Are The Effects Of The Digital World And Internet On Our Modern Life Style Negative Or Positive? Report (Assessment) Best College Essay Help

How do you feel when your laptop requires repairing, your Internet connection is broken, and your iPhone is left at home? Such perspectives seem to be too dangerous for you? If it is so, you are a representative of a modern digital nation which lives in our digital world.

What are the main peculiarities of this world? Why do the representatives of the digital nation differ from the people of, for instance, the 1970th – 1980th period? The information is the main concept of the digital world, and the value of the information technologies is the main peculiar feature of the digital nation. Today it is impossible to imagine our society without the Internet, mobile phones, and other technologies which give us the opportunity to access to the great amounts of the information at any place and at any time.

New conditions of life which depend on the development of the information technologies create a new pattern of the public’s life style. It is possible to say that the effects of the digital world on our modern life style can be considered as predominantly negative because the progress of the information technologies involves the changes in the typical life style of many people, influences their activities, their consciousness, and relations with the other persons.

The debates on the influence of the Internet on the young people’s minds develop since the time when the Internet became such an ordinary part of our everyday life as the television.

Nevertheless, it was rather difficult to predict such an expansion of the Internet round the world and determining Web as the giant database or a library which can function as cinema, theatre, and museums at once. According to Adam Gopnik, “the Internet is just a loud and unlimited library in which we now live – as if one went to sleep every night in the college stacks, surrounded by pamphlets and polemics and possibilities” (Gopnik).

It is only several years ago researchers began to speak openly about such issues as the negative effects of the Internet on the public’s minds and to develop the necessary investigations. The results of their researches accentuate the fact that every time when we use the Internet connection in order to find the necessary information or to participate in the virtual reality we experience the great impact which is provided by the information from the Internet.

This impact is considered as negative because our brains begin to function atypically in order to cope with a lot of the information of different kinds. This controversial information along with the discussion of many other provocative aspects is presented in the project created by Rachel Dretzin and Douglas Rushkoff which and known as Digital Nation (“Digital Nation”).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, those processes which can be observed in our brains when we are involved in the virtual reality are still not examined properly, but those findings which are available to the public provide rather pessimistic perspectives on the question of the influence of the Internet on our minds, intelligence, and consciousness.

In his article “The Information”, Adam Gopnik also focuses on the fact that “the Internet breaks down our capacity for reflective thought” (Gopnik). Thus, a lot of the information which is offered in the Internet is given as the facts which do not stimulate the public’s critical thinking. Moreover, people are always at risks to perceive the information which is not reliable without analyzing its main points and credibility.

The other aspect of the influence of the Internet on the public’s minds is the special physical and moral state which is often the result of the everyday involvement in the virtual life. Thus, Adam Gopnik emphasizes the fact that many people when they describe their state while using the Internet are inclined to depict it in such words as “disassociation and fragmentation” and moreover, he states that “life was once whole, continuous, stable; now it is fragmented, multi-part, shimmering around us, unstable and impossible to fix” (Gopnik).

Paying attention to those effects which the Internet has on the people’s minds and consciousness, it is not surprising to accentuate the numerous facts of the public’s addiction from the Internet. Today many young people choose to spend all their spare time in the virtual reality which provides them with virtual friends, a lot of emotions and feelings. The level of the social activity of those persons who spend their days in front of their laptops is low because almost all their interactions take place in the space of the Internet.

Are their any dangerous effects in such a behavior or we should not worry? Ben Turner concentrates on the psychologists’ investigations and concludes that there is “a link between the disinterest in public participation in local and national affairs and the increase of instances of Internet addiction” (Turner). The Internet addiction hides a lot of risks for young people which are connected with the character of their social interactions, real communication, and being aware of themselves as the part of the real society, bit not the virtual reality.

The Internet addiction can be considered as the abstract notion which will not be associated with us, but with somebody else. Nevertheless, according to the data from Digital Nation, today many young people in such a developed country as South Korea have to get rid of the Internet addiction (“Digital Nation”).

The Internet addiction is interdependent with the feeling of the catastrophic loneliness which is typical for those people who made the Internet the major part of their life. In spite of the fact they spend much time communicating online with the help of chats and social networks, the feeling of loneliness which is the result of the real communication’s lack is too painful for them. Many young people are inclined to check their e-mails and Facebook instead of communicating with the members of their family.

We will write a custom Assessment on Are the Effects of the Digital World and Internet on Our Modern Life Style Negative or Positive? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When they reject the real interactions with real emotions they create their own illusion of communication in the Internet. The Internet communication is effective for solving business matters, but it is rather unsuccessful for personal relations. Sharing interests in music and movie with our virtual friends, we become more and more distant from our relatives and real friends. In the most dangerous cases this situation can lead to the public’s isolation.

To conclude, it is necessary to state that the rapid development of the digital world provides a lot of issues for our modern digital nation. To overcome all the provocative and controversial aspects of this process, it is significant to pay attention to the negative effects of the situation. It is impossible to imagine our life without the Internet, but it is possible to avoid the extremes in involving it in our life style.

Works Cited “Digital Nation: Life on the Virtual Frontier”. PBS Frontline. 2 Feb. 2010. Video. Web.

Gopnik, Adam. “The Information”. The New Yorker. 14 Feb. 2011. Web.

Turner, Ben. The Internet’s Effect on Relationships: Detrimental or Beneficial? 2010. Web.


Does the Vice Presidency have power because the office has grown or because power is tendered by the sitting President? Term Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rationale for the Study

Research Questions





Introduction In the history of the American governance, different Vice Presidents have held different powers with some being powerful and influential than others. This has caused a debate in the country regarding the source of the VP powers. The argument has been whether the power is in the VP office or the sitting president decides to share his/her powers with the vice president.

This calls for the need to explore this situation and determine the source and nature of this power. This is a proposal for a research to dig deeper in this issue to determine and establish the powers of the Vice President in the government of the United States.

Rationale for the Study Different vice presidents in the American government have portrayed varying powers with some being extremely influential and powerful than others. With the current Constitution, the powers vested in the office are clearly stated. However, history shows that some VPs have shown enormous powers under different sitting presidents.

For example, Dick Cheney and Walter Mondale are two famous vice presidents who had enormous VP powers and made many decisions during the time[1]. On the other hand, Vice President Bush had minimal powers during the Ronald Reagan Administration.

These observations therefore call for a research study to explore the unique powers of different vice presidents in the history of the United States. The most important thing is to explore how the Vice Presidents in the country receive and exercise such powers.

Using the examples of Dick Cheney, Walter Mondale, and Bush, the study will analyze the source of the VP power in different governments led by different presidents[2]. This will establish if the sitting presidents decide to grant their powers to the Vice Presidents or the office has such powers.

Research Questions The research will present meaningful solutions to this question: Does the Vice Presidency have power because the office has grown or the sitting president decides to tender power to the Vice President? The study will explain the Constitutional powers of the VP office and determine if the office has grown to become powerful or whether the sitting presidents willingly share power with the VPs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussions In this study, the key perspectives of the research question is whether the presidents decide to share their powers with the vice presidents, or whether the office of vice president have grown to become powerful within the last few decades. If that is so, the study will determine why they have been differences in power possessions by deferent VPs in the American history[3].

The findings will therefore explain why some VPs in the United States have shown enormous powers while others have played minor roles in governing and making decision during their respective terms in office.

Conclusion With increased VP power, chances are high that the office might offer enormous challenge to the power of the president. There are implications such as war decisions made by the vice president that might have enormous impacts on the power of the president. This has been a source of debate regarding whether presidents should grant their VPs powers, or whether the VP should be granted with such powers. The research study will discuss this issue in details and present the way forward for better governance in the United States.

Bibliography Goldstein, Joel. “The Rising Power of the Modern Vice Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 10, no. 11. (July 2008); 34-49.

Jillson, Cal. American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change. New York: Taylor and Francis Press, 2005.

Wilson, James. American Government: Brief Version. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Footnotes Joel Goldstein. “The Rising Power of the Modern Vice Presidency.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 10, no. 11. (July 2008); p. 49.

Cal Jillson. American Government: Political Development and Institutional Change. (New York: Taylor and Francis Press, 2005), p. 32.

James Wilson. American Government: Brief Version. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011), p. 83.


AT online essay help: online essay help

Job analysis refers to the information about the roles and tasks in performance of a given job. It ensures that the employees will be handling manageable tasks that are assigned to them. Job description refers to the written explanations about what a particular job entails in terms of the responsibilities and the results expected by the employer (Jackson, Schuler


The Photon Definition and Effects Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents The photon description

The photon properties

Lab experiments about the photon

Experiments conducted on the mass of a photon

The particle-wave duality

The life cycle of the photon


Works Cited

The photon description Basically, a photon may be termed as a quantum, a detached packet of light or an electromagnetic power. This implies that the photon occurs as an electromagnetic force carter, a different kind of electromagnetic radiation and a light quantum. The electromagnetic force effects can simply be observed under the macroscopic and atomic level since the photon is massless at rest.

In fact, the photon seems to be constantly moving and while in vacuities, each and every viewer can tell that it bears a constant velocity of light which is 2.998×108 meters per second. This readily lets in the long distance interactions. However, given that the photon appears like any other elementary particle, it is presently best described as a duality particle which exhibits both the properties of particles as well as waves (Griffiths 15).

The photon properties From the theory of light, the photon:

Have zero rest energy and mass

Can have collisions or particle like interactions with other particles and electrons

Can move in free space at a constant light speed of 2.998×108 m/s

Can be created or destroyed when the emission or absorption of radiation occurs

Carries momentum and energy that similarly relates to electromagnetic wavelength lambda and the frequency nu.

Lab experiments about the photon Various laboratory experiments have been conducted to prove the viability of the above named photon properties. These are as subsequently discussed.

Experiments conducted on the mass of a photon Photon is still perceived to be massless, and this has been subject to experimental investigations. Lab results show that if a photon particle has some mass, it will fail to travel at a similar velocity as light when in a free space. The speed will rely on its frequency yet it will be lower.

Since its relativity is not affected by this factor, the light velocity will not be the definite speed that the photon will move at. It will rather be a constant speed that an object can hypothetically reach as its maximum while in a free space (Grangier et al. 74). This means that it will not be the photons speed, but the space time velocity for gravitons and gravitational waves.

Under Coulombs law, the effects of a massive photon are made apparent. The electromagnetic fields are seen to have some degrees of freedom with the modification of this law. The tentative lab review indicated that the quantity of a photon produces very complex upshots in comparison to the reliance on the light velocity frequency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, if this law is held invalid, the subjection of a photon to external electric fields would cause some electric field to be present within the hollow-conductor. This means that there is some accuracy that a photon bears no mass this law (Dehlinger and Mitchell 903). Finally, in a galactic vector potential experiment, it was observed that when a photon has no mass, magnetic field will be observed and the reverse also holds.

The particle-wave duality Just like any other quantum element, the photon tends to display the characteristic of both particles and waves. It is very hard to visualize the particle-wave dualistic nature. However, laboratory experiments confirm that the photon noticeably shows waves-like occurrences namely interfering as well as diversion on its wavelength measures.

For instance, in an experimental illustration, there was a real slit that was ran across, and one photon which passed through that double slit experiment landed on the used screen and exhibited the interference incidence (Hardy 1666). Founded on Maxwell photon function, such an occurrence is dubbed as chance distribution.

The laboratory experiment nonetheless verified that the photons barely fragment or divide when they are meeting ray-splitters. Moreover, they hardly sprawl as they propagate since they are not tiny electromagnetic energy beats. Most experiments indicate that photons are more similar to the point like particles.

From these experiments, the assertions are that the photons are emitted and absorbed in totality by very lesser systems as compared with their wavelengths and these include the point like electrons or even the atomic nucleus which approximately measures 10-15 metres across.

Einstein and other scientist conceived that photons are point like units whose paths become formed by chance. Current lab experiments have shown that this is not the case and the proposition was disproved by the lab experiments known as the photon correlation experiment (Hardy 1667). The experiments showed that the photons produce the electromagnetic fields by themselves that sequentially stem from the quantum field theoretical laws and the local gauge symmetry.

Furthermore, as photons pass via the double slit experiments, corresponding interference patterns are likely to be generated by both the material particles along with the photons. With respect to the measurable atoms, such an incidence takes place due to Schrodinger wave-function. In contrast, Maxwell light-wave interfering is assumed to be the basis in relation to the photons.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Photon Definition and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, physicists have disagreed with the assumption that both Schrodinger and Maxwell equations for the proton are similar. Mathematically, lab experiments have disproved this postulation by showing that they are totally different because the probability wave function by Schrodinger merely explains the complex fields whilst the equation formed by Maxwell explains issues encountered in the real field.

Schrodinger equation is hence not applicable to the photons. Since photons have no masses, their localization cannot happen without any destruction (Kwiat and Hardy 34). The lab experiment nullification of the Heisenberg normal uncertainty principle which was linked to photons implies that it is only the second quantum photons theory that is generally accepted by physicists.

The life cycle of the photon All photons normally behave in a similar way. In vacuums, photons tend to travel at a similar velocity with other forms of energies. Light which is defined as photons permits the disappearance as well as the absorption of light that is to be visualized. On metal surfaces, when an incident of the photons occurs, all energies will be transferred to the electrons and the photon will disappear (Hardy 1666). The electron which has the photon charges will then depart the metallic cover. This is illustrated in the diagram 1 below.

In diagram 1, all the energies are transferred to electrons by the photon incident that takes place on the metal surface within a free space. In fact, photoelectric effect occurs if an electron that has the photon energy tries to leave the metal surface but becomes detected.

At exceptional high powers, photons could produce electrons. At this point, positrons (anti particles of an electron which is definitely indicted with matching electron mass) in addition to electrons are formed at great resultant powers. The gamma-ray similarly dubbed as great electrical powers vanishes when positrons in addition electrons are made in the brace making. See diagram 2 below.

The electron anti-particles along with the electrons which are reversely indicted particles mutually reunite then vanish when the photon is formed. When visible light is available, the created photons become engrossed and then vanish as they give their energy to the furthest atomic electrons which seem to be seized in position by little electron voltage energy. Diagram 3 below exhibits an eventual photon that loses its energies and disappears through transferring electrons to upper energy levels.

The path taken by light is always reversible under bending and mirror image. An identical reversibility is usually found when electron and photons interacts. In diagram 3 above, when the energetic electron goes back to the initial place, the energy transferred during the shift from higher energy states to lower states materializes in form of the photon.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Photon Definition and Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In pair production, similar reversibility is also apparent (Hardy 1667). The entire processes are what give rise to the photon life cycle which is represented by the creation and disappearance of photons and electrons.

Basically, the photon life-cycle is soundly expounded on by photons as well as electrons interfaces as revealed in chart 4 below.

In this diagram, the electron life cycle shows that when an electron loses energy at point ‘a’, it leads to the creation of the photon. This photon at point ‘b’ travels within the available space and encounters the electron at point ‘c’ then it vanishes.

Conclusion Even though the photon is massless, it appears as a simple atom or particle. Laboratory experiments have shown that the photon might not decay by itself even when its energy is produced and transmitted as the photon interacts with another particle. Further, experiments have shown that the photon appears to be electrically neutral and bear particles which are similar to the anti-photons.

Works Cited Dehlinger, David and Wilson Mitchell. “Entangled photons, non-locality, and Bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory.” American Journal of Physics 70 (2002): 903-910. Print.

Grangier, Peter, Greg Roger and Andrea Aspect. “Experimental evidence for a photon anti-correlation effect on a beam splitter: A new light on single-photon interferences.” Euro physics Letter 1 (1986): 173-179. Print.

Griffiths, David. Introduction to Elementary Particles, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2008. Print.

Hardy, Larry. ‘‘No locality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states.’’ Phys. Rev. Lett. 71.2(1993): 1665–1668. Print.

Kwiat, Paul and Larry Hardy. “The mystery of the quantum cakes.” American Journal of Physics 68 (2000): 33-36. Print.


The History of Relational Database Technology Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of SQL

Historical Background of Object Oriented Systems

Evolution and History of System R.



Introduction In recent times the use of object-oriented designs in manufacture of software has skyrocketed. This has led software engineers to think of ways of coming up with database systems that are object oriented since they are much capable of meeting market needs. At the moment, there is no standardized language that can be used to program relational database systems. The field of relational database is still evolving and stakeholders hope to formalize some standards for object oriented database systems.

To maximize utility of relational database systems, concerted efforts must be initiated and which should aim at containing the shortcomings associated with the current technology. A historical analysis of evolution of relational database technology will help us to understand how object oriented database systems can be implemented with the aim of eliminating the aforementioned shortcomings.

Relational database system is defined as a database that allows any data visible to the user to be organized in form of tables that allow all operations on them to be possible (Chamberlin, 1990).Database refers to collectively to data or information organized and stored in a manner than allows for quick access to enhance usability.

Between 1950 and 1960, a system called database management system was invented which provided necessary functionality for maintenance, creation and modification of databases. This systems were however not efficient due to complexity associated with them. A client in database client/server architecture makes an application by requesting for data related services e.g. filtering or sorting from a server (Batory, 1998). The later is also known as the sequel/ SQL engine or database server in full.

The clients request is granted by the SQL by returning a secured access to data that is to be shared. SQL statements allow client applications to perform certain operations on a set of server database records such as retrieval and modification of data. The engine also allows for other operations to be performed on the data such as filtering of query result sets there by improving communication of saved data.

There are various types of database management systems such as hierarchical databases, network databases and relational database models. The later had less advantages compared to the previous ones. This led into increased interest in how it worked. Relational database systems are unique in that data is organized in separate structures commonly known as tables which can be linked so as to enhance storage of data.

This model was first discovered by Dr. Codd who’s aimed at was to eliminate shortcomings of the previous database management which was mainly huge amounts of information and complexity. Dr. Codd invented relational database management model in 1970 at San Jose Research Laboratory. Sequel or structured query Language is one of the most renowned standardized languages for enhancing interaction with a database.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More History of SQL Dr. Codd and his colleagues had developed SQL or SEQUEL (Sequential English QUEry Language) as a data sublanguage for relational model at IBM San José Research Laboratory in 1970. The language was originally put down in a series of papers from 1974.

IBM used this language in a prototype relational system known as system R. which was developed in 70s (Codd, 1970). Other prototypes that were developed then include INGRESS and Test Vehicle developed by University of California Berkeley and IBM UK Scientific Laboratory respectively.

The first relational database management to be released to the market came about when system R was refined and evaluated in 1981 to come up with fine product that was user friendly. Other DBMS (database management systems) developed using SQL included Oracle, IBM DB2 in 1970 and 1983 respectively.

Other relational DBMS that were to later incorporate SQL into their system included but not limited to, MySQL,Paradox, FoxPro and hundreds of others (Codd, 1970). Dr. Codd’s 12 initial rules for relational database model have increased through time to total up to 333.

SQL was endorsed as the standard language for relational databases by both International standards Organization and ANSI, the American National Standards Institute. Its use was formalized in 1986 and given the name SQL 1. Three years down the line, a publication of some trivial revision known as SQL-89 was made. However, during the year 1992, major revisions were done and endorsed by both ISO and ANSI.

These revisions reduced the size of SQL and made it simpler to use. In 1999, another SQL standard known as SQL: 1999 was published and endorsed by ANSI and ISO. This version which is currently in use had additional features such as user-defined data types and most importantly, it had object-oriented data management capabilities. It is common to find most dealers of relational database management systems implement their own extensions of the SQL to enhance functionality.

Historical Background of Object Oriented Systems The need for advanced relational database technology that was easier to use made researchers consider the possibility of incorporating object oriented capability in DBMS. In 1980’s the disadvantages associated with relational database systems and the need to increase capacity of manageable objects led to the invention of commercial object-oriented database systems. Database systems have evolved overtime to allow for step by step incorporation of object oriented capabilities.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The History of Relational Database Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first object oriented language was Simula-67 in 1967. This was followed by Smalltalk. After this, the researchers saw it fit to come up with new languages by creating extensions of existing ones instead of coming up with a new language from scratch. Programming languages formed as a result of extension of LISP included LOOPS and Flavors (Codd, 1970).

Extensions were made to C to come up with languages like C and objective C and so on and so forth. Similarly semantic data models for database systems like ER/ entity relationship, DAPLEX and SDM were developed (Batory, 1998).

There are five generations of evolution of database technology. The first being files systems, followed by hierarchical database systems, then CODASYL database systems and the fourth one is the relational database systems. The fifth generation is still under development. The third and second generations had allowed remote users to access a central or integrated database.

However, it was difficult to navigate through these systems and there was no data independence. This led to the rise of the next generation of database systems, the fourth generation. The four generations are designed for use in business applications such as accounts, sales inventory, purchases inventory, pay roll and hundreds of other data processing applications. The fifth generation database technology is expected to meet needs that go beyond business applications.

The database systems have subsequently lain of some functionality from successive generations that caused users to suffer from fatigue due to repetitive nature of some functions. This has enhanced database systems by enabling programmers to carry out their duties with ease.

This move was no without some shortcomings since performance of these systems was compromised. This made researchers to work extra hard in trying to make sure that the performance of next generation of database technology was at par. The use of declarative queries in relational database made it easier for programmers to retrieve information from the database. Performance was enhanced by introducing a new functionality, the query optimizer that determined the fastest method of retrieving record from the database.

Concerted research efforts were focused on developing reliable relational database technology in 1970. This saw the introduction into the market of commercial relational database systems. Apparently, there were major shortcomings when it came to use of this technology in other applications.

Researchers undertook to investigate these shortcomings in the 80’s. The affected applications included knowledge based systems i.e. expert system shells etc, CAD, CASE, multimedia systems etc (Batory, 1998). The main difficulty arises from the difference that exists between programming languages and database languages in that their data structures and data model vary to a wide degree.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Relational Database Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evolution and History of System R. System R. was a prototype database system from where relational database technology was derived. This prototype proved that relational data model had various utility advantages that could be successfully realized in everyday use. The most important aspect of a computer is the ability to store and retrieve data.

Modern DBMS offer the user with the very much needed independence through the use of an advanced user interface. This allows the user to deal with every aspect of information content rather than representatives of that information i.e. lists, pointers, bits etc.

As stated earlier, the pioneer of relational data model was Dr. Codd in the early 70’s. According to Codd (1970) there are two ways through which conventional database systems store information:

Through record contents in the database.

Through the way in which these records are connected to each other.

This is to show that different systems use things such as parents, links etc to connect among the various records.

Codd observed that there were two important properties associated with relational database technology. First, data values represented all information and second the system is capable of supporting a very high level language. Through the later, the users were able to request for data without the unnecessary use algorithms. System R. was intended to accomplish seven goals.

System R. has three phases namely, ‘zero’ phase which occurred from 1974 to 1975 and it involved the development of a user interface. The other phase ‘one’ occurred from 1976 to 1977. This phase a fully functioning multiuser version of the prototype was designed. The final phase ‘two’ that occurred from 1978 to 1979 involved the evaluation of system R. after this, further experiments were carried out on the system but the system was not to be released to the market until much later.

Of particular concern to our historical review is the optimizer that was built at phase ‘zero’ and final phase ‘two’ that involves the introduction of the concept of normalization. As previously discussed, optimizer facilitates navigation in a database system by minimizing the number of page fetches through the use of clustering property. This is possible because a clustering index enables all records with the same key to be placed on the same page.

Phase ‘two’ took two years to be completed and it consisted of two main parts:

San Jose experiments that were conducted on system R.

Actual application of the system at various IBM sites and selected client outlets.

System R. was not to be used for any commercial purpose at this stage. This stage was to test the usability of the system on experimental basis only. The first experiment on usability of the product was carried out in 1997, June.

All users who were involved in the experiment gave positive feedback. Some of the qualities whose efficiency was being investigated included ability to reconfigure the database as fast as possible, high level of user language and ease of installation among other things. It was reported that several users found it possible to load a database with ease apart from being able to install and design the database.

Further reports suggested that users found it quite possible to adjust the performance of the database system after loading data by creating and dropping indices without interfering with the application programs or the ends user. Tables could be updated and database tables adjusted even when on read only mode.

Users rated the system R. experiment as satisfactory in terms of fair consumption of resources and performance that was ostensibly reliable for a project at an experimental level. Multiple users accessed the relatively smaller System R. experimental database; the number was often restricted to ten of them. Naturally, interactive response time was longer whenever a complicated SQL statement was being executed (Codd, 1970).

To solve this performance problem, a concept called normalization was taken into account. Since performance slowed down every time a complicated SQL involving several tables was being executed an alternative would be to break large database tables into smaller parts to eliminate the occurrence of redundancy and later joined back together by user applications or the view mechanism, this process is known as normalization.

Normalization Normalization is the process of eliminating redundant information from tables. It improves the efficiency of a database and makes the data resistant to corruption. For instance, if a certain computer user had two tables labeled Black and White and he uses both of them to store peoples contact details like cell phone numbers, postal addresses, emails etc. If the User changes or someone else makes changes to either of the tables, then there is the probability that changes made in table black will not reflect in table white and vice versa.

This means that if the user changed someone’s cell phone number in table white that change might not be shown in rows or columns of table black. If the change was to be shown, then it would involve tremendous amounts of work from the part of the user a case that would beat logic given that database systems are meant to improve efficiency and save the business as much time and money as possible.

This problem can be solved by keeping only the ID of the person in table Black. This will in turn give the user the freedom or independence to make changes of cell phone number or to make changes related to any other contact information in table white. Such adjustments or changes would be reflected on table black automatically.

References Batory, D., et al (1998). GENESIS: An Extensible Database Management System. IEEE Trans. On Software Engineering, 11(13), 12-14.

Chamberlin, D. (1990) Relational Database Management System. Computing Survey. 19(20), 5-9.

Codd, F. (1970) A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Communication. ACM. 13(6), 377-387.


The Interference of Colors Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In physics, a new waveform results when two or more waves superimpose on each other, and this development is referred to as interference. This interference, as it applies to waves, is either constructive or destructive, or a combination of both. In constructive interference, “the amplitude of the wave that results is greater than that of the original waves” (Hecht 87).

This occurrence is in contrast to destructive interference whereby the amplitude of the resultant wave is lesser than that of the original. Light is made up of waves, obeys all the rules of waves, and is thus subject to superimposition, and hence interference.

For interference to occur, some conditions that relate to the source of light or waves should be taken into consideration. There should be coherence of the sources, that is, they must maintain a constant phase with respect to each other. The sources should also be monochromatic meaning that they have a single wavelength.

A commonly used method to produce coherent sources is by using a single source of light and illuminating a barrier with two slits. The light emerging from these slits is, thus coherent. The waves spread out from the slits according to Huygens principle, and this divergence of light from the initial line of travel is what is called diffraction (Gordon, Beichner, and Serway 23).

Thomas Young first demonstrated the principle of interference in light waves from two sources in 1801, where two slits acted as sources of the light waves. The waves were always in phase since they were from the same wave front. The light passed through the slits and illuminated a screen.

A stationary interference pattern occurred on the screen. Constructive interference occurred where dark fringes resulted while destructive interference occurred where bright fringes occurred (Jenkins and Harvey 65). This case is an outstanding example of interference of light from a coherent source.

The phenomenon of interference, depending on the mode of production, has traditionally been divided into two classes. In the first class, the division of the wave front into two parts produces the interference by use of the phenomenon of diffraction, refraction and reflection (Fowles 89).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Young’s double slit experiment falls under this form of interference. Amplitude division of the incident light produces the second nature of interference. This occurs by either parallel reflection or refraction of the incident light. The resulting light waves reinforce each other after covering different distances producing interference. An example of this form of interference is Newton’s ring.

The phenomenon of interference can explain the colors commonly seen on soap bubbles, oil slicks or even thin films. In all the above examples, interference pattern formation is by amplitude division. In the thin film observation, for example, plane waves fall on it, and light waves reflected from the lower and upper surfaces interfere with each other.

Since the condition of interference is influenced by the thickness of the film, angle of refraction and the wavelength, the eye observes different colors at different positions. Other colors will be absent where an only one-color maximum is satisfied, and hence only this color will be seen at this position (Knittl 43).

By using the same principle, Newton’s ring becomes easy to understand. If a Plano-convex lens is placed on a glass plate with its convex surface, a film of air with a gradually increasing thickness is formed in between the two. Alternating dark and bright circular fringes are seen when monochromatic light falls normally.

The fringes appear “circular because the air film has circular symmetry” (Jenkins and Harvey 49). The Newton’s rings are formed because of “the interference of the reflected waves from the top and bottom surfaces of the air films between the plates” (Knittl 46).

For the soap bubble, “light traveling through air strikes the soap film” (Bass 87). Air with has a larger refractive index than the film. Refraction occurs at the upper film surface, and transmission to the lower surface occurs interfering with the other waves. This creates the observed patter (Bass 88).

The soap bubble thus appears lovely with colors of the rainbow due to this phenomenon. The striking resemblance of the color patterns observed in the oil film and soap bubble only serves to indicate the similarity in the formation process of the two.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Interference of Colors specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are many similar applications of this phenomenon of interference. Some animals we consider beautiful with iridescent colors apply this principle. An example is the Morpho didius butterfly, which commonly inhabits the Amazon rainforest and can be found flying high on a normal day.

It appears bright blue due to the natural grating on its wings. Most people would think that it is due to a dye. Another animal considered being among the most beautiful and attractive is the peacock with its colorful tail. It applies the principle of interference of colors that it acquired naturally to produce the different colors observed on its tail. Pearl shells and opals also utilize this principle of interference of light and colors for camouflage and beauty and is an eminent character in their process of finding a mate.

One or more colored light rings are usually seen around the moon when it shines through light clouds. This occurrence is due to the light from the moon diffracting as it penetrates the water and ice droplets in the light clouds.

These haloes seen around the moon also appear around streetlights on foggy or misty nights and are all because of the principle of diffraction and interference (Gordon, Beichner, and Serway 75). The colors appear beautiful and are because of the many wavelengths in light. Another example is the hazy appearance of smog.

Light passing through the smog particles is diffracted, scattered and absorbed producing the hazy appearance (Knittl 67). Research around this property has resulted to highly innovative inventions applied in some areas, around the world, to establish the cleanliness of air and water turbidity. This has contributed in efforts of environmental health and assessment of levels of pollution especially in the major cities of the world enabling proper environmental rehabilitation measures.

Holograms, like those seen on credit cards, for example, diffract each color from a different angle creating a complicated pattern of lines on the card. This behavior is utilized or security purposes. Diffraction is applied to measure exceptionally small distances, and diffraction grating is applied, in spectroscopes, to investigate the color component of light from specified sources. In diffraction grating, each color of light diffracts, at a specified angle, producing the various colors.

Thin films have the commercial use in mirrors, optical fibers and anti-reflection coatings as well as other optical materials. For a given wavelength, “thin films are in the market engineered to control the amount of light transmitted or reflected through a surface” (Jenkins and Harvey 35). A Fabry-Perot etalon utilizes “the principle of the thin film interference to select the wavelengths of light transmitted through this device” (Bass 47).

A special application of the above properties of light is in interferometry, which is the science, and art of using coherent light to make measurements. When interference of light is measured, then the distance it has covered is easily established. Some of the applications of interferometry are optical testing, which is the use of interferometry to measure surface quality and inspection of slip gauges and measurement standards.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Interference of Colors by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another application in interferometry is direct phase measurements in multiple wavelengths and phase stepping and phase shifting. Another use is in the alignment of unusually high quality lenses such as those used in telescopes, cameras, and steppers, which are photolithographic tool used in fabricating intricate circuit patterns.

Another use is to measure small angular sizes from distant stars. The oldest form of interferometer that is used is the Michelson interferometer, but which has been modified with the introduction of sophistication (Fowls 56).

In conclusion, the interference of colors, which is due to interference of light, results in the production of wavelengths, which are different from incident light. This principle of waves has many applications in nature as seen above and science is in the forefront in the application of this phenomenon. Advances in the field of interferometry applied this principle, and is a fundamental branch of science. A lot of research still needs to go into this branch of science to maximize on the principle, which is not fully exploited.

Works Cited Bass, Michael. Handbook of Optics. 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.

Fowles, Grant. Introduction to Modern Optics. 2nd Ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1975. Print.

Gordon, John, Robert Beichner, and Raymond Serway. Student Solutions Manual


Rhetoric in American Politics Expository Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The explosive climate


Works Cited

Introduction Some individuals believe that free speech is the ultimate representation of liberty. They argue that more speech is better than no speech at all irrespective of its manner of expression. However, these analysts forget that political rhetoric in the US has consequences and that sometimes it can go overboard.

The explosive climate The American political climate is characterised by the demonization of politicians’ opponents. Although this is nothing new in politics, one must take caution when the habit becomes inaccurate and juvenile (Hunt 13). Words, in today’s political scene, are not used to achieve precise aims but to ruin everything that can possibly be damaged.

As such, clearer thoughts and fully-developed ideas get drowned in national conversations. American political rhetoric has reached overdrive levels and thus, made it much easier for politicians to practice partisan politics, or say things that they may not really mean. They reassure listeners that their opponents are much worse and this distorts reality.

A case in point was the distortion of Barrack Obama’s background. Political rhetoric led to misinformation about his religion and his citizenship. Some individuals alluded that he was a Muslim and was not patriotic to the nation. Such half-truths breed an atmosphere of accusation and disengagement, which counteract the very principles that make this nation so strong.

A number of Americans are highly distressed by angry politics in the land. Approximately seventy percent of Americans believe that the negative political atmosphere in the country is detrimental to democracy. Many people’s political expectations are diminishing owing to this state of affairs and the country appears to be heading in the wrong direction (Lawler and Schaefer 94).

A number of observations have also indicated that it is not just the political and social well being of society that will be affected by excessive political rhetoric but the physical well being as well. Political rhetoric can reach levels that manifest as violent behaviour. One such case was the shooting of Gabrielle Gifford, a representative of Arizona. The latter leader was shot and injured adversely during an interactive session with her electorate at a grocery store.

The attacker fired at twenty people, including Gifford, after the representative had tweeted that she was at that location. While investigations are yet to establish whether the shootings were inspired by the assailant’s psychological state or deeper political issues, it is still imperative to remember the latter option is quite probable. The sharp, antagonistic language aimed at government has increased the likelihood of violent incidents.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most politicians employ radio talk shows, internet blogs, social networking websites like Twitter, television shows and many more to disseminate vicious rhetoric. In the case of Gabrielle Gifford, the state of Arizona had become highly polarised before her attack (Kaplan 22). Many residents in this state mistrusted government and were paranoid about their healthcare laws. This daily exposure to destructive rhetoric through various media outlets may have had a violent impact on the people of the state.

It was especially probable among unstable individuals than well-balanced ones. Increasing verbal attacks in certain political debates has heightened security concerns. Many protests have turned violent during public meetings. One such instance was the healthcare debate that took place in 2010. Even death threats against congressmen were not uncommon.

Conclusion The use of political rhetoric for selfish gains among politicians has bred an atmosphere of divisive and violent politics. This has been manifested through disengagement and violent confrontations against political leaders.

Works Cited Hunt, Geoffrey. We need more political rhetoric, not less. 12 Jan. 2011. Web.

Kaplan, Marty. 2011 January 8. “The lock and load rhetoric of American politics isn’t just a metaphor.” The Huffington Post 8 Jan. 2011: 22. Print.

Lawler, Peter and Robert Schaefer. American political rhetoric. NY: Rowman and Littlefield publishers, 2000. Print.


Knowledge Management in e-Learning Research Paper essay help: essay help

Abstract In the modern world, knowledge can be divided into two distinct concepts, viz. e-learning and knowledge management. This research looks at some ideas for knitting these two concepts into one model. In the theoretical part, this study discusses a number of standards referring to these concepts.

Besides the basic standard and the standalone significance of the e-learning and knowledge management, combinations will be addressed. Today, e-learning is mainly used for handcrafting courses, which are cautiously chosen to teach workers or students in an organization or learning institution.

Among corporate organizations, knowledge management helps to collect, systematize, and deliver huge amounts of corporate knowledge. This thesis explores the integration of knowledge management in e-learning to improve the collection, organization, and delivery of knowledge, whether in traditional learning model or corporate setting. First, a model for working out e-learning procedure is designed.

This model is then augmented with concepts, strategies, and technologies from knowledge management. Knowledge management lifecycle helps to understand e-learning and flow of information. The impact of knowledge management will be well understood following a study of the process on any organization.

Introduction The modern world, particularly the information society and the advancement of technology, has brought great improvements to the traditional study represented by the everyday structure of learning; more outstandingly, it has reduced the distance that learners have to cover in pursuit of education. At the beginning of the 21st century, most organizations, including Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) practitioners, introduced shared communication and networking using newer technologies.

The Australian Flexible Learning Framework offers schemes and imperatives, to aid e-learning and inspire more practitioners to pursue e-learning classes. By the year 2005, the significance for VTE practitioners, to concentrate on the power of learning and business by networking, begun to bear fruits with the establishment of 20 unique networks.

Most of the e-learning strategies and networks are still functional and highly beneficial. This reinforces the idea that knowledge management is a force that drives educators forward to better ways of planning and dissemination of knowledge even beyond their domain (Lindstaedt,


The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature Research Paper cheap essay help

Introduction Cathedral is a short story written by Raymond Carver in 1983. During this period when the short story was published, there was an increase in the level of poverty throughout the world. Nevertheless, the situation in the United States was quite different and only a very small section of the population was considered as being poor. The expectations of the American people had significantly declined following the high rates of inflation, the raising rates of unemployment as well as the skyrocketing rates of interest.

During this period, the gap between the rich and the drastically widened, the poor became poorer and the rich wealthier. It is against this backdrop that Raymond Carver wrote the short story entitled “The Cathedral”. regarding the life of the Raymond Carver, who is the author of the story, Webster (3), observe that the story came at a time when he had quit his heavy drinking, he had also survive an annulment of his marriage.

Brief plot summary The story opens with the narrator who is a man very upset with the fact that a blind man who is a friend of his wife is about to arrive. The conversational tone of the narrator is a clear indication to the reader that he is not happy about the blind man’s visit. The narrator is upset with the visit of the blind man simply because he is blind. The introduction of the story emphasizes the dislike and fear directed towards individuals who are blind.

For this reason, the author uses the words “the blind man” in his introduction of the story. As a matter of fact, the blind man is not even given a name because what seems very important to the narrator is the fact that the man is blind. The narrator gets a moment to flashback on the circumstances under which the blind man and his wife met. In the flashback, the reader is made to understand that the narrators’ wife and the blind man met when the wife of the narrator worked for the blind man as his reader.

The narrator is irritated by the fact that during the time when the blind man Robert and the narrator’s wife were biding each other goodbye, the blind man asked her if he could be given a chance to touch the face of the narrator’s wife.

The blind man and the narrator’s wife have for more than ten years maintained their contact but they had not met during that duration. The visit by the blind man would therefore, be the first time when the two would be meeting since the narrator’s wife got married. The blind man is head to Connecticut where the family of his deceased wife lives.

On his way, the blind man intends to spend a night at his long time friend’s (the narrator’s wife) home. The narrator is informed by his wife that Beulah the wife of the blind man had a very good relationship in their marriage. Nonetheless, the narrator could not bring himself to imagine how horrible life must have been for Beulah the wife of the blind man Robert to spend the whole of her life without being seen by the person she had loved the whole of her life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On arrival of the blind man at the narrator’s home, the narrator hardly engage in any form of interaction and only observe his wife and the blind man. After a while dinner is set and they sit at the table for the meal after which drinks are served. During this period, the narrator continued with his silence and did not take part in the conversations. To the surprise of the narrator’s wife, the narrator turns on the TV for them to watch a show.

The narrator’s wife excuses herself and leaves the narrator and the blind man. As they watch the show on the television, the two men share a cigarette made from cannabis. Ultimately, the narrator’s wife is overwhelmed by sleep and leaves the blind man and the narrator watching television. Having been left with the blind man, the narrator attempt to explain what the television show is all about to the blind man. Unfortunately, the narrator is unable to describe a show about the cathedral on the television.

The blind man request the narrator to bring a piece of paper and a pen for purposes of drawing the cathedral and the narrator obliged the request. The blind man Robert touches the paper brought by the narrator to determine its size. After the paper and the pen are brought the blind man holds the hand of the narrator in an effort to direct him on how to draw a cathedral. The blind man assures the narrator that it will turn out well if he follows the direction of the blind man.

The two go on with the drawing and ate one point, the blind man ask the narrator to continue drawing but with his eyes closed. The narrator tells the reader that at this stage something unusual occurred, and even when the blind man told him to open his eyes the narrator kept them closed. The narrator admits that something took place during the time he had closed his eyes that transformed his perception about life.

The narrator tells the reader that while his eyes were closed, the only thing he knew was that he was in his house but he felt free. He also states that the blindness of Robert was no longer an issue of concern to him and it was not a justification for him to propagate his hostility towards blind people.

The Importance of historical time period in the author’s body of literature The historical relevance of the short story by Carver is the fact that during the past years, the same way in which the narrator of the story treated with contempt the blind man Robert, it is the actual way in which people treated the blind in reality. The story depicts how the society in the period isolated particular individuals among them for different reasons and considerations.

In the story for instance, the blind man Robert is gifted with the ability to establish a special kind of bond with other human beings an ability which is ignored.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is a known fact that over the years, the people who are list expected to perform, often outshine the individuals who are perceived by the society to be competent. It is usually unexpected that people who can clearly see or have the ability to see can be lead to see by a blind person. In the short story the Cathedral, however, the blind man leads the narrator who can see to a new light of life.

Additionally, in the same way the narrator chooses to lead a life of seclusion, there are individuals in real life who opt to seclude themselves from communal life. The short story clearly indicate that even those individuals in our society who may be disadvantaged in one way or another, may present an opportunity of hope and encouragement to the normal people in their lives.

The author has employed symbolism throughout his work. There is the use of sight and blindness which dominate the narrative. In the story, the narrator’s intellectual blindness is changed by Roberts’s physical blindness. In an ironical twist of the narrative the blind man who is physically blind is able to see, while the narrator who is physically able to see is psychologically blind.

Ultimately, the narrator through the blind man realizes that all along he has been blind and that the misconceptions he had about the blind people are injudicious and hence realizing that individuals who are not fortunate enough to physically see are as worth if not more than the people who are gifted with the ability to see.

The ignorance of the narrator is what manifests his blindness. The narrator thought that all blind people wore dark glasses and used a walking cane. Nevertheless Robert the blind man in the short story does not use any of those things to the surprise of the narrator. This shows how ignorant the narrator is, particularly in relation to his point of view about individuals who may be blind.

Conversely, the blind man in Carver’s narrative has self assurance, he is quite sensitive, and he is confident. Surprisingly, blind man Robert is well aware that the narrator needs to be assisted in a certain way but the narrator does not know that.

The narrator is also blind in terms of his communication skills, unfortunately; only the blind man Robert is able to see this predicament of the narrator. As the watch a show on the television, the narrator cannot be able to elaborate what the show is all about. The show on the television is on cathedrals but because the narrator is a poor in communication he is unable to explain it (Billington 22). According to Malamet (18), the cathedral in the story is symbolic.

It is used to symbolize a spiritual house of God. In the Historical context, and indeed in modern times, cathedrals are used to symbolize the presence or existence of God. The inclusion of the cathedral in the television show is used by the author to assist the narrator realize his mistake beliefs. The narrator has lead a life without a friend in the world , he is not even close to his wife, dislikes his job, have no purpose for whatever he does in his life, and above all, the narrator does not believe in the existence of God.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of historical time period in Raymond Carver body of literature by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It goes without saying that the author inclusion of a cathedral in his work is to bring about the aspect of faith in the life of his narrator. The function of a cathedral is generally a place of worship. It also represents how previous generations have been involved in the construction of the cathedral in the successive years (Carver 105).

In the past years, most of the individuals who were involved in the construction of the cathedral never witnessed the completion of the worship house. The drawing that the blind man Robert and the narrator sketch symbolizes the generations that were involved in the building of the cathedral and never lived long enough to witness its completion.

The narrator is also likened to the generations who were involved in the building of the cathedral but never lived long enough to see the completion of the structure. The narrator is not able to see the final and complete structure of his own drawing of the cathedral like those past generation who were not able to see the complete structure of the cathedral they has started building.

The narrator through the help of the blind man realizes that he is able to build an insight and a vision in his lonely life because deep inside him there a spiritual center. According to Lehman (77), the narrators’ experience with the blind man liberates him from his anomie. The use of the television or the media by the author is an effort to unite individuals with different perceptions in life.

Thus media in the story symbolizes a sense of unity and bringing people together. It worth noting that in the narrative, the blind man and the wife of the narrator frequently exchanged cassette tapes. For this reason, the two characters in the story were always in touch with each other even in instances where they did not meet physically with one another.

The media is further used in Carvers’ literal work to link different people with different perceptions in life like the narrator and the blind man. After watching the show in the television, Robert the blind man and the narrator who at first disliked blind people forms a strong bond, and this bond assist the narrator to realize that he was mistaken about blind people, thus, he learn to appreciate them.

Conclusion The short story by Raymond Carver entitled Cathedral is set at a period when there was an increase in the level of poverty throughout the world. Nevertheless, the situation in the United States was quite different and only a very small section of the population was considered as being poor.

Carver’s narrative is a clear depiction of how different people in the society have coexisted and the fact that during the past period, the same way in which the narrator of the story treated with contempt the blind man Robert, is the actual way in which people treated the blind in reality.

This gives a great importance to the historical time period in the author’s work. In the Historical context, and indeed in modern times, cathedrals are used to symbolize the presence or existence of God as well as faith. The author has used a cathedral in his work as to cultivate the aspect of faith in the life of the narrator, and to symbolize how earlier generations have been involved in the construction of the cathedral in the successive years.

In the historical time period, most of the individuals who were involved in the construction of the cathedral never witnessed the completion of the worship house. Likewise in the narrative, the narrator like the past generation is not able to see the final and complete structure of his own drawing of the cathedral like those past generation who were not able to see the complete structure of the cathedral they has started building.

Works Cited Billington, Michael. “Review: Theatre: Carver: Arcola”, The Guardian newspaper, July 11,(2005): 22-23. Print.

Carver, Raymond. “Cathedral. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing”, X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia New York: Pearson, 2007. 98-108.

Lehman, Daniel. “Symbolic Significance in the Stories of Raymond Carver”, Journal of the Short Story in English 46. 2 (2006): 75-88.

Malamet, Elliott. “Raymond Carver and the Fear of Narration”, Journal of the Short Story in English 17. 4 (1991): 59-74.


Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Renaissance Culture in Hamlet

Hamlet’s Attitude to Death

Renaissance Perspective About Death


Works Cited

Introduction Shakespeare has been credited for being a renaissance writer and has continuously been referred to as an Elizabethan playwright. In most of his work, Shakespeare has included the act of Renaissance with Hamlet being no exception. In Hamlet, Renaissance was introduced to the readers mainly through the way Hamlet contemplates death.

Hamlet’s character is seen to be strongly associated with Renaissance ideals, and not with medieval times, as one could think. Typically, the Renaissance is considered as being the time during which learning and culture are reborn. This period is mostly associated with the European historical period in the Middle Ages between the 14th century and the 17th century (Shakespeare 167).

This has been passed on to the modern literature work with the renaissance period going through a resurgence of philosophies that were characteristic of the ancient Greeks. This led to new interests being renewed in the classical work of arts.

Most artists were compelled to go back in history and explore the work that had been done during the classical age, putting more emphasis on the form of human beings and the ancient mythologies portrayal. The philosophical movement that relates to ‘Hamlet’ is the Humanism Renaissance. This Renaissance focused on the man’s position in nature, putting him at the centre nature (Shakespeare 134).

Renaissance Culture in Hamlet In ‘Hamlet,’ Shakespeare makes use of the Renaissance in a way that moves away from the beliefs accepted by the Christian’s afterlife. The Christians believe that it is one’s decision as to whether to end up in hell or heaven after death. During the Renaissance, death remained one of the main fears because of its widely uncertain and uncharted destination and not because of its godly vengeance.

The death of Hamlet as the play ends indicates that though he was the definite answer to all the questions before him as he faced death, he was not in any position to give any assurance about his fate to the audience. In the play, Hamlet has reflected renaissance ideals in several other ways, but still, the concept of death remained predominant.

This was seen in several scenes when he was always lurking below the surface. His actions while still in the world were the beginning of his fate after his death. Concerning nature, Hamlet considered himself privileged regarding other animals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is seen when, after murdering Polonius and doing away with his body, Hamlet cryptically tells Claudius of the nature of the matter, making the living and the dead. Hamlet can be considered as being deracinated from his own life that puts him in a comfortable position to address severe mental issues on his own. This reflects the historical belief that a tragedy was the most excellent way of punishing sins committed by an individual. The graveyard scene is also a clear reflection of Renaissance in the play (Shakespeare 123).

During Hamlet’s monologue at Ophelia’s funeral, the remains of the clown led Hamlet to engage in discussion with Horatio on the nature of death. He held his skull in his hands as he reflected how well he knew him. In the same position, he goes further to reflect on the contrast between the living and the dead.

According to the summary, he contrasts the way he knew Yorick and the bones that remained of him. The scene of Yorick’s skull in Hamlet’s hands was so dramatic that it has since then remained a cultural icon (Shakespeare 102). The words Helmet used in this scene were symbolic, reflecting the themes of mortality and death, guiding the tragedy that took place. The way Hamlet reacted to scenes of death is an indication of rebirth in his character.

The audience was left surprised by the way Hamlet reacted to the remains left by Yorick’s after his death. Most had regarded Hamlet as being a rational character. However, this was not the case when he looked at the remains of his friend and appeared to be feeling a physical sensation. The prince is nauseated when he thinks about the jester who had passed on.

This is seen when he talks to Horatio, telling him that “my gorge rims at it” (Shakespeare 78). This was a real reflection of the way the character of Hamlet had significantly changed. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet had the chance to kill Claudius, but he did not do this because of his belief in the afterlife blissfulness for his rival.

Hamlet’s Attitude to Death His ideas about death completely changed after this scene. By looking at the skull of Yorick, he accepts the fact that everyone will, at one time, decompose just the way jester did. Helmet admits, “Despite all human efforts to evade death, it is inevitable” (Shakespeare 123).

Earlier in the play, Hamlet had considered death to be a distant experience. This is evident in his soliloquy, where he used the famous statement, “to be or not to be” (Shakespeare 213). After his interaction with death, Helmet changes his perspective on spiritual regeneration. This revelation contributed to the plot development of the play as it gave way to the play to develop into more scenes. Hamlet had developed a new and complete understanding of what death entails. Hamlet is more than ready to face death and commit murder out of his belief.

We will write a custom Essay on Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Speeches have been included in most of the scenes and have echoed the common themes during old times. Events described by Hamlet mostly feature a representation of the current times embraced mainly by the youth. This is seen in the way Hamlet described the life lived by Yorick as being colorful, filled with songs and games.

The contrast comes in after his death; Yorick’s death is considered to be colorless by Helmet, and this remains a spectacle in his mind living him unsettled. These elements are conflicting, and that has been used by Shakespeare in Hamlet to bring out Renaissance as a popular motif of artists. One of the major characteristics of the period is that most of the artists in the Renaissance period regarded life’s glory as being ultimately temporary.

The status of people, including their wealth, became meaningless once they die. The way Hamlet reflects the life of Yorick is clear evidence of this belief. He states that “the cheerful jester has been reduced to an unsmiling set of bones” (Shakespeare 90).

Yorick’s life aspects were a reflection of Hamlet’s character, which sums up to be common philosophical questions that were characteristic of the times of Shakespeare. Some of the scenes in the play show several facets of the total Renaissance. Hamlet’s attitude and belief towards death reflected the society’s renaissance ideology.

Renaissance Perspective About Death The play begins in such a way that life is presented to the audience as being disillusioned following the reality that death cannot be avoided, and Hamlet ends up regarding death as being vulgar. Through the soliloquy, Hamlet can be seen complaining that the fear of death comes between a person and his life accomplishments. He later settles for a different renaissance perspective about death when he encouraged people through preaching to them to go to the cemeteries and do exactly what he did, ‘hold a skull in their hands’ (Shakespeare 178).

Shakespeare explicitly gives this line to Hamlet to show that he had finally accepted the mortality reality (Shakespeare 209). This helped him to go over the mortality fears of life’s Renaissance and not its preparation. It is during the same period that valuable things can be accomplished and passed on to the time in the future, thus giving people a chance to continue living through fame.

Thus eventually, Hamlet comes to terms with the idea of death, and after Ophelia’s death, he manages to move on with life and comes up with ways of achieving his purpose in the world. By the time Claudius dies, Hamlet is used to death, and he even makes fun out of it even though he is fully aware that he was risking his own life. He also goes ahead to accept the reality that the way and time one dies is God to decide. He, however, remains a concern with two main things; the state’s welfare and his own name in future (Shakespeare 363).

Conclusion The play, in general, assists in demonstrating the society’s ideology of the Renaissance, with Italy taken as the country of reference. Through Hamlet, Renaissance assumes a three-dimensional human face. Set up in Denmark, the ideology of the play tended more to Europe than Italy but still maintained the Italian Renaissance. There is also the issue Renaissance conflict in Hamlet; the modern renaissance way of reasoning and the revenge tradition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hamlet’s Renaissance Culture Conflict [Analysis Essay] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two affected the way Hamlet acted as well as his thinking throughout the play. Hamlet tries the best he could to justify what he did to keep his conscience clear. This is a representation of the ideals of the new Renaissance. Though the renaissance ideals used by Hamlet were a justification of what he deed, it led to unnecessary deaths of the people around Hamlet.

Works Cited Shakespeare, William. Tragedy of Hamlet prince of Denmark, Los Angles: Heritage Book Shop, 2007. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Buenos Aires: Magnasco, 2006. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet (Norton Critical Editions), New Delhi: Foreverbooks, 2005. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Wallingford: Christopher Edwards, 2010. Print.


Renaissance Culture Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

The period between the mid-fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries is known in the history as the era of the Renaissance. Moreover, the Renaissance is the significant part of the culture and social life in the history of each European country which is characterized by the national peculiarities of the development. In Britain this period began in the sixteenth century, later than in the other European countries.

The main features of the Renaissance culture which also determine the elements of the Renaissance literature are the philosophy of humanism, the secular character of the art pieces, and the orientation on the antique patterns. To focus on the realization of the Renaissance values in the British literature, it is necessary to analyze the features of the works written by Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe.

The formation of the Renaissance’s values depended on the development of new social relations which was also expressed in the liberation of the personality. That man who was liberated from the medieval class bonds faced the great opportunities of the creative realization in art. The era of humanism began when the spiritual dictatorship of the Church was broken, and the person became the center of the social and artistic interests (Baker and Maley). The man of the Renaissance is characterized by believing in his mind and power.

The world view of the man of the Renaissance is based on the freedom of thoughts and new visions of society and the universe. Moreover, the man of the Renaissance is inclined to combine the real facts with the poetic fiction and express it in different genres with using the elements of the figurative language and wide imagery (Bowers and Keeran). The ideals of the British Renaissance also depend on the works of such famous figures as Francesco Petrarca and Erasmus Roterodamus.

In spite of the orientation of all the Renaissance authors on similar patterns and following the same principles, their works are characterized by a lot of peculiarities and differences. Furthermore, it was a special period in the British literature during which new literature themes, genres, and forms developed with basing on the ideas of humanism and the works of the antique authors (Baker and Maley).

Sir Philip Sidney is one of the most famous poets of the Renaissance period. Nevertheless, he is also known as the author of the pastoral novel The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia which is considered by many critics as the experimental work which determined the beginning of the new age in the literature.

The final version of Sidney’s novel was published in 1590, and it was the presentation of the unique combination of prose, dramaturgy, and poetic works. The language and style of the novel are characterized by pretentiousness, exquisiteness, and the usage of a lot of metaphorical devices. This style became known as ‘euphuistic’, and it was named after the title of the novel written by John Lyly in which all these details were depicted vividly (Bowers and Keeran).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The values of the Renaissance were developed in The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia in a rather specific manner. The rejection of the religious motifs and the concentration on the human’s feelings and emotions determined the peculiarities of the plot of the novel and its genre (Baker and Maley).

The main accent was made on the inner world of the characters, their ideals, visions, and feelings. This novel can be considered as a romantic one in which the relations between the lovers are depicted. They are emphasized by a number of comic and tragic situations.

And all these elements are expressed with the help of the complex metaphorical language which is full of epithets, antitheses, quotations and references to the ancient authors (Hopkins and Steggle). The ‘euphuistic’ style marks the shift from the language of poetry to the language of drama and fiction with the elements of the language and speech typical for the secular society of that period.

The peculiarities of the vivid metaphorical writing style typical for the British literature of the Renaissance were also developed in the works by Edmund Spencer, especially in his The Faerie Queene. The author was working at the poem during the period of 1590-1596, but it was not finished. Today it is one of the most interesting allegorical poems considered by critics as the unique pattern with a lot of specific features.

Paying much attention to such antique ideals as virtue and courage, Spencer develops these motifs combining them with the principles of the heroic legends and novels about King Arthur. It is significant that Spencer concentrates on depicting a definite virtue in each of six books of the poem (Bowers and Keeran).

The allegorical nature of the poem can be explained by the fact that, creating the characters’ images of the fairy-tale world of the knights, the poet was inclined to depict the real people of the historic period. Thus, it was possible to observe the features of Queen Elizabeth in the image of the Faerie Queene, and Prince Arthur had the traits of Elizabeth’s favorite known as the Earl of Leicester (Hopkins and Steggle).

Emphasizing the unique and perfect nature of a human, Spencer creates a wonderful and fantastic world in which the knights defeat dragons and perform numerous feats, and fairies are the embodiment of beauty and perfectness.

We will write a custom Essay on Renaissance Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, the literature of the Renaissance also concentrated on definite realism and truthfulness. That is why real descriptions of the English nature can be observed among the fabulous and decorative images of the poem.

There were not such vivid descriptions, fantastic and diverse images, flexibility and musicality of the verse, and the richness of the language means in the English poetry earlier. Spencer created a new poetic form while developing this poem. It is a stanza of nine lines with the special rhyme known today as ‘Spencer’s stanza’ (Bowers and Keeran).

If Edmund Spencer influenced a lot of poets of the later periods, Christopher Marlowe is famous for his impact on the works written by William Shakespeare. One of the most well-known plays written by Marlowe was The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus which was first published in 1588.

In this work the rejection of the medieval religious principles and the emphasis on the role of humanism and knowledge in the life of people were accentuated. Marlowe as the creator of the English tragedy of the Renaissance developed the play according to the principles of the antique literature in which he was interested in. The tragedy can be characterized by depicting the emancipation of the individual from the ascetic medieval morality (Baker and Maley).

Christopher Marlowe had his own vision of the role of the Church in society and criticized the religious principles, norms, and ideals. All his opinions on the religious topics were rather skeptic. Nevertheless, the rejection of the religious principles acquires a specific character in his The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. Doctor Faustus is a tragic titanic character who in his desire to have the unique knowledge rejects the religion and chooses the world of magic (Hopkins and Steggle).

Rejecting the principles of philosophy, law, medicine, and especially theology as a rather false science, Marlowe’s Faustus tries to find the realization of his hopes in the magic which is able to raise him up to the enormous height of the unique knowledge and power. Thus, Faustus as the real man of the Renaissance cannot find the satisfaction of his desire of knowledge in the passive examination of books. His extreme desire and energy made him being involved in the interactions with Mephisto which leads him to death.

Thus, there is a vivid depiction of the tragic destiny of the man of the Renaissance who knows that he has powers and wants to use them in order to create a new reality (Bowers and Keeran). The play is written with using the metaphorical and figurative language in the form where the free verse is combined with the prose.

The ideals of the humanism, the rejection of the religious principles, the orientation on the antique patterns and the secular society were developed as the main values of the Renaissance. These features were characteristic for the literature of all the European countries, but they also acquired definite national elements. The works of Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe include all the specific details of the Renaissance culture and determine the development of these tendencies in Britain.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Renaissance Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Baker, David J., and Wiliam Maley,. British Identities and English Renaissance Literature. USA: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

Bowers, Jennifer, and Peggy Keeran. Literary Research and the British Renaissance and Early Modern Period: Strategies and Sources. USA: Scarecrow Press, 2010. Print.

Hopkins, Lisa, and Matthew Steggle. Renaissance Literature and Culture (Introduction to British Literature and Culture). USA: Continuum, 2007. Print.


Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary Report scholarship essay help

The Situation In this case, the situation is about developing a batter marketing strategy, using perceptual maps for a product that targets a particular group of people. Perceptual maps do represent the visual aspects of the product for easy conceptualization since it provides more details about the brand (Surhone, Timpledon


Iceberg Principle and Landscape Symbolism Reveal the Development of the Character Explicatory Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Iceberg Principle and the Landscape Symbolism


Reference List

Introduction The short story by Ernest Hemingway “Hills Like White Elephants” can be regarded as one of the best examples of the use of the iceberg principle and the role of landscape symbolism. The author manages to reveal the development of the woman’s character without revealing her ideas and thoughts. All the reader has is the landscape and the dialogue. The author depicts a short episode from a couple’s life.

The man (the American) is trying to persuade the woman named Jig to undergo an operation. The woman hesitates as she wants to start a new life which is meaningful and complete. The woman soon becomes reluctant to continue the conversation. She focuses on the landscape to avoid talking about the matter.

The author does not reveal the decision made by the two. The conversation stops abruptly. However, it is rather clear that the woman makes up her mind. The author makes it clear that the woman undergoes some important changes during this short conversation.

The Iceberg Principle and the Landscape Symbolism The iceberg principle makes the story really expressive. The author manages to say about the two people’s conflict without mentioning the exact reason of the argument. Likewise, the author never explicitly depicts the woman’s thoughts. He does not even describe her actions. There is a kind of motion picture which enables the reader to see the facts. Ironically, this specific incompleteness makes the reader clearly see the change that takes place in the woman’s head.

First, the woman tries to discuss the situation and she keeps asking: “Then what will we do afterwards?” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 230). However, soon the woman stops arguing: “Can’t we maybe stop talking?” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231) These words signal that the girl needs to think.

She is focused on her own thoughts and she does not want to let the man in her world. She simply gazes at the hills thinking over the issue. The author does not depict her face. He does not reveal her thoughts. However, it is clear that the woman manages to make up her mind. Her nervousness is gone as she knows the right answer to her questions. Her smiling at the end of the story suggests that she has made the decision, which has nothing to do with the man’s arguments or his desires. She is calm and content.

Apart from intensity achieved with the help of the famous principle, the author makes use of landscape symbolism to reveal the change in the woman. Thus, she looks at the “line of the hills”, and the hills are “white in the sun” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 229). The hills perform several roles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the first place, the hills can be seen as the symbol of pregnancy. Thus, the pregnant woman who is trying to make up her mind looks at the hills and sees white elephants as her mind returns to the issue over and over again: “They look like white elephants” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 229).

On the other hand, the white elephants can be regarded as the woman’s own world. They can be seen as her way to escape from the necessity to make the difficult decision or even the necessity to talk about it. In fact, Jig starts speaking about the white elephants to start some kind of talk. She knows that the conversation is inevitable, but she wants to postpone it making the man think of other things. She starts their conversation with a rather bewildering phrase: “They look like white elephants” (Hemingway, 1927, p.229).

She continues referring to the hills throughout their entire conversation. The woman is trying to avoid speaking about the matter: “The girl stood up and walked to the end of the station” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231). The woman tries to plunge into the world of calmness and beauty. She admires the majestic hills which make her feel better. Whenever she looks at the hills, she becomes more confident and she starts seeing things clearer.

Furthermore, the white hills can be regarded as a sign that helps the woman to make the right decision. The landscape is so right. It is so calm and easy. There is nothing more natural than the view of the beautiful hills. The woman “looked across at the hills on the dry side of the valley” and this is the moment she understands everything (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231).

This is the moment when the woman gets enchanted by the calm beauty of the hills. This is the moment when she changes. She becomes confident and she understands that she does not want to listen to the man. She wants to feel what is really important. She wants to take in the power of the majestic hills.

Thus, the landscape plays rather essential role in the short story as it inspires the woman to make the right decision. The reader can also follow the changes taking place in the woman’s character. Obviously, the landscape is the symbol of nature and natural things like having a baby.

The pure beauty of the hills makes the woman feel better. She finally understands: “There is nothing wrong with me” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 231). The landscape makes the woman solve the issue. The woman accepts her mission in this world. She is ready to make her choice and make her life meaningful.

We will write a custom Essay on Iceberg Principle and Landscape Symbolism Reveal the Development of the Character specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remarkably, the author enhances this idea of the rightness contrasting two pictures. The woman inevitably compares her present life which is nothing more but looking “at things” and trying “new drinks” and her possible future life filled with meaning (Hemingway, 1927, p. 230).

The bags symbolize her present and hills symbolize her possible future. The girl makes up her mind and her decision is clear. The man is preoccupied with the bags taking them “over to the other side of the station” (Hemingway, 1927, p. 232). However, the woman keeps looking at the hills. She definitely chooses the meaningful life. She is going to let the man go if necessary. She is committed to start a new better life which is as majestic as the hills resembling white elephants.

Conclusion To sum up, the short story is one of the finest examples of the role of landscape symbolism and Hemingway’s iceberg principle. The author does not say explicitly what the problem is. This makes the story more expressive. The reader is free to make any conclusions and evaluate the problem in any way. This freedom makes the short story so strong.

More importantly, the author uses really expressive symbols. The hills (the nature itself) make the woman change. Thus, a carefree girl having a meaningless life turns into the mature woman who is ready to make the right decision and to feel her life with meaning. The reader can trace the change which is taking place in the woman’s character. The hills which are calm and pure make the woman strong and committed.

Reference List Hemingway, E. (1927). Hills like white elephants. Retrieved from Hamilton Elementary Web site:


Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related Definition Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Body


List of References

Introduction With the ever changing business environment, change management and strategic planning activities are increasingly becoming issues of focus in the modern business environment. This is because of the significant role they play in helping organizations adapt to the turbulence of change. In this paper, I explore change management and strategic planning in terms of definition, inter-relationships and the impact of change on individuals and organizations.

Main Body Change management refers to the manner in which top-level managers shape the way organizations adapt, respond to, anticipate and learn about change which occurs within them and the environment.

This is a central tenet to organizations as it enables us understand how these organizations help people (internally and externally) to embrace change. Therefore, change management is the way organizations are designed to positively and proactively anticipate and react to the external environment which is ever-changing and competitive.

Change management also involves institution of internal structures in the organization to enable it to respond better to the turbulence of change (Johnson 1998). If change management is effectively undertaken, it results in creation of a learning institution where employees continuously broaden their capacity to create truly desired outcomes and nurture new and expansive thinking patterns (Johnson 1998; Jager 2006).

Change management also involves equipping employees to acquire knowledge and skills to learn in institutions they encounter. In this context, change management is enhanced by encouraging deep commitment where employees build required skills through out the work place. In addition, change management requires commitment especially at the absolute pinnacle of the organization.

Various authors e.g. Jager and Johnson have pointed out that change management involves the regulation of speed, breadth and depth of learning which should be managed at different levels (Jager 2006; Johnson 1998).

On the other hand, strategic planning refers to long-range planning undertaken to set goals, objectives and policies of the organization and to determine tactics, strategies and programs under which these goals will be achieved. Strategic planning is undertaken by top-level managers who make plans to chart the best courses of future action.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, strategic planning activities involve defining the mission of the organization using the organizational purpose as a key tool for identification of products, services and customers. Strategic planning also involves setting objectives i.e. purpose, goals and desired outcomes for the organization and its parts (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).

When objectives are set, it is important that strategies are developed. These strategies involve activities which enable the organization to adapt and achieve its strategic objectives. Therefore, strategic planning has a longer time horizon and it deals with the interface of the organization and its external environment. In strategic planning, top-level managers use an instrument called SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats).

SWOT analysis is usually used as a framework for organizing the way the organization consumes data and information derived from a situational analysis. When applying the SWOT analysis, top-level managers assess the internal environment (strengths and weaknesses) and external environment (opportunities and threats).

Therefore, during this process, top-level managers carry out long range planning (strategic planning) which is enhanced by considering organizational strengths (positive attributes internal to the organization and within its control), weaknesses (factors which distract the organization and are within its control), opportunities (factors that represent the reason for organizational existence and development) and threats (external factors which risk the mission or operation of the organization but are within its control).

Studies have revealed that if top managers plan strategically by putting up contingency plans to address threats that have a likelihood of recurrence, the organization will be better placed to benefit as it is enabled to withstand the turbulence of change (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).

Organizational change has been regarded as a venture that is incredibly difficult for majority of organizations. Although organizations may be aware of the need to communicate change, most of them lack the knowledge, skills and competencies necessary in communication.

Therefore, in the context of these organizations, change management involves communicating of change that is implemented within them. In addition, change management will involve ability of these organizations to define change in great detail.

We will write a custom Essay on Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, communication of change during change management is a pre-requisite. Authors e.g. Jager have also pointed out that most organizations are unable to define the change they are implementing and as such, they are pushed to the brink of collapse especially if the change implemented cannot be communicated effectively. This implies that the ability to communicate change is crucial to the success of organizations (Jager 2006).

Johnson (1998) mentioned the overwhelming impact of change on individuals and organizations by exploring the importance and awareness of people adapting to change and their response to inevitable consequences of change. Different studies have also demonstrated that change limits individuals and organizations as they encounter difficulties in prophesying the future.

For instance, Johnson (1998) argued that organizations have encountered numerous challenges due to inability to adapt or shift to configurations that come with change. In addition, organizations have had other challenges as a result of change. These include difficulties in creation of new internal structures and rigidity in letting power balances move with change (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995; Jager 2006).

Authors like Johnson (1998) have used water analogies to depict the ebb and flow of change in the economy. These studies point out that various industries such as telecommunications and consumer electronics have encountered technological change with increased frequency and absorption of major market shifts at a rapid pace.

Under these circumstances, organizations that are more stable are able to sustain rapid change over a short period. Furthermore many organizations face imminent collapse if they do not move with change that is taking place in the economy and in competing organizations. Therefore, if change is not managed effectively, it hinders growth of organizations in the global economy (Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995).

If change is not effectively managed, rigid organizations encounter numerous challenges and are likely to collapse. This implies that organizations that will be prosperous in future are those that have an understanding of change and proactive recognition and embracing of this change (Jager 2006).

In addition, authors e.g. Johnson (1988) have used Lewin’s Model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing to explain the effect of change on individuals and the organization. In line with this model, contemporary life is full of constant and accelerating change and therefore individuals and organizations that speculate and anticipate future events are likely to be more effective and successful. In addition, the model establishes the link between change management and strategic planning.

This is based on the argument that the effective management of intensity, speed and direction of strategic plans and organizational change results in a future difference between those who win and those who lose. Consequently, the losers lose because they are unable to recognize, respond to and manage change while the winners win because they are able to recognize, manage, respond to and propagate the rate of change in the organization in an attempt to survive (Johnson 1998).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Management and Strategic Planning, the Impact of Change on Individuals and Organizations, and how Change Management and Strategic Planning are Inter-related by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, if organizations are to withstand the turbulence of change, the extent of learning should be more than or equal to rate of organizational change. If this is not the case, organizations risk falling back and collapsing due to loss of market for their products. Furthermore, organizations with higher survival chances during times of change are those which manage competencies, structures and leadership processes effectively (through strategic planning).

This is because of lexibility which is present in such organizations, hence they effectively adapt to change (Jager 2006). Research studies e.g. by Johnson have revealed that bureaucratic practices hinder ability of organizations to move with change. Therefore, If top-level managers stick to bureaucratic practices and do not own change, a “not invented here” syndrome occurs in lower organizational levels (Johnson 1998, p. 10).

Conclusion In this paper, I explored change management and strategic planning as inter-related factors which affect individuals and organizations. Strategic planning has been perceived as a process which involves systematic use of criteria and rigorous investigations to formulate and control organizational expectations.

On the other hand, change management has been perceived as the way organizations are designed to positively and proactively anticipate and react to the external environment which is ever changing and competitive (Jager 2006; Johnson 1998; Bryson 1995)

List of References Bryson, J 1995, SWOT Analysis: A Facilitation Tool for Identifying Strategic Issues. Web.

Jager, P 2006, Seven Ways to Communicate Change. Web.

Johnson, J 1998, Embracing Change: A Leadership Model for the Learning Organization. Web.


To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents The introduction

The body

The conclusion

Works Cited

The introduction When discussing one of the most well-known novels written by Virginia Woolf, I would like to disclose some fundamentals of her production. First of all, I would like to point out that the techniques the author uses seem to be defensive, as Woolf is known for her feminist views.

In other words, one is to keep in mind that the expressions of anger the author highlights in her novel are related to three issues. Thus, it should be pointed out that aggression in relation to the patriarchy; the aggression male characters express; and Mrs. Ramsay’s aggression are considered to be the key manifestations of anger. Generally, it is also necessary to clarify what reason of the author’s aggression and anger is.

Thus, on the one hand, it seems that Virginia’s description of her parents is negative; however, on the other hand, a deep analysis of the novel gives us an opportunity to suppose that there are no parents who cause the author’s anger, but the oppressive patriarchal system the main characters live within.

The body When speaking about the language and writing style the author uses, one is to keep in mind that affective and non-semantic qualities of language are rather complicated. Thus, Woolf mostly uses numerous passive constructions, and the pronoun one in her novel.

The extraordinary sentence structure the author uses cannot be neglected too. For instance, when reading the second paragraph of the novel, (a description of Mrs. Ramsay), one can make a conclusion that the writer’s language is also based on numerous parenthetical phrases, clauses as well as modifying constructions.

The gruff murmur, irregularly broken by the taking out of pipes and the putting

in of pipes which had kept on assuring her, though she could not hear what

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More was said (as she sat in the window which opened on the terrace), that the men were happily talking; this sound, which had lasted now half an hour and had taken its place soothingly in the scale of sounds pressing on top of her, such as the tap of balls upon bats, the sharp, sudden bark now and then, “How’s that? How’s that?” of the children playing cricket, had ceased…. (Woolf 15)

It is not the end of the sentence; generally, this sentence includes 260 words; so, it is obvious that the author’s language is rather difficult to understand. While reading the paragraph, the reader loses the full meaning of the sentence and cannot understand its importance.

On the contrary, such complex constructions transform potentially clear meaning of the fragment into uncertain and delayed meaning. When analyzing Woolf’s language, particularly the second paragraph, it becomes obvious that the words the gruff murmur at the beginning of the sentence determine the main clause.

Other descriptions are considered to be modifying phrases. Had ceased is recognized to be the main verb; however, all, which is placed between the words the gruff murmur and had ceased confuses our mind, as when analyzing emotional associations between the main clause and the main verb, the reader loses the thread of a story. That is why Virginia Woolf’s language is rather complicated.

The conclusion In spite of the fact that the author’s language is quite complex, nobody will deny the fact that Woolf depicts not only external details, but also important inner feelings of her characters. Thus, she discloses the thoughts and ideas in people’s mind. The novel To the Lighthouse requires the readers’ attention, as the author depicts the current drama of a human existence.

Works Cited Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse, Fort Washington, PA, Harvest Books: 1989. Print.


Greek City state and the Roman Empire Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The Americans and the Western nations’ political systems and ideologies are in a way based on the ancient Greece and the Romans’ ideas. These countries are not the only ones that were affected. However, most of the ideas that are being used by governments in the world were originally borrowed from Greece (Wolin, 1960).

Issues of Democracy and republican governments are some of the major political ideologies that were adopted from these two ancient states. People’s participation in political constitutions and content has its origins in these societies.

Changes that occurred in Greek city-states and Roman Empire that explain the emergence of specific understanding of politics Firstly, the ancient Greece was once never a unified state but a conjugant of different nations. The large geographic boundaries that resulted in travel and communication difficulties brought the need for communities to adopt their own governing bodies and councils.

These political units were known as city-states. These city-states, being separated by large geographical terrains, adopted different political systems. For example, the Corinth adopted the oligarchy system of government. Other city-states such as Sparta established mixed forms of government, which constituted both oligarchy and monarchial systems of government. This is how these aspects of politics emerged.

Athens developed a democratic form of government that allowed the citizens to participate in the drafting of the constitution and the governance of their city-states. They purposefully did this to quell the long periods of unrest and conflicts in the city-state. These reforms transferred power from the hands of a few nobles to the citizens thus ensuring political participation.

This is also known as democracy. Democracy is undeniably the most practiced form of governance in the civilized world. The Athenian government was made up of three major segments. These included the assembly, the council and the people’s court. They consisted of juries made up of the citizens. This was in order to oversee cases involving fellow citizens.

Different from the Athenian form of government, the Romans adopted a Republic structure of governance. In this form of government, the elected persons (apart from just governing) were also expected to be responsible and responsive to their voters (Augustine, 1961).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Romans were the first to draw up a constitution, which was a tool that was later adopted by a majority of governments around the globe. These countries exhibited republican tendencies. These sets of laws written down by the Roman government were, at the time, collectively known as the Laws of the Twelve Tablets. Nations later came to realize that having the laws written down protected the rights of the citizens and shielded them from unfounded prosecutions.

Another important political aspect that was exhibited by these ancient societies was eligibility for political participation. For example, in Athens, the issues of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were seriously upheld.

Therefore, in order to fully participate in politics, one had to be a mature male whose parents were both Athenians. The modern world states and nations that came thereafter came up with various qualifications. For one to be able to participate in politics or to be declared a citizen of the respective nation, he or she had to meet those qualifications.

Philosophers were concerned about the issue of human action since they were greatly engaged in differentiating between activity, passivity, involuntarism and culpable actions. Action became a major philosophical topic in the early 1960s and is slowly becoming a major sub-discipline in modern philosophy.

A causalist school of thought postulates that an individual’s reason for acting is the cause of his or her action. It can be accurately argued that reasons lead to actions. Some philosophers like Harry Frankfurt have tried to explain the concept of human action and has tried to determine its compatibility with the large concept of determinism.

Philosophers argued that political revolutions experienced in the governments of the world were as a result of human action. People are never satisfied with their constitution. They are always grumbling, never quiet and always require that some changes be made on the constitution. Under the concept of human action was another topic of humanism. Humanism marries the concepts of history and human actions.

The concept of eligibility for political rights and citizenship were greatly focused upon and qualifications were set for individuals to meet. The modern world states and states that came thereafter came up with various qualifications for one to be able to participate in politics. Apart from politics, it was also necessary that one met the set standards before being granted complete citizenship of a city-state (Sayers, 1999). The citizens were the only ones who were allowed to own and keep slaves together with all other forms of property.

We will write a custom Essay on Greek City state and the Roman Empire specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Sparta, for example, women were afforded the opportunity and privilege of being literate. This was a different ethical dimension compared to what was the norm in previous years.

This was quite different from what other city-states like Athens did to their womenfolk. The liberation of women in Athens, for example, became an inspiration to the contemporary states and societies to recognize the position of women in the society. Another important issue was the payment of taxes. The ancient Greek, Roman and Greek states lay much emphasis on tax payment. These changes in ethical dimensions formed the economic background of a majority of the states that came thereafter.

References Augustine, C. (1961). Confessions. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Sayers, S. (1999). Plato’s Republic: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Wolin, S. (1960). Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political thought. Boston: Brown


A comparison of formulation of government policies; Japan and Britain Term Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Formulation of government policies in Japan

Comparison of Policy Making in Japan and Britain


Reference List

Introduction Government policies are central to the realisation of government goals and initiatives. Before political can assume power, they are required to convince the electorate fully. This is based on agendas that address different needs of the electorate. In 2009, Democratic Party of Japan assumed power after defeating the long-serving LDP party. One of their agendas was to reform the mechanisms used in formulation of government policies.

Their main aim was to reduce bureaucratic influence and control over the process of formulation of government policies. The following paper explores the process of formulation of government policies in Japan. It provides insight into the role of different stakeholders in the process including the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, bureaucrats and other special interest groups. Finally, it provides a comparison with Britain’s policy making process.

Formulation of government policies in Japan Japan’s government is headed by a Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed from either Houses of Parliament and subjected to a vote. The successful candidate is thereby presented to the Emperor for attestation (Curtis, 2000). One of the Prime Minister’s functions is the appointment and dismissal of Cabinet ministers.

Therefore, the Prime Minister appoints individual whom in his view are representative of the party’s ideology. Under the constitution, the Prime Minister is allowed to appoint fourteen ministers only. However, under special circumstances, he is allowed to appoint up to seventeen ministers. Ministers oversee activities in various ministries.

Government policies in Japan mainly originate from government ministries. Government ministries mainly consist of bureaucrats who have wealth of information regarding various issues affecting the ministry (Nakamura