity of competition. This has made the industry very volatile. The firm faces intense competition from a number of low-cost carriers such as JetBlue, Easyjet, United Airlines and the American Airlines. These firms have adopted similar operational strategies to those of Southwest Airlines.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry

The low- cost carrier airline market in the US is experiencing an increment in the number of new entrants as a result of its high profitability potential. New firms are venturing the industry in an effort to exploit the prevailing market potential.

Consequently, the degree of industry concentration is increasing at an alarming rate. Moreover, the Deregulation Act of 1978 has made it easier for foreign low-cost carriers to enter the industry.

The threat of new entrant has made it difficult for Southwest Airlines to successfully differentiate its services. This arises from the fact that most of the entrants are focusing on price as their market competitive variable. As a result of the high threat of new entrant, the industry is experiencing a decline in its profitability.

However, the threat of new entrant is likely to decline as a result of the high cost of operation and high start-up cost (Hawkins, Misra

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Erik Erickson. Trust versus Mistrust Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help

Table of Contents Biophysical Dimension

Psychological Dimension

Social Dimension

References

This paper explores the life of a 15 months old child using the biophysical, psychological and the social dimensions of child development. This is done using examples of scenarios where the child might experience Erik Erickson’s trust versus mistrust using these three dimensions.

According to Erik Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development, human beings undergo through eight key developmental stages in their life from infancy to old age. All these stages occur in a gradual process, meaning that one stage is succeeded by another (Ashford

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