Cultural appropriation is where by “Whites duplicate licensed property, social declarations, and customary learning from African culture without their authorization” (Hardy 73). The United States is one nation that cultural appropriation has significantly manifested itself.
To this end, the US has for many years been christened a ‘melting pot.’ This is owed to the fact that the nation’s population is made up of people drawn from all over the world, coming with different cultures.
As a consequence, Americans “who grow up in diverse communities may pick up the dialect, customs and religious traditions of the cultural groups that surround them” (Hardy 74).
Cultural appropriation happens when a minority community is robbed off its culture by a more dominant group. This subject, in most cases, tends to make people who are socially conscious to frown.
The unapproved utilization of an alternate culture includes dance, dress, music, dialect, old stories, food, customary medication, religious images, and so on.
The cultural appropriation is destined to be hurtful when the source group is a minority group that has been persecuted or misused in different ways, or when the object of appropriation is especially delicate. Cultural appropriation is not alright.
It is always accompanied by strains of bias, and on a bigger picture it amounts to racism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Also what makes cultural appropriation more incensing for non-White individuals is the way other individuals (Whites and non-Whites) can take off their costume and come back to regular life without the separation or disgrace normally connected with those cultural articulations.
It is a fact that one may discover any components of an alternate culture or subculture to be sensational or even have an odd fixation or interest with it. Utilizing those representations is an affront that accompanies a long history and pattern of racial and ethnic segregation and preference.
Elvis Presley was not the originator of rock and roll that featured Chuck Berry. Moreover, ‘Ice Baby,’ a hip-bounce melody produced by Vanilla was the first of the kind to top the charts of the great tracks of the time.
Furthermore, Justin Timberlake successfully changed his genre of music from pop sensation to the heartfelt songs that are unlike his culture. Kreayshawn, the new White young lady rapper, is just the most recent result of culture appropriation.
As such, one could easily argue that she is just trying to live with what contemporary hip-hop music has come to- “without substance, whack, sexualized and talentless” (Hardy 75). Would one say that she is appropriating Black culture or simply diluting it? One should not accept since she is realistic.
Kreayshawn’s picture, how she conducts herself, her verses are all subordinate to her- an exceptionally restricted perspective of Black culture. She is a consequence of a kind that was perpetually changed once America acknowledged that there was a chance of cultural appropriation from a small persuasive culture.
Kreayshawn, craftsmen like her, and the individuals who co-sign them are all guilty parties in the selling of cultures to other communities (Hardy 78).
We will write a custom Essay on Appropriation of Black Culture Life by Whites specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 2013, Miley Cyrus turned into the pop star most connected with cultural appropriation. Amid recorded and live exhibitions, the previous kid star started to ‘twerk,’ a dance move with roots in African-American culture.
Author Hadley Freeman of ‘The Guardian’ specifically took issues with Cyrus’ ‘twerking’ at the MTV Video Music Awards in August 2013.
In front of an audience and additionally in her feature she utilized the
repetitive figure of speech of having dark ladies as her sponsorship
vocalists, there just to be stroked by her and to respect her squirming
derriere, Freeman brought up (Dawkins 470).
Cyrus was expressly copying ‘crunk’ music features as well as the hip-hop style of music. She felt she was Lil’ Kim as she cherishes ‘hood music.’
As a result of this, the impact was not of a respect, but of a minstrel show, with a youthful well-off lady from the South doing a pompous impersonation of ‘wouldark’ music, and diminishing ‘wouldark’ dance lovers, to foundation grain and dark ladies that overstated sex object.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Appropriation of Black Culture Life by Whites by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Italian-American hotshot, Madonna, has been blamed from copying music outside other groups of cultures, including gay culture, dark culture, Indian culture and Latin American cultures. Madonna may be the greatest culture vulture yet.
In “Madonna: A Critical Analysis,” writer JBNYC brings up how the pop star wore Indian saris, bindis, and dress amid a 1998 photograph shoot for ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine. Moreover, in the following year Madonna took part in a geisha-enlivened photograph spread for Harper’s ‘Bazaar’ magazine.
Before this, Madonna copied from Latin-American culture for her 1986 feature “La Isla Bonita” and from gay ‘wouldark.’ Furthermore, she aped Latino culture for her 1990 feature “Vogue.” Iggy Azalea hails from Australia and exhibits an Australian accent.
Nonetheless, she changes her accent more often from her ‘Mullumbimby’ (Australia’s) to grungy when rapping, an accent synonymous with the people from the South of America.
This imparts her profound respect for great rap craftsmen, for example, Tupac, referring to him as the motivation for her to enter the business. Iggy’s case is a typical example of culture appropriation.
Other artists from the ‘New Off the Boat’ exhibit how the is use of Black culture speaks sincerely about Asian culture. While aping the ‘New Off the Boat,’ Eddie Huang, an eleven-year-old Taiwanese boy finds himself culturally misplaced as he tries to ape Kool Moe and Run D.
In details, he is shown “swathing in a loosely goose-like, brilliantly shaded garment synonymous with the hip-hop uniform of the time, with her hands folded high over his waist, and nodding his head” (Dawkins 460). This is exactly what Moe and Run do on stage.
All these inclusive images of resistance were presented to imply a little kid’s (Eddie Huang) uneasiness with his late migration from Washington D.C.’s Chinatown to the splendid, insipid scene of rural Florida.
Lastly, we look at Eminem as he appears to be a victim of race-nonpartisan. He gets access to the sensitivity of various rap crowds, as though rap itself is what is being indicted, and in this manner he endears the experience of all rappers- himself included- like being in rivalry with lawful power.
With this, Eminem is simply informing the Blacks to be cautious of exploitative cultural appropriation especially by the Whites. Importantly, with this trend there will be dare consequences.
If ‘whiteness’ gets to be imperceptible inside rap, the apprehension remains that the fine art will lose its association with the
African-American experience, and with it, its authenticity and explanation
behind human will be dealt a blow (Dawkins 461).
“Sing For The Moment” song pushes it between racial ‘essentializing,’ estranging it to the rap group in which Eminem implies to be a part while referring to his enrolment as a manifestation of legitimate barrier (Dawkins 463).
Though a percentage of ‘The Lonely Island’s’ music features depend upon an ‘essentialized’ White-face rap persona for mocking designs, Eminem’s “not kidding” tries to fit and mix it with dark rap’s imperviousness to white power, and thus could be seen as ‘racialized’ and exploitive (Howes 44).
An authentic singer ought to feel free and original in his or her music, as opposed to appropriating or stealing. They should be genuine. The vast majority of people wish they should quit having discussions about prejudice and how it works in American culture, but they cannot.
Rather, they decide to endure it all for the purpose of stopping culture appropriation. A genuine social exchange is not just for vocal motion, ensembles, religious conventions, musical styling or different things (Howes 46).
This trend should be a continuous discussion so that one can really comprehend it in the social and political motion of a group. This will enable one to genuinely comprehend the regular loads and biases that are regularly seen to underestimate certain culture.
In conclusion, one should not simply acquire or pay praise. One should stop copying especially from the minority group. One honest thing that people should do is to do a research about a particular culture, understand the struggles through which they underwent to come up with the features that you feel attracted to.
What is more likely to “convince is taking one stride further by being politically dynamic and work in solidarity with said people groups” (Howes 54).
Works Cited Dawkins, Alesan. “Close to the Edge: The representational tactics of Eminem.” The Journal of Popular Culture 43.3 (2010): 463-485.
Hardy, Marieke. “She twerks hard for the money: Iggy Azalea.” Melbourne Post. 13 August 2013: LZ01. Print.
Howes, David. Cross-cultural consumption: Global markets, local realities. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print.
New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s Essay custom essay help
Introduction Since its inception in 1969, Stew Leonard’s has positioned itself optimally in the United States’ grocery store industry by offering diverse food products. The firm has established four supermarkets, which are located in New York and Connecticut.
The firm’s product portfolio is comprised of dairy products, meat, wine, and juice. In addition, the firm sells its products to over 300,000 customers every week.
A workforce of over 2,000 employees necessitates the company’s operations. Stew Leonard’s has had exemplary performance over the past decades, as evidenced by its listing in the Guinness Book of World Records. This recognition was due to its sales per unit area in the category of all single food companies in the US.
Despite its superior performance over the past four decades, Stew Leonard’s is experiencing pressure from the external market environment such as change in consumer behavior and intense competition. Thus, the firm’s top management team has an obligation to respond to the prevailing market trends.
One of the most effective approaches that the firm should consider is new product development. This paper illustrates the critical aspects that Stew Leonard’s should consider in developing and introducing the new product.
In line with its quest to offer diverse nutritional food products, it is essential for the firm to consider the introduction of a new snack product. The product should be produced from high-energy natural ingredients such as different whole grains, milk, and vegetables in order to meet the customers’ tastes and preferences.
In order to improve the ability of the new product to provide customers with the needed energy within a short duration after consumption, it is imperative for the firm to ensure that the snack product is easily digestible and absorbed by the body.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a bid to improve the snack’s capacity to provide the needed energy, the firm should incorporate some of the ingredients used in the production of energy drinks such as ephedrine, ginseng, ginkgo biloba, taurine, carnitine, inositol, and creatin. These ingredients will meet the customers’ energy requirements and enhance their well-being.
Feasibility and profitability
By introducing this product, Stew Leonard’s will greatly improve its performance. The feasibility and profitability potential of the new product is fostered by a number of factors.
Food consumption habits in the US were affected by the 2008 economic recession. Some market segments such as the private labels were least affected by the recession. During the recession, private labels’ prices varied between 20% and 40% as opposed to the branded equivalent.
However, the trend has been reversed by the improvement in consumer confidence in the country’s economic performance over the past few years.
A study conducted by the Business Monitor International (2014) records that per capita “food consumption is expected to rise by a compound annual growth rate of 2.6% between 2013 and 2018” (par. 5).
Sustained economic performance will spur private consumption expenditure, which is critical in promoting profitability within the retail sector. Business Monitor International (2014) argues that private consumption expenditure is expected to grow by 2.2% between 2014 and 2018.
By introducing the new product, Stew Leonard will be in a position to benefit from the improvement in the consumers’ purchasing power.
We will write a custom Essay on New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change in consumer lifestyle
Consumers in the US appreciate the consumption of healthy food products. This trend has arisen from an increase in incidents of diseases associated with poor eating habits such as obesity. Currently, consumers are shifting to the consumption of healthy traditional snack foods.
However, their preference mainly lies in the snack foods perceived to have high health benefits. The feasibility of the new snack product will be improved by the view that snacking has become a common trend amongst Americans. The NPD Group forecasts that snacking between main meals will increase by 5% to over 86.4 billion eating over the next five years (Prepared Foods, 2014).
By introducing the new snack product, the firm will enhance the attainment of the diversification strategy. Thus, Stew Leonard’s will be in a position to enter a new market segment, viz. the athletic market segment, which will be promoted by the unique product features.
Introducing the new product will improve Stew Leonard’s competitive advantage significantly. The competitive advantage will arise from the view that the firm expects the product to attract new customers due to the associated health, energy, and nutritional benefits.
The health, energy, and nutritional benefits of the new snack will attract diverse customer categories. This aspect will lead to an increment in the firm’s sales revenue, hence its financial sustainability.
Due to the attained level of financial sustainability, Stew Leonard’s will be in a position to finance diverse strategic aspects such as continuous product improvement, hence sustaining its competitive edge in the US food industry.
Recommended mass media and social media channels After successful development of the product, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to create sufficient awareness on the existence of the new product in the market. Creating awareness is fundamental in an organization’s quest to improve the consumers’ purchase decision.
In a bid to create optimal market awareness, Stew Leonard’s should use the advertising technique, which entails mass media and social media channels.
Not sure if you can write a paper on New Product Development: Stew Leonard’s by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mass media
In its effort to create adequate market awareness through advertising, the firm should consider two main mass mediums, which include print media and broadcast media. The core broadcast mediums that the firm should integrate include radio and television.
The firm should develop attractive advertising message in order to improve the likelihood of influencing the target customers. Moreover, the firm should create awareness using different print mediums such local newspapers, magazines, and brochures.
In selecting the mass mediums, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to identify the most well established media houses in order to increase the likelihood of creating successful market awareness.
Market awareness should also incorporate social mediums. The core mediums that the firm should take into consideration include Facebook, Google , and YouTube.
The choice of the print and broadcast mediums will enable the firm to create optimal market awareness due to their capacity to reach a large number of potential customers in the US given their market penetration. Using television and radio will ensure that consumers in different regions receive the intended message simultaneously.
Through these mediums, the firm will create awareness to the older customer group. Conversely, the choice of the three social mediums will enable the firm to reach the younger generation, which is increasingly becoming techno savvy. Furthermore, the two mediums have become critical sources of product information.
Consequently, consumers are increasingly using the two mediums in searching information on different products. Moreover, social mediums are characterized by a multiplier effect due to the ‘word of mouth’ effect.
Pricing structure In order to enhance its competitive advantage through new product development, it is imperative for Stew Leonard’s to ensure that the product penetrates the market successfully. Price is one of the key determinants that the firm’s management team should consider in order to stimulate the rate of market penetration.
The price structure adopted should influence the consumers’ purchase intention. The consumers’ purchasing decision is subject to the set price point.
The firm should adopt the introduction pricing structure such as the penetration pricing strategy. This strategy will allow the new product to penetrate the market aggressively. The decision to adopt this pricing structure arises from the view that most customers already understand the benefits associated with healthy eating habits.
Stew Leonard’s has developed sufficient economies of scale, hence its ability to set the price of the new product at a relatively lower point as compared to competitors. By adopting this strategy, the firm will sacrifice short-run profits.
However, Stew Leonard’s will develop an efficient market position, which will be a critical source of the firm’s competitive advantage. The strong market position will originate from the capacity to maximize the sales revenue due to the widespread market acceptance.
Additionally, the penetration-pricing strategy will act as deterrence to potential competitors.
Customer relationship management The high profitability potential in the US food industry has increased its attractiveness to investors. Furthermore, the existing firms are increasingly diversifying their product portfolio in an effort to exploit the market opportunities.
Despite this trend, Stew Leonard’s can enhance the dominance of the new product by developing an effective customer-relationship management system. The CRM system should be aimed at entrenching product loyalty.
One of the way through which the firm can achieve this goal entails integrating point of sale systems, which involves high-tech software that has the capacity to capture the customers’ details. Through this technology, the firm will be in a position to offer unique customer experience, for example, by designing loyalty programs.
Symons (2014) affirms that on average, “13% of disgruntled consumers will tell at least 20 people about it” (par. 2). The automated POS will enable the firm to customize its service delivery by generating automated messages such as emails informing customers on different product aspects such as product improvement.
Additionally, the POS will enable the firm to track the customers’ purchase history such as product inquiries. This aspect will improve the likelihood of influencing the consumers’ intention to purchase the product, for example, by designing attractive loyalty programs.
Inherent risk Despite the fact that the introduction of the new product will present an opportunity for the firm to maximize its sales revenue and profitability, it is imperative for the firm’s management team to appreciate the existence of inherent risk.
One of the inherent risks that might affect the development of the new snack product entails change in consumer preferences. According to Ogawa and Piller (2006), consumers are characterized by heterogeneous product demands, which lead to micro-segmentation of product categories.
Due to change in consumer tastes and preferences, it is difficult for the firm to undertake precise forecast on the sales revenue expected to be generated from the sale of the new product. The ultimate effect is that the commercialization of the new product will be affected adversely.
This risk might arise if the firm does not have adequate understanding of the customers’ needs. Therefore, in a bid to minimize such risk, it is imperative for the firm to undertake continuous market research. The firm should use the findings of the market research to adjust its product development plan.
Risks of not launching The food industry is undergoing a remarkable transformation, which is arising from macro-environmental factors such as change in consumer behavior. In order to align with the changing market trends, it is imperative for firms to invest in extensive product innovation programs.
The programs should focus on improving the firms’ market dominance through new product development. Failure to invest in new product development is a major risk that might affect the firms’ long run existence.
The risk arises from the view that the ability of a firm to generate and sustain growth in sales revenue, hence its financial sustainability is hindered.
The problem is further exacerbated by the view that the firm’s market dominance might be crowded-out by the competing entities. Therefore, the firm’s financial strength is diminished, which affects its prospected future growth.
Conclusion The introduction of a new snack product will substantially improve Stew Leonard’s market dominance by attracting new customers. This goal will be attainable due to the unique product features. Product uniqueness will be enhanced through continuous market research, hence entrenching the customers’ tastes and preferences.
This approach will remarkably minimize the inherent risk associated with its new product development. Furthermore, successful new product development will foster the firm’s longevity and market dominance in the US food industry.
References Business Monitor International: United States food and drink report. (2014). Web.
Effects of Technology on Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Background of the Study
The world has incurred critical, extensive, and rapid development as far as technology is concerned. On daily basis, new gadgets are discovered by the technological specialists to ease, support and complement human life (Egger 2010, 291).
Importantly, the history of technological obtained significant meaning during the 1980s when Apple computers started manufacturing high-quality devices with greater capabilities and better experience than the competitor’s products (Bennett 2011, 116).
Where this development has taken place in general terms and transformed the popular culture technologically, it has equally affected the family unit bearing in mind that the devices are mostly used in the family context (Reiser 2009, 276).
As such, it has led to critical implications on the interaction of family members and the manner in which they communicate to each other. This research focused on how the family unit transformed in the technological era. In addition, it showed how these devices changed communication and routes of interaction.
Research Scope of the Study
Whereas the technological advancement has taken place extensively and affected almost all aspects of human life, this paper sought to provide a step-by-step discussion on how technological devices transformed the family unit with advancement in technology.
Importantly, it focused on the effects of devices such as televisions and personal computers on the cohesiveness of the computers. In this light, the research paper emphasized the changes that took place from 1980s to 1990s.
This emphasis was based on the fact that there were robust inventions during this period as far as technology was concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aim and Objectives
The aim of a research is basically the broad focus of a research for which it seeks to achieve at the conclusive end. On the other hand, the objectives are subsets of the research aim which shows how the broad focus will be achieved.
In other words, they provide understandable and more particular ways of attaining the stipulated aim. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the home-based entertainment changed the family unit to a device-centered unit. The objectives are as shown in this list presented below this paragraph.
To determine the historical process of changing the family unit to a device centered unit.
To identify the main players, such as people and devices, that led to the attainment of this condition in the family unit.
To determines some of the family aspects and attitudes that may have contributed or accelerated the paradigmatic shift.
As stated before, the question of how the family unit changed is a broad-focused area of interest. It cannot be discussed from the limited perspective of identifying the steps and stages of the process. Instead, it must be tackled from the idea of the involved players and the attitudes that led to the condition.
What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit?
What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit?
Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit?
Significance of the Study
A family is the basic unit of the society since it comprises of the simple but critical definition of relationships. Indeed, the manner in which people behave towards other colleagues in the wider society is affected by the way the individuals were brought up at the family level.
As such, it becomes crucial to investigate the trends that take place in our families from both internal and external perspectives. Importantly, the relationships within families are determinants of effective communication. In fact, breakdown of communication in a family can lead to devastating moral degradation in a society.
For example, a drug addict who does not have a suitable platform to interact and share his or her problems with parents can degrade completely. In fact, the paradigm shift can be blamed for the moral degradation that is being experienced in the present times worldwide.
In addition to this, the study seeks to track the history of this shift from the beginning. This will help to determine all the factors that led to the change in family orientation. As such, it will be the basis and foundation of providing a solution to the society in order to reinstate the family cohesion and bonds.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Technology on Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Understandably, it is very difficult to cure something that one does not acknowledge. Indeed, one needs broad and deep knowledge about the problem before presenting effective and credible solutions. In that regard, therefore, this study is an avenue to obtain the necessary knowledge.
Evidently, this study seeks to study the separating aspect of technology in the family. Interestingly, however, the study will provide insight and ideas on how the same technology can be used to unite family members and reinstate the original family structure.
This is based on the fact that the world cannot reverse technological advancements for the sake of creating better family bondage. However, technology can be manipulated in order to ensure that the original cohesiveness and family unity is reinstated.
As such, this study will be a very crucial inquiry that will help to form the basis of inducing the right change and attitude in the family. As such, parents and the children started consuming different forms of entertainment according to the modernity and trend differences.
As time progresses, each individual in the family regardless of the age warmed up towards personal tastes. This tendency increased the lift between member of the family regardless of whether they were parents or children.
In other words, it drew the family members from each other and pushed them towards their own entertainment preferences, tastes, and interests. Due to such individualized personal interests, the technological devices became personal gadgets of use and the interests towards them became different all together.
Literature Review Family Status before Technological Advancement
A number of authors touched on some of the important aspects regarding the importance of family bonds and technological effects. It was evident that such authors sought to describe some of the critical changes that happened with special interest to interaction and basically communication.
In one case, Gray (2010, 76) focused on the status of the family during the post-war period. During this period, there were various life-promoting undertakings that made life more enjoyable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Technology on Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, the education promotion program, which availed education to children in the society, supported family development and involvement with each other. Parents harbored little stress due to the poverty reduction efforts and health promotion initiatives alongside the postwar baby boom (Groening 2014, 67).
The reduced stress enabled them to concentrate on raising children. Indeed, they interacted with them for longer period of times to provide protection and nourishment. In addition, parents secured employment easily so they could afford money to go for leisure in the theaters.
In different study conducted in 1950s, it was evident that entertainment and family lives were inseparable aspects. In this case, the study describes the transformations that took place in the family due to emphasis put on entertainment.
In essence, the postwar period provided enough time for the family members to have fun since the country got relieve (Katz 2009, 114). In addition, the country was not experiencing critical strains as far as finances were concerned.
In that regard, therefore, citizens could afford enough money to cater for their basic needs and attend the entertainment premises together. As such, the family is depicted as a cohesive and well coordinated unit.
Family Changes Caused by TVs
Whereas the family was very intact during this period, the narrative changed with time due to the introduction of TVs. Murray (2009, 167) explains the challenges posed by the television in the world upon introduction and consumption of content from the boxes.
During the 1970s, the TVs eliminated the traditional orientation of the families that was originally prevalent in the society. Couples slept together away from their children to watch some of the classified programs such as the Mash where the actors showed the belly buttons.
The popular TV shows, such as the Pong, were aired so that people started buying the boxes at a very high rate. The advancement wooed more people to buy the TVs in the country. In 1980s, there was very insignificant development as far as technology was concerned.
In this case, television remained the major invention of the world with few developments such as the VCR. Whereas the development of the TVs as a device was minimal, it was evident that the content was developed extensively during this period.
As such, the developers discovered amazing technological innovations such as the radio stations, new music tracks, and tape players. Some of additional developments included the innovation of tapes, and Atari among many others.
As a result, this became a very critical age for the family cohesion because availability of the devices alongside the content started drifting the family members from each other. Indeed, the 1980s is the period where the family bonds started weakening due to this shift of attention.
However, this period did not play a fundamental role as the later 1990’s. This condition was occasioned by the fact that some of the commodities, such as the Apple’s McIntosh, were very expensive to afford.
Indeed, Apple was one of the major manufacturers and its high prices reduced the prevalence of the computers and their usage in the popular culture.
Advanced Technological Innovations
However, the 1990’s became the true periods of technological innovations. During this period, the personal computers became more affordable than ever before. The personal computers affordability was reinforced by the availability of internet in the country and households.
People could surf on the internet and get entertainment from online platforms. Additionally, the TV shows became more interesting but they included content with violence and sexual incidences (Petrie 2009, 127).
A critical review to this period indicates the start of visible separation of the family especially when it comes to watching sexual content. In essence, parents cannot watch sexual content alongside their children. As such, the television became an effective social separator in the family circles.
In addition to this, the Oxford explains the entry of commercialism during this period. Due to the increased materialism and commercial oriented society, the time used by families to have fun and watch content together reduced drastically.
Parents did not have enough time to move out with their children. This played a very crucial role to eliminate the bonds that existed in the families. In fact, it reinforced the original forces of family-based entertainments.
Invention of Video Games
Finally, the invention of video games became a critical game changer in the family circles. In the first, instance, the TV shows separated the parents from their parents because the toddlers could not be allowed to watch violent and sexual contents.
The invention of the Atari video game came to intensify the individualization of the entertainment in the families. In this case, the children were drawn to the Atari video games (Singer 2001, 79). As such, this eventuality provided two completely parallel entertainment interests and tastes.
As such, the children drew satisfaction from the video games while the parents concentrated on the TV programs. In this situation, therefore, the families could not meet anymore to watch the TVs.
In addition, the low prices of the devices in 1990s enabled the parents to afford both the TVs and the video games (Sultanik 2012, 59). Even in the present times children and parents have been divided by this parallel interest.
Methodology Research Philosophy
This research employed the philosophy of interpretivism during the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. A research philosophy refers to the mechanisms in which a researcher interprets data and make conclusion. In this case, interpretivism allows the use of qualitative data but does not invalidate the use of quantitative information.
On the contrary, the positivism is a research philosophy that allows the use of quantitative data only. However, the use of interpretivism neutralizes this ideology by allowing researchers to analyze data that cannot be quantified.
In this research, the information concerning the historical background and process of transforming families into device centered units is value-laden. As such, only qualitative techniques can be used to extract the necessary information
Research Approach, Design and Time Frame
This study followed the deductive research approach to complete the process and make conclusion. In this case, research questions were posed and the hypothesis stipulated in order to predict the possible outcome. The data was then collected and analyzed in order to answer the research questions.
With regards to research design, the study adopted the exploratory method. This design capitalizes on inquiring into a problem. Indeed, it seeks to obtain more information about the problem identified in the society in order to proceed and find relevant solutions.
Lastly, the time frame was longitudinal in nature since the data used was drawn from previous event dating from 1980s. As such, it focuses of a long period of time from which amounts to about 35 years.
In regard to the research strategy, it is evident that the study adopted the survey method. In this case, the study involved respondents who had vast knowledge and interest in history and technological transformation. They were interviewed by administering questionnaires that had a range of questions.
With the responses provided by the respondents, the data was analyzed and conclusions were made. In addition, the secondary information, which was drawn from the literature review, was used to answer the research questions.
The combination of primary and secondary research provided reliable and extensive information regarding the transformation of family unit by technological development.
Population and Sampling
The population comprised of technological specialists and historians since they were considered as relevant respondents as far as the study was concerned. However, the population is understandably extensive since there are very many technologists and historians with the required data.
However, the population cannot be involved entirely because of the time limit and cost issues. As such, sampling becomes important since it enables the selection of few people in the population to participate in the study. In this case, therefore, random purposeful sampling was used to collect the sample population.
This technique was a combination of two techniques including the purposeful and random sampling. Random sampling is used in order to ensure that the respondents are not selected in a biased manner to get some predetermined results.
On the other hand, purposeful sampling was applied by selecting people who were adults in the 1980s.
Data Collection and Analysis
The data was collected using the questionnaires which were administered during detailed interviews with the respondents. In this regard, the information provided was recorded used thematic gadgets to ensure that all information was available in its authentic nature during the analysis.
As such, the analysis was conducted by reviewing each of the filled questionnaires in details. In essence, each of them was analyzed singly in order to get the individualized approach to all the questions posed to the respondents.
Results Item Description Sample Size (N) 50 Respondents Historical Process Post war stable families
Discovery of TVs in 1970s
Advancement of TVs and content in 1980s-1990s
Discovery of Atari Videos
Main Player/Contributors in the degradation of family bonds and creation of device-centered units TVs Discovery
Low cost of TV boxes with advancement in technological capability
Content incompatibility for parents and children to view together
Atari Video games
Mobile devices helped to individualize the entertainment
Family Attitude Families’ believed in the uncontrollability of information
Parents were reluctant when it came to the control of content
Discussion In order to conceptualize the expectations of this research study as well as the findings that were made, the data was analyzed according to the three questions posed in the introductory part of the research. As such, this was presented in this chapter in terms of the three research questions.
What is the historical process that took place to change the family unit into a device centered unit?
According to both the primary and secondary research, it was evident that the post-war period was both peaceful and productive. It was indicated that the nations was regaining its financial stability gradually. As a result, the parents could afford money to take their children to theater or purchase Television boxes.
In essence, entertainment at home and in the theatres was a family undertaking since the members went to the theatres together. Alternatively, they sat around their TVs to watch the movies together. However, the robust introduction of TVs and personal computers in 1908s to 1990s led to massive discovery of content.
This content could not be viewed by the parents and children simultaneously due to the sensitivity of the content. As a result, parents bought private TVs for the bedroom to watch content with sexual ascent or aspects of violence. This separated the parents from the children since they watched and consumed different content.
The final blow to family cohesion was made when the Atari video games were discovered. The children warmed up to the Atari videos while the parents separated themselves by using the bedroom-based TVs.
As such, the further introduction of mobile devices individualized entertainment such that all the family members enjoy different content.
What are the main players that contributed in this process to transform the family to a device centered unit?
Indeed, the main player that contributed to the elimination of family cohesion is the simultaneous discovery of TV boxes alongside the content. Indeed, the Atari videos and violent-laden content made it difficult for parent to watch TVs together with their children.
The mobile devices individualized the entertainment industry and intensified the separation of family members and the creation of device-based family units.
Which family-based attitudes contributed to the transformation of family into a device-centered unit?
Whereas technology has led to the massive separation of family unit and the creation of a device-centered orientation, there are various family-based attitudes that led to this condition. Indeed, the families did not control the type of content that they could consume.
As such, they consumed all the content provided by the developers. As a result, they did not have the control to resist the unfortunate technological twist.
Conclusions and Recommendations The development of technological devices and the subsequent creation of diverse content led to the emergence of different entertainment preferences. The critical review of literature has indicated similar findings showing the before the introduction of TVs and personal computers, people enjoyed themselves together.
During the postwar period, mothers concentrated on raising their children. However, the advancement in technology in 1980s to 1990s led to the reduction in the price of computers and TVs.
Indeed, enabled households to acquire more than one TV so that children and parents could watch separate shows. In addition, the invention of videos intensified the separations and classification of preferences in accordance to age.
In regard to recommendations, there several advocacies that can be proposed especially when it comes to the use of technology to reinstate family cohesion.
It developers should invent family-based applications which helps members to share content using their mobile devices
Media should come up with shows that provide more lessons concerning some of the problems incurred by families. This will ensure that family members are encouraged to live a cohesive and integrated life.
Works Cited Bennett, John. The Televisions. Columbus, OH: Luna Bisonte Prods, 2011.
Egger, Garry. Technology in the 20th Century and Effect on Culture. North Ryde: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
Gray, Jonathan. Watching with the Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Groening, Matt. The Simpsons Family History: A Celebration of Television’s Favorite Family. New York, NY: Abrams, 2014.
Katz, Elihu. The End of Television. Its Impact on the World so Far. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2009.
Murray, Susan. Reality TV Remaking Television Culture. New York: New York University Press, 2009.
Petrie, Kristin. Televisions. Edina, Minn.: ABDO, 2009.
Reiser, Stanley. Technological Advancement and Cultural Implications. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Singer, Dorothy. Handbook of Children and the Media. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001.
Sultanik, Aaron. Cinemulacrum: A Secret History of Film and Video for 1960 to 2010. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2012.
Ford’s Operation in the Global Market Essay college essay help
Introduction The Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 by Henry Ford and it has grown into a multinational company with operations in different nations. One of its most significant markets outside America is the Chinese population. In America, the Ford Motor Company’s Headquarters is in Dearborn.
This essay seeks to discuss the external influences that impacts Ford’s operation in the global market in relations to Competition, Cultural, Legal/political, Economic, and Geographical factors.
External factors affecting a company’s operation in the global market There are several factors that influence the operations of a business both locally and internationally. Such factors include cultural differences, competition, legal and political issues, economic environments, as well as geographical factors. All these factors emanate from outside the business which means the company has no control over them.
The Ford Motor Company has been successful in the business and its years of existence have enabled it to establish foreign operations. China is one of the biggest Ford’s markets in the East.
Cultural factors Unlike Americans, the Chinese are slightly conservative. The Chinese use small vehicles with sophisticated technology. On the contrary, Ford specializes in SUV’s and their vehicles are simple in design and technology. This may prove to be a challenge in a culture that is used to complex technology in a car.
In addition to this, the Chinese are very loyal to their own products hence penetrating this market will affect the strategies used by Ford in their normal operations. Setting up a company in a foreign land requires a clear understanding of the cultural differences between the home and the foreign market.
Ford’s management will have to compromise some aspects of leadership in order to appeal for China’s cooperation in trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In china, for a foreign company to establish a business it must establish a relationship first. In other regions, a business starts its operations then it builds a relationship there after. In China, hierarchy is an important cultural aspect. Therefore, setting a business in the country Ford has to pay attention to hierarchy.
Another cultural aspect that is important and will change Fords operations is the culture of Guanxi (Pradhan, 2012). This means that actions are reciprocal in nature. When someone grants you a favor, you are indebted to grant a favor back as well.
Legal /political factors Currently, Ford has not recorded any interference from the ongoing political changes in China. There have been major changes in the leadership structure and this was influenced by a recent scandal that exposed China’s political elite’s underground indecency.
However, the Ford Motor Company has not been affected by the political tension in and party wrangles in the country.
However, in China there are laws that govern the entrance of a foreign investor, one of these legislations include the mandatory requirement for an investor to obtain an approval license from the Commerce Committee (Lanteigne, 2012).
Another legal and political restriction that the Ford Motor Company has to endure is the joint ventures law. Joint ventures are not allowed to hold shareholders’ meetings as the ultimate decision-making authority (Daniels, Radebaugh,
Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections Evaluation Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Summary The first decade of democracy in South Africa saw drastic changes in the media in relation to the normative frameworks, the ownership of the media companies, and a broadening audience.
These changes propagated more friction between the government and the media because of content coverage, and the need for the politicians in power to protect their reputations. Structural issues of the media were a particular source of conflict between the media and the post-apartheid government.
For instance, in 1994, Mandela was among the first politicians to condemn the media companies because they were racially imbalanced. Most of the companies were still owned by white men who had no experience in the dynamics of the difficult life that the majority of the South Africans led (Wasserman, 2006).
The situation got worse toward the end of the 1990s, and the Human Rights Commission was compelled to conduct an investigation of the alleged cases of racism on the part of the media.
Strengths and Weaknesses
The conflict between the South African media and the government led to the development of a workshop to develop media ethics to ensure that the media didn’t serve as a tool for spreading racism.
Thabo Mbeki, the successor of Mandela also indicated his worry that the media companies were extremely biased in reporting political issues of the nation (Wasserman, 2006). One of the strengths of the South African media over the years has been the ability to highlight the multicultural issues that face the citizens.
Its greatest weakness has been the attainment of a balance in unbiased reporting in relation to the issues facing the minority and the majority racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting
The implications of ethical reporting in the nation were the development of cohesion in the society by using the media as a tool for preaching peace and love to the nation. Working under the set guidelines also meant that journalists in the different media houses had to take part in a national audit that evaluated their qualifications.
The development of ethics in reporting saw the South African media undergo various phases of change. The media started from the exclusionary phase, whereby the whites and the blacks had their respective media reporters who covered information relevant to the respective groups.
The threatening-issue phase was engulfed by the whites media reports that portrayed blacks as a threat to peace. The confrontational phase began after independence, whereby the government fought to change the ownership of the media.
The stereotypical selection phase involved the elimination of racially focused reporting to address other stereotypes in the society like gender. The current stage is the multi-racial coverage stage, which entails the media and the government striving to eliminate racial bias in reporting.
Contribution to Understanding International Media
Through the lens of the eye of the South African Media, one can understand the dynamics of reporting, whereby the media is always on a quest to deliver public interests. Media reporting is a powerful tool that can build or destroy a society, depending on the willingness of companies to embrace reporting ethics.
South Africa’s case also enlightens people about the constant conflicts that the international media companies face with different political entities.
What is the distinction between public interests and national interests? Who is the victim in unethical reporting, the government, the media or the public? Should people always trust the media to deliver public interests? What can compel the media to become an advocate for national and international cohesion among the people in the society?
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summary The article focuses on safety for journalists in their workplaces. Journalists who remain adamant about broadcasting the truth and criticizing politicians and their ideas have faced a rough time (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
Many journalists have been killed under mysterious circumstances that point to their boldness in reporting political issues. For instance, the beheading of the renowned journalist, Daniel Pearl, revealed the danger that journalists face in different parts of the world as they try to report on different political issues.
Many international organizations have taken the responsibility of addressing the plight of journalists. For instance, UNESCO, CPJ, Reporters without Borders, and many other organizations have developed programs that look to advocate the protection of journalists and their freedom of expression.
It is apparent that the globalization of politics has led to the rise in killings of journalist. In the past, journalists from different nations could mingle with conflicting groups without the danger of being attacked. In the current state of globalization, journalists are becoming easy targets for terrorist groups and other conflicting militants.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Many journalists have died in mysterious circumstances, and this is an indication that the freedom accorded to the media is only theoretical (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011). Others have been killed while handling fieldwork, whereby their encounters with terrorists turns sour.
Journalism is a dangerous profession, especially for those who dare to report controversial stories. The globalization of the media and politics has led to an addition to the political pressures that journalists and their media companies face while reporting.
One of the strengths of being in the media is the power to change the world through the delivery of authentic controversial political information. It is, however, a dangerous endeavor for most journalists.
Significance and Implication to Ethics in Reporting
Ethics in reporting dictate that the media should always give authentic information to the people. Inciting the society to make specific political decisions is unethical, and it should be eliminated by ensuring the media is protected from politicians and business entities (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Reporting Political Issues and Elections by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Failing to observe the required ethics presents the media as a direct enemy and hurdle to both public and national interests.
Contribution to Understanding International Media
The media companies are perfect tools for influencing political changes across the world. The article highlights different cases of journalists who have faced the ultimate injustice in the quest to bring information to the international community.
The article clearly highlights the need for the international community to develop mechanisms to safeguard journalists in their work. Reporting issues of public and international interests has continually become a challenge because of the dangers that journalists face at work (“Media and Political Globalization,” 2011).
The article paints a clear picture of the dangers of being involved in international journalism. The changing climate of politics in the globe has subjected journalists to murderous treatment by conflicting political groups, and this call for the international community to focus on the plight of journalists.
What is the plight of journalists? What factors in the globalization of politics have led to the sudden change in the way conflicting groups treat journalists?
Does the bias in reporting political issues have a role to play in the current challenges facing journalists across the world? Which intervention programs, besides the existing efforts, must be implemented?
References Media and Political Globalization: Killing Stories-and Journalism. (2011). In J. Lule (Ed.), Globalization and Media: Global Village of Babel (pp. 95-120). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman
“Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The author has averred on the idea that education and economy linkage structures do produce variation patterns in the modern or industrial societies.
The author conceptualized two education-economy linkages to theoretically examine how the inter-schools, labor division and firms for personal human capital development as well as the recruitment mechanisms structuring people’s movement out of schools and into employment together with those structuring changes across jobs.
Economic sociologists have anchored much of their aversion significantly to the originality on the careful examination of how the organization or rather the institutional arrangement creates the context within which personal economic demeanors do happen.
With these strengths, the extrapolation of economic, sociological investigation into the research of comparative inequality regimes or periods based on different education-economy linkage would be potentially promising.
The bulk of the theoretical and empirical studies to the present date on the link between institutional arrangement and inequality patterns across the industrial societies have been conducted out of the side of sociology.
The disciplines of political science and labor economics have centered on a significant attention on cross-national variation in wage compression across the skill boundaries.
In my opinion, economic sociologists can profitably derive from the detailed practical work conducted by labor economists and the theoretical exploration of the wage-setting arrangements by both the labor economists and the supporters of the varieties of the capital approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Building upon the theoretical formulations of educational and stratification researchers, economic-sociologists can design a comparative study agenda fashioned to specify further how skill and gender wage gaps are impacted by the different institutional arrangements of capitalism.
The majority of these institutional arrangements precisely stand’s at the point of intersection of the economy and the education. The three outstanding perspectives of economic sociology stress on networks, rational choice and social norms or rather cultural norms that are some of the times entrenched in organizations or institutions.
Each of the perspectives above is critical in comprehending gender. Every ten empirical patterns are consistent with at least two of the perspectives. For instance, returns to experience that work against women due to the time they spend on child rearing may be institutionalized by the employers.
This is out of the fact that workers with experience tend to have increased levels of productivity.
The other reason may be since the turnover is less expensive, more so where the employers invest heavily in training. This may too well be an institutionalized norm bearing a disparate impact against women, despite lack of link to productivity.
Going by the statistical discrimination, this may be put in place to get better employees notwithstanding the fact that it is illegal as well as unfair to those the members of groups with lower average qualifications. In a nutshell, this is the rational choice theory.
Patterns of ethnic or gender discrimination may too well be explained by the beliefs and sex disparities that are exaggerated in terms of magnitude or by worker network recruitment or wholly erroneous racist or sexist cultural beliefs.
We will write a custom Essay on “Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rational choice explanations that feature material interests can be tested easily with the existing or available information.
The only drawback to this is the fact that most of the economists do not take their paradigms seriously. Furthermore, they lack interest in testing the predictions against competing claims from the perspectives that are outside the rational choice model.
For instance, women are synonymous with the work of care whether for free or paid. The emerging study of care depicts it to fit most of the standard assumptions as well as challenging many dichotomies. The work seems to generate externalities and public goods.
Furthermore, economists agree that such factors make up their usual assumptions that markets attain efficiency. This work is performed for a blend of pecuniary and intrinsic motives. The fundamental purpose in question, altruism is at longer heads with the standard assumptions of the market players.
Care workers build emotional relations with the clients of the services they provide. As such, intrinsic motives make it hard to figure out or rather to predict how they will negotiate self-interestedly for wages but at times, they do.
The reaction to such self-centered negotiations is that they do violet norms that some things should be done solely out of love reasons. One remains to wonder whether many types of work generate positive or negative externalities.
Another puzzle is whether many jobs attract workers with proper intrinsic motives and develop those motives as well. Furthermore, are not employees in numerous jobs often connected emotionally to fellow workers as well as the customers or clients? The ways in which the care work challenges the economic model and design may apply widely.
This position is wholly supported by the Contra economics or economic sociologists. Economic sociology discusses networks and institutions. They tend to shy away from considerations of emotional commitments and connections.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Gender and Economic Sociology” by England and Folbre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The studies relating to gender take one to realms such as the family where emotional ties and norm-based commitments are made with the slightest degree of seriousness. We ought to make households as part of the larger economy.
Even if one elects to inculcate the household as part of the economy, then certain questions are more than likely to emerge. Firstly, what determines which spheres of human activity are characterized by long time commitments?
Furthermore, which are more characterized by each party self-interestedly treating others in the textbook market or exchange models?
According to economists, norms and institutions evolve out of the fact that they are efficient. It is efficient to have altruism govern the family economy, and self-interest dictates the market economy. Going by the views of the economic sociologists who focus on markets, efficiency does not always rein.
By this, it is evident that economic sociologists often tend to ignore questions or issues related to efficiency. They too tend to ignore the household.
The pending puzzles that are to pass to many generations are what blend of commitment and market-like incentives generate efficient results? Secondly, what are the distributional effects of the duo dogmas in various impacts?
Conclusion In summary, the author has averred on the idea that education and economy linkage structures do produce variation patterns in the modern or industrial societies.
The author conceptualized two education-economy linkages to theoretically examine how the inter-schools, labor division and firms for personal human capital development as well as the recruitment mechanisms structuring people’s movement out of schools and into employment together with those structuring changes across jobs.
Economic sociologists have anchored much of their aversion significantly to the originality on the careful examination of how the organization or rather the institutional arrangement creates the context within which personal economic demeanors do happen.
References England, P.,
Social Networks and Economic Applications Essay college essay help near me
Social interactions are responsible for the influences in peoples’ beliefs, behaviors, and decisions. There are several examples of how social networks influence general economics and the modes of passing information. Social networks are also responsible for arbitrary decisions regarding hobbies, education, criminal activities, and careers.
Several scholars have examined how social networks influence and shape economic outcomes. In a chapter titled “The Ethnic Economy”, Smelser and Swedberg explore the role of ethnic groupings in determining economic outcomes.
In their article, the authors address the dominance of some ethnic groups around the world such as Jews, Gypsies, Armenians, and Sikhs. The chapter appears in a book titled “The Handbook of Economic Sociology”.
Another scholarly article that addresses social networks and the economy is the one that is authored by Michael Aguilera and Douglas Massey. The article is titled “Social Capital and the Wages of Mexican Migrants: New Hypotheses and Tests” and it is a case study that focuses on the plight of Mexican migrant workers.
Both of these scholarly efforts address various aspects of social networks and economic prospects. Nevertheless, both articles argue that social networks can easily be applied in modern economics. This paper explores this hypothesis whilst focusing on claims that have been made by the two articles.
Both articles address various aspects of social economics. The article by Aguilera and Massey examines how social capital influences the workers’ wages (Aguilera
Application of Social and Cultural Capital Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Humans are social beings, and thus everything that contributes to the development and environment of humanity revolves around social relations. Psychologists argue that a human’s life is shortened considerably when one is alienated from society.
Human development is eternal as it takes place in the brain, but the quality of that growth is largely determined by external factors that are made of social and cultural norms.
Social and cultural capital of a human being is the key determinant of the development in all life situations such as the productivity of an employee in a business environment and the likelihood of a teenage dropping out of high school due to pregnancy among others.
Different neighborhoods produce different salespersons Sociocultural capital is an essential element in determining the quality of a person’s life in adulthood. A person raised in a ghetto neighborhood can hardly associate well with people from economically flourished environs and vice versa.
This scenario does not play out because the former can get rich and live in a good neighborhood, but can hardly associate effectively with people raised in such neighborhoods. However, the determinants of such inclinations hinge on the strong values instilled by social and cultural capital to a person.
Unfortunately, such values are difficult to break in order to live like people from a different set up. Hence, the two people can make different salespersons.
According to Burt (1995), salespersons are a form of social capital to a business organization. A salesperson has equal rights to the owner of the business as far as the profit-making process is concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The work of a business owner normally ends at the stage where raw materials are combined with other factors such as human capital and finance to produce a finished product.
The social capital in the form of salespersons takes over the duty of finding clients who can buy the product for the business to realize its goals of making profits, and according to Kelly (1998), the effectiveness of a salesperson in delivering required results is determined by the social upbringing with accordance to the social network in a neighborhood.
The question of how well a salesperson finds the client is an issue of concern to the business owner, but Kelly (1998) says that individuals’ social capital is the key determinant of the success of a salesperson.
Social network is crucial for the success of a human being in life as it plays a major role in determining how well a salesperson can sell a product and who is the most preferable party to sell to for successful business. Hence, salespersons would feel comfortable selling products to the people that they socially identify with, and thus it will be hard to sell to persons that belong to other sociocultural backgrounds.
Therefore, it is important to realize that salesperson does well in an environment that comprises people that match his/her social and cultural factors according to Kelly’s argument. Salespersons use their social networks as the main avenue of selling, and thus the first target customers will be relatives or people hailing from the same neighborhoods.
Hence, it is important to note that a salesperson from a ghetto can comfortably sell products that are easily affordable to the poor people. The products must fit such economic and social situations.
On the other hand, a salesperson hailing from an economically flourished environment can comfortably sell to people that match his/her social environments.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Social and Cultural Capital specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the business owner must consider the social status of the salesperson to determine the types of products that can be sold to particular types of customers with regard to their social class. Both Burt and Kelly have valid arguments on how social and cultural capital affects the life of a human being.
This aspect is one of the strengths of the articles. However, it is important to note that such arguments were valid in the last decade of the 20th century when these articles were published.
However, the situation has drastically changed and today, people are not strongly attached to social and cultural factors that defined their environment as they grew up. This assertion underscores one of the articles’ weaknesses, because the argument cannot be applied in the contemporary world.
With regard to competence, Bart (1995) argues that a person with effective social network is likely to get a job that earns a higher pay than one who does not. On the other hand, social network matters for a person to succeed in life.
A salesperson with a large social network is capable of selling more products as compared to the person having a small sized social network. People that grow up in humble backgrounds are highly social and in most cases, they interact with a large number of people who form high population density in such environments.
Hence, a business owner can pay such a salesperson handsomely for selling a product effectively.
On the other hand, a salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood is not socially tuned because there are limited social relations in such environments; hence, s/he can only sell a couple of products because the target population is small.
Hence, different social neighborhoods produce different competent salespersons. However, a salesperson from a successful background can sell products that target economically endowed customers more easily than his/her poor counterpart because of great confidence in both approaching the target customer as well presenting the product.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Social and Cultural Capital by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, in some cases, the quality of social and cultural capital also matters in determining the efficiency of salespersons. The salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood has a higher advantage over his/her disadvantaged counterpart.
According to Kelly (1998), social and cultural factors in such neighborhoods aim at producing competent adults. Parents advise their children to study hard in school in a bid to have a good life in the future and they are taken to competent schools right from tender age.
Children start interacting and building good networks at a tender age, which they retain to their adulthood in most cases. As a person continues with education up to tertiary levels, s/he continues to make reliable social network.
Hence, by the time of being employed, such a person has a wide and effective network, which is an advantage over his/her counterpart from economically disadvantaged background.
Hence, according to Bart (1995), such a salesperson can sell many products of high value to a wide network, thus enabling the business to make high profits.
Therefore, the salesperson raised in an economically flourished neighborhood can reach out to many people belonging to an effective network made in school and retained up to adulthood.
In conclusion, social and cultural capitals are essential elements of human life, hence crucial determinants of success of a person. An adult person relates better with persons that s/he grew up with in the same social environment.
However, with today’s improved technologies enable people of different social backgrounds to interact freely, the authors’ claims are invalid to most individuals and especially to educated adults, which is a point of weakness.
Moreover, the claims are psychological, hence naturally instilled in humans, and thus they exist despite the dominant developments, which is their greatest strength in applicability in today’s life.
References Burt, R. (1995). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press.
Kelly, M. (1998). Social and cultural capital in the urban ghetto: implications for the economic sociology of immigration. In A. Portes (Ed.), The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship (pp. 213-247). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Interview of a Marriage and Family Therapist Reflective Essay college essay help online
Abstract Ethical dilemmas are challenging situations that compel individuals to make decisions concerning certain aspects of life. In families, ethical dilemmas arise when individuals disagree on what they believe is right or wrong. Different views, varying lifestyles, and time management are among the ethical dilemmas common in several families.
Notably, the judgment given by therapists should be free from personal values, cultural affiliations, or ethnic favors. The common ethical dilemma faced by family therapists, is the dilemma of varying opinions since it has profound impacts in family operations.
Resolution of the dilemma requires intensive scrutiny on the actions and their repercussions so that a wise decision materializes.
Introduction Ethical dilemmas are challenges that individuals encounter in an attempt to make decisions concerning certain situations. The need to make a choice drives individuals into a state of mental conflict where they eventually select one of the issues and forego the others.
In families, some of the common ethical dilemmas concern what various individuals in the family believe is correct. To ascertain the various ethical dilemmas that families face, the study interviewed a licensed marriage and family therapist (MFT). Therefore, the essay explains the types of ethical dilemmas in families and their resolution.
Ethical Dilemmas and Personal Values, Culture, and Ethnicity
As a family therapist, some of the common ethical dilemmas encountered during the practice comprise time management, different views and opinions, diverse lifestyles, and varying religious orientations. These dilemmas are challenging as they entail what each member of the family thinks is right or wrong.
While some individuals in the family believe that a given time can be useful for a particular activity, other members think differently. The difference leads to a conflict among those, who think one activity is good and better over the other. Another dilemma concerns opinions, lifestyles, and religious orientations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mead (2012) elucidates that a family entails union of people from different backgrounds, and thus, the diversity of opinions and lifestyles is inevitable.
The dilemma arises when these opinions, lifestyles, and religious orientations offend other members in the family hence, compelling the subject individuals to relax some of their opinions, religious orientations, and adjust their lifestyles
Since I am a licensed therapist with the expertise required in the field of therapy, my values, culture, and ethnicity do not affect my practice. Conversely, in scenarios where my personal views are ethical, I share the values with clients and give them the chance to make their own decisions.
Although my values and cultural inclinations can at times attempt to influence my judgment, I employ the code of conduct and use it to make wise and independent decisions.
According to Dallos (2010), the code of conduct ensures that all the clients receive fair and correct therapy irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds, religious orientations, and places of origin.
Essentially, the therapy should be free from coercion and ought to give the clients the liberty to make their decisions from a range of solutions deemed as right and ethical.
Common Ethical Dilemma, a Challenging Ethical Dilemma, and Its Resolution
The most common ethical dilemma or concern that I experience in my practice regards difference in opinions and views. Principally, union among individuals, who have divergent opinions and views lead to a set of challenges concerning what they think is ethical.
We will write a custom Essay on Interview of a Marriage and Family Therapist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In several instances, people disagree because of the different views that they have and expect from others in the family. The differences always transpire from the backgrounds of respective individuals, which influence their activities (Goldenberg
Cyber Security Technologies Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
Abstract Advanced cyber attacks that target both public and private sectors at the international level have provoked an increase in research and funding for the establishment of novel cyber security technologies.
Government and private institutions are investing in technologies that dynamically appraise networks through real-time and remote agent forensic investigations. Besides, organizations are coming up with cyber security technologies like moving target defense, which prevent hackers from spotting attack surface of a network.
The moving target defense allows a network to alter its variables dynamically, therefore, making it hard for hackers to predict or spot attack surface. Other emerging cyber security technologies include tailored trustworthy spaces and searchable encryption.
The responsibility to guard public and private assets on the state and global level should not fall exclusively on the government. Public and private institutions should work with the government to establish network security measures.
The federal government has taken an active role in curbing cyber crimes by investing in research programs aimed at creating awareness of possible threats and how to address them. Currently, the federal government is trying to fine-tune existing cyber security technologies and to develop novel ones to safeguard networks from emerging threats.
The federal government is working to ensure that private and public institutions install novel cyber security technologies in their networks as a way to boost state economy and curb cyber attacks.
Introduction Recent events like the Georgian incursion and the revelation that hackers have stolen billions of dollars from banks globally have created an indulgence that cyber security does not only involve protecting one’s computer. It has devastating repercussions to state defense and economic interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, cyber security is one of the challenges facing contemporary digital community. Today, majority of cyber work is not automated, and hence, it is done by people (Garfinkel, 2014). Besides, many countries do not have qualified cyber experts. Thus, it is difficult for countries to rely on people bestowed the duty to control cyber attacks.
In addition, “The one consistent theme is that cyber defenses commonly used today are simply not effective against most forms of advanced cyber attacks” (Garfinkel, 2014, p. 568). Currently, state and private institutions are collaborating to plan and create cyber security technologies that aid in the fight against cyber crimes.
The technologies are aimed at detecting and combating any authorized intrusion into both government and private corporations’ networks.
Emerging cyber threats and susceptibilities have “Created challenges amounting to financial damages to governments and businesses” (Speicher, 2014, p. 65). Present digitally linked planet offers immense benefits to countries.
Public and private corporations transmit data across the globe within a short period enhancing their efficiency and productivity. Nevertheless, the digital platform is open to cyber attacks subjecting companies to insecurity. Cases of advanced persistent threats (APTs) among the state and key private organizations are rampant across the globe.
Moreover, hackers are targeting modern technologies like Big Data, Smart Grid, and High-End Computing. Another budding trend in cyber attacks is focusing on data found on social networks. Many people use social networks to share confidential information.
However, they do not know that social networks are prone to cyber attacks. Hackers have capitalized on people’s ignorance to perpetrate cyber crimes (Speicher, 2014). Social networks like LinkedIn have subjected national security agents to problems.
We will write a custom Essay on Cyber Security Technologies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is these threats that have prompted the government and private agencies to work together to combat cyber attacks. This article will discuss emerging cyber security technologies and government’s role in nurturing the development of these technologies.
Emerging Technologies Moving Target Defense
One of the modern cyber security technologies is moving target defense (MTD). The technology is regularly designed to alter the attack surface of a network, making it hard for attackers to access a system and reducing the susceptibilities and predictabilities available at any time.
According to Jajodia, Ghosh, Swarup, Wang and Wang (2014), hackers use network’s attack surface to determine its vulnerability. They allege that majority of the systems are static. Consequently, it is easy for hackers to access them.
Moving target defense enables organizations to “Change the network IP addresses, operating systems, open ports and protocols, and many other areas of the environment” (Jajodia et al., 2014, p, 35). Jajodia et al. (2014) recommend that it is imperative to make sure that events are not predictable.
Systems do this by making IP addresses’ movements as unpredictable and random as possible. Increase in randomness confuses a hacker making it hard for him or her to access a network. When an attacker inspects a system, he or she does not get consistent information that can help to launch an attack.
Moreover, MTD reduces chances of penetrating into a network because it regularly changes the network’s environment. Additionally, it fights an attack by lowering the number of components of a system that an attacker is familiar with or can access (Jajodia et al., 2014).
Plans are underway to develop Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), which will allow organizations to run unlimited number of IP addresses. Besides, IPv6 will make it easy for networks randomly to change their internet addresses, which is a fundamental feature of moving target defense.
Today, if organizations want to use 100 different IP addresses weekly, they require setting aside at least 400 addresses every month. It translates to 4800 IP addresses annually (Jang-Jaccard
Globalisation of Logistics and Supply Chains Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Nature of Multinational Business
Benefits of an Integrated Business Strategy
Drawbacks of Globalisation
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of globalisation of logistics and supply chains. It seeks to establish whether Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) can operate an integrated global business strategy in more than one country.
It is argued that operating such a strategy is a reality for MNEs which are able to match their globalisation potentials with their globalisation strategies. To organisations which are not able to do so, operating such a strategy is more of a myth than a reality.
Examples which are discussed include Tesco and Toyota. The paper is based on the backdrop of the increasing number of organisations which are going global. Such an increase is fueled by the need to increase competitiveness, reliance on advanced technology, and the desire to venture into particular markets.
Globalisation Explained Globalisation is the attempt to eliminate the differences between people of the world through interaction and communication. The period before the two World Wars was characterised by minimal interaction, communication, and cross-border movements.
That situation however changed after the World Wars due to the realisation by nations that there was need of working together in various spheres of development such as education, economy, employment, environment, and governance (Beck 2000).
Globalisation is mainly driven by advancement in information and communication technology, improvement of transport infrastructure, and liberalisation of trade and immigration policies. Through globalisation, people are able to work anywhere in the world irrespective of their cultural orientation.
Globalisation has also enabled people to study, marry, and stay in any part of the world (Cole 2005). In terms of culture, globalisation has enabled different cultures to coexist peacefully without cultural prejudice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The interaction of people in different spheres of life has made them to appreciate their cultural differences, a situation which has greatly reduced instances of racism and ethnicity (Chrysanthopoulos 2010).
Globalisation Trends The history of globalisation has been a subject of heated debate between different scholars. Some have argued that globalisation started during the time of Greek civilisation while others have stated that globalisation is a concept which belongs to the modern era.
Despite these differences about the history of globalisation, many scholars tend to agree that globalisation was triggered by the conquest of America by the Europeans (Fiske 2007).
According to Clark, globalisation started early before the industrial revolution of 1600 (Clark 2008). On his part, Spielvogel traces the earliest form of globalisation to the Hellenistic Age, during which many urban centres came up in Europe.
Through the early form of globalisation, there emerged popular cities such as Athens, Antioch, and Alexandria (Spielvogel 2010).
According to Kendall and Cole, the integration of trade between the famous Roman Empire and other empires such as the Han dynasty and the Parthian Empire was still another pointer of early form of globalisation (Kendall
Strategic Human Resources Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Review of the Articles
List of References
Introduction In the current highly dynamic work environment, career self-management has become a major tool that one can use to remain relevant to the employer. The job market is getting flooded and employers are very keen when selecting those whom they hire or retain at their firms.
According to Guest and Liefooghe (2005, p. 825), career self-management, also known as independent career management, helps one to develop a career in a way that will not only enhance their satisfaction, but also improve work-life balance.
Employers are looking for people who can balance their private lives with their work-related duties. As an individual, it is necessary to identify personal strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes, and any other relevant information that can make a person to perform better at workplace.
According to Sturges et al. (2004, 747), people who are successful in their careers always find ways of intertwining their hobbies and careers. This way, they find it easy to enjoy what they are doing in the workplace. Employers are interested in having employees who can take charge of their own career development.
In this essay, the researcher will conduct a critical review of academic articles about career-self management in order to determine its relevance in the current workplace environment.
Review of the Articles Employees are the most important resources for any organization. They implement the policies developed by the owners of such organizations, and this means that any meaningful progress can only be made if they have the right skills.
According to the research by Guest and Liefooghe (2005, p. 830), career self-management as a concept has gained popularity over the years. In the current workplace environment, it has become relevant to look at an individual employee’s performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues such as performance contracts have gained massive popularity as the employers seek to determine the relevance of an individual employee in the specific assignment within various departments. The time when the performance would only be reviewed at the department and organizational levels is long gone.
Organizations are currently very keen on starting their reviews from the individual employee performance. This means that an individual must be in a position to meet the expectations of the employer in every assignment they are given.
Failure to meet the expectations of the employer may lead to dismissal, demotion or reduction of one’s earnings as per the terms and conditions set out in the performance contract.
This argument is also shared by Castaneda and Kolenko (2009, p. 102) who say that career self-management is as important to the employees as it is to the employers. For an individual to succeed in his or her career, setting out the priorities and finding ways of improving one’s performance is very critical.
The research article by Renn, Allen and Huning (2011, p. 41) identifies some of the steps that one should take in developing his or her career. The figure below shows the proposed steps towards becoming accomplished in any given career.
Source (Renn, Allen
Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Contrasting Views about Learning
Comparative Views about Learning
Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development
More Useful Perspectives at Work
Contrasting Views about Learning In essence, there are various differences on learning methodologies as discussed by the three authors. After analysing the three articles written by the different scholars, it is evident that they emphasize different methodologies of learning.
This emphasis is an indication that the three authors consider the respective methodologies with a certain weight. As such, a learning methodology is one of the outstanding differences when it comes to their perspectives on learning.
First, Zimmerman (2000) gave a special attention to the concept of self-efficacy and the motivation it availed to learners. In his work, Zimmerman indicated that self-efficacy had evoked crucial and vast concern over the last ten years.
In this case, he termed self-efficacy as the most proficient predictor of academic success and a source of inspiration. In addition, the author differentiated this concept evidently as the superior tool of measurement over other evaluators such as self-concept as well as the locus of control.
From a critical point of view, it is evident that the researcher considers the concept as the most proficient evaluation mechanism. In addition, it implies that the author considers motivation as an essential ingredient of academic success.
In fact, he stated that the students’ attitude towards their capability affects their actual academic outcome. In that regard, therefore, it cannot be disputed that Zimmerman paid more attention to motivation and self-efficacy than other methodologies of learning and evaluation.
This focus is very different from the considerations and exemplification of Wenger (2000) and Engestrom (2001) as illustrated in their works. In particular, Wenger (2000) viewed learning from an organizational and a pretty collective perspective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Zimmerman (2000), the author did not discuss or consider learning as an individual venture but a group-based undertaking. In the same light, he did not share the idea that individual motivation was the key determinant of successful skill acquisition.
Instead, he indicated that the capability of people to learn and acquire new skills as well as increase their body of knowledge was determined by their ability to conceive social learning system. From a critical point of view, he believed that learning could not be separated from the socialization and interactional characteristic of human beings.
In fact, the study provided a social-based definition of learning in order to portray the idea of a systematic approach. In that regard, it became evident that learning occured only when the people were willing to take part in the group’s activities.
Importantly, unlike Zimmerman and Engestrom, Wenger indicated that learning occurred within the limits of the social circles. While expounding on this aspect, the author revealed that learning was obtained from communities of practice which were defined by boundary processes in the social context.
In turn, the communities of practice shaped the identity of each participant in accordance to the role they played when interacting with each other. As such, it could be implied that Wenger viewed learning as part of a common life process. He did not treat life as something less than its course.
Unlike Zimmerman and Engerstrom, he focused on the bigger picture as far as learning was concerned. This aspect was based on the fact that the skills were acquired mostly from other people. As such, we must interact first before learning from them and acquiring new skills as well as bodies of knowledge.
In contrast to the approach used by Zimmerman and Wenger, Engerstrom approached the methodology of learning from a theoretical perspective. Although he shared a similar focus with Wenger due to the organizational approach to learning, he did not share the idea of learning as part of the broad social systems.
We will write a custom Essay on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, the author focused on how cultural-historical activity theory was applied in organizational learning. As such, it was evident that he combined the idea of organizational learning with the challenges incurred during the application of cultural-historical theory.
In a nutshell, the cross-cultural theory is concerned with the manner in which people’s thoughts are connected with their actions. In this regard, it states that every learning venture must answer the following questions.
Who is learning?
What are they learning?
How do they learn?
Why are they learning?
This attribute implies that the author views education from multifaceted perspectives which is achieved in the presence of the subject, lesson, rationale, and means of acquiring skills in regard to either organizational or individual perspectives.
From this perspective, therefore, the author differs with the two authors profoundly even though he seems to agree with Wenger that learning is part of the interactional day-to-day life where people learn from each other.
Comparative Views about Learning Although all the perspectives presented by the authors are essentially different, it is evident that there are some similarities existing from the manner in which they view learning. Importantly, it is clear that all the authors accept the importance of the learner in the process of acquiring skills.
All of them attach some importance on the involvement of the subject in unique and diverse ways. Zimmerman indicated that learning depended on self-efficacy. In this case, he expounded that the level of an individual’s motivation affected their output on performance and skills’ acquisition.
As such, it is evident that this author appreciates and attaches the importance of the learner’s attitudes in the process of acquiring skills. Wenger, on the other hand, focused on the use of social systems in the process of learning. In that regard, the interactional and cross-sharing of information becomes a critical aspect in his perspective of learning.
Although such groups are the pertinent factor of learning in his view, it is clear that the social learning systems are made of individual people. The author argued that the interaction among individuals gave them identity according to their roles in the groups.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This factor implies that the learner or the learning groups play a fundamentally vital role in the entire process. In addition, it means that the author values this important aspect of learning and recognizes its high significance.
Lastly, Engestrom (2001) also indicated and appreciated the importance of the learner in the process of skills acquisition but in a hidden and unique way. However, a close look at the exemplifications that were provided showed that he had considered this factor extensively.
In particular, he indicated that every learning theory must answer several questions. Among those questions, the first inquiry investigated the subject of learning and answered the issue of who was learning.
Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development The three perspectives can be used to facilitate effective learning in organizations. In fact, the combination of the three methodologies can provide organizations with the opportunity to make critical progress on acquisition of skills.
First, the social learning systems make critical implications on the organizational management and administration. In essence, the organizations can use social learning for the sake of acquiring more skills. This cross-sharing makes the teams acquire the capability of innovations and development of new ideas.
In addition, self-efficacy and individual motivation can be applied to provide an inspirational environment in the organization. In essence, motivation is an important aspect since it determines the output of an individual.
In turn, the output of the individual employees encourages them to learn and acquire skills to facilitate better performance. As a result, the organization should first cultivate individual motivation before proceeding to nurture the acquisition of collective skills.
Having nurtured the motivation and self-efficacy of the organizational members, the administrators can implement the idea of Wenger (2000). In order to recall, Wenger stated that learning takes place in the form of social systems where people interact and enlighten each other.
With this in mind, the organizations can apply this principle to help in the acquisition of skills. As such, if the author believes that learning can take place through well-organized social systems, companies can adopt a team-based learning system. In fact, this can translate to the use of inter-professional learning model.
In this model, different professionals interact and share their skills. This attribute is fulfilled by the cross-sharing of information in order to solve specific problem. As such, they use multidimensional knowledge and skills in order to solve the same problem.
More Useful Perspectives at Work Although the three authors present valid arguments to explain their perspectives about learning, there are some views that resonate with the organization’s setup more than others. In the working environment, the social system aspect is very important on the acquisition of skills.
In this case, the perspectives argue that learning occurs when human beings interact and share information to increase the knowledge base. In essence, this is more relevant perspective when it comes to organization.
This relevance is occasioned by the fact that organizations are dependant to the process by which its employees interact and share knowledge. Importantly, the innovation capability of an organization is based on the intensity of cross-sharing.
If an organization is able to make departments and individuals work together in the spirit of harmony, there is a very high chance of making the necessary progress in learning. In essence, the community of practice and community boundaries also play a fundamental role in the process of learning in organizations.
The motivational perspective is also very important to the organization’s performance bearing in mind the importance of personal commitment to work. In this case, it is important to understand that although organizations operate in terms of teams and groups, the unit components include individuals.
In addition, the performance of the individuals determines the entire output of the organizations (Lamberson 2010). As such, this aspect of self-efficacy plays a fundamental role in the coordination of the organizational teams to achieve their goals as per the time and terms stipulated.
Therefore, the combination of social learning systems and concept of self-efficacy becomes one of the most crucial pairs of learning strategies. In this regard, the overall effect is the conception of well-coordinated teams that can collaborate easily and make the necessary outcomes.
References Engeström, Y 2001, “Expansive Learning at Work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization”, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp.133-156.
Lamberson, P 2010, “Social Learning in Social Networks”, The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 132.
Wenger, E 2000, “Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems”, Organization, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 225-246.
Zimmerman, B 2000, “Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive To Learn”, Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 82-91.
“Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur Critical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of themes
Introduction This article provides a critical review of the book, Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically, by John MacArthur. MacArthur is a preacher and a teacher at the Grace Community Church in Sun Valley, California. He is also the head of the Master’s College and Seminary.
Together with his colleagues at the Master’s Seminary Faculty, McArthur did an exemplary work in this book by demonstrating a clear biblical perspective of pastoral ministry. This article supports the ideas presented in the book because they are based on biblical teachings, which are needed for effective ministry.
Summary of themes The author makes a good presentation of the common themes and concepts by using them professionally, which proves that he is an expert in the field. Leadership is one of the themes that the author uses as a guide in this text. It entails the exercise of one’s spiritual gifts to serve a particular group of individuals towards achieving shared goals.
These goals aim at glorifying God in all activities. As a leader, one has to be ready to serve the people beyond all barriers. A godly leader has to be humble because the basic purpose in shepherding people is to show them the light by teaching the will of God.
A pastor has to be capable, confident towards the ministry, and lead others to commit their lives to God. The themes of love and compassion are related to leader’s personal and ministerial life.
Pastors should show love and compassion towards their families by being ready to suffer, be an encouragement, and diligently equipping the congregation to realize the spiritual gift of loving one another. Pastors should have unshaken principles rooted on the faithful teachings of the holy Bible.
Pastoral ministry should encourage strict adherence to sound doctrines by rebuking people who act against the word of God. By doing so, the church will be in a position to grow congregations with moral principles and the desire to glorify Christ.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the most ignored, but essential concepts of pastoral responsibility is watching, warning, and counselling those who contradict the gospel. Unfortunately, many people are using Christianity to further personal interests. Therefore, pastors carry the responsibility of guarding their flock from false doctrines and spiritual scavengers.
The author argues that the relevance of pastoral ministry is defined by its ability to outreach and model people into sheep, which are worth to be in the God’s flock. It takes a pastoral leader much time to prepare and understand what to preach to the people and model them in accordance with biblical teachings.
MacArthur advocates the principles of watching and warning people during pastoral work. For people who want to be future pastors, this book can easily avert such interests if not well understood This calls for patient and resilience, the pastor has to take time go through the teachings and seek God’s intervention before s/he can spread the gospel.
The theme Shepherding has been analyzed as a calling where pastors should understand their roles and never be carried away by situations that lead to tainting the pastoral ministry.
Critique Currently, pastoral ministry has been taken for granted with many false teachers flooding the field of evangelism to achieve their selfish objectives. The contemporary society is awash with spiritual predators, and thus it has become hard for people to identify pastors based upon what God desires.
This book is a great reference for anyone who desires to understand pastoral ministry from a biblical standpoint. MacArthur, in collaboration with the Master’s Seminary, provides conservative evangelical principles with a clear reference to biblical teachings.
Every chapter expresses ideas biblically with many scriptural references and links to other credible sources. The book is extremely helpful for anybody seeking to gain biblical perspective of pastoral leadership. When analyzing the roles of a pastor, it is interesting and controversial the way he explains some of the responsibilities.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, coming into terms with his argument about caring for the flock is hard, for he claims that meeting physical needs of the flock is a calling for the deacons or other staff members, but not pastoral ministers. The majority of people will disagree with this claim at the first read of the text.
Some critics will argue that shepherds should be ready to hear the problems of their flock and demonstrate empathy by lifting them up from their situations. On the contrary, the pastors should focus on preaching the word, modeling, outreaching, guarding, counseling, and refuting those who contradict the sound doctrines.
In this era of situational ethics and high disregard for evangelical credibility, the search for relevance and truth becomes inevitable for anyone to establish godly pastors. This book helps to develop essential skills of pastoral ministry after learning the roles of pastors coupled with how crucial it is to uphold this spiritual gift.
One great factor about this book is that the authors emphasize the seriousness of how ministering should be handled. Misguided craving for relevance compromises credibility of the contemporary churches. This scenario is contributed by untrained preachers who purport to be called to serve the congregation (MacArthur 2005, 55).
Unless the reader takes time to go through MacArthur’s book, it will be hard to comprehend pastoral evangelism from a biblical standpoint. The role of a pastor is extremely involving in terms of research and learning.
MacArthur is very clear on what takes to be effective pastor. No short cuts to pastoral ministry, and thus training is mandatory with godly principles for biblical understanding and ministry knowledge.
This book is authoritative and compelling. It shows that pastors must cultivate the habit of referring to the Bible as a philosophy to spiritual shepherding. The author is frank in his appraisal of what pastors must avoid by explicitly taking a biblical standpoint.
For instance, pastors should not be carried away by the physical needs of the congregation. Focus should be on conveying the message and diligently revoking their thoughts to apply knowledge in solving their problems. The author does not acknowledge any alternative to the Bible teachings.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically” by John MacArthur by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he does not uphold excuse for any deed diverging from glorifying Christ. Any efforts that undermine or conceal the realities of the doctrines and dent the angle of their application are unacceptable in the pastoral ministry (MacArthur 2005, 93).
Careful approach to this book gives its readers an insight on pastoral application in growing a church.
Evaluation Contemporarily, times are changing and so is the study of pastoral ministry. Pastoral ministry is taking a negative slope in terms of significance and credibility of its application. Technology presents many platforms where participants can share biblical teachings.
Unfortunately, most individuals follow the advice given over these platforms regardless of the credibility of the sources or authors. It is necessary for believers to be reminded of the fundamentals and foundations of the church. Pastoral ministry must stay true to sound doctrines (MacArthur 2005, 33).
This aspect will prepare the grounds upon which congregations will anchor and grow by cherishing God’s desires. In a bid to understand how Christians can go back to biblical teachings and avoid becoming a doomed church, believers should read MacArthur’s book.
Keen approach to the book is necessary for one to understand that the author gives the realities of the scriptures to encourage sound doctrine as opposed to scaring the readers.
This book offers detailed information to students on what a pastor should be and do. For instance, ministers should be role models by acting true to the word they are teaching and showing commitment to God’s desires. The author helps the academic community to distinguish spiritual leadership from misguided search for relevance.
According to MacArthur, pastors must lead the church in ministries only transcribed in the scripture like fellowship, missions, prayer, the Lord’s Supper, and the word. This book identifies the balance between ministry and personal life.
MacArthur opines that pastors should be married in church in a bid to show example of a godly family as explained in the scriptures.
Conclusion MacArthur’s book ideas, beliefs, values, and principles demonstrate a clear biblical understanding of pastoral ministry and its purpose in meeting the needs of the contemporary congregation. Some opinions given in the book may seem too strict and authoritative.
However, with the keenness and magnitude of reference to the bible in the study, the book comes out a credible source of information. The author challenges gospel ministers to practice sound doctrines in their pastoral ministry.
Prioritizing this book and keeping true to its knowledge is recommended in a bid grow ministry skills geared towards nurturing sound doctrines coupled with raising people with godly values.
Reference MacArthur, John. 2005. Pastoral Ministry: How to Shepherd Biblically. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
“Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment” by Leda Cooks and David Descutner Report (Assessment) cheap essay help
The study called “Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment: A Dramatistic Analysis of Two Eating Disorder Therapies” was written by Leda Cooks and David Descutner. The authors employ dramatistic analysis to explore the rhetorical elements of therapies for eating disorders experienced by women.
The researchers found out that the therapies have seemingly similar main terms that tend to affect the patients differently due to their multiple meanings and interpretations.
The authors of the article notice that the number of female patients reporting eating disorders has increased in the modern age of information when the knowledge about typical bulimic or anorexic behaviours has become more popular.
Besides, the widening influence of the American beauty standards on women of other cultures causes the growth of rates of eating disorders abroad. In the article it is also noted that low efficiency of pharmacological and behavioural treatments encouraged the professionals and patients to use narrative and visual therapy more often.
The authors view the struggle with eating disorders in the contemporary world as the struggle with the myths shaping the identities of modern white middle to upper class women, as they tend to be affected by the disorders most often. The search of place in the society makes women see their own bodies as the causes of their inadequacy.
The female patients suffering from eating disorders tend to act out using food as a tool. Their eating problems have emotional sources coming from such feelings as despair or anger. Narrative therapy helps women re-evaluate their choices and lives from a new perspective and re-shape their identities.
Spiritual recovery (SR) employs the belief in Higher Power and unburdening the troubles to it. SR works through abstinence from the addictive ingredients such as wheat and sugar. Feminist therapy explains that eating disorders appear when women feel lost in the patriarchal society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It encourages women to find their identities re-uniting with their selves, and perceiving the world as gender-free. The researchers employ cluster analysis as a method to find terms most frequently used by the therapies. The goal is to determine how the therapies function rhetorically using discourses “power”, “body”, and “identity”.
The findings show that SR uses the discourses filling them with religious meanings and works through the separation of earth-bound self from the spiritual self of the patients. All of the discourses are used as symbols of Higher Power.
The patients are encouraged to give up the material aspects of the selves in order to understand their true spiritual power and find selfless equipment for living.
At the same time, feminist therapy works the other way around and encourages women to re-gain control over their selves taken away from them by the patriarchal society and culture. The new living equipment is developed through raising awareness and pride in women.
The texts authors use for the study are the literature and pamphlets of various groups focused on treating eating disorders employing narrative methods. The significance of the literature is provided by the fact that the authors research a variety of literature disseminated by different groups, many of which are rather popular.
The groups apply similar methods and discourses. The authors cover many groups specialised on narrative therapies such as spiritual recovery therapy or feminist therapy. They process the popular literature written specifically for these therapies and groups and monitor the use of concepts and discourses in it.
Clearly, since the researched literature is popular among the patients, it has to be able to make impacts and attract more help-seekers. This way, the authors of the article focus on the research of the two therapies that currently are known to be helpful and efficient, which makes this literature significant and appropriate for the study.
We will write a custom Assessment on “Different Paths from Powerlessness to Empowerment” by Leda Cooks and David Descutner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Both therapies work through self-hypnosis or self-suggestion. Yet, they use rather different approaches. Spiritual recovery therapy for eating disorders employs the methods that prove to be effective with alcoholics.
The therapy encourages the patients to give up their selves, let the Higher Power in, and view disorder as “evil” and order as “good”.
Feminist therapy works through the empowerment of women and the suggestion for them to take rational control and become aware of the destructive impacts of the society and its pressure that makes women ruin their health and bodies trying to fit in.
Both therapies use symbolic concepts and images to lead the patients’ minds out of the addiction. The research adds to the scholarly dialogues about the ability to program human minds using specific word combinations and concepts filled with goal-oriented meanings.
The study makes it clear that one needs to determine the inclination of a mind to follow certain principles in order to build a successful program to direct this mind towards certain behaviours. This can be viewed as an intelligent training of human minds based on people’s natural desire for rationaisation and explanation.
Breaking down the mechanisms of disorders using a set of specific concepts the therapies provide the patients with symbolic tools to cope with them.
Quality Management at Memorial Hospital Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Quality management is used by different organizations to serve a number of purposes. For example, it may be used to enhance the consistency of production and other processes. The concept is made up of four elements. The first is quality planning. The second is quality control.
Here, the aim is to ensure that clients receive products that are of high standards. The other one is quality assurance. The company guarantees the consumers of the high standards of their goods and services. Finally, there is quality improvement.
In this paper, the author will analyze a case study of quality management at Memorial Hospital. To this end, the author will analyze, among others, the ways through which the hospital may assess quality.
The potential costs of failures in quality for the hospital, as well as techniques for total quality management (TQM), will be highlighted. Finally, possible ways through which Memorial Hospital could assess the quality of healthcare provided to clients will be discussed.
Quality Management at Memorial Hospital Ways through Which a Hospital May Measure Quality
Memorial Hospital can measure quality in two ways. They include analyzing treatments and procedures, as well as assessing outcomes. The former can be used to evaluate whether or not the employees are providing the right services and prescriptions to the patients as required.
The process involves selecting valid and reliable measures of quality (Vonderembse
Working with Disabled Students Coursework essay help online
Issues Faced by Students whose Parents are in Jail Parents and guardians should support their students in order to achieve their academic goals. Every disabled child should also get the best attention and care from his or her parents. Students whose parents have been imprisoned will encounter numerous economic strains.
This situation makes it impossible for such learners to get quality education and social support. The students encounter numerous health challenges. The children “also encounter difficulties whenever associating with other people because of underdeveloped social skills” (Dale, 2008, p. 29).
Many children of incarcerated parents tend to have underdeveloped behaviors. They also encounter different problems whenever associating with their peers. This situation affects the lives of such students.
The students also experience a wide range of risks. They might copy unacceptable behaviors that eventually result in juvenile delinquency. The learners will also abuse different drugs. The “absence of positive child-parent relationships during early childhood will definitely affect the educational outcomes of such students” (Behnke, 2009, p. 62).
This problem becomes complex for disabled students. Educators should consider several ethical principles whenever working with individuals with disabilities. This should be the same case for educators who support different students whose parents have been imprisoned. Teachers should respect the worth and dignity of these students.
They should also “observe their rights to self-determination, confidentiality, and privacy” (Behnke, 2009, p. 63). Social workers and societies should intervene in the lives of these students. The government should use appropriate policies to strength the relationships between such students and their parents.
This strategy will “promote the healthy development of the targeted children” (Dale, 2008, p. 72). The learners will also achieve the best academic goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Issues Faced by Students under the Care of Elderly Guardians Many students are usually under the care of elderly parents. Some of these elderly caretakers include parents, grandparents, and guardians. Studies show that such students encounter a wide range of challenges. To begin with, the students will lack the best support from such caretakers.
This is the case because such guardians are usually physically unfit. They also “encounter coordination problems and health issues” (Christian, 2009, p. 3). Such issues make it impossible for them to support the needs of the targeted students. The learners will also lack the best emotional support from their caretakers.
Such elderly parents do not have the required financial strength to support the targeted students. This situation will make it impossible for them to achieve their potentials. Many elderly guardians do not have the strength to empower such disabled students. This fact explains why new policies are required to support these students.
The elderly face numerous problems because of their age. Such caregivers are also unable to empower these students. Many learners are using various technologies and devices in order to achieve the best educational goals. It is appropriate for such students to get the best feedbacks and ideas from their guardians.
Such students will not benefit from modern technologies. The elderly do not have the time to mentor and coach these students (Christian, 2009). This gap encourages them to engage in unacceptable behaviors and practices. The individuals will start to take various drugs. The students will also lack the best care from these elderly caregivers.
Teachers should gather the right information from every stressed family. This information will make it easier for them to support the changing needs of such students (Dale, 2008). They should also develop positive relationships with these elderly caregivers. The practice will ensure every student achieves his or her academic goals.
Reference List Behnke, S. (2009). Disability as an ethical issue: A law school symposium offers an opportunity for psychologists to reflect on the role of stigma within our own field. American Psychological Association, 40(6), 62-64.
We will write a custom Coursework on Working with Disabled Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Christian, S. (2009). Children of Incarcerated Parents. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/documents/cyf/childrenofincarceratedparents.pdf
Dale, N. (2008). Working With Families of Children with Special Needs: Partnership and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style Coursework online essay help
One of the greatest leaders of the 20th century is General Schwarzkopf. His leadership style is an intriguing subject matter, because he was able to accomplish something that has never been done in the history of military warfare.
Schwarzkopf spearheaded a coalition of military forces composed of military personnel, and military equipment that came from different parts of the world. He was tasked to command an alliance comprised of generals and military officers from different parts of the globe.
It was a tremendous challenge to manage their egos, and to inspire them to give their best. He succeeded in persuading military leaders from different cultural backgrounds to work together. At the same time, he orchestrated a military campaign that resulted in few casualties.
In addition, he was able to accomplish major goals in a few months. He defeated Saddam Hussein in less than 4 months (Schwarzkopf, 1993).
If one will contrast his achievements to military generals that were faced with similar challenges in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, it is safe to say that General Schwarzkopf’s accomplishments are almost unequaled. Thus, I have decided to use his leadership style as a basis to improve my own.
I was able to develop a sketch of Schwarzkopf’s leadership style by gleaning insights from his autobiographical book. I decided to use the book because of personal anecdotes, and other important information regarding Schwarzkopf. In addition, the book is also a critical source of relevant information.
It was published a few years after Schwarzkopf’s successful management of Operation Dessert Storm. This historical event was a famous military operation that liberated Kuwait from invading Iraqi armed forces under the command of Saddam Hussein.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership Style His leadership style is a combination of Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. There was a trace of the dominance style of leadership when Schwarzkopf compelled his subordinates, and fellow military officers to accomplish a specific goal.
On the other hand, there was also a trace of the interactive style of leadership in his repertoire, because of his capability to work with others.
His leadership style was characterized by humility. He was willing to work with others. He was willing to make them feel part of the winning team. Thus, he did not take all the credit for the overwhelming success of Operation Desert Storm. His leadership style was also characterized by adaptability.
He was willing to adjust to the requirements of the mission. In other words, he was willing to work even if the circumstances surrounding him were far from perfect.
Finally, Schwarzkopf’s leadership style was defined by cultural sensitivity. He realized that he had to be sensitive to the cultural background of the leaders that he had to work with.
His complex leadership style was derived from adopting skills that were under the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. His effective leadership style was largely the byproduct of his upbringing and experiences. Schwarzkopf was born into a middle class family, and he lived in an affluent neighborhood.
However, Schwarzkopf was not a spoiled brat. When he was a young boy, he was affected by the impact of the Second World War on American families. As a result, his family was able to experience economic hardships. At the same time, Schwarzkopf’s mother was dealing with alcoholism.
We will write a custom Coursework on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Life’s problems gave Schwarzkopf the ability to understand the frailty of human nature. As a result, the multi-awarded general was able to develop a profound sense of empathy that endeared him to his subordinates.
I am fascinated to learn more about Schwarzkopf’s leadership style. I believe that his experience and insights can help me improve my leadership capabilities. If I can learn how to be more interactive, and more adventurous as Schwarzkopf, then, I believe that I can become a better leader.
Before going any further it is important to point out that based on the Disk Self-Assessment, I have the Cautious-Style of leadership. I like this particular leadership style because it means that I am analytical, systematic, and persistent. It also means that I love solving problems. Those who belong to this category are task-oriented leaders.
I also scored high in the sub-category labeled as The Perfecter. In this particular category, leaders have the tendency to pay attention to process and details. Leaders under this category are thorough and dependable.
Although you can depend on me to accomplish goals and follow-up on issues that needs resolution in the shortest possible time, I struggle when it comes to in-depth involvement with people. It is important for me to learn how to be genuinely open to people that have a different opinion or a different approach on how to solve a specific problem.
I realized that my current capabilities are good enough to solve simple problems. However, when it comes to more complicated goals or objectives, it is imperative to develop the skill on how to work with other people. This is the reason why I greatly admire General Schwarzkopf.
He did not only work with people that have a different approach to completing a shared task. He worked with people that spoke a different language. He worked with people that may be offended by things that we find ordinary or inconsequential.
He did not only collaborated with them; he even inspired them to accomplish difficult tasks. I want to adopt certain aspects of his leadership style, especially the part that enables him to persuade people to set aside their differences in order to work as a team.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Schwarzkopf and his Leadership Style by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My strategy for improvement is to continually learn from leaders like General Schwarzkopf. I will look for leaders that were able to blend the Dominance-Style and Interactive-Style of leadership. I will study how to communicate with other people.
I will try to find out how to develop the skill to initiate a consensual and collaborative type of working process (Daft, 2014). I want to understand how to influence people through relationships, rather than through position power and authority.
I want to learn how to share ideas and maintain two-way communication (Lewis, 2007). I believe that this is the only way to empower people, and encourage them to develop their skills even more.
Reference Daft, R. (2014). The leadership experience. CA: Cengage Learning.
Lewis, P. (2007). Management: Challenges for tomorrow’s leaders. OH: Thomson Higher Learning.
Schwarzkopf, N. (1993). It doesn’t take a hero: The autobiography of General Norman Schwarzkopf. New York: Bantam Books.
Leadership Styles in Organisations Synthesis Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction This paper is based on the topic of leadership. It explores the topic by looking at various leadership styles and how they relate to each other. It starts with a discussion of the trait leadership approach followed by a comparison of trait leadership with contingency and participative styles of leadership.
What follows is a discussion of servant leadership, which is the most appropriate for organisations faced with disruptive changes. It is argued that servant leadership has the ability of uniting all members of organisations around a common goal and as a result, it becomes easy to implement organisational change.
Servant leadership also enables organisations to have a cohesive organisational culture where loyalty and commitment to organisational goals are the guiding principles for moving organisations forward.
The paper cites various authors who have written about the concept of leadership. It also uses theoretical frameworks to support the arguments.
Trait Approach of Leadership Wart and Suino defined leadership as the ability of a person to influence other people to do things which they may not do without the influence (Wart
International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis Analytical Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality
Criticisms of World-System Analysis
Introduction In the last two to three decades, the world has experienced unprecedented economic growth in all spheres of economy. Despite such encouraging progress in the economy, the gap between the poor and rich people has widened. The rich are getting richer as the poor get poorer.
Further, the world has moved to a more integrated and globalised economy where there is interrelatedness between nations of the world.
Although such globalisation might ideally mean more prosperity for nations based on their increased accessibility and market interaction levels, it has instead acted to increase economic inequalities among societies and nations. In addition, at the global political stage, the powerful countries have amassed more power.
Periphery countries are becoming less influential in the political and economic realms. While trying to explain the growing disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy, different scholars have advanced different theories.
Of the many theories and approaches, Immanuel Wallerstein’s world-systems analysis has been credited for its detailed analysis of the functioning of the world economy1. The theory incorporates different arguments from the existing knowledge in sociology, political science, and economics.
However, it significantly shifts from the existing theories of economic development that focus on the nations as independent units that can traverse their own paths towards civilisation and modernity.
This paper will analyse whether the world systems analysis has been able to explain successfully the wealth and power inequalities in the world. Further, it will discuss various criticisms that have been put forward against the approach.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More World-Systems Analysis According to Makki, the world-system analysis, which is also referred to as world-system hypothesis, is a modern macro-sociological viewpoint that regards the changes of capitalism and world economy as a ‘total collective system’2.
The theory draws from the tenets of historical sociology and economic history. It is also linked to Immanuel Wallerstein who is credited for building its credibility. According to Jones, developmental theorists have adopted the theory for its synthesis of developmental and unequal opportunities across the world. 3.
Although the theory’s views on capitalism and the global economy differ from those expressed by Marx and Weber, these two theorists have offered a great inspiration to the theory.
The main agenda of the theory is that the world as a whole plays an important role in determining the economic and social dynamics between and among nations. In other words, the theory emphasises the world-system as the main unit of social analysis.
The theory is a shift from Marxist approaches that viewed the nation as the main unit of analysis in the global political economy. By world-system, the theory indicates the inter-regional and transnational divisions of labour that divide the world between the rich and the poor, and the powerful and the weak as Macedo and Gounari confirm4.
Accordingly, Wallerstein views the world-system as a social system with no boundaries, structures, coherence, or rules of legitimating but rather a body that comprises conflicting forces that hold it together or threaten to tear it apart as each group tries to remould it to its advantage.
Further, as an organism, the world-system has a life span. It changes over time while other characteristics remain constant. According to Harvey, its life is not only largely self-contained, but also has some internal developmental changes5.
We will write a custom Essay on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the world classification, nations are joined together through market financial system rather than through affairs of the state. In this incorporation of nations, the relationship is based on the exchange of goods and products that characterise a market financial system.
According to O’Brien and Williams, although there is competition among polities to dominate the system, none lasts forever6.
As a shift from the thinking of the 19th century with reference to society, politics, and economy, the world-system analysis criticises Marxist and other theories of economic development and approaches to modernisation. For instance, it criticises the modernisation theory for its focus on the state as the only unit of analysis.
It claims the existence of one path through which all nations experience economic development. It disregards the transnational structure that hinders local and national economic development.
World-system analysis is a shift from the modernisation hypothesis, which holds that nations follow a given course and stages of development from pre-modern to modern states and that nations are accountable for their individual growth.
Through small assistance to its internal strictures of economy, Wallerstein asserts that any nation can become modern just like other developed countries have7.
As such, capitalism is an inevitable outcome of the previous failures of structures of economy such as feudalism since nations have progressed in their path to modernity.
However, world-system theorists disapprove this notion on capitalism. They view it as a deliberate move through which Europe came to dominate the world economy to create inequalities8.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Political Economy – World Systems Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While explaining the inequalities in wealth and power, the world-system analysis views the world economy as having divisions based on the kind of labour each country or region offers and/or contributes to the system and market economy9.
The theory regards the world economy as a body that comprises three groups of countries, that is, the core countries, semi-periphery, and the periphery countries.
Core nations concentrate on capital–demanding and proficient work production as opposed to a wanting toil or raw-material assembly that is characteristic of semi-periphery and marginalised nations10. By focusing on proficient production, the mainstay nations govern the sidelined or marginalised nations.
However, changes in the system mean that countries may lose or gain more on their status. In this case, Clark says that periphery countries may upgrade to semi-periphery and further to core countries11.
At different periods, some nations may raise to hegemonic status in the system. For example, hegemonic status has passed from Netherlands to the Great Britain and then to the United States of America.
World-System Analysis’ Approach to Power and Wealth Inequality As previously explained, the world-system analysis tries to explain the inequalities in the world by viewing the world economy as a single unit where division of labour among its members contributes immensely to inequalities in power and wealth.
In this case, the countries that fall under the core category dominate the world economy since they control the means of production while the peripheral ones control labour.
Tracing the history of the world’s economy from the start of capitalism, O’Brien and Williams see a trend where the world is constantly in a core/periphery economic relationship that began with Europe12.
In this case, Gareau reveals that countries that controlled production were always more prosperous at the expense of those that supplied labour13.
For more than 5 centuries, many European countries have been in the core countries category while the others such as African, Asian, and South American countries, which have historically provided labour for European nations, remain at the periphery14.
According to Harvey, the most important structure of the present-day world system is what he refers to as power hierarchy between core countries and the peripheral ones. In this affiliation, powerful countries govern and take advantage of the underprivileged ones.
Their driving force is to use unrefined ways of getting hold of the weak countries’ wealth. According to Goldfrank, in this equation, technology plays an important role in determining the category where each county falls15.
The countries that have advanced technology such as the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany among others form the core countries while the less technologically developed countries such as Kenya, Venezuela, and other third-world countries form the periphery.
Over the years, the core nations have used their advantaged positions to amass great power both economically and socially over their disadvantaged nations as Tarrow reveals16.
According to the world-system analysis, the core nations’ access to enormous financial resources by controlling the highly lucrative means of production implies that they are able to finance other core areas of their economy and standings in the global stage.
For instance, looking at the hegemonic status of countries over the years, a peculiar trend emerges17. For instance, during the reign of the Great Britain in the 19th century, it controlled more than 85% of world’s industries.
Further, it amassed great powers through its advanced military and superior economic status that allowed it to ‘acquire’ and colonise many territories across the world. One of the main reasons of establishing colonies was to have a ready access of raw materials and a ready market of the finished products.
In this interaction between the Great Britain as the core and its overseas territories as the periphery, it is evident that the interaction was not mutually beneficial. The Great Britain benefited more. It amassed more wealth and more power at the expense of the periphery countries18.
In another case, during the reign of the US as the hegemony after the World War II, the nation accounted for more than 50% of the global finished products.
The interaction between the poor and the wealth nations is characterised by unequal exchange. Unequal exchange refers to the systematic substitution of excess material possessions between sectors that lie in the peripheral category and the highly industrialised and powerful countries.
The powerful homelands amass immense resources using marginal surplus. On the other hand, the continuous deprivation of the periphery’s surplus leads to stagnated or reducing capital for those countries.
The implication is that they are unable to break from the yoke of poverty to a higher economic status as a way of standing in the global arena.
In the process of domination by the core nations, three key processes ensure that these countries amass power and wealth in the end. Firstly, it starts with productivity dominance where the core countries have control over technology and other means of production, which are not accessible to the periphery countries.
In this case, as Macedo and Gounari confirm, with the superior technology and means of production, the countries can produce high superior products at a cheaper cost, thus tilting trade to their advantage19.
As long as the periphery countries do not have access to such technology due to many factors, including capital resources, the core countries achieve dominance whereas the peripheral ones feed the core countries’ productivity with cheap raw materials in exchange of expensive finished products20.
The core countries’ act of accumulating more productivity powers leads to the second process of gaining power and wealth, which is trade dominance. According to Moore, since the cost of production is cheaper and hence able to benefit more from international trade, core countries easily dominate the trade21.
The core nations control trade by selling, as opposed to purchasing, more of their products to other states22. Consequently, there is a favourable balance of trade for the core nations. With trade dominance, more money comes relative to the amount that goes out, thus resulting in economic supremacy.
For instance, the US and European countries get a large percentage of the global monetary possessions.
With strong financial resources, the core nations are able to invest more in activities such as education, economic diversification, healthcare, poverty elimination programmes, research and development, and military among other activities that ensure that they strengthen their dominant position in the world system.
On the other hand, as Harvey says, the peripheral countries are characterised by underdeveloped technologies, less industrialisation, large populations of poor people, and high levels of illiteracy23. In addition, the peripheral nations are greatly influenced by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
In many instances, they have to adhere to the economic policies of the former, although such policies are obviously skewed to the advantage of the rich ones as Firebaugh confirms24.
Due to their focus on few financial means that involve the processing and selling of materials, marginalised states enjoy less fiscal diversity as compared to the major countries25. Further, there is a high availability of cheap and unskilled labour, which is exploited by the core nations through their multinational corporations.
Since the peripheral countries struggle to meet the needs of the people who have little financial resources, no surplus has been availed to invest in high-technology production activities that are done by the core nations.
Further, due to the basic nature of the technology that is available for these nations, the high cost of production makes it difficult for them to industrialise.
Consequently, such nations are locked in a vicious cycle where they are unable to expand beyond their focus on production of raw materials to feed the ever-expanding production capacities of the core nations.
Therefore, with all the odds against the periphery countries, McCarthy asserts that it is difficult for the poor nations to prosper in the highly skewed world system that benefits the rich while exploiting the poor26.
In many ways, the world-system analysis presents the bitter reality of globalisation where issues such as free trade and elimination of previous barriers of trade are advantageous for the prosperity of the ‘world-economy.’
However, upon further analysis, world-economy is a tool that is supported by the core nations as long as it benefits their interests in the world-system.
It is evident that the notion that globalisation is beneficial to all countries is not valid in all its assertions as it has led to the increase of the difference between the underprivileged peripheral countries and the well-off major ones.
In this case, globalisation has provided an opportunity for the rich to exploit the poor countries in an arrangement that benefits the former while disadvantaging the latter. Hence, the world-system analytical approach provides a detailed and a convincing explanation of the present-day power and wealth inequalities in the world.
Criticisms of World-System Analysis Like any other theory, the world-system analysis has received a lot of criticism from different theorists and economic experts who are not satisfied with its main assertions.
The first criticism is that unlike other social theories that explain the economy and inequality in the society, world-system theory focuses on the economy and less on other important issues such as culture27.
While this criticism is strong, it does not lead to a disregard of key concepts other than the world-system analysis. However, there is a need to find a way through which culture can be incorporated into the theory to make it more reflective of the social dynamics of the world economy, power, and inequalities28.
Further, the theory is criticised for being overly core-centric. In this case, the critiques such as Gregory assert that Wallerstein concentrates on explaining why and how the core nations have amassed wealth29.
At the end, he does not focus on the plight of the peripheral nations. Further, he does not offer elaborate solutions of how such inequalities and power can be eliminated30.
However, this claim is not a valid argument since his reference to a ‘system’ is an indication of the fact that perfection can never be achieved.
The theory compensates for this argument by pointing out that just like a system, the various changes that occur with time change the balance where the periphery and semi-peripheral countries change their status up and/or down the classification.
Another valid argument by Hall is that by focusing on the world market and economy, the theory makes a great supposition by assuming the local class struggles and class divisions that play an important part in one way or another in the state and global economy31.
Conclusion The world-system analysis satisfactorily explains the main causes of disparities in wealth and power in the global political economy. The theory views the world as a unitary system that is divided into core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral nations as dictated by divisions of labour between them.
The core countries dominate the economy of the system through their focus on production of high-end finished products and high-skilled labour while others focus on low-skilled labour and production of raw materials.
Accordingly, due to these differences between nations in the system, core countries exploit the poor nations for their raw materials, which create surplus in productivity. In this way, the key countries dictate business and monetary wealth at the disadvantage of the marginalised states that remain underprivileged.
However, the theory has been criticised for its focus on the economy at the expense of other important factors such as culture and class struggles within individual nations. Further, it has been criticised for its focus on core nations whilst showing less attention to the peripheral nations.
As such, a room has been left for expansion of the theory to address valid criticisms that have been advanced by its critics. Overall, the theory has been able to capture and explain the ‘politics’ of the global economy and the inequalities of power and wealth.
Bibliography Clark, Rob. “World Incoome Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58, no. 1 (2011): 565-592.
Drainville, Andre. “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235-246.
Firebaugh, Glenn. New Geographies of World Income Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Gareau, Brian J. “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 187-210.
Goldfrank, Walter. “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 150-195.
Gregory, Robert J. “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 193-196.
Hall, Thomas. A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
Harvey, David. A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Jones, Bary R.J. “Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy.” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357-367.
Macedo, Donaldo, and Panayota Gounari. Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006.
Makki, Fouad. “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149-168.
McCarthy, James. “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 180-195.
Moore, Jason. “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism.” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI, no. II (2003): 97-172.
O’Brien, Robert, and Marc Williams. Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics. 4th. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Tarrow, Sydney. “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 1-20.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561-619.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Uncertainties of Knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.
Footnotes 1 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 8.
2 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations,” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 149.
3 Bary Jones,”Globalisation and change in the Iiternational political economy,” International Affairs 75, no. 2 (1999): 357.
4 Donaldo Macedo and Panayota Gounari, Globalisation and the unleashing of new racism: an introduction (Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2006), 23.
5 David Harvey, A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, 23.
6 Robert O’Brien and Marc Williams, Global Political Economy: Evolution and Dynamics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), 68.
7 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System I (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003), 307.
8 Andre Drainville, “Resistance too globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 235.
9 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Uncertainties of Knowledge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004), 15.
10 Immanuel Wallerstein, “The West, Capitalism and the Modern World-System.” Review 15, no. 4 (1992): 561.
11 Rob Clark, “World Income Inequality in the Global Era: New Estimates 1990-2008.” Social Problems 58 (2011): 568.
12 O’Brien and Williams, 13.
13 Brian Gareau, “Theorising Environmental Governance of the World-System.” American Sociological Association 18, no. 2 (2012): 204.
14 Andre Drainville, “Resistance to globalisation: The view from the periphery of the world economy.” International Social Science Journal 59, no. 2 (2008): 224.
15 Walter Goldfrank, “Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein’s World-System Method.” Journal of World-Systems Research 6, no. 2 (2000): 153.
16 Sydney Tarrow, “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4, no. 1 (2001): 8.
17 O’Brien and Williams, 19.
18 Fouad Makki, “The Empire of Capital and the Remaking of Centre Periphery Relations.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 1 (2005): 158.
19 Macedo and Gounari, 22.
20 Goldfrank, 176.
21 Jason Moore, “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism,” The Journal of Fernard Braudel Centre XXVI (2003): 151.
22 Drainville, 237.
23 Harvey, 23.
24 Glenn Firebaugh, New Geographies of World Income Inequality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), 42.
25 O’Brien and Williams, 45.
26 James McCarthy, “The Financial Crisis and Environmental Governance ‘After’ Neoliberalism.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 103, no. 2 (2012): 188.
27 Makki, 158.
28 Harvey, 56.
29 Robert Gregory, “What is World Systems All About? An Introduction for Human Ecologists.” Journal of Human Ecology 16, no. 3 (2004): 194.
30 Macedo and Gounari, 13.
31 Thomas Hall, A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Culture, Indigenous People and Ecology (Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2000), 63.
Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction This research paper explores an alternative model of sustainability assessment. Specifically, it highlights a sustainability assessment model adopted in brownfields, greenfields, and Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) as applied in Bowden-Brompton community development.
A discussion of method
Currently, all major cities in Australia are experiencing intensifying pressure due to urban development. Hence, a new alternative model of sustainability is required for brownfields, greenfields and TODs.
This would ensure that old buildings and neighbourhoods are renovated, reworked and retrofitted to attract new businesses and reclaim brownfields and greyfields with the aim of rejuvenating defunct sections of the city through TODs for enhanced accessibility.
This alternative shall curb notable sprawling of the city into outer greenfields and make extensive use of brownfields, inner city greenfields and TODs.
In addition, it would restore public infrastructures, reduce costs, reduce car dependency, enhance accessibility, create space for recreation, and leave agricultural land in city outskirts (Newton 2012).
According to Newton (2012), the NSW and Victoria governments have missed the concept of urban planning and sustainability development. In the recent past, these governments announced that they would continue to ensure “the development of new housing on the fringes of Sydney and Melbourne” (Newton 2012, para. 1).
This approach shows that the current sustainable urban planning in Australia cannot offer the required solutions to sustainability development and therefore sustainable urban development constitutes a critical challenge in contemporary cities (Newton et al. 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a need for urban planning to exploit brownfields, greenfields and TODs within the middle suburbs of the Australia’s largest and fastest growing cities.
An urban regeneration model that focuses on brownfields, greenfields and TODs provides an effective approach to inner city development. Australia has an existing model for inner city development known as the Better Cities.
However, Newton (2012) has observed that a brownfields, greenfields and TOD model, in itself, is likely to fail in the provision of housing required to cater for growing populations and ensure sustainability if there are no effective approaches.
This approach offers sustainable urban development. Lombardi et al. (2011) noted that the concept of sustainability is popular and widely used in the UK, but it has not achieved much in urban regeneration. In fact, urban regeneration has failed to challenge the status quo because of ineffective policy and lack of implementation.
The regeneration of brownfields, greenfields and TODs offers an alternative solution to urban sustainability development. These are ageing areas within inner cities. They have physically deteriorated, not environmental-friendly and technologically backward.
In addition, they are underdeveloped parts of cities. Nevertheless, state governments have attempted to improve housing, business activities and employment and enhance TOD projects. In most cases, these attempts have not succeeded specifically outside the central business districts.
The success of Bowden-Brompton community shows that brownfields and greenfields offer viable alternatives to sustainable urban developments.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sustainability Assessment Approach: An Alternative specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More TODs must focus on improving transportation corridors in brownfields and greenfields for accessibility.
Brief definition The redevelopment of old urban structures, removal of waste, establishment of new structures and transport corridors to meet the rising needs of expanding citizens in the urban age has been a major issue for the government (Gleeson 2012). Policies and implementation efforts are the major challenges.
Consequently, it is imperative to develop new tools for assessment of urban development and sustainability. These new assessment tools are necessary to ensure that urban developments have better environmental, social and economic impacts (Davidson
Design Methods Analysis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Generating alternatives-morphological analysis
Introduction Studies show that each phase in the product design process can be made efficient depending on the effectiveness of the tools used in the decision making process. Among the decision making tools that are used include brainstorming, generating alternatives-morphological analysis, and the evaluation matrix.
The tools have different areas of application and effectiveness decision making. The tools are crucial in optimizing available solutions to design a good quality product when seeking for possible solutions.
This study aims to establish the strengths and weaknesses of each of the tools that are applied in decision making at the product design phases and the areas they have been applied to provide solutions to design problems.
Brainstorming According to Bronson and Merryman (2010), the effectiveness of brainstorming depends on ideas generated by individuals working in groups to create a design that balances the goals of the user at the problem definition and possible solution to determine the best possible solution phases in the design process.
Hunton and Gold (2010), brainstorming involves different product design ideas that are put together in group thinking sessions to evaluate the alternatives and generate high quality product design solutions.
However, the limitations of brainstorming, according to Carpenter (2007) are that it is time consuming, hinders other group members from making positive contributions that might hinder the use of better quality product design ideas.
Weaknesses in the brainstorming process can be detected by determining if other group members do not understand the design problems and suggested solutions, do not make contributions, relate with others poorly, and tend to be segregated among their social status (Kinicki
Emirates Airlines CSR Application Research Paper college essay help online
Executive Summary This research paper evaluates the application of CSR by Emirates Airlines. The research is motivated by the need to understand the possible gaps in the company’s CSR strategies, and hence determine the necessary adjustments that the firm should undertake.
Emirates Airlines appreciates the importance of operating in a social responsible manner in order to satisfy its internal and external stakeholders. In a bid to achieve long-term business success, the airline must improve its commitment to establishing a balance between its internal and external environments.
Therefore, the airline should ensure that it adopts a holistic approach in its CSR. The research paper analyses the various CSR activities and strategies that the organisation has integrated into its social responsible strategic human resource management practices.
The paper is organised into a number of sections. A brief company profile, the purpose of the study, and a statement of the research problem are outlined in the introduction section.
The literature review section entails a review of the available literature on the application of CSR strategies and activities in organisations while the methodology section outlines the research techniques used in collecting data from the field. Conversely, the analysis section entails an evaluation of the findings obtained from the study.
The last section outlines the conclusion and the recommendations that Emirates Airlines should consider in order to improve its CSR strategies.
Introduction Emirates Airlines is one of the most successful air travel companies in the United Arabs Emirates (UAE). The firm was established in 1985 and it is owned by the UAE government. The airline’s operations are mainly based at Dubai International Airport, which serves as its hub.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It appreciates the significance of developing optimal competitive advantage in order to sustain superior performance. Subsequently, the company has invested a substantial amount of resources in order to attain competitiveness (Emirates 2014).
The airline is focused on continuous improvement of its fleet size and destinations in order to serve the local and international air travel demands. Currently, the company serves over 142 destinations, which is facilitated by over 230 aircrafts. It operates over 3,000 flights per week to over 70 countries.
One of the unique characteristics about Emirates Airlines entails its independent operations, as it is not a member of the major global airline alliances, viz. Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and Oneworld. Its independent operation was motivated by the need for optimal flexibility in responding to market changes.
However, the airline has entered a number of code-sharing agreements with different global airline companies in order to attain competitive advantage (Emirates 2014).
The airline has established two main divisions, which include Emirates Executive and Emirates SkyCargo. Additionally, the airline offers diverse cabin services such as economy class, business class, and first class.
In its quest to provide a high level of customer service, the airline has fitted its aircrafts with diverse in-flight entertainment system.
It has adopted the concept of global carrier and competitive pricing as its business model, which has remarkably improved its competitiveness against major international carriers such as British Airways, Air France-KLM, Qantas, and Lufthansa.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emirates Airlines CSR Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, it has sustained its positive financial performance despite the prevailing economic changes. During its last financial year, which ended on 31st March 2014, the airline’s net profit grew by AED 3,254 million (Emirates 2014).
Statement of the research problem
The global airline industry has experienced considerable growth because of an increment in demand for air travel over the past few decades. Consequently, the degree of competition within the industry has increased substantially. New investors are venturing into the industry by adopting diverse business models such the low-cost models.
Conversely, some industry players are adopting diverse expansion models such as the formation of joint ventures in an effort to improve their market performance. The industry is characterised by a high degree of volatility due to economic changes (Worthington
Artworks by Jeff Koons Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents New Hoover Convertibles
New Hoover Convertibles Jeff Koon was one of the most controversial artists of the post war time, his works were designed to provoke, shock, astonish, but at the same time, to inform, point out and communicate.1
His work called “New Hoover Convertibles” was created in 1981. The visually distinctive factors of this work are the three vacuum cleaners that were advanced for their time. The artist put them into a transparent container make of acryl and added fluorescent lights in the bottom so that the exhibits were properly lit.
By inserting the vacuum cleaners into the transparent box and adding fluorescent dramatic lighting the artist made the appliances look like very valuable trophies. This was done in order to communicate the public passion for consumption and the change of values in the society.
Koons pointed out that in the beginning of eighties household appliances were something people had to work hard to buy, they represented everyone’s big goal, they were the evidence of an important achievement.
The historic factors that influence Koon and inspired him to create this work of art was the rapid development of technologies and the social passion for consumption and the love for pristine newness.2
Besides, the way the three vacuum cleaners are arranged – in a straight line, makes it clear that the work of art symbolizes not only consumerism but capitalism dwelling in the supermarkets and putting the goods in geometrically correct rows, lines and forms.
His work represents the mass culture of the beginning of the eighties and the use of readymade goods presents the nature of consumption in a controversial way by comparing usual objects to valuables and paying capacity to an achievement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Triple Elvis Triple Elvis is a work of art that contains three levels. They are arranged hierarchically. The closes object seen by the viewers of the work is a blow up pool toy shaped as a red lobster. The second dimension of the work includes three photographs of a half naked Playboy model in seductive poses.
The last layer is the print made of Westermann’s art works arranged one over another in an abstract manner. This layer is located the farthest from the audience. Each of the dimensions overlaps with the ones near to it. Lobster pool toy is put on top of the whole work.
By creating such hierarchy in his art work, Koons demonstrated the reversed values where art is at the very bottom of the pyramid, and pornographic images are more important than it.3 They also are bigger in size. Finally, the very top is occupied by a very simple entertainment item that is not artistic at all.
Adding it to his pyramid of art Koons shows the new attitude towards aesthetics and beauty. Making the lobster a part of the art work and actually placing it on top of everything else Koons demonstrated the ranks of values.
This way Koons’ pyramid of art turns to the pyramid of consumption. The most popular kind of goods and entertainments are represented by the pool toy. The next is a series of images of sexual character – the second most popular consumption product.
Finally, art is at the very bottom and is mixed up. In this work Koons makes art a part of consumption culture of the eighties. This is why all art works of Koons were based on the elements of Triple Elvis.
Bibliography Farago, Jason. “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”. The guardian. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Artworks by Jeff Koons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940. Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010.
Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”. Whitney.org. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective”, Whitney.org.
2 Jason Farago, “Jeff Koons: A Retrospective review – great, good, bad and terrible art”, The guardian.
3 Jonathan Fineberg, Art Since 1940 (Upper Saddle River: Peason, 2010), 460.
Self-Forgiveness as the Path to Learning to Forgive the Others Critical Essay essay help
The ability to forgive one’s own faults has never been valued on par with forgiveness towards the others’ failures, which is rather unfortunate, as the recent research shows.
According to the article titled “Self-Forgiveness: The Stepchild of Forgiveness Research” conducted by Julie H. Hall and Frank D. Fincham, people’s attitude towards the others is in most cases defined by their standards for their own behavior and personality.
In their paper, the authors explain the link between forgiveness and self-forgiveness, as well as define various offence-related factors. It is important to stress that the researches of that kind have never been undertaken on a scholarly scale before, since the issue in question has never been considered worthy of a scholarly research.
However, Hall and Fincham have successfully proved the opposite. The key issues that the given research responds to or, at least, attempts to solve, are the definition of self-forgiveness, the relation between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness, and the means to differentiate between self-forgiveness and pseudo self-forgiveness.
As for the results of the research, it must be admitted that the latter proved rather unexpected. It turned out that the forgiveness of others is closely related to self-forgiveness; moreover, the latter often predetermines the former.
In addition, the authors have come up with a model of self-forgiveness that encompasses the stages of the forgiveness process, explaining the specifics of human behavior in the process of forgiving.
According to the authors, self-forgiving people tend to compromise in the process of conflict solving, as well as admit that they are guilty, in most cases. Hence, it can и concluded that self-forgiveness defines forgiveness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue seems to be beyond exciting. Even though the idea that forgiveness stems from the ability to forgive one’s own faults is not quite new, the research offers a new vision of the problem. Hence, it seems that the paper by Hall and Fincham provides a foil for the further research.
In addition, the paper raises a number of questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, Hall and Fincham claim that at present, there are no measures for forgiveness, which makes the assessment process rather complicated according to the results of Hall and Fincham’s research (Hall